Sample records for target injection methods

  1. Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  3. Confirming therapeutic target of protopine using immobilized β2 -adrenoceptor coupled with site-directed molecular docking and the target-drug interaction by frontal analysis and injection amount-dependent method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangxin; Wang, Pei; Li, Chan; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    Drug-protein interaction analysis is pregnant in designing new leads during drug discovery. We prepared the stationary phase containing immobilized β 2 -adrenoceptor (β 2 -AR) by linkage of the receptor on macroporous silica gel surface through N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole method. The stationary phase was applied in identifying antiasthmatic target of protopine guided by the prediction of site-directed molecular docking. Subsequent application of immobilized β 2 -AR in exploring the binding of protopine to the receptor was realized by frontal analysis and injection amount-dependent method. The association constants of protopine to β 2 -AR by the 2 methods were (1.00 ± 0.06) × 10 5 M -1 and (1.52 ± 0.14) × 10 4 M -1 . The numbers of binding sites were (1.23 ± 0.07) × 10 -7 M and (9.09 ± 0.06) × 10 -7 M, respectively. These results indicated that β 2 -AR is the specific target for therapeutic action of protopine in vivo. The target-drug binding occurred on Ser 169 in crystal structure of the receptor. Compared with frontal analysis, injection amount-dependent method is advantageous to drug saving, improvement of sampling efficiency, and performing speed. It has grave potential in high-throughput drug-receptor interaction analysis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Targeted endomyocardial injections of therapeutic cells using x-ray fused with MRI guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; de Silva, Ranil; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Lederman, Robert J.

    2006-03-01

    The utility of X-ray fused with MRI (XFM) using external fiducial markers to perform targeted endomyocardial injections in infarcted hearts of swine was tested. Endomyocardial injections of feridex-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells (Fe-MSC) were performed in the previously infarcted hearts of 12 Yucatan miniswine (33-67 kg). Animals had pre-injection cardiac MRI, XFM-guided endomyocardial injection of Fe-MSC suspension spiked with tissue dye, and post-injection MRI. 24 hours later, after euthanasia, the hearts were excised, sliced and stained with TTC. During the injection procedure, operators were provided with 3D surfaces of endocardium, epicardium, myocardial wall thickness and infarct registered with live XF images to facilitate device navigation and choice of injection location. 130 injections were performed in hearts where diastolic wall thickness ranged from 2.6 to 17.7 mm. Visual inspection of the pattern of dye staining on TTC stained heart slices correlated (r=0.98) with XFM-derived injection locations mapped onto delayed hyperenhancement MRI and the susceptibility artifacts seen on the post-injection T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI. The in vivo target registration error was 3.17+/-2.61 mm (n=64) and 75% of injections were within 4 mm of the predicted location. 3D to 2D registration of XF and MR images using external fiducial markers enables accurate targeted endomyocardial injection in a swine model of myocardial infarction. The present data suggest that the safety and efficacy of this approach for performing targeted endomyocardial delivery should be evaluated further clinically.

  5. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  6. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Petzoldt, Ronald Wayne

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s 2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s 2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration.more » Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.« less

  7. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    DOEpatents

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  8. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  9. Anatomical Regional Targeted (ART) BOTOX Injection Technique: A Novel Paradigm for Migraines and Chronic Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Sanniec, Kyle; Pezeshk, Ronnie; Chung, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Migraine headaches are a debilitating disease that causes significant socioeconomic problems. One of the speculated etiologies of the generation of migraines is peripheral nerve irritation at different trigger points. The use of Onabotulinum toxin A (BOTOX), although initially a novel approach, has now been determined to be a valid treatment for chronic headaches and migraines as described in the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy trials that prompted the approval by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of chronic migraines. The injection paradigm established by this trial was one of a broad injection pattern across large muscle groups that did not always correspond to the anatomical locations of nerves. The senior author developed the Anatomical Regional Targeted BOTOX injection paradigm as an alternative to the current injection model. This technique targets both the anatomical location of nerves known to have causal effects with migraines and the region where the pain localizes, to provide relief across a wide distribution of the peripheral nerve. This article serves as a guide to the Anatomical Regional Targeted injection technique, which, to our knowledge, is the first comprehensive BOTOX injection paradigm described in the literature for treatment of migraines that targets nerves and nerve areas rather than purely muscle groups. This technique is based on the most up-to-date anatomical and scientific studies and large-volume migraine surgery experience. PMID:28293532

  10. "Inject-mix-react-separate-and-quantitate" (IMReSQ) method for screening enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edmund; Okhonin, Victor; Berezovski, Maxim V; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Waldmann, Herbert; Alexandrov, Kirill; Krylov, Sergey N

    2008-09-10

    Many regulatory enzymes are considered attractive therapeutic targets, and their inhibitors are potential drug candidates. Screening combinatorial libraries for enzyme inhibitors is pivotal to identifying hit compounds for the development of drugs targeting regulatory enzymes. Here, we introduce the first inhibitor screening method that consumes only nanoliters of the reactant solutions and is applicable to regulatory enzymes. The method is termed inject-mix-react-separate-and-quantitate (IMReSQ) and includes five steps. First, nanoliter volumes of substrate, candidate inhibitor, and enzyme solutions are injected by pressure into a capillary as separate plugs. Second, the plugs are mixed inside this capillary microreactor by transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles. Third, the reaction mixture is incubated to form the enzymatic product. Fourth, the product is separated from the substrate inside the capillary by electrophoresis. Fifth, the amounts of the product and substrate are quantitated. In this proof-of-principle work, we applied IMReSQ to study inhibition of recently cloned protein farnesyltransferase from parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This enzyme is a potential therapeutic target for antiparasitic drugs. We identified three previously unknown inhibitors of this enzyme and proved that IMReSQ could be used for quantitatively ranking the potencies of inhibitors.

  11. Syringe Injectable Electronics: Precise Targeted Delivery with Quantitative Input/Output Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-10-14

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics with tissue-like mechanical properties and open macroporous structures is an emerging powerful paradigm for mapping and modulating brain activity. Indeed, the ultraflexible macroporous structure has exhibited unprecedented minimal/noninvasiveness and the promotion of attractive interactions with neurons in chronic studies. These same structural features also pose new challenges and opportunities for precise targeted delivery in specific brain regions and quantitative input/output (I/O) connectivity needed for reliable electrical measurements. Here, we describe new results that address in a flexible manner both of these points. First, we have developed a controlled injection approach that maintains the extended mesh structure during the "blind" injection process, while also achieving targeted delivery with ca. 20 μm spatial precision. Optical and microcomputed tomography results from injections into tissue-like hydrogel, ex vivo brain tissue, and in vivo brains validate our basic approach and demonstrate its generality. Second, we present a general strategy to achieve up to 100% multichannel I/O connectivity using an automated conductive ink printing methodology to connect the mesh electronics and a flexible flat cable, which serves as the standard "plug-in" interface to measurement electronics. Studies of resistance versus printed line width were used to identify optimal conditions, and moreover, frequency-dependent noise measurements show that the flexible printing process yields values comparable to commercial flip-chip bonding technology. Our results address two key challenges faced by syringe-injectable electronics and thereby pave the way for facile in vivo applications of injectable mesh electronics as a general and powerful tool for long-term mapping and modulation of brain activity in fundamental neuroscience through therapeutic biomedical studies.

  12. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  13. Randomized trial of anesthetic methods for intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Gregory R; Tilton, Elisha P; Barouch, Fina C; Marx, Jeffrey L

    2011-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of four different anesthetic methods for intravitreal injection. Twenty-four patients each received four intravitreal injections using each of four types of anesthesia (proparacaine, tetracaine, lidocaine pledget, and subconjunctival injection of lidocaine) in a prospective, masked, randomized block design. Pain was graded by the patient on a 0 to 10 scale for both the anesthesia and the injection. The average combined pain scores for both the anesthesia and the intravitreal injection were 4.4 for the lidocaine pledget, 3.5 for topical proparacaine, 3.8 for the subconjunctival lidocaine injection, and 4.1 for topical tetracaine. The differences were not significant (P = 0.65). There were also no statistical differences in the individual anesthesia or injection pain scores. Subconjunctival lidocaine injection had the most side effects. Topical anesthesia is an effective method for limiting pain associated with intravitreal injections.

  14. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  15. Tralokinumab pharmacokinetics and tolerability when administered by different subcutaneous injection methods and rates

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Meena; Doughty, Diane; Clawson, Corbin; Li, Xiaobai; White, Nicholas; Agoram, Balaji; van der Merwe, René

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Tralokinumab, administered as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections every 2 weeks, at the target dose 300 mg, has been shown to improve lung function in patients with asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profile of tralokinumab 300 mg when administered by different rates of subcutaneous injection, as part of a pilot investigation of new injection regimens. Methods: This phase I study randomized 60 healthy adults to receive 300 mg tralokinumab, as two 1-mL subcutaneous injections, each delivered over 10 seconds, or one 2-mL injection delivered over 10 seconds (12 mL/min), 1 minute (2 mL/min), or 12 minutes (0.167 mL/min). Results: No differences in the PK profile of tralokinumab were observed between cohorts. Immediately following injection, injection-site pain intensity (mean (SD)) was lowest following 0.167 mL/min injection (5.1 mm (8.0) via visual analog scale (VAS)) and greatest following 12 mL/min injection (41 mm (27.7) via VAS); with mean injection-site pruritus intensity low for all participants. Two types of local injection-site reactions were observed: erythema (58.3%) and hematoma/bleeding (18.3%). All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Tralokinumab 300 mg is well tolerated, with comparable PK, when administered by a single 2-mL injection at different rates of subcutaneous injection vs. two 1-mL injections. PMID:28590244

  16. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Per-Target Flux-Level Transit Injection Tests of TPS for Data Release 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the ability of a transiting planet survey to recover transit signals has commonly been accomplished through Monte-Carlo injection of transit signals into the observed data and subsequent running of the signal search algorithm (Gilliland et al., 2000; Weldrake et al., 2005; Burke et al., 2006). In order to characterize the performance of the Kepler pipeline (Twicken et al., 2016; Jenkins et al., 2017) on a sample of over 200,000 stars, two complementary injection and recovery tests are utilized:1. Injection of a single transit signal per target into the image or pixel-level data, hereafter referred to as pixel-level transit injection (PLTI), with subsequent processing through the Photometric Analysis (PA), Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC), Transiting Planet Search (TPS), and Data Validation (DV) modules of the Kepler pipeline. The PLTI quantification of the Kepler pipeline's completeness has been described previously by Christiansen et al. (2015, 2016); the completeness of the final SOC 9.3 Kepler pipeline acting on the Data Release 25 (DR25) light curves is described by Christiansen (2017).2. Injection of multiple transit signals per target into the normalized flux time series data with a subsequent transit search using a stream-lined version of the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) module. This test, hereafter referred to as flux-level transit injection (FLTI), is the subject of this document. By running a heavily modified version of TPS, FLTI is able to perform many injections on selected targets and determine in some detail which injected signals are recoverable. Significant numerical efficiency gains are enabled by precomputing the data conditioning steps at the onset of TPS and limiting the search parameter space (i.e., orbital period, transit duration, and ephemeris zero-point) to a small region around each injected transit signal.The PLTI test has the advantage that it follows transit signals through all processing steps of the Kepler pipeline, and

  17. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  18. Comparing respondent-driven sampling and targeted sampling methods of recruiting injection drug users in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Kral, Alex H; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Vaudrey, Jason; Martinez, Alexis N; Lorvick, Jennifer; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this article is to compare demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from two separate studies in San Francisco in 2005, one which used targeted sampling (TS) and the other which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were recruited using TS (n = 651) and RDS (n = 534) and participated in quantitative interviews that included demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess whether there were differences in these variables by sampling method. There was overlap in 95% CIs for all demographic variables except African American race (TS: 45%, 53%; RDS: 29%, 44%). Maps showed that the proportion of IDUs distributed across zip codes were similar for the TS and RDS sample, with the exception of a single zip code that was more represented in the TS sample. This zip code includes an isolated, predominantly African American neighborhood where only the TS study had a field site. Risk behavior estimates were similar for both TS and RDS samples, although self-reported hepatitis C infection was lower in the RDS sample. In terms of service utilization, more IDUs in the RDS sample reported no recent use of drug treatment and syringe exchange program services. Our study suggests that perhaps a hybrid sampling plan is best suited for recruiting IDUs in San Francisco, whereby the more intensive ethnographic and secondary analysis components of TS would aid in the planning of seed placement and field locations for RDS.

  19. Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in equine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Stack, John David; Bergamino, Chiara; Sanders, Ruth; Fogarty, Ursula; Puggioni, Antonella; Kearney, Clodagh; David, Florent

    2016-09-20

    To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Safety and efficacy could not be established. Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.

  20. Injectable 3-D Fabrication of Medical Electronics at the Target Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaokang; Yang, Xueyao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach.

  1. Methods To Assess Shear-Thinning Hydrogels for Application As Injectable Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels have gained popularity as a vehicle for the delivery of cells, growth factors, and other molecules to localize and improve their retention at the injection site, as well as for the mechanical bulking of tissues. However, there are many factors, such as viscosity, storage and loss moduli, and injection force, to consider when evaluating hydrogels for such applications. There are now numerous tools that can be used to quantitatively assess these factors, including for shear-thinning hydrogels because their properties change under mechanical load. Here, we describe relevant rheological tests and ways to measure injection force using a force sensor or a mechanical testing machine toward the evaluation of injectable hydrogels. Injectable, shear-thinning hydrogels can be used in a variety of clinical applications, and as an example we focus on methods for injection into the heart, where an understanding of injection properties and mechanical forces is imperative for consistent hydrogel delivery and retention. We discuss methods for delivery of hydrogels to mouse, rat, and pig hearts in models of myocardial infarction, and compare methods of tissue postprocessing for hydrogel preservation. Our intent is that the methods described herein can be helpful in the design and assessment of shear-thinning hydrogels for widespread biomedical applications. PMID:29250593

  2. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  3. Comparison of Two Anesthetic Methods for Intravitreal Ozurdex Injection

    PubMed Central

    Karabaş, V. Levent; Özkan, Berna; Koçer, Çiğdem Akdağ; Altıntaş, Özgül; Pirhan, Dilara; Yüksel, Nurşen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether subconjunctival lidocaine injection maintains additional anesthetic effect during intravitreal Ozurdex injection. Methods. 63 patients who were diagnosed as central or branch retinal vein occlusion and planned to receive Ozurdex injection for macular edema were prospectively included in the study. The patients were randomized into one of the two anesthetic groups. The first group received topical proparacaine drop and lidocaine applied pledget. The second group received subconjunctival lidocaine injection in addition to the anesthetics in group 1. Results. Mean pain score was 1.90 ± 2.39 in group 1 and 1.71 ± 2.09 in group 2 (p = 0.746). Mean subconjunctival hemorrhage grade was 1.67 ± 0.17 in group 1 and 0.90 ± 0.14 in group 2 (p = 0.001). There was no relationship between the amount of subconjunctival hemorrhage and pain score of the patients. Conclusions. There was no difference in pain scores between the two anesthetic methods. The addition of subconjunctival lidocaine injection offered no advantage in pain relief compared to lidocaine-applied pledgets. PMID:25949822

  4. Comparison of two anesthetic methods for intravitreal ozurdex injection.

    PubMed

    Karabaş, V Levent; Özkan, Berna; Koçer, Çiğdem Akdağ; Altıntaş, Özgül; Pirhan, Dilara; Yüksel, Nurşen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether subconjunctival lidocaine injection maintains additional anesthetic effect during intravitreal Ozurdex injection. Methods. 63 patients who were diagnosed as central or branch retinal vein occlusion and planned to receive Ozurdex injection for macular edema were prospectively included in the study. The patients were randomized into one of the two anesthetic groups. The first group received topical proparacaine drop and lidocaine applied pledget. The second group received subconjunctival lidocaine injection in addition to the anesthetics in group 1. Results. Mean pain score was 1.90 ± 2.39 in group 1 and 1.71 ± 2.09 in group 2 (p = 0.746). Mean subconjunctival hemorrhage grade was 1.67 ± 0.17 in group 1 and 0.90 ± 0.14 in group 2 (p = 0.001). There was no relationship between the amount of subconjunctival hemorrhage and pain score of the patients. Conclusions. There was no difference in pain scores between the two anesthetic methods. The addition of subconjunctival lidocaine injection offered no advantage in pain relief compared to lidocaine-applied pledgets.

  5. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOEpatents

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  6. Intra-lymph node injection of biodegradable polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Andorko, James I; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M

    2014-01-02

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.

  7. A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

    PubMed Central

    Cediel, Rafael; Celaya, Adelaida M.; Lassaletta, Luis; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Contreras, Julio

    2017-01-01

    We present two minimally invasive microsurgical techniques in rodents for specific drug delivery into the middle ear so that it may reach the inner ear. The first procedure consists of perforation of the tympanic bulla, termed bullostomy; the second one is a transtympanic injection. Both emulate human clinical intratympanic procedures. Chitosan-glycerophosphate (CGP) and Ringer´s Lactate buffer (RL) were used as biocompatible vehicles for local drug delivery. CGP is a nontoxic biodegradable polymer widely used in pharmaceutical applications. It is a viscous liquid at RT but it congeals to a semi solid phase at body temperature. RL is an isotonic solution used for intravenous administrations in humans. A small volume of this vehicle is precisely placed on the Round Window (RW) niche by means of a bullostomy. A transtympanic injection fills the middle ear and allows less control but broader access to the inner ear. The safety profiles of both techniques were studied and compared by using functional and morphological tests. Hearing was evaluated by registering the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) before and several times after microsurgery. The cytoarchitecture and preservation level of cochlear structures were studied by conventional histological techniques in paraformaldehyde-fixed and decalcified cochlear samples. In parallel, unfixed cochlear samples were taken and immediately frozen to analyze gene expression profiles of inflammatory markers by quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Both procedures are suitable as drug delivery methods into the mouse middle ear, although transtympanic injection proved to be less invasive compared to bullostomy. PMID:28362376

  8. Development and characterization of plasma targets for controlled injection of electrons into laser-driven wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinwaechter, Tobias; Goldberg, Lars; Palmer, Charlotte; Schaper, Lucas; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Osterhoff, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Laser-driven wakefield acceleration within capillary discharge waveguides has been used to generate high-quality electron bunches with GeV-scale energies. However, owing to fluctuations in laser and plasma conditions in combination with a difficult to control self-injection mechanism in the non-linear wakefield regime these bunches are often not reproducible and can feature large energy spreads. Specialized plasma targets with tailored density profiles offer the possibility to overcome these issues by controlling the injection and acceleration processes. This requires precise manipulation of the longitudinal density profile. Therefore our target concept is based on a capillary structure with multiple gas in- and outlets. Potential target designs are simulated using the fluid code OpenFOAM and those meeting the specified criteria are fabricated using femtosecond-laser machining of structures into sapphire plates. Density profiles are measured over a range of inlet pressures utilizing gas-density profilometry via Raman scattering and pressure calibration with longitudinal interferometry. In combination these allow absolute density mapping. Here we report the preliminary results.

  9. Targeting radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection: Clinical Phase I/II trials

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen Zhinan; Mi Li; Xu Jing

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: HAb18G/CD147 is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated antigen. We developed iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection (Licartin), a novel {sup 131}I-labeled HAb18G/CD147-specific monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment, and evaluated its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy on HCC in Phase I/II trials. Methods and Materials: In a Phase I trial, 28 patients were randomly assigned to receive the injection in 9.25-, 18.5-, 27.75-, or 37-MBq/kg doses by hepatic artery infusion. In a multicenter Phase II trial, 106 patients received the injection (27.75 MBq/kg) on Day 1 of a 28-day cycle. Response rate and survival rate were the endpoints. Results: No life-threatening toxicmore » effects were found. The safe dosage was 27.75 MBq/kg. The blood clearance fitted a biphasic model, and its half-life was 90.56-63.93 h. In the Phase II trial, the injection was found to be targeted and concentrated to tumor tissues. Of the 73 patients completing two cycles, 6 (8.22%) had a partial response, 14 (19.18%) minor response, and 43 (58.90%) stable disease. The 21-month survival rate was 44.54%. The survival rate of progression-free patients was significantly higher than that of patients with progressive disease after either one or two cycles (p < 0.0001 or p 0.0019). Conclusion: Iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection is safe and active for HCC patients.« less

  10. Intradermal injection of an anti-Langerin-HIVGag fusion vaccine targets epidermal Langerhans cells in nonhuman primates and can be tracked in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salabert, Nina; Todorova, Biliana; Martinon, Frédéric; Boisgard, Raphaël; Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandra; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Cosma, Antonio; Kortulewski, Thierry; Banchereau, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Le Grand, Roger; Chapon, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The development of new immunization strategies requires a better understanding of early molecular and cellular events occurring at the site of injection. The skin is particularly rich in immune cells and represents an attractive site for vaccine administration. Here, we specifically targeted vaccine antigens to epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) using a fusion protein composed of HIV antigens and a monoclonal antibody targeting Langerin. We developed a fluorescence imaging approach to visualize, in vivo, the vaccine-targeted cells. Studies were performed in nonhuman primates (NHPs) because of their relevance as a model to assess human vaccines. We directly demonstrated that in NHPs, intradermally injected anti-Langerin-HIVGag specifically targets epidermal LCs and induces rapid changes in the LC network, including LC activation and migration out of the epidermis. Vaccine targeting of LCs significantly improved anti-HIV immune response without requirement of an adjuvant. Although the co-injection of the TLR-7/8 synthetic ligand, R-848 (resiquimod), with the vaccine, did not enhance significantly the antibody response, it stimulated recruitment of HLA-DR+ inflammatory cells to the site of immunization. This study allowed us to characterize the dynamics of early local events following the injection of a vaccine-targeted epidermal LCs and R-848. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  12. Target location after deep cerebral biopsies using low-volume air injection in 75 patients. Results and technical note.

    PubMed

    Poca, Maria A; Martínez-Ricarte, Francisco-Ramon; Gándara, Dario F; Coscojuela, Pilar; Martínez-Sáez, Elena; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Stereotactic biopsy is a minimally invasive technique that allows brain tissue samples to be obtained with low risk. Classically, different techniques have been used to identify the biopsy site after surgery. To describe a technique to identify the precise location of the target in the postoperative CT scan using the injection of a low volume of air into the biopsy cannula. Seventy-five biopsies were performed in 65 adults and 10 children (40 males and 35 females, median age 51 years). Frame-based biopsy was performed in 46 patients, while frameless biopsy was performed in the remaining 29 patients. In both systems, after brain specimens had been collected and with the biopsy needle tip in the center of the target, a small volume of air (median 0.7 cm 3 ) was injected into the site. A follow-up CT scan was performed in all patients. Intracranial air in the selected target was present in 69 patients (92%). No air was observed in two patients (air volume administered in these 2 cases was below 0.7 cm 3 ), while in the remaining four patients blood content was observed in the target. The diagnostic yield in this series was 97.3%. No complications were found to be associated with intracranial air injection in any of the 75 patients who underwent this procedure. The air-injection maneuver proposed for use in stereotactic biopsies of intracranial mass lesions is a safe and reliable technique that allows the exact biopsy site to be located without any related complications.

  13. Evaluation of an online injecting drug use stigma intervention targeted at health providers in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brener, Loren; Cama, Elena; Hull, Peter; Treloar, Carla

    2017-01-01

    People who inject drugs are highly stigmatised. Discriminatory experiences are commonly reported, particularly in health care settings. This article evaluates an online stigma reduction training module targeting health providers working with people who inject drugs. A total of 139 participants completed a pre- and post-survey including attitude items and items depicting hypothetical scenarios and concerns around client behaviours. Participants’ attitudes towards people who inject drugs were more positive and they showed less concerns about client behaviours after completing the online training module. Findings highlight the benefits of online training in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people who inject drugs and improving confidence in working with this client group. PMID:28567299

  14. [Onyx embolization for treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula: comparison of long- distance versus routine injection method].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Zhou; Wang, Gang; Liu, Dan; Qi, Song-Tao; Li, Wei-Guang; Feng, Wen-Feng

    2016-03-01

    To compare the efficacy, clinical characteristics, safety, injection time and radiation exposure of Onyx embolization using a long-distance injection method and routine injection method for management of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed in 59 patients with DAVF treated with Onyx embolization using long-distance injection method (28 patients) and routine injection method (31 patients). The efficacy, safety, injection time and radiation exposure during Onyx embolization were compared between the two injections methods. The average radiation dose exposure to the surgeon per procedure was significantly lower in the long-distance injection group than in the routine group. The injection time (P=0.53), injection volume (P=0.78), number of supply arteries (P=0.80), Cognard types (P=0.67), and effect of embolization (P=0.88) were all similar between the two groups. Endovaseular treatment of intracranial DAVF with Onyx embolization using the long-distance injection method is feasible, safe and effective and can reduce the radiation exposure to the surgeon.

  15. Intelligent methods for the process parameter determination of plastic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xundao; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely used material processing methods in producing plastic products with complex geometries and high precision. The determination of process parameters is important in obtaining qualified products and maintaining product quality. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of the intelligent methods applied in the process parameter determination of injection molding. These intelligent methods are classified into three categories: Case-based reasoning methods, expert system- based methods, and data fitting and optimization methods. A framework of process parameter determination is proposed after comprehensive discussions. Finally, the conclusions and future research topics are discussed.

  16. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  17. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  18. Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Wagner, Daniel S.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Lapotko, Dmitri O.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal cell therapies require efficient, selective and rapid delivery of molecular cargo into target cells without compromising their viability. Achieving these goals ex vivo in bulk heterogeneous multi-cell systems such as human grafts is impeded by low selectivity and speed of cargo delivery and by significant damage to target and non-target cells. We have developed a cell level approach for selective and guided trans-membrane injection of extracellular cargo into specific target cells using transient plasmonic nanobubbles (PNB) as cell-specific nano-injectors. As a technical platform for this method we developed a laser flow cell processing system. The PNB injection method and flow system were tested in heterogeneous cell suspensions of target and non-target cells for delivery of Dextran-FITC dye into squamous cell carcinoma HN31 cells and transfection of human T-cells with a green fluorescent protein-encoding plasmid. In both models the method demonstrated single cell type selectivity, high efficacy of delivery (96% both for HN31 cells T-cells), speed of delivery (nanoseconds) and viability of treated target cells (96% for HN31 cells and 75% for T-cells). The PNB injection method may therefore be beneficial for real time processing of human grafts without removal of physiologically important cells. PMID:22521612

  19. Cell-specific transmembrane injection of molecular cargo with gold nanoparticle-generated transient plasmonic nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y; Wagner, Daniel S; Brenner, Malcolm K; Lapotko, Dmitri O

    2012-07-01

    Optimal cell therapies require efficient, selective and rapid delivery of molecular cargo into target cells without compromising their viability. Achieving these goals ex vivo in bulk heterogeneous multi-cell systems such as human grafts is impeded by low selectivity and speed of cargo delivery and by significant damage to target and non-target cells. We have developed a cell level approach for selective and guided transmembrane injection of extracellular cargo into specific target cells using transient plasmonic nanobubbles (PNB) as cell-specific nano-injectors. As a technical platform for this method we developed a laser flow cell processing system. The PNB injection method and flow system were tested in heterogeneous cell suspensions of target and non-target cells for delivery of Dextran-FITC dye into squamous cell carcinoma HN31 cells and transfection of human T-cells with a green fluorescent protein-encoding plasmid. In both models the method demonstrated single cell type selectivity, high efficacy of delivery (96% both for HN31 cells T-cells), speed of delivery (nanoseconds) and viability of treated target cells (96% for HN31 cells and 75% for T-cells). The PNB injection method may therefore be beneficial for real time processing of human grafts without removal of physiologically important cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  1. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  2. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  3. New Methods for Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. David

    2014-03-01

    Targeted radiotherapies based on alpha emitters are a promising alternative to beta emitting radionuclides. Because of their much shorter range, targeted α-radiotherapy (TAT) agents have great potential for application to small, disseminated tumors and micro metastases and treatment of hematological malignancies consisting of individual, circulating neoplastic cells. A promising approach to TAT is the use of the in vivo α-generator radionuclides 223 = 11.4 d) and 225Ac 1/2 = 10.0 d). In addition to their longer half-lives, these two isotopes have the potential of dramatically increasing the therapeutic efficacy of TAT as they each emit four α particles in their decay chain. This principle has recently been exploited in the development of Xofigo®, the first TAT agent approved for clinical use by the U.S. FDA. Xofigo, formulated as 223RaCl2, is used for treatment of metastatic bone cancer in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. TAT with 223Ra works, however, only in the case of bone cancer because radium, as a chemical analogue of calcium, efficiently targets bone. In order to bring the benefits of TAT with 223Ra or 225Ac to other tumor types, a new delivery method must be devised. Retaining the in vivo α generator radionuclides at the target site through the decay process is one of the major challenges associated with the development of TAT. Because the recoil energy of the daughter radionuclides from the α-emission is ~ 100 keV - a value which is four orders of magnitude greater than the energy of a covalent bond - the daughters will not remain bound to the bioconjugate at the targeting site. Various approaches have been attempted to achieve retention of the α-generator daughter radionuclides at the target site, including incorporation of the in vivo generator into liposomes and fullerenes. Unfortunately, to date single wall liposomes and fullerenes are able to retain less than 10% of the daughter radionuclides. We have recently demonstrated that a

  4. Process evaluation of spray injection method for asphalt surface repair

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-18

    One method of reducing manpower without cutting production in highway maintenance is to use the spray injection method for asphalt surface repair. Although the benefits of using this method have been well documented by previous research such as the S...

  5. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE MECHANICAL INTEGRITY OF CLASS II INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanical integrity of injection wells must be determined to insure that there is no significant leak in the casing, tubing or packer, and that there is no significant fluid movement through vertical channels adjacent to the injection well. Methods for mechanical integrity t...

  6. Light extinction method on high-pressure diesel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tzay-Fa; El-Beshbeeshy, Mahmound S.; Corradini, Michael L.; Farrell, Patrick V.

    1995-09-01

    A two dimensional optical diagnostic technique based on light extinction was improved and demonstrated in an investigation of diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures. Traditional light extinction methods require the spray image to be perpendicular to the light path. In the improved light extinction scheme, a tilted spray image which has an angle with the light path is still capable of being processed. This technique utilizes high speed photography and digital image analysis to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of the spray characteristics. The injection system used was an electronically controlled common rail unit injector system with injection pressures up to 100 MPa. The nozzle of the injector was a mini-sac type with six holes on the nozzle tip. Two different injection angle nozzles, 125 degree(s) and 140 degree(s), producing an in-plane tilted spray and an out of plane tilted spray were investigated. The experiments were conducted on a constant volume spray chamber with the injector mounted tilted at an angle of 62.5 degree(s)$. Only one spray plume was viewed, and other sprays were free to inject to the chamber. The spray chamber was pressurized with argon and air under room temperature to match the combustion chamber density at the start of the injection. The experimental results show that the difference in the spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average Sauter mean diameter is small between the in- plane tilted spray and the out of plane tilted spray. The results also show that in-plane tilted spray has a slightly larger axial cross- section Sauter mean diameter than the out of plane tilted spray.

  7. [Comparative study on four kinds of assessment methods of post-marketing safety of Danhong injection].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuelin; Tang, Jinfa; Meng, Fei; Li, Chunxiao; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    To study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, and to compare the differences between them, explore an appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection. Set down the adverse reactions' questionnaire of four kinds of methods, central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and collect the information on adverse reactions in a certain period. Danhong injection adverse reaction information from Henan Province spontaneous reporting system was collected with spontaneous reporting method. Carry on data summary and descriptive analysis. Study the adverse reaction of Danhong injection with four methods of central monitoring method, chart review method, literature study method and spontaneous reporting method, the rates of adverse events were 0.993%, 0.336%, 0.515%, 0.067%, respectively. Cyanosis, arrhythmia, hypotension, sweating, erythema, hemorrhage dermatitis, rash, irritability, bleeding gums, toothache, tinnitus, asthma, elevated aminotransferases, constipation, pain are new discovered adverse reactions. The central monitoring method is the appropriate method to carry out post-marketing safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine injection, which could objectively reflect the real world of clinical usage.

  8. Guiding Intramuscular Diaphragm Injections Using Real-time Ultrasound & Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Sarwal, Aarti; Cartwright, Michael S.; Mitchell, Erin; Williams, Koudy; Walker, Francis O.; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We describe a unique method that combines ultrasound and electromyography to guide intramuscular diaphragm injections in anesthetized large animals. Methods Ultrasound was used to visualize the diaphragm on each side of spontaneously breathing, anesthetized beagle dogs and cynomolgus macaques. An electromyography needle was introduced and directed by ultrasound to confirm that the needle entered the muscular portion of the diaphragm, and methylene blue was injected. Injection accuracy was confirmed upon necropsy by tracking the spread of methylene blue. Results All methylene blue injections were confirmed to have been placed appropriately into the diaphragm. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using ultrasound and EMG to guide injections and to reduce complications associated with conventional blind techniques. Ultrasound guidance can be used for clinical electromyography of the diaphragm. Future applications may include targeted diaphragm injections with gene replacement therapy in neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25354257

  9. Establishing a rat model of spastic cerebral palsy by targeted ethanol injection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Liang; Shao, Xinzhong; Tian, Fangtao; Sun, Qinglu

    2013-01-01

    Spastic cerebral palsy is generally considered to result from cerebral cortical or pyramidal tract damage. Here, we precisely targeted the left pyramidal tract of 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats placed on a stereotaxic instrument under intraperitoneal anesthesia. Based on the rat brain stereotaxic map, a 1-mm hole was made 10 mm posterior to bregma and 0.8 mm left of sagittal suture. A microsyringe was inserted perpendicularly to the surface of the brain to a depth of 9.7 mm, and 15 μL of ethanol was slowly injected to establish a rat model of spastic cerebral palsy. After modeling, the rats appeared to have necrotic voids in the pyramidal tract and exhibited typical signs and symptoms of flexion spasms that lasted for a long period of time. These findings indicate that this is an effective and easy method of establishing a rat model of spastic cerebral palsy with good re-producibility. Ethanol as a chemical ablation agent specifically and thoroughly damages the pyramidal tract, and therefore, the animals display flexion spasms, which are a typical symptom of the disease. PMID:25206647

  10. Generation of gene-modified goats targeting MSTN and FGF5 via zygote injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Yu, Honghao; Lei, Anmin; Zhou, Jiankui; Zeng, Wenxian; Zhu, Haijing; Dong, Zhiming; Niu, Yiyuan; Shi, Bingbo; Cai, Bei; Liu, Jinwang; Huang, Shuai; Yan, Hailong; Zhao, Xiaoe; Zhou, Guangxian; He, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiaoxu; Yang, Yuxin; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Lei; Tian, Xiue; Wang, Yongjun; Ma, Baohua; Huang, Xingxu; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the CRISPR/Cas9 system have provided a precise and versatile approach for genome editing in various species. However, the applicability and efficiency of this method in large animal models, such as the goat, have not been extensively studied. Here, by co-injection of one-cell stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting two functional genes (MSTN and FGF5), we successfully produced gene-modified goats with either one or both genes disrupted. The targeting efficiency of MSTN and FGF5 in cultured primary fibroblasts was as high as 60%, while the efficiency of disrupting MSTN and FGF5 in 98 tested animals was 15% and 21% respectively, and 10% for double gene modifications. The on- and off-target mutations of the target genes in fibroblasts, as well as in somatic tissues and testis of founder and dead animals, were carefully analyzed. The results showed that simultaneous editing of several sites was achieved in large animals, demonstrating that the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the potential to become a robust and efficient gene engineering tool in farm animals, and therefore will be critically important and applicable for breeding. PMID:26354037

  11. Targeted Injection of a Biocomposite Material Alters Macrophage and Fibroblast Phenotype and Function following Myocardial Infarction: Relation to Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Jeremy R.; Pettaway, Sara; Shuman, James A.; Novack, Craig P.; Zellars, Kia N.; Freels, Parker D.; Echols, Randall L.; Burdick, Jason A.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    A treatment target for progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling prevention following myocardial infarction (MI) is to affect structural changes directly within the MI region. One approach is through targeted injection of biocomposite materials, such as calcium hydroxyapatite microspheres (CHAM), into the MI region. In this study, the effects of CHAM injections upon key cell types responsible for the MI remodeling process, the macrophage and fibroblast, were examined. MI was induced in adult pigs before randomization to CHAM injections (20 targeted 0.1-ml injections within MI region) or saline. At 7 or 21 days post-MI (n = 6/time point per group), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed, followed by macrophage and fibroblast isolation. Isolated macrophage profiles for monocyte chemotactic macrophage inflammatory protein-1 as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction increased at 7 days post-MI in the CHAM group compared with MI only (16.3 ± 6.6 versus 1.7 ± 0.6 cycle times values, P < 0.05), and were similar by 21 days post-MI. Temporal changes in fibroblast function and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression relative to referent control (n = 5) occurred with MI. CHAM induced increases in fibroblast proliferation, migration, and SMA expression—indicative of fibroblast transformation. By 21 days, CHAM reduced LV dilation (diastolic volume: 75 ± 2 versus 97 ± 4 ml) and increased function (ejection fraction: 48 ± 2% versus 38 ± 2%) compared with MI only (both P < 0.05). This study identified that effects on macrophage and fibroblast differentiation occurred with injection of biocomposite material within the MI, which translated into reduced adverse LV remodeling. These unique findings demonstrate that biomaterial injections impart biologic effects upon the MI remodeling process over any biophysical effects. PMID:25022514

  12. Simultaneous Treatment with Subcutaneous Injection of Golimumab and Intra-articular Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (K-Method) in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Undergoing Switching of Biologics: Retrospective Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Katsuaki; Chiba, Junji; Inoue, Yasuo; Taguchi, Masashi; Yabuki, Akiko; Deguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tight control of severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients with high disease activity, even when using biologics, is sometimes difficult using a treat-to-target strategy. Switching from one biologic to another is associated with lower efficacy than that in treatment-naive cases. We developed the K-method that involves simultaneous treatment with golimumab and intra-articular joint injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in patients undergoing switching of biologics. We performed this retrospective case–control study to investigate the efficacy of achieving an immediate treatment response using the K-method. METHODS This study involved 20 patients with RA (control group, 10 patients; K-method group, 10 patients). Patients in the control group were switched to golimumab from other biologics without intra-articular injection of TA. The K-method involved injection of 1 mL of TA (40 mg/mL) and 2 mL of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride into swollen or painful joints on the same day as golimumab treatment. A quick response one day after treatment was compared between the two groups according to the disease activity score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28 CRP), clinical disease activity index (CDAI), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response, and remission rate. These parameters were investigated for 24 weeks. RESULTS The K-method group showed significant improvements in DAS28 CRP, CDAI, and SDAI at one day, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks compared with the control group. The number of swollen and tender joints and the patient and doctor global visual analog scale scores were also significantly different between the two groups. The remission rates based on DAS28 CRP were 30% at one day, 50% at 12 weeks, and 60% at 24 weeks in the K-method group. The EULAR good/moderate response rates were 80% at one day, 90% at 12 weeks, and 90% at 24 weeks in the K-method group; however, these rates were only 10%, 40%, and 40

  13. Ultra-trace level determination of diquat and paraquat residues in surface and drinking water using ion-pair liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: a comparison of direct injection and solid-phase extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Lee, Jun-Bae; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-10-01

    Direct injection and solid-phase extraction methods for the determination of diquat and paraquat in surface and drinking water were developed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The signal intensities of analytes based on six ion-pairing reagents were compared with each other, and 12.5 mM nonafluoropentanoic acid was selected as the best suited amongst them. A clean-up method was developed using Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; this was compared to the direct injection method, with respect to limits of detection, interference, precision, and accuracy. Limits of quantification of diquat and paraquat were 0.03 and 0.01 μg/L using the direct injection method, and 0.002 and 0.001 μg/L using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method. When the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method was used to analyze target compounds in 114 surface water and 30 drinking water samples, paraquat and diquat were detected within a concentration range of 0.001-0.12 and 0.002-0.038 μg/L in surface water, respectively. When the direct injection method was used to analyze target compounds in the same samples, the detected concentrations of paraquat and diquat were within 25% in samples being >0.015 μg/L using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method. The liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method using direct injection can thus be used for routine monitoring of paraquat and diquat in surface and drinking water. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Steroid intracochlear distribution differs by administration method: Systemic versus intratympanic injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Joo; Jang, Jeong Hun; Choo, Oak-Sung; Lim, Hye Jin; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Steroids have been widely used to treat inner-ear diseases such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and Meniere's disease. They can be given via either systemic or intratympanic (IT) injection. The purpose of the present study was to explore differences in intracochlear steroid distribution by the administration method employed (systemic vs. IT injection). Animal study. Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dexamethasone (FITC-DEX) three times (on successive days) via intraperitoneal (IP) or IT injection. Cochlear uptake of FITC-DEX was evaluated via immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry at 6 hours, and 3 and 7 days after the final injection. FITC-DEX uptake was evident in spiral ganglion cells (SGs), the organ of Corti (OC), and the lateral walls (LWs), the basal turns of which were stained relatively prominently in both groups. Animals receiving IP injections exhibited higher FITC-DEX uptakes by the SGs and OC, whereas IT injection triggered higher-level FITC-DEX accumulation by the OC and LWs. Flow cytometry revealed that intracochlear FITC-DEX uptake by IT-injected animals was higher and more prolonged than in animals subjected to IP injections. We thus describe differences in cochlear steroid distributions after systemic and IT injections. This finding could help our understanding of the pharmacokinetics of steroids in the cochlea. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:189-194, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Establishment of A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method for screening target components from Radix Caulophylli.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Wang, Sicen; Hou, Jingjing; He, Langchong

    2011-03-01

    We describe here an analytical method of A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) (CMC, cell membrane chromatography) combined with RPLC for recognition, separation, and identification of target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) Radix Caulophylli. The A431 cells with high expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were used to prepare the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention fractions on the A431-CMC model were collected using an automated fraction collection and injection module (FC/I). Each fraction was analyzed by RPLC under the optimized conditions. Gefitinib and erlotinib were used as standard compounds to investigate the suitability and reliability of the A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method prior to screening target component from Radix Caulophylli total alkaloids. The results indicated that caulophine and taspine were the target component acting on the epidermal growth factor receptor. This method could be an efficient way in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Association between injectable progestin-only contraceptives and HIV acquisition and HIV target cell frequency in the female genital tract in South African women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Elizabeth H; Anahtar, Melis N; Cohen, Kathleen E; Moodley, Amber; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Bowman, Brittany A; Olson, Gregory S; Mabhula, Amanda; Leslie, Alasdair; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Krista L; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The use of injectable progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in observational studies, but the biological mechanisms of this risk remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of progestins on HIV acquisition risk and the immune environment in the female genital tract. In this prospective cohort, we enrolled HIV-negative South African women aged 18-23 years who were not pregnant and were living in Umlazi, South Africa from the Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH) study. We tested for HIV-1 twice per week to monitor incident infection. Every 3 months, we collected demographic and behavioural data in addition to blood and cervical samples. The study objective was to characterise host immune determinants of HIV acquisition risk, including those associated with injectable progestin-only contraceptive use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards methods. Between Nov 19, 2012, and May 31, 2015, we characterised 432 HIV-uninfected South African women from the FRESH study. In this cohort, 152 women used injectable progestin-only contraceptives, 43 used other forms of contraception, and 222 women used no method of long-term contraception. Women using injectable progestin-only contraceptives were at substantially higher risk of acquiring HIV (12·06 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 6·41-20·63) than women using no long-term contraception (3·71 per 100 person-years, 1·36-8·07; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·93, 95% CI 1·09-7·868, p=0·0326). HIV-negative injectable progestin-only contraceptive users had 3·92 times the frequency of cervical HIV target cells (CCR5+ CD4 T cells) compared with women using no long-term contraceptive (p=0·0241). Women using no long-term contraceptive in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also had a 3·25 times higher frequency of cervical target cells compared with those in the follicular phase (p=0·0488), suggesting that a

  17. Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: what's so spatial about our methods?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial chemical injection (ICI) methods have been used to identify the locations in the brain where feeding behavior can be controlled acutely. Scientists conducting ICI studies often document their injection site locations, thereby leaving kernels of valuable location data for others to use to further characterize feeding control circuits. Unfortunately, this rich dataset has not yet been formally contextualized with other published neuroanatomical data. In particular, axonal tracing studies have delineated several neural circuits originating in the same areas where ICI injection feeding-control sites have been documented, but it remains unclear whether these circuits participate in feeding control. Comparing injection sites with other types of location data would require careful anatomical registration between the datasets. Here, a conceptual framework is presented for how such anatomical registration efforts can be performed. For example, by using a simple atlas alignment tool, a hypothalamic locus sensitive to the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can be aligned accurately with the locations of neurons labeled by anterograde tracers or those known to express NPY receptors or feeding-related peptides. This approach can also be applied to those intracranial “gene-directed” injection (IGI) methods (e.g., site-specific recombinase methods, RNA expression or interference, optogenetics, and pharmacosynthetics) that involve viral injections to targeted neuronal populations. Spatial alignment efforts can be accelerated if location data from ICI/IGI methods are mapped to stereotaxic brain atlases to allow powerful neuroinformatics tools to overlay different types of data in the same reference space. Atlas-based mapping will be critical for community-based sharing of location data for feeding control circuits, and will accelerate our understanding of structure-function relationships in the brain for mammalian models of obesity and metabolic disorders

  18. The time-adjusted gradual replacement injection method enables better visualization of the right heart.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Niwamae, Nogiku; Saito, Yuuichirou; Arai, Masashi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Despite the improvement of cardiac CT, right heart visualization remains challenging. We herein describe a new method, called the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol. The aim of this study was to compare this protocol with the split-bolus injection protocol. Fifty-two patients who had undergone dual-source cardiac CT were retrospectively recruited. Twenty-six patients were injected by using the split-bolus injection protocol, and 26 patients were injected by using the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol. For this method, we injected contrast medium for 10 seconds at a flow rate of 0.07 × body weight mL/s, then gradually replaced the contrast material with saline until 2 seconds before finishing the scans. The CT attenuation was measured in 4 chambers, the aorta, and the coronary arteries. The visualization of the anatomic structures and the occurrence and severity of streak artifacts were scored for the cardiac structures in the heart. For the analyses, either Welch t-test or Student t-test was performed. In the right heart, the CT values and visualization scores were significantly higher in the time-adjusted replacement injection group than in the split-bolus injection group, whereas the artifact scores were comparable between the 2 groups. The CT values, visualization scores, and artifact scores of the left heart were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In this study, the time-adjusted gradual replacement injection protocol provided excellent attenuation for visualization of the right heart. This method may help to accurately evaluate the right cardiac anatomy and thereby identify any potential diseases. Copyright © 2014 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  20. Implementation of an Autonomous Multi-Maneuver Targeting Sequence for Lunar Trans-Earth Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.; Williams, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Using a fully analytic initial guess estimate as a first iterate, a targeting procedure that constructs a flyable burn maneuver sequence to transfer a spacecraft from any closed Moon orbit to a desired Earth entry state is developed and implemented. The algorithm is built to support the need for an anytime abort capability for Orion. Based on project requirements, the Orion spacecraft must be able to autonomously calculate the translational maneuver targets for an entire Lunar mission. Translational maneuver target sequences for the Orion spacecraft include Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI), Trans-Earth Injection (TEI), and Trajectory Correction Maneuvers (TCMs). This onboard capability is generally assumed to be supplemental to redundant ground computation in nominal mission operations and considered as a viable alternative primarily in loss of communications contingencies. Of these maneuvers, the ability to accurately and consistently establish a flyable 3-burn TEI target sequence is especially critical. The TEI is the sole means by which the crew can successfully return from the Moon to a narrowly banded Earth Entry Interface (EI) state. This is made even more critical by the desire for global access on the lunar surface. Currently, the designed propellant load is based on fully optimized TEI solutions for the worst case geometries associated with the accepted range of epochs and landing sites. This presents two challenges for an autonomous algorithm: in addition to being feasible, the targets must include burn sequences that do not exceed the anticipated propellant load.

