Sample records for taxonomy life history

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Weakfish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Linda P. Mercer North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries Morehead City, NC 28557 Project Officer David Moran U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National...of the nomenclature, taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, population structure and dynamics, and the fishery of the blue crab...AND RECREATIONAL FISHERIES .. ............. ........ ECOLOGICAL ROLE. .... ................... .......... 9 Food habits

  2. Transformation from manufacturing process taxonomy to repair process taxonomy: a phenetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Umair; Ahmad, Wasim; Khan, Atif

    2018-02-01

    The need of taxonomy is vital for knowledge sharing. This need has been portrayed by through-life engineering services/systems. This paper addresses this issue by repair process taxonomy development. Framework for repair process taxonomy was developed followed by its implementation. The importance of repair process taxonomy has been highlighted.

  3. Teaching the New Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Points out that today's taxonomy is very different than what many biology teachers learned when they were in school. Traces the history of some of the changes and describes the current taxonomy. (DDR)

  4. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  5. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Cody E; Smith, Stephen A; Allman, James F; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M; Crandall, Keith A; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S; Katz, Laura A; Laughinghouse, H Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E; Owen, Christopher L; Ree, Richard H; Rees, Jonathan A; Soltis, Douglas E; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A

    2015-10-13

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips-the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics.

  6. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliff, Cody E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Allman, James F.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Crandall, Keith A.; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T.; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S.; Katz, Laura A.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E.; Owen, Christopher L.; Ree, Richard H.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics. PMID:26385966

  7. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  8. Interventions at the end of life – a taxonomy for ‘overlapping consensus’

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David; Inbadas, Hamilton; Colburn, Ben; Forrest, Catriona; Richards, Naomi; Whitelaw, Sandy; Zaman, Shahaduz

    2017-01-01

    Context: Around the world there is increasing interest in end of life issues. An unprecedented number of people dying in future decades will put new strains on families, communities, services and governments.  It will also have implications for representations of death and dying within society and for the overall orientation of health and social care. What interventions are emerging in the face of these challenges? Methods: We conceptualize a comprehensive taxonomy of interventions, defined as ‘organized responses to end of life issues’. Findings: We classify the range of end of life interventions into 10 substantive categories: policy, advocacy, educational, ethico-legal, service, clinical, research, cultural, intangible, self-determined. We distinguish between two empirical aspects of any end of life intervention: the ‘locus’ refers to the space or spaces in which it is situated; the ‘focus’ captures its distinct character and purpose. We also contend that end of life interventions can be seen conceptually in two ways – as ‘frames’ (organized responses that primarily construct a shared understanding of an end of life issue) or as ‘instruments’ (organized responses that assume a shared understanding and then move to act in that context). Conclusions: Our taxonomy opens up the debate about end of life interventions in new ways to provide protagonists, activists, policy makers, clinicians, researchers and educators with a comprehensive framework in which to place their endeavours and more effectively to assess their efficacy. Following the inspiration of political philosopher John Rawls, we seek to foster an ‘overlapping consensus’ on how interventions at the end of life can be construed, understood and assessed. PMID:28261674

  9. Virus taxonomy: the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Donald M; Hendrickson, Robert Curtis; Orton, Richard J; Siddell, Stuart G; Smith, Donald B

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is charged with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. This task encompasses the classification of virus species and higher-level taxa according to the genetic and biological properties of their members; naming virus taxa; maintaining a database detailing the currently approved taxonomy; and providing the database, supporting proposals, and other virus-related information from an open-access, public web site. The ICTV web site (http://ictv.global) provides access to the current taxonomy database in online and downloadable formats, and maintains a complete history of virus taxa back to the first release in 1971. The ICTV has also published the ICTV Report on Virus Taxonomy starting in 1971. This Report provides a comprehensive description of all virus taxa covering virus structure, genome structure, biology and phylogenetics. The ninth ICTV report, published in 2012, is available as an open-access online publication from the ICTV web site. The current, 10th report (http://ictv.global/report/), is being published online, and is replacing the previous hard-copy edition with a completely open access, continuously updated publication. No other database or resource exists that provides such a comprehensive, fully annotated compendium of information on virus taxa and taxonomy. PMID:29040670

  10. A Taxonomy of Community Living Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Described is the "Taxonomy of Community Living Skills," a guide for curriculum developers. Experts (n=59) in mental retardation were surveyed to assess the taxonomy's coherence, appropriateness, completeness, etc. Responses to the model's five domains (personal maintenance and development, homemaking and community life, vocational,…

  11. Virus taxonomy: the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Dempsey, Donald M; Hendrickson, Robert Curtis; Orton, Richard J; Siddell, Stuart G; Smith, Donald B

    2018-01-04

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is charged with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy. This task encompasses the classification of virus species and higher-level taxa according to the genetic and biological properties of their members; naming virus taxa; maintaining a database detailing the currently approved taxonomy; and providing the database, supporting proposals, and other virus-related information from an open-access, public web site. The ICTV web site (http://ictv.global) provides access to the current taxonomy database in online and downloadable formats, and maintains a complete history of virus taxa back to the first release in 1971. The ICTV has also published the ICTV Report on Virus Taxonomy starting in 1971. This Report provides a comprehensive description of all virus taxa covering virus structure, genome structure, biology and phylogenetics. The ninth ICTV report, published in 2012, is available as an open-access online publication from the ICTV web site. The current, 10th report (http://ictv.global/report/), is being published online, and is replacing the previous hard-copy edition with a completely open access, continuously updated publication. No other database or resource exists that provides such a comprehensive, fully annotated compendium of information on virus taxa and taxonomy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Characters in Arctostaphylos taxonomy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    There is value in understanding the past and how it has affected the present. Science focuses on empirical findings, and we know that our prior experiences and those of our predecessors play important roles in determining how we interpret the present. We learn from accomplishments and foibles of predecessors and appreciate the real life experiences we have gone through. In our studies of the genus Arctostaphylos Adans. we have been struck by the fascinating stories surrounding taxonomists who have played roles in the development of our current understanding of the group. In addition to providing insights, they sometimes provide humor and lessons on the value of competition versus collaboration. We offer this history of the humans that forged the taxonomy behind Arctostaphylos classification in this light.

  13. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for

  14. Life history tradeoffs in cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Amy M.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Brown, Joel S.; Maley, Carlo C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic evolution during cancer progression and therapy results in tumor cells that exhibit a wide range of phenotypes including rapid proliferation and quiescence. Evolutionary life history theory may help us understand the diversity of these phenotypes. Fast life history organisms reproduce rapidly while those with slow life histories show less fecundity and invest more resources in survival. Life history theory also provides an evolutionary framework for phenotypic plasticity with potential implications for understanding ‘cancer stem cells’. Life history theory suggests that different therapy dosing schedules could select for fast or slow life history cell phenotypes, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24213474

  15. The integrative future of taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists. PMID:20500846

  16. Life-history strategies of ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David M.; Bowyer, R.T.; Kie, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    This Special Feature resulted from a symposium on life-history strategies of ungulates presented at the 78th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in Blacksburg, Virginia, in June 1998. The presentations at the symposium represented only a vignette of the wide variety of life-history strategies that exists among ungulates. The four papers that follow include treatises on birth-site selection of moose (Alces alces), sex-ratio correlates with dimorphism and risk of predation, optimal foraging relative to risk of predation, and the role of density dependence in shaping life-history traits of ungulates. A theme of risk of predation in shaping life-history traits is common to three of four papers.

  17. "Life history space": a multivariate analysis of life history variation in extant and extinct Malagasy lemurs.

    PubMed

    Catlett, Kierstin K; Schwartz, Gary T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L

    2010-07-01

    Studies of primate life history variation are constrained by the fact that all large-bodied extant primates are haplorhines. However, large-bodied strepsirrhines recently existed. If we can extract life history information from their skeletons, these species can contribute to our understanding of primate life history variation. This is particularly important in light of new critiques of the classic "fast-slow continuum" as a descriptor of variation in life history profiles across mammals in general. We use established dental histological methods to estimate gestation length and age at weaning for five extinct lemur species. On the basis of these estimates, we reconstruct minimum interbirth intervals and maximum reproductive rates. We utilize principal components analysis to create a multivariate "life history space" that captures the relationships among reproductive parameters and brain and body size in extinct and extant lemurs. Our data show that, whereas large-bodied extinct lemurs can be described as "slow" in some fashion, they also varied greatly in their life history profiles. Those with relatively large brains also weaned their offspring late and had long interbirth intervals. These were not the largest of extinct lemurs. Thus, we distinguish size-related life history variation from variation that linked more strongly to ecological factors. Because all lemur species larger than 10 kg, regardless of life history profile, succumbed to extinction after humans arrived in Madagascar, we argue that large body size increased the probability of extinction independently of reproductive rate. We also provide some evidence that, among lemurs, brain size predicts reproductive rate better than body size. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Olympia oyster

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Couch, D.; Hassler, T.J.