  1. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  2. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  3. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  4. Flow injection method for sulphide determination using an organic mercury compound

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yaqoob, M.; Anwar, M.; Masood, A.S.

    1991-04-01

    A simple flow injection analysis method is described for the determination of soluble sulfide, based on the complexation of sulfide with p-hydroxymercurbenzoic acid, in the presence of dithizone used as an indicator. The reaction is very rapid, with a sampling rate of 90/hr. and requires a very short length post injection reaction coil. The detection limit and precision are 0.01 mM and 0.7%, respectively.

  5. Cavitational kyphoplasty: a new technique for reducing the rates of cement extravasation through targeted low-pressure cement injection.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated lower rates of cement extravasation when comparing balloon kyphoplasty with vertebroplasty, an effect attributed to the low-pressure injection. However, in patients with isolated endplate fractures, balloon kyphoplasty may lead to further endplate damage and increased risks of intradiscal extravasation. The author provides a stepwise description of a new technique called cavitational kyphoplasty that allows targeted low-pressure cement injection without the necessity of balloon inflation. The new technique of cavitational kyphoplasty has been shown to be specially useful in patients with isolated endplate fractures without significant loss of the vertebral body height.

  6. Design of a Coupled Thermoresponsive Hydrogel and Robotic System for Postinfarct Biomaterial Injection Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Kevin; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Park, Daewoo; Jiang, Hongbin; Schwartzman, David S.; Zenati, Marco A.; Uchibori, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background In preclinical testing, ventricular wall injection of hydrogels has been shown to be effective in modulating ventricular remodeling and preserving cardiac function. For some approaches, early-stage clinical trials are under way. The hydrogel delivery method varies, with minimally invasive approaches being preferred. Endocardial injections carry a risk of hydrogel regurgitation into the circulation, and precise injection patterning is a challenge. An epicardial approach with a thermally gelling hydrogel through the subxiphoid pathway overcomes these disadvantages. Methods A relatively stiff, thermally responsive, injectable hydrogel based on N-isopropylacrylamide and N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP gel) was synthesized and characterized. VP gel thermal behavior was tuned to couple with a transepicardial injection robot, incorporating a cooling feature to achieve injectability. Ventricular wall injections of the optimized VP gel have been performed ex vivo and on beating porcine hearts. Results Thermal transition temperature, viscosity, and gelling time for the VP gel were manipulated by altering N-vinylpyrrolidone content. The target parameters for cooling in the robotic system were chosen by thermal modeling to support smooth, repeated injections on an ex vivo heart. Injections at predefined locations and depth were confirmed in an infarcted porcine model. Conclusions A coupled thermoresponsive hydrogel and robotic injection system incorporating a temperature-controlled injectate line was capable of targeted injections and amenable to use with a subxiphoid transepicardial approach for hydrogel injection after myocardial infarction. The confirmation of precise location and depth injections would facilitate a patient-specific planning strategy to optimize injection patterning to maximize the mechanical benefits of hydrogel placement. PMID:27154150

  7. Electrokinetic focusing injection methods on microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2003-04-15

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation into electrokinetic focusing injection on microfluidic chips. The valving characteristics on microfluidic devices are controlled through appropriate manipulations of the electric potential strengths during the sample loading and dispensing steps. The present study also addresses the design and testing of various injection systems used to deliver a sample plug. A novel double-cross injection microfluidic chip is fabricated, which employs electrokinetic focusing to deliver sample plugs of variable volume. The proposed design combines several functions of traditional sample plug injection systems on a single microfluidic chip. The injection technique uses an unique sequence of loading steps with different electric potential distributions and magnitudes within the various channels to effectuate a virtual valve.

  8. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water.

  9. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Haley D; Williams, Susan H

    2014-01-01

    Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  10. Novel Injectable Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement from Wet Chemical Precipitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hablee, S.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    Calcium phosphate cement has been prepared via chemical precipitation method for injectable bone filling materials. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4, were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The synthesized powder was mixed with water at different powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratios, which was adjusted at 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2. The influence of P/L ratio on the injectability, setting time and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement paste has been evaluated. The synthesized powder appeared as purely hydroxyapatite with nanosized and agglomerated spherical particles. All cement pastes show excellent injectability except for the paste with P/L ratio 1.2. Calcium phosphate cement with P/L ratio 1.1 shows the ideal cement for bone filler application with good injectability, the initial and final setting times of 30 min and 160 min, and the compression strength of 2.47 MPa. The result indicated that the newly developed calcium phosphate cement is physically suitable for bone filler application. This paper presents our investigation on the effect of P/L ratio on the handling and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement prepared via wet chemical precipitation method.

  11. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOEpatents

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  12. Three-dimensional rotational angiography fused with multimodal imaging modalities for targeted endomyocardial injections in the ischaemic heart.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Dieter Frans; Nuyens, Dieter; De Buck, Stijn; Claus, Piet; Gheysens, Olivier; Koole, Michel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vanden Driessche, Nina; Janssens, Laurens; Ector, Joris; Dymarkowski, Steven; Bogaert, Jan; Heidbuchel, Hein; Janssens, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    Biological therapies for ischaemic heart disease require efficient, safe, and affordable intramyocardial delivery. Integration of multiple imaging modalities within the fluoroscopy framework can provide valuable information to guide these procedures. We compared an anatomo-electric method (LARCA) with a non-fluoroscopic electromechanical mapping system (NOGA(®)). LARCA integrates selective three-dimensional-rotational angiograms with biplane fluoroscopy. To identify the infarct region, we studied LARCA-fusion with pre-procedural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dedicated CT, or (18)F-FDG-PET/CT. We induced myocardial infarction in 20 pigs by 90-min LAD occlusion. Six weeks later, we compared peri-infarct delivery accuracy of coloured fluospheres using sequential NOGA(®)- and LARCA-MRI-guided vs. LARCA-CT- and LARCA-(18)F-FDG-PET/CT-guided intramyocardial injections. MRI after 6 weeks revealed significant left ventricular (LV) functional impairment and remodelling (LVEF 31 ± 3%, LVEDV 178 ± 15 mL, infarct size 17 ± 2% LV mass). During NOGA(®)-procedures, three of five animals required DC-shock for major ventricular arrhythmias vs. one of ten during LARCA-procedures. Online procedure time was shorter for LARCA than NOGA(®) (77 ± 6 vs. 130 ± 3 min, P < 0.0001). Absolute distance of injection spots to the infarct border was similar for LARCA-MRI (4.8 ± 0.5 mm) and NOGA(®) (5.4 ± 0.5 mm). LARCA-CT-integration allowed closer approximation of the targeted border zone than LARCA-PET (4.0 ± 0.5 mm vs. 6.2 ± 0.6 mm, P < 0.05). Three-dimensional -rotational angiography fused with multimodal imaging offers a new, cost-effective, and safe strategy to guide intramyocardial injections. Endoventricular procedure times and arrhythmias compare favourably to NOGA(®), without compromising injection accuracy. LARCA-based fusion imaging is a promising enabling technology for cardiac biological therapies. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All

  13. Validated flow-injection method for rapid aluminium determination in anti-perspirants.

    PubMed

    López-Gonzálvez, A; Ruiz, M A; Barbas, C

    2008-09-29

    A flow-injection (FI) method for the rapid determination of aluminium in anti-perspirants has been developed. The method is based on the spectrophotometric detection at 535nm of the complex formed between Al ions and the chromogenic reagent eriochrome cyanine R. Both the batch and FI methods were validated by checking the parameters included in the ISO-3543-1 regulation. Variables involved in the FI method were optimized by using appropriate statistical tools. The method does not exhibit interference from other substances present in anti-perspirants and it shows a high precision with a R.S.D. value (n=6) of 0.9%. Moreover, the accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with a back complexometric titration method, which is currently used for routine analysis in pharmaceutical laboratories. The Student's t-test showed that the results obtained by both methods were not significantly different for a significance level of 95%. A response time of 12s and a sample analysis time, by performing triplicate injections, of 60s were achieved. The analytical figures of merit make the method highly appropriate to substitute the time-consuming complexometric method for this kind of analysis.

  14. A randomised controlled comparison of injection, thermal, and mechanical endoscopic methods of haemostasis on mesenteric vessels.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, C C; Kadirkamanathan, S S; Gong, F; Swain, C P

    1998-04-01

    A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n = 20) and 2 mm (n = 20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n = 5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n = 5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n = 5). Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p < 0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p < 0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2 mm.

  15. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections

    PubMed Central

    Marker, David R.; U-Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Carrino, John A.; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. METHODS A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. RESULTS Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1–5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. CONCLUSION 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus. PMID:28420598

  16. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  17. Mu2e-II Injection from PIP-II

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neuffer, David

    We discuss injection of 800 MeV proton beam from PIP-II into the production target for Mu2e-II, assuming a targeting and μ production scenario similar to mu2e. The incoming beam trajectory must be modified from the mu2e parameters to match the focusing fields. Adding a vertical deflection at injection enables the injected beam to reach the target. Other differences from the mu2e system must be considered, including changes in the target structure, the radiation shielding and beam dump/absorber. H- beam should be stripped to p+. Other variations are discussed.

  18. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  19. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Bennett, Gerald W.; Duncan, Charles C.; Ducote, Louis W.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus and method for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function.

  20. Fish egg injection as an alternative exposure route for early life stage toxicity studies: Description of two unique methods: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Mary K.; Zabel, Erik W.; Akerman, Gun; Balk, Lennart; Wright, Peggy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    In the environment, lipophilic contaminants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene) readily bioaccumulate in fish, and the bioaccumulation of these lipophilic chemicals by adult fish may have significant consequences on the development and survival of their offspring. Halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons translocate from adult female body stores into eggs during oocyte maturation, and early life stages of fish are often more sensitive than adults to the toxicity of these chemicals. Thus, the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants in the environment may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival and ultimately reduce recruitment into the adult population.Typically, standard early life stage toxicity studies exposed embryos, larvae, and juveniles to graded concentrations of waterborne toxicants, and dose-response relationships are based on the concentrations of chemicals in the water. However, use of waterborne exposure to assess the toxicity of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants, such as HAHs and PAHs, has two significant drawbacks. First, uptake of hydrophobic chemicals, such as HAHs and PAHs, into the developing embryo from water is not a significant route of exposure in the environment since concentrations of these chemicals freely dissolved in water are extremely low. Rather, maternal deposition into developing oocytes is the most significant source of these chemicals to the embryo. Second, the dose received by the target tissue, in this case the developing embryo, is the most accurate predictor of the toxic response, and since extrapolation from water concentrations of the chemical to egg concentrations is required, the exact dose received by the embryo can only be estimated, often with large uncertainty. Due to these drawbacks, it is important to develop an alternative exposure method that will directly expose the

  1. Efficient flow injection and sequential injection methods for spectrophotometric determination of oxybenzone in sunscreens based on reaction with Ni(II).

    PubMed

    Chisvert, A; Salvador, A; Pascual-Martí, M C; March, J G

    2001-04-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of a widely used UV-filter, such as oxybenzone, is proposed. The method is based on the complexation reaction between oxybenzone and Ni(II) in ammoniacal medium. The stoichiometry of the reaction, established by the Job method, was 1:1. Reaction conditions were studied and the experimental parameters were optimized, for both flow injection (FI) and sequential injection (SI) determinations, with comparative purposes. Sunscreen formulations containing oxybenzone were analyzed by the proposed methods and results compared with those obtained by HPLC. Data show that both FI and SI procedures provide accurate and precise results. The ruggedness, sensitivity and LOD are adequate to the analysis requirements. The sample frequency obtained by FI is three-fold higher than that of SI analysis. SI is less reagent-consuming than FI.

  2. Drug-Target Interactions: Prediction Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Anusuya, Shanmugam; Kesherwani, Manish; Priya, K Vishnu; Vimala, Antonydhason; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the interactions between drugs and target proteins is a key step in drug discovery. This not only aids to understand the disease mechanism, but also helps to identify unexpected therapeutic activity or adverse side effects of drugs. Hence, drug-target interaction prediction becomes an essential tool in the field of drug repurposing. The availability of heterogeneous biological data on known drug-target interactions enabled many researchers to develop various computational methods to decipher unknown drug-target interactions. This review provides an overview on these computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions along with available webservers and databases for drug-target interactions. Further, the applicability of drug-target interactions in various diseases for identifying lead compounds has been outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Site-targeted non-viral gene delivery by direct DNA injection into the pancreatic parenchyma and subsequent in vivo electroporation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiro; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    The pancreas is considered an important gene therapy target because the organ is the site of several high burden diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. We aimed to develop an efficient in vivo gene delivery system using non-viral DNA. Direct intra-parenchymal injection of a solution containing circular plasmid pmaxGFP DNA was performed on adult anesthetized ICR female mice. The injection site was sandwiched with a pair of tweezer-type electrode disks, and electroporated using a square-pulse generator. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression within the injected pancreatic portion was observed one day after gene delivery. GFP expression reduced to baseline within a week of transfection. Application of voltages over 40 V resulted in tissue damage during electroporation. We demonstrate that electroporation is effective for safe and efficient transfection of pancreatic cells. This novel gene delivery method to the pancreatic parenchyma may find application in gene therapy strategies for pancreatic diseases and in investigation of specific gene function in situ. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptions are made.

  4. Extraction method of interfacial injected charges for SiC power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiaxing; Liu, Siyang; Li, Sheng; Song, Haiyang; Chen, Xin; Li, Ting; Fang, Jiong; Sun, Weifeng

    2018-01-01

    An improved novel extraction method which can characterize the injected charges along the gate oxide interface for silicon carbide (SiC) power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed. According to the different interface situations of the channel region and the junction FET (JFET) region, the gate capacitance versus gate voltage (Cg-Vg) curve of the device can be divided into three relatively independent parts, through which the locations and the types of the charges injected in to the oxide above the interface can be distinguished. Moreover, the densities of these charges can also be calculated by the amplitudes of the shifts in the Cg-Vg curve. The correctness of this method is proved by TCAD simulations. Moreover, experiments on devices stressed by unclamped-inductive-switching (UIS) stress and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) are performed to verify the validity of this method.

  5. Targeted polymeric micelles for siRNA treatment of experimental cancer by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Christie, R James; Matsumoto, Yu; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nomoto, Takahiro; Fukushima, Shigeto; Osada, Kensuke; Halnaut, Julien; Pittella, Frederico; Kim, Hyun Jin; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2012-06-26

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) cancer therapies administered by intravenous injection require a delivery system for transport from the bloodstream into the cytoplasm of diseased cells to perform the function of gene silencing. Here we describe nanosized polymeric micelles that deliver siRNA to solid tumors and elicit a therapeutic effect. Stable multifunctional micelle structures on the order of 45 nm in size formed by spontaneous self-assembly of block copolymers with siRNA. Block copolymers used for micelle formation were designed and synthesized to contain three main features: a siRNA binding segment containing thiols, a hydrophilic nonbinding segment, and a cell-surface binding peptide. Specifically, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLL) comprising lysine amines modified with 2-iminothiolane (2IT) and the cyclo-Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptide on the PEG terminus was used. Modification of PEG-b-PLL with 2IT led to improved control of micelle formation and also increased stability in the blood compartment, while installation of the cRGD peptide improved biological activity. Incorporation of siRNA into stable micelle structures containing the cRGD peptide resulted in increased gene silencing ability, improved cell uptake, and broader subcellular distribution in vitro and also improved accumulation in both the tumor mass and tumor-associated blood vessels following intravenous injection into mice. Furthermore, stable and targeted micelles inhibited the growth of subcutaneous HeLa tumor models and demonstrated gene silencing in the tumor mass following treatment with antiangiogenic siRNAs. This new micellar nanomedicine could potentially expand the utility of siRNA-based therapies for cancer treatments that require intravenous injection.

  6. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Bennett, G.W.; Duncan, C.C.; Ducote, L.W.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function. 2 figs.

  7. A randomised controlled comparison of injection, thermal, and mechanical endoscopic methods of haemostasis on mesenteric vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, C; Kadirkamanathan, S; Gong, F; Swain, C

    1998-01-01

    Background and aims—A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. 
Methods—Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. 
Results—Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n=20) and 2 mm (n=20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n=5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n=5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n=5). 
Conclusions—Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p<0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p<0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2mm. 

 Keywords: endoscopic haemostasis; mesenteric vessels PMID:9616305

  8. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-03-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency.

  9. Guiding intramuscular diaphragm injections using real-time ultrasound and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Sarwal, Aarti; Cartwright, Michael S; Mitchell, Erin; Williams, Koudy; Walker, Francis O; Childers, Martin K

    2015-02-01

    We describe a unique method that combines ultrasound and electromyography to guide intramuscular diaphragm injections in anesthetized large animals. Ultrasound was used to visualize the diaphragm on each side of spontaneously breathing, anesthetized beagle dogs and cynomolgus macaques. An electromyography (EMG) needle was introduced and directed by ultrasound to confirm that the needle entered the muscular portion of the diaphragm, and methylene blue was injected. Injection accuracy was confirmed upon necropsy by tracking the spread of methylene blue. All methylene blue injections were confirmed to have been placed appropriately into the diaphragm. This study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using ultrasound and EMG to guide injections and to reduce complications associated with conventional blind techniques. Ultrasound guidance can be used for clinical EMG of the diaphragm. Future applications may include targeted diaphragm injections with gene replacement therapy in neuromuscular diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of tumor uptake for targeted and non-targeted liposomes and their encapsulated contents by ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Zaki, Ajlan Al; Hui, James Z; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. However, targeted liposomal delivery in cancer treatment is a very complicated multi-step process. Unfavorable liposome biodistribution upon intravenous administration and membrane destabilization in blood circulation could result in only a very small fraction of cargo reaching the tumors. It would therefore be desirable to develop new quantitative strategies to track liposomal delivery systems to improve the therapeutic index and decrease systemic toxicity. Here, we developed a simple and non-radiative method to quantify the tumor uptake of targeted and non-targeted control liposomes as well as their encapsulated contents simultaneously. Specifically, four different chelated lanthanide metals were encapsulated or surface-conjugated onto tumor-targeted and non-targeted liposomes, respectively. The two liposome formulations were then injected into tumor-bearing mice simultaneously and their tumor delivery was determined quantitatively via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), allowing for direct comparisons. Tumor uptake of the liposomes themselves and their encapsulated contents were consistent with targeted and non-targeted liposome formulations that were injected individually. PMID:22882145

  11. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  12. A Cooperative Approach to Virtual Machine Based Fault Injection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Naughton III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Vallee, Geoffroy R

    Resilience investigations often employ fault injection (FI) tools to study the effects of simulated errors on a target system. It is important to keep the target system under test (SUT) isolated from the controlling environment in order to maintain control of the experiement. Virtual machines (VMs) have been used to aid these investigations due to the strong isolation properties of system-level virtualization. A key challenge in fault injection tools is to gain proper insight and context about the SUT. In VM-based FI tools, this challenge of target con- text is increased due to the separation between host and guest (VM).more » We discuss an approach to VM-based FI that leverages virtual machine introspection (VMI) methods to gain insight into the target s context running within the VM. The key to this environment is the ability to provide basic information to the FI system that can be used to create a map of the target environment. We describe a proof- of-concept implementation and a demonstration of its use to introduce simulated soft errors into an iterative solver benchmark running in user-space of a guest VM.« less

  13. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm method (GA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Computer Aided Engineering was used for injection moulding simulation. The method of Design of experiment (DOE) was utilize according to the Latin Square orthogonal array. The relationship between the injection moulding parameters and warpage were identify based on the experimental data that used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used as to validate the model accuracy. Then, the RSM and GA method were combine as to examine the optimum injection moulding process parameter. Therefore the optimisation of injection moulding is largely improve and the result shown an increasing accuracy and also reliability. The propose method by combining RSM and GA method also contribute in minimising the warpage from occur.

  14. Study of the method of water-injected meat identifying based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianmei; Lin, Qing; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Zheng; Ai, Zhujun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study to apply low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technique was to study regular variation of the transverse relaxation spectral parameters of water-injected meat with the proportion of water injection. Based on this, the method of one-way ANOVA and discriminant analysis was used to analyse the differences between these parameters in the capacity of distinguishing water-injected proportion, and established a model for identifying water-injected meat. The results show that, except for T 21b, T 22e and T 23b, the other parameters of the T 2 relaxation spectrum changed regularly with the change of water-injected proportion. The ability of different parameters to distinguish water-injected proportion was different. Based on S, P 22 and T 23m as the prediction variable, the Fisher model and the Bayes model were established by discriminant analysis method, qualitative and quantitative classification of water-injected meat can be realized. The rate of correct discrimination of distinguished validation and cross validation were 88%, the model was stable.

  15. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Yunfeng

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  16. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Guignard, Romain; Lert, France; Roy, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter) sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years), 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0) and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1). Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8). Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important. PMID:26504609

  18. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Lert, France; Roy, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter) sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years), 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3-10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.0) and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0-9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3-7.1). Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0-6.8). Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  19. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  20. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  1. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B [Macomb Township, MI

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  2. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  3. Polarized deuterium internal target at AmPS (NIKHEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Zhou, Z.-L.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Alarcon, R.; van Bakel, N.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; van Buuren, L.; Comfort, J.; Doets, M.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Geurts, D.; Heimberg, P.; Higinbotham, D. W.; de Jager, C. W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D. J.; Norum, B.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H. R.; Six, E.; Steijger, J.; Szczerba, D.; Unal, O.; de Vries, H.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the polarized deuterium target internal to the NIKHEF medium-energy electron storage ring. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used to monitor the injected atomic beam intensity and polarization. An electrostatic ion-extraction system and a Wien filter were utilized to measure on-line the atomic fraction of the target gas in the storage cell. This device was supplemented with a tensor polarization analyzer using the neutron anisotropy of the 3H(d,n)α reaction at 60 keV. This method allows determining the density-averaged nuclear polarization of the target gas, independent of spatial and temporal variations. We address issues important for polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal targets, such as the effects of spin-exchange collisions and resonant transitions induced by the RF fields of the charged particle beam.

  4. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. Studying Intense Pulsed Light Method Along With Corticosteroid Injection in Treating Keloid Scars

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Objective: Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. Materials and Methods: 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with corticosteroid intralesional injection using 450 to 1200 NM filter, Fluence 30-40 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.1-10 ms and palsed delay 10-40 ms with an interval of three weeks. To specify the recovery consequences and complication rate and to determine features of the lesion, the criteria specified in the study of Eroll and Vancouver scar scale were used. Results: The level of clinical improvement, color improvement and scar height was 89.1%, 88.8% and 89.1% respectively. The incidence of complications (1 telangiectasia case, 7 hyperpigmentation cases and 2 atrophy cases) following treatment with IPL was 11.6%. Moreover, the participants’ satisfaction with IPL method was 88.8%. Conclusions: This study revealed that a combined therapy (intralesional corticosteroid injection + IPL) increases the recovery level of hypertrophic and keloid scars. It was also demonstrated that this method had no significant side effect and patients were highly satisfied with this method. PMID:24719725

  6. Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production

    DOEpatents

    Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

    2012-10-16

    The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

  7. Methods and Variables Associated with the Risk of Septic Arthritis Following Intra-Articular Injections in Horses: A Survey of Veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Caroline C; Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E

    2016-11-01

    To determine common methods for intra-articular injections and variables associated with the risk of septic arthritis following intra-articular injection in the horse. Cross-sectional survey. Equine veterinarians. A link to an online survey was distributed to equine practitioners in 2014. Responses for descriptive data were tabulated. Data on infection rates obtained from medical records were analyzed. Variables associated with the risk of septic arthritis were determined using χ 2 or Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression. Common current methods for intra-articular injections were determined from 241 surveys. Sixty-four of 241 surveys (26.6%) contained data with numbers of joints injected and number of infections obtained from review of medical records. Eight different injection methods were used by more than 2/3 of responding veterinarians. A total of 67 out of 319,760 injected joints reported became septic following injection, giving an incidence of 2.10 septic joints per 10,000 intra-articular injections. Based on multivariate analysis, infection rates were significantly lower when veterinarians prepared their own injection sites (OR=0.10) and had <20 years of practice experience (OR=0.025), whereas infection rates were significantly higher when hair was removed at the injection site (OR=19.70). There is a low incidence of septic arthritis following intra-articular injection and a large number of injection methods reported by responding veterinarians. The low reported incidence of infection may be related to the large number of practitioners frequently using common methods. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Hollow Microneedles for Intradermal Injection Fabricated by Sacrificial Micromolding and Selective Electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    Norman, James J.; Choi, Seong-O; Tong, Nhien T.; Aiyar, Avishek R.; Patel, Samirkumar R.; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Allen, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Limitations with standard intradermal injections have created a clinical need for an alternative, low-cost injection device. In this study, we designed a hollow metal microneedle for reliable intradermal injection and developed a high-throughput micromolding process to produce metal microneedles with complex geometries. To fabricate the microneedles, we laser-ablated a 70 μm × 70 μm square cavity near the tip of poly(lactic acid-co-glyoclic acid) (PLGA) microneedles. The master structure was a template for multiple micromolded PLGA replicas. Each replica was sputtered with a gold seed layer with minimal gold deposited in the cavity due to masking effects. In this way, nickel was electrodeposited selectively outside of the cavity, after which the polymer replica was dissolved to produce a hollow metal microneedle. Force-displacement tests showed the microneedles, with 12 μm thick electrodeposition, could penetrate skin with an insertion force 9 times less than their axial failure force. We injected fluid with the microneedles into pig skin in vitro and hairless guinea pig skin in vivo. The injections targeted 90% of the material within the skin with minimal leakage onto the skin surface. We conclude that hollow microneedles made by this simple microfabrication method can achieve targeted intradermal injection. PMID:23053452

  9. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with amore » 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.« less

  10. Compressive sensing method for recognizing cat-eye effect targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Hui; Dang, Ersheng; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a cat-eye effect target recognition method with compressive sensing (CS) and presents a recognition method (sample processing before reconstruction based on compressed sensing, or SPCS) for image processing. In this method, the linear projections of original image sequences are applied to remove dynamic background distractions and extract cat-eye effect targets. Furthermore, the corresponding imaging mechanism for acquiring active and passive image sequences is put forward. This method uses fewer images to recognize cat-eye effect targets, reduces data storage, and translates the traditional target identification, based on original image processing, into measurement vectors processing. The experimental results show that the SPCS method is feasible and superior to the shape-frequency dual criteria method.

  11. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  12. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and the local atmospheric stability. This study compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3-5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE). Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors. Results show that the FLAMBE pre-processor produces more realistic injection heights than does prep_chem_sources. The plume rise model using FLAMBE provides the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3-5 km AGL layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights. Results indicate that differences in injection heights produce different transport pathways. These

  13. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3-5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE). Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors. When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3-5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights

  14. Polarized deuterium internal target at AmPS (NIKHEF)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ferro-Luzzi, M.; NIKHEF, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam; Zhou, Z.-L.

    1998-01-20

    We describe the polarized deuterium target internal to the NIKHEF medium-energy electron storage ring. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used to monitor the injected atomic beam intensity and polarization. An electrostatic ion-extraction system and a Wien filter were utilized to measure on-line the atomic fraction of the target gas in the storage cell. This device was supplemented with a tensor polarization analyzer using the neutron anisotropy of the {sup 3}H(d,n){alpha} reaction at 60 keV. This method allows determining the density-averaged nuclear polarization of themore » target gas, independent of spatial and temporal variations. We address issues important for polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal targets, such as the effects of spin-exchange collisions and resonant transitions induced by the RF fields of the charged particle beam.« less

  15. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, James T.; Miller, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

  16. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying intense pulsed light method along with corticosteroid injection in treating keloid scars.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with corticosteroid intralesional injection using 450 to 1200 NM filter, Fluence 30-40 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.1-10 ms and palsed delay 10-40 ms with an interval of three weeks. To specify the recovery consequences and complication rate and to determine features of the lesion, the criteria specified in the study of Eroll and Vancouver scar scale were used. The level of clinical improvement, color improvement and scar height was 89.1%, 88.8% and 89.1% respectively. The incidence of complications (1 telangiectasia case, 7 hyperpigmentation cases and 2 atrophy cases) following treatment with IPL was 11.6%. Moreover, the participants' satisfaction with IPL method was 88.8%. This study revealed that a combined therapy (intralesional corticosteroid injection + IPL) increases the recovery level of hypertrophic and keloid scars. It was also demonstrated that this method had no significant side effect and patients were highly satisfied with this method.

  18. A dilute-and-shoot flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenobarbital in urine.

    PubMed

    Alagandula, Ravali; Zhou, Xiang; Guo, Baochuan

    2017-01-15

    Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized. This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of the diluted sample to mass spectrometer. Quantification and detection of phenobarbital were achieved by an electrospray negative ionization MS/MS system operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the stable-isotope-labeled drug as internal standard. The dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method developed was linear with a dynamic range of 50-2000 ng/mL of phenobarbital and correlation coefficient > 0.9996. The coefficients of variation and relative errors for intra- and inter-assays at four quality control (QC) levels (50, 125, 445 and 1600 ng/mL) were 3.0% and 5.0%, respectively. The total run time to quantify one sample was 2 min, and the sensitivity and specificity of the method did not deteriorate even after 1200 consecutive injections. Our method can accurately and robustly quantify phenobarbital in urine without LC separation. Because of its 2 min run time, the method can process 720 samples per day. This feasibility study shows that the dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method can be a general way for fast analysis of drugs in urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1984-08-07

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  1. Design of a Coupled Thermoresponsive Hydrogel and Robotic System for Postinfarct Biomaterial Injection Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Wood, Nathan A; Fok, Kevin; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Park, Dae Woo; Jiang, Hongbin; Schwartzman, David S; Zenati, Marco A; Uchibori, Takafumi; Wagner, William R; Riviere, Cameron N

    2016-09-01

    In preclinical testing, ventricular wall injection of hydrogels has been shown to be effective in modulating ventricular remodeling and preserving cardiac function. For some approaches, early-stage clinical trials are under way. The hydrogel delivery method varies, with minimally invasive approaches being preferred. Endocardial injections carry a risk of hydrogel regurgitation into the circulation, and precise injection patterning is a challenge. An epicardial approach with a thermally gelling hydrogel through the subxiphoid pathway overcomes these disadvantages. A relatively stiff, thermally responsive, injectable hydrogel based on N-isopropylacrylamide and N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP gel) was synthesized and characterized. VP gel thermal behavior was tuned to couple with a transepicardial injection robot, incorporating a cooling feature to achieve injectability. Ventricular wall injections of the optimized VP gel have been performed ex vivo and on beating porcine hearts. Thermal transition temperature, viscosity, and gelling time for the VP gel were manipulated by altering N-vinylpyrrolidone content. The target parameters for cooling in the robotic system were chosen by thermal modeling to support smooth, repeated injections on an ex vivo heart. Injections at predefined locations and depth were confirmed in an infarcted porcine model. A coupled thermoresponsive hydrogel and robotic injection system incorporating a temperature-controlled injectate line was capable of targeted injections and amenable to use with a subxiphoid transepicardial approach for hydrogel injection after myocardial infarction. The confirmation of precise location and depth injections would facilitate a patient-specific planning strategy to optimize injection patterning to maximize the mechanical benefits of hydrogel placement. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How reliable are ligand-centric methods for Target Fishing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peon, Antonio; Dang, Cuong; Ballester, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Computational methods for Target Fishing (TF), also known as Target Prediction or Polypharmacology Prediction, can be used to discover new targets for small-molecule drugs. This may result in repositioning the drug in a new indication or improving our current understanding of its efficacy and side effects. While there is a substantial body of research on TF methods, there is still a need to improve their validation, which is often limited to a small part of the available targets and not easily interpretable by the user. Here we discuss how target-centric TF methods are inherently limited by the number of targets that can possibly predict (this number is by construction much larger in ligand-centric techniques). We also propose a new benchmark to validate TF methods, which is particularly suited to analyse how predictive performance varies with the query molecule. On average over approved drugs, we estimate that only five predicted targets will have to be tested to find two true targets with submicromolar potency (a strong variability in performance is however observed). In addition, we find that an approved drug has currently an average of eight known targets, which reinforces the notion that polypharmacology is a common and strong event. Furthermore, with the assistance of a control group of randomly-selected molecules, we show that the targets of approved drugs are generally harder to predict.

  3. Preliminary experiments of a single x-ray view catheter 3D localization algorithm for targeted stem cell injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovea, M.; Creed, J.; Perin, E.; Neagu, M.; Mateiasi, G.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary check of a new method for measuring the 3D catheter position based on only one X-Ray view (image) and a simple pre-calibration procedure for catheters that could be equipped with high-opacity equal-spaced markers. The application chosen for this experiment is the targeted delivery of cell based therapeutic via a transendocardial retrograde approach into the left ventricle. This approach has shown promising therapeutic retention data when injected directly into the myocardial tissue, but lacks in the ability of the user to confidently manipulate the catheter within the left ventricle cavity space under traditional fluoroscopic guidance using a needle based catheter. The need for a new technique arose from the potential for increased safety and therapeutic efficacy by improving the targeting of the agent. The new technique, destined for Image guided catheter navigation systems for cardiac interventions, is based on a measurement of the marker's size and distance between them and followed by a comparison with the referenced catheter position. Preliminary experiments made with a simple phantom are presented, emphasizing the ability of the new technique in measuring the markers and the catheter tip 3D position. An overall maximum error in positioning markers and catheter tip below 12% has been obtained, yielding a promising result for continuing the future work of improving the algorithm accuracy.

  4. Calibration Method for IATS and Application in Multi-Target Monitoring Using Coded Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yueyin; Wagner, Andreas; Wunderlich, Thomas; Wasmeier, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The technique of Image Assisted Total Stations (IATS) has been studied for over ten years and is composed of two major parts: one is the calibration procedure which combines the relationship between the camera system and the theodolite system; the other is the automatic target detection on the image by various methods of photogrammetry or computer vision. Several calibration methods have been developed, mostly using prototypes with an add-on camera rigidly mounted on the total station. However, these prototypes are not commercially available. This paper proposes a calibration method based on Leica MS50 which has two built-in cameras each with a resolution of 2560 × 1920 px: an overview camera and a telescope (on-axis) camera. Our work in this paper is based on the on-axis camera which uses the 30-times magnification of the telescope. The calibration consists of 7 parameters to estimate. We use coded targets, which are common tools in photogrammetry for orientation, to detect different targets in IATS images instead of prisms and traditional ATR functions. We test and verify the efficiency and stability of this monitoring method with multi-target.

  5. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Intraarticular Injection via the Middle Portion of the Joint.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Daisuke; Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi

    2017-09-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection is necessary to confirm sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain and is usually performed via the caudal one-third portion of the joint. However, this is occasionally impossible for anatomical reasons, and the success rate is low in clinical settings. We describe a technique via the middle portion of the joint. Observational study. Enrolled were 69 consecutive patients (27 men and 42 women, with an average age of 53 years) in whom the middle portion of 100 joints was targeted. With the patient lying prone-oblique with the painful side down, a spinal needle was inserted into the middle portion of the joint. Subsequently, the fluoroscopy tube was angled at a caudal tilt of 25-30° to clearly detect the recess between the ilium and sacrum and the needle depth and direction. When the needle reached the posterior joint line, 2% lidocaine was injected after the contrast medium outlined the joint. The success rate of the injection method was 80% (80/100). Among 80 successful cases, four were previously unsuccessful when the conventional method was used. Intraarticular injection using the new technique was unsuccessful in 20 joints; in three of these cases, the conventional method proved successful, and no techniques were successful in the other 17 cases. The injection technique via the middle portion of the joint can overcome some of the difficulties of the conventional injection method and can improve the chances of successful intraarticular injection. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  7. Different methods for anatomical targeting.

    PubMed

    Iacopino, D G; Conti, A; Angileri, F F; Tomasello, F

    2003-03-01

    Several procedures are used in the different neurosurgical centers in order to perform stereotactic surgery for movement disorders. At the moment no procedure can really be considered superior to the other. We contribute with our experience of targeting method. Ten patients were selected, in accordance to the guidelines for the treatment of Parkinson disease, and operated by several methods including pallidotomy, bilateral insertion of chronic deep brain electrodes within the internal pallidum and in the subthalamic nucleus (18 procedures). in each patient an MR scan was performed the day before surgery. Scans were performed axially parallel to the intercommissural line. The operating day a contrast CT scan was performed under stereotactic conditions. after digitalization of the MRI images, it was possible to visualize the surgical target and to relate it to parenchimal and vascular anatomic structures readable at the CT examination. The CT scan obtained was confronted with the MR previously performed, the geometrical relation between the different parenchimal and vascular structures and the selected targets were obtained. Stereotactic coordinates were obtained on the CT examination. It was possible to calculate the position of the subthalamic nucleus and of the internal pallidum on the CT scan, not only relating to the intercommissural line, but considering also the neurovascular structures displayed both on the MRI and the CT scans. The technique that our group presents consist in an integration between information derived from the CT and the MR techniques, so that we can benefit from the advantages of both methods and overcome the disadvantages.

  8. Double needle technique: an alternative method for performing difficult sacroiliac joint injections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeeva

    2011-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. The most appropriate method of confirming SIJ pain is to inject local anesthesia into the joint to find out if the pain decreases. Unfortunately, although the SIJ is a large joint, it can be difficult to enter due to the complex nature of the joint and variations in anatomy. In my experience a double needle technique for sacroiliac joint injection can increase the chances of accurate injection into the SIJ in difficult cases. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, the tip of the needle is advanced into the SIJ. Once the tip of the needle is correctly placed, its position is checked under continuous fluoroscopy while moving the C-arm in the right and left oblique directions (dynamic fluoroscopy). On dynamic fluoroscopy the tip of the needle should remain within the joint line and not appear to be on the bone. If the tip of the needle appears to be on the bone a new joint line will need to be identified (the most translucent area through the joint) by dynamic fluoroscopy and another needle advanced into the newly identified joint line. Dynamic fluoroscopy is repeated again to confirm that the tip of the second needle remains within the joint line. Once both needles are in place contrast dye is injected through the needle that is most likely to be in the SIJ. If the contrast dye spread is not satisfactory then it is injected through the other needle. I have used this technique in 10 patients and found it very helpful in accurately performing SIJ injection which can at times be challenging.

  9. Polarized deuterium internal target at AmPS (NIKHEF)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Norum, Blaine; De Jager, Cornelis; Geurts, D.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the polarized deuterium target internal to the NIKHEF medium-energy electron storage ring. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used to monitor the injected atomic beam intensity and polarization. An electrostatic ion-extraction system and a Wien filter were utilized to measure on-line the atomic fraction of the target gas in the storage cell. This device was supplemented with a tensor polarization analyzer using the neutron anisotropy of the 3H(d,n)sigma reaction at 60 keV. This method allows determining the density-averaged nuclear polarization of the targetmore » gas, independent of spatial and temporal variations. We address issues important for polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal targets, such as the effects of spin-exchange collisions and resonant transitions induced by the RF fields of the charged particle beam.« less

  10. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection. (auth)

  11. Migration rates and formation injectivity to determine containment time scales of sequestered carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Additionally, this research establishes a methodology to calculate the injectivity of a target formation. Because injectivity describes the pressure increase due to the introduction of fluids into a formation, the relevant application of injectivity is to determine the pressure increase, due to an injection volume and flow rate, that will induce fractures in the reservoir rocks. This quantity is defined mathematically as the maximum pressure differential between the hydrostatic gradient and the fracture gradient of the target formation. Injectivity is mathematically related to the maximum pressure differential of the formation, and can be used to determine the upper limit for the pressure increase that an injection target can withstand before fracturing.

  12. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  13. Dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ruo-lan; Shen, Yi-yan; Jiang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Dim target detection is one key problem in digital image processing field. With development of multi-spectrum imaging sensor, it becomes a trend to improve the performance of dim target detection by fusing the information from different spectral images. In this paper, one dim target detection method based on salient graph fusion was proposed. In the method, Gabor filter with multi-direction and contrast filter with multi-scale were combined to construct salient graph from digital image. And then, the maximum salience fusion strategy was designed to fuse the salient graph from different spectral images. Top-hat filter was used to detect dim target from the fusion salient graph. Experimental results show that proposal method improved the probability of target detection and reduced the probability of false alarm on clutter background images.

  14. Validation approach for a fast and simple targeted screening method for 75 antibiotics in meat and aquaculture products using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Dubreil, Estelle; Gautier, Sophie; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Bessiral, Mélaine; Gaugain, Murielle; Verdon, Eric; Pessel, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    An approach is described to validate a fast and simple targeted screening method for antibiotic analysis in meat and aquaculture products by LC-MS/MS. The strategy of validation was applied for a panel of 75 antibiotics belonging to different families, i.e., penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, macrolides, quinolones and phenicols. The samples were extracted once with acetonitrile, concentrated by evaporation and injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The approach chosen for the validation was based on the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) guidelines for the validation of screening qualitative methods. The aim of the validation was to prove sufficient sensitivity of the method to detect all the targeted antibiotics at the level of interest, generally the maximum residue limit (MRL). A robustness study was also performed to test the influence of different factors. The validation showed that the method is valid to detect and identify 73 antibiotics of the 75 antibiotics studied in meat and aquaculture products at the validation levels.

  15. Assessment of injection safety in Ha Dong General Hospital, Hanoi, in 2012.

    PubMed

    Van Tuong, Phan; Phuong, Tran Thi Minh; Anh, Bui Thi My; Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi

    2017-01-01

    Background : Injection is one of the most frequently used medical methods to introduce drugs or other substances into the body for purposes of treatment or prevention. Unsafe injection can cause adverse outcomes, such as abscess and anaphylactic shock, and increases the risk of blood-borne transmission of viruses to patients and health care workers, as well as the community. Recognizing the importance of injection safety, in 2000 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH) collaborated with the Vietnam Nurses Association to launch the "Safe injection" program throughout the country, including Hanoi. Methods : This cross-sectional study, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, was conducted from February to August 2012 in Ha Dong General Hospital using a structured questionnaire and observation checklist. The target population of the study was 109 nurses working in clinical departments and 436 injections were observed. Results : The percentage of nurses who are familiar with injection safety standards was found to be 82.6%. The proportion of practical injections that met the 23 standards of injection safety set by the MOH amounted to 22.2%. The factors related to safe injection practice of nurses who were younger age group (OR=3.1; p<0.05) and fewer number of years working as a nurse (OR=2.8; p<0.05). Conclusions : While nurses have high level of knowledge about safe injections but a small proportion actually practiced. Experience may not always guarantee safe practices.  Injection safety training should be regularly imparted upon all categories of nurses.

  16. A rapid gas chromatographic injection-port derivatization method for the tandem mass spectrometric determination of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Balcells, Mercè; Eras, Jordi; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2016-07-01

    A novel method consisting of injection-port derivatization coupled to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. The method allows the rapid assessment of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and patulin content in apple and pear derivatives. The chromatographic separation of the compounds was achieved in a short chromatographic run (12.2min) suitable for routine controls of these compounds in the fruit juice industry. The optimal conditions for the injection-port derivatization were at 270°C, 0.5min purge-off, and a 1:2 sample:derivatization reagent ratio (v/v). These conditions represent an important saving in terms of derivatization reagent consumption and sample preparation time. Quality parameters were assessed for the target compounds, giving LOD of 0.7 and 1.6μg/kg and LOQ of 2 and 5μg/kg for patulin and HMF, respectively. These values are below the maximum patulin concentration in food products intended for infants and young children. Repeatability (%RSD n=5) was below 12% for both compounds. In addition, the method linearity ranged between 25 and 1000μg/kg and between 5 and 192μg/kg for HMF and patulin, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to study HMF and patulin content in various fruit juice samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating the number of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok: a capture--recapture method.

    PubMed

    Mastro, T D; Kitayaporn, D; Weniger, B G; Vanichseni, S; Laosunthorn, V; Uneklabh, T; Uneklabh, C; Choopanya, K; Limpakarnjanarat, K

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the number of injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Bangkok to allow planning for health services for this population. A two-sample capture-recapture method was used. The first capture listed all persons on methadone treatment for opiate addiction from April 17 through May 17, 1991, at 18 facilities in Bangkok. The second capture involved urine testing of persons held at 72 Bangkok police stations from June 3 through September 30, 1991. Persons whose urine tests were positive for opiate metabolites or methadone were included on the second list. The first capture comprised 4064 persons and the recapture 1540 persons. There were 171 persons included on both lists, yielding an estimate of 36,600 opiate users in Bangkok. Existing data indicate that 89% of opiate users in Bangkok inject drugs and that about one third are infected with HIV, yielding an estimate of approximately 12,000 HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok in 1991. During the 1990s the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other HIV-related diseases, including tuberculosis, in the population of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok will increase dramatically, placing new demands on existing health care facilities. The capture-recapture method may be useful in estimating difficult-to-count populations, including injection drug users.

  18. Autologous Platelet-Poor Plasma Gel for Injection Laryngoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To overcome the potential disadvantages of the use of foreign materials and autologous fat or collagen, we introduce here an autologous plasma gel for injection laryngoplasty. The purpose of this study was to present a new injection material, a plasma gel, and to discuss its clinical effectiveness. Materials and Methods From 2 mL of blood, the platelet poor serum layer was collected and heated at 100℃ for 12 min to form a plasma gel. The plasma gel was then injected into a targeted site; the safety and efficacy thereof were evaluated in 30 rats. We also conducted a phase I/II clinical study of plasma gel injection laryngoplasty in 11 unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients. Results The plasma gel was semi-solid and an easily injectable material. Of note, plasma gel maintains the same consistency for up to 1 year in a sealed bottle. However, exposure to room air causes the plasma gel to disappear within 1 month. In our animal study, the autologous plasma gel remained in situ for 6 months in animals with minimal inflammation. Clinical study showed that vocal cord palsy was well compensated for with the plasma gel in all patients at two months after injection with no significant complications. Jitter, shimmer, maximum, maximum phonation time (MPT) and mean voice handicap index (VHI) also improved significantly after plasma gel injection. However, because the injected plasma gel was gradually absorbed, 6 patients needed another injection, while the gel remained in place in 2 patients. Conclusion Injection laryngoplasty with autologous plasma gel may be a useful and safe treatment option for temporary vocal cord palsy. PMID:24142660

  19. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  20. Intramuscular injection of AAV8 in mice and macaques is associated with substantial hepatic targeting and transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Peng, Hui; Ohlstein, Jason; Medina-Jaszek, C Angelica; Ahonkhai, Omua; Mentzinger, Anne; Grant, Rebecca L; Roy, Soumitra; Chen, Shu-Jen; Bell, Peter; Tretiakova, Anna P; Wilson, James M

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular (IM) administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera. In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes. The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional (promoter) and non-traditional (tissue-specific microRNA target sites) expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. These pre-clinical data on AAV delivery should inform safe and efficient development of future AAV products.

  1. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO.sub.2) and water or bine into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation.

  2. Prolonged survival in secondary glioblastoma following local injection of targeted alpha therapy with 213Bi-substance P analogue.

    PubMed

    Krolicki, Leszek; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Koziara, Henryk; Królicki, Bartosz; Jakuciński, Maciej; Pawlak, Dariusz; Apostolidis, Christos; Mirzadeh, Saed; Rola, Rafał; Merlo, Adrian; Morgenstern, Alfred

    2018-04-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor, mainly manifests as a primary de novo and less frequently as a secondary glial neoplasm. GBM has been demonstrated to overexpress the NK-1 receptor and substance P can be used as a ligand for targeted therapy. Alpha emitters, e.g. 213 Bi, that deposit their high energy within a short range allow the selective irradiation of tumor cells while sparing adjacent neuronal structures. Among 50 glioma patients of different subtypes that have to date been treated with targeted alpha therapy at the Medical University Warsaw, we report here the data on nine patients with secondary GBM. Following surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, recurrent GBM was treated by intracavitary injection of 1-6 doses of 0.9-2.3 GBq 213 Bi- DOTA-[Thi 8 ,Met(O 2 ) 11 ]-substance P ( 213 Bi-DOTA-SP) in 2-month intervals. 68 Ga-DOTA-[Thi 8 ,Met(O 2 ) 11 ]-substance P ( 68 Ga-DOTA-SP) was co-injected with the therapeutic doses to assess biodistribution using PET/CT. Therapeutic response was monitored with MRI. Treatment with activities ranging from 1.4 to 9.7 (median 5.8) GBq 213 Bi- DOTA-SP was well tolerated with only mild transient adverse reactions, mainly headaches due to a transient perfocal edema reaction. The median progression free survival and overall survival time following the initiation of alpha therapy was 5.8 and 16.4 months, respectively. The median overall survival time from the first diagnosis was 52.3 months. Two out of nine patients are still alive 39 and 51 months, respectively, after the initiation of the therapy. Targeted alpha therapy of secondary GBM with 213 Bi-DOTA-SP is safe and well tolerated and may evolve as a promising novel therapeutic option for secondary GBM.

  3. Assessment of injection safety in Ha Dong General Hospital, Hanoi, in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Van Tuong, Phan; Phuong, Tran Thi Minh; Anh, Bui Thi My; Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injection is one of the most frequently used medical methods to introduce drugs or other substances into the body for purposes of treatment or prevention. Unsafe injection can cause adverse outcomes, such as abscess and anaphylactic shock, and increases the risk of blood-borne transmission of viruses to patients and health care workers, as well as the community. Recognizing the importance of injection safety, in 2000 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH) collaborated with the Vietnam Nurses Association to launch the “Safe injection” program throughout the country, including Hanoi. Methods: This cross-sectional study, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, was conducted from February to August 2012 in Ha Dong General Hospital using a structured questionnaire and observation checklist. The target population of the study was 109 nurses working in clinical departments and 436 injections were observed. Results: The percentage of nurses who are familiar with injection safety standards was found to be 82.6%. The proportion of practical injections that met the 23 standards of injection safety set by the MOH amounted to 22.2%. The factors related to safe injection practice of nurses who were younger age group (OR=3.1; p<0.05) and fewer number of years working as a nurse (OR=2.8; p<0.05). Conclusions: While nurses have high level of knowledge about safe injections but a small proportion actually practiced. Experience may not always guarantee safe practices.  Injection safety training should be regularly imparted upon all categories of nurses. PMID:29188014

  4. [Reducing fear in preschool children receiving intravenous injections].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.

  5. Monitoring an EGS injection at Newberry Volcano using Magnetotelluric dimensionality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.; Rose, K.; Urquhart, S.

    2016-12-01

    The sensitivity of magnetotelluric (MT) data to the presence of electrically conductive subsurface features makes it applicable for determining the extent of injected fluids in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We use MT to monitor fluid injection during tests of a proposed EGS site at Newberry Volcano in Central Oregon, USA. Newberry is a large shield volcano located where fault systems of the northern Basin and Range meet the Cascade Arc and the high lava plains. Its strong potential for geothermal energy has made it a target for energy exploration for over 40 years. MT measurements were made before, during, and after an EGS stimulation in 2014 in an effort to detect subsurface pathways taken by fluids that are attributable to stimulation. We begin by creating a baseline model from inverting over 200 wideband MT stations located in the western half of the volcano. This model is constrained by well logs, as well as by high resolution gravity and seismic velocity modeling. Our model shows conductive regions associated with the caldera's ring fault, likely showing where hydrothermal fluids or their mineral alteration products are present. However, as this is an EGS study, we are interested in detecting fluid intrusion into hot, dry rock. Therefore, our primary target is a resistive zone on the western flank of Newberry volcano that is interpreted as a series of hot intrusive sequences. Well bottom temperatures in this area have been measured in excess of 300 °C. The stimulation's effect on resistivity is subtle, in part because the injected fluid is fresh groundwater, the injected volume is modest, and the target depth is 2,000-3,000 m below ground level. We found that it is advantageous to look at the impedance tensor data directly to detect injected fluids. Because fluids and their associated change in resistivity are expected to be concentrated around the injection well, the injection will exhibit a highly three-dimensional resistivity structure. Therefore, we

  6. New injectors and the social context of injection initiation

    PubMed Central

    Harocopos, Alex; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Kobrak, Paul; Jost, John J.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing the onset of injecting drug use is an important public health objective yet there is little understanding of the process that leads to injection initiation. This paper draws extensively on narrative data to describe how injection initiation is influenced by social environment. We examine how watching other people inject can habitualise non-injectors to administering drugs with a needle and consider the process by which the stigma of injecting is replaced with curiosity. Method In-depth interviews (n=54) were conducted as part of a two-year longitudinal study examining the behaviours of new injecting drug users. Results Among our sample, injection initiation was the result of a dynamic process during which administering drugs with a needle became acceptable or even appealing. Most often, this occurred as a result of spending time with current injectors in a social context and the majority of this study’s participants were given their first shot by a friend or sexual partner. Initiates could be tenacious in their efforts to acquire an injection trainer and findings suggest that once injecting had been introduced to a drug-using network, it was likely to spread throughout the group. Conclusion Injection initiation should be viewed as a communicable process. New injectors are unlikely to have experienced the negative effects of injecting and may facilitate the initiation of their drug-using friends. Prevention messages should therefore aim to find innovative ways of targeting beginning injectors and present a realistic appraisal of the long-term consequences of injecting. Interventionists should also work with current injectors to develop strategies to refuse requests from non-injectors for their help to initiate. PMID:18790623

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in mice by single plasmid injection.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome modification has opened a new era for elucidating gene function. Gene knockout mice can be generated by injecting humanized Cas9 (hCas9) mRNA and guide RNA (sgRNA) into fertilized eggs. However, delivery of RNA instead of DNA to the fertilized oocyte requires extra preparation and extra care with storage. To simplify the method of delivery, we injected the circular pX330 plasmids expressing both hCas9 and sgRNA and found that mutant mice were generated as efficiently as with RNA injection. Different from the linearized plasmid, the circular plasmid decreased the chance of integration into the host genome. We also developed the pCAG-EGxxFP reporter plasmid for evaluating the sgRNA activity by observing EGFP fluorescence in HEK293T cells. The combination of these techniques allowed us to develop a rapid, easy, and reproducible strategy for targeted mutagenesis in living mice. This chapter provides an experimental protocol for the design of sgRNAs, the construction of pX330-sgRNA and pCAG-EGxxFP-target plasmids, the validation of cleavage efficiency in vitro, and the generation of targeted gene mutant mice. These mice can be generated within a month.

  8. Method and Circuit for Injecting a Precise Amount of Charge onto a Circuit Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and circuit for injecting charge into a circuit node, comprising (a) resetting a capacitor's voltage through a first transistor; (b) after the resetting, pre-charging the capacitor through the first transistor; and (c) after the pre-charging, further charging the capacitor through a second transistor, wherein the second transistor is connected between the capacitor and a circuit node, and the further charging draws charge through the second transistor from the circuit node, thereby injecting charge into the circuit node.

  9. Target Fishing for Chemical Compounds using Target-Ligand Activity data and Ranking based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wale, Nikil; Karypis, George

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the development of computational techniques that identify all the likely targets for a given chemical compound, also termed as the problem of Target Fishing, has been an active area of research. Identification of likely targets of a chemical compound helps to understand problems such as toxicity, lack of efficacy in humans, and poor physical properties associated with that compound in the early stages of drug discovery. In this paper we present a set of techniques whose goal is to rank or prioritize targets in the context of a given chemical compound such that most targets that this compound may show activity against appear higher in the ranked list. These methods are based on our extensions to the SVM and Ranking Perceptron algorithms for this problem. Our extensive experimental study shows that the methods developed in this work outperform previous approaches by 2% to 60% under different evaluation criterions. PMID:19764745

  10. PET imaging of a collagen matrix reveals its effective injection and targeted retention in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ali; Thorn, Stephanie L; Alarcon, Emilio I; Kordos, Myra; Padavan, Donna T; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Cron, Greg O; Beanlands, Rob S; DaSilva, Jean N; Ruel, Marc; deKemp, Robert A; Suuronen, Erik J

    2015-05-01

    Injectable biomaterials have shown promise for cardiac regeneration therapy. However, little is known regarding their retention and distribution upon application in vivo. Matrix imaging would be useful for evaluating these important properties. Herein, hexadecyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ((18)F-HFB) and Qdot labeling was used to evaluate collagen matrix delivery in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). At 1 wk post-MI, mice received myocardial injections of (18)F-HFB- or Qdot-labeled matrix to assess its early retention and distribution (at 10 min and 2h) by positron emission tomography (PET), or fluorescence imaging, respectively. PET imaging showed that the bolus of matrix at 10 min redistributed evenly within the ischemic territory by 2h. Ex vivo biodistribution revealed myocardial matrix retention of ∼ 65%, which correlated with PET results, but may be an underestimate since (18)F-HFB matrix labeling efficiency was ∼ 82%. For covalently linked Qdots, labeling efficiency was ∼ 96%. Ex vivo Qdot quantification showed that ∼ 84% of the injected matrix was retained in the myocardium. Serial non-invasive PET imaging and validation by fluorescence imaging confirmed the effectiveness of the collagen matrix to be retained and redistributed within the infarcted myocardium. This study identifies matrix-targeted imaging as a promising modality for assessing the biodistribution of injectable biomaterials for application in the heart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation

    DOEpatents

    Fries, R. Jay; Farnum, Eugene H.; McCall, Gene H.

    1977-07-26

    Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

  12. Nuclear reactor target assemblies, nuclear reactor configurations, and methods for producing isotopes, modifying materials within target material, and/or characterizing material within a target material

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Toth, James J.; Wall, Donald; Wittman, Richard S.

    Target assemblies are provided that can include a uranium-comprising annulus. The assemblies can include target material consisting essentially of non-uranium material within the volume of the annulus. Reactors are disclosed that can include one or more discrete zones configured to receive target material. At least one uranium-comprising annulus can be within one or more of the zones. Methods for producing isotopes within target material are also disclosed, with the methods including providing neutrons to target material within a uranium-comprising annulus. Methods for modifying materials within target material are disclosed as well as are methods for characterizing material within a targetmore » material.« less

  13. A Track Initiation Method for the Underwater Target Tracking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-dong; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Yao

    2018-04-01

    A novel efficient track initiation method is proposed for the harsh underwater target tracking environment (heavy clutter and large measurement errors): track splitting, evaluating, pruning and merging method (TSEPM). Track initiation demands that the method should determine the existence and initial state of a target quickly and correctly. Heavy clutter and large measurement errors certainly pose additional difficulties and challenges, which deteriorate and complicate the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment. There are three primary shortcomings for the current track initiation methods to initialize a target: (a) they cannot eliminate the turbulences of clutter effectively; (b) there may be a high false alarm probability and low detection probability of a track; (c) they cannot estimate the initial state for a new confirmed track correctly. Based on the multiple hypotheses tracking principle and modified logic-based track initiation method, in order to increase the detection probability of a track, track splitting creates a large number of tracks which include the true track originated from the target. And in order to decrease the false alarm probability, based on the evaluation mechanism, track pruning and track merging are proposed to reduce the false tracks. TSEPM method can deal with the track initiation problems derived from heavy clutter and large measurement errors, determine the target's existence and estimate its initial state with the least squares method. What's more, our method is fully automatic and does not require any kind manual input for initializing and tuning any parameter. Simulation results indicate that our new method improves significantly the performance of the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment.

  14. Intramyocardial Injection of siRNAs Can Efficiently Establish Myocardial Tissue-Specific Renalase Knockdown Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiliang; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury will cause additional death of cardiomyocytes in ischaemic heart disease. Recent studies revealed that renalase was involved in the I/R injury. So, the myocardial tissue-specific knockdown mouse models were needed for the investigations of renalase. To establish the mouse models, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase was performed in mice. The wild distribution and high transfection efficiency of the siRNAs were approved. And the renalase expression was efficiently suppressed in myocardial tissue. Compared with the high cost, time consumption, and genetic compensation risk of the Cre/loxP technology, RNA interference (RNAi) technology is much cheaper and less time-consuming. Among the RNAi technologies, injection of siRNAs is safer than virus. And considering the properties of the I/R injury mouse models, the efficiency and durability of injection with siRNAs are acceptable for the studies. Altogether, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase is an economical, safe, and efficient method to establish myocardial tissue-specific renalase knockdown mouse models.

  15. Estimating the number of injecting drug users in Scotland's HCV-diagnosed population using capture-recapture methods.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S A; Hutchinson, S J; Schnier, C; McLeod, A; Goldberg, D J

    2014-01-01

    In countries maintaining national hepatitis C virus (HCV) surveillance systems, a substantial proportion of individuals report no risk factors for infection. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of diagnosed HCV antibody-positive persons in Scotland (1991-2010) who probably acquired infection through injecting drug use (IDU), by combining data on IDU risk from four linked data sources using log-linear capture-recapture methods. Of 25,521 HCV-diagnosed individuals, 14,836 (58%) reported IDU risk with their HCV diagnosis. Log-linear modelling estimated a further 2484 HCV-diagnosed individuals with IDU risk, giving an estimated prevalence of 83. Stratified analyses indicated variation across birth cohort, with estimated prevalence as low as 49% in persons born before 1960 and greater than 90% for those born since 1960. These findings provide public-health professionals with a more complete profile of Scotland's HCV-infected population in terms of transmission route, which is essential for targeting educational, prevention and treatment interventions.

  16. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  17. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  18. Ensemble Methods for MiRNA Target Prediction from Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuc Duy; Zhang, Junpeng; Liu, Lin; Li, Jiuyong

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that are involved in several diseases, including cancers. Identifying miRNA functions is very important in understanding disease mechanisms and determining the efficacy of drugs. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to explore miRNA functions by inferring the miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships from data. Each of the methods is developed based on some assumptions and constraints, for instance, assuming linear relationships between variables. For such reasons, computational methods are often subject to the problem of inconsistent performance across different datasets. On the other hand, ensemble methods integrate the results from individual methods and have been proved to outperform each of their individual component methods in theory. In this paper, we investigate the performance of some ensemble methods over the commonly used miRNA target prediction methods. We apply eight different popular miRNA target prediction methods to three cancer datasets, and compare their performance with the ensemble methods which integrate the results from each combination of the individual methods. The validation results using experimentally confirmed databases show that the results of the ensemble methods complement those obtained by the individual methods and the ensemble methods perform better than the individual methods across different datasets. The ensemble method, Pearson+IDA+Lasso, which combines methods in different approaches, including a correlation method, a causal inference method, and a regression method, is the best performed ensemble method in this study. Further analysis of the results of this ensemble method shows that the ensemble method can obtain more targets which could not be found by any of the single methods, and the discovered targets are more statistically significant and functionally enriched. The source codes, datasets, miRNA target predictions by all methods, and the ground truth

  19. Ensemble Methods for MiRNA Target Prediction from Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuc Duy; Zhang, Junpeng; Liu, Lin; Li, Jiuyong

    2015-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that are involved in several diseases, including cancers. Identifying miRNA functions is very important in understanding disease mechanisms and determining the efficacy of drugs. An increasing number of computational methods have been developed to explore miRNA functions by inferring the miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships from data. Each of the methods is developed based on some assumptions and constraints, for instance, assuming linear relationships between variables. For such reasons, computational methods are often subject to the problem of inconsistent performance across different datasets. On the other hand, ensemble methods integrate the results from individual methods and have been proved to outperform each of their individual component methods in theory. Results In this paper, we investigate the performance of some ensemble methods over the commonly used miRNA target prediction methods. We apply eight different popular miRNA target prediction methods to three cancer datasets, and compare their performance with the ensemble methods which integrate the results from each combination of the individual methods. The validation results using experimentally confirmed databases show that the results of the ensemble methods complement those obtained by the individual methods and the ensemble methods perform better than the individual methods across different datasets. The ensemble method, Pearson+IDA+Lasso, which combines methods in different approaches, including a correlation method, a causal inference method, and a regression method, is the best performed ensemble method in this study. Further analysis of the results of this ensemble method shows that the ensemble method can obtain more targets which could not be found by any of the single methods, and the discovered targets are more statistically significant and functionally enriched. The source codes, datasets, miRNA target predictions by all methods, and

  20. Stability of suxamethonium in pharmaceutical solution for injection by validated stability-indicating chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Beck, William; Kabiche, Sofiane; Balde, Issa-Bella; Carret, Sandra; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Cisternino, Salvatore; Schlatter, Joël

    2016-12-01

    To assess the stability of pharmaceutical suxamethonium (succinylcholine) solution for injection by validated stability-indicating chromatographic method in vials stored at room temperature. The chromatographic assay was achieved by using a detector wavelength set at 218 nm, a C18 column, and an isocratic mobile phase (100% of water) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min for 5 minutes. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to the stability-indicating capacity of the method including linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, precision, accuracy, system suitability, robustness, and forced degradations. Linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 5 to 40 mg/mL with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.8 and 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. The percentage relative standard deviation for intraday (1.3-1.7) and interday (0.1-2.0) precision was found to be less than 2.1%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of suxamethonium from solution for injection (99.5%-101.2%). Storage of suxamethonium solution for injection vials at ambient temperature (22°C-26°C) for 17 days demonstrated that at least 95% of original suxamethonium concentration remained stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  2. The Hydrodynamics of Needle-Free Intradermal Jet Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jonathan; Marston, Jeremy; Fisher, Paul; Broderick, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Needle-free methods of drug delivery circumvent the drawbacks associated with the use of hypodermic needles such as needle-stick injuries, needle-phobia, cross contamination and disposal. Furthermore, pioneering DNA-based vaccines that aim to treat cancer and fight infectious diseases, such as HIV, Ebola and Zika, require precise deposition into the skin to target the immune response producing cells found only in the epidermis and dermis. Intradermal (ID) delivery can be achieved using a needle and the Mantoux technique but this requires a highly skilled technician and so extensive use of DNA vaccines calls for an alternative method of delivery. One option is jet injection which has been employed in mass vaccination programs for intramuscular or subcutaneous delivery and is used by some diabetic patients to inject insulin. In this talk I will present results from our ongoing ex-vivo experimental study into ID jet injection. Ultra-high-speed imaging is used to visualize the process of the jet exiting the nozzle and striking excised skin. A skin bleb grows as liquid is deposited within the skin. I will discuss how the control parameters, such as the rheological profile of the liquid and the stand-off distance, influence the volume of liquid successfully delivered intradermally.

  3. Vascular targeting of a gold nanoparticle to breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Pubudu M.; Deb, Partha; Doolittle, Elizabeth; Doron, Gilad; Goldberg, Amy; Govender, Priya; Shah, Shruti; Rao, Swetha; Carbone, Sarah; Cotey, Thomas; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Singh, Sohaj; Schiemann, William P.; Lee, Zhenghong; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic disease. While deep tissue targeting of nanoparticles is suitable for some primary tumors, vascular targeting may be a more attractive strategy for micrometastasis. This study combined a vascular targeting strategy with the enhanced targeting capabilities of a nanoparticle to evaluate the ability of a gold nanoparticle to specifically target the early spread of metastatic disease. As a ligand for the vascular targeting strategy, we utilized a peptide targeting alpha(v) beta(3) integrin, which is functionally linked to the development of micrometastases at a distal site. By employing a straightforward radiolabeling method to incorporate Technetium-99m into the gold nanoparticles, we used the high sensitivity of radionuclide imaging to monitor the longitudinal accumulation of the nanoparticles in metastatic sites. Animal and histological studies showed that vascular targeting of the nanoparticle facilitated highly accurate targeting of micrometastasis in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer metastasis using radionuclide imaging and a low dose of the nanoparticle. Due to the efficient targeting scheme, 14% of the injected AuNP deposited at metastatic sites in the lungs within 60 min after injection, indicating that the vascular bed of metastasis is a viable target site for nanoparticles. PMID:26036431

  4. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do skeletal muscle properties recover following repeat onabotulinum toxin A injections?

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Horisberger, Monika; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Herzog, Walter

    2013-09-27

    Onabotulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a frequently used treatment modality to relax spastic muscles by preventing acetylcholine release at the motor nerve endings. Although considered safe, previous studies have shown that BTX-A injections cause muscle atrophy and deterioration in target and non-target muscles. Ideally, muscles should fully recover following BTX-A treatments, so that muscle strength and performance are not affected in the long-term. However, systematic, long-term data on the recovery of muscles exposed to BTX-A treatments are not available, thus practice guidelines on the frequency and duration of BTX-A injections, and associated recovery protocols, are based on clinical experience with little evidence-based information. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate muscle recovery following a six months, monthly BTX-A injection (3.5 U/kg) protocol. Twenty seven skeletally mature NZW rabbits were divided into 5 groups: Control (n=5), zero month recovery - BTX-A+0M (n=5), one month recovery - BTX-A+1M (n=5), three months recovery - BTX-A+3M (n=5), and six months recovery - BTX-A+6M (n=7). Knee extensor strength, muscle mass and percent contractile material in injected and contralateral non-injected muscles was measured at each point of recovery. Strength and muscle mass were partially and completely recovered in injected and contralateral non-injected muscles for BTX-A+6M group animals, respectively. The percent of contractile material partially recovered in the injected, but did not recover in the contralateral non-injected muscles. We conclude from these results that neither target nor non-target muscles fully recover within six months of a BTX-A treatment protocol and that clinical studies on muscle recovery should be pursued. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental methods for the simulation of supercritical CO2 injection at laboratory scale aimed to investigate capillary trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sakaki, T.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations is being considered as a technical option to reduce greenhouse gas loading to the atmosphere. The processes associated with the movement and stable trapping are complex in deep naturally heterogeneous formations. Three primary mechanisms contribute to trapping; capillary entrapment due to immobilization of the supercritical fluid CO2 within soil pores, liquid CO2 dissolving in the formation water and mineralization. Natural heterogeneity in the formation is expected to affect all three mechanisms. A research project is in progress with the primary goal to improve our understanding of capillary and dissolution trapping during injection and post-injection process, focusing on formation heterogeneity. It is expected that this improved knowledge will help to develop site characterization methods targeting on obtaining the most critical parameters that capture the heterogeneity to design strategies and schemes to maximize trapping. This research combines experiments at the laboratory scale with multiphase modeling to upscale relevant trapping processes to the field scale. This paper presents the results from a set of experiments that were conducted in an intermediate scale test tanks. Intermediate scale testing provides an attractive alternative to investigate these processes under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Conducting these types of experiments is highly challenging as methods have to be developed to extrapolate the data from experiments that are conducted under ambient laboratory conditions to high temperatures and pressures settings in deep geologic formations. We explored the use of a combination of surrogate fluids that have similar density, viscosity contrasts and analogous solubility and interfacial tension as supercritical CO2-brine in deep formations. The extrapolation approach involves the use of dimensionless numbers such as Capillary number (Ca) and the Bond number (Bo). A set of

  7. Targeting legume loci: A comparison of three methods for target enrichment bait design in Leguminosae phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Vatanparast, Mohammad; Powell, Adrian; Doyle, Jeff J; Egan, Ashley N

    2018-03-01

    The development of pipelines for locus discovery has spurred the use of target enrichment for plant phylogenomics. However, few studies have compared pipelines from locus discovery and bait design, through validation, to tree inference. We compared three methods within Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and present a workflow for future efforts. Using 30 transcriptomes, we compared Hyb-Seq, MarkerMiner, and the Yang and Smith (Y&S) pipelines for locus discovery, validated 7501 baits targeting 507 loci across 25 genera via Illumina sequencing, and inferred gene and species trees via concatenation- and coalescent-based methods. Hyb-Seq discovered loci with the longest mean length. MarkerMiner discovered the most conserved loci with the least flagged as paralogous. Y&S offered the most parsimony-informative sites and putative orthologs. Target recovery averaged 93% across taxa. We optimized our targeted locus set based on a workflow designed to minimize paralog/ortholog conflation and thus present 423 loci for legume phylogenomics. Methods differed across criteria important for phylogenetic marker development. We recommend Hyb-Seq as a method that may be useful for most phylogenomic projects. Our targeted locus set is a resource for future, community-driven efforts to reconstruct the legume tree of life.

  8. Injectable silk foams for the treatment of cervical insufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric P.

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, resulting in over 4,000 deaths each year. A significant risk factor for preterm birth is cervical insufficiency, the weakening and subsequent deformation of cervical tissue. Cervical insufficiency is both detectable and treatable but current treatments are lacking. The most common approach requires multiple invasive procedures. This work investigates the injection of silk foams, a minimally-invasive method for supporting cervical tissue. Silk offers many advantages for use as a biomaterial including strength, versatility, and biocompatibility. Injectable silk foams will minimize patient discomfort while also providing more targeted and personalized treatment. A battery of mechanical testing was undertaken to determine silk foam response under physiologically relevant loading and environmental conditions. Mechanical testing was paired with analysis of foam morphology and structure that illustrated the effects of injection on pore geometry and size. Biological response to silk foams was evaluated using an in vitro degradation study and subcutaneous in vivo implantation in a mouse model. Results showed that foams exceeded the mechanical requirements for stiffening cervical tissue, although the current injection process limits foam size. Injection was shown to cause measurable but localized foam deformation. This work indicates that silk foams are a feasible treatment option for cervical insufficiency but challenges remain with foam delivery.

  9. Blocking the buccal nerve using two methods of inferior alveolar block injection.

    PubMed

    Aker, F D

    2001-01-01

    The anatomic relations of the buccal nerve branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve were studied to explain the rationale for the discrepancy in blocking the buccal nerve using two methods of blocking the inferior alveolar nerve, the conventional method and the Gow-Gates method. The conventional method rarely blocks the buccal nerve, while the Gow-Gates method is reported to consistently block the buccal nerve. Eight head and mandibular specimens were dissected to observe the path of buccal nerve and its relationship to the path of needles in the conventional and Gow-Gates techniques. The buccal nerve descends on the medial and then anterior aspect of the deep head of the temporalis muscle (Tdh). At the latter position the buccal nerve enters the retromolar fossa and is encased in a fascial sleeve created by a dense fascial band that spans between the temporalis muscle tendons and the buccinator muscle. At the level of the conventional block injection the buccal nerve was shielded from the path of the needle by the Tdh and the fascial band. In the Gow-Gates block injection, the buccal nerve was exposed on the medial surface of the Tdh, immediately lateral to the path of the needle and proximal to the fascial sleeve. Consequently, the anatomical relations of the buccal nerve in the conventional block method essentially shield the nerve from being bathed by anesthetic solution while in the Gow-Gates method the relations are such that the buccal nerve can be exposed to anesthetic solution and thus blocked, explaining the findings in clinical dentistry. Copyright Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Rapid and Automated Analytical Methods for Redox Species Based on Potentiometric Flow Injection Analysis Using Potential Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Ohura, Hiroki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Two analytical methods, which prove the utility of a potentiometric flow injection technique for determining various redox species, based on the use of some redox potential buffers, are reviewed. The first is a potentiometric flow injection method in which a redox couple such as Fe(III)-Fe(II), Fe(CN)6 3−-Fe(CN)(CN)6 4−, and bromide-bromine and a redox electrode or a combined platinum-bromide ion selective electrode are used. The analytical principle and advantages of the method are discussed, and several examples of its application are reported. Another example is a highly sensitive potentiometric flow injection method, in which a large transient potential change due to bromine or chlorine as an intermediate, generated during the reaction of the oxidative species with an Fe(III)-Fe(II) potential buffer containing bromide or chloride, is utilized. The analytical principle and details of the proposed method are described, and examples of several applications are described. The determination of trace amounts of hydrazine, based on the detection of a transient change in potential caused by the reaction with a Ce(IV)-Ce(III) potential buffer, is also described. PMID:21584280

  11. A method for detecting small targets based on cumulative weighted value of target properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xing; Sun, Gang; Wang, Wei-hua; Liu, Fang; Chen, Zeng-ping

    2015-03-01

    Laser detection based on the "cat's eye effect" has become the hot research project for its initiative compared to the passivity of sound detection and infrared detection. And the target detection is one of the core technologies in this system. The paper puts forward a method for detecting small targets based on cumulative weighted value of target properties using given data. Firstly, we make a frame difference to the images, then make image processing based on Morphology Principles. Secondly, we segment images, and screen the targets; then find some interesting locations. Finally, comparing to a quantity of frames, we locate the target. We did an exam to 394 true frames, the experimental result shows that the mathod can detect small targets efficiently.

  12. Deep kernel learning method for SAR image target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuyuan; Peng, Xiyuan; Duan, Ran; Li, Junbao

    2017-10-01

    With the development of deep learning, research on image target recognition has made great progress in recent years. Remote sensing detection urgently requires target recognition for military, geographic, and other scientific research. This paper aims to solve the synthetic aperture radar image target recognition problem by combining deep and kernel learning. The model, which has a multilayer multiple kernel structure, is optimized layer by layer with the parameters of Support Vector Machine and a gradient descent algorithm. This new deep kernel learning method improves accuracy and achieves competitive recognition results compared with other learning methods.

  13. Calculation method for laser radar cross sections of rotationally symmetric targets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunhua; Du, Yongzhi; Bai, Lu; Wu, Zhensen; Li, Haiying; Li, Yanhui

    2017-07-01

    The laser radar cross section (LRCS) is a key parameter in the study of target scattering characteristics. In this paper, a practical method for calculating LRCSs of rotationally symmetric targets is presented. Monostatic LRCSs for four kinds of rotationally symmetric targets (cone, rotating ellipsoid, super ellipsoid, and blunt cone) are calculated, and the results verify the feasibility of the method. Compared with the results for the triangular patch method, the correctness of the method is verified, and several advantages of the method are highlighted. For instance, the method does not require geometric modeling and patch discretization. The method uses a generatrix model and double integral, and its calculation is concise and accurate. This work provides a theory analysis for the rapid calculation of LRCS for common basic targets.

  14. Magnetic Targeting Enhances Engraftment and Functional Benefit of Iron-Labeled Cardiosphere-Derived Cells in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Li, Tao-Sheng; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Davis, Darryl; Zhang, Yiqiang; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The success of cardiac stem cell therapies is limited by low cell retention, due at least in part to washout via coronary veins. Objective We sought to counter the efflux of transplanted cells by rendering them magnetically-responsive and imposing an external magnetic field on the heart during and immediately after injection. Methods and Results Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) were labeled with superparamagnetic microspheres (SPMs). In vitro studies revealed that cell viability and function were minimally affected by SPM labeling. SPM-labeled rat CDCs were injected intramyocardially, with and without a superimposed magnet. With magnetic targeting, cells were visibly attracted towards the magnet and accumulated around the ischemic zone. In contrast, the majority of non-targeted cells washed out immediately after injection. Fluorescence imaging revealed more retention of transplanted cells in the heart, and less migration into other organs, in the magnetically-targeted group. Quantitative PCR confirmed that magnetic targeting enhanced cell retention (at 24 hours) and engraftment (at 3 weeks) in the recipient hearts by ∼3-fold compared to non-targeted cells. Morphometric analysis revealed maximal attenuation of LV remodeling, and echocardiography showed the greatest functional improvement, in the magnetic targeting group. Histologically, more engrafted cells were evident with magnetic targeting, but there was no incremental inflammation. Conclusion Magnetic targeting enhances cell retention, engraftment and functional benefit. This novel method to improve cell therapy outcomes offers the potential for rapid translation into clinical applications. PMID:20378859

  15. New support vector machine-based method for microRNA target prediction.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Gao, Q; Mao, X; Cao, Y

    2014-06-09

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, growth, mobility, and apoptosis. An accurate list of precise target genes is necessary in order to fully understand the importance of miRNAs in animal development and disease. Several computational methods have been proposed for miRNA target-gene identification. However, these methods still have limitations with respect to their sensitivity and accuracy. Thus, we developed a new miRNA target-prediction method based on the support vector machine (SVM) model. The model supplies information of two binding sites (primary and secondary) for a radial basis function kernel as a similarity measure for SVM features. The information is categorized based on structural, thermodynamic, and sequence conservation. Using high-confidence datasets selected from public miRNA target databases, we obtained a human miRNA target SVM classifier model with high performance and provided an efficient tool for human miRNA target gene identification. Experiments have shown that our method is a reliable tool for miRNA target-gene prediction, and a successful application of an SVM classifier. Compared with other methods, the method proposed here improves the sensitivity and accuracy of miRNA prediction. Its performance can be further improved by providing more training examples.

  16. Using injectable hydrogel markers to assess resimulation for boost target volume definition in a patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Patel, Henal; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@rutgers.edu

    Several publications have recommended that patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy be resimulated for boost planning. The rationale for this is that the seroma may be smaller when compared with the initial simulation. However, the decision remains whether to use the earlier or later images to define an appropriate boost target volume. A patient undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy had new, injectable, temporary hydrogel fiducial markers placed 1 to 3 cm from the seroma at the time of initial simulation. The patient was resimulated 4.5 weeks later for conformal photon boost planning. Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at the beginning and the end ofmore » whole-breast radiotherapy showed that shrinkage of the lumpectomy cavity was not matched by a corresponding reduction in the surrounding tissue volume, as demarcated by hydrogel markers. This observation called into question the usual interpretation of cavity shrinkage for boost target definition. For this patient, it was decided to define the boost target volume on the initial planning CT instead of the new CT.« less

  17. Investigating an organ-targeting platform based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a novel in situ method of radioactive ¹²⁵Iodine labeling.

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Vranješ Djurić, Sanja; Mitić, Zarko; Janković, Drina; Uskoković, Dragan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the synthesis of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and hydroxyapatite coated with chitosan (HAp/Ch) and the chitosan-poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer blend (HAp/Ch-PLGA) as an organ-targeting system. We have examined and defined the final destination, as well as the dynamics and the pathways of the synthesized particles following intravenous administration in vivo. The XRD, ZP, FT-IR and SEM analyses have confirmed that the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with d50=72 nm are coated with polymers. Radioactive 125-Iodine ((125)I), a low energy gamma emitter, was used to develop a novel in situ method for the radiolabeling of particles and investigation of their biodistribution. (125)I-labeled particles exhibited high stability in saline and serum over the second day, which justified their use in the following in vivo studies. The biodistribution of (125)I-labeled particles after intravenous injection in rats differed significantly: HAp particles mostly targeted the liver, HAp/Ch the spleen and the liver, while HAp/Ch-PLGA targeted the lungs. Twenty-four hours post injection, HAp particles were excreted completely, while both (125)I-HAp/Ch and (125)I-HAp/Ch-PLGA were retained in the body for a prolonged period of time with more than 20% of radioactivity still found in different organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted Single-Shot Methods for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ning; Deng, Jie; Zhang, Longjiang; Zhang, Zhuoli; Lu, Guangming; Omary, Reed A.; Larson, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of combining the inner-volume-imaging (IVI) technique with single-shot diffusion-weighted (DW) spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) and DW-SPLICE (split acquisition of fast spin-echo) sequences for renal DW imaging. Materials and Methods Renal DW imaging was performed in 10 healthy volunteers using single-shot DW-SE-EPI, DW-SPLICE, targeted-DW-SE-EPI and targeted-DW-SPLICE. We compared the quantitative diffusion measurement accuracy and image quality of these targeted-DW-SE-EPI and targeted DW-SPLICE methods with conventional full FOV DW-SE-EPI and DW-SPLICE measurements in phantoms and normal volunteers. Results Compared with full FOV DW-SE-EPI and DW-SPLICE methods, targeted-DW-SE-EPI and targeted-DW-SPLICE approaches produced images of superior overall quality with fewer artifacts, less distortion and reduced spatial blurring in both phantom and volunteer studies. The ADC values measured with each of the four methods were similar and in agreement with previously published data. There were no statistically significant differences between the ADC values and intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements in the kidney cortex and medulla using single-shot DW-SE-EPI, targeted-DW-EPI and targeted-DW-SPLICE (p > 0.05). Conclusion Compared with full-FOV DW imaging methods, targeted-DW-SE-EPI and targeted-DW-SPLICE techniques reduced image distortion and artifacts observed in the single-shot DW-SE-EPI images, reduced blurring in DW-SPLICE images and produced comparable quantitative DW and IVIM measurements to those produced with conventional full-FOV approaches. PMID:21591023

  19. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ketamine Use among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Shin, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic that became increasing popular in the club and rave scene in the 1980s and 1990s. Reports surfaced in the late 1990s indicating that ketamine was being injected in several U.S. cities by young injection drug users (IDUs). Since all studies on ketamine injection were cross-sectional, a longitudinal study was undertaken in 2005 to determine: characteristics of young IDUs who continue to inject ketamine; frequency of ketamine injection over an extended time period; risks associated with ongoing ketamine injection; and environmental factors that impact patterns of ketamine use. Methods Young IDUs aged 16 to 29 with a history of injecting ketamine (n=101) were recruited from public locations in Los Angeles and followed during a two-year longitudinal study. A semi-structured instrument captured quantitative and qualitative data on patterns of ketamine injection and other drug use. A statistical model sorted IDUs who completed three or more interviews (n=66) into three groups based upon patterns of ketamine injection at baseline and follow-up. Qualitative analysis focused on detailed case studies within each group. Results IDUs recruited at baseline were typically in their early 20s, male, heterosexual, white, and homeless. Longitudinal injection trajectories included: “Moderates,” who injected ketamine several times per year (n=5); “Occasionals,” who injected ketamine approximately once per year (n=21); and “Abstainers,” who did not inject any ketamine during follow-up (n=40). Findings suggest that ketamine is infrequently injected compared to other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Most IDUs who begin injecting ketamine will stop or curb use due to: negative or ambivalent experiences associated with ketamine; an inability to find the drug due to declining supply; or maturing out of injecting drugs more generally. Conclusion Reducing ketamine injection among young IDUs may best be accomplished

  1. Narrowing the scope of failure prediction using targeted fault load injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Paul L.; Peterson, Gilbert L.; Lin, Alan C.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Sellers, Andrew J.

    2018-05-01

    As society becomes more dependent upon computer systems to perform increasingly critical tasks, ensuring that those systems do not fail becomes increasingly important. Many organizations depend heavily on desktop computers for day-to-day operations. Unfortunately, the software that runs on these computers is written by humans and, as such, is still subject to human error and consequent failure. A natural solution is to use statistical machine learning to predict failure. However, since failure is still a relatively rare event, obtaining labelled training data to train these models is not a trivial task. This work presents new simulated fault-inducing loads that extend the focus of traditional fault injection techniques to predict failure in the Microsoft enterprise authentication service and Apache web server. These new fault loads were successful in creating failure conditions that were identifiable using statistical learning methods, with fewer irrelevant faults being created.