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. Olympia oysters initially spawn as males then alternate their functional genders. Spawning begins at 13-16 {degree}C and occurs from spring to fall. After a short planktonic stage, larvae attach to the substrate. Olympia oysters thrive at salinities of 25 ppt or above; they are killed by freezing temperatures. Olympia oysters once supported large sustenance and commercial fisheries. Olympia oysters have not returned to pre-exploitation population levels which declined because of pollution andmore » loss of habitat. 32 refs., 2 figs.« less

  19. Molecular phylogeny of the higher and lower taxonomy of the Fusarium genus and differences in the evolutionary histories of multiple genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Species of the Fusarium genus are important fungi which is associated with health hazards in human and animals. The taxonomy of this genus has been a subject of controversy for many years. Although many researchers have applied molecular phylogenetic analysis to examine the taxonomy of Fusarium species, their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear only few comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the Fusarium genus and a lack of suitable nucleotides and amino acid substitution rates. A previous stugy with whole genome comparison among Fusairum species revealed the possibility that each gene in Fusarium genomes has a unique evolutionary history, and such gene may bring difficulty to the reconstruction of phylogenetic tree of Fusarium. There is a need not only to check substitution rates of genes but also to perform the exact evaluation of each gene-evolution. Results We performed phylogenetic analyses based on the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA cluster region (rDNA cluster), and the β-tubulin gene (β-tub), the elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), and the aminoadipate reductase gene (lys2). Although incongruence of the tree topologies between lys2 and the other genes was detected, all genes supported the classification of Fusarium species into 7 major clades, I to VII. To obtain a reliable phylogeny for Fusarium species, we excluded the lys2 sequences from our dataset, and re-constructed a maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on the combined data of the rDNA cluster, β-tub, and EF-1α. Our ML tree indicated some interesting relationships in the higher and lower taxa of Fusarium species and related genera. Moreover, we observed a novel evolutionary history of lys2. We suggest that the unique tree topologies of lys2 are not due to an analytical artefact, but due to differences in the evolutionary history of genomes caused by positive selection of particular lineages. Conclusion This study showed the reliable species tree of the higher and lower taxonomy

  20. Reconstructing life history of hominids and humans.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E; Gerber, Linda M

    2003-06-01

    Aspects of life history, such as processes and timing of development, age at maturation, and life span are consistently associated with one another across the animal kingdom. Species that develop rapidly tend to mature and reproduce early, have many offspring, and exhibit shorter life spans (r-selection) than those that develop slowly, have extended periods of premature growth, mature later in life, reproduce later and less frequently, have few offspring and/or single births, and exhibit extended life spans (K-selection). In general, primates are among the most K-selected of species. A suite of highly derived life history traits characterizes humans. Among these are physically immature neonates, slowed somatic development both in utero and post-natally, late attainment of reproductive maturity and first birth, and extended post-mature survival. Exactly when, why, and through what types of evolutionary interactions this suite arose is currently the subject of much conjecture and debate. Humankind's biocultural adaptations have helped to structure human life history evolution in unique ways not seen in other animal species. Among all species, life history traits may respond rapidly to alterations in selective pressures through hormonal processes. Selective pressures on life history likely varied widely among hominids and humans over their evolutionary history. This suggests that current patterns of human growth, development, maturation, reproduction, and post-mature survival may be of recent genesis, rather then long-standing adaptations. Thus, life history patterns observed among contemporary human and chimpanzee populations may provide little insight to those that existed earlier in hominid/human evolution.

  1. Statistical analysis of life history calendar data.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Mervi; Helske, Satu

    2016-04-01

    The life history calendar is a data-collection tool for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events. To illustrate the analysis of such data, we compare the model-based probabilistic event history analysis and the model-free data mining method, sequence analysis. In event history analysis, we estimate instead of transition hazards the cumulative prediction probabilities of life events in the entire trajectory. In sequence analysis, we compare several dissimilarity metrics and contrast data-driven and user-defined substitution costs. As an example, we study young adults' transition to adulthood as a sequence of events in three life domains. The events define the multistate event history model and the parallel life domains in multidimensional sequence analysis. The relationship between life trajectories and excess depressive symptoms in middle age is further studied by their joint prediction in the multistate model and by regressing the symptom scores on individual-specific cluster indices. The two approaches complement each other in life course analysis; sequence analysis can effectively find typical and atypical life patterns while event history analysis is needed for causal inquiries. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  3. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diptera vectors of avian Haemosporidian parasites: untangling parasite life cycles and their taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Schaefer, Hinrich Martin

    2012-11-01

    Haemosporida is a large group of vector-borne intracellular parasites that infect amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. This group includes the different malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that infect humans around the world. Our knowledge on the full life cycle of these parasites is most complete for those parasites that infect humans and, to some extent, birds. However, our current knowledge on haemosporidian life cycles is characterized by a paucity of information concerning the vector species responsible for their transmission among vertebrates. Moreover, our taxonomic and systematic knowledge of haemosporidians is far from complete, in particular because of insufficient sampling in wild vertebrates and in tropical regions. Detailed experimental studies to identify avian haemosporidian vectors are uncommon, with only a few published during the last 25 years. As such, little knowledge has accumulated on haemosporidian life cycles during the last three decades, hindering progress in ecology, evolution, and systematic studies of these avian parasites. Nonetheless, recently developed molecular tools have facilitated advances in haemosporidian research. DNA can now be extracted from vectors' blood meals and the vertebrate host identified; if the blood meal is infected by haemosporidians, the parasite's genetic lineage can also be identified. While this molecular tool should help to identify putative vector species, detailed experimental studies on vector competence are still needed. Furthermore, molecular tools have helped to refine our knowledge on Haemosporida taxonomy and systematics. Herein we review studies conducted on Diptera vectors transmitting avian haemosporidians from the late 1800s to the present. We also review work on Haemosporida taxonomy and systematics since the first application of molecular techniques and provide recommendations and suggest future research directions. Because human encroachment on natural environments brings human

  5. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences . Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  6. Primates and the Evolution of Long-Slow Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-01-01

    Summary Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explain their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. PMID:21959161

  7. Personal Narratives in Life History Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germeten, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    In this article I discuss how to create personal narratives in life history research methodology. People tell stories of their lives, and the researchers make these stories into life histories. Based on theoretical perspectives on "discourse" inspired by Michel Foucault, narratives are seen as ways of positioning oneself as a…

  8. Lemur Biorhythms and Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Russell T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Schwartz, Gary T; Dirks, Wendy; Bromage, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal histology supports the hypothesis that primate life histories are regulated by a neuroendocrine rhythm, the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO). Interestingly, subfossil lemurs are outliers in HHO scaling relationships that have been discovered for haplorhine primates and other mammals. We present new data to determine whether these species represent the general lemur or strepsirrhine condition and to inform models about neuroendocrine-mediated life history evolution. We gathered the largest sample to date of HHO data from histological sections of primate teeth (including the subfossil lemurs) to assess the relationship of these chronobiological measures with life history-related variables including body mass, brain size, age at first female reproduction, and activity level. For anthropoids, these variables show strong correlations with HHO conforming to predictions, though body mass and endocranial volume are strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in this group. However, lemurs (possibly excepting Daubentonia) do not follow this pattern and show markedly less variability in HHO periodicity and lower correlation coefficients and slopes. Moreover, body mass is uncorrelated, and brain size and activity levels are more strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in these animals. We argue that lemurs evolved this pattern due to selection for risk-averse life histories driven by the unpredictability of the environment in Madagascar. These results reinforce the idea that HHO influences life history evolution differently in response to specific ecological selection regimes.

  9. Lemur Biorhythms and Life History Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Russell T.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Schwartz, Gary T.; Dirks, Wendy; Bromage, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal histology supports the hypothesis that primate life histories are regulated by a neuroendocrine rhythm, the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO). Interestingly, subfossil lemurs are outliers in HHO scaling relationships that have been discovered for haplorhine primates and other mammals. We present new data to determine whether these species represent the general lemur or strepsirrhine condition and to inform models about neuroendocrine-mediated life history evolution. We gathered the largest sample to date of HHO data from histological sections of primate teeth (including the subfossil lemurs) to assess the relationship of these chronobiological measures with life history-related variables including body mass, brain size, age at first female reproduction, and activity level. For anthropoids, these variables show strong correlations with HHO conforming to predictions, though body mass and endocranial volume are strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in this group. However, lemurs (possibly excepting Daubentonia) do not follow this pattern and show markedly less variability in HHO periodicity and lower correlation coefficients and slopes. Moreover, body mass is uncorrelated, and brain size and activity levels are more strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in these animals. We argue that lemurs evolved this pattern due to selection for risk-averse life histories driven by the unpredictability of the environment in Madagascar. These results reinforce the idea that HHO influences life history evolution differently in response to specific ecological selection regimes. PMID:26267241

  10. Life histories in occupational therapy clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Frank, G

    1996-04-01

    This article defines and compares several narrative methods used to describe and interpret patients' lives. The biographical methods presented are case histories, life-charts, life histories, life stories, assisted autobiography, hermeneutic case reconstruction, therapeutic employment, volitional narratives, and occupational storytelling and story making. Emphasis is placed the clinician as a collaborator and interpreter of the patient's life through ongoing interactions and dialogue.

  11. Primates and the evolution of long, slow life histories.

    PubMed

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-09-27

    Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life-history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life-history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explains their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life-history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Chrysoviridae.

    PubMed

    Ghabrial, Said A; Castón, José R; Coutts, Robert H A; Hillman, Bradley I; Jiang, Daohong; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-01-01

    The Chrysoviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses (40 nm in diameter) with segmented dsRNA genomes (typically four segments). The genome segments are individually encapsidated and together comprise 11.5-12.8 kbp. The single genus Chrysovirus includes nine species. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular phase to their life cycle; they are transmitted via intracellular routes within an individual during hyphal growth, in asexual or sexual spores, or between individuals via hyphal anastomosis. There are no known natural vectors for chrysoviruses. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Chrysoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/chrysoviridae.

  13. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  14. Nutrition shapes life-history evolution across species

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Eli M.; Espeset, Anne; Mikati, Ihab; Bolduc, Isaac; Kulhanek, Robert; White, William A.; Kenzie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a key component of life-history theory, yet we know little about how diet quality shapes life-history evolution across species. Here, we test whether quantitative measures of nutrition are linked to life-history evolution across 96 species of butterflies representing over 50 independent diet shifts. We find that butterflies feeding on high nitrogen host plants as larvae are more fecund, but their eggs are smaller relative to their body size. Nitrogen and sodium content of host plants are also both positively related to eye size. Some of these relationships show pronounced lineage-specific effects. Testis size is not related to nutrition. Additionally, the evolutionary timing of diet shifts is not important, suggesting that nutrition affects life histories regardless of the length of time a species has been adapting to its diet. Our results suggest that, at least for some lineages, species with higher nutrient diets can invest in a range of fitness-related traits like fecundity and eye size while allocating less to each egg as offspring have access to a richer diet. These results have important implications for the evolution of life histories in the face of anthropogenic changes in nutrient availability. PMID:27412282

  15. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): Brown shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassuy, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable $302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normal1y taken in water temperatures above 10?C and rapid growth occurs above 18?C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populatiorls are associated with coastal marshes.