  2. Vascular Targeting of a Gold Nanoparticle to Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Pubudu M; Deb, Partha; Doolittle, Elizabeth; Doron, Gilad; Goldberg, Amy; Govender, Priya; Shah, Shruti; Rao, Swetha; Carbone, Sarah; Cotey, Thomas; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Singh, Sohaj; Schiemann, William P; Lee, Zhenghong; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic disease. Although deep tissue targeting of nanoparticles is suitable for some primary tumors, vascular targeting may be a more attractive strategy for micrometastasis. This study combined a vascular targeting strategy with the enhanced targeting capabilities of a nanoparticle to evaluate the ability of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) to specifically target the early spread of metastatic disease. As a ligand for the vascular targeting strategy, we utilized a peptide targeting alpha(v) beta(3) integrin, which is functionally linked to the development of micrometastases at a distal site. By employing a straightforward radiolabeling method to incorporate Technetium-99m into the AuNPs, we used the high sensitivity of radionuclide imaging to monitor the longitudinal accumulation of the nanoparticles in metastatic sites. Animal and histological studies showed that vascular targeting of the nanoparticle facilitated highly accurate targeting of micrometastasis in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer metastasis using radionuclide imaging and a low dose of the nanoparticle. Because of the efficient targeting scheme, 14% of the injected AuNP deposited at metastatic sites in the lungs within 60 min after injection, indicating that the vascular bed of metastasis is a viable target site for nanoparticles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  4. Multiple targets detection method in detection of UWB through-wall radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuwei; Yang, Chuanfa; Zhao, Xingwen; Tian, Xianzhong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the problems and difficulties encountered in the detection of multiple moving targets by UWB radar are analyzed. The experimental environment and the penetrating radar system are established. An adaptive threshold method based on local area is proposed to effectively filter out clutter interference The objective of the moving target is analyzed, and the false target is further filtered out by extracting the target feature. Based on the correlation between the targets, the target matching algorithm is proposed to improve the detection accuracy. Finally, the effectiveness of the above method is verified by practical experiment.

  5. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections.

    PubMed

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  6. Research on target tracking in coal mine based on optical flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hongye; Xiao, Qingwei

    2015-03-01

    To recognize, track and count the bolting machine in coal mine video images, a real-time target tracking method based on the Lucas-Kanade sparse optical flow is proposed in this paper. In the method, we judge whether the moving target deviate from its trajectory, predicate and correct the position of the moving target. The method solves the problem of failure to track the target or lose the target because of the weak light, uneven illumination and blocking. Using the VC++ platform and Opencv lib we complete the recognition and tracking. The validity of the method is verified by the result of the experiment.

  7. CE chips fabricated by injection molding and polyethylene/thermoplastic elastomer film packaging methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Yih-Far; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This study presents a new packaging method using a polyethylene/thermoplastic elastomer (PE/TPE) film to seal an injection-molded CE chip made of either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or polycarbonate (PC) materials. The packaging is performed at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature, which is a fast, easy, and reliable bonding method to form a sealed CE chip for chemical analysis and biomedical applications. The fabrication of PMMA and PC microfluidic channels is accomplished by using an injection-molding process, which could be mass-produced for commercial applications. In addition to microfluidic CE channels, 3-D reservoirs for storing biosamples, and CE buffers are also formed during this injection-molding process. With this approach, a commercial CE chip can be of low cost and disposable. Finally, the functionality of the mass-produced CE chip is demonstrated through its successful separation of phiX174 DNA/HaeIII markers. Experimental data show that the S/N for the CE chips using the PE/TPE film has a value of 5.34, when utilizing DNA markers with a concentration of 2 ng/microL and a CE buffer of 2% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) in Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) with 1% YO-PRO-1 fluorescent dye. Thus, the detection limit of the developed chips is improved. Lastly, the developed CE chips are used for the separation and detection of PCR products. A mixture of an amplified antibiotic gene for Streptococcus pneumoniae and phiX174 DNA/HaeIII markers was successfully separated and detected by using the proposed CE chips. Experimental data show that these DNA samples were separated within 2 min. The study proposed a promising method for the development of mass-produced CE chips.

  8. Adaptive target binarization method based on a dual-camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Zhiyuan; Gao, Jing

    2018-01-01

    An adaptive target binarization method based on a dual-camera system that contains two dynamic vision sensors was proposed. First, a preprocessing procedure of denoising is introduced to remove the noise events generated by the sensors. Then, the complete edge of the target is retrieved and represented by events based on an event mosaicking method. Third, the region of the target is confirmed by an event-to-event method. Finally, a postprocessing procedure of image open and close operations of morphology methods is adopted to remove the artifacts caused by event-to-event mismatching. The proposed binarization method has been extensively tested on numerous degraded images with nonuniform illumination, low contrast, noise, or light spots and successfully compared with other well-known binarization methods. The experimental results, which are based on visual and misclassification error criteria, show that the proposed method performs well and has better robustness on the binarization of degraded images.

  9. Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  10. ‘On the same level’: facilitators’ experiences running a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practices play a major role in elevated rates of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (IDU). There is growing interest in the direct involvement of IDU in interventions that seek to address unsafe injecting. This study describes a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign, and explores facilitators’ experiences delivering educational workshops. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 8 members of the Injection Support (IS) Team who developed and facilitated a series of safer injecting education workshops. Interviews explored facilitator’s perceptions of the workshops, experiences being a facilitator, and perspectives on the educational campaign. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results IS Team facilitators described how the workshop’s structure and content enabled effective communication of information about safer injecting practices, while targeting the unsafe practices of workshop participants. Facilitators’ identity as IDU enhanced their ability to relate to workshop participants and communicate educational messages in language accessible to workshop participants. Facilitators reported gaining knowledge and skills from their involvement in the campaign, as well as positive feelings about themselves from the realization that they were helping people to protect their health. Overall, facilitators felt that this campaign provided IDU with valuable information, although facilitators also critiqued the campaign and suggested improvements for future efforts. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of involving IDU in educational initiatives targeting unsafe injecting. Findings illustrate how IDU involvement in prevention activities improves relevance and cultural appropriateness of interventions while providing individual, social, and professional benefits to those IDU delivering education. PMID:23497293

  11. A novel fault location scheme for power distribution system based on injection method and transient line voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuehua; Li, Xiaomin; Cheng, Jiangzhou; Nie, Deyu; Wang, Zhuoyuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel fault location method by injecting travelling wave current. The new methodology is based on Time Difference Of Arrival(TDOA)measurement which is available measurements the injection point and the end node of main radial. In other words, TDOA is the maximum correlation time when the signal reflected wave crest of the injected and fault appear simultaneously. Then distance calculation is equal to the wave velocity multiplied by TDOA. Furthermore, in case of some transformers connected to the end of the feeder, it’s necessary to combine with the transient voltage comparison of amplitude. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of this method, several simulations have been undertaken by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software packages. The proposed fault location is useful to short the positioning time in the premise of ensuring the accuracy, besides the error is 5.1% and 13.7%.

  12. Deltoid Injections of Risperidone Long-acting Injectable in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Jorge A.; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Background Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Methods Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. Results In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Conclusion Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites. PMID:21779538

  13. Reducing HIV infection in people who inject drugs is impossible without targeting recently-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana I.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Lourenco, Jose; Gupta, Sunetra; Hatzakis, Angelos; Pybus, Oliver G.; Katzourakis, Aris; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Karamitros, Timokratis; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although our understanding of viral transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) has improved, we still know little about when and how many times each injector transmits HIV throughout the duration of infection. We describe HIV dynamics in PWID to evaluate which preventive strategies can be efficient. Design: Due to the notably scarce interventions, HIV-1 spread explosively in Russia and Ukraine in 1990s. By studying this epidemic between 1995 and 2005, we characterized naturally occurring transmission dynamics of HIV among PWID. Method: We combined publicly available HIV pol and env sequences with prevalence estimates from Russia and Ukraine under an evolutionary epidemiology framework to characterize HIV transmissibility between PWID. We then constructed compartmental models to simulate HIV spread among PWID. Results: In the absence of interventions, each injector transmits on average to 10 others. Half of the transmissions take place within 1 month after primary infection, suggesting that the epidemic will expand even after blocking all the post–first month transmissions. Primary prevention can realistically target the first month of infection, and we show that it is very efficient to control the spread of HIV-1 in PWID. Treating acutely infected on top of primary prevention is notably effective. Conclusion: As a large proportion of transmissions among PWID occur within 1 month after infection, reducing and delaying transmissions through scale-up of harm reduction programmes should always form the backbone of HIV control strategies in PWID. Growing PWID populations in the developing world, where primary prevention is scarce, constitutes a public health time bomb. PMID:27824626

  14. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOEpatents

    Potter, R.M.; Archuleta, J.; Fink, C.F.

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive /sup 82/Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular /sup 82/Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the /sup 82/Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote horehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  15. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Robert M.; Archuleta, Jacobo R.; Fink, Conrad F.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  16. A dual brain-targeting curcumin-loaded polymersomes ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in intrahippocampal amyloid-β1-42-injected mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tingting; Sun, Zhiguo; Lu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Zou, Hao; Xie, Fangyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Xu, Hao; Sun, Duxin; Yu, Yuan; Zhong, Yanqiang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier and the nonselective distribution of drugs in the brain, the therapeutic access to intractable neurological disorders is challenging. In this study, dual brain-targeting polymersomes (POs) functionalized by transferrin and Tet-1 peptide (Tf/Tet-1-POs) promoted the transportation of curcumin into the brain and provided neuroprotection. The modification of the ligands that bind to the surface of POs was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The cell uptake of a coculture model of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells with neurons showed that the Tf/Tet-1-POs had significant transportation properties and possessed affinity for neurons. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the blood-brain barrier permeability-surface efficiency of the Tf/Tet-1-POs was 0.28 mL/h/g and that the brain tissue uptake rate (% ID/g) was 0.08, which were significant compared with the controls (P<0.05). The curcumin-encapsulated Tf/Tet-1-POs provided neuroprotection and ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in intrahippocampal amyloid-β1-42-injected mice. These results suggest that the dual brain-targeting POs are more capable of drug delivery to the brain that can be exploited as a multiple noninvasive vehicle for targeting therapeutics.

  17. Flux-Level Transit Injection Experiments with NASA Pleiades Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    Flux-Level Transit Injection (FLTI) experiments are executed with NASA's Pleiades supercomputer for the Kepler Mission. The latest release (9.3, January 2016) of the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline is used in the FLTI experiments. Their purpose is to validate the Analytic Completeness Model (ACM), which can be computed for all Kepler target stars, thereby enabling exoplanet occurrence rate studies. Pleiades, a facility of NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Division, is one of the world's most powerful supercomputers and represents NASA's state-of-the-art technology. We discuss the details of implementing the FLTI experiments on the Pleiades supercomputer. For example, taking into account that ~16 injections are generated by one core of the Pleiades processors in an hour, the “shallow” FLTI experiment, in which ~2000 injections are required per target star, can be done for 16% of all Kepler target stars in about 200 hours. Stripping down the transit search to bare bones, i.e. only searching adjacent high/low periods at high/low pulse durations, makes the computationally intensive FLTI experiments affordable. The design of the FLTI experiments and the analysis of the resulting data are presented in “Validating an Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments” by Catanzarite et al. (#2494058).Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Portable apparatus for separating sample and detecting target analytes

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Wally, Karl; Crocker, Robert W.; Stamps, James F.; Griffiths; Stewart K. ,; Fruetel, Julia A.; Horn, Brent A.; Shokair, Isaac R.; Yee, Daniel D.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Wiedenman, Boyd J.; West, Jason A. A.; Ferko, Scott M.

    2008-11-18

    Portable devices and methods for determining the presence of a target analyte using a portable device are provided. The portable device is preferably hand-held. A sample is injected to the portable device. A microfluidic separation is performed within the portable device and at least one separated component detected by a detection module within the portable device, in embodiments of the invention. A target analyte is identified, based on the separated component, and the presence of the target analyte is indicated on an output interface of the portable device, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.

  19. Targeting Apoptosis for Optical Imaging of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Mathew L.; Zhang, Kaijun; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Devakumar, Devadhas; Covarrubias, Maria Y.; Cheng, Changpo; Gray, Brian D.; Wickstrom, Eric; Pak, Koon Y.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Infection is ubiquitous and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The most reliable method for localizing infection requires radiolabeling autologous white blood cells ex vivo. A compound that can be injected directly into a patient and can selectively image infectious foci will eliminate the drawbacks. The resolution of infection is associated with neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis presenting phosphatidylserine (PS) on the neutrophil outer leaflet. Targeting PS with intravenous administration of a PS-specific, near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore will permit localization of infectious foci by optical imaging. Methods Bacterial infection and sterile inflammation were induced in separate groups (n=5) of mice. PS was targeted with a NIR fluorophore, PSVue®794 (2.7 pmol). Imaging was performed (ex=730 nm, em=830 nm) using Kodak Multispectral FX-Pro system. The contralateral normal thigh served as an individualized control. Confocal microscopy of normal and apoptotic neutrophils and bacteria confirmed PS specificity. Results Lesions, with a 10-s image acquisition, were unequivocally visible at 5 min post-injection. At 3 h post-injection, the lesion to background intensity ratios in the foci of infection (6.6±0.2) were greater than those in inflammation (3.2±0.5). Image fusions confirmed anatomical locations of the lesions. Confocal microscopy determined the fluorophore specificity for PS. Conclusions Targeting PS presented on the outer leaflet of apoptotic or necrotic neutrophils as well as gram-positive microorganism with PS-specific NIR fluorophore provides a sensitive means of imaging infection. Literature indicates that NIR fluorophores can be detected 7-14 cm deep in tissue. This observation together with the excellent results and the continued development of versatile imaging devices could make optical imaging a simple, specific, and rapid modality for imaging infection. PMID:21538153

  20. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order tomore » prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.« less

  1. [Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients].

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui

    2017-03-01

    Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Geometric shapes inversion method of space targets by ISAR image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Chao-ying; Xing, Xiao-yu; Yin, Hong-cheng; Li, Chen-guang; Zeng, Xiang-yun; Xu, Gao-gui

    2017-11-01

    The geometric shape of target is an effective characteristic in the process of space targets recognition. This paper proposed a method of shape inversion of space target based on components segmentation from ISAR image. The Radon transformation, Hough transformation, K-means clustering, triangulation will be introduced into ISAR image processing. Firstly, we use Radon transformation and edge detection to extract space target's main body spindle and solar panel spindle from ISAR image. Then the targets' main body, solar panel, rectangular and circular antenna are segmented from ISAR image based on image detection theory. Finally, the sizes of every structural component are computed. The effectiveness of this method is verified using typical targets' simulation data.

  3. A Simple Combinatorial Codon Mutagenesis Method for Targeted Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Ketaki D; Andorfer, Mary C; Cardenas, Frida S; Chael, Julia R; Park, Hyun June; Lewis, Jared C

    2017-03-17

    Directed evolution is a powerful tool for optimizing enzymes, and mutagenesis methods that improve enzyme library quality can significantly expedite the evolution process. Here, we report a simple method for targeted combinatorial codon mutagenesis (CCM). To demonstrate the utility of this method for protein engineering, CCM libraries were constructed for cytochrome P450 BM3 , pfu prolyl oligopeptidase, and the flavin-dependent halogenase RebH; 10-26 sites were targeted for codon mutagenesis in each of these enzymes, and libraries with a tunable average of 1-7 codon mutations per gene were generated. Each of these libraries provided improved enzymes for their respective transformations, which highlights the generality, simplicity, and tunability of CCM for targeted protein engineering.

  4. Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

  5. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  6. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  7. Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Kobylinska, Dorota Korte; Franko, Mladen; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2010-04-14

    A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390 nm. The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a two-levels, three-factor experimental design. Further optimization of manifold variables (reaction coil and injection volume) allowed us to determine silver in the range 0.050-5.0 mg L(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.050 mg L(-1). Silver is added, as biocide, to drinking water for spacecrafts. The chemical species of silver, present in this kind of sample, were characterized by a procedure based on the selective retention of Ag(+) onto a 2.2.2. cryptand based substrate followed by determination of the non-bound and bound (after elution) Ag(+) by the FIA method. The method optimized was applied to a drinking water sample provided for the launch with the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) module Jule Verne to the International Space Station (March 9, 2008). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Three-Dimensional Target Depth-Resolution Method with a Single-Vector Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Anbang; Bi, Xuejie; Hui, Juan; Zeng, Caigao; Ma, Lin

    2018-04-12

    This paper mainly studies and verifies the target number category-resolution method in multi-target cases and the target depth-resolution method of aerial targets. Firstly, target depth resolution is performed by using the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical complex acoustic intensity; the target category and the number resolution in multi-target cases is realized with a combination of the bearing-time recording information; and the corresponding simulation verification is carried out. The algorithm proposed in this paper can distinguish between the single-target multi-line spectrum case and the multi-target multi-line spectrum case. This paper presents an improved azimuth-estimation method for multi-target cases, which makes the estimation results more accurate. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the feasibility of the proposed target number and category-resolution algorithm in multi-target cases is verified. In addition, by studying the field characteristics of the aerial and surface targets, the simulation results verify that there is only amplitude difference between the aerial target field and the surface target field under the same environmental parameters, and an aerial target can be treated as a special case of a surface target; the aerial target category resolution can then be realized based on the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical acoustic intensity so as to realize three-dimensional target depth resolution. By processing data from a sea experiment, the feasibility of the proposed aerial target three-dimensional depth-resolution algorithm is verified.

  9. Comparison of incidence of intravascular injections during transforaminal epidural steroid injection using different needle types

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Infrequent but serious complications of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) occur due to inadvertent intravascular injections. A few studies reported that the different needle types can influence on the occurrences of intravascular incidence in TFESI. This study prospectively evaluated whether short-bevel needle can reduce the incidences of intravascular injection of TFESI compared to long-bevel needles. Methods From March 2013 to December 2013, 239 consecutive patients were enrolled and received 249 fluoroscopically guided TFESI using the classic technique. Confirmation of intravascular spread was done initially with real time fluoroscopy and then with digital subtraction angiography method in a same patient. Injection technique for TFESI was the same for both short-bevel and long-bevel needle types. Results The incidences of intravascular injections with the long-bevel and short-bevel needles were 15.0% (21/140) and 9.2% (4/140), respectively. More than half of intravascular injections occurred simultaneously with epidural injections (8.0%, 20/249). There were no statistically significant differences between the long-bevel and the short-bevel needles in the rates of intravascular injections (P = 0.17). Conclusions Short-bevel needles did not demonstrate any benefits in reducing the incidence of intravascular injection. PMID:25302096

  10. Method for foam encapsulating laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1977-01-01

    Foam encapsulated laser fusion targets are made by positioning a fusion fuel-filled sphere within a mold cavity of suitable configuration and dimensions, and then filling the cavity with a material capable of producing a low density, microcellular foam, such as cellulose acetate dissolved in an acetone-based solvent. The mold assembly is dipped into an ice water bath to gel the material and thereafter soaked in the water bath to leach out undesired components, after which the gel is frozen, then freeze-dried wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into a low-density microcellular foam, thereafter the resulting foam encapsulated target is removed from the mold cavity. The fuel-filled sphere is surrounded by foam having a thickness of about 10 to 100 .mu.m, a cell size of less than 2 .mu.m, and density of 0.065 to 0.6 .times. 10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3. Various configured foam-encapsulated targets capable of being made by this encapsulation method are illustrated.

  11. Topics in LIFE Target Survival: 11-SI-004 Final Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miles, Robin; Benett, Bill; Bond, Tiziana

    The LIFE target design incorporates many considerations to generate the desired fusion gain including the physics design, the cost of manufacturing of the target, the injectability of the target, the aerodynamic flight characteristics of the target, the ability to track and engage the target and to maintain the structural and thermal integrity of the target. This document describes the effort that was made in support of issues of survivability of the target during injection which included issues massmanufactural materials and processes which could be used in the target.

  12. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  13. Changes in contractile properties of muscles receiving repeat injections of botulinum toxin (Botox).

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Youssef, Aliaa Rehan; Longino, David; Herzog, Walter

    2011-01-04

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a frequently used therapeutic tool to denervate muscles in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Although considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration, BTX-A can produce adverse effects in target and non-target muscles. With an increased use of BTX-A for neuromuscular disorders, the effects of repeat injections of BTX-A on strength, muscle mass and structure need to be known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in strength, muscle mass and contractile material in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Twenty NZW rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control and 1, 3 and 6 months of unilateral, repeat injections of BTX-A into the quadriceps femoris. Outcome measures included knee extensor torque, muscle mass and the percentage of contractile material in the quadriceps muscles of the target and non-injected contralateral hindlimbs. Strength in the injected muscles was reduced by 88%, 89% and 95% in the 1, 3 and 6 months BTX-A injected hindlimbs compared to controls. Muscle mass was reduced by 50%, 42% and 31% for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM), respectively, at 1 month, by 68%, 51% and 50% at 3 months and by 76%, 44% and 13% at 6 months. The percentage of contractile material was reduced for the 3 and 6 months animals to 80-64%, respectively, and was replaced primarily by fat. Similar, but less pronounced results were also observed for the quadriceps muscles of the contralateral hindlimbs, suggesting that repeat BTX-A injections cause muscle atrophy and loss of contractile tissue in target muscles and also in non-target muscles that are far removed from the injection site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CALCULATION OF COOLING TOWERS AND INJECTION COOLERS BY MEANS OF AN EVAPORATION METHOD (in German)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Spangemacher, K.

    1958-05-01

    Calculation and evaluation of cooling towers, as recommended by Merkel, are critically examined. The usual methods of practical calculation are explained as well as a new procedure which combines great accuracy with brevity. Merkel's method is extended to injection coolers for gas and compressed air. It was discussed whether the dimensionless ''evaporation coefficient'' should be called the''Merkel coefficient.'' (tr-auth)

  15. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  16. Intraperitoneal AAV9-shRNA inhibits target expression in neonatal skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    PubMed

    Mayra, Azat; Tomimitsu, Hiroyuki; Kubodera, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Piao, Wenying; Sunaga, Fumiko; Hirai, Yukihiko; Shimada, Takashi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2011-02-11

    Systemic injections of AAV vectors generally transduce to the liver more effectively than to cardiac and skeletal muscles. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing AAV9 (shRNA-AAV9) can also reduce target gene expression in the liver, but not enough in cardiac or skeletal muscles. Higher doses of shRNA-AAV9 required for inhibiting target genes in cardiac and skeletal muscles often results in shRNA-related toxicity including microRNA oversaturation that can induce fetal liver failure. In this study, we injected high-dose shRNA-AAV9 to neonates and efficiently silenced genes in cardiac and skeletal muscles without inducing liver toxicity. This is because AAV is most likely diluted or degraded in the liver than in cardiac or skeletal muscle during cell division after birth. We report that this systemically injected shRNA-AAV method does not induce any major side effects, such as liver dysfunction, and the dose of shRNA-AAV is sufficient for gene silencing in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues. This novel method may be useful for generating gene knockdown in skeletal and cardiac mouse tissues, thus providing mouse models useful for analyzing diseases caused by loss-of-function of target genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The evaluation of the optimization design and application effect of same-well-injection-production technique’s injection-production circulatory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoxing, Zheng; Minghu, Jiang; Hongliang, Gong; Nannan, Zhang; Jianguang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    According to basic principles of combining series of strata and demands of same-well injection-production technique, the optimization designing method of same-well injection-production technique’s injection-production circulatory system is given. Based on oil-water two-phase model with condition of arbitrarily well network, a dynamic forecast method for the application of same-well injection-production reservoir is established with considering the demands and capacity of same-well injection-production technique, sample wells are selected to launch the forecast evaluation and analysis of same-well injection-production reservoir application’s effect. Results show: single-test-well composite water cut decreases by 4.7% and test-well-group composite water cut decreases by 1.56% under the condition of basically invariant ground water injection rate. The method provides theoretical support for the proof of same-well injection-production technique’s reservoir development improving effect and further tests.

  18. Target deception jamming method against spaceborne synthetic aperture radar using electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingyang; Shu, Ting; Tang, Bin; Yu, Wenxian

    2018-01-01

    A method is proposed to perform target deception jamming against spaceborne synthetic aperture radar. Compared with the traditional jamming methods using deception templates to cover the target or region of interest, the proposed method aims to generate a verisimilar deceptive target in various attitude with high fidelity using the electromagnetic (EM) scattering. Based on the geometrical model for target deception jamming, the EM scattering data from the deceptive target was first simulated by applying an EM calculation software. Then, the proposed jamming frequency response (JFR) is calculated offline by further processing. Finally, the deception jamming is achieved in real time by a multiplication between the proposed JFR and the spectrum of intercepted radar signals. The practical implementation is presented. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  20. A new method for detecting small and dim targets in starry background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Zhang, Yanning; Jiang, Lei

    2011-08-01

    Small visible optical space targets detection is one of the key issues in the research of long-range early warning and space debris surveillance. The SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio) of the target is very low because of the self influence of image device. Random noise and background movement also increase the difficulty of target detection. In order to detect small visible optical space targets effectively and rapidly, we bring up a novel detecting method based on statistic theory. Firstly, we get a reasonable statistical model of visible optical space image. Secondly, we extract SIFT(Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) feature of the image frames, and calculate the transform relationship, then use the transform relationship to compensate whole visual field's movement. Thirdly, the influence of star was wiped off by using interframe difference method. We find segmentation threshold to differentiate candidate targets and noise by using OTSU method. Finally, we calculate statistical quantity to judge whether there is the target for every pixel position in the image. Theory analysis shows the relationship of false alarm probability and detection probability at different SNR. The experiment result shows that this method could detect target efficiently, even the target passing through stars.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Target Depth-Resolution Method with a Single-Vector Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Anbang; Bi, Xuejie; Hui, Juan; Zeng, Caigao; Ma, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This paper mainly studies and verifies the target number category-resolution method in multi-target cases and the target depth-resolution method of aerial targets. Firstly, target depth resolution is performed by using the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical complex acoustic intensity; the target category and the number resolution in multi-target cases is realized with a combination of the bearing-time recording information; and the corresponding simulation verification is carried out. The algorithm proposed in this paper can distinguish between the single-target multi-line spectrum case and the multi-target multi-line spectrum case. This paper presents an improved azimuth-estimation method for multi-target cases, which makes the estimation results more accurate. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the feasibility of the proposed target number and category-resolution algorithm in multi-target cases is verified. In addition, by studying the field characteristics of the aerial and surface targets, the simulation results verify that there is only amplitude difference between the aerial target field and the surface target field under the same environmental parameters, and an aerial target can be treated as a special case of a surface target; the aerial target category resolution can then be realized based on the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical acoustic intensity so as to realize three-dimensional target depth resolution. By processing data from a sea experiment, the feasibility of the proposed aerial target three-dimensional depth-resolution algorithm is verified. PMID:29649173

  2. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-scan-Guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection in Sheep

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Firouznia, Kavous, E-mail: k-firouznia@yahoo.com; Hosseininasab, Sayed jaber, E-mail: dr.hosseininasab@gmail.com; Amanpour, Saeid, E-mail: saeidamanpour@yahoo.com

    BackgroundRenal nerves are a recent target in the treatment of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently performed using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and because this method has limitations, percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR)-guided periarterial ethanol injection is a suggested alternative. However, few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection for RSD.AimTo evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided periarterial ethanol injection.MethodsEthanol (10 ml, 99.6 %) was injected around the right renal artery in six sheep under CT guidance with the left kidney serving as a control. Before and after the intervention, the sheep underwent MRmore » imaging studies and the serum creatinine level was measured. One month after the intervention, the sheep were euthanized and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma was measured to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The treated tissues were also examined histopathologically to evaluate vascular, parenchymal, and neural injury.ResultsThe right kidney parenchymal NE concentration decreased significantly compared with the left kidney after intervention (average reduction: 40 %, P = 0.0016). Histologic examination revealed apparent denervation with no other vascular or parenchymal injuries observed in the histological and imaging studies.ConclusionEffective and feasible RSD was achieved using CT-guided periarterial ethanol injection. This technique may be a potential alternative to catheter-based RFA in the treatment of hypertension.« less

  3. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  4. Radiance and atmosphere propagation-based method for the target range estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonkyung; Chun, Joohwan

    2012-06-01

    Target range estimation is traditionally based on radar and active sonar systems in modern combat system. However, the performance of such active sensor devices is degraded tremendously by jamming signal from the enemy. This paper proposes a simple range estimation method between the target and the sensor. Passive IR sensors measures infrared (IR) light radiance radiating from objects in dierent wavelength and this method shows robustness against electromagnetic jamming. The measured target radiance of each wavelength at the IR sensor depends on the emissive properties of target material and is attenuated by various factors, in particular the distance between the sensor and the target and atmosphere environment. MODTRAN is a tool that models atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the result from MODTRAN and measured radiance, the target range is estimated. To statistically analyze the performance of proposed method, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and evaluate the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) via the probability density function of measured radiance. And we also compare CRLB and the variance of and ML estimation using Monte-Carlo.

  5. [Promising new injection method to prevent angialgia/phlebitis from epirubicin hydrochloride therapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ono, Chiemi; Yamagami, Mitsue; Kamatani, Rika; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mukouyama, Tomoya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Suzuki, Taizan; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI)is well known to cause phlebitis as a typical adverse drug reaction. By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. We have previously reported promising results of a new injection method to prevent phlebitis from occurring during EPI therapy thorough a prospective clinical trial in our hospital(Jpn J Cancer Chemother 36: 969-974, 2009). In the present study, we have compared the conventional injection method(EPI main -route method, n=15)with our new method, which has been consistently practiced at present(EPI sub -route method, n=77). We found that in the EPI main -route method, angialgia/phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases(Grade 3, 53. 3%), leading to alteration of the regimen in 3 cases. On the other hand, with the EPI sub -route method, incidence of angialgia/phlebitis was markedly decreased, and only 6 of 77 cases developed these adverse reactions(Grade 3, 0%). One possible explanation for these results is that the reduction of intimal stimulation by the EPI sub -route method might be caused by the dilution and washout of EPI with pre-medication, as well as the shortened infusion times of EPI. Therefore, on the basis of the above hypothesis, we conclude that the EPI sub-route method might be a more effective treatment for the expected prevention of angialgia/phlebitis.

  6. Target detection method by airborne and spaceborne images fusion based on past images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shanjing; Kang, Qing; Wang, Zhenggang; Shen, ZhiQiang; Pu, Huan; Han, Hao; Gu, Zhongzheng

    2017-11-01

    To solve the problem that remote sensing target detection method has low utilization rate of past remote sensing data on target area, and can not recognize camouflage target accurately, a target detection method by airborne and spaceborne images fusion based on past images is proposed in this paper. The target area's past of space remote sensing image is taken as background. The airborne and spaceborne remote sensing data is fused and target feature is extracted by the means of airborne and spaceborne images registration, target change feature extraction, background noise suppression and artificial target feature extraction based on real-time aerial optical remote sensing image. Finally, the support vector machine is used to detect and recognize the target on feature fusion data. The experimental results have established that the proposed method combines the target area change feature of airborne and spaceborne remote sensing images with target detection algorithm, and obtains fine detection and recognition effect on camouflage and non-camouflage targets.

  7. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  8. Therapeutic effect for liver-metastasized tumor by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic lipoplex of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Shohei; Kikuchi, Takuto; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawano, Kumi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we developed a novel siRNA transfer method to the liver by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic liposome/siRNA complex (cationic lipoplex). In this study, we investigated whether siRNA delivered by this sequential injection could significantly suppress mRNA expression of the targeted gene in liver metastasis and inhibit tumor growth. When cationic lipoplex was intravenously injected into mice bearing liver metastasis of human breast tumor MCF-7 at 1 min after intravenous injection of chondroitin sulfate C (CS) or poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA), siRNA was accumulated in tumor-metastasized liver. In terms of a gene silencing effect, sequential injections of CS or PGA plus cationic lipoplex of luciferase siRNA could reduce luciferase activity in liver MCF-7-Luc metastasis. Regarding the side effects, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex did not exhibit hepatic damage or induction of inflammatory cytokines in serum after repeated injections, but sequential injections of PGA plus cationic lipoplex did. Finally, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex of protein kinase N3 siRNA could suppress tumor growth in the mice bearing liver metastasis. From these findings, sequential injection of CS and cationic lipoplex of siRNA might be a novel systemic method of delivering siRNA to liver metastasis.

  9. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar; Hacker, Mariana A; Oliveira, Sabrina Alberti Nóbrega de; Telles, Paulo Roberto; O, Kycia Maria Rodrigues do; Yoshida, Clara Fumiko Tachibana; Bastos, Francisco I

    2006-04-01

    The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus) infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 606) were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3%) than at the baseline interview (36.8%). Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years), those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272) was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  10. Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo C.; Edelhauser, Henry F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that highly targeted delivery of antiglaucoma drugs to the supraciliary space by using a hollow microneedle allows dramatic dose sparing of the drug compared to topical eye drops. The supraciliary space is the most anterior portion of the suprachoroidal space, located below the sclera and above the choroid and ciliary body. Methods. A single, hollow 33-gauge microneedle, 700 to 800 μm in length, was inserted into the sclera and used to infuse antiglaucoma drugs into the supraciliary space of New Zealand white rabbits (N = 3–6 per group). Sulprostone, a prostaglandin analog, and brimonidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, were delivered via supraciliary and topical administration at various doses. The drugs were delivered unilaterally, and intraocular pressure (IOP) of both eyes was measured by rebound tonometry for 9 hours after injection to assess the pharmacodynamic responses. To assess safety of the supraciliary injection, IOP change immediately after intravitreal and supraciliary injection were compared. Results. Supraciliary delivery of both sulprostone and brimonidine reduced IOP by as much as 3 mm Hg bilaterally in a dose-related response; comparison with topical administration at the conventional human dose showed approximately 100-fold dose sparing by supraciliary injection for both drugs. A safety study showed that the kinetics of IOP elevation immediately after supraciliary and intravitreal injection of placebo formulations were similar. Conclusions. This study introduced the use of targeted drug delivery to the supraciliary space by using a microneedle and demonstrated dramatic dose sparing of antiglaucoma therapeutic agents compared to topical eye drops. Targeted delivery in this way can increase safety by reducing side effects and could allow a single injection to contain enough drug for long-term sustained delivery. PMID:25212782

  11. An injection and mixing element for delivery and monitoring of inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew R; Jackson, Chris; Fromont, Samuel; Pont, Chloe; Katz, Ira M; Caillobotte, Georges

    2016-08-30

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator used primarily in the critical care setting for patients concurrently supported by invasive or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. NO delivery devices interface with ventilator breathing circuits to inject NO in proportion with the flow of air/oxygen through the circuit, in order to maintain a constant, target concentration of inhaled NO. In the present article, a NO injection and mixing element is presented. The device borrows from the design of static elements to promote rapid mixing of injected NO-containing gas with breathing circuit gases. Bench experiments are reported to demonstrate the improved mixing afforded by the injection and mixing element, as compared with conventional breathing circuit adapters, for NO injection into breathing circuits. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are also presented to illustrate mixing patterns and nitrogen dioxide production within the element. Over the range of air flow rates and target NO concentrations investigated, mixing length, defined as the downstream distance required for NO concentration to reach within ±5 % of the target concentration, was as high as 47 cm for the conventional breathing circuit adapters, but did not exceed 7.8 cm for the injection and mixing element. The injection and mixing element has potential to improve ease of use, compatibility and safety of inhaled NO administration with mechanical ventilators and gas delivery devices.

  12. Target discrimination method for SAR images based on semisupervised co-training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Du, Lan; Dai, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target discrimination is usually performed in a supervised manner. However, supervised methods for SAR target discrimination may need lots of labeled training samples, whose acquirement is costly, time consuming, and sometimes impossible. This paper proposes an SAR target discrimination method based on semisupervised co-training, which utilizes a limited number of labeled samples and an abundant number of unlabeled samples. First, Lincoln features, widely used in SAR target discrimination, are extracted from the training samples and partitioned into two sets according to their physical meanings. Second, two support vector machine classifiers are iteratively co-trained with the extracted two feature sets based on the co-training algorithm. Finally, the trained classifiers are exploited to classify the test data. The experimental results on real SAR images data not only validate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the traditional supervised methods, but also demonstrate the superiority of co-training over self-training, which only uses one feature set.

  13. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO₂ Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I

    2016-08-22

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO₂), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young's modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L₉ orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO₂, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO₂ nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  14. Effects of Sex Work on the Prevalence of Syphilis Among Injection Drug Users in 3 Russian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Rhodes, Tim; Judd, Ali; Koshkina, Evgeniya; Maksimova, Svetlana; Latishevskaya, Natalia; Renton, Adrian; McDonald, Tamara; Parry, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for syphilis infection among injection drug users in 3 Russian Federation cities, focusing particular attention on the potential roles of gender and sex work. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of injection drug users in Moscow, Volgograd, and Barnaul, collecting behavioral data and testing for antibodies to Treponema pallidum. Associations between presence of antibodies to T pallidum and covariates were explored. Results. Overall, the prevalence of antibodies to T pallidum was 11% (95% confidence interval=9.7%, 13.1%). Syphilis was associated with involvement in sex work and with gender in Moscow and Barnaul but not in Volgograd. Female injection drug users not involved in sex work were more likely than men to be younger and to have recently begun to inject; female injection drug users involved in sex work were more likely than those not involved in sex work to inject daily. Conclusions. Syphilis transmission dynamics varied by region. Sex work can increase syphilis risk among injection drug users, potentially feeding the momentum of sexually transmitted HIV and syphilis among noninjectors. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce both sexual and injection risk behaviors among injection drug users. PMID:17018827

  15. A robust recognition and accurate locating method for circular coded diagonal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yunna; Shang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Jiexin

    2017-10-01

    As a category of special control points which can be automatically identified, artificial coded targets have been widely developed in the field of computer vision, photogrammetry, augmented reality, etc. In this paper, a new circular coded target designed by RockeTech technology Corp. Ltd is analyzed and studied, which is called circular coded diagonal target (CCDT). A novel detection and recognition method with good robustness is proposed in the paper, and implemented on Visual Studio. In this algorithm, firstly, the ellipse features of the center circle are used for rough positioning. Then, according to the characteristics of the center diagonal target, a circular frequency filter is designed to choose the correct center circle and eliminates non-target noise. The precise positioning of the coded target is done by the correlation coefficient fitting extreme value method. Finally, the coded target recognition is achieved by decoding the binary sequence in the outer ring of the extracted target. To test the proposed algorithm, this paper has carried out simulation experiments and real experiments. The results show that the CCDT recognition and accurate locating method proposed in this paper can robustly recognize and accurately locate the targets in complex and noisy background.

  16. Using well casing as an electrical source to monitor hydraulic fracture fluid injection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilt, Michael; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; MacLennan, Kris

    2016-03-09

    The depth to surface resistivity (DSR) method transmits current from a source located in a cased or openhole well to a distant surface return electrode while electric field measurements are made at the surface over the target of interest. This paper presents both numerical modelling results and measured data from a hydraulic fracturing field test where conductive water was injected into a resistive shale reservoir during a hydraulic fracturing operation. Modelling experiments show that anomalies due to hydraulic fracturing are small but measureable with highly sensitive sensor technology. The field measurements confirm the model results,showing that measured differences in themore » surface fields due to hydraulic fracturing have been detected above the noise floor. Our results show that the DSR method is sensitive to the injection of frac fluids; they are detectable above the noise floor in a commercially active hydraulic fracturing operation, and therefore this method can be used for monitoring fracture fluid movement.« less

  17. Remote sensing image ship target detection method based on visual attention model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuejiao; Lei, Wuhu; Ren, Xiaodong

    2017-11-01

    The traditional methods of detecting ship targets in remote sensing images mostly use sliding window to search the whole image comprehensively. However, the target usually occupies only a small fraction of the image. This method has high computational complexity for large format visible image data. The bottom-up selective attention mechanism can selectively allocate computing resources according to visual stimuli, thus improving the computational efficiency and reducing the difficulty of analysis. Considering of that, a method of ship target detection in remote sensing images based on visual attention model was proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the computational complexity while improving the detection accuracy, and improve the detection efficiency of ship targets in remote sensing images.

  18. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  19. Targets for the production of radioisotopes and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    A target for preparation of radioisotopes by nuclear bombardment, and a method for its assembly are provided. A metallic sample to be bombarded is enclosed within a metallic support structure and the resulting target subjected to heat and pressure to effect diffusion bonds therebetween. The bonded target is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to nuclear bombardment without thermal damage to the sample.

  20. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  1. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  2. Revisiting ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: a global carbon budget perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, Fabian; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    In this study we look beyond the previously studied effects of oceanic CO2 injections on atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs and also account for carbon cycle and climate feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. Considering these additional feedbacks is important since backfluxes from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere in response to reducing atmospheric CO2 can further offset the targeted reduction. To quantify these dynamics we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to simulate direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean as a means of emissions mitigation during a high CO2 emission scenario. In three sets of experiments with different injection depths, we simulate a 100-year injection period of a total of 70 GtC and follow global carbon cycle dynamics over another 900 years. In additional parameter perturbation runs, we varied the default terrestrial photosynthesis CO2 fertilization parameterization by ±50 % in order to test the sensitivity of this uncertain carbon cycle feedback to the targeted atmospheric carbon reduction through direct CO2 injections. Simulated seawater chemistry changes and marine carbon storage effectiveness are similar to previous studies. As expected, by the end of the injection period avoided emissions fall short of the targeted 70 GtC by 16-30 % as a result of carbon cycle feedbacks and backfluxes in both land and ocean reservoirs. The target emissions reduction in the parameter perturbation simulations is about 0.2 and 2 % more at the end of the injection period and about 9 % less to 1 % more at the end of the simulations when compared to the unperturbed injection runs. An unexpected feature is the effect of the model's internal variability of deep-water formation in the Southern Ocean, which, in some model runs, causes additional oceanic carbon uptake after injection

  3. Impact of Tumor Localization and Method of Preoperative Biopsy on Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping After Periareolar Nuclide Injection.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Julia; Dutschke, Anja; Kaiser, Clemens G; Schnitzer, Andreas; Gerhardt, Axel; Radosa, Julia C; Brade, Joachim; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wasser, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether tumor localization and method of preoperative biopsy affect sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after periareolar nuclide injection in breast cancer patients. 767 breast cancer patients were retrospectively included. For lymphscintigraphy periareolar nuclide injection was performed and the SLN was located by gamma camera. Patient and tumor characteristics were correlated to the success rate of SLN mapping. SLN marking failed in 9/61 (14.7%) patients with prior vacuum-assisted biopsy and 80/706 (11.3%) patients with prior core needle biopsy. Individually evaluated, biopsy method (p = 0.4) and tumor localization (p = 0.9) did not significantly affect the SLN detection rate. Patients with a vacuum-assisted biopsy of a tumor in the upper outer quadrant had a higher odds ratio of failing in SLN mapping (OR 3.8, p = 0.09) compared to core needle biopsy in the same localization (OR 0.9, p = 0.5). Tumor localization and preoperative biopsy method do not significantly impact SLN mapping with periareolar nuclide injection. However, the failure risk tends to rise if vacuum-assisted biopsy of a tumor in the upper outer quadrant is performed.

  4. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Aćimović, Srđan G.; Zeng, Quan; McGhee, Gayle C.; Sundin, George W.; Wise, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1–2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH), or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2, and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control. PMID:25717330

  5. Targeted gene delivery in the cricket brain, using in vivo electroporation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Shidara, Hisashi; Matsuda, Koji; Nakamura, Taro; Mito, Taro; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Oka, Kotaro; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-12-01

    The cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is a hemimetabolous insect that is emerging as a model organism for the study of neural and molecular mechanisms of behavioral traits. However, research strategies have been limited by a lack of genetic manipulation techniques that target the nervous system of the cricket. The development of a new method for efficient gene delivery into cricket brains, using in vivo electroporation, is described here. Plasmid DNA, which contained an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene, under the control of a G. bimaculatus actin (Gb'-act) promoter, was injected into adult cricket brains. Injection was followed by electroporation at a sufficient voltage. Expression of eGFP was observed within the brain tissue. Localized gene expression, targeted to specific regions of the brain, was also achieved using a combination of local DNA injection and fine arrangement of the electroporation electrodes. Further studies using this technique will lead to a better understanding of the neural and molecular mechanisms that underlie cricket behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New conceptual method for directly cooling the target biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yan; Liu, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermia is a commonly adopted strategy to decrease the cerebral oxygen demands, which is critical for the patient to sustain longer time when subjected to a hypoxia. However, when circulatory arrest occurs, the traditional approaches such as selective brain cooling (SBC), systemic body cooling or perfusing cool blood are often not very helpful due to their slow cooling rates in preventing the tendency of a slight cerebral temperature increase at the onset of circulatory arrest. To resolve such difficult issue, a new conceptual volumetric cooling method (VCM) through minimally invasive injection of physiological coolant was proposed in this study. A heat and fluid transport model based on porous medium configuration was established to describe the thermal responses of brain tissues during hypothermia resuscitation. Theoretical calculations indicated that VCM could significantly improve the cooling rate in the deep part of the biological tissues within a desired period of time. To further test this approach, a series of either in vitro or in vivo animal experiments were performed, which also strongly supported the theoretical predictions and indicated that VCM was well appropriate for the localized cooling of target tissues. The concept of the present VCM could also possibly be extended to more wide clinical situations, when an instant and highly localized cooling for the specific organs or tissues are urgently requested. It also raised challenging issues such as injury or negative effect for the clinical operation of this VCM, which need to be addressed in the coming study.

  7. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  9. Method of making foam-encapsulated laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.; Fulton, Fred J.

    1977-01-01

    Foam-encapsulated laser fusion targets are fabricated by suspending fusion fuel filled shells in a solution of cellulose acetate, extruding the suspension through a small orifice into a bath of ice water, soaking the thus formed shell containing cellulose acetate gel in the water to extract impurities, freezing the gel, and thereafter freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into a low-density microcellular foam containing one or more encapsulated fuel-filled shells. The thus formed material is thereafter cut and mounted on a support to provide laser fusion targets containing a fuel-filled shell surrounded by foam having a thickness of 10 to 60 .mu.m, a cell size of less than 2 .mu.m, and density of 0.08 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3. Various configured foam-encapsulated targets capable of being made by the encapsulation method are illustrated.

  10. Reverse screening methods to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongbin; Zhang, Guigui; Zhou, Yuquan; Lin, Chenru; Chen, Suling; Lin, Yutong; Mai, Shangkang; Huang, Zunnan

    2018-05-01

    This article is a systematic review of reverse screening methods used to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds or drugs. Typical chemopreventive compounds include components of traditional Chinese medicine, natural compounds and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Such compounds are somewhat selective but are predisposed to bind multiple protein targets distributed throughout diverse signaling pathways in human cells. In contrast to conventional virtual screening, which identifies the ligands of a targeted protein from a compound database, reverse screening is used to identify the potential targets or unintended targets of a given compound from a large number of receptors by examining their known ligands or crystal structures. This method, also known as in silico or computational target fishing, is highly valuable for discovering the target receptors of query molecules from terrestrial or marine natural products, exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive compounds, finding alternative indications of existing drugs by drug repositioning, and detecting adverse drug reactions and drug toxicity. Reverse screening can be divided into three major groups: shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking. Several large software packages, such as Schrödinger and Discovery Studio; typical software/network services such as ChemMapper, PharmMapper, idTarget and INVDOCK; and practical databases of known target ligands and receptor crystal structures, such as ChEMBL, BindingDB and the Protein Data Bank (PDB), are available for use in these computational methods. Different programs, online services and databases have different applications and constraints. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis and multilevel classification of the computational programs, online services and compound libraries available for shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking to enable non-specialist users to quickly learn and

  11. Reverse Screening Methods to Search for the Protein Targets of Chemopreventive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongbin; Zhang, Guigui; Zhou, Yuquan; Lin, Chenru; Chen, Suling; Lin, Yutong; Mai, Shangkang; Huang, Zunnan

    2018-01-01

    This article is a systematic review of reverse screening methods used to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds or drugs. Typical chemopreventive compounds include components of traditional Chinese medicine, natural compounds and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Such compounds are somewhat selective but are predisposed to bind multiple protein targets distributed throughout diverse signaling pathways in human cells. In contrast to conventional virtual screening, which identifies the ligands of a targeted protein from a compound database, reverse screening is used to identify the potential targets or unintended targets of a given compound from a large number of receptors by examining their known ligands or crystal structures. This method, also known as in silico or computational target fishing, is highly valuable for discovering the target receptors of query molecules from terrestrial or marine natural products, exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive compounds, finding alternative indications of existing drugs by drug repositioning, and detecting adverse drug reactions and drug toxicity. Reverse screening can be divided into three major groups: shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking. Several large software packages, such as Schrödinger and Discovery Studio; typical software/network services such as ChemMapper, PharmMapper, idTarget, and INVDOCK; and practical databases of known target ligands and receptor crystal structures, such as ChEMBL, BindingDB, and the Protein Data Bank (PDB), are available for use in these computational methods. Different programs, online services and databases have different applications and constraints. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis and multilevel classification of the computational programs, online services and compound libraries available for shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking to enable non-specialist users to quickly learn

  12. Reverse Screening Methods to Search for the Protein Targets of Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongbin; Zhang, Guigui; Zhou, Yuquan; Lin, Chenru; Chen, Suling; Lin, Yutong; Mai, Shangkang; Huang, Zunnan

    2018-01-01

    This article is a systematic review of reverse screening methods used to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds or drugs. Typical chemopreventive compounds include components of traditional Chinese medicine, natural compounds and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Such compounds are somewhat selective but are predisposed to bind multiple protein targets distributed throughout diverse signaling pathways in human cells. In contrast to conventional virtual screening, which identifies the ligands of a targeted protein from a compound database, reverse screening is used to identify the potential targets or unintended targets of a given compound from a large number of receptors by examining their known ligands or crystal structures. This method, also known as in silico or computational target fishing, is highly valuable for discovering the target receptors of query molecules from terrestrial or marine natural products, exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive compounds, finding alternative indications of existing drugs by drug repositioning, and detecting adverse drug reactions and drug toxicity. Reverse screening can be divided into three major groups: shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking. Several large software packages, such as Schrödinger and Discovery Studio; typical software/network services such as ChemMapper, PharmMapper, idTarget, and INVDOCK; and practical databases of known target ligands and receptor crystal structures, such as ChEMBL, BindingDB, and the Protein Data Bank (PDB), are available for use in these computational methods. Different programs, online services and databases have different applications and constraints. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis and multilevel classification of the computational programs, online services and compound libraries available for shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking to enable non-specialist users to quickly learn

  13. A new method of small target detection based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Hu, Yongli; Lu, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The detection and tracking of moving dim target in infrared image have been an research hotspot for many years. The target in each frame of images only occupies several pixels without any shape and structure information. Moreover, infrared small target is often submerged in complicated background with low signal-to-clutter ratio, making the detection very difficult. Different backgrounds exhibit different statistical properties, making it becomes extremely complex to detect the target. If the threshold segmentation is not reasonable, there may be more noise points in the final detection, which is unfavorable for the detection of the trajectory of the target. Single-frame target detection may not be able to obtain the desired target and cause high false alarm rate. We believe the combination of suspicious target detection spatially in each frame and temporal association for target tracking will increase reliability of tracking dim target. The detection of dim target is mainly divided into two parts, In the first part, we adopt bilateral filtering method in background suppression, after the threshold segmentation, the suspicious target in each frame are extracted, then we use LSTM(long short term memory) neural network to predict coordinates of target of the next frame. It is a brand-new method base on the movement characteristic of the target in sequence images which could respond to the changes in the relationship between past and future values of the values. Simulation results demonstrate proposed algorithm can effectively predict the trajectory of the moving small target and work efficiently and robustly with low false alarm.

  14. IFPTarget: A Customized Virtual Target Identification Method Based on Protein-Ligand Interaction Fingerprinting Analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Bo; Yu, Zhu-Jun; Liu, Sha; Huang, Lu-Yi; Yang, Ling-Ling; Lohans, Christopher T; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2017-07-24

    Small-molecule target identification is an important and challenging task for chemical biology and drug discovery. Structure-based virtual target identification has been widely used, which infers and prioritizes potential protein targets for the molecule of interest (MOI) principally via a scoring function. However, current "universal" scoring functions may not always accurately identify targets to which the MOI binds from the retrieved target database, in part due to a lack of consideration of the important binding features for an individual target. Here, we present IFPTarget, a customized virtual target identification method, which uses an interaction fingerprinting (IFP) method for target-specific interaction analyses and a comprehensive index (Cvalue) for target ranking. Evaluation results indicate that the IFP method enables substantially improved binding pose prediction, and Cvalue has an excellent performance in target ranking for the test set. When applied to screen against our established target library that contains 11,863 protein structures covering 2842 unique targets, IFPTarget could retrieve known targets within the top-ranked list and identified new potential targets for chemically diverse drugs. IFPTarget prediction led to the identification of the metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2 as a target for quercetin as validated by enzymatic inhibition assays. This study provides a new in silico target identification tool and will aid future efforts to develop new target-customized methods for target identification.

  15. Distal Hemorrhoidectomy With ALTA Injection: A New Method for Hemorrhoid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Hishiyama, Houhei; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection (ALTA) is a useful and less-invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is not a treatment option for external hemorrhoidal diseases, including mixed hemorrhoids. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection involves surgical resection of external piles, followed by injection therapy on internal piles. We report technical details and the short-term results of this procedure in patients with mixed hemorrhoids. Seventy-two patients with mixed hemorrhoids treated between 2010 and 2011 were included. The main outcome measures were the short-term response and complication rates. At 28 days after surgery, the disappearance rate of prolapse was 100%. Three patients (4%) had postoperative complications, all minor in nature. No prolapse recurrence was observed within a median follow-up period of 6 months. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection appears to be a promising treatment option for patients with mixed hemorrhoids. PMID:24833156

  16. Comparison Between the Two-Injection Technique and the Four-Injection Technique in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with Articaine.

    PubMed

    Ertikin, Aysun; Argun, Güldeniz; Mısırlıoğlu, Mesut; Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Kadıoğulları, Nihal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare axillary brachial plexus block using the two-injection and four-injection techniques assisted with ultrasonography (USG) and nerve stimulator in patients operated for carpal tunnel syndrome with articaine. To evaluate which technique is more effective, we compared the onset time, effectiveness, and duration of block procedures, patient satisfaction, adverse effect of the drug, and complication rates of the motor and sensory blocks. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. A mixture of physiologic serum added to articain with NaHCO 3 (30 mL) was injected into the patients' axilla in both the groups. After the blockage of the musculocutaneous nerve in both the groups, the median nerve in the two-injection group and the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in the four-injection group were blocked. In brachial plexus nerves, sensorial blockage was evaluated with pinprick test, and motor block was evaluated by contraction of the muscles innervated by each nerve. The adverse effects and complications, visual analog scale (VAS) values during the operation, and post-operative patient satisfaction were recorded. Sufficient analgesia and anaesthesia were achieved with no need for an additional local anaesthetics in both the groups. Furthermore, additional sedation requirements were found to be similar in both the groups. A faster rate and a more effective complete block were achieved in more patients from the four-injection group. In the two-injection group, the block could not be achieved for N. radialis in one patient. All other nerves were successfully blocked. Whereas the blockage procedure lasted longer in the four-injection group, the VAS values recorded during the blockage procedure were higher in the four-injection group. No statistical difference was found with regard to patient satisfaction, and no adverse effects and complications were observed in any group. Although the multi-injection method takes more time

  17. Management of chronic low back pain: rationales, principles, and targets of imaging-guided spinal injections.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Niemeyer, Thomas; Clasen, Stephan; Wiskirchen, Jakub; Tepe, Gunnar; Kastler, Bruno; Nägele, Thomas; König, Claudius W; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2007-01-01

    If low back pain does not improve with conservative management, the cause of the pain must be determined before further therapy is initiated. Information obtained from the patient's medical history, physical examination, and imaging may suffice to rule out many common causes of chronic pain (eg, fracture, malignancy, visceral or metabolic abnormality, deformity, inflammation, and infection). However, in most cases, the initial clinical and imaging findings have a low predictive value for the identification of specific pain-producing spinal structures. Diagnostic spinal injections performed in conjunction with imaging may be necessary to test the hypothesis that a particular structure is the source of pain. To ensure a valid test result, diagnostic injection procedures should be monitored with fluoroscopy, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. The use of controlled and comparative injections helps maximize the reliability of the test results. After a symptomatic structure has been identified, therapeutic spinal injections may be administered as an adjunct to conservative management, especially in patients with inoperable conditions. Therapeutic injections also may help hasten the recovery of patients with persistent or recurrent pain after spinal surgery. RSNA, 2007

  18. A programmable method for massively parallel targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hopmans, Erik S.; Natsoulis, Georges; Bell, John M.; Grimes, Susan M.; Sieh, Weiva; Ji, Hanlee P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a targeted resequencing approach referred to as Oligonucleotide-Selective Sequencing. In this study, we report a series of significant improvements and novel applications of this method whereby the surface of a sequencing flow cell is modified in situ to capture specific genomic regions of interest from a sample and then sequenced. These improvements include a fully automated targeted sequencing platform through the use of a standard Illumina cBot fluidics station. Targeting optimization increased the yield of total on-target sequencing data 2-fold compared to the previous iteration, while simultaneously increasing the percentage of reads that could be mapped to the human genome. The described assays cover up to 1421 genes with a total coverage of 5.5 Megabases (Mb). We demonstrate a 10-fold abundance uniformity of greater than 90% in 1 log distance from the median and a targeting rate of up to 95%. We also sequenced continuous genomic loci up to 1.5 Mb while simultaneously genotyping SNPs and genes. Variants with low minor allele fraction were sensitively detected at levels of 5%. Finally, we determined the exact breakpoint sequence of cancer rearrangements. Overall, this approach has high performance for selective sequencing of genome targets, configuration flexibility and variant calling accuracy. PMID:24782526

  19. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann [Niskayuna, NY; DeLancey, James Peter [Corinth, NY; Primus, Roy James [Niskayuna, NY; Pintgen, Florian Peter [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  20. Evaluation of a PSMA-targeted BNF nanoparticle construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam Azad, Babak; Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lacerda, Silvia; Foss, Catherine A.; Wang, Yuchuan; Ivkov, Robert; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-02-01

    Early detection enables improved prognosis for prostate cancer (PCa). A promising target for imaging and therapy of PCa is the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which exhibits both expression within the epithelium of PCa cells, and becomes internalized upon ligand binding. Here we report the synthesis of a PSMA-targeted bionized nanoferrite (BNF) nanoparticle and its biological evaluation in an experimental model of PCa. The BNF nanoparticle formulation exhibits properties conducive to targeted imaging such as stealth, prolonged circulation time and enhanced clearance from non-target sites. Optical imaging of the targeted BNF in vivo indicates preferential accumulation in PSMA+ tumors 4 h post-injection, suggesting target specificity. On the other hand, non-targeted nanoparticles exhibit lower uptake with similar accumulation in both PSMA+ and PSMA- tumors indicating tumor access without preferential accumulation. Imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and biodistribution studies of a modified construct indicate highest tumor accumulation at 48 h post-injection [4.3 +/- 0.4 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID g-1)], with tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios of 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.6 +/- 1.2 %ID g-1, respectively. Ex vivo fluorescence microscopy, Prussian blue staining, immunohistochemistry and biodistribution studies confirm enhanced nanoparticle uptake in PSMA+ tumors compared to those not expressing PSMA. The BNF nano-formulation described is promising for PSMA-targeted imaging applications in vivo.Early detection enables improved prognosis for prostate cancer (PCa). A promising target for imaging and therapy of PCa is the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which exhibits both expression within the epithelium of PCa cells, and becomes internalized upon ligand binding. Here we report the synthesis of a PSMA-targeted bionized nanoferrite (BNF) nanoparticle and its biological evaluation in an experimental model of

  1. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S.; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process. PMID:28773830

  2. Changing paradigm from one target one ligand towards multi target directed ligand design for key drug targets of Alzheimer disease: An important role of Insilco methods in multi target directed ligands design.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akhil; Tiwari, Ashish; Sharma, Ashok

    2018-03-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target. So the current AD drug discovery research shifting towards new approach for better solution that simultaneously modulate more than one targets in the neurodegenerative cascade. This can be achieved by network pharmacology, multi-modal therapies, multifaceted, and/or the more recently proposed term "multi-targeted designed drugs. Drug discovery project is tedious, costly and long term project. Moreover, multi target AD drug discovery added extra challenges such as good binding affinity of ligands for multiple targets, optimal ADME/T properties, no/less off target side effect and crossing of the blood brain barrier. These hurdles may be addressed by insilico methods for efficient solution in less time and cost as computational methods successfully applied to single target drug discovery project. Here we are summarizing some of the most prominent and computationally explored single target against AD and further we discussed successful example of dual or multiple inhibitors for same targets. Moreover we focused on ligand and structure based computational approach to design MTDL against AD. However is not an easy task to balance dual activity in a single molecule but computational approach such as virtual screening docking, QSAR, simulation and free energy are useful in future MTDLs drug discovery alone or in combination with fragment based method. However, rational and logical implementations of computational drug designing methods are capable of assisting AD drug

  3. Joint inversion of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection at the Farnsworth EOR field in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Gao, K.; Balch, R. S.; Huang, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the Development Phase (Phase III) of the U.S. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were acquired to monitor CO2 injection/migration at the Farnsworth Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) field, in partnership with the industrial partner Chaparral Energy. The project is to inject a million tons of carbon dioxide into the target formation, the deep oil-bearing Morrow Formation in the Farnsworth Unit EOR field. Quantitative time-lapse seismic monitoring has the potential to track CO2 movement in geologic carbon storage sites. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently developed new full-waveform inversion methods to jointly invert time-lapse seismic data for changes in elastic and anisotropic parameters in target monitoring regions such as a CO2 reservoir. We apply our new joint inversion methods to time-lapse VSP data acquired at the Farnsworth EOR filed, and present some preliminary results showing geophysical properties changes in the reservoir.

  4. Oklahoma's induced seismicity strongly linked to wastewater injection depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincks, Thea; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Gernon, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The sharp rise in Oklahoma seismicity since 2009 is due to wastewater injection. The role of injection depth is an open, complex issue, yet critical for hazard assessment and regulation. We developed an advanced Bayesian network to model joint conditional dependencies between spatial, operational, and seismicity parameters. We found that injection depth relative to crystalline basement most strongly correlates with seismic moment release. The joint effects of depth and volume are critical, as injection rate becomes more influential near the basement interface. Restricting injection depths to 200 to 500 meters above basement could reduce annual seismic moment release by a factor of 1.4 to 2.8. Our approach enables identification of subregions where targeted regulation may mitigate effects of induced earthquakes, aiding operators and regulators in wastewater disposal regions.

  5. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  6. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  7. A fast recognition method of warhead target in boost phase using kinematic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Xu, Shiyou; Tian, Biao; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Zengping

    2015-12-01

    The radar targets number increases from one to more when the ballistic missile is in the process of separating the lower stage rocket or casting covers or other components. It is vital to identify the warhead target quickly among these multiple targets for radar tracking. A fast recognition method of the warhead target is proposed to solve this problem by using kinematic features, utilizing fuzzy comprehensive method and information fusion method. In order to weaken the influence of radar measurement noise, an extended Kalman filter with constant jerk model (CJEKF) is applied to obtain more accurate target's motion information. The simulation shows the validity of the algorithm and the effects of the radar measurement precision upon the algorithm's performance.

  8. An Improved Aerial Target Localization Method with a Single Vector Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Anbang; Bi, Xuejie; Hui, Juan; Zeng, Caigao; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the actual data processing with the use of the existing aerial target localization methods, analyzes the causes of the problems, and proposes an improved algorithm. Through the processing of the sea experiment data, it is found that the existing algorithms have higher requirements for the accuracy of the angle estimation. The improved algorithm reduces the requirements of the angle estimation accuracy and obtains the robust estimation results. The closest distance matching estimation algorithm and the horizontal distance estimation compensation algorithm are proposed. The smoothing effect of the data after being post-processed by using the forward and backward two-direction double-filtering method has been improved, thus the initial stage data can be filtered, so that the filtering results retain more useful information. In this paper, the aerial target height measurement methods are studied, the estimation results of the aerial target are given, so as to realize the three-dimensional localization of the aerial target and increase the understanding of the underwater platform to the aerial target, so that the underwater platform has better mobility and concealment. PMID:29135956

  9. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-01

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  10. Extemporaneously preparative biodegradable injectable polymer systems exhibiting temperature-responsive irreversible gelation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasuyuki; Takata, Kazuyuki; Takai, Hiroki; Kawahara, Keisuke; Kuzuya, Akinori; Ohya, Yuichi

    2017-10-01

    On clinical application of biodegradable injectable polymer (IP) systems, quick extemporaneous preparation of IP formulations and longer duration time gel state after injection into the body are the important targets to be developed. Previously, we had reported temperature-responsive covalent gelation systems via bio-orthogonal thiol-ene reaction by 'mixing strategy' of amphiphilic biodegradable tri-block copolymer (tri-PCG) attaching acryloyl groups on both termini (tri-PCG-Acryl) with reactive polythiol. In other previous works, we found 'freeze-dry with PEG/dispersion' method as quick extemporaneous preparation method of biodegradable IP formulations. In this study, we applied this quick preparative method to the temperature-triggered covalent gelation system. The instant formulation (D-sample) could be prepared by 'freeze-dry with PEG/dispersion' just mixing of tri-PCG-Acryl micelle dispersion and tri-PCG/DPMP micelle dispersion with PEG, that can be prepared in 30 s from the dried samples. The obtained D-sample showed irreversible gelation and long duration time of gel state, which was basically the same as the formulations prepared by the usual heating dissolution method (S-sample). Interestingly, the D-sample could maintain its sol state for a longer time (24 h) after preparing the formulation at r.t. compared with the S-sample, which became a gel in 3 h after preparing. The IP system showed good biocompatibility and long duration time of the gel state after subcutaneous implantation. These characteristics of D-samples, quick extemporaneous preparation and high stability in the sol state before injection, would be very convenient in a clinical setting.

  11. Validated ¹H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Glycerol in Drug Injections.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaxi; Wang, Pengli; Wang, Qiuying; Wang, Yanan; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2018-05-15

    In the current study, we employed high-resolution proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H and 13 C NMR) for quantitative analysis of glycerol in drug injections without any complex pre-treatment or derivatization on samples. The established methods were validated with good specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and repeatability. Our results revealed that the contents of glycerol were convenient to calculate directly via the integration ratios of peak areas with an internal standard in ¹H NMR spectra, while the integration of peak heights were proper for 13 C NMR in combination with an external calibration of glycerol. The developed methods were both successfully applied in drug injections. Quantitative NMR methods showed an extensive prospect for glycerol determination in various liquid samples.

  12. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  13. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  14. Targeted Drug Delivery in the Suprachoroidal Space by Swollen Hydrogel Pushing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hwan; Desit, Patcharin; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle. Distribution of particles in the eye was determined by microscopy. Results During injection, the particle formulation was pushed toward the middle of the SCS by the viscous hydrogel formulation, but less than 12% of particles reached the posterior SCS. After injection, the particle formulation was pushed further toward the macula and optic nerve in the posterior SCS by hydrogel swelling and spreading. Heating the eye to 37°C, or injecting in vivo decreased viscosity and mechanical strength of the hydrogel, thereby allowing it to swell and flow further in the SCS. A high salt concentration (9% NaCl) in the hydrogel formulation further increased hydrogel swelling due to osmotic flow into the hydrogel. In this way, up to 76% of particles were delivered to the posterior SCS from an injection made near the limbus. Conclusions This study shows that model drug particles can be targeted to the posterior SCS by HA hydrogel swelling and pushing without particle functionalization or administering external driving forces. PMID:29677369

  15. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  16. Engineered Lentivector Targeting of Dendritic Cells for In Vivo Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Yang, Haiguang; Rideout, Kendra; Cho, Taehoon; Joo, Kye il; Ziegler, Leslie; Elliot, Abigail; Walls, Anthony; Yu, Dongzi; Baltimore, David; Wang, Pin

    2008-01-01

    We report a method of inducing antigen production in dendritic cells (DCs) by in vivo targeting with lentiviral vectors that specifically bind to the DC surface protein, DC-SIGN. To target the DCs, the lentivector was enveloped with a viral glycoprotein from Sindbis virus, engineered to be DC-SIGN-specific. In vitro, this lentivector specifically transduced DCs and induced DC maturation. A remarkable frequency (up to 12%) of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+ T cells and a significant antibody response were observed 2 weeks following injection of a targeted lentiviral vector encoding an OVA transgene into naïve mice. These mice were solidly protected against the growth of the OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor and this methodology could even induce regression of an established tumor. Thus, lentiviral vectors targeting DCs provide a simple method of producing effective immunity and may provide an alternative route for immunization with protein antigens. PMID:18297056

  17. [On the history of injection].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2006-01-01

    Although the effect of snake bites and poisoned arrows was known from ancient time, the development of the syringe and the needle lasted several centuries. Forms of intravenous injection and infusion are clearly documented in the 1650s. Sir Christopher Wren used a syringe made of animal bladder fixed to a goose quill to inject wine and opium into the veins of dogs. J.D. Major from Kiel and J.S. Elsholtz from Berlin probably were the first to deliberately administer intravenous injections to people in the 1660s. However, these early injections were not successful and injections did not come into fashion again until the latter part of the 1800s. Forerunners of subcutaneous administration were either the introduction of the drug under the epidermis by means of a vaccination-lancet or the application of a vesicant to remove the epidermis, after which the drug was applied to the denuded cutis. Lafargue, Lembert and Lesieur described these methods in the first half of the 1800s, and the methods continued to be of use in the second part of the century until the advent of subcutaneous injection. Alexander Wood of Edinburgh and Charles-Gabriel Pravaz from Lyon are known commonly as the inventors of the syringe for subcutaneous injection, but other pioneers such as Taylor, Washington and Rynd had already begun this form of administration. Increased use, safety and accuracy were accomplished by the progressive steps introduced by Wood, Pravaz and Luer. Thus, the syringe of Luer was fitted for aseptic heating, and a sharp needle readily perforated the skin. Sterilization by heating in an autoclave was developed by Pasteur, Chamberland and Koch, after managing aseptic conditions by the addition of preservatives such as carbolic acid. A safe method for the storage of sterile injectates was provided by Limousin's ampoule from 1886, and later by the introduction of multi-dose containers. The evolution of the syringe and its needle continues with the introduction of transdermal

  18. Fabrication and evaluation of SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles for liver targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Hui, Chu; Zhang-Qi, Feng; Qian, Xu; Jiang-Qiang, Xiao; Xian-Wen, Yuan; Xi-Tai, Sun

    2017-03-01

    Objective. SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for liver targeting were synthesized by electrospraying technique, and its biocompatibility and liver targeting effect were evaluated. Method. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles were constructed and its morphology was observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hepatocytes were harvested and cocultured with the nanoparticles, and the albumin secretion and urea synthesis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also measured. Finally, the nanoparticles were injected intravenously through the caudal vein of rat, and its liver targeting effect was evaluated. Result. SEM showed the nanoparticles distributed uniformly, with an average diameter of 100 nm and a regular spherical shape. There was no significant difference in urea synthesis, albumin secretion, concentration of LDH and TNF-α between two groups (p > 0.05). The nanoparticles were significantly accumulated in the liver tissue after its injection, but seldom fluorescence signals were observed in the lung, spleen, heart and kidney. Conclusion. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles showed uniform distribution, good biocompatibility and liver targeting effect, and suggested its potential application as a liver targeting delivery system.

  19. Relationship Between the Provision of Injection Services in Ambulatory Physician Offices and Prescribing Injectable Medicines.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Naeimeh; Rashidian, Arash; Soleymani, Fatemeh; Kebriaeezade, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Overuse of injections is a common problem in many low-income and middle income countries. While cultural factors and attitudes of both physicians and patients are important factors, physicians› financial intensives may play an important role in overprescribing of injections. This study was designed to assess the effects of providing injection- services in physicians› ambulatory offices on prescribing injectable medicines. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran in 2012 -2013and included a random sample of general physicians, pediatricians and infectious disease specialists. We collected data on the provision of injection services in or in proximity of physician offices, and obtained data from physicians› prescriptions in the previous three-month period. We analyzed the data using ANOVA, Student›s t-test and linear regression methods. We obtained complete data from 465 of 600 sampled physicians. Overall 41.9% of prescriptions contained injectable medicines. 75% of physicians offered injection services in their offices. Male physicians and general physicians were more likely to offer the services, and more likely to prescribe injectables. We observed a clear linear relationship between the injection service working hours and the proportion of prescriptions containing injectables (p-value<0.001). Providing injection service in the office was directly linked with the proportion of prescriptions containing injectables. While provision of injection services may provide a direct financial benefit to physicians, it is unlikely to be able to substantially reduce injectable medicines› prescription without addressing the issue.

  20. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  1. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A gravimetric simplified method for nucleated marrow cell counting using an injection needle.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Toshiki; Fang, Liu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2005-08-01

    A simplified gravimetric marrow cell counting method for rats is proposed for a regular screening method. After fresh bone marrow was aspirated by an injection needle, the marrow cells were suspended in carbonate buffered saline. The nucleated marrow cell count (NMC) was measured by an automated multi-blood cell analyzer. When this gravimetric method was applied to rats, the NMC of the left and right femurs had essentially identical values due to careful handling. The NMC at 4 to 10 weeks of age in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats was 2.72 to 1.96 and 2.75 to 1.98 (x10(6) counts/mg), respectively. More useful information for evaluation could be obtained by using this gravimetric method in addition to myelogram examination. However, some difficulties with this method include low NMC due to blood contamination and variation of NMC due to handling. Therefore, the utility of this gravimetric method for screening will be clarified by the accumulation of the data on myelotoxicity studies with this method.

  3. Targeted Administration into the Suprachoroidal Space Using a Microneedle for Drug Delivery to the Posterior Segment of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samirkumar R.; Berezovsky, Damian E.; McCarey, Bernard E.; Zarnitsyn, Vladimir; Edelhauser, Henry F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study seeks to determine the intraocular pharmacokinetics of molecules and particles injected into the suprachoroidal space of the rabbit eye in vivo using a hollow microneedle. Methods. Suprachoroidal injections of fluorescein and fluorescently tagged dextrans (40 and 250 kDa), bevacizumab, and polymeric particles (20 nm to 10 μm in diameter) were performed using microneedles in New Zealand white rabbits. The fluorescence intensity within the eye was monitored in each animal using an ocular fluorophotometer to determine the distribution of the injected material in the eye over time as compared with intravitreal injection of fluorescein. Fundus photography and histology were performed as well. Results. Molecules and particles injected near the limbus using a microneedle flowed circumferentially around the eye within the suprachoroidal space. By targeting the suprachoroidal space, the concentration of injected materials was at least 10-fold higher in the back of the eye tissues than in anterior tissues. In contrast, intravitreal injection of fluorescein targeted the vitreous humor with no significant selectivity for posterior versus anterior segment tissues. Half-lives in the suprachoroidal space for molecules of molecular weight from 0.3 to 250 kDa ranged from 1.2 to 7.9 hours. In contrast, particles ranging in size from 20 nm to 10 μm remained primarily in the suprachoroidal space and choroid for a period of months and did not clear the eye. No adverse effects of injection into the suprachoroidal space were observed. Conclusion. Injection into the suprachoroidal space using a microneedle offers a simple and minimally invasive way to target the delivery of drugs to the choroid and retina. PMID:22669719

  4. Computed Tomography Demonstration of the Production and Distribution of Oxygen Gas Following Intratumoral Injection of a New Radiosensitizer (KORTUC) for Patients with Breast Cancer-Is Intratumoral Injection Not an Ideal Approach to Solve the Major Problem of Tumor Hypoxia in Radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoya; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Okino, Kazuhiro; Akima, Ryo; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Yaogawa, Shin; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We previously developed a new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment named Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), which contains hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate for injection into various types of tumors. For breast cancer treatment, the radiosensitization agent was injected into the tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. At approximately three hours after the second or third injection, computed tomography (CT) was performed to confirm the production and distribution of oxygen gas generated from the KORTUC radiosensitization agent by catalysis of peroxidases contained mainly in tumor tissue. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that tumor hypoxia could be overcome by such a procedure and to evaluate the method of intratumoral injection in terms of confirming oxygen distribution in the target tumor tissue and around the tumor to be visualized on dedicated CT imaging. Three-dimensional reconstructed maximum intensity projection imaging of contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare the position of the tumor and that of the generated oxygen. Distributed oxygen gas was confirmed in the tumor tissue and around it in all 10 patients examined in the study. A region of oxygen gas was measured as an average value of -457.2 Hounsfield units (HU) as a region of interest. A slightly increased HU value compared to the density of air or oxygen was considered due to the presence of tumor tissue in the low-density area on 5-mm-thick reconstructed CT imaging. The results of this study showed that intratumoral oxygen was successfully produced by intratumoral KORTUC injection under ultrasonographic guidance, and that tumor hypoxia, which is considered a main cause of radioresistance in currently used Linac (linear accelerator) radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms, could be resolved by this method.

  5. Injection Therapies for Rotator Cuff Disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kenneth M; Wang, Dean; Dines, Joshua S

    2018-04-01

    Rotator cuff disease affects a large proportion of the overall population and encompasses a wide spectrum of pathologies, including subacromial impingement, rotator cuff tendinopathy or tear, and calcific tendinitis. Various injection therapies have been used for the treatment of rotator cuff disease, including corticosteroid, prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, stem cells, and ultrasound-guided barbotage for calcific tendinitis. However, the existing evidence for these therapies remains controversial or sparse. Ultimately, improved understanding of the underlying structural and compositional deficiencies of the injured rotator cuff tissue is needed to identify the biological needs that can potentially be targeted with injection therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  7. Method to Reduce Target Motion Through Needle-Tissue Interactions.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Matthew J; Leibinger, Alexander; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-11-01

    During minimally invasive surgical procedures, it is often important to deliver needles to particular tissue volumes. Needles, when interacting with a substrate, cause deformation and target motion. To reduce reliance on compensatory intra-operative imaging, a needle design and novel delivery mechanism is proposed. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of a multi-segment needle inserted into a pre-existing crack are presented. The motion profiles of the needle segments are varied to identify methods that reduce target motion. Experiments are then performed by inserting a needle into a gelatine tissue phantom and measuring the internal target motion using digital image correlation. Simulations indicate that target motion is reduced when needle segments are stroked cyclically and utilise a small amount of retraction instead of being held stationary. Results are confirmed experimentally by statistically significant target motion reductions of more than 8% during cyclic strokes and 29% when also incorporating retraction, with the same net insertion speed. By using a multi-segment needle and taking advantage of frictional interactions on the needle surface, it is demonstrated that target motion ahead of an advancing needle can be substantially reduced.

  8. Method calibration of the model 13145 infrared target projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianxia; Gao, Yuan; Han, Ying

    2014-11-01

    The SBIR Model 13145 Infrared Target Projectors ( The following abbreviation Evaluation Unit ) used for characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. Test items: SiTF, MTF, NETD, MRTD, MDTD, NPS. Infrared target projectors includes two area blackbodies, a 12 position target wheel, all reflective collimator. It provide high spatial frequency differential targets, Precision differential targets imaged by infrared imaging system. And by photoelectricity convert on simulate signal or digital signal. Applications software (IR Windows TM 2001) evaluate characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. With regards to as a whole calibration, first differently calibration for distributed component , According to calibration specification for area blackbody to calibration area blackbody, by means of to amend error factor to calibration of all reflective collimator, radiance calibration of an infrared target projectors using the SR5000 spectral radiometer, and to analyze systematic error. With regards to as parameter of infrared imaging system, need to integrate evaluation method. According to regulation with -GJB2340-1995 General specification for military thermal imaging sets -testing parameters of infrared imaging system, the results compare with results from Optical Calibration Testing Laboratory . As a goal to real calibration performances of the Evaluation Unit.

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid in apple tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Aćimović, Srđan G; VanWoerkom, Anthony H; Reeb, Pablo D; Vandervoort, Christine; Garavaglia, Thomas; Cregg, Bert M; Wise, John C

    2014-11-01

    Pesticide use in orchards creates drift-driven pesticide losses which contaminate the environment. Trunk injection of pesticides as a target-precise delivery system could greatly reduce pesticide losses. However, pesticide efficiency after trunk injection is associated with the underinvestigated spatial and temporal distribution of the pesticide within the tree crown. This study quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid within apple crowns after trunk injection using one, two, four or eight injection ports per tree. The spatial uniformity of imidacloprid distribution in apple crowns significantly increased with more injection ports. Four ports allowed uniform spatial distribution of imidacloprid in the crown. Uniform and non-uniform spatial distributions were established early and lasted throughout the experiment. The temporal distribution of imidacloprid was significantly non-uniform. Upper and lower crown positions did not significantly differ in compound concentration. Crown concentration patterns indicated that imidacloprid transport in the trunk occurred through radial diffusion and vertical uptake with a spiral pattern. By showing where and when a trunk-injected compound is distributed in the apple tree canopy, this study addresses a key knowledge gap in terms of explaining the efficiency of the compound in the crown. These findings allow the improvement of target-precise pesticide delivery for more sustainable tree-based agriculture. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A Modified Magnetic Gradient Contraction Based Method for Ferromagnetic Target Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Qu, Xiaodong; Pan, Xiao; Fang, Guangyou; Chen, Luzhao

    2016-01-01

    The Scalar Triangulation and Ranging (STAR) method, which is based upon the unique properties of magnetic gradient contraction, is a high real-time ferromagnetic target localization method. Only one measurement point is required in the STAR method and it is not sensitive to changes in sensing platform orientation. However, the localization accuracy of the method is limited by the asphericity errors and the inaccurate value of position leads to larger errors in the estimation of magnetic moment. To improve the localization accuracy, a modified STAR method is proposed. In the proposed method, the asphericity errors of the traditional STAR method are compensated with an iterative algorithm. The proposed method has a fast convergence rate which meets the requirement of high real-time localization. Simulations and field experiments have been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results indicate that target parameters estimated by the modified STAR method are more accurate than the traditional STAR method. PMID:27999322

  11. Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

    2014-05-13

    This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

  12. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Convective Heating of the LIFE Engine Target During Injection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Holdener, D S; Tillack, M S; Wang, X R

    2011-10-24

    Target survival in the hostile, high temperature xenon environment of the proposed Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine is critical. This work focuses on the flow properties and convective heat load imposed upon the surface of the indirect drive target while traveling through the xenon gas. While this rarefied flow is traditionally characterized as being within the continuum regime, it is approaching transition where conventional CFD codes reach their bounds of operation. Thus ANSYS, specifically the Navier-Stokes module CFX, will be used in parallel with direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V and analytically and empirically derived expressions for heat transfermore » to the hohlraum for validation. Comparison of the viscous and thermal boundary layers of ANSYS and DS2V were shown to be nearly identical, with the surface heat flux varying less than 8% on average. From the results herein, external baffles have been shown to reduce this heat transfer to the sensitive laser entrance hole (LEH) windows and optimize target survival independent of other reactor parameters.« less

  14. Development of a statistically proven injection molding method for reaction bonded silicon nitride, sintering reaction bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias

    A statistically proven, series injection molding technique for ceramic components was developed for the construction of engines and gas turbines. The flow behavior of silicon injection-molding materials was characterized and improved. Hot-isostatic-pressing reaction bonded silicon nitride (HIPRBSN) was developed. A nondestructive component evaluation method was developed. An injection molding line for HIPRBSN engine components precombustion chamber, flame spreader, and valve guide was developed. This line allows the production of small series for engine tests.

  15. Thick-target transmission method for excitation functions of interaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, M.; Ebata, S.; Imai, S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a method, called as thick-target transmission (T3) method, to obtain an excitation function of interaction cross sections. In an ordinal experiment to measure the excitation function of interaction cross sections by the transmission method, we need to change the beam energy for each cross section. In the T3 method, the excitation function is derived from the beam attenuations measured at the targets of different thicknesses without changing the beam energy. The advantage of the T3 method is the simplicity and availability for radioactive beams. To confirm the availability, we perform a simulation for the 12C + 27Al system with the PHITS code instead of actual experiments. Our results have large uncertainties but well reproduce the tendency of the experimental data.

  16. Imaging the photoinduced charge injection in CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles by the sequential fluorescence mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederice, Rafael; Lencione, Diego; Gehlen, Marcelo H.

    2017-03-01

    The combination of a sensitizer and TiO2 nanoparticles forming a photocatalytic material is a central issue in many fields of applied photochemistry. The charge injection of emissive sensitizers into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO2 may form a photoactive region that becomes dark, or it has a very low emission signal due to the generation of sensitizer radicals. However, by sequential coupling of a selected photoredox dye, such as resazurin, the dark region may become fluorescent at the interfaces where the charge injection has taken place due to the concomitant formation of fluorescent resorufin by cascade electron transfer. Using this strategy and a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) image, the charge injection in TiO2/CdS and SiO2/TiO2/CdS nanoparticles is investigated The method allows the charge injection efficiency of the excited CdS into TiO2 to be evaluated qualitatively, explaining the differences observed for these photocatalytic materials in H2 generation.

  17. Imaging the photoinduced charge injection in CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles by the sequential fluorescence mapping method.

    PubMed

    Frederice, Rafael; Lencione, Diego; Gehlen, Marcelo H

    2017-02-10

    The combination of a sensitizer and TiO 2 nanoparticles forming a photocatalytic material is a central issue in many fields of applied photochemistry. The charge injection of emissive sensitizers into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO 2 may form a photoactive region that becomes dark, or it has a very low emission signal due to the generation of sensitizer radicals. However, by sequential coupling of a selected photoredox dye, such as resazurin, the dark region may become fluorescent at the interfaces where the charge injection has taken place due to the concomitant formation of fluorescent resorufin by cascade electron transfer. Using this strategy and a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) image, the charge injection in TiO 2 /CdS and SiO 2 /TiO 2 /CdS nanoparticles is investigated The method allows the charge injection efficiency of the excited CdS into TiO 2 to be evaluated qualitatively, explaining the differences observed for these photocatalytic materials in H 2 generation.

  18. Significance for secure CO2 storage of earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdon, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The link between subsurface fluid injection and induced seismicity has gained recent significance with an increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. There are obvious similarities between wastewater reinjection and proposed CO2 storage (CCS) operations. However, as well as the seismic hazard, induced seismicity during CCS operations poses additional risks, because an induced event located above the target reservoir could compromise the hydraulic integrity of the caprock. In this paper we re-examine case examples where earthquakes have been induced by wastewater injection into deep aquifers in the light of proposed future CCS operations. In particular we consider possible controls on event magnitudes, and look at the spatial distributions of events. We find that the majority of events are located below the target reservoirs. This is an encouraging observation from the perspective of caprock integrity, although it presents a challenge in terms of pre-injection characterization of deep-lying faults several kilometres below the target zone. We observe that 99% of events are found within 20 km of injection wells, suggesting a minimum radius for geomechanical characterization and monitoring. We conclude by making recommendations for modelling and monitoring strategies to be followed prior to and during commercial-scale deployment of CO2 storage projects.

  19. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein themore » fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.« less

  20. Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Lemus, Hector; Wagner, Karla D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Gómez, Rangel María Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (1) sex work prior to injecting drugs, (2) injection drug use, and (3) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e., initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). Design Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. Setting Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. Participants 575 FSW-IDUs aged ≥18. Measurements Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. Findings Nearly half (n=256) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n=163) initiated injection first, and a quarter (n=136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. Conclusions Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work, and one quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention. PMID:22775475

  1. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  2. Hepatitis A prevalence among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Fisher, Dennis; Fenaughty, Andrea; Cagle, Henry; Jaffe, Adi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a descriptive model of the association between injection drug use and hepatitis A (HAV) in a sample of injection drug users (IDUs). From May 1997 to July 1999, 493 subjects were administered the NIDA Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA). Participants had blood drawn; sera were tested for antibodies to HAV, hepatitis B core (HBcAB), and hepatitis C. The principal method of analysis was logistic regression. The study took place in a community-based field station in Anchorage, Alaska. Eligibility was determined using the following criteria: a) age greater than 17 years, b) possession of picture identification, c) positive urinalysis for cocaine metabolites, morphine, and/or amphetamines using the ONTRAK system (Roche Diagnostics), and d) injection drug use in the last six months as confirmed by presentation of track marks. Presence of antibodies to HAV infection. The prevalence of total HAV antibody in our sample was 33% (161/493). The final multivariate logistic model, using positive HAV serostatus as the outcome, included positive HBcAB serostatus (OR = 3.43; 95% CI, 2.22-5.30), less than high school education (vs. high school or greater education) (OR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.33-3.17), age (OR = 1.06 (each year); 95% CI, 1.03-1.09), number of days injected heroin in the last 30 days (OR = 1.05 (each day), 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), and race (White vs. all other race/ethnicities) (OR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.75). A model including both demographic and drug use variables best describes HAV prevalence in this sample. Findings suggest that IDUs are targets for interventions focusing on hepatitis vaccinations and hygiene practices. Further research is needed to understand the association of HAV with hepatitis B infection.