  16. Life history dependent morphometric variation in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The time course of morphometric variation among life histories for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr (age-0+ to age-2+) was analyzed. Possible life histories were combinations of parr maturity status in the autumn (mature or immature) and age at outmigration (smolt at age-2+ or later age). Actual life histories expressed with enough fish for analysis in the 1997 cohort were immature/age-2+ smolt, mature/age-2 +smolt, and mature/age-2+ non-smolt. Tagged fish were assigned to one of the three life histories and digital pictures from the field were analyzed using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Results indicated that successful grouping of fish according to life history varied with fish age, but that fish could be grouped before the actual expression of the life histories. By March (age-1+), fish were successfully grouped using a descriptive discriminant function and successful assignment ranged from 84 to 97% for the remainder of stream residence. A jackknife of the discriminant function revealed an average life history prediction success of 67% from age-1+ summer to smolting. Low sample numbers for one of the life histories may have limited prediction success. A MANOVA on the shape descriptors (relative warps) also indicated significant differences in shape among life histories from age-1+ summer through to smolting. Across all samples, shape varied significantly with size. Within samples, shape did not vary significantly with size for samples from December (age-0+) to May (age-1+). During the age-1+ summer however, shape varied significantly with size, but the relationship between shape and size was not different among life histories. In the autumn (age-1+) and winter (age-2+), life history differences explained a significant portion of the change in shape with size. Life history dependent morphometric variation may be useful to indicate the timing of early expressions of life history variation and as a tool to explore temporal and

  17. Life history diversity in Klamath River steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, Brian W.; Wilzbach, Peggy; Duffy, Walter G.; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss exhibits a vast array of life histories, which increases its likelihood of persistence by spreading risk of extirpation among different pathways. The Klamath River basin (California–Oregon) provides a particularly interesting backdrop for the study of life history diversity in O. mykiss, in part because the river is slated for a historic and potentially influential dam removal and habitat recolonization project. We used scale and otolith strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses to characterize life history diversity in wildO. mykiss from the lower Klamath River basin. We also determined maternal origin (anadromous or nonanadromous) and migratory history (anadromous or nonanadromous) of O. mykiss and compared length and fecundity at age between anadromous (steelhead) and nonanadromous (Rainbow Trout) phenotypes of O. mykiss. We identified a total of 38 life history categories at maturity, which differed in duration of freshwater and ocean rearing, age at maturation, and incidence of repeat spawning. Approximately 10% of adult fish sampled were nonanadromous. Rainbow Trout generally grew faster in freshwater than juvenile steelhead; however, ocean growth afforded adult steelhead greater length and fecundity than adult Rainbow Trout. Although 75% of individuals followed the migratory path of their mother, steelhead produced nonanadromous progeny and Rainbow Trout produced anadromous progeny. Overall, we observed a highly diverse array of life histories among Klamath River O. mykiss. While this diversity should increase population resilience, recent declines in the abundance of Klamath River steelhead suggest that life history diversity alone is not sufficient to stabilize a population. Our finding that steelhead and Rainbow Trout give rise to progeny of the alternate form (1) suggests that dam removal might lead to a facultatively anadromous O. mykiss population in the upper basin and (2) raises the question of whether both forms of

  18. Breast cancer pathology: the impact of molecular taxonomy on morphological taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2012-05-01

    The concept of having an 'intrinsic subtype,' or a molecular taxonomy, lets us clearly recognize that breast cancers have characteristically different patterns of gene expression, thus giving newfound significance to morphological taxonomy. In this review, the concept of the 'intrinsic subtype' is discussed, research questions are introduced to refine the significance of morphological taxonomy, and a corresponding example is presented between microarray analysis and 'immunohistochemical subtype,' or histological taxonomy. © 2012 The Author. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. 50 years of formal virus taxonomy: overview and prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the origins of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), we present a brief history of the foundation, consolidation, establishment and growth of this organisation. We also outline recent developments, supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust, tha...

  20. Primate energy expenditure and life history

    PubMed Central

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A.; Gordon, Adam D.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara K.; Hare, Brian; O’Neill, Matthew C.; Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Dunsworth, Holly M.; Wood, Brian M.; Isler, Karin; Burkart, Judith; Irwin, Mitchell; Shumaker, Robert W.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Ross, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and other primates are distinct among placental mammals in having exceptionally slow rates of growth, reproduction, and aging. Primates’ slow life history schedules are generally thought to reflect an evolved strategy of allocating energy away from growth and reproduction and toward somatic investment, particularly to the development and maintenance of large brains. Here we examine an alternative explanation: that primates’ slow life histories reflect low total energy expenditure (TEE) (kilocalories per day) relative to other placental mammals. We compared doubly labeled water measurements of TEE among 17 primate species with similar measures for other placental mammals. We found that primates use remarkably little energy each day, expending on average only 50% of the energy expected for a placental mammal of similar mass. Such large differences in TEE are not easily explained by differences in physical activity, and instead appear to reflect systemic metabolic adaptation for low energy expenditures in primates. Indeed, comparisons of wild and captive primate populations indicate similar levels of energy expenditure. Broad interspecific comparisons of growth, reproduction, and maximum life span indicate that primates’ slow metabolic rates contribute to their characteristically slow life histories. PMID:24474770

  1. Life-History Patterns of Lizards of the World.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniel O; Costa, Gabriel C; Colli, Guarino R; Costa, Taís B; Shepard, Donald B; Vitt, Laurie J; Pianka, Eric R

    2016-06-01

    Identification of mechanisms that promote variation in life-history traits is critical to understand the evolution of divergent reproductive strategies. Here we compiled a large life-history data set (674 lizard populations, representing 297 species from 263 sites globally) to test a number of hypotheses regarding the evolution of life-history traits in lizards. We found significant phylogenetic signal in most life-history traits, although phylogenetic signal was not particularly high. Climatic variables influenced the evolution of many traits, with clutch frequency being positively related to precipitation and clutches of tropical lizards being smaller than those of temperate species. This result supports the hypothesis that in tropical and less seasonal climates, many lizards tend to reproduce repeatedly throughout the season, producing smaller clutches during each reproductive episode. Our analysis also supported the hypothesis that viviparity has evolved in lizards as a response to cooler climates. Finally, we also found that variation in trait values explained by clade membership is unevenly distributed among lizard clades, with basal clades and a few younger clades showing the most variation. Our global analyses are largely consistent with life-history theory and previous results based on smaller and scattered data sets, suggesting that these patterns are remarkably consistent across geographic and taxonomic scales.

  2. Deciphering life history transcriptomes in different environments

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J.; Trotter, Meredith V.; de Oliveira, Cássia C.; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G.; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    We compared whole transcriptome variation in six preadult stages and seven adult female ages in two populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis reared on two host plants in order to understand how differences in gene expression influence standing life history variation. We used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to identify dominant trajectories of life cycle gene expression variation, performed pair-wise comparisons of stage and age differences in gene expression across the life cycle, identified when genes exhibited maximum levels of life cycle gene expression, and assessed population and host cactus effects on gene expression. Life cycle SVD analysis returned four significant components of transcriptional variation, revealing functional enrichment of genes responsible for growth, metabolic function, sensory perception, neural function, translation and aging. Host cactus effects on female gene expression revealed population and stage specific differences, including significant host plant effects on larval metabolism and development, as well as adult neurotransmitter binding and courtship behavior gene expression levels. In 3 - 6 day old virgin females, significant up-regulation of genes associated with meiosis and oogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of genes associated with somatic maintenance, evidence for a life history tradeoff. The transcriptome of D. mojavensis reared in natural environments throughout its life cycle revealed core developmental transitions and genome wide influences on life history variation in natural populations. PMID:25442828

  3. Plant taxonomy: a historical perspective, current challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rouhan, Germinal; Gaudeul, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is the science that explores, describes, names, and classifies all organisms. In this introductory chapter, we highlight the major historical steps in the elaboration of this science that provides baseline data for all fields of biology and plays a vital role for society but is also an independent, complex, and sound hypothesis-driven scientific discipline.In a first part, we underline that plant taxonomy is one of the earliest scientific disciplines that emerged thousands of years ago, even before the important contributions of Greeks and Romans (e.g., Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides). In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, plant taxonomy benefited from the Great Navigations, the invention of the printing press, the creation of botanic gardens, and the use of the drying technique to preserve plant specimens. In parallel with the growing body of morpho-anatomical data, subsequent major steps in the history of plant taxonomy include the emergence of the concept of natural classification, the adoption of the binomial naming system (with the major role of Linnaeus) and other universal rules for the naming of plants, the formulation of the principle of subordination of characters, and the advent of the evolutionary thought. More recently, the cladistic theory (initiated by Hennig) and the rapid advances in DNA technologies allowed to infer phylogenies and to propose true natural, genealogy-based classifications.In a second part, we put the emphasis on the challenges that plant taxonomy faces nowadays. The still very incomplete taxonomic knowledge of the worldwide flora (the so-called taxonomic impediment) is seriously hampering conservation efforts that are especially crucial as biodiversity enters its sixth extinction crisis. It appears mainly due to insufficient funding, lack of taxonomic expertise, and lack of communication and coordination. We then review recent initiatives to overcome these limitations and to anticipate how taxonomy

  4. The effect of life expectancy on aggression and generativity: a life history perspective.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Curtis S; Mathes, Eugene; Papini, Dennis R

    2010-09-23

    Following a model that is inclusive of both dispositional and situational influences on life-history behaviors and attitudes, the effect of life expectancies on aggression and generativity was examined. Consistent with the hypotheses it was found that shorter life expectancies led to an increase in the desire to aggress and a decrease in the desire to engage in generative behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of how life history theory can be used to frame research on person-situation interactions.