  3. Intra-articular corticoid injection induces circulating glucocorticoid bioactivity and systemic immune activation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, H; Tamm, K; Vaarala, O; Sidoroff, M; Honkanen, V; Raivio, T; Jänne, Oa; Kolho, K-L

    2011-01-01

    To study the systemic effects of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoid (GC) injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The study group comprised 21 JIA patients being treated with IA methylprednisolone [MP (n = 15) or MP plus triamcinolone hexacetonide (THA) (n = 6)] prescribed on clinical indications. The systemic effect of MP was assessed by measuring circulating glucocorticoid bioactivity (GBA) with a recombinant cell transactivation assay 7 and 24 h after the IA injections, and after 2 months. The systemic immunological responses were studied with a novel assay for testing patient serum-induced changes in the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-5 from target cells. Administration of IA GC induced serum GBA (p = 0.001) and suppressed circulating cortisol levels (p = 0.002) 7 h after the injection. Serum withdrawn 24 h after the IA injection induced less IL-5 secretion from mitogen-activated target cells when compared with pre-treatment sera (p = 0.036). This decrease in target cell T helper (Th)2 response (IL-5) was MP dose related (r = -0.550, p = 0.018). High IL-5 secretion from target cells prior to the IA injections was associated with good clinical outcome at 2 months, seen as a low number of active (p = 0.044) and restricted joints (p = 0.049). IA GC injections have systemic effects that are reflected in the serum as an immediate elevation of GBA, a decrease of endogenous cortisol as well as a suppressive effect of patient serum on target cell IL-5 secretion. These systemic effects may play a role in the attenuation of disease activity.

  4. Arthritis imaging using a near-infrared fluorescence folate-targeted probe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Tsung; Mahmood, Umar; Weissleder, Ralph; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently developed near-infrared fluorescence-labeled folate probe (NIR2-folate) was tested for in vivo imaging of arthritis using a lipopolysaccharide intra-articular injection model and a KRN transgenic mice serum induction mouse model. In the lipopolysaccharide injection model, the fluorescence signal intensity of NIR2-folate (n = 12) and of free NIR2 (n = 5) was compared between lipopolysaccharide-treated and control joints. The fluorescence signal intensity of the NIR2-folate probe at the inflammatory joints was found to be significantly higher than the control normal joints (up to 2.3-fold, P < 0.001). The NIR2-free dye injection group showed a persistent lower enhancement ratio than the NIR2-folate probe injection group. Excessive folic acid was also given to demonstrate a competitive effect with the NIR2-folate. In the KRN serum transfer model (n = 4), NIR2-folate was applied at different time points after serum transfer, and the inflamed joints could be detected as early as 30 hours after arthritogenic antibody transfer (1.8-fold increase in signal intensity). Fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry validated the optical imaging results. We conclude that in vivo arthritis detection was feasible using a folate-targeted near-infrared fluorescence probe. This receptor-targeted imaging method may facilitate improved arthritis diagnosis and early assessment of the disease progress by providing an in vivo characterization of active macrophage status in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:15743478

  5. Predictors of injection drug use cessation and relapse in a prospective cohort of young injection drug users in San Francisco, CA (UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Page, Kimberly

    2009-05-01

    Studies of injection drug use cessation have largely sampled adults in drug treatment settings. Little is known about injection cessation and relapse among young injection drug users (IDU) in the community. A total of 365 HCV-negative IDU under age 30 years were recruited by street outreach and interviewed quarterly for a prospective cohort between January 2000 and February 2008. Participants were followed for a total of 638 person-years and 1996 visits. We used survival analysis techniques to identify correlates of injection cessation (> or =3 months) and relapse to injection. 67% of subjects were male, median age was 22 years (interquartile range (IQR) 20-26) and median years injecting was 3.6 (IQR 1.3-6.5). 28.8% ceased injecting during the follow-up period. Among those that ceased injecting, nearly one-half resumed drug injection on subsequent visits, one-quarter maintained injecting cessation, and one-quarter were lost to follow-up. Participating in a drug treatment program in the last 3 months and injecting less than 30 times per month were associated with injection cessation. Injecting heroin or heroin mixed with other drugs, injecting the residue from previously used drug preparation equipment, drinking alcohol, and using benzodiazepines were negatively associated with cessation. Younger age was associated with relapse to injection. These results suggest that factors associated with stopping injecting involve multiple areas of intervention, including access to drug treatment and behavioral approaches to reduce injection and sustain cessation. The higher incidence of relapse in the younger subjects in this cohort underscores the need for earlier detection and treatment programs targeted to adolescents and transition-age youth.

  6. A method for automatically optimizing medical devices for treating heart failure: designing polymeric injection patterns.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jonathan F; Wall, Samuel T; Peterson, Robert C; Helgerson, Sam L; Sabbah, Hani N; Burger, Mike; Stander, Nielen; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2009-12-01

    Heart failure continues to present a significant medical and economic burden throughout the developed world. Novel treatments involving the injection of polymeric materials into the myocardium of the failing left ventricle (LV) are currently being developed, which may reduce elevated myofiber stresses during the cardiac cycle and act to retard the progression of heart failure. A finite element (FE) simulation-based method was developed in this study that can automatically optimize the injection pattern of the polymeric "inclusions" according to a specific objective function, using commercially available software tools. The FE preprocessor TRUEGRID((R)) was used to create a parametric axisymmetric LV mesh matched to experimentally measured end-diastole and end-systole metrics from dogs with coronary microembolization-induced heart failure. Passive and active myocardial material properties were defined by a pseudo-elastic-strain energy function and a time-varying elastance model of active contraction, respectively, that were implemented in the FE software LS-DYNA. The companion optimization software LS-OPT was used to communicate directly with TRUEGRID((R)) to determine FE model parameters, such as defining the injection pattern and inclusion characteristics. The optimization resulted in an intuitive optimal injection pattern (i.e., the one with the greatest number of inclusions) when the objective function was weighted to minimize mean end-diastolic and end-systolic myofiber stress and ignore LV stroke volume. In contrast, the optimization resulted in a nonintuitive optimal pattern (i.e., 3 inclusions longitudinallyx6 inclusions circumferentially) when both myofiber stress and stroke volume were incorporated into the objective function with different weights.

  7. The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: Balancing competing risks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean L.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors. PMID:21498004

  8. Identification of novel plant peroxisomal targeting signals by a combination of machine learning methods and in vivo subcellular targeting analyses.

    PubMed

    Lingner, Thomas; Kataya, Amr R; Antonicelli, Gerardo E; Benichou, Aline; Nilssen, Kjersti; Chen, Xiong-Yan; Siemsen, Tanja; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Meinicke, Peter; Reumann, Sigrun

    2011-04-01

    In the postgenomic era, accurate prediction tools are essential for identification of the proteomes of cell organelles. Prediction methods have been developed for peroxisome-targeted proteins in animals and fungi but are missing specifically for plants. For development of a predictor for plant proteins carrying peroxisome targeting signals type 1 (PTS1), we assembled more than 2500 homologous plant sequences, mainly from EST databases. We applied a discriminative machine learning approach to derive two different prediction methods, both of which showed high prediction accuracy and recognized specific targeting-enhancing patterns in the regions upstream of the PTS1 tripeptides. Upon application of these methods to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 392 gene models were predicted to be peroxisome targeted. These predictions were extensively tested in vivo, resulting in a high experimental verification rate of Arabidopsis proteins previously not known to be peroxisomal. The prediction methods were able to correctly infer novel PTS1 tripeptides, which even included novel residues. Twenty-three newly predicted PTS1 tripeptides were experimentally confirmed, and a high variability of the plant PTS1 motif was discovered. These prediction methods will be instrumental in identifying low-abundance and stress-inducible peroxisomal proteins and defining the entire peroxisomal proteome of Arabidopsis and agronomically important crop plants.

  9. Infrared dim small target segmentation method based on ALI-PCNN model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shangnan; Song, Yong; Zhao, Yufei; Li, Yun; Li, Xu; Jiang, Yurong; Li, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) is improved by Adaptive Lateral Inhibition (ALI), while a method of infrared (IR) dim small target segmentation based on ALI-PCNN model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the feeding input signal is modulated by lateral inhibition network to suppress background. Then, the linking input is modulated by ALI, and linking weight matrix is generated adaptively by calculating ALI coefficient of each pixel. Finally, the binary image is generated through the nonlinear modulation and the pulse generator in PCNN. The experimental results show that the segmentation effect as well as the values of contrast across region and uniformity across region of the proposed method are better than the OTSU method, maximum entropy method, the methods based on conventional PCNN and visual attention, and the proposed method has excellent performance in extracting IR dim small target from complex background.

  10. A novel infrared small moving target detection method based on tracking interest points under complicated background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiabin; Huang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Yongbin; Bai, Shengjian; Xu, Wanying

    2014-07-01

    Infrared moving target detection is an important part of infrared technology. We introduce a novel infrared small moving target detection method based on tracking interest points under complicated background. Firstly, Difference of Gaussians (DOG) filters are used to detect a group of interest points (including the moving targets). Secondly, a sort of small targets tracking method inspired by Human Visual System (HVS) is used to track these interest points for several frames, and then the correlations between interest points in the first frame and the last frame are obtained. Last, a new clustering method named as R-means is proposed to divide these interest points into two groups according to the correlations, one is target points and another is background points. In experimental results, the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR) and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves are computed experimentally to compare the performances of the proposed method and other five sophisticated methods. From the results, the proposed method shows a better discrimination of targets and clutters and has a lower false alarm rate than the existing moving target detection methods.

  11. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  12. Utility of Vibratory Stimulation for Reducing Intraoral Injection Pain.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ozgur; Sinsawat, Anatachai; Pawa, Sudeep; Rintanalert, Duangtawan; Vuddhakanok, Suchada

    2018-01-01

    Intraoral local anesthesia injection is often perceived as a painful and anxiety-causing dental procedure. Vibration stimulus is one of the nonpharmacologic methods used to reduce unwanted sensations of local anesthesia injection. This clinical study evaluated the effectiveness of a recently introduced vibratory stimulation device in intraoral local anesthesia administration. Thirty-two subjects underwent 2 maxillary local anesthesia injections in 2 different sessions: 1 with conventional techniques and 1 with the aid of a vibratory stimulation device (DentalVibe). The pain levels were evaluated with a visual analog scale and the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. The subjects were asked to choose the preferred method for future injections. The data were evaluated statistically. There were no significant differences between the 2 injection methods with regard to either pain evaluation method. The preference of the subjects regarding future injection technique was evenly distributed between the groups. The vibratory stimulation device used in this study did not provide any reduction in pain level associated with maxillary infiltration local anesthesia administration.

  13. 2D hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas target for density down-ramp injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, O.; Lopes, N. C.; Cole, J. M.; Kamperidis, C.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Osterhoff, J.; Poder, K.; Rusby, D.; Symes, D. R.; Warwick, J.; Wood, J. C.; Palmer, C. A. J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas cell were performed using the open source fluid code OpenFOAM. The gas cell was designed to study controlled injection of electrons into a laser-driven wakefield at the Astra Gemini laser facility. The target consists of two compartments: an accelerator and an injector section connected via an aperture. A sharp transition between the peak and plateau density regions in the injector and accelerator compartments, respectively, was observed in simulations with various inlet pressures. The fluid simulations indicate that the length of the down-ramp connecting the sections depends on the aperture diameter, as does the density drop outside the entrance and the exit cones. Further studies showed, that increasing the inlet pressure leads to turbulence and strong fluctuations in density along the axial profile during target filling, and consequently, is expected to negatively impact the accelerator stability.

  14. Injection locking method for Raman beams in atom interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Fei; Deng, Jianing; Zeng, Daji; Li, Tong; Sun, Mingli; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method to generate two phase-locked beams with a frequency offset of 6.834 GHz. The output of the master laser is firstly modulated by an electric optical modulator (EOM), and then further injected into an Extended Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL) which is used to filter out the unwanted mode and amplify the laser power. By locking to the first-order lower sideband of the modulated master laser, the average variance of the phase fluctuations is 5.6 x 10-3 rad2 , which implies phase coherence of 99.44% between the master laser and the slave ECDL. The line width of the beat notes is less than 1Hz. For the long term stability, with the delicate design of the electronic controller in ECDL, the phase coherence of the two laser beams can be stabilized over 200 hours without any adjustment. The Raman system is applicable for gravity detection with a preliminary sensitivity Δg/g of 4.5 x 10-7 for interrogation time of 1500 s.

  15. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L

    2014-02-21

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including structure-activity relationships through sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome.

  16. The use of injection-corrosive method in the study of extraorganic bloodstream of human intact stomach.

    PubMed

    Hryn, V H; Svintsytska, N L; Piliuhin, V; Ustenko, R L; Katsenko, A L

    Functional and morphological state of the organs and tissues mainly depends on the adequate blood supply and lymph movement, function of which is integrated by the nervous system. A crucial link in the morphogenesis of the gastric lesions is the intensity of vascularization, as well as the fact that in its venous part the gastric bloodstream is almost entirely included into the portal vein system. Knowledge of the anatomy of the normal human stomach conditions is of indispensable practical value, since they are required for the proper interpretation of the pathological changes occurred in it. To obtain the spatial visual information about the angioarchitecture of the extraorganic bloodstream of human intact stomach deep in the gastric wall. 10 post-autopsy adult total stomach specimens of patients, died for the reasons not associated with manifested gastrointestinal diseases have been analyzed. The specimens were extracted during the dissection together with portions of lesser and greater omentum, and segment of aorta with celiac trunk. To neutralize the acidic contents of the stomach, its cavity was washed by 4% sodium bicarbonate solution with subsequent wash in warm running water. The vascular injection method with subsequent corrosion of soft tissues was used in investigation of gastric bloodstream. On the basis of the investigations the advantages of the countercurrent-crossing method of injection of extraorganic vessels to fill the bloodstream of human stomach have been discussed. Positive results of the suggested technique for morphological study of blood vessels have been noted. The three-dimensional spatial organization of the extraorganic bloodstream of the intact stomach can be studied on the basis of the injection-corrosive casts. Thus, the use of the suggested method enables to obtain the fine three-dimensional reproduction of extraorganic bloodstream of the human stomach. The obtained high-quality casts, in turn, are used for the subsequent

  17. Monitoring benthic aIgal communides: A comparison of targeted and coefficient sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Matthew S.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2009-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate sample unit is a fundamental decision in the design of ecological studies. While numerous methods have been developed to estimate organism abundance, they differ in cost, accuracy and precision.Using both field data and computer simulation modeling, we evaluated the costs and benefits associated with two methods commonly used to sample benthic organisms in temperate kelp forests. One of these methods, the Targeted Sampling method, relies on different sample units, each "targeted" for a specific species or group of species while the other method relies on coefficients that represent ranges of bottom cover obtained from visual esti-mates within standardized sample units. Both the field data and the computer simulations suggest that both methods yield remarkably similar estimates of organism abundance and among-site variability, although the Coefficient method slightly underestimates variability among sample units when abundances are low. In contrast, the two methods differ considerably in the effort needed to sample these communities; the Targeted Sampling requires more time and twice the personnel to complete. We conclude that the Coefficent Sampling method may be better for environmental monitoring programs where changes in mean abundance are of central concern and resources are limiting, but that the Targeted sampling methods may be better for ecological studies where quantitative relationships among species and small-scale variability in abundance are of central concern.

  18. Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Lemus, Hector; Wagner, Karla D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Gómez, Rangel María Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (i) sex work prior to injecting drugs initiation; (ii) injection drug use prior to sex work initiation; and (iii) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e. initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-US border. A total of 557 FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years. Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. Nearly half (n = 258) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n = 163) initiated injection first and a quarter (n = 136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one-third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work and one-quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Post-injection feasibility study with the reflectivity method for the Ketzin pilot site, Germany (CO2 storage in a saline aquifer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Alexandra; Kempka, Thomas; Huang, Fei; Diersch [Gil], Magdalena; Lüth, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    3D time-lapse seismic surveys (4D seismic) have proven to be a suitable technique for monitoring of injected CO2, because when CO2 replaces brine as a free gas it considerably affects elastic properties of porous media. Forward modeling of a 4D seismic response to the CO2-fluid substitution in a storage reservoir is an inevitable step in such studies. At the Ketzin pilot site (CO2 storage) 67 kilotons of CO2 were injected into a saline aquifer between 2008 and 2013. In order to track migration of CO2 at Ketzin, 3D time-lapse seismic data were acquired by means of a baseline pre-injection survey in 2005 and 3 monitor surveys: in 2009, 2012 and in 2015 (the 1st post-injection survey). Results of the 4D seismic forward modeling with the reflectivity method suggest that effects of the injected CO2 on the 4D seismic data at Ketzin are significant regarding both seismic amplitudes and time delays. These results prove the corresponding observations in the real 4D seismic data at the Ketzin pilot site. But reservoir heterogeneity and seismic resolution, as well as random and coherent seismic noise are negative factors to be considered in this interpretation. Results of the 4D seismic forward modeling with the reflectivity method support the conclusion that even small amounts of injected CO2 can be monitored in such post-injected saline aquifer as the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site both qualitatively and quantitatively with considerable uncertainties (Lüth et al., 2015). Reference: Lueth, S., Ivanova, A., Kempka, T. (2015): Conformity assessment of monitoring and simulation of CO2 storage: A case study from the Ketzin pilot site. - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 42, p. 329-339.

  20. Wavelength band selection method for multispectral target detection.

    PubMed

    Karlholm, Jörgen; Renhorn, Ingmar

    2002-11-10

    A framework is proposed for the selection of wavelength bands for multispectral sensors by use of hyperspectral reference data. Using the results from the detection theory we derive a cost function that is minimized by a set of spectral bands optimal in terms of detection performance for discrimination between a class of small rare targets and clutter with known spectral distribution. The method may be used, e.g., in the design of multispectral infrared search and track and electro-optical missile warning sensors, where a low false-alarm rate and a high-detection probability for detection of small targets against a clutter background are of critical importance, but the required high frame rate prevents the use of hyperspectral sensors.

  1. An assessment of spacecraft target mode selection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. F.; Aglietti, G. S.; Remedia, M.; Kiley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Coupled Loads Analyses (CLAs), using finite element models (FEMs) of the spacecraft and launch vehicle to simulate critical flight events, are performed in order to determine the dynamic loadings that will be experienced by spacecraft during launch. A validation process is carried out on the spacecraft FEM beforehand to ensure that the dynamics of the analytical model sufficiently represent the behavior of the physical hardware. One aspect of concern is the containment of the FEM correlation and update effort to focus on the vibration modes which are most likely to be excited under test and CLA conditions. This study therefore provides new insight into the prioritization of spacecraft FEM modes for correlation to base-shake vibration test data. The work involved example application to large, unique, scientific spacecraft, with modern FEMs comprising over a million degrees of freedom. This comprehensive investigation explores: the modes inherently important to the spacecraft structures, irrespective of excitation; the particular 'critical modes' which produce peak responses to CLA level excitation; an assessment of several traditional target mode selection methods in terms of ability to predict these 'critical modes'; and an indication of the level of correlation these FEM modes achieve compared to corresponding test data. Findings indicate that, although the traditional methods of target mode selection have merit and are able to identify many of the modes of significance to the spacecraft, there are 'critical modes' which may be missed by conventional application of these methods. The use of different thresholds to select potential target modes from these parameters would enable identification of many of these missed modes. Ultimately, some consideration of the expected excitations is required to predict all modes likely to contribute to the response of the spacecraft in operation.

  2. Analysis and modeling of localized heat generation by tumor-targeted nanoparticles (Monte Carlo methods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanattalab, Ehsan; SalmanOgli, Ahmad; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the tumor-targeted nanoparticles that influence heat generation. We suppose that all nanoparticles are fully functionalized and can find the target using active targeting methods. Unlike the commonly used methods, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the treatment procedure proposed in this study is purely noninvasive, which is considered to be a significant merit. It is found that the localized heat generation due to targeted nanoparticles is significantly higher than other areas. By engineering the optical properties of nanoparticles, including scattering, absorption coefficients, and asymmetry factor (cosine scattering angle), the heat generated in the tumor's area reaches to such critical state that can burn the targeted tumor. The amount of heat generated by inserting smart agents, due to the surface Plasmon resonance, will be remarkably high. The light-matter interactions and trajectory of incident photon upon targeted tissues are simulated by MIE theory and Monte Carlo method, respectively. Monte Carlo method is a statistical one by which we can accurately probe the photon trajectories into a simulation area.

  3. An Accurate Non-Cooperative Method for Measuring Textureless Spherical Target Based on Calibrated Lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Dong, Hang; Chen, Yanan; Zheng, Nanning

    2016-12-09

    Strong demands for accurate non-cooperative target measurement have been arising recently for the tasks of assembling and capturing. Spherical objects are one of the most common targets in these applications. However, the performance of the traditional vision-based reconstruction method was limited for practical use when handling poorly-textured targets. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor fusion system for measuring and reconstructing textureless non-cooperative spherical targets. Our system consists of four simple lasers and a visual camera. This paper presents a complete framework of estimating the geometric parameters of textureless spherical targets: (1) an approach to calibrate the extrinsic parameters between a camera and simple lasers; and (2) a method to reconstruct the 3D position of the laser spots on the target surface and achieve the refined results via an optimized scheme. The experiment results show that our proposed calibration method can obtain a fine calibration result, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art LRF-based methods, and our calibrated system can estimate the geometric parameters with high accuracy in real time.

  4. An Accurate Non-Cooperative Method for Measuring Textureless Spherical Target Based on Calibrated Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Dong, Hang; Chen, Yanan; Zheng, Nanning

    2016-01-01

    Strong demands for accurate non-cooperative target measurement have been arising recently for the tasks of assembling and capturing. Spherical objects are one of the most common targets in these applications. However, the performance of the traditional vision-based reconstruction method was limited for practical use when handling poorly-textured targets. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor fusion system for measuring and reconstructing textureless non-cooperative spherical targets. Our system consists of four simple lasers and a visual camera. This paper presents a complete framework of estimating the geometric parameters of textureless spherical targets: (1) an approach to calibrate the extrinsic parameters between a camera and simple lasers; and (2) a method to reconstruct the 3D position of the laser spots on the target surface and achieve the refined results via an optimized scheme. The experiment results show that our proposed calibration method can obtain a fine calibration result, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art LRF-based methods, and our calibrated system can estimate the geometric parameters with high accuracy in real time. PMID:27941705

  5. A novel spatial-temporal detection method of dim infrared moving small target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Deng, Tao; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Heng; Luo, Song

    2014-09-01

    Moving small target detection under complex background in infrared image sequence is one of the major challenges of modern military in Early Warning Systems (EWS) and the use of Long-Range Strike (LRS). However, because of the low SNR and undulating background, the infrared moving small target detection is a difficult problem in a long time. To solve this problem, a novel spatial-temporal detection method based on bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and time-domain difference is proposed in this paper. This method is downright self-data decomposition and do not rely on any transition kernel function, so it has a strong adaptive capacity. Firstly, we generalized the 1D EMD algorithm to the 2D case. In this process, the project has solved serial issues in 2D EMD, such as large amount of data operations, define and identify extrema in 2D case, and two-dimensional signal boundary corrosion. The EMD algorithm studied in this project can be well adapted to the automatic detection of small targets under low SNR and complex background. Secondly, considering the characteristics of moving target, we proposed an improved filtering method based on three-frame difference on basis of the original difference filtering in time-domain, which greatly improves the ability of anti-jamming algorithm. Finally, we proposed a new time-space fusion method based on a combined processing of 2D EMD and improved time-domain differential filtering. And, experimental results show that this method works well in infrared small moving target detection under low SNR and complex background.

  6. A Simple Method for Amplifying RNA Targets (SMART)

    PubMed Central

    McCalla, Stephanie E.; Ong, Carmichael; Sarma, Aartik; Opal, Steven M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel and simple method for amplifying RNA targets (named by its acronym, SMART), and for detection, using engineered amplification probes that overcome existing limitations of current RNA-based technologies. This system amplifies and detects optimal engineered ssDNA probes that hybridize to target RNA. The amplifiable probe-target RNA complex is captured on magnetic beads using a sequence-specific capture probe and is separated from unbound probe using a novel microfluidic technique. Hybridization sequences are not constrained as they are in conventional target-amplification reactions such as nucleic acid sequence amplification (NASBA). Our engineered ssDNA probe was amplified both off-chip and in a microchip reservoir at the end of the separation microchannel using isothermal NASBA. Optimal solution conditions for ssDNA amplification were investigated. Although KCl and MgCl2 are typically found in NASBA reactions, replacing 70 mmol/L of the 82 mmol/L total chloride ions with acetate resulted in optimal reaction conditions, particularly for low but clinically relevant probe concentrations (≤100 fmol/L). With the optimal probe design and solution conditions, we also successfully removed the initial heating step of NASBA, thus achieving a true isothermal reaction. The SMART assay using a synthetic model influenza DNA target sequence served as a fundamental demonstration of the efficacy of the capture and microfluidic separation system, thus bridging our system to a clinically relevant detection problem. PMID:22691910

  7. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  9. Guidance system for laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1978-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  10. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Spiker, William Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D.; Raich, Annie L.; Skelly, Andrea C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Study rationale: Chronic sacroiliac joint pain (CSJP) is a common clinical entity with highly controversial treatment options. A recent systematic review compared surgery with denervation, but the current systematic review compares outcomes of surgical intervention with therapeutic injection for the treatment of CSJP and serves as the next step for evaluating current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of treatments for non-traumatic sacroiliac joint pain. Objective or clinical question: In adult patients with injection-confirmed CSJP, does surgical treatment lead to better outcomes and fewer complications than injection therapy? Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating surgery or injection treatment for injection-confirmed CSJP. Studies involving traumatic onset or non-injection–confirmed CSJP were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified twelve articles (seven surgical and five injection treatment) meeting our inclusion criteria. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 40% improvement in pain as measured by Visual Analog Scale or Numeric rating Scale score. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 20% improvement in functionality. Most complications were reported in the surgical studies. Conclusion: Surgical fusion and therapeutic injections can likely provide pain relief, improve quality of life, and improve work status. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions cannot be evaluated with the current literature. PMID:23526911

  11. Targeted mutagenesis in sea urchin embryos using TALENs.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Sayaka; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been reported in various animals. We previously described ZFN-mediated targeted mutagenesis and insertion of reporter genes in sea urchin embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that TALENs can induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci of sea urchin embryos. Injection of TALEN mRNAs targeting the HpEts transcription factor into fertilized eggs resulted in the impairment of skeletogenesis. Sequence analyses of the mutations showed that deletions and/or insertions occurred at the HpEts target site in the TALEN mRNAs-injected embryos. The results suggest that targeted gene disruption using TALENs is feasible in sea urchin embryos. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Improving Injectable Medicines Prescription in Outpatient Services: A Path Towards Rational Use of Medicines in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bairami, Firoozeh; Soleymani, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Injection is one of the most common medical procedures in the health sector. Annually up to 16 billion injections are prescribed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of them are not necessary for the patients, increase the healthcare costs and may result in side effects. Currently over 40% of outpatient prescriptions in Iran contain at least one injectable medicine. To address the issue, a working group was established (August 2014 to April 2015) to provide a comprehensive policy brief to be used by national decision-makers. This report is the extract of methods that were followed and the main policy options for improving injectable medicines prescribing in outpatient services. Thirty-three potential policy options were developed focusing on different stakeholders. The panel reached consensus on seven policy options, noting effectiveness, cost, durability, and feasibility of each policy. The recommended policy options are targeted at patients and public (2 policies), insurers (2), physicians (1), pharmacies (1), and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) (1). PMID:27239881

  13. Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0039 TITLE: Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple- Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis...Mar 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer...Tryptophan Catabolism: A Novel Method to Block Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis,” Submitted by Jennifer K. Richer, PhD, University of Colorado

  14. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Matthew D.; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome. PMID:24357181

  15. A novel pretreatment method combining sealing technique with direct injection technique applied for improving biosafety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Gao, Jing-Lin; Du, Chaohui; An, Jing; Li, MengJiao; Ma, Haiyan; Zhang, Lina; Jiang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    People today have a stronger interest in the risk of biosafety in clinical bioanalysis. A safe, simple, effective method of preparation is needed urgently. To improve biosafety of clinical analysis, we used antiviral drugs of adefovir and tenofovir as model drugs and developed a safe pretreatment method combining sealing technique with direct injection technique. The inter- and intraday precision (RSD %) of the method were <4%, and the extraction recoveries ranged from 99.4 to 100.7%. Meanwhile, the results showed that standard solution could be used to prepare calibration curve instead of spiking plasma, acquiring more accuracy result. Compared with traditional methods, the novel method not only improved biosecurity of the pretreatment method significantly, but also achieved several advantages including higher precision, favorable sensitivity and satisfactory recovery. With these highly practical and desirable characteristics, the novel method may become a feasible platform in bioanalysis.

  16. Xander: employing a novel method for efficient gene-targeted metagenomic assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Fish, Jordan A; Gilman, Mariah; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C Titus; Tiedje, James M; Cole, James R

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics can provide important insight into microbial communities. However, assembling metagenomic datasets has proven to be computationally challenging. Current methods often assemble only fragmented partial genes. We present a novel method for targeting assembly of specific protein-coding genes. This method combines a de Bruijn graph, as used in standard assembly approaches, and a protein profile hidden Markov model (HMM) for the gene of interest, as used in standard annotation approaches. These are used to create a novel combined weighted assembly graph. Xander performs both assembly and annotation concomitantly using information incorporated in this graph. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by assembling contigs for one phylogenetic marker gene and for two functional marker genes, first on Human Microbiome Project (HMP)-defined community Illumina data and then on 21 rhizosphere soil metagenomic datasets from three different crops totaling over 800 Gbp of unassembled data. We compared our method to a recently published bulk metagenome assembly method and a recently published gene-targeted assembler and found our method produced more, longer, and higher quality gene sequences. Xander combines gene assignment with the rapid assembly of full-length or near full-length functional genes from metagenomic data without requiring bulk assembly or post-processing to find genes of interest. HMMs used for assembly can be tailored to the targeted genes, allowing flexibility to improve annotation over generic annotation pipelines. This method is implemented as open source software and is available at https://github.com/rdpstaff/Xander_assembler.

  17. Extraforaminal needle tip position reduces risk of intravascular injection in CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Robinson K.; Ghodadra, Anish; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection is a common and effective tool for managing lumbar radicular pain, although accidental intravascular injection can rarely result in paralysis. The purpose of this study is to determine the safest needle tip position for computed tomography (CT)-guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections as determined by incidence of intravascular injection. Methods Three radiologists, in consensus, reviewed procedural imaging for consecutive CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections performed during a 16-month period. Intravascular injections were identified and categorized by needle tip position, vessel type injected, intravascular injection volume and procedural phase containing the intravascular injection. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression testing were used to assess differences between groups, as appropriate. Results Intravascular injections occurred in 9% (52/606) of injections. The intravascular injection rate was significantly lower (P<0.001) for extraforaminal needle position (0%, 0/109) compared to junctional (8%, 27/319) and foraminal (14%, 25/178) needle tip positions. Of the intravascular injections, 4% (2/52) were likely arterial, 35% (18/52) were likely venous, and 62% (32/52) were indeterminate for vessel type injected. 46% (24/52) of intravascular injections were large volume, 33% (17/52) were small volume, and 21% (11/52) were trace volume. 56% (29/52) of intravascular injections occurred with the contrast trial dose, 29% (15/52) with the steroid/analgesic cocktail, and 15% (8/52) with both. Conclusions An extraforaminal needle position for CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections decreases the risk of intravascular injection and therefore may be safer than other needle tip positions. PMID:28097241

  18. Ultrasound-guided Interdigital Neuroma Injections: Short-term Clinical Outcomes after a Single Percutaneous Injection—Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Ronald S.; Ciavarra, Gina A.; Pavlov, Helene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe the procedure of ultrasound-guided Morton’s neuroma and recurrent stump neuroma injections and early clinical outcomes after a single injection. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of 44 percutaneous ultrasound-guided neuroma injections in 24 patients who had completed clinical outcomes questionnaires. A 10-point pain scale [scale of 1 (no pain) to 10 (severe pain)] in a 7-day pain log format was distributed to patients at the time percutaneous neuroma injection was performed. Results Neuromas were clearly visualized with sonography as hypoechoic nodules and were distinguishable from other causes of forefoot pain, such as metatarsophalangeal joint synovitis and intermetatarsal bursae. The sizes of the neuromas injected ranged between 4 and 19 mm. Postinjection, all neuromas displayed increased echogenicity and/or the appearance of fluid surrounding it, confirming localization of the therapeutic mixture. We arbitrarily subdivided the pain ratings into symptomatic (greater than 4) and asymptomatic (less than or equal to 4) for statistical analysis. Average pain level pre injection was 5.2 and average pain level was 3.7 at 7 days post single injection, with 62% of the initially symptomatic patients asymptomatic on day 7 (p < 0.000001). Overall, 76% of the total number of neuromas injected once were asymptomatic on day 7. Conclusion Ultrasound can be used to accurately target Morton’s neuromas and, therefore, appropriately direct therapeutic interventions, with good short-term clinical results. PMID:18751769

  19. Wallula Basalt Pilot Demonstration Project: Post-injection Results and Conclusions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McGrail, Bernard Pete; Schaef, Herbert T.; Spane, Frank A.

    Deep underground geologic formations are emerging as a reasonable option for long-term storage of CO 2, including large continental flood basalt formations. At the GHGT-11 and GHGT-12 conferences, progress was reported on the initial phases for Wallula Basalt Pilot demonstration test (located in Eastern Washington state), where nearly 1,000 metric tons of CO 2 were injected over a 3-week period during July/August 2013. The target CO 2 injection intervals were two permeable basalt interflow reservoir zones with a combined thickness of ~20 m that occur within a layered basalt sequence between a depth of 830-890 m below ground surface. Duringmore » the two-year post-injection period, downhole fluid samples were periodically collected during this post-injection monitoring phase, coupled with limited wireline borehole logging surveys that provided indirect evidence of on-going chemical geochemical reactions/alterations and CO 2 disposition. A final detailed post-closure field characterization program that included downhole fluid sampling, and performance of hydrologic tests and wireline geophysical surveys. Included as part of the final wireline characterization activities was the retrieval of side-wall cores from within the targeted injection zones. These cores were examined for evidence of in-situ mineral carbonization. Visual observations of the core material identified small globular nodules, translucent to yellow in color, residing within vugs and small cavities of the recovered basalt side-wall cores, which were not evident in pre-injection side-wall cores obtained from the native basalt formation. Characterization by x-ray diffraction identified these nodular precipitates as ankerite, a commonly occurring iron and calcium rich carbonate. Isotopic characterization (δ 13C, δ 18O) conducted on the ankerite nodules indicate a distinct isotopic signature that is closely aligned with that of the injected CO 2. Both the secondary mineral nodules and injected CO 2

  20. Wallula Basalt Pilot Demonstration Project: Post-injection Results and Conclusions

    DOE PAGES

    McGrail, Bernard Pete; Schaef, Herbert T.; Spane, Frank A.; ...

    2017-08-18

    Deep underground geologic formations are emerging as a reasonable option for long-term storage of CO 2, including large continental flood basalt formations. At the GHGT-11 and GHGT-12 conferences, progress was reported on the initial phases for Wallula Basalt Pilot demonstration test (located in Eastern Washington state), where nearly 1,000 metric tons of CO 2 were injected over a 3-week period during July/August 2013. The target CO 2 injection intervals were two permeable basalt interflow reservoir zones with a combined thickness of ~20 m that occur within a layered basalt sequence between a depth of 830-890 m below ground surface. Duringmore » the two-year post-injection period, downhole fluid samples were periodically collected during this post-injection monitoring phase, coupled with limited wireline borehole logging surveys that provided indirect evidence of on-going chemical geochemical reactions/alterations and CO 2 disposition. A final detailed post-closure field characterization program that included downhole fluid sampling, and performance of hydrologic tests and wireline geophysical surveys. Included as part of the final wireline characterization activities was the retrieval of side-wall cores from within the targeted injection zones. These cores were examined for evidence of in-situ mineral carbonization. Visual observations of the core material identified small globular nodules, translucent to yellow in color, residing within vugs and small cavities of the recovered basalt side-wall cores, which were not evident in pre-injection side-wall cores obtained from the native basalt formation. Characterization by x-ray diffraction identified these nodular precipitates as ankerite, a commonly occurring iron and calcium rich carbonate. Isotopic characterization (δ 13C, δ 18O) conducted on the ankerite nodules indicate a distinct isotopic signature that is closely aligned with that of the injected CO 2. Both the secondary mineral nodules and injected CO 2

  1. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Sirenda; Perz, Joseph F; Sok, Srun; Som, Seiharath; Goldstein, Susan; Hutin, Yvan; Tulloch, James

    2005-01-01

    Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500), the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85%) of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60) reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60), 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53%) of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe injection practices

  2. A calibration method based on virtual large planar target for cameras with large FOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Han, Yangyang; Nie, Hong; Ou, Qiaofeng; Xiong, Bangshu

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain high precision in camera calibration, a target should be large enough to cover the whole field of view (FOV). For cameras with large FOV, using a small target will seriously reduce the precision of calibration. However, using a large target causes many difficulties in making, carrying and employing the large target. In order to solve this problem, a calibration method based on the virtual large planar target (VLPT), which is virtually constructed with multiple small targets (STs), is proposed for cameras with large FOV. In the VLPT-based calibration method, first, the positions and directions of STs are changed several times to obtain a number of calibration images. Secondly, the VLPT of each calibration image is created by finding the virtual point corresponding to the feature points of the STs. Finally, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera are calculated by using the VLPTs. Experiment results show that the proposed method can not only achieve the similar calibration precision as those employing a large target, but also have good stability in the whole measurement area. Thus, the difficulties to accurately calibrate cameras with large FOV can be perfectly tackled by the proposed method with good operability.

  3. Comparison of electro-fusion and intracytoplasmic nuclear injection methods in pig cloning.

    PubMed

    Kurome, Mayuko; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Murakami, Hiroshi; Takahagi, Yoichi; Wako, Naohiro; Ochiai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Koji; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper methodologically compares the electro-fusion (EF) and intracytoplasmic injection (ICI) methods, as well as simultaneous fusion/activation (SA) and delayed activation (DA), in somatic nuclear transfer in pigs using fetal fibroblast cells. Comparison of the remodeling pattern of donor nuclei after nuclear transfer by ICI or EF showed that a high rate (80-100%) of premature chromosome condensation occurred in both cases whether or not Ca2+ was present in the fusion medium. Formation of pseudo-pronuclei tended to be lower for nuclear transfer performed by the ICI method (65% vs. 85-97%, p < 0.05). In vitro developmental potential of nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with IVM oocytes using the EF method was higher than that of those produced by the ICI method (blastocyst formation: 19 vs. 5%, p < 0.05), and it was not improved using in vivo-matured oocytes as recipient cytoplasts. Embryos produced using SA protocol developed to blastocysts with the same degree of efficiency as those produced under the DA protocol (11 vs. 12%). Use of the EF method in conjunction with SA was shown to be an efficient method for producing cloned pigs based on producing a cloned normal pig fetus. However, subtle differences in nuclear remodeling patterns between the SA and DA protocols may imply variations in their nuclear reprogramming efficiency.

  4. Demonstration of self-truncated ionization injection for GeV electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, M.; Li, S.; Zeng, M.; Hafz, N. A. M.; Chen, M.; Li, G. Y.; Zhu, Q. J.; Liao, H.; Sokollik, T.; Liu, F.; Ma, Y. Y.; Chen, L.M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionization-induced injection mechanism was introduced in 2010 to reduce the laser intensity threshold for controllable electron trapping in laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA). However, usually it generates electron beams with continuous energy spectra. Subsequently, a dual-stage target separating the injection and acceleration processes was regarded as essential to achieve narrow energy-spread electron beams by ionization injection. Recently, we numerically proposed a self-truncation scenario of the ionization injection process based upon overshooting of the laser-focusing in plasma which can reduce the electron injection length down to a few hundred micrometers, leading to accelerated beams with extremely low energy-spread in a single-stage. Here, using 100 TW-class laser pulses we report experimental observations of this injection scenario in centimeter-long plasma leading to the generation of narrow energy-spread GeV electron beams, demonstrating its robustness and scalability. Compared with the self-injection and dual-stage schemes, the self-truncated ionization injection generates higher-quality electron beams at lower intensities and densities, and is therefore promising for practical applications. PMID:26423136

  5. Flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of chloramphenicol based on luminol-sodium periodate order-transform second-chemiluminescence reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ya-Feng; Zhu, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wei; Li, Jie-Li

    2011-01-01

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was observed when chloramphenicol solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate was injected into the reaction mixture of chloramphenicol and alkaline luminol. This reaction is described as an order-transform second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) reaction. The OTSCL method combined with a flow-injection technique was applied to the determination of chloramphenicol. The optimum conditions for the order-transform second-chemiluminescence emission were investigated. A mechanism for OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristics, the UV-visible spectra and the chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of chloramphenicol over the range 5.0 × 10(-7)-5.0 × 10(-5) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and a detection limit of 6.0 × 10(-8) mol/L (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 repeated determinations of 5.0 × 10(-6) mol/L chloramphenicol is 1.7%. The method has been applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Relationships between Induced Seismicity and Fluid Injection: Development of Strategies to Manage Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, Peter; Frohlich, Cliff; Gale, Julia; Olson, Jon; Fan, Zhiqiang; Gono, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    Induced seismicity during or following the subsurface injection of waste fluids such as well stimulation flow back and production fluids has recently received heightened public and industry attention. It is understood that induced seismicity occurs by reactivation of existing faults that are generally present in the injection intervals. We seek to address the question why fluid injection triggers earthquakes in some areas and not in others, with the aim toward improved injection methods that optimize injection volume and cost while avoiding induced seismicity. A GIS database has been built of natural and induced earthquakes in four hydrocarbon-producing basins: the Fort Worth Basin, South Texas, East Texas/Louisiana, and the Williston Basin. These areas are associated with disposal from the Barnett, Eagle Ford, Bakken, and Haynesville Shales respectively. In each region we analyzed data that were been collected using temporary seismographs of the National Science Foundation's USArray Transportable Array. Injection well locations, formations, histories, and volumes are also mapped using public and licensed datasets. Faults are mapped at a range of scales for selected areas that show different levels of seismic activity, and scaling relationships used to extrapolate between the seismic and wellbore scale. Reactivation potential of these faults is assessed using fault occurrence, and in-situ stress conditions, identifying areas of high and low fault reactivation potential. A correlation analysis between fault reactivation potential, induced seismicity, and fluid injection will use spatial statistics to quantify the probability of seismic fault reactivation for a given injection pressure in the studied reservoirs. The limiting conditions inducing fault reactivation will be compared to actual injection parameters (volume, rate, injection duration and frequency) where available. The objective of this project is a statistical reservoir- to basin-scale assessment of fault

  7. Targeted gene deletion of miRNAs in mice by TALEN system.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shuji; Sato, Tempei; Ito, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kato, Tomoko; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Igarashi, Arisa; Kato, Tomomi; Tamano, Moe; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Mice are among the most valuable model animal species with an enormous amount of heritage in genetic modification studies. However, targeting genes in mice is sometimes difficult, especially for small genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and targeting genes in repeat sequences. Here we optimized the application of TALEN system for mice and successfully obtained gene targeting technique in mice for intergenic region and series of microRNAs. Microinjection of synthesized RNA of TALEN targeting each gene in one cell stage of embryo was carried out and injected oocytes were transferred into pseudopregnant ICR female mice, producing a high success rate of the targeted deletion of miRNA genes. In our condition, TALEN RNA without poly(A) tail worked better than that of with poly(A) tail. This mutated allele in miRNA was transmitted to the next generation, suggesting the successful germ line transmission of this targeting method. Consistent with our notion of miRNAs maturation mechanism, in homozygous mutant mice of miR-10a, the non- mutated strand of miRNAs expression was completely diminished. This method will lead us to expand and accelerate our genetic research using mice in a high throughput way.

  8. A speeded-up saliency region-based contrast detection method for small targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengjie; Zhang, Haiying; Bai, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Zhongjun; Zheng, Huihuang

    2018-04-01

    To cope with the rapid development of the real applications for infrared small targets, the researchers have tried their best to pursue more robust detection methods. At present, the contrast measure-based method has become a promising research branch. Following the framework, in this paper, a speeded-up contrast measure scheme is proposed based on the saliency detection and density clustering. First, the saliency region is segmented by saliency detection method, and then, the Multi-scale contrast calculation is carried out on it instead of traversing the whole image. Second, the target with a certain "integrity" property in spatial is exploited to distinguish the target from the isolated noises by density clustering. Finally, the targets are detected by a self-adaptation threshold. Compared with time-consuming MPCM (Multiscale Patch Contrast Map), the time cost of the speeded-up version is within a few seconds. Additional, due to the use of "clustering segmentation", the false alarm caused by heavy noises can be restrained to a lower level. The experiments show that our method has a satisfied FASR (False alarm suppression ratio) and real-time performance compared with the state-of-art algorithms no matter in cloudy sky or sea-sky background.

  9. The Threat of Hepatitis C as an Influence on Injecting Amphetamine Users' Change towards Non-Injecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Jeremy; Richards, Naomi; Lang, Cathryne P.; Davies, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Young injecting drug users are a particularly vulnerable group for Hepatitis C (HCV) infection. One method for minimising the risk of contraction of Hepatitis C for amphetamine users (not widely explored in the research to date) is through encouraging non-injecting routes of administration (NIROA). Self-report data from 150 young injecting…

  10. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    lack of benefit without the side effects for the two others. This failure of effect was not related with BT-A doses injected. This study provides support for using BT-A injections as a symptomatic treatment of periodic laryngeal dyspnea, regardless of the etiologic context. From our data, we suggest that a small starting dose (of around 4 U BT-A Botox ® ) could be enough for a first injection to obtain a good benefit. The target muscle should be determined by the EMG analysis.

  11. Evaluation of the 3-GeV proton beam profile at the spallation target of the JSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Noda, Fumiaki; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2006-06-01

    At JSNS, 3-GeV protons beam is delivered from rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) to the spallation neutron target. In order to reduce the damage of pitting on the target container, the peak current density should be kept as small as possible. In this study, the beam profile at spallation neutron target is evaluated. The phase-space distribution, including the space-charge effect, is calculated with SIMPSONS code. The beam profile on the target is obtained with the transfer matrix from exit of RCS to the target. As for injection to RCS, two methods of correlated and anti-correlated painting are considered. By using anti-correlated painting for injection of beam at RCS, it is found the shape of beam becomes flatter than the distribution by using correlated painting. As other aspect for the study of target, in order to carry out target performance test especially for the study of pitting issue, it is better to have the beam profile variety from the beginning of facility. The adjustable range for the beam profile at the beginning is also studied. Although the beam shape is narrow and the duty is very low, the strong enough peak density is achievable equivalent as 1 MW.

  12. Burst nucleation by hot injection for size controlled synthesis of ε-cobalt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zacharaki, Eirini; Kalyva, Maria; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Sjåstad, Anja Olafsen

    2016-01-01

    Reproducible growth of narrow size distributed ε-Co nanoparticles with a specific size requires full understanding and identification of the role of essential synthesis parameters for the applied synthesis method. For the hot injection methodology, a significant discrepancy with respect to obtained sizes and applied reaction conditions is reported. Currently, a systematic investigation controlling key synthesis parameters as injection-temperature and time, metal to surfactant ratio and reaction holding time in terms of their impact on mean ([Formula: see text]mean) and median ([Formula: see text]median) particle diameter using dichlorobenzene (DCB), Co2(CO)8 and oleic acid (OA) as the reactant matrix is lacking. A series of solution-based ε-Co nanoparticles were synthesized using the hot injection method. Suspensions and obtained particles were analyzed by DLS, ICP-OES, (synchrotron)XRD and TEM. Rietveld refinements were used for structural analysis. Mean ([Formula: see text]mean) and median ([Formula: see text]median) particle diameters were calculated with basis in measurements of 250-500 particles for each synthesis. 95 % bias corrected confidence intervals using bootstrapping were calculated for syntheses with three or four replicas. ε-Co NPs in the size range ~4-10 nm with a narrow size distribution are obtained via the hot injection method, using OA as the sole surfactant. Typically the synthesis yield is ~75 %, and the particles form stable colloidal solutions when redispersed in hexane. Reproducibility of the adopted synthesis procedure on replicate syntheses was confirmed. We describe in detail the effects of essential synthesis parameters, such as injection-temperature and time, metal to surfactant ratio and reaction holding time in terms of their impact on mean ([Formula: see text]mean) and median ([Formula: see text]median) particle diameter. The described synthesis procedure towards ε-Co nanoparticles (NPs) is concluded to be robust when

  13. A chest-shape target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Automatic weapon platform is one of the important research directions at domestic and overseas, it needs to accomplish fast searching for the object to be shot under complex background. Therefore, fast detection for given target is the foundation of further task. Considering that chest-shape target is common target of shoot practice, this paper treats chestshape target as the target and studies target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models. The algorithm computes Histograms of Oriented Gradient(HOG) features of the target and trains a model using Latent variable Support Vector Machine(SVM); In this model, target image is divided into several parts then we can obtain foot filter and part filters; Finally, the algorithm detects the target at the HOG features pyramid with method of sliding window. The running time of extracting HOG pyramid with lookup table can be shorten by 36%. The result indicates that this algorithm can detect the chest-shape target in natural environments indoors or outdoors. The true positive rate of detection reaches 76% with many hard samples, and the false positive rate approaches 0. Running on a PC (Intel(R)Core(TM) i5-4200H CPU) with C++ language, the detection time of images with the resolution of 640 × 480 is 2.093s. According to TI company run library about image pyramid and convolution for DM642 and other hardware, our detection algorithm is expected to be implemented on hardware platform, and it has application prospect in actual system.

  14. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rujiu; Li, Jing; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Wang, Fei; Feng, Yan; Yang, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05) across all treatments. The amino acid (AA) profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05). The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients. PMID:29166671

  15. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rujiu; Li, Jing; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Wang, Fei; Feng, Yan; Yang, Xiaojun; Yao, Junhu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05) across all treatments. The amino acid (AA) profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05). The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  16. Methods, systems and apparatus for optimization of third harmonic current injection in a multi-phase machine

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2012-10-02

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for increasing voltage utilization in a five-phase vector controlled machine drive system that employs third harmonic current injection to increase torque and power output by a five-phase machine. To do so, a fundamental current angle of a fundamental current vector is optimized for each particular torque-speed of operating point of the five-phase machine.

  17. NON-INVASIVE RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF CANCER TARGETED BY GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Jon; Klune, John Robert; Chory, Eamon; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Kanzius, John S.; Nalesnik, Michael; Geller, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Current radiofrequency ablation (RFA) techniques require invasive needle placement and are limited by accuracy of targeting. The purpose of this study was to test a novel non-invasive radiowave machine that uses RF energy to thermally destroy tissue. Gold nanoparticles were designed and produced to facilitate tissue heating by the radiowaves. Methods A solid state radiowave machine consisting of a power generator and transmitting/receiving couplers which transmit radiowaves at 13.56 MHz was used. Gold nanoparticles were produced by citrate reduction and exposed to the RF field either in solutions testing or after incubation with HepG2 cells. A rat hepatoma model using JM-1 cells and Fisher rats was employed using direct injection of nanoparticles into the tumor to focus the radiowaves for select heating. Temperatures were measured using a fiber-optic thermometer for real-time data. Results Solutions containing gold nanoparticles heated in a time- and power-dependent manner. HepG2 liver cancer cells cultured in the presence of gold nanoparticles achieved adequate heating to cause cell death upon exposure to the RF field with no cytotoxicity attributable to the gold nanoparticles themselves. In vivo rat exposures at 35W using gold nanoparticles for tissue injection resulted in significant temperature increases and thermal injury at subcutaneous injection sites as compared to vehicle (water) injected controls. Discussion These data show that non-invasive radiowave thermal ablation of cancer cells is feasible when facilitated by gold nanoparticles. Future studies will focus on tumor selective targeting of nanoparticles for in vivo tumor destruction. PMID:18656617

  18. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogerus, Tomi R.; Huhtala, Kalevi J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR) diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder) and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs) in injection time can be identified.

  19. An infrared small target detection method based on multiscale local homogeneity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jinyan; Qu, Shaocheng; Wei, Yantao; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Lizhen

    2018-05-01

    Infrared (IR) small target detection plays an important role in the field of image detection area owing to its intrinsic characteristics. This paper presents a multiscale local homogeneity measure (MLHM) for infrared small target detection, which can enhance the performance of IR small target detection system. Firstly, intra-patch homogeneity of the target itself and the inter-patch heterogeneity between target and the local background regions are integrated to enhance the significant of small target. Secondly, a multiscale measure based on local regions is proposed to obtain the most appropriate response. Finally, an adaptive threshold method is applied to small target segmentation. Experimental results on three different scenarios indicate that the MLHM has good performance under the interference of strong noise.

  20. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of Yinzhihuang injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Qiu, Hong; Zhu, Zhaorong; Zou, Tangbin

    2015-01-01

    The Yinzhihuang injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been the recent target of increasing interest due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The molecular basis by which Yinzhihuang injection could cure Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) serositis in ducks is unclear. This study evaluated the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Yinzhihuang injection, using disease models of RA-induced infectious serositis in ducks and heptane-induced inflammation in mice and rats. The duck mortality rate was reduced from 60% to 20% and both the inflammatory response and histological damage were ameliorated by treatment with Yinzhihuang injection (0.02 g/kg). Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were elevated while malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and RA growth were inhibited when the ducks were treated by Yinzhihuang injection. In addition, Yinzhihuang injection (0.04 g/ml) effectively inhibited xylene-induced auricle swelling in mice, (demonstrating an inhibition rate of 35.21%), egg albumen-induced paw metatarsus swelling in rats, (demonstrating an inhibition rate of 22.30%), and agar-induced formation of granulation tissue. These results suggest that Yinzhihuang injection ameliorates RA-induced infectious serositis in ducks by modulation of inflammatory mediators and antioxidation.

  1. Development of RNAi methods for Peregrinus maidis, the corn planthopper.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianxiu; Rotenberg, Dorith; Afsharifar, Alireza; Barandoc-Alviar, Karen; Whitfield, Anna E

    2013-01-01

    The corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, is a major pest of agronomically-important crops. Peregrinus maidis has a large geographical distribution and transmits Maize mosaic rhabdovirus (MMV) and Maize stripe tenuivirus (MSpV). The objective of this study was to develop effective RNAi methods for P. maidis. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an essential enzyme for hydrolysis of ATP and for transport of protons out of cells thereby maintaining membrane ion balance, and it has been demonstrated to be an efficacious target for RNAi in other insects. In this study, two genes encoding subunits of P. maidis V-ATPase (V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D) were chosen as RNAi target genes. The open reading frames of V-ATPase B and D were generated and used for constructing dsRNA fragments. Experiments were conducted using oral delivery and microinjection of V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D dsRNA to investigate the effectiveness of RNAi in P. maidis. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that microinjection of V-ATPase dsRNA led to a minimum reduction of 27-fold in the normalized abundance of V-ATPase transcripts two days post injection, while ingestion of dsRNA resulted in a two-fold reduction after six days of feeding. While both methods of dsRNA delivery resulted in knockdown of target transcripts, the injection method was more rapid and effective. The reduction in V-ATPase transcript abundance resulted in observable phenotypes. Specifically, the development of nymphs injected with 200 ng of either V-ATPase B or D dsRNA was impaired, resulting in higher mortality and lower fecundity than control insects injected with GFP dsRNA. Microscopic examination of these insects revealed that female reproductive organs did not develop normally. The successful development of RNAi in P. maidis to target specific genes will enable the development of new insect control strategies and functional analysis of vital genes and genes associated with interactions between P

  2. Xander: employing a novel method for efficient gene-targeted metagenomic assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qiong; Fish, Jordan A.; Gilman, Mariah; ...

    2015-08-05

    Here, metagenomics can provide important insight into microbial communities. However, assembling metagenomic datasets has proven to be computationally challenging. Current methods often assemble only fragmented partial genes. We present a novel method for targeting assembly of specific protein-coding genes. This method combines a de Bruijn graph, as used in standard assembly approaches, and a protein profile hidden Markov model (HMM) for the gene of interest, as used in standard annotation approaches. These are used to create a novel combined weighted assembly graph. Xander performs both assembly and annotation concomitantly using information incorporated in this graph. We demonstrate the utility ofmore » this approach by assembling contigs for one phylogenetic marker gene and for two functional marker genes, first on Human Microbiome Project (HMP)-defined community Illumina data and then on 21 rhizosphere soil metagenomic datasets from three different crops totaling over 800 Gbp of unassembled data. We compared our method to a recently published bulk metagenome assembly method and a recently published gene-targeted assembler and found our method produced more, longer, and higher quality gene sequences. In conclusion, xander combines gene assignment with the rapid assembly of full-length or near full-length functional genes from metagenomic data without requiring bulk assembly or post-processing to find genes of interest. HMMs used for assembly can be tailored to the targeted genes, allowing flexibility to improve annotation over generic annotation pipelines.« less

  3. Drug-target interaction prediction using ensemble learning and dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Ali; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2017-10-01

    Experimental prediction of drug-target interactions is expensive, time-consuming and tedious. Fortunately, computational methods help narrow down the search space for interaction candidates to be further examined via wet-lab techniques. Nowadays, the number of attributes/features for drugs and targets, as well as the amount of their interactions, are increasing, making these computational methods inefficient or occasionally prohibitive. This motivates us to derive a reduced feature set for prediction. In addition, since ensemble learning techniques are widely used to improve the classification performance, it is also worthwhile to design an ensemble learning framework to enhance the performance for drug-target interaction prediction. In this paper, we propose a framework for drug-target interaction prediction leveraging both feature dimensionality reduction and ensemble learning. First, we conducted feature subspacing to inject diversity into the classifier ensemble. Second, we applied three different dimensionality reduction methods to the subspaced features. Third, we trained homogeneous base learners with the reduced features and then aggregated their scores to derive the final predictions. For base learners, we selected two classifiers, namely Decision Tree and Kernel Ridge Regression, resulting in two variants of ensemble models, EnsemDT and EnsemKRR, respectively. In our experiments, we utilized AUC (Area under ROC Curve) as an evaluation metric. We compared our proposed methods with various state-of-the-art methods under 5-fold cross validation. Experimental results showed EnsemKRR achieving the highest AUC (94.3%) for predicting drug-target interactions. In addition, dimensionality reduction helped improve the performance of EnsemDT. In conclusion, our proposed methods produced significant improvements for drug-target interaction prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by off-aligned electron cooling for CRing of HIAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A.; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-08-01

    A new accelerator complex, HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility), has been approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for research in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity of up to 5×1011 ppp 238U34+, the Compression Ring (CRing) needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from the Booster Ring (BRing). However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, off-alignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper, simulation and optimization with the BETACOOL program are presented. Supported by New Interdisciplinary and Advanced Pilot Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  5. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  6. Reduction of pain and anxiety prior to botulinum toxin injections with a new topical anesthetic method.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Richard A; Lavin, Phillip T

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of vapocoolants (topical skin refrigerants) to induce skin anesthesia and relieve patient anxiety and pain prior to cosmetic botulinum injections. A paired (split-face) design was used in 52 patients where patient side (left vs. right) was randomized to receive either vapocoolant spray or no treatment control to test the study hypothesis of better anesthetic efficacy of vapocoolant spray versus no treatment control. A pain and anxiety questionnaire was administered before, during, and after the injections. A considerable percentage of patients either expected pain (35% of naïve patients expected moderate pain) or had experienced pain from their prior treatment (35% had experienced moderate pain). Among naïve patients, 15% had moderate or severe anxiety and among experienced patients, 31% had moderate anxiety. Pain was a factor in delaying the scheduling of cosmetic botulinum toxin treatments in 19% of naïve patients and 31% of experienced patients. Pain reported from actual injections was higher than what was anticipated prior to treatment. There was a significant reduction in pain at injection sites treated with vapocoolant (p < 0.001, paired t test). Overall, 67% of all patients reported that the vapocoolant method had less pain than no anesthesia and 54% preferred vapocoolant for their next treatment. Overall, 6% of all patients would schedule their next botulinum toxin treatment sooner if vapocoolant were available. Vapocoolants represent a safe and effective means to reduce patient discomfort and anxiety before and during botulinum toxin type A treatments for glabellar area indications.

  7. Online control of reaching and pointing to visual, auditory, and multimodal targets: Effects of target modality and method of determining correction latency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nicholas P; Dakwar, Azar R

    2015-12-01

    Movements aimed towards objects occasionally have to be adjusted when the object moves. These online adjustments can be very rapid, occurring in as little as 100ms. More is known about the latency and neural basis of online control of movements to visual than to auditory target objects. We examined the latency of online corrections in reaching-to-point movements to visual and auditory targets that could change side and/or modality at movement onset. Visual or auditory targets were presented on the left or right sides, and participants were instructed to reach and point to them as quickly and as accurately as possible. On half of the trials, the targets changed side at movement onset, and participants had to correct their movements to point to the new target location as quickly as possible. Given different published approaches to measuring the latency for initiating movement corrections, we examined several different methods systematically. What we describe here as the optimal methods involved fitting a straight-line model to the velocity of the correction movement, rather than using a statistical criterion to determine correction onset. In the multimodal experiment, these model-fitting methods produced significantly lower latencies for correcting movements away from the auditory targets than away from the visual targets. Our results confirm that rapid online correction is possible for auditory targets, but further work is required to determine whether the underlying control system for reaching and pointing movements is the same for auditory and visual targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  9. Analytical performance of three whole blood point-of-care lactate devices compared to plasma lactate comparison methods and a flow-injection mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Koch, Christopher D; Crews, Bridgit O; Dietzen, Dennis J; Karon, Brad S

    2017-03-01

    Point of care (POC) whole blood lactate testing may facilitate rapid detection of sepsis. We evaluated three POC methods against both plasma lactate comparison methods and a flow-injection mass spectrometric (MS) method. Nova StatStrip, Abbott i-STAT CG4+ and Radiometer ABL90 POC lactate methods were evaluated against the mean of Cobas Integra 400 and Vitros 350 plasma lactate. POC methods were also compared to a flow-injection mass spectrometric assay measuring lactate in ZnSO 4 -precipitated whole blood extracts. Intra- and inter-assay precision was determined using quality control material. Method comparison included specimens from normal donors at rest, after exertion, and after spiking with lactic acid. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5% for i-STAT and ABL90; but ranged from 3.1-8.2% on two StatStrip meters. Mean (±SD) bias between POC and plasma lactate ranged from -0.2±0.9 (i-STAT and ABL90) to -0.4±1.2 (StatStrip) mmol/L. At concentrations >6mmol/L, all POC methods showed proportional negative bias compared to plasma methods; but this bias was not observed when compared to the MS method. Despite proportional negative bias, all POC methods demonstrated acceptable concordance (94-100%) with plasma lactate within the reference interval (<2.3mmol/L) and >4mmol/L, commonly used clinical cut-offs for detection of sepsis. POC lactate methods demonstrate acceptable concordance with plasma lactate across commonly used clinical cut-offs for detection of sepsis. Due to systematic negative bias at higher lactate concentrations, POC and plasma lactate should not be used interchangeably to monitor patients with elevated lactate concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TINS, target immobilized NMR screening: an efficient and sensitive method for ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Vanwetswinkel, Sophie; Heetebrij, Robert J; van Duynhoven, John; Hollander, Johan G; Filippov, Dmitri V; Hajduk, Philip J; Siegal, Gregg

    2005-02-01

    We propose a ligand screening method, called TINS (target immobilized NMR screening), which reduces the amount of target required for the fragment-based approach to drug discovery. Binding is detected by comparing 1D NMR spectra of compound mixtures in the presence of a target immobilized on a solid support to a control sample. The method has been validated by the detection of a variety of ligands for protein and nucleic acid targets (K(D) from 60 to 5000 muM). The ligand binding capacity of a protein was undiminished after 2000 different compounds had been applied, indicating the potential to apply the assay for screening typical fragment libraries. TINS can be used in competition mode, allowing rapid characterization of the ligand binding site. TINS may allow screening of targets that are difficult to produce or that are insoluble, such as membrane proteins.

  11. Comparison of two methods for selegiline determination: A flow-injection chemiluminescence method using cadmium sulfide quantum dots and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Zarei, Mahmoud; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-01-15

    Two analytical approaches including chemiluminescence (CL) and corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) were developed for sensitive determination of selegiline (SG). We found that the CL intensity of the KMnO4-Na2S2O3 CL system was significantly enhanced in the presence of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). A possible CL mechanism for this CL reaction is proposed. In the presence of SG, the enhanced CL system was inhibited. Based on this inhibition, a simple and sensitive flow-injection CL method was proposed for the determination of SG. Under optimum experimental conditions, the decreased CL intensity was proportional to SG concentration in the range of 0.01 to 30.0 mg L(-1). The detection limit (3σ) was 0.004 mg L(-1). Also, SG was determined using CD-IMS, and under optimum conditions of CD-IMS, calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.15 to 42.0 mg L(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.03 mg L(-1). The precision of the two methods was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L(-1) of SG (n=11). The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) of the flow-injection CL and CD-IMS methods are 2.17% and 3.83%, respectively. The proposed CL system exhibits a higher sensitivity and precision than the CD-IMS method for the determination of SG. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  13. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  14. [Dissemination of medical information in Europe, the USA and Japan, 1850-1870: focusing on information concerning the hypodermic injection method].

    PubMed

    Tsukisawa, Miyoko

    2011-12-01

    Modern medicine was introduced in Japan in the second half of the nineteenth century. In order to investigate this historical process, this paper focuses on the dissemination of information of a new medical technology developed in the mid-nineteenth century; it does so by making comparisons of the access to medical information between Europe, the USA and Japan. The hypodermic injection method was introduced in the clinical field in Europe and the USA as a newly developed therapeutic method during the 1850s and 1870s. This study analyzed information on the medical assessments of this method by clinicians of these periods. The crucial factor in accumulating this information was to develop a worldwide inter-medical communication circle with the aid of the medical journals. Information on the hypodermic injection method was introduced in Japan almost simultaneously with its introduction in Europe and the USA. However, because of the geographical distance and the language barrier, Japanese clinicians lacked access to this worldwide communication circle, and they accepted this new method without adequate medical technology assessments.

  15. Illicit Cosmetic Silicone Injection: A Recent Reiteration of History.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Nicholas R; Compoginis, John M; Luce, Edward A

    2016-10-01

    The injection of liquid silicone for cosmetic augmentation has a history of both legal as well as illicit practice in the United States and worldwide. Recently, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has launched a public awareness campaign through patient stories and various statements in response to the rise in deaths related to this illicit practice. A articular segment of the population that has become a target is the transgender patient group. A brief review is provided of the history of industrial liquid silicone injection, including the pathophysiology to fully describe and review silicone injection injury. Three cases of soft tissue cellulitis and wound necrosis treated at our institution are summarized and a treatment algorithm proposed based on literature review of treatment options and our own experience.

  16. Targeted chelation therapy with EDTA-loaded albumin nanoparticles regresses arterial calcification without causing systemic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yang; Nosoudi, Nasim; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC) is an arterial disease commonly referred as Monckeberg’s sclerosis. It causes significant arterial stiffness, and as yet, no clinical therapy exists to prevent or reverse it. We developed albumin nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) that were designed to target calcified elastic lamina when administrated by intravenous injection. Methods and Results We optimized NP size, charge, and EDTA-loading efficiency (150~200 nm, zeta potential of − 22.89 ~ − 31.72 mV, loading efficiency for EDTA ~20 %) for in vivo targeting in rats. These NPs released EDTA slowly for up to 5 days. In both ex-vivo study and in vivo study with injury-induced local abdominal aortic calcification, we showed that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs targeted the damaged elastic lamina while sparing healthy artery. Intravenous NP injections reversed elastin-specific MAC in rats after four injections over a 2-week period. EDTA-loaded albumin NPs did not cause the side effects observed in EDTA injection alone, such as decrease in serum calcium (Ca), increase in urine Ca, or toxicity to kidney. There was no bone loss in any treated groups. Conclusion We demonstrate that elastin antibody-coated and EDTA-loaded albumin NPs might be a promising nanoparticle therapy to reverse elastin-specific MAC and circumvent side effects associated with systemic EDTA chelation therapy. PMID:25285609

  17. Identifying Minefields and Verifying Clearance: Adapting Statistical Methods for UXO Target Detection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gilbert, Richard O.; O'Brien, Robert F.; Wilson, John E.

    2003-09-01

    It may not be feasible to completely survey large tracts of land suspected of containing minefields. It is desirable to develop a characterization protocol that will confidently identify minefields within these large land tracts if they exist. Naturally, surveying areas of greatest concern and most likely locations would be necessary but will not provide the needed confidence that an unknown minefield had not eluded detection. Once minefields are detected, methods are needed to bound the area that will require detailed mine detection surveys. The US Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is sponsoring the development ofmore » statistical survey methods and tools for detecting potential UXO targets. These methods may be directly applicable to demining efforts. Statistical methods are employed to determine the optimal geophysical survey transect spacing to have confidence of detecting target areas of a critical size, shape, and anomaly density. Other methods under development determine the proportion of a land area that must be surveyed to confidently conclude that there are no UXO present. Adaptive sampling schemes are also being developed as an approach for bounding the target areas. These methods and tools will be presented and the status of relevant research in this area will be discussed.« less

  18. Photographic Study of Combustion in a Rocket Engine I : Variation in Combustion of Liquid Oxygen and Gasoline with Seven Methods of Propellant Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Humphrey, Jack C

    1948-01-01

    Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound-thrust rocket engine. The engine consisted of thin contour and injection plates clamped between two clear plastic sheets forming a two-dimensional engine with a view of the entire combustion chamber and nozzle. A photographic investigation was made of the effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion. From the photographs, it was found that the flame front extended almost to the faces of the injectors with most of the injection methods, all the injection systems resulted in a considerable nonuniformity of combustion, and luminosity rapidly decreased in the divergent part of the nozzle. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that approximately corresponded to the resonant frequencies of the length and the thickness of the chamber. The combustion temperature divided by the molecular weight of the combustion gases as determined from the combustion photographs was about 50 to 70 percent of the theoretical value.

  19. A novel approach to transforming a non-targeted metabolic profiling method to a pseudo-targeted method using the retention time locking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected ions monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Ruan, Qiang; Li, Yanli; Ye, Guozhu; Lu, Xin; Lin, Xiaohui; Xu, Guowang

    2012-09-14

    Non-targeted metabolic profiling is the most widely used method for metabolomics. In this paper, a novel approach was established to transform a non-targeted metabolic profiling method to a pseudo-targeted method using the retention time locking gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (RTL-GC/MS-SIM). To achieve this transformation, an algorithm based on the automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS), GC/MS raw data and a bi-Gaussian chromatographic peak model was developed. The established GC/MS-SIM method was compared with GC/MS-full scan (the total ion current and extracted ion current, TIC and EIC) methods, it was found that for a typical tobacco leaf extract, 93% components had their relative standard deviations (RSDs) of relative peak areas less than 20% by the SIM method, while 88% by the EIC method and 81% by the TIC method. 47.3% components had their linear correlation coefficient higher than 0.99, compared with 5.0% by the EIC and 6.2% by TIC methods. Multivariate analysis showed the pooled quality control samples clustered more tightly using the developed method than using GC/MS-full scan methods, indicating a better data quality. With the analysis of the variance of the tobacco samples from three different planting regions, 167 differential components (p<0.05) were screened out using the RTL-GC/MS-SIM method, but 151 and 131 by the EIC and TIC methods, respectively. The results show that the developed method not only has a higher sensitivity, better linearity and data quality, but also does not need complicated peak alignment among different samples. It is especially suitable for the screening of differential components in the metabolic profiling investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Method for detecting binding efficiencies of synthetic oligonucleotides: Targeting bacteria and insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expanding applications of gene-based targeting biotechnology in functional genomics and the treatment of plants, animals, and microbes has synergized the need for new methods to measure binding efficiencies of these products to their genetic targets. The adaptation and innovative use of Cell–Penetra...

  1. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    PubMed

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  2. Intracerebroventricular Injection of Rats. A Sensitive Assay Method for Endogenous Pyrogen Circulating in Rats (41015)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Rats:1A Sensitive Assay Method for Endogenous Pyrogen Circulating in Rats (41015)1-- / WALTER J.CRITZ ~fI~ U.S. Army Medical Resetirch Inshfute- riak...8217ohn iases. F’oPy Detrick, Frederick. Maryland 21701 OI! Abstract, Intracerebroventricular tics) injection of endogenous pyrogen (EPI into rats causes...the lower the con- in an alteration of the "set-point" for body centration at which the pyrogen can be temperature (2). Endogenous pyrogen is a

  3. Collaborative identification method for sea battlefield target based on deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangdi; Pan, Mingbo; Liu, Wei; Wu, Xuetong

    2018-03-01

    The target identification of the sea battlefield is the prerequisite for the judgment of the enemy in the modern naval battle. In this paper, a collaborative identification method based on convolution neural network is proposed to identify the typical targets of sea battlefields. Different from the traditional single-input/single-output identification method, the proposed method constructs a multi-input/single-output co-identification architecture based on optimized convolution neural network and weighted D-S evidence theory. The simulation results show that

  4. Injectable contraception. New and existing options.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    2000-12-01

    DMPA and MPA/E2C contraception offer women safe, effective, convenient, and reversible birth control choices. The use of DMPA, a 3-month injectable, is characteristically associated with amenorrhea. Lactating women and women in whom contraceptive doses of estrogen are contraindicated can use this progestin-only birth control method. Return of fertility can be delayed in women discontinuing DMPA to become pregnant. In some cases, the use of DMPA also confers important noncontraceptive and therapeutic benefits. A monthly estrogen/progestin injectable contraceptive, MPA/E2C should appeal to women who are concerned about daily pill taking, who prefer regular cycles to amenorrhea, and who find monthly injections acceptable and accessible. As is true for oral contraceptives, MPA/E2C represents an appropriate choice for women who prefer a rapidly reversible contraceptive. Currently, the proposed contraindications for MPA/E2C parallel those for combined oral contraceptives. As MPA/E2C contraception becomes available for American women, clinicians will learn how to best include this new method among the array of contraceptive choices. By individualizing contraceptive selection, counseling, and management approaches based on the relevant behavioral and medical considerations reviewed herein, clinicians can maximize their patients' success with injectable contraceptives. The more innovative that clinicians, family planning agencies, and insurers are in facilitating access to care (including reinjections), the more women will be able to avail themselves of safe, effective, and reversible methods of contraception. In addition to the physician's office or health clinic, other sites at which women might receive contraceptive injections include employee health clinics, college health clinics, or perhaps the pharmacy where the prescription is filled. Self-administration may become an appropriate option for some users of injectable contraception.

  5. Elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pimao; Zhang, Youtong; Li, Tieshuan; Xie, Lizhe

    2015-03-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73% at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92% at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  6. Augmented Reality-Guided Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

    PubMed

    Agten, Christoph A; Dennler, Cyrill; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Jaberg, Laurenz; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers. The radiologists targeted the virtual facet joint and tried to place the needle tip in the holographic joint space. Computed tomography was performed after each needle placement to document final needle tip position. Time needed from grabbing the needle to final needle placement was measured for each simulated injection. An independent radiologist rated images of all needle placements in a randomized order blinded to modality (augmented reality vs CT) and performer as perfect, acceptable, incorrect, or unsafe. Accuracy and time to place needles were compared between augmented reality-guided and CT-guided facet joint injections. In total, 39/40 (97.5%) of augmented reality-guided needle placements were either perfect or acceptable compared with 40/40 (100%) CT-guided needle placements (P = 0.5). One augmented reality-guided injection missed the facet joint space by 2 mm. No unsafe needle placements occurred. Time to final needle placement was substantially faster with augmented reality guidance (mean 14 ± 6 seconds vs 39 ± 15 seconds, P < 0.001 for both readers). Augmented reality-guided facet joint injections are feasible and accurate without potentially harmful needle placement in an experimental setting.

  7. Discontinuation rates and inter-injection interval for repeated intravesical botulinum toxin type A injections for detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Veeratterapillay, Rajan; Harding, Chris; Teo, Luke; Vasdev, Nikhil; Abroaf, Ahmed; Dorkin, Trevor J; Pickard, Robert S; Hasan, Tahseen; Thorpe, Andrew C

    2014-02-01

    To report discontinuation rates, inter-injection interval and complication rates after repeated intravesical botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of detrusor overactivity. Patients with urodyamically proven detrusor overactivity who had two or more botulinum toxin type A injections in the period 2004-2011 at Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, were considered for the present study. Discontinuation rates, complication rates and interval between botulinum toxin type A treatments were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 125 patients (median age 53 years, range 19-83 years) were included in the analysis. The female-to-male ratio was 2.4:1 and median follow up was 38 months. A total of 96 patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity, whereas 29 had neurogenic detrusor overactivity. A total of 667 injections were carried out, with 125 patients receiving two injections, 60 receiving three injections, 28 receiving four injections, 14 receiving five injections, three receiving six injections, three receiving seven injections and two receiving eight injections. The mean interval (±standard deviation) between the first and second injection (n = 125) was 17.6 months (±10.4), between the second and third (n = 60) was 15.7 ± 7.4 months, between the third and fourth (n = 28) was 15.4 ± 8.6 months, and between the fourth and subsequent injections (n = 22) was 11.6 ± 4.5 months. A total of 26% required intermittent catheterization, and 18% developed recurrent urinary tract infections. There was a discontinuation rate of 25% at 60 months. Repeated botulinum toxin type A injections represent a safe and effective method for managing patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity. We have shown that the inter-injection interval remains unchanged up to five injections. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  9. Opto-injection into single living cells by femtosecond near-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng

    This dissertation presents a novel technique to deliver membrane impermeable molecules into single living cells with the assistance of femtosecond (fs) near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. This approach merges ultrafast laser technology with key biological, biomedical, and medical applications, such as gene transfection, gene therapy and drug delivery. This technique promises several major advantages, namely, very high transfection efficiency, high cell survival rate (≈100%) and fully preserved cell viabilities. It is also a promising method to deliver molecules into cells that are difficult or even completely resistant to established physical methods, such as microinjection by glass pipettes, electroporation, and biolistics. In this work, the system for fs NIR opto-injection was designed and built. Successful fs NIR opto-injection has been performed on several cell systems including single mammalian cells (bovine aortic endothelial cells), marine animal eggs (Spisula solidissima oocytes), and human cancer cells (fibrosarcoma HT1080) cultured in a tissue-like environment. The connections between laser parameters and cell responses were explored through further experiments and in-depth analyses, especially the relationship between dye uptake rate and incident laser intensity, and the relationship between pore size created on cell membranes and incident laser intensity. Dye uptake rate of the target cells was observed to depend on incident laser intensity. Pore size was found dependent on incident laser intensity. The conclusion was made that laser-induced breakdown and plasma-induced ablation in cell membrane are the physical principles that govern the process of fs NIR opto-injection.

  10. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Ray A.; Fincke, James R.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    1995-01-01

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  11. A microinjection technique for targeting regions of embryonic and neonatal mouse brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Steve; Truong, Hai; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Giesler, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    A simple pressure injection technique was developed to deliver substances into specific regions of the embryonic and neonatal mouse brain in vivo. The retrograde tracers Fluorogold and cholera toxin B subunit were used to test the validity of the technique. Injected animals survived the duration of transport (24–48 hrs) and then were sacrificed and perfused with fixative. Small injections (≤ 50 nL) were contained within targeted structures of the perinatal brain and labeled distant cells of origin in several model neural pathways. Traced neural pathways in the perinatal mouse were further examined with immunohistochemical methods to test the feasibility of double labeling experiments during development. Several experimental situations in which this technique would be useful are discussed, for example, to label projection neurons in slice or culture preparations of mouse embryos and neonates. The administration of pharmacological or genetic vectors directly into specific neural targets during development should also be feasible. An examination of the form of neural pathways during early stages of life may lead to insights regarding the functional changes that occur during critical periods of development and provide an anatomic basis for some neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19840780

  12. A General Method for Targeted Quantitative Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Juan D; Eng, Jimmy K; Schweppe, Devin K; Cilia, Michelle; Rivera, Keith; Zhong, Xuefei; Wu, Xia; Allen, Terrence; Khurgel, Moshe; Kumar, Akhilesh; Lampropoulos, Athanasios; Larsson, Mårten; Maity, Shuvadeep; Morozov, Yaroslav; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Perez-Neut, Mathew; Pineyro-Ruiz, Coriness; Polina, Elizabeth; Post, Stephanie; Rider, Mark; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Tyson, Katherine; Vieira Parrine Sant'Ana, Debora; Bruce, James E

    2016-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) provides protein structural information by identifying covalently linked proximal amino acid residues on protein surfaces. The information gained by this technique is complementary to other structural biology methods such as x-ray crystallography, NMR and cryo-electron microscopy[1]. The extension of traditional quantitative proteomics methods with chemical cross-linking can provide information on the structural dynamics of protein structures and protein complexes. The identification and quantitation of cross-linked peptides remains challenging for the general community, requiring specialized expertise ultimately limiting more widespread adoption of the technique. We describe a general method for targeted quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked peptide pairs. We report the adaptation of the widely used, open source software package Skyline, for the analysis of quantitative XL-MS data as a means for data analysis and sharing of methods. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the method with a cross-laboratory study and present data that is supported by and validates previously published data on quantified cross-linked peptide pairs. This advance provides an easy to use resource so that any lab with access to a LC-MS system capable of performing targeted quantitative analysis can quickly and accurately measure dynamic changes in protein structure and protein interactions.

  13. Optimization of the multi-turn injection efficiency for a medical synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Yoon, M.; Yim, H.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method for optimizing the multi-turn injection efficiency for a medical synchrotron. We show that for a given injection energy, the injection efficiency can be greatly enhanced by choosing transverse tunes appropriately and by optimizing the injection bump and the number of turns required for beam injection. We verify our study by applying the method to the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) synchrotron which is currently being built at the campus of Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in Busan, Korea. First the frequency map analysis was performed with the help of the ELEGANT and the ACCSIM codes. The tunes that yielded good injection efficiency were then selected. With these tunes, the injection bump and the number of turns required for injection were then optimized by tracking a number of particles for up to one thousand turns after injection, beyond which no further beam loss occurred. Results for the optimization of the injection efficiency for proton ions are presented.

  14. Predicting miRNA targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using an ensemble method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Jin, Hui; Li, Guijun

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to uncover potential microRNA (miRNA) targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) using an ensemble method which combined 3 different methods: Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC), Lasso and a causal inference method (i.e., intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent [IDA]), based on Borda count election. The Borda count election method was used to integrate the top 100 predicted targets of each miRNA generated by individual methods. Afterwards, to validate the performance ability of our method, we checked the TarBase v6.0, miRecords v2013, miRWalk v2.0 and miRTarBase v4.5 databases to validate predictions for miRNAs. Pathway enrichment analysis of target genes in the top 1,000 miRNA-messenger RNA (mRNA) interactions was conducted to focus on significant KEGG pathways. Finally, we extracted target genes based on occurrence frequency ≥3. Based on an absolute value of PCC >0.7, we found 33 miRNAs and 288 mRNAs for further analysis. We extracted 10 target genes with predicted frequencies not less than 3. The target gene MYO5C possessed the highest frequency, which was predicted by 7 different miRNAs. Significantly, a total of 8 pathways were identified; the pathways of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway were the most significant. We successfully predicted target genes and pathways for HNSCC relying on miRNA expression data, mRNA expression profile, an ensemble method and pathway information. Our results may offer new information for the diagnosis and estimation of the prognosis of HNSCC.

  15. Compliance and use behaviour, an issue in injectable as well as oral contraceptive use? A study of injectable and oral contraceptive use in Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Beksinska, M E; Rees, V H; Nkonyane, T; McIntyre, J A

    1998-04-01

    This study examines the compliance, use behaviour and knowledge of method of women using injectable and oral contraceptives in two clinic sites in the Johannesburg area, South Africa. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information in the clients' home language. A total of 400 women were interviewed in the clinics. The mean age of clients was 26.2 years (range 13 to 43 years). Of the clients not wanting to get pregnant, 30.4 per cent of injectable users and 18.4 per cent of oral contraceptive (OC) users had stopped using their method temporarily before returning to the same method (called the nonuse segment) and had not used any other form of contraception during this time. Almost one third of injectable users (31.2 per cent) had been late for their next injection at least once. Although nearly all women using injectables had experienced some menstrual disturbances, over one third (38.5 per cent) had not been informed by the providers about the possibility of these changes. Many women gave the disruption of their menstrual cycle as the reason for the nonuse segment. The majority of OC users lacked information on how to use their method correctly. Nearly all women expressed an interest in obtaining more information on their current method and other available methods. This study shows that compliance is an issue in injectable as well as OC users.

  16. Young women's attitudes toward injectable and implantable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A; Coupey, S M

    1998-02-01

    To assess the potential acceptability of implantable and injectable contraceptive characteristics by young women of diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds. A cross-sectional self-administered survey. The waiting room of three clinical sites: an elite women's college health service, a coeducational state university health service, and an inner city hospital-based adolescent clinic. 328 young women awaiting medical care in one of three clinical sites, aged 13 to 21 years (85% 18-21 years); ethnic distribution differed significantly by site. The majority (83%) were sexually active, and of those who were sexually experienced, 25% had been pregnant. A 47-item questionnaire examining attitudes toward characteristics of injectable and implantable contraceptive methods, menstrual, sexual, and gynecologic history. Sixty-two percent of the sample agreed that they would get an injectable method. There was little variation in agreement to get an injectable method by sexual or pregnancy history. Fewer subjects (24%) agreed that they would like to get subdermal implants and agreement to get an implantable method of contraception did not vary by sexual history; however, ever-pregnant young women (33%) were significantly more likely to agree to implants than never-pregnant subjects (21%; chi2, 4.109; p = 0.04). Seventy-four percent of subjects said they would stop using a contraceptive that caused irregular menses, whereas 65% would stop using a method that caused amenorrhea. An injectable contraceptive method has universal appeal across ethnic, educational, and age categories, whereas implants are less appealing. Irregular bleeding and amenorrhea are poorly perceived side effects of long-acting contraceptives.

  17. Modulating drug resistance by targeting BCRP/ABCG2 using retrovirus-mediated RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ni; Mou, Lisha; Yuan, Jianhui; Liu, Wenlan; Deng, Tingting; Li, Zigang; Jing, Yi; Jin, Yi; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The BCRP/ABCG2 transporter, which mediates drug resistance in many types of cells, depends on energy provided by ATP hydrolysis. Here, a retrovirus encoding a shRNA targeting the ATP-binding domain of this protein was used to screen for highly efficient agents that could reverse drug resistance and improve cell sensitivity to drugs, thus laying the foundation for further studies and applications. To target the ATP-binding domain of BCRP/ABCG2, pLenti6/BCRPsi shRNA recombinant retroviruses, with 20 bp target sequences starting from the 270th, 745th and 939th bps of the 6th exon, were constructed and packaged. The pLenti6/BCRPsi retroviruses (V-BCRPi) that conferred significant knockdown effects were screened using a drug-sensitivity experiment and flow cytometry. The human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR, which highly expresses endogenous BCRP/ABCG2, was injected under the dorsal skin of a hairless mouse to initiate a JAR cytoma. After injecting V-BCRPi-infected JAR tumor cells into the dorsal skin of hairless mice, BCRP/ABCG2 expression in the tumor tissue was determined using immunohistochemistry, fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. After intraperitoneal injection of BCRP/ABCG2-tolerant 5-FU, the tumor volume, weight change, and apoptosis rate of the tumor tissue were determined using in situ hybridization. V-BCRPi increased the sensitivity of the tumor histiocytes to 5-FU and improved the cell apoptosis-promoting effects of 5-FU in the tumor. The goal of the in vivo and in vitro studies was to screen for an RNA interference recombinant retrovirus capable of stably targeting the ATP-binding domain of BCRP/ABCG2 (V-BCRPi) to inhibit its function. A new method to improve the chemo-sensitivity of breast cancer and other tumor cells was discovered, and this method could be used for gene therapy and functional studies of malignant tumors.

  18. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally.

    PubMed

    Afanasjeva, Janna

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K , phytonadione , IV , intravenous , injectable , and oral . The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  19. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  20. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  1. Injection-site vein loss and soft tissue abscesses associated with black tar heroin injection: A cross-sectional study of two distinct populations in USA.