  5. Academic Oral History: Life Review in Spite of Itself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryant, Carl

    The process and content of the life review should not be separated from the creation of an oral history. Several projects, undertaken at the University of Louisville Oral History Center, support the therapeutic aspects of reminiscence. The dichotomy between oral history, as an historical database, and life review, as a therapeutic exercise, breaks…

  6. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  7. Phenological sequences reveal aggregate life history response to climatic warming.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric S; Pedersen, Christian; Wilmers, Christopher C; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2008-02-01

    Climatic warming is associated with organisms breeding earlier in the season than is typical for their species. In some species, however, response to warming is more complex than a simple advance in the timing of all life history events preceding reproduction. Disparities in the extent to which different components of the reproductive phenology of organisms vary with climatic warming indicate that not all life history events are equally responsive to environmental variation. Here, we propose that our understanding of phenological response to climate change can be improved by considering entire sequences of events comprising the aggregate life histories of organisms preceding reproduction. We present results of a two-year warming experiment conducted on 33 individuals of three plant species inhabiting a low-arctic site. Analysis of phenological sequences of three key events for each species revealed how the aggregate life histories preceding reproduction responded to warming, and which individual events exerted the greatest influence on aggregate life history variation. For alpine chickweed (Cerastium alpinum), warming elicited a shortening of the duration of the emergence stage by 2.5 days on average, but the aggregate life history did not differ between warmed and ambient plots. For gray willow (Salix glauca), however, all phenological events monitored occurred earlier on warmed than on ambient plots, and warming reduced the aggregate life history of this species by 22 days on average. Similarly, in dwarf birch (Betula nana), warming advanced flower bud set, blooming, and fruit set and reduced the aggregate life history by 27 days on average. Our approach provides important insight into life history responses of many organisms to climate change and other forms of environmental variation. Such insight may be compromised by considering changes in individual phenological events in isolation.

  8. Diagnosis - the limiting focus of taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2016-02-01

    The focus on the diagnosis is a pivotal aspect of medical practice since antiquity. Diagnostic taxonomy helped to categorize ailments to improve medical care, and in its social sense resulted in validation of the sick role for some, but marginalization or stigmatization for others. In the medical industrial complex, diagnostic taxonomy structured health care financing, management and practitioner remuneration. However, with increasing demands from multiple agencies, there are increasing unintended and unwarranted consequences of our current taxonomies and diagnostic processes resulting from the conglomeration of underpinning concepts, theories, information and motivations. We argue that the increasing focus on the diagnosis resulted in excessive compartmentalization - 'partialism' - of medical practice, diminishing medical care and being naively simplistic in light of the emerging understanding of the interconnected nature of the diseasome. The human is a complex organic system of interconnecting dynamics and feedback loops responding to internal and external forces including genetic, epigenetic and environmental attractors, rather than the sum of multiple discrete organs which can develop isolated diseases or multiple morbidities. Solutions to these unintended consequences of many contemporary health system processes involve revisiting the nature of diagnostic taxonomies and the processes of their construction. A dynamic taxonomic framework would shift to more relevant attractors at personal, clinical and health system levels recognizing the non-linear nature of health and disease. Human health at an individual, group and population level is the ability to adapt to internal and external stressors with resilience throughout the life course, yet diagnostic taxonomies are increasingly constructed around fixed anchors. Understanding diagnosis as dissecting, pigeonholing or bean counting (learning by dividing) is no longer useful, the challenge for the future is to

  9. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Implications of life-history strategies for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Maner, Jon K.; Dittmann, Andrea; Meltzer, Andrea L.; McNulty, James K.

    2017-01-01

    The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity is well documented. In the current research, a life history theory (LHT) framework provided an explanation for this association. Derived from evolutionary behavioral science, LHT emphasizes how variability in exposure to unpredictability during childhood gives rise to individual differences in a range of social psychological processes across the life course. Consistent with previous LHT research, the current findings suggest that exposure to unpredictability during childhood (a characteristic common to low SES environments) is associated with the adoption of a fast life-history strategy, one marked by impulsivity and a focus on short-term goals. We demonstrate that a fast life-history strategy, in turn, was associated with dysregulated weight-management behaviors (i.e., eating even in the absence of hunger), which were predictive of having a high body mass index (BMI) and being obese. In both studies, findings held while controlling for participants’ current socioeconomic status, suggesting that obesity is rooted in childhood experiences. A serial mediation model in study 2 confirmed that effects of childhood SES on adult BMI and obesity can be explained in part by exposure to unpredictability, the adoption of a fast life-history strategy, and dysregulated-eating behaviors. These findings suggest that weight problems in adulthood may be rooted partially in early childhood exposure to unpredictable events and environments. LHT provides a valuable explanatory framework for understanding the root causes of obesity. PMID:28739939

  11. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  12. A review of the taxonomy of chondrichthyan fishes: a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Last, P R

    2012-04-01

    Taxonomic clarity is a fundamental requirement as it forms the foundation of all other life sciences. In the last decade, chondrichthyan taxonomy has undergone a scientific renaissance with >180 new species formally described. This effort encompasses c. 15% of the global chondrichthyan fauna, which consists of 1185 currently recognized species. The important role of chondrichthyan taxonomy for conservation management has been highlighted in recent years with new species descriptions or taxonomic resolution of a number of threatened species. These include Australian gulper (genus Centrophorus) and speartooth sharks (genus Glyphis) in coastal waters of Australia and Borneo. Closer examination of other wide-ranging species, for which the taxonomy was thought to be stable, has shown that they consist of species complexes, e.g. manta rays (Manta spp.) and spotted eagle rays (the Aetobatus narinari complex), and highlights the need for critical re-examination of other wide-ranging species. Molecular methods have provided another useful tool to taxonomists and they have proven to assist greatly with identifying cryptic species and species complexes. The limitations of particular molecular methods being used need, however, to be carefully considered and there are some concerns about how these are being integrated with classical taxonomy. The fundamental importance of taxonomic nomenclature to life sciences is often poorly understood but striving for nomenclatural stability is a critical component of taxonomy. Similarly, biological collections are an extremely vital asset to both taxonomists and the broader scientific community. These collections are becoming increasingly important due in part to molecular species identification initiatives such as the Barcode of Life which has resulted in a large number of voucher specimens linked to tissue samples being deposited. Biological collections are also proving to be imperative in biodiversity studies as they contain a 'gold mine

  13. Genome-Based Microbial Taxonomy Coming of Age.

    PubMed

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam; Parks, Donovan H

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing the complete evolutionary history of extant life on our planet will be one of the most fundamental accomplishments of scientific endeavor, akin to the completion of the periodic table, which revolutionized chemistry. The road to this goal is via comparative genomics because genomes are our most comprehensive and objective evolutionary documents. The genomes of plant and animal species have been systematically targeted over the past decade to provide coverage of the tree of life. However, multicellular organisms only emerged in the last 550 million years of more than three billion years of biological evolution and thus comprise a small fraction of total biological diversity. The bulk of biodiversity, both past and present, is microbial. We have only scratched the surface in our understanding of the microbial world, as most microorganisms cannot be readily grown in the laboratory and remain unknown to science. Ground-breaking, culture-independent molecular techniques developed over the past 30 years have opened the door to this so-called microbial dark matter with an accelerating momentum driven by exponential increases in sequencing capacity. We are on the verge of obtaining representative genomes across all life for the first time. However, historical use of morphology, biochemical properties, behavioral traits, and single-marker genes to infer organismal relationships mean that the existing highly incomplete tree is riddled with taxonomic errors. Concerted efforts are now needed to synthesize and integrate the burgeoning genomic data resources into a coherent universal tree of life and genome-based taxonomy. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. The Dark Triad Traits from a Life History Perspective in Six Countries.

    PubMed

    Jonason, Peter K; Foster, Joshua D; Egorova, Marina S; Parshikova, Oksana; Csathó, Árpád; Oshio, Atsushi; Gouveia, Valdiney V

    2017-01-01

    Work on the Dark Triad traits has benefited from the use of a life history framework but it has been limited to primarily Western samples and indirect assessments of life history strategies. Here, we examine how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) relate to two measures of individual differences in life history strategies. In Study 1 ( N = 937), we replicated prior observed links between life history strategies, as measured by the Mini- K , and the Dark Triad traits using samples recruited from three countries. In Study 2 ( N = 1032), we measured life history strategies using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale and correlated it with the Dark Triad traits in samples recruited from three additional countries. While there was some variability across participants' sex and country, the results were generally consistent in that psychopathy and (to a lesser extent) Machiavellianism were related to faster life history strategies and narcissism was related to slower life history strategies. These results add cross-cultural data and the use of two measures of life history speed to understand the Dark Triad traits from a life history perspective.

  15. Exploring life history characteristics of naturalized versus stocked chinook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Mark W.; Kerns, Janice A; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2011-01-01

    Naturalization of stocked populations can result in divergence of life-history traits from domestic stocks. Lake Michigan supports popular Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Salmon fisheries that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the last few decades and currently contributes over 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. Samples collected as part of a lakewide mass-marking of Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon, starting with the 2006 year class, indicated hatchery fish average 30-mm longer and 130 grams heavier than naturalized fish at age-1. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized and hatchery populations resulting in divergent life-history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. Specific life-history metrics of interest include: age- and size- at maturity, spawning run timing, fecundity, and sex ratio. Objectives: We evaluated life history characteristics between naturally recruited and stocked Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan to help discern potential changes resulting from naturalization and implications for fisheries. A. Conduct an analysis of historical data to determine if life-history parameters changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. B. Conduct a two-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in life-history metrics of adults. C. Determine if reproductive potential differs between naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook salmon by measuring egg thiamine levels.

  16. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  17. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  18. Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jay; Schwartz, Gary T

    2010-01-19

    Life-history inference is an important aim of paleoprimatology, but life histories cannot be discerned directly from the fossil record. Among extant primates, the timing of many life-history attributes is correlated with the age at emergence of the first permanent molar (M1), which can therefore serve as a means to directly compare the life histories of fossil and extant species. To date, M1 emergence ages exist for only a small fraction of extant primate species and consist primarily of data from captive individuals, which may show accelerated dental eruption compared with free-living individuals. Data on M1 emergence ages in wild great apes exist for only a single chimpanzee individual, with data for gorillas and orangutans being anecdotal. This paucity of information limits our ability to make life-history inferences using the M1 emergence ages of extinct ape and hominin species. Here we report reliable ages at M1 emergence for the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus (4.6 y), and the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla (3.8 y), obtained from the dental histology of wild-shot individuals in museum collections. These ages and the one reported age at M1 emergence in a free-living chimpanzee of approximately 4.0 y are highly concordant with the comparative life histories of these great apes. They are also consistent with the average age at M1 emergence in relation to the timing of life-history events in modern humans, thus confirming the utility of M1 emergence ages for life-history inference and providing a basis for making reliable life-history inferences for extinct apes and hominins.

  19. Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jay; Schwartz, Gary T.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history inference is an important aim of paleoprimatology, but life histories cannot be discerned directly from the fossil record. Among extant primates, the timing of many life-history attributes is correlated with the age at emergence of the first permanent molar (M1), which can therefore serve as a means to directly compare the life histories of fossil and extant species. To date, M1 emergence ages exist for only a small fraction of extant primate species and consist primarily of data from captive individuals, which may show accelerated dental eruption compared with free-living individuals. Data on M1 emergence ages in wild great apes exist for only a single chimpanzee individual, with data for gorillas and orangutans being anecdotal. This paucity of information limits our ability to make life-history inferences using the M1 emergence ages of extinct ape and hominin species. Here we report reliable ages at M1 emergence for the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus (4.6 y), and the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla (3.8 y), obtained from the dental histology of wild-shot individuals in museum collections. These ages and the one reported age at M1 emergence in a free-living chimpanzee of approximately 4.0 y are highly concordant with the comparative life histories of these great apes. They are also consistent with the average age at M1 emergence in relation to the timing of life-history events in modern humans, thus confirming the utility of M1 emergence ages for life-history inference and providing a basis for making reliable life-history inferences for extinct apes and hominins. PMID:20080537

  20. Learning to change taxonomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, Elena; Petrushin, Valery A.

    2002-03-01

    Taxonomies are valuable tools for structuring and representing our knowledge about the world. They are widely used in many domains, where information about species, products, customers, publications, etc. needs to be organized. In the absence of standards, many taxonomies of the same entities can co-exist. A problem arises when data categorized in a particular taxonomy needs to be used by a procedure (methodology or algorithm) that uses a different taxonomy. Usually, a labor-intensive manual approach is used to solve this problem. This paper describes a machine learning approach which aids domain experts in changing taxonomies. It allows learning relationships between two taxonomies and mapping the data from one taxonomy into another. The proposed approach uses decision trees and bootstrapping for learning mappings of instances from the source to the target taxonomies. A C4.5 decision tree classifier is trained on a small manually labeled training set and applied to a randomly selected sample from the unlabeled data. The classification results are analyzed and the misclassified items are corrected and all items are added to the training set. This procedure is iterated until unlabeled data is available or an acceptable error rate is reached. In the latter case the last classifier is used to label all the remaining data. We test our approach on a database of products obtained from as grocery store chain and find that it performs well, reaching 92.6% accuracy while requiring the human expert to explicitly label only 18% of the entire data.

  1. The Tsimane Health and Life History Project: Integrating anthropology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin; Blackwell, Aaron D; Beheim, Bret; Davis, Helen; Hooper, Paul; Kaplan, Hillard

    2017-04-01

    The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood. A third aim addresses how modernization shapes human life histories and sociality. Here we outline the project's goals, history, and main findings since its inception in 2002. We reflect on the implications of current findings and highlight the need for more coordinated ethnographic and biomedical study of contemporary nonindustrial populations to address broad questions that can situate evolutionary anthropology in a key position within the social and life sciences. © 2017 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome across species, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Debecker, Sara; Sanmartín-Villar, Iago; de Guinea-Luengo, Miguel; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Stoks, Robby

    2016-05-01

    The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast-slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive-reactive personality continuum. Few studies have investigated these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we investigated whether pesticide exposure affects covariation between life history and behaviour and whether species and sexes with a faster POLS strategy have a higher sensitivity to pesticides. We reared larvae of four species of Ischnura damselflies in a common garden experiment with an insecticide treatment (chlorpyrifos absent/present) in the final instar. We measured four life-history traits (larval growth rate during the pesticide treatment, larval development time, adult mass and life span) and two behavioural traits (larval feeding activity and boldness, each before and after the pesticide treatment). At the individual level, life-history traits and behavioural traits aligned along a fast-slow and a proactive-reactive continuum, respectively. Species-specific differences in life history, with fast-lived species having a faster larval growth and development, a lower mass at emergence and a shorter life span, suggested that time constraints in the larval stage were predictably driving life-history evolution both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. Across species, females were consistently more slow-lived than males, reflecting that a large body size and a long life span are generally more important for females. In contrast to the POLS hypothesis, there was only little evidence for the expected positive coupling between life-history

  3. Narratives from within: An Arendtian Approach to Life Histories and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I draw on my current research of writing a genealogy of women artists, focusing in particular on the life history of the American working-class artist, May Stevens (1924-). I am particularly interested in how an analysis of the textual and visual narratives in her work, seen in the context of her life history, can intervene in the…

  4. The Tsimane Health and Life History Project: Integrating anthropology and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Beheim, Bret; Davis, Helen; Hooper, Paul; Kaplan, Hillard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio‐behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life‐history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high‐fertility, kin‐based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well‐being during development and adulthood. A third aim addresses how modernization shapes human life histories and sociality. Here we outline the project's goals, history, and main findings since its inception in 2002. We reflect on the implications of current findings and highlight the need for more coordinated ethnographic and biomedical study of contemporary nonindustrial populations to address broad questions that can situate evolutionary anthropology in a key position within the social and life sciences. PMID:28429567

  5. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  6. Impact of Life History on Fear Memory and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Remmes, Jasmin; Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Lesting, Jörg; Sachser, Norbert; Pape, Hans-Christian; Seidenbecher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are strongly shaped by an individual's whole life experience. The accumulation of negative experiences over lifetime is thought to promote anxiety-like behavior in adulthood (“allostatic load hypothesis”). In contrast, the “mismatch hypothesis” of psychiatric disease suggests that high levels of anxiety-like behavior are the result of a discrepancy between early and late environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different life histories shape the expression of anxiety-like behavior and modulate fear memory. In addition, we aimed to clarify which of the two hypotheses can better explain the modulation of anxiety and fear. For this purpose, male mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phase of life. In adulthood they were further subdivided in groups that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced before, resulting in four different life histories. The main results were: (i) Early life benefit followed by late life adversity caused decreased levels of anxiety-like behavior. (ii) Accumulation of adversity throughout life history led to impaired fear extinction learning. Late life adversity as compared to late life benefit mainly affected extinction training, while early life adversity as compared to early life benefit interfered with extinction recall. Concerning anxiety-like behavior, the results do neither support the allostatic load nor the mismatch hypothesis, but rather indicate an anxiolytic effect of a mismatched early beneficial and later adverse life history. In contrast, fear memory was strongly affected by the accumulation of adverse experiences over the lifetime, therefore supporting allostatic load hypothesis. In summary, this study highlights that anxiety-like behavior and fear memory are differently affected by specific combinations of adverse or beneficial events experienced throughout life. PMID:27757077

  7. 50 years of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; King, Andrew M Q; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Mushegian, Arcady R; Nibert, Max L; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Orton, Richard J; Smith, Donald B; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Davison, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    We mark the 50th anniversary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) by presenting a brief history of the organization since its foundation, showing how it has adapted to advancements in our knowledge of virus diversity and the methods used to characterize it. We also outline recent developments, supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust (UK), that are facilitating substantial changes in the operations of the ICTV and promoting dialogue with the virology community. These developments will generate improved online resources, including a freely available and regularly updated ICTV Virus Taxonomy Report. They also include a series of meetings between the ICTV and the broader community focused on some of the major challenges facing virus taxonomy, with the outcomes helping to inform the future policy and practice of the ICTV.

  8. Selection of trilateral continuums of life history strategies under food web interactions.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2018-03-14

    The study of life history strategies has a long history in ecology and evolution, but determining the underlying mechanisms driving the evolution of life history variation and its consequences for population regulation remains a major challenge. In this study, a food web model with constant environmental conditions was used to demonstrate how multi-species consumer-resource interactions (food-web interactions) can create variation in the duration of the adult stage, age of maturation, and fecundity among species. The model included three key ecological processes: size-dependent species interactions, energetics, and transition among developmental stages. Resultant patterns of life history variation were consistent with previous empirical observations of the life history strategies of aquatic organisms referred to as periodic, equilibrium, and opportunistic strategies (trilateral continuums of life history strategies). Results from the simulation model suggest that these three life history strategies can emerge from food web interactions even when abiotic environmental conditions are held constant.

  9. Life history theory and breast cancer risk: methodological and theoretical challenges: Response to "Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?".

    PubMed

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analysis published by myself and co-authors, we report differences in the life history risk factors for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Our meta-analysis did not find the association of ER- breast cancer risk with fast life history characteristics that Hidaka and Boddy suggest in their response to our article. There are a number of possible explanations for the differences between their conclusions and the conclusions we drew from our meta-analysis, including limitations of our meta-analysis and methodological challenges in measuring and categorizing estrogen receptor status. These challenges, along with the association of ER+ breast cancer with slow life history characteristics, may make it challenging to find a clear signal of ER- breast cancer with fast life history characteristics, even if that relationship does exist. The contradictory results regarding breast cancer risk and life history characteristics illustrate a more general challenge in evolutionary medicine: often different sub-theories in evolutionary biology make contradictory predictions about disease risk. In this case, life history models predict that breast cancer risk should increase with faster life history characteristics, while the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis predicts that breast cancer risk should increase with delayed reproduction. Whether life history tradeoffs contribute to ER- breast cancer is still an open question, but current models and several lines of evidence suggest that it is a possibility. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  10. Grandmothering life histories and human pair bonding.

    PubMed

    Coxworth, James E; Kim, Peter S; McQueen, John S; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-09-22

    The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. We simulate an agent-based model of the grandmother hypothesis, compare simulated sex ratios to data on great apes and human hunter-gatherers, and note associations between a preponderance of males and mate guarding across taxa. Then we explore a recent model that highlights the importance of mating sex ratios for differences between birds and mammals and conclude that lessons for human evolution cannot ignore mammalian reproductive constraints. In contradiction to our claim that male-biased sex ratios are characteristically human, female-biased ratios are reported in some populations. We consider the likelihood that fertile men are undercounted and conclude that the mate-guarding hypothesis for human pair bonds gains strength from explicit links with our grandmothering life history.

  11. Life histories predict coral community disassembly under multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S; McClanahan, Timothy R; Côté, Isabelle M

    2013-06-01

    Climate change is reshaping biological communities against a background of existing human pressure. Evaluating the impacts of multiple stressors on community dynamics can be particularly challenging in species-rich ecosystems, such as coral reefs. Here, we investigate whether life-history strategies and cotolerance to different stressors can predict community responses to fishing and temperature-driven bleaching using a 20-year time series of coral assemblages in Kenya. We found that the initial life-history composition of coral taxa largely determined the impacts of bleaching and coral loss. Prior to the 1998 bleaching event, coral assemblages within no-take marine reserves were composed of three distinct life histories - competitive, stress-tolerant and weedy- and exhibited strong declines following bleaching with limited subsequent recovery. In contrast, fished reefs had lower coral cover, fewer genera and were composed of stress-tolerant and weedy corals that were less affected by bleaching over the long term. Despite these general patterns, we found limited evidence for cotolerance as coral genera and life histories were variable in their sensitivities to fishing and bleaching. Overall, fishing and bleaching have reduced coral diversity and led to altered coral communities of 'survivor' species with stress-tolerant and weedy life histories. Our findings are consistent with expectations that climate change interacting with existing human pressure will result in the loss of coral diversity and critical reef habitat. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the…

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Buckley, J.

    1989-08-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist with environmental impact assessments. The rainbow smelt is an abundant forage fish for commercially and recreationally valuable fishes such as striped bass and bluefish on the East Coast and several species of salmon and trout in the Great Lakes. The rainbow smelt also supports an important sportfishery throughout most of its range. In 1976, the total smelt harvest in the coastal waters of New England was 105,000 lb. Coastal rainbow smelt are anadromous, spawning in freshwatermore » and maturing in saline water. Spawning peaks in spring. Salinities above 12 ppt were fatal to eggs. Reported fecundities are 7,000 to 44,000 eggs per female. Smelt are always found in shallow water (<6 m deep) and within 2 km of the shore. Larval and juvenile smelt along the coast feed on planktonic crustaceans. Larger juveniles and adults feed on euphausiids, amphipods, on planktonic crustaceans. Larger juveniles and adults feed on euphausiids, amphipods, polychaetes, and fish. Smelt move locally to search for optimum water temperatures. 46 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grimes, B.H.; Huish, M.T.; Kerby, J.H.

    1989-08-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. The summer flounder supports an important commercial and recreational fishery in the Mid-Atlantic and are important constituent of estuarine and continental shelf systems throughout the region. Summer flounder spawning begins in September and winter flounder spawning begins in June. Summer flounder eggs are pelagic whereas winter flounder eggs are demersal. Summer flounder larvae are more abundant in inlets, and juveniles are found in estuarine seagrass beds in salinities {>=}12 ppt. Winter flounder juvenilesmore » are abundant in shallow bays and estuaries, moving seaward in spring and summer. Growth of winter flounder and summer flounder is seasonal. There are probably three spawning populations of both species which produce a complex stock pattern. Summer flounder are tolerant of a wide range of chemical and physica faactors, but prefer {gt}10 ppt salinities. Winter flounder optimal temperature is 18.5 {degree}C. Diseases of winter flounder are more prevalent in polluted waters. Summer flounder are tolerant of sediments laden with contaminants. 64 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  15. Sprecies profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bluefish

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pottern, G.B.; Huish, M.T.; Kerby, J.H.

    1989-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates within a specified range. They are written to assist in environmental impact assessment and decision making by coastal planners and developers. Bluefish are the most important recreational fish in the United States, especially in the mid-Atlantic region. The commercial catch is smaller but has increased during recent years. One population spawns offshore during spring from northern Florida to North Carolina, and these young migrate into mid-Atlantic coastal waters to spend their summer and fall. A second population spawns offshore duringmore » summer from North Carolina to Massachusetts, but most of these young remain offshore for the remainder of the season. In late fall, young and adults of both populations migrate south until the following spring. Bluefish are migratory, opportunistic, pelagic predators throughout life, and their seasonal abundance may have profound community structuring effects. Schools of juvenile bluefish may be important forage for many pelagic predators, including adults of their own species. Photoperiod apparently triggers long-range migration, and temperature serves as a proximal cue to short-range migration. Bluefish are sensitive to bacterial infection in polluted water and have little tolerance for low oxygen conditions. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  16. Life-history evolution in ants: the case of Cardiocondyla

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ants are important components of most terrestrial habitats, and a better knowledge of the diversity of their life histories is essential to understand many aspects of ecosystem functioning. The myrmicine genus Cardiocondyla shows a wide range of colony structures, reproductive behaviours, queen and male lifespans, and habitat use. Reconstructing the evolutionary pathways of individual and social phenotypic traits suggests that the ancestral life history of Cardiocondyla was characterized by the presence of multiple, short-lived queens in small-sized colonies and a male polyphenism with winged dispersers and wingless fighters, which engage in lethal combat over female sexuals within their natal nests. Single queening, queen polyphenism, the loss of winged males and tolerance among wingless males appear to be derived traits that evolved with changes in nesting habits, colony size and the spread from tropical to seasonal environments. The aim of this review is to bring together the information on life-history evolution in Cardiocondyla and to highlight the suitability of this genus for functional genomic studies of adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, senescence, invasiveness and other key life-history traits of ants. PMID:28298341

  17. Effects of Harsh and Unpredictable Environments in Adolescence on Development of Life History Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood. PMID:20634914

  18. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Treesearch

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  19. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammalian brain development and our grandmothering life history.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen; Finlay, Barbara L

    2018-05-02

    Among mammals, including humans, adult brain size and the relative size of brain components depend precisely on the duration of a highly regular process of neural development. Much wider variation is seen in rates of body growth and the state of neural maturation at life history events like birth and weaning. Large brains result from slow maturation, which in humans is accompanied by weaning early with respect to both neural maturation and longevity. The grandmother hypothesis proposes this distinctive combination of life history features evolved as ancestral populations began to depend on foods that just weaned juveniles couldn't handle. Here we trace possible reciprocal connections between brain development and life history, highlighting the resulting extended neural plasticity in a wider cognitive ecology of allomaternal care that distinguishes human ontogeny with consequences for other peculiarities of our lineage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does life history predict risk-taking behavior of wintering dabbling ducks?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eadie, J.M.; Moore, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that longer-lived, less fecund species should take fewer risks when exposed to predation than shorter-lived, more fecund species. We tested this prediction for seven species of dabbling ducks (Anas) by measuring the approach behavior (behavior of ducks when approaching potential landing sites) of 1099 duck flocks during 37 hunting trials and 491 flocks during 13 trials conducted immediately after the 1999-2000 waterfowl hunting season in California, USA. We also experimentally manipulated the attractiveness of the study site by using two decoy treatments: (1) traditional, stationary decoys only, and (2) traditional decoys in conjunction with a mechanical spinning-wing decoy. Approach behavior of ducks was strongly correlated with their life history. Minimum approach distance was negatively correlated with reproductive output during each decoy treatment and trial type. Similarly, the proportion of flocks taking risk (approaching landing sites to within 45 m) was positively correlated with reproductive output. We found similar patterns of approach behavior in relation to other life-history parameters (i.e., adult female body mass and annual adult female survival rate). Thus, species characterized by a slower life-history strategy (e.g., Northern Pintail [A. acuta]) were more risk-averse than species with a faster life-history strategy (e.g., Cinnamon Teal [A. cyanoptera]). Furthermore, although we were able to reduce risk-averseness using the spinning-wing decoy, we were unable to override the influence of life history on risk-taking behavior. Alternative explanations did not account for the observed correlation between approach behavior and life-history parameters. These results suggest that life history influences the risk-taking behavior of dabbling ducks and provide an explanation for the differential vulnerability of waterfowl to harvest. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  2. Late-life and life history predictors of older adults' high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Moos, Bernice S

    2010-04-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55-65 to 75-85. A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 and 20 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10- and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. A cognitive taxonomy of medical errors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Johnson, Todd R; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2004-06-01

    Propose a cognitive taxonomy of medical errors at the level of individuals and their interactions with technology. Use cognitive theories of human error and human action to develop the theoretical foundations of the taxonomy, develop the structure of the taxonomy, populate the taxonomy with examples of medical error cases, identify cognitive mechanisms for each category of medical error under the taxonomy, and apply the taxonomy to practical problems. Four criteria were used to evaluate the cognitive taxonomy. The taxonomy should be able (1) to categorize major types of errors at the individual level along cognitive dimensions, (2) to associate each type of error with a specific underlying cognitive mechanism, (3) to describe how and explain why a specific error occurs, and (4) to generate intervention strategies for each type of error. The proposed cognitive taxonomy largely satisfies the four criteria at a theoretical and conceptual level. Theoretically, the proposed cognitive taxonomy provides a method to systematically categorize medical errors at the individual level along cognitive dimensions, leads to a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms of medical errors, and provides a framework that can guide future studies on medical errors. Practically, it provides guidelines for the development of cognitive interventions to decrease medical errors and foundation for the development of medical error reporting system that not only categorizes errors but also identifies problems and helps to generate solutions. To validate this model empirically, we will next be performing systematic experimental studies.

  4. The life-history basis of behavioural innovations

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Daniel; Sayol, Ferran; Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of innovativeness remains puzzling because innovating means responding to novel or unusual problems and hence is unlikely to be selected by itself. A plausible alternative is considering innovativeness as a co-opted product of traits that have evolved for other functions yet together predispose individuals to solve problems by adopting novel behaviours. However, this raises the question of why these adaptations should evolve together in an animal. Here, we develop the argument that the adaptations enabling animals to innovate evolve together because they are jointly part of a life-history strategy for coping with environmental changes. In support of this claim, we present comparative evidence showing that in birds, (i) innovative propensity is linked to life histories that prioritize future over current reproduction, (ii) the link is in part explained by differences in brain size, and (iii) innovative propensity and life-history traits may evolve together in generalist species that frequently expose themselves to novel or unusual conditions. Combined with previous evidence, these findings suggest that innovativeness is not a specialized adaptation but more likely part of a broader general adaptive system to cope with changes in the environment. PMID:26926277

  5. Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes.

    PubMed

    Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic regime is regarded as the primary driver of freshwater ecosystems, structuring the physical habitat template, providing connectivity, framing biotic interactions, and ultimately selecting for specific life histories of aquatic organisms. In the present study, we tested ecological theory predicting directional relationships between major dimensions of the flow regime and life history composition of fish assemblages in perennial free-flowing rivers throughout the continental United States. Using long-term discharge records and fish trait and survey data for 109 stream locations, we found that 11 out of 18 relationships (61%) tested between the three life history strategies (opportunistic, periodic, and equilibrium) and six hydrologic metrics (two each describing flow variability, predictability, and seasonality) were statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) according to quantile regression. Our results largely support a priori hypotheses of relationships between specific flow indices and relative prevalence of fish life history strategies, with 82% of all significant relationships observed supporting predictions from life history theory. Specifically, we found that (1) opportunistic strategists were positively related to measures of flow variability and negatively related to predictability and seasonality, (2) periodic strategists were positively related to high flow seasonality and negatively related to variability, and (3) the equilibrium strategists were negatively related to flow variability and positively related to predictability. Our study provides important empirical evidence illustrating the value of using life history theory to understand both the patterns and processes by which fish assemblage structure is shaped by adaptation to natural regimes of variability, predictability, and seasonality of critical flow events over broad biogeographic scales.

  6. Robin's Story: Life History of an Exemplary American Female Physical Education Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to construct the life history of Robin, an exemplary female physical educator, to hear her voice, and to explore ways in which she experienced marginalization. Few life histories of exemplary physical educators have been recounted. Method: Robin's life history was investigated in light of the theory of occupational…

  7. The life history of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic: a tale of revisionary taxonomy, misidentification and commercial success.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew; Plummer, Sue; Marchesi, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a commercially significant bacterial probiotic, originally isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract and designated Bacillus acidophilus in 1900. Throughout the development of methods to identify and characterise bacteria, L. acidophilus has undergone multiple taxonomic revisions and is now the type species of a phylogenetic subgroup in the highly diverse and heterogeneous Lactobacillus genus. As a result of the limitations of differentiating phenotypically similar species by morphological and biochemical means and revisionary nature of Lactobacillus taxonomy, the characterisation of L. acidophilus has struggled with misidentification and misrepresentation. In contrast, due to its global use as a probiotic supplement in functional foods, L. acidophilus sensu stricto is now one of the most well-characterised Lactobacillus species. Here, we establish the provenance of L. acidophilus strains, unpicking historical and current misidentifications of L. acidophilus, and reviewing the probiotic, genomic and physiological characteristics of this important Lactobacillus species. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraordinarily rapid life-history divergence between Cryptasterina sea star species.

    PubMed

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Keever, Carson C; Addison, Jason A; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W; Grosberg, Richard K; Toonen, Robert J

    2012-10-07

    Life history plays a critical role in governing microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation, as well as macroevolutionary processes such speciation. Here, we use multilocus phylogeographic analyses to examine a speciation event involving spectacular life-history differences between sister species of sea stars. Cryptasterina hystera has evolved a suite of derived life-history traits (including internal self-fertilization and brood protection) that differ from its sister species Cryptasterina pentagona, a gonochoric broadcast spawner. We show that these species have only been reproductively isolated for approximately 6000 years (95% highest posterior density of 905-22 628), and that this life-history change may be responsible for dramatic genetic consequences, including low nucleotide diversity, zero heterozygosity and no gene flow. The rapid divergence of these species rules out some mechanisms of isolation such as adaptation to microhabitats in sympatry, or slow divergence by genetic drift during prolonged isolation. We hypothesize that the large phenotypic differences between species relative to the short divergence time suggests that the life-history differences observed may be direct responses to disruptive selection between populations. We speculate that local environmental or demographic differences at the southern range margin are possible mechanisms of selection driving one of the fastest known marine speciation events.

  9. The screech owl: Its life history and population ecology in northern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanCamp, Laurel F.; Henny, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    The screech owl (Otus asio) is native to North America and breeds throughout the United States and in portions of Canada and Mexico. It is a small owl, 20 cm (8 in) in length from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail, with a wing span of 56 cm (22 in); it has yellow eyes and prominent ear tufts (see Frontispiece). Although the species is common throughout much of North America, it has not been studied intensively, particularly over a long period. The published literature is concerned mostly with food habits, color phase, taxonomy, and miscellaneous observations. Breeding biology and population dynamics have received little attention. This report presents the basic life history and population information about screech owls in northern Ohio over a 30-yr period. The owls studied were nesting in boxes (Fig. 1) established for wood ducks (Aix sponsa) along rivers, creeks, and marshes in a four-county area (Ottawa, Sandusky, Wood, and Lucas Counties) near Lake Erie (Fig. 2). No special trapping techniques were required as the screech owls readily used these nesting boxes and could be easily captured while in them. More than 3,000 owls were captured and banded; 500 were recaptured after the initial banding, some 10 or 15 times. This process provided a large quanity of basic information for this report.

  10. To Fairly Tell: Social Mobility, Life Histories, and the Anthropologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benei, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on social agents' own understandings of socio-economic mobility and social achievement, exploring the possibilities offered by the tool of "family" life history in the context of formerly Untouchable communities in western India, Maharashtra. While arguing in favour of family life histories as both resource and…

  11. Inadvertent Exemplars: Life History Portraits of Two Socially Just Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study creates life history portraits of two White middle-class native-English-speaking principals demonstrating commitments to social justice in their work in public elementary schools serving disproportionately high populations of students who are marginalized by poverty, race, and linguistic heritage. Through self-reported life histories of…

  12. Assessing the quality of life history information in publicly available databases.

    PubMed

    Thorson, James T; Cope, Jason M; Patrick, Wesley S

    2014-01-01

    Single-species life history parameters are central to ecological research and management, including the fields of macro-ecology, fisheries science, and ecosystem modeling. However, there has been little independent evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the life history values in global and publicly available databases. We therefore develop a novel method based on a Bayesian errors-in-variables model that compares database entries with estimates from local experts, and we illustrate this process by assessing the accuracy and precision of entries in FishBase, one of the largest and oldest life history databases. This model distinguishes biases among seven life history parameters, two types of information available in FishBase (i.e., published values and those estimated from other parameters), and two taxa (i.e., bony and cartilaginous fishes) relative to values from regional experts in the United States, while accounting for additional variance caused by sex- and region-specific life history traits. For published values in FishBase, the model identifies a small positive bias in natural mortality and negative bias in maximum age, perhaps caused by unacknowledged mortality caused by fishing. For life history values calculated by FishBase, the model identified large and inconsistent biases. The model also demonstrates greatest precision for body size parameters, decreased precision for values derived from geographically distant populations, and greatest between-sex differences in age at maturity. We recommend that our bias and precision estimates be used in future errors-in-variables models as a prior on measurement errors. This approach is broadly applicable to global databases of life history traits and, if used, will encourage further development and improvements in these databases.

  13. ELASTICITY ANALYSIS OF AMPHIBIAN LIFE HISTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    By comparing life history parameters (e.g., age at metamorphosis, age at sexual maturation, egg number, longevity) and phenology of different species, we gain valuable insight into why growth rates differ across populations. Although the demography of most amphibians is lacking, ...

  14. Reflections on the Life Histories of Today's LGBQ Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, James L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study utilized a life history methodology in which written and oral narratives were obtained from six postsecondary students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or queer (LGBQ). Through the construction of life histories, the researcher endeavored to understand how past experiences and behaviors shaped…

  15. EPA Web Taxonomy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's Web based information assests. EPA's Web Taxonomy is being provided in Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) format. SKOS is a standard for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems that promises to make Federal terminology resources more interoperable.

  16. Life history strategy of the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Thomas D

    1978-01-01

    The feral honey bee queens (colonies) of central New York State (USA) show a K-type life history strategy. Their demographic characteristics include low early life mortality, low reproductive rate, long lifespan, high population stability and repeated reproductions. Identifying the life history strategy of these bees reveals the general pattern of selection for competitive ability, rather than productivity, which has shaped their societies. Selection for competitive power explains the adaptiveness (compared with alternatives found in many other insect societies) of the large perennial colonies, infrequent but expensive offspring, and efficient foraging which characterize the social organization of these bees.

  17. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  18. Ovipositor morphology correlates with life history evolution in agaonid fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Larissa Galante; Kjellberg, Finn; Farache, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli; Almeida, Eduardo A. B.; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo

    2018-07-01

    The high adaptive success of parasitic Hymenoptera might be related to the use of different oviposition sites, allowing niche partitioning among co-occurring species resulting in life history specialization and diversification. In this scenario, evolutionary changes in life history and resources for oviposition can be associated with changes in ovipositor structure, allowing exploitation of different substrates for oviposition. We used a formal phylogenetic framework to investigate the evolution of ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid wasps. We sampled 24 species with different life histories belonging to all main clades of Agaonidae including representatives of all described genera of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW). Our results show an overall correlation between ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid fig wasps. Ovipositor morphologies seem to be related to constraints imposed by features of the oviposition sites since ovipositor morphology has experienced convergent evolution at least four times in Sycophaginae (Agaonidae) according to the resource used. Non-galling species have more distantly spaced teeth with uneven spacing, as opposed to the observed morphology of galling species. Our results suggest that the ancestral condition for ovipositor morphology was most likely the presence of one or two apical teeth. Regarding life history, ovary galling species that oviposit in receptive figs possibly represent the ancestral condition. Different ovipositor characteristics allow exploitation of new niches and may be related to resource partitioning and species co-existence in the fig-fig wasp system.

  19. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Ross, Cody T; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recently proposed that "moralistic" religions-those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual-emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with "slow life history" strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with "fast life history" strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions.

  20. Life history strategies of fish species and biodiversity in eastern USA streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, Michael R.; Brown, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models have been used to determine fish species that occur less frequently than expected (decreasers) and those that occur more frequently than expected (increasers) in streams in the eastern U.S. Coupling life history traits with 51 decreaser and 38 increaser fish species provided the opportunity to examine potential mechanisms associated with predicted changes in fish species distributions in eastern streams. We assigned six life history traits – fecundity, longevity, maturation age, maximum total length, parental care, and spawning season duration – to each fish species. Decreaser species were significantly smaller in size and shorter-lived with reduced fecundity and shorter spawning seasons compared to increaser species. Cluster analysis of traits revealed correspondence with a life history model defining equilibrium (low fecundity, high parental care), opportunistic (early maturation, low parental care), and periodic (late maturation, high fecundity, low parental care) end-point strategies. Nearly 50 % of decreaser species were associated with an intermediate opportunistic-periodic strategy, suggesting that abiotic factors such as habitat specialization and streamflow alteration may serve as important influences on life history traits and strategies of decreaser species. In contrast, the percent of increaser species among life history strategy groups ranged from 21 to 32 %, suggesting that life history strategies of increaser species were more diverse than those of decreaser species. This study highlights the utility of linking life history theory to biodiversity to better understand mechanisms that contribute to fish species distributions in the eastern U.S.

  1. Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Linde, Celeste C

    2008-12-01

    Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns.

  2. A trait-based framework to understand life history of mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Bradley, Robert L; Maherali, Hafiz; Klironomos, John N

    2013-09-01

    Despite the growing appreciation for the functional diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, our understanding of the causes and consequences of this diversity is still poor. In this opinion article, we review published data on AM fungal functional traits and attempt to identify major axes of life history variation. We propose that a life history classification system based on the grouping of functional traits, such as Grime's C-S-R (competitor, stress tolerator, ruderal) framework, can help to explain life history diversification in AM fungi, successional dynamics, and the spatial structure of AM fungal assemblages. Using a common life history classification framework for both plants and AM fungi could also help in predicting probable species associations in natural communities and increase our fundamental understanding of the interaction between land plants and AM fungi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Digital Life History Project: Intergenerational Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Meika

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the Digital Life History Project, a 10-week "lab" linked to a course on aging, in which students and community-dwelling elders work together to create a short digital story honoring the elder's life. After two interview sessions, the pair works together to produce a 3- to 5-minute digital life story narrated by the elder.…

  4. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbinemore » costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.« less

  5. The crowded life is a slow life: Population density and life history strategy.

    PubMed

    Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L; Varnum, Michael E W; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2017-05-01

    The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment. In Studies 3 and 4, experimentally manipulating perceptions of high density led individuals to become more future-oriented. Finally, in Studies 5 and 6, experimentally manipulating perceptions of high density seemed to lead to life-stage-specific slower strategies, with college students preferring to invest in fewer rather than more relationship partners, and an older MTurk sample preferring to invest in fewer rather than more children. This research sheds new insight on the effects of density and its implications for human cultural variation and society at large. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Traversing Bloom's Taxonomy in an Introductory Scripture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruehler, Bart B.

    2018-01-01

    Many courses in higher education rely on the hierarchical organization of Bloom's taxonomy to categorize and sequence learning. Introductory courses on scripture often emphasize remembering content and background as a basis for applying the sacred text to one's life. However, a review of the literature demonstrates little support for the widely…

  7. Life History Correlates of Ministerial Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umeda, John K.; Frey, David H.

    1974-01-01

    Life history or biodata correlates of ministerial success were investigated for a group of 92 Seventh-Day Adventist ministers. Two significant bivariate correlations indicated that successful ministers chose their career later than less successful ones and that earning college expenses was predictive of success. (Author/HMV)

  8. Fixation of slightly beneficial mutations: effects of life history.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies of rates of evolution have revealed large systematic differences among organisms with different life histories, both within and among taxa. Here, we consider how life history may affect the rate of evolution via its influence on the fixation probability of slightly beneficial mutations. Our approach is based on diffusion modeling for a finite, stage-structured population with stochastic population dynamics. The results, which are verified by computer simulations, demonstrate that even with complex population structure just two demographic parameters are sufficient to give an accurate approximation of the fixation probability of a slightly beneficial mutation. These are the reproductive value of the stage in which the mutation first occurs and the demographic variance of the population. The demographic variance also determines what influence population size has on the fixation probability. This model represents a substantial generalization of earlier models, covering a large range of life histories.

  9. Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host–parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Linde, Celeste C.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns. PMID:18947899

  10. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitionedmore » analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.« less

  11. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    /7/8/IRRE9/10/RSH3+RWO211/FW12/13/ which can be read as (1) Direction = [DX or DY] (the building has the same lateral load-resisting system in both directions); (2) Material = [Unreinforced Masonry + solid fired clay bricks + cement: lime mortar]; (3) Lateral Load-Resisting System = [Wall]; (4) Date of construction = [pre-1939]; (5) Heaight = [exactly 2 storeys]; (6) Occupancy = [residential, unknown type]; (7) Building Position = [unknown = no entry]; (8) Shape of building plan = [unknown = no entry]; (9) Structural irregularity = [regular]; (10) Exterior walls = [unknown = no entry]; (11) Roof = [Shape: pitched and hipped, Roof covering: clay tiles, Roof system material: wood, Roof system type: wood trusses]; (12) Floor = [Floor system: Wood, unknown]; (13) Foundation = [unknown = no entry]. Mapping of GEM Building Taxonomy to selected taxonomies is included in the report -- for example, the above building would be referenced by previous structural taxonomies as: PAGER-STR as UFB or UFB4, by the World Housing Encyclopedia as 7 or 8 and by the European Macroseismic Scale (98) as M5. The Building Taxonomy data model is highly flexible and has been incorporated within a relational database architecture. Due to its ability to represent building typologies using a shorthand form, it is also possible to use the taxonomy for non-database applications, and we discuss possible application of adaptation for Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems, and for the insurance industry. The GEM Building Taxonomy was independently evaluated and tested by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), which received 217 TaxT reports from 49 countries, representing a wide range of building typologies, including single and multi-storey buildings, reinforced and unreinforced masonry, confined masonry, concrete, steel, wood, and earthern buildings used for residential, commercial, industrial, and educational occupancy. Based on these submissions and other feedback, the EERI

  12. Maturation characteristics and life history strategies of the Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; van de Wetering, Stan; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) have persisted over millennia and now suffer a recent decline in abundance. Complex life histories may have factored in their persistence; anthropogenic perturbations in their demise. The complexity of life histories of lampreys is not understood, particularly for the anadromous Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus Gairdner, 1836. Our goals were to describe the maturation timing and associated characteristics of adult Pacific lamprey, and to test the null hypothesis that different life histories do not exist. Females exhibited early vitellogenesis – early maturation stages; males exhibited spermatogonia – spermatozoa. Cluster analyses revealed an “immature” group and a “maturing–mature” group for each sex. We found statistically significant differences between these groups in the relationships between (i) body mass and total length in males; (ii) Fulton’s condition factor and liver lipids in males; (iii) the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver lipids in females; (iv) GSI and total length in females; (v) mean oocyte diameter and liver lipids; and (vi) mean oocyte diameter and GSI. We found no significant difference between the groups in the relationship of muscle lipids and body mass. Our analyses support rejection of the hypothesis of a single life history. We found evidence for an “ocean-maturing” life history that would likely spawn within several weeks of entering fresh water, in addition to the formerly recognized life history of spending 1 year in fresh water prior to spawning—the “stream-maturing” life history. Late maturity, semelparity, and high fecundity suggest that Pacific lamprey capitalize on infrequent opportunities for reproduction in highly variable environments.

  13. On the Psychometric Study of Human Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, George B; Sanning, Blair K; Lai, Mark H C; Copping, Lee T; Hardesty, Patrick H; Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators. Because we see confirming the dimensionality of life history indicators as the next step toward placing the psychometrics of human LHS on more solid ground, we use nationally representative data and structural equation modeling to test the structure of middle adult life history indicators. We found statistically independent mating competition and Super