    PubMed

    Summers, Phillip J; Struve, Isabelle A; Wilkes, Michael S; Rees, Vaughan W

    2017-01-01

    Injection-site vein loss and skin abscesses impose significant morbidity on people who inject drugs (PWID). The two common forms of street heroin available in the USA include black tar and powder heroin. Little research has investigated these different forms of heroin and their potential implications for health outcomes. A multiple-choice survey was administered to a sample of 145 participants seeking services at reduction facilities in both Sacramento, CA and greater Boston, MA, USA. Multivariate regression models for reporting one or more abscesses in one year, injection-site veins lost in six months, and soft tissue injection. Participants in Sacramento exclusively used black tar (99%), while those in Boston used powder heroin (96%). Those who used black tar heroin lost more injection-site veins (β=2.34, 95% CI: 0.66-4.03) and were more likely to report abscesses (AOR=7.68, 95% CI: 3.01-19.60). Soft tissue injection was also associated with abscesses (AOR=4.68, 95% CI: 1.84-11.93). Consistent venous access (AOR: 0.088, 95% CI: 0.011-0.74) and losing more injection sites (AOR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) were associated with soft tissue injection. Use of black tar heroin is associated with more frequent abscesses and more extensive vein loss. Poor venous access predisposes people who inject drugs to soft tissue injection, which may constitute a causal pathway between black tar heroin injection and abscess formation. The mechanisms by which black tar heroin contributes to vein loss and abscess formation must be further elucidated in order to develop actionable interventions for maintaining vein health and decreasing the abscess burden. Potential interventions include increased access to clean injection equipment and education, supervised injection facilities, opioid substitution therapy, and supply chain interventions targeting cutting agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene silencing in Tribolium castaneum as a tool for the targeted identification of candidate RNAi targets in crop pests.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Eileen; Fishilevich, Elane; Tenbusch, Linda; Frey, Meghan L F; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Billion, Andre; Worden, Sarah E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Lo, Wendy; Schulenberg, Greg; Valverde-Garcia, Pablo; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Narva, Kenneth E

    2018-02-01

    RNAi shows potential as an agricultural technology for insect control, yet, a relatively low number of robust lethal RNAi targets have been demonstrated to control insects of agricultural interest. In the current study, a selection of lethal RNAi target genes from the iBeetle (Tribolium castaneum) screen were used to demonstrate efficacy of orthologous targets in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Meligethes aeneus. Transcript orthologs of 50 selected genes were analyzed in D. v. virgifera diet-based RNAi bioassays; 21 of these RNAi targets showed mortality and 36 showed growth inhibition. Low dose injection- and diet-based dsRNA assays in T. castaneum and D. v. virgifera, respectively, enabled the identification of the four highly potent RNAi target genes: Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140. Maize was genetically engineered to express dsRNA directed against these prioritized candidate target genes. T 0 plants expressing Rop, dre4, or RpII140 RNA hairpins showed protection from D. v. virgifera larval feeding damage. dsRNA targeting Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140 in M. aeneus also caused high levels of mortality both by injection and feeding. In summary, high throughput systems for model organisms can be successfully used to identify potent RNA targets for difficult-to-work with agricultural insect pests.

  3. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    icasp psossessing a dsRED reporter 24 hours after exposure to (A) vehicle (B) CID and (C) polyethylenimine (PEI) cytotoxin. that the single dose...streptomycin (100µg/mL) and amphotericin B (25 µg/mL) (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD). The cell line was grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 in...and 5% CO2 . The transduced cells were resuspended at a concentration of 5x106 cells per 100µL of PBS and delivered by intramuscular injection into

  4. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  5. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  6. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  7. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection of the subtalar joint for treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Young, Cody M; Horst, Deanna M; Murakami, James W; Shiels, William E

    2015-07-01

    The subtalar joint is commonly affected in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and is challenging to treat percutaneously. To describe the technique for treating the subtalar joint with US-guided corticosteroid injections in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and to evaluate the safety of the treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 122 patients (age 15 months-29 years) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were referred by a pediatric rheumatologist for corticosteroid injection therapy for symptoms related to the hindfoot or ankle. In these patients the diseased subtalar joint was targeted for therapy, often in conjunction with adjacent affected joints or tendon sheaths of the ankle. We used a protocol based on age, weight and joint for triamcinolone hexacetonide or triamcinolone acetonide dose prescription. We describe the technique for successful treatment of the subtalar joint. A total of 241 subtalar joint corticosteroid injections were performed under US guidance, including 68 repeat injections for recurrent symptoms in 26 of the 122 children and young adults. The average time interval between repeat injections was 24.8 months (range 2.2-130.7 months, median 14.2 months). Subcutaneous tissue atrophy and skin hypopigmentation were the primary complications observed. These complications occurred in 3.9% of the injections. With appropriate training and practice, the subtalar joint can be reliably and safely targeted with US-guided corticosteroid injection to treat symptoms related to juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  8. Emergence of cocaine and methamphetamine injection among HIV-positive injection drug users in Northern and Western India

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shruti H.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Noble, Eva; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Kumar, M Suresh; Solomon, Sunil S

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the epidemiology of drug injection and risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) across India. In particular, there is limited data on the prevalence of stimulant injection. Methods We sampled 801 HIV positive IDUs from 14 locations throughout India to represent the geography of India as well as the diversity in IDU epidemic stage (established epidemics, emerging epidemics and large cities). All participants underwent a behavioral survey and blood draw. Given prior associations with stimulant injection and HIV risk, we compared stimulant injectors (cocaine and/or methamphetamine) to those who injected opiates and/or pharmaceuticals only. Results The median age was 33; 86% were male. The primary drugs injected were heroin, buprenorphine and other pharmaceuticals. In all but four sites, >50% of those actively injecting reported needle sharing. Stimulant injection was most common in emerging epidemics. Compared to exclusive opiate injectors, stimulant injectors were significantly younger, more likely to be educated and employed, more likely to report non-injection use of heroin, crack/cocaine and amphetamines, heavy alcohol use, recent needle sharing (71% vs. 57%), sex with a casual partner (57% vs. 31%) and men having sex with other men (33% vs. 9%; p<0.01 for all). Conclusions Emerging IDU epidemics have a drug/sexual risk profile not previously been observed in India. Given the high prevalence of stimulant injection in these populations, HIV prevention/treatment programs may need to be redesigned to maximize effectiveness. The high levels of injection sharing overall reinforce the need to ensure access to harm-reduction services for all. PMID:24382362

  9. Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing Aβ production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in Aβ injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, Aβ injected, and Aβ injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

  10. Quantitative ultrasound molecular imaging by modeling the binding kinetics of targeted contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Simona; Tardy, Isabelle; Frinking, Peter; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound molecular imaging (USMI) is an emerging technique to monitor diseases at the molecular level by the use of novel targeted ultrasound contrast agents (tUCA). These consist of microbubbles functionalized with targeting ligands with high-affinity for molecular markers of specific disease processes, such as cancer-related angiogenesis. Among the molecular markers of angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is recognized to play a major role. In response, the clinical-grade tUCA BR55 was recently developed, consisting of VEGFR2-targeting microbubbles which can flow through the entire circulation and accumulate where VEGFR2 is over-expressed, thus causing selective enhancement in areas of active angiogenesis. Discrimination between bound and free microbubbles is crucial to assess cancer angiogenesis. Currently, this is done non-quantitatively by looking at the late enhancement, about 10 min after injection, or by calculation of the differential targeted enhancement, requiring the application of a high-pressure ultrasound (US) burst to destroy all the microbubbles in the acoustic field and isolate the signal coming only from bound microbubbles. In this work, we propose a novel method based on mathematical modeling of the binding kinetics during the tUCA first pass, thus reducing the acquisition time and with no need for a destructive US burst. Fitting time-intensity curves measured with USMI by the proposed model enables the assessment of cancer angiogenesis at both the vascular and molecular levels. This is achieved by estimation of quantitative parameters related to the microvascular architecture and microbubble binding. The proposed method was tested in 11 prostate-tumor bearing rats by performing USMI after injection of BR55, and showed good agreement with current USMI methods. The novel information provided by the proposed method, possibly combined with the current non-quantitative methods, may bring deeper insight into

  11. Microfluidic Device for Sequential Injection and Flushing of Solutions and its Application to Immunosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashida, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    A microfluidic system with injecting and flushing functions was developed. In the system, hydrophilic flow channels have a dry-film photoresist layer which facilitates the introduction of solutions from four injection ports. The injection and flushing of solutions are controlled by valves operated by electrowetting. The valves consist of gold working electrodes in the flow channels or a through-hole in the glass substrate. Solutions can be sequentially introduced through the injection ports into a reaction chamber and flushed through a valve in the through-hole. Necessary immunoassay steps can be conducted on the chip, and a target antibody can be detected electrochemically.

  12. Computed tomography analysis of third webspace injections for interdigital neuroma.

    PubMed

    Hembree, W Chad; Groth, Adam T; Schon, Lew C; Guyton, Gregory P

    2013-04-01

    Injection for interdigital neuroma (IDN) may not selectively target the common digital nerve. We investigated the anatomical localization and extent of extravasation with injection for IDN. Two fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons injected radiopaque contrast into the third webspace of 49 cadaveric specimens (29 with 2 mL and 20 with 1 mL). Computed tomography scan of each specimen was obtained. An independent blinded foot and ankle surgeon analyzed the scans. All injections were accurate. Contrast was found in the second (greater than 70%) and fourth (greater than 30%) webspaces in both injection volume groups. No contrast was found within the third metatarsophalangeal joint. Extravasation extent was significantly greater with 2 mL versus 1 mL of solution in the medial to lateral (27.9 [7.8] mm vs 23.7 [6.0] mm; P = .05) and distal to proximal (52.1 [13.7] mm vs 40.4 [16.1] mm; P = .01) planes. No differences were observed in extravasation extent between surgeons. Injection for IDN was accurate, and extravasation extended into adjacent webspaces in a large percentage of specimens with both solution volumes. Lower extent of extravasation with 1 mL of solution did not indicate better selectivity of injection. Steroid injections for interdigital neuroma were accurate for therapeutic purposes but not diagnostic, except potentially for distinguishing webspace pain from joint pain.

  13. TU-AB-BRB-00: New Methods to Ensure Target Coverage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The accepted clinical method to accommodate targeting uncertainties inherent in fractionated external beam radiation therapy is to utilize GTV-to-CTV and CTV-to-PTV margins during the planning process to design a PTV-conformal static dose distribution on the planning image set. Ideally, margins are selected to ensure a high (e.g. >95%) target coverage probability (CP) in spite of inherent inter- and intra-fractional positional variations, tissue motions, and initial contouring uncertainties. Robust optimization techniques, also known as probabilistic treatment planning techniques, explicitly incorporate the dosimetric consequences of targeting uncertainties by including CP evaluation into the planning optimization process along with coverage-based planning objectives. Themore » treatment planner no longer needs to use PTV and/or PRV margins; instead robust optimization utilizes probability distributions of the underlying uncertainties in conjunction with CP-evaluation for the underlying CTVs and OARs to design an optimal treated volume. This symposium will describe CP-evaluation methods as well as various robust planning techniques including use of probability-weighted dose distributions, probability-weighted objective functions, and coverage optimized planning. Methods to compute and display the effect of uncertainties on dose distributions will be presented. The use of robust planning to accommodate inter-fractional setup uncertainties, organ deformation, and contouring uncertainties will be examined as will its use to accommodate intra-fractional organ motion. Clinical examples will be used to inter-compare robust and margin-based planning, highlighting advantages of robust-plans in terms of target and normal tissue coverage. Robust-planning limitations as uncertainties approach zero and as the number of treatment fractions becomes small will be presented, as well as the factors limiting clinical implementation of robust planning. Learning Objectives: To

  14. Targeting the lymphatics using dendritic polymers (dendrimers).

    PubMed

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; Porter, Christopher J H

    2011-09-10

    Dendrimers are unique biomaterials that are constructed by the stepwise addition of layers (generations) of polymer around a central core. They can be constructed with a range of molecular weights and have a polyfunctional surface that facilitates the attachment of drugs and pharmacokinetic modifiers such PEG or targeting moieties. These properties have led to considerable interest in the development of dendrimers for a range of biomedical applications. After subcutaneous administration, larger dendrimers in particular (> 8 nm), preferentially drain from the injection site into the peripheral lymphatic capillaries and therefore have potential as lymphatic imaging agents for magnetic resonance and optical fluorescence lymphangiography and as vectors for drug-targeting to lymphatic sites of disease progression. In general, lymphatic targeting of dendrimers is enhanced by increasing size although ultimately larger constructs may be incompletely absorbed from the injection site. Increasing hydrophilicity and reducing surface charge enhances drainage from subcutaneous injection sites, but the reverse is true of uptake into lymph nodes where charge and hydrophobicity promote retention. Larger hydrophilic dendrimers are also capable of extravasation from the systemic circulation, absorption into the lymphatic system and recirculation into the blood. Lymphatic recirculation may therefore be a characteristic of PEGylated dendrimers with long systemic circulation times. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for plastic injection-compression molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Yu, Wenjie; Liang, Junjie; Lang, Jianlin; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Compared with conventional injection molding, injection-compression molding can mold optical parts with higher precision and lower flow residual stress. However, the melt flow process in a closed cavity becomes more complex because of the moving cavity boundary during compression and the nonlinear problems caused by non-Newtonian polymer melt. In this study, a 3D simulation method was developed for injection-compression molding. In this method, arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian was introduced to model the moving-boundary flow problem in the compression stage. The non-Newtonian characteristics and compressibility of the polymer melt were considered. The melt flow and pressure distribution in the cavity were investigated by using the proposed simulation method and compared with those of injection molding. Results reveal that the fountain flow effect becomes significant when the cavity thickness increases during compression. The back flow also plays an important role in the flow pattern and redistribution of cavity pressure. The discrepancy in pressures at different points along the flow path is complicated rather than monotonically decreased in injection molding.

  16. Injection System for Multi-Well Injection Using a Single Pump

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Protus, Thomas J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Many hydrological and geochemical studies rely on data resulting from injection of tracers and chemicals into groundwater wells. The even distribution of liquids to multiple injection points can be challenging or expensive, especially when using multiple pumps. An injection system was designed using one chemical metering pump to evenly distribute the desired influent simultaneously to 15 individual injection points through an injection manifold. The system was constructed with only one metal part contacting the fluid due to the low pH of the injection solutions. The injection manifold system was used during a three-month pilot scale injection experiment at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. During the two injection phases of the experiment (Phase I = 0.27 L/min total flow, Phase II = 0.56 L/min total flow), flow measurements were made 20 times over three months; an even distribution of flow to each injection well was maintained (RSD <4%). This durable system is expandable to at least 16 injection points and should be adaptable to other injection experiments that require distribution of air-stable liquids to multiple injection points with a single pump. PMID:26140014

  17. Photoacoustic imaging of tumor targeting with biotin conjugated nanostructured phthalocyanine assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Li, Xingshu; Lee, Dayoung; Yoon, Juyoung; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Visualizing biological markers and delivering bioactive agents to living organisms are important to biological research. In recent decades, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been significantly improved in the area of molecular imaging, which provides high-resolution volume imaging with high optical absorption contrast. To demonstrate the ability of nanoprobes to target tumors using PAI, we synthesize convertible nanostructured agents with strong photothermal and photoacoustic properties and linked the nanoprobe with biotin to target tumors in small animal model. Interestingly, these nanoprobes allow partial to disassemble in the presence of targeted proteins that switchable photoactivity, thus the nanoprobes provides a fluorescent-cancer imaging with high signal-to-background ratios. The proposed nanoprobe produce a much stronger PA signal compared to the same concentration of methylene blue (MB), which is widely used in clinical study and contrast agent for PAI. The biotin conjugated nanoprobe has high selectivity for biotin receptor positive cancer cells such as A549 (human lung cancer). Then we subsequently examined the PA properties of the nanoprobe that are inherently suitable for in vivo PAI. After injecting of the nanoprobe via intravenous method, we observed the mice's whole body by PA imaging and acquired the PA signal near the cancer. The PA signal increased linearly with time after injection and the fluorescence signal near the cancer was confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The ability to target a specific cancer of the nanoprobe was well verified by PA imaging. This study provides valuable perspective on the advancement of clinical translations and in the design of tumor-targeting phototheranostic agents that could act as new nanomedicines.

  18. Localized time-lapse elastic waveform inversion using wavefield injection and extrapolation: 2-D parametric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shihao; Fuji, Nobuaki; Singh, Satish; Borisov, Dmitry

    2017-06-01

    We present a methodology to invert seismic data for a localized area by combining source-side wavefield injection and receiver-side extrapolation method. Despite the high resolving power of seismic full waveform inversion, the computational cost for practical scale elastic or viscoelastic waveform inversion remains a heavy burden. This can be much more severe for time-lapse surveys, which require real-time seismic imaging on a daily or weekly basis. Besides, changes of the structure during time-lapse surveys are likely to occur in a small area rather than the whole region of seismic experiments, such as oil and gas reservoir or CO2 injection wells. We thus propose an approach that allows to image effectively and quantitatively the localized structure changes far deep from both source and receiver arrays. In our method, we perform both forward and back propagation only inside the target region. First, we look for the equivalent source expression enclosing the region of interest by using the wavefield injection method. Second, we extrapolate wavefield from physical receivers located near the Earth's surface or on the ocean bottom to an array of virtual receivers in the subsurface by using correlation-type representation theorem. In this study, we present various 2-D elastic numerical examples of the proposed method and quantitatively evaluate errors in obtained models, in comparison to those of conventional full-model inversions. The results show that the proposed localized waveform inversion is not only efficient and robust but also accurate even under the existence of errors in both initial models and observed data.

  19. A novel segmentation method for uneven lighting image with noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyan; Fan, Jiulun

    2017-12-01

    Local thresholding methods for uneven lighting image segmentation always have the limitations that they are very sensitive to noise injection and that the performance relies largely upon the choice of the initial window size. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting uneven lighting images with strong noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy theory. We regard an image as a gray wave in three-dimensional space, which is composed of many peaks and troughs, and these peaks and troughs can divide the image into many local sub-regions in different directions. Our algorithm computes the relative characteristic of each pixel located in the corresponding sub-region based on fuzzy membership function and uses it to replace its absolute characteristic (its gray level) to reduce the influence of uneven light on image segmentation. At the same time, the non-local adaptive spatial constraints of pixels are introduced to avoid noise interference with the search of local sub-regions and the computation of local characteristics. Moreover, edge information is also taken into account to avoid false peak and trough labeling. Finally, a global method based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is employed on the wave transformation image to obtain the segmented result. Experiments on several test images show that the proposed method has excellent capability of decreasing the influence of uneven illumination on images and noise injection and behaves more robustly than several classical global and local thresholding methods.

  20. Assessment of injection practice in primary health care facilities of Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mclaws, Mary-Louise; Ghahramani, Sulmaz; Palenik, Charles John; Keshtkar, Vahid; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-03-01

    Occupational risk for several bloodborne viruses is attributable to unsafe injection practices. To understand injection frequency and safety, we surveyed injection rates and factors influencing injection prescription in primary health care facilities and associated health clinics in Shiraz, Iran. We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to study the frequency and safety of injections delivered in 27 primary health care facilities. We used observations and 3 data collecting tools. Patterns of 600 general practice physicians' (GPs) prescriptions were also reviewed. In-depth interviews to elicit the factors contributing to injection prescriptions were conducted. The annual per capita injection rate was 3.12. Corticosteroids were prescribed more frequently than antibiotics (P < .001). Knowledge of participants concerning transmission risks for 3 of the most common bloodborne infections (BBIs) was less than 75%. Factors affecting use of injections by GPs included strong patient preference for injections over oral medications and financial benefit for GPs, especially those in private practice settings. Frequency of therapeutic injections in the participating facilities in Shiraz was high. Sociocultural factors in the patient community and their beliefs in the effectiveness of injections exerted influence on GP prescribing practices. Programs for appropriate and safe injection practices should target GP and injection providers, as well as patients, informing them about alternative treatments and possible complications of unnecessary and unsafe injections. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Policing Behaviors, Safe Injection Self-Efficacy, and Intervening on Injection Risks: Moderated Mediation Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aim to use conditional, or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator, and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Results Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = 0.04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = 0.04). Conclusions Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively impacted safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to “buffer” this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants’ self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. PMID:26120851

  2. A novel technique based on in vitro oocyte injection to improve CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shao-Lin; Bian, Wan-Ping; Wang, Chao; Junaid, Muhammad; Zou, Ji-Xing; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary improvements in the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system offer a convenient way for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the low efficiencies of genome editing and germline transmission require a time-intensive and laborious screening work. Here, we reported a method based on in vitro oocyte storage by injecting oocytes in advance and incubating them in oocyte storage medium to significantly improve the efficiencies of genome editing and germline transmission by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in zebrafish. Compared to conventional methods, the prior micro-injection of zebrafish oocytes improved the efficiency of genome editing, especially for the sgRNAs with low targeting efficiency. Due to high throughputs, simplicity and flexible design, this novel strategy will provide an efficient alternative to increase the speed of generating heritable mutants in zebrafish by using CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:27680290

  3. Deterministic convergence of chaos injection-based gradient method for training feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huisheng; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Dongpo; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that, by adding a chaotic sequence to the weight update during the training of neural networks, the chaos injection-based gradient method (CIBGM) is superior to the standard backpropagation algorithm. This paper presents the theoretical convergence analysis of CIBGM for training feedforward neural networks. We consider both the case of batch learning as well as the case of online learning. Under mild conditions, we prove the weak convergence, i.e., the training error tends to a constant and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. Moreover, the strong convergence of CIBGM is also obtained with the help of an extra condition. The theoretical results are substantiated by a simulation example.

  4. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  5. Poly(ortho ester) nanoparticles targeted for chronic intraocular diseases: ocular safety and localization after intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Palamoor, Mallika; Jablonski, Monica M

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of posterior eye diseases is more challenging than the anterior segment ailments due to a series of anatomical barriers and physiological constraints confronted by drug delivery to the back of the eye. In recent years, concerted efforts in drug delivery have been made to prolong the residence time of drugs injected in the vitreous humor of the eye. Our previous studies demonstrated that poly(ortho ester) (POE) nanoparticles were biodegradable/biocompatible and were capable of long-term sustained release. The objective of the present study was to investigate the safety and localization of POE nanoparticles in New Zealand white rabbits and C57BL/6 mice after intravitreal administration for the treatment of chronic posterior ocular diseases. Two concentration levels of POE nanoparticles solution were chosen for intravitreal injection: 1.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml. Our results demonstrate that POE nanoparticles were distributed throughout the vitreous cavity by optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination 14 days post-intravitreal injection. Intraocular pressure was not changed from baseline. Inflammatory or adverse effects were undetectable by slit lamp biomicroscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that POE nanoparticles have negligible toxicity assessed at the cellular level evidenced by a lack of glia activation or apoptosis estimation after intravitreal injection. Collectively, POE nanoparticles are a novel and nontoxic as an ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of posterior ocular diseases.

  6. Targeted Nanoparticles for Kidney Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0434 TITLE: Targeted Nanoparticles for Kidney Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL...Targeted Nanoparticles for Kidney Cancer Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0434 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...lines following treatment with D5 nanotubes. Tthermoablation will be studied initially. Human kidney cancer cells will be injected into the kidney

  7. A morphological evaluation of botulinum neurotoxin A injections into the detrusor muscle using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Ulrich; Boy, Sönke; Schmid, Marius; Reitz, André; von Hessling, Alexander; Hodler, Juerg; Schurch, Brigitte

    2009-06-01

    Although botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) intradetrusor injections are a recommended therapy for neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), refractory to antimuscarinic drugs, a standardisation of injection technique is missing. Furthermore, some basic questions are still unanswered, as where the toxin solution exactly spreads after injection. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of the toxin solution after injection into the bladder wall, using magnet resonance imaging (MRI). Six patients with NDO were recruited. Three of six patients received 300 U of BoNT/A + contrast agent distributed over 30 injection sites (group 1). The other three patients received 300 U of BoNT/A + contrast agent distributed over 10 injection sites (group 2). Immediately after injection, MRI of the pelvis was performed. The volume of the detrusor and the total volume of contrast medium inside and outside the bladder wall were calculated. In all patients, a small volume (mean 17.6%) was found at the lateral aspects of the bladder dome in the extraperitoneal fat tissue, whereas 82.4% of the injected volume reached the target area (detrusor). In both groups there was a similar distribution of the contrast medium in the target area. A mean of 33.3 and 25.3% of the total detrusor volume was covered in group 1 and 2, respectively. Six weeks after injection, five of six patients were continent and showed no detrusor overactivity in the urodynamic follow-up. No systemic side effects were observed. Our results provide morphological arguments that the currently used injection techniques are appropriate and safe.

  8. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  9. Simultaneous injection-effective mixing analysis of palladium.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Norio; Noguchi, Daisuke; Joichi, Yasutaka; Lenghor, Narong; Ohno, Noriko; Sakai, Tadao; Motomizu, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    A novel concept of simultaneous injection-effective mixing analysis (SIEMA) is proposed, and a SIEMA method applied to the spectrophotometric determination of palladium using a water-soluble chromogenic reagent has been demonstrated. The flow configuration of SIEMA is a hybrid format of flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA) and multicommutation in flow-based analysis. Sample and reagent solutions are aspirated into each holding coil through each solenoid valve by a syringe pump, and then the zones are simultaneously dispensed (injected) into a mixing coil by reversed flow toward a detector through a confluence point. This results in effective mixing and rapid detection with low reagent consumption.

  10. Injection-depth-locking axial motion guided handheld micro-injector using CP-SSOCT.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Kwag, Hye Rin; Kim, Ki-Young; Taylor, Russell H; Gehlbach, Peter L; Kang, Jin U

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a handheld micro-injector system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) as a distal sensor with highly accurate injection-depth-locking. To achieve real-time, highly precise, and intuitive freehand control, the system used graphics processing unit (GPU) to process the oversampled OCT signal with high throughput and a smart customized motion monitoring control algorithm. A performance evaluation was conducted with 60-insertions and fluorescein dye injection tests to show how accurately the system can guide the needle and lock to the target depth. The evaluation tests show our system can guide the injection needle into the desired depth with 4.12 um average deviation error while injecting 50 nl of fluorescein dye.

  11. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B.; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution 3D MRI to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12–20 weeks (n = 12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25uL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20–25uL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (p < 0.02) and significantly higher than that of contralateral mammary ducts that were not injected with contrast media (p < 0.0001). The methods described here could be adapted for injection of specialized contrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers. PMID:25179139

  12. Development of an injectable PHBV microparticles-GG hydrogel hybrid system for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Amaral, Maria H; Reis, Rui L; Marques, Alexandra P; Correlo, Vítor M

    2015-01-15

    Uncontrollable displacements that greatly affect the concentration of active agents at the target tissues are among a major limitation of the use of microparticulate drug delivery systems (DDS). Under this context a biphasic injectable DDS combining poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microparticles (MPs) and a gellan gum (GG) injectable hydrogel is herein proposed for the localized delivery and long-term retention of MPs carrying hydrophilic and hydrophobic model active agents. A double emulsion-solvent evaporation method was adopted to develop the PHBV MPs, carrying bovine serum albumin (BSA) or dexamethasone (Dex) as hydrophilic and hydrophobic active agents' models, respectively. Moreover, this method was modified, together with the properties of the hydrogel to tailor the delivery profile of the active agents. Variations of the composition of the organic phase during the process allowed tuning surface topography, particle size distribution and core porosity of the PHBV MPs and, thus, the in vitro release profile of Dex but not of BSA. Besides, after embedding hydrogels of higher GG concentration led to a slower and more sustained release of both active agents, independently of the processing conditions of the microparticulate system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research notes : traffic restriction for epoxy crack injection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-06-01

    Reinforced concrete bridges with detrimental cracks are typically repaired by injecting the cracks with epoxy to regain concrete capacity. Crack injection is a costly operation; however, it is commonly used as a repair method itself or as preparation...

  14. A new efficient method of generating photoaffinity beads for drug target identification.

    PubMed

    Nishiya, Yoichi; Hamada, Tomoko; Abe, Masayuki; Takashima, Michio; Tsutsumi, Kyoko; Okawa, Katsuya

    2017-02-15

    Affinity purification is one of the most prevalent methods for the target identification of small molecules. Preparation of an appropriate chemical for immobilization, however, is a tedious and time-consuming process. A decade ago, a photoreaction method for generating affinity beads was reported, where compounds are mixed with agarose beads carrying a photoreactive group (aryldiazirine) and then irradiated with ultraviolet light under dry conditions to form covalent attachment. Although the method has proven useful for identifying drug targets, the beads suffer from inefficient ligand incorporation and tend to shrink and aggregate, which can cause nonspecific binding and low reproducibility. We therefore decided to craft affinity beads free from these shortcomings without compromising the ease of preparation. We herein report a modified method; first, a compound of interest is mixed with a crosslinker having an activated ester and a photoreactive moiety on each end. This mixture is then dried in a glass tube and irradiated with ultraviolet light. Finally, the conjugates are dissolved and reacted with agarose beads with a primary amine. This protocol enabled us to immobilize compounds more efficiently (approximately 500-fold per bead compared to the original method) and generated beads without physical deterioration. We herein demonstrated that the new FK506-immobilized beads specifically isolated more FKBP12 than the original beads, thereby proving our method to be applicable to target identification experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct Method Transcription for a Human-Class Translunar Injection Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.; Zeiler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new trajectory optimization software package developed in the framework of a low-to-high fidelity 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF)/6-DOF vehicle simulation program named Mission Analysis Simulation Tool in Fortran (MASTIF) and its application to a translunar trajectory optimization problem. The functionality of the developed optimization package is implemented as a new "mode" in generalized settings to make it applicable for a general trajectory optimization problem. In doing so, a direct optimization method using collocation is employed for solving the problem. Trajectory optimization problems in MASTIF are transcribed to a constrained nonlinear programming (NLP) problem and solved with SNOPT, a commercially available NLP solver. A detailed description of the optimization software developed is provided as well as the transcription specifics for the translunar injection (TLI) problem. The analysis includes a 3-DOF trajectory TLI optimization and a 3-DOF vehicle TLI simulation using closed-loop guidance.

  16. The Helicity Injected Torus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Jewell, P. D.; Liptac, J. E.; McCollam, K. J.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Rogers, J. A.; Sieck, P. E.; Shumlak, U.; Smith, R. J.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus--II (HIT--II) spherical torus is capable of both Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and transformer action current drive. HIT--II has a major radius R = 0.3, minor radius a = 0.2, aspect ratio A = R/a = 1.5, with an on axis magnetic field of up to Bo = 0.67 T. HIT--II provides equilibrium control, CHI flux boundary conditions, and transformer action using 28 poloidal field coils, using active flux feedback control. HIT--II has driven up to 200 kA of plasma current, using either CHI or transformer drive. An overview and recent results of the HIT--II program will be presented. The development of a locked-electron current drive model for HIT and HIT--II has led to the design of a constant inductive helicity injection method for spherical torii. This method is incorporated in the design of the Helicity Injected Torus -- Steady Inductive (HIT-- SI)(T.R. Jarboe, Fusion Technology, 36) (1), p. 85, 1999 experiment. HIT--SI can form a high-beta spheromak, a low aspect ratio RFP, or a spherical tokamak in a steady-state manner without using electrodes. The HIT--SI design and methodology will be presented.

  17. Optimization of programmed-temperature vaporization injection preparative capillary GC for compound specific radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yexin; Xu, Yunping; Zhou, Liping

    2013-07-01

    Preparative capillary GC (PCGC) is a powerful tool for the separation and purification of compounds from any complex matrix, which can be used for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis. However, the effect of PCGC parameters on the trapping efficiency is not well understood. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the optimization of parameters based on 11 reference compounds with different physicochemical properties. Under the optimum conditions, the trapping efficiencies of these 11 compounds (including high-boiling-point n-hentriacontane and methyl lignocerate) are about 80% (60-89%). The isolation of target compounds from standard solutions, plant and soil samples demonstrates that our optimized method is applicable for different classes of compounds including n-alkanes, fatty acid esters, long-chain fatty alcohol esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and steranes. By injecting 25 μL in large volume injection mode, over 100 μg, high purity (>90%) target compounds are harvested within 24 h. The recovery ranges of two real samples are about 70% (59.9-83.8%) and about 83% (77.2-88.5%), respectively. Compared to previous studies, our study makes significant improvement in the recovery of PCGC, which is important for its wide application in biogeochemistry, environmental sciences, and archaeology. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Extended methods using thick-targets for nuclear reaction data of radioactive isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Aikawa, Masayuki; Imai, Shotaro

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear transmutation is a technology to dispose of radioactive wastes. However, we do not have enough basic data for its developments, such as thick-target yields (TTY) and the interaction cross sections for radioactive material. We suggest two methods to estimate the TTY using inverse kinematics and to obtain the excitation function of the interaction cross sections which is named the thick-target transmission (T3) method. We deduce the energy-dependent conversion relation between the TTYs of the original system and its inverse kinematics, which can be replaced to a constant coefficient in the high energy region. Furthermore we show the usefulness of the T3 method to investigate the excitation function of the 12C + 27Al reaction in the simulation.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-SPEED GC/TOFMS FOR METHOD TO-14 ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast GC/MS system (FGCMS) consisting of a high-speed gas chromatograph equipped with a narrow bandwidth injection accessory and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector is being optimized for analysis of Method TO-14 target compounds. The system consists entirely of comm...

  20. Bromism caused by mix-formulated analgesic injectables.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, P F; Tsan, Y T; Hung, D Z; Hsu, C L; Lee, Y C; Chang, M H

    2007-12-01

    Bromism, chronic bromide intoxication, can be caused by a variety of medicines, but bromism due to pain-relieving injectable medications has not been reported. In this study, the methods used were internet searching on bromide-containing injectables available in Taiwan and the first case report of bromism due to mixed-formulated injectable medication. Many analgesic/antipyretic and antihistamine injections containing bromides are still being used in Taiwan. They contain sodium bromide up to 1000 mg/ampoule or calcium bromide up to 800 mg/amp. A 25-year-old female suffered from forgetfulness and unstable gait after long-term frequent injections of a preparation to relieve head and neck pain. Blood tests showed hyperchloremia (171 mEq/L) and a negative anion gap (-48.7 mEq/L). Serum bromide measured 2150 mg/L. She recovered completely in 3 days with saline treatment. Many bromide-containing injections are still being used in Taiwan. Clinicians should keep alert on this issue to avoid iatrogenic bromism or making misdiagnoses.

  1. Syringe Exchange, Injecting and Intranasal Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Ringer, Martin; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess trends in injecting and non-injecting drug use after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange in New York City. The belief that implementation of syringe exchange will lead to increased drug injecting has been a persistent argument against syringe exchange. Methods Administrative data on route of administration for primary drug of abuse among patients entering the Beth Israel methadone maintenance program from 1995 – 2007. Approximately 2000 patients enter the program each year. Results During and after the period of large scale implementation of syringe exchange, the numbers of methadone program entrants reporting injecting drug use decreased while the numbers of entrants reporting intranasal drug use increased (p < .001). Conclusion While assessing possible effects of syringe exchange on trends in injecting drug use is inherently difficult, this may be the strongest data collected to date showing a lack of increase in drug injecting following implementation of syringe exchange. PMID:19891668

  2. Injected polyurethane slab jacking : interim report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-09-01

    Conventional methods for raising in-place concrete slabs to align roadway sections or to counteract subsidence requires pressure-injecting grout under the slab. As other transportation organizations have had success with the URETEK Method, which util...

  3. Injected polyurethane slab jacking : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods for raising in-place concrete slabs to align roadway sections or to counteract subsidence requires pressure-injecting grout under the slab. As other transportation organizations have had success with the URETEK Method, which util...

  4. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  5. The proper effect site concentration of remifentanil for prevention of myoclonus after etomidate injection

    PubMed Central

    Ri, Hyun Su; Kim, Tae Kyun; Baik, Seung Wan; Yoon, Ji Uk; Byeon, Gyeong Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Etomidate frequently induces myoclonus when administered intravenously with bolus injection during anesthetic induction. This can be bothersome for the anesthesiologist. The dose of remifentanil appropriate for preventing myoclonus without side effects was investigated. Methods All patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III were divided into three groups (n = 33 per group) according to the pretreatment effect site concentration of remifentanil (Ultiva, Glaxo-Wellcome, München, Germany) of 0, 2 or 4 ng/ml (Group N: 0 ng/ml, Group R: 2 ng/ml, Group Q: 4 ng/ml) by a target controlled infusion (TCI) system. After a 0.3 mg/kg dose of etomidate was injected intravenously for over 1 minute for anesthetic induction, myoclonus was observed. Before the etomidate injection, the patients were pretreated with remifentanil and their side effects were monitored. Results The number of patients showing myoclonus was significantly different among the groups. The incidence of myoclonus was 81%, 12% and 0% (groups N, R, and Q, respectively, P < 0.01). Side effects including bradycardia and hypotension did not occur in either Group R or Q. Chest wall rigidity occured in 45% of patients in Group Q. Conclusions Administration with a 2 ng/ml effect site concentration of remifentanil could reduce the incidence of myoclonus caused by etomidate bolus injection without chest wall rigidity. PMID:21927682

  6. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  7. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1979-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  8. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  9. Plant targets for Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors: virulence targets or guarded decoys?

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Alfano, James R

    2011-02-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae can suppress both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) by the injection of type III effector (T3E) proteins into host cells. T3Es achieve immune suppression using a variety of strategies including interference with immune receptor signaling, blocking RNA pathways and vesicle trafficking, and altering organelle function. T3Es can be recognized indirectly by resistance proteins monitoring specific T3E targets resulting in ETI. It is presently unclear whether the monitored targets represent bona fide virulence targets or guarded decoys. Extensive overlap between PTI and ETI signaling suggests that T3Es may suppress both pathways through common targets and by possessing multiple activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radar target classification method with high accuracy and decision speed performance using MUSIC spectrum vectors and PCA projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secmen, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces the performance of an electromagnetic target recognition method in resonance scattering region, which includes pseudo spectrum Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The aim of this method is to classify an "unknown" target as one of the "known" targets in an aspect-independent manner. The suggested method initially collects the late-time portion of noise-free time-scattered signals obtained from different reference aspect angles of known targets. Afterward, these signals are used to obtain MUSIC spectrums in real frequency domain having super-resolution ability and noise resistant feature. In the final step, PCA technique is applied to these spectrums in order to reduce dimensionality and obtain only one feature vector per known target. In the decision stage, noise-free or noisy scattered signal of an unknown (test) target from an unknown aspect angle is initially obtained. Subsequently, MUSIC algorithm is processed for this test signal and resulting test vector is compared with feature vectors of known targets one by one. Finally, the highest correlation gives the type of test target. The method is applied to wire models of airplane targets, and it is shown that it can tolerate considerable noise levels although it has a few different reference aspect angles. Besides, the runtime of the method for a test target is sufficiently low, which makes the method suitable for real-time applications.

  11. Injection of Botulinum Toxin for Preventing Salivary Gland Toxicity after PSMA Radioligand Therapy: an Empirical Proof of a Promising Concept.

    PubMed

    Baum, Richard P; Langbein, Thomas; Singh, Aviral; Shahinfar, Mostafa; Schuchardt, Christiane; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Kulkarni, Harshad

    2018-02-01

    The dose-limiting salivary gland toxicity of 225 Ac-labelled PSMA for treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer remains unresolved. Suppressing the metabolism of the gland by intraparenchymal injections of botulinum toxin appears to be a promising method to reduce off-target uptake. A 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan performed 45 days after injection of 80 units of botulinum toxin A into the right parotid gland in a 63-year-old patient showed a decrease in the SUVmean in the right parotid gland of up to 64% as compared with baseline. This approach could be a significant breakthrough for radioprotection of the salivary glands during PSMA radioligand therapy.

  12. A Method for Analyzing Commonalities in Clinical Trial Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhe; Carini, Simona; Hao, Tianyong; Sim, Ida; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    ClinicalTrials.gov presents great opportunities for analyzing commonalities in clinical trial target populations to facilitate knowledge reuse when designing eligibility criteria of future trials or to reveal potential systematic biases in selecting population subgroups for clinical research. Towards this goal, this paper presents a novel data resource for enabling such analyses. Our method includes two parts: (1) parsing and indexing eligibility criteria text; and (2) mining common eligibility features and attributes of common numeric features (e.g., A1c). We designed and built a database called “Commonalities in Target Populations of Clinical Trials” (COMPACT), which stores structured eligibility criteria and trial metadata in a readily computable format. We illustrate its use in an example analytic module called CONECT using COMPACT as the backend. Type 2 diabetes is used as an example to analyze commonalities in the target populations of 4,493 clinical trials on this disease. PMID:25954450

  13. An electromagnetic induction method for underground target detection and characterization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bartel, L.C.; Cress, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    An improved capability for subsurface structure detection is needed to support military and nonproliferation requirements for inspection and for surveillance of activities of threatening nations. As part of the DOE/NN-20 program to apply geophysical methods to detect and characterize underground facilities, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated an electromagnetic induction (EMI) project to evaluate low frequency electromagnetic (EM) techniques for subsurface structure detection. Low frequency, in this case, extended from kilohertz to hundreds of kilohertz. An EMI survey procedure had already been developed for borehole imaging of coal seams and had successfully been applied in a surface mode to detect amore » drug smuggling tunnel. The SNL project has focused on building upon the success of that procedure and applying it to surface and low altitude airborne platforms. Part of SNL`s work has focused on improving that technology through improved hardware and data processing. The improved hardware development has been performed utilizing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. In addition, SNL`s effort focused on: (1) improvements in modeling of the basic geophysics of the illuminating electromagnetic field and its coupling to the underground target (partially funded using LDRD funds) and (2) development of techniques for phase-based and multi-frequency processing and spatial processing to support subsurface target detection and characterization. The products of this project are: (1) an evaluation of an improved EM gradiometer, (2) an improved gradiometer concept for possible future development, (3) an improved modeling capability, (4) demonstration of an EM wave migration method for target recognition, and a demonstration that the technology is capable of detecting targets to depths exceeding 25 meters.« less

  14. Injection of insect membrane in Xenopus oocyte: An original method for the pharmacological characterization of neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Lucille; Legros, Christian; List, Olivier; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Mattei, César

    2016-01-01

    Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) represent a major target of insecticides, belonging to the neonicotinoid family. However, the pharmacological profile of native nAChRs is poorly documented, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of their subunit stoichiometry, their tissue distribution and the weak access to nAChR-expressing cells. In addition, the expression of insect nAChRs in heterologous systems remains hard to achieve. Therefore, the structure-activity characterization of nAChR-targeting insecticides is made difficult. The objective of the present study was to characterize insect nAChRs by an electrophysiological approach in a heterologous system naturally devoid of these receptors to allow a molecular/cellular investigation of the mode of action of neonicotinoids. Methods To overcome impediments linked to the expression of insect nAChR mRNA or cDNA, we chose to inject insect membranes from the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) into Xenopus oocytes. This microtransplantation technique was designed to gain access to native nAChRs embedded in their membrane, through direct stimulation with nicotinic agonists. Results We provide evidence that an enriched-nAChR membrane allows us to characterize native receptors. The presence of such receptors was confirmed with fluorescent α-BgTX labeling. Electrophysiological recordings of nicotine-induced inward currents allowed us to challenge the presence of functional nAChR. We compared the effect of nicotine (NIC) with clothianidin (CLO) and we assessed the effect of thiamethoxam (TMX). Discussion This technique has been recently highlighted with mammalian and human material as a powerful functional approach, but has, to our knowledge, never been used with insect membrane. In addition, the use of the insect membrane microtransplantation opens a new and original way for pharmacological screening of neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids. Moreover, it might also be a powerful tool to investigate the

  15. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  16. Establishing the Melbourne injecting drug user cohort study (MIX): rationale, methods, and baseline and twelve-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cohort studies provide an excellent opportunity to monitor changes in behaviour and disease transmission over time. In Australia, cohort studies of people who inject drugs (PWID) have generally focused on older, in-treatment injectors, with only limited outcome measure data collected. In this study we specifically sought to recruit a sample of younger, largely out-of-treatment PWID, in order to study the trajectories of their drug use over time. Methods Respondent driven sampling, traditional snowball sampling and street outreach methods were used to recruit heroin and amphetamine injectors from one outer-urban and two inner-urban regions of Melbourne, Australia. Information was collected on participants’ demographic and social characteristics, drug use characteristics, drug market access patterns, health and social functioning, and health service utilisation. Participants are followed-up on an annual basis. Results 688 PWID were recruited into the study. At baseline, the median age of participants was 27.6 years (IQR: 24.4 years – 29.6 years) and two-thirds (67%) were male. Participants reported injecting for a median of 10.2 years (range: 1.5 months – 21.2 years), with 11% having injected for three years or less. Limited education, unemployment and previous incarceration were common. The majority of participants (82%) reported recent heroin injection, and one third reported being enrolled in Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) at recruitment. At 12 months follow-up 458 participants (71% of eligible participants) were retained in the study. There were few differences in demographic and drug-use characteristics of those lost to follow-up compared with those retained in the study, with attrition significantly associated with recruitment at an inner-urban location, male gender, and providing incomplete contact information at baseline. Conclusions Our efforts to recruit a sample of largely out-of-treatment PWID were limited by drug market

  17. Botulinum toxin-A injections via electrical motor point stimulation to treat writer's cramp: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lim, E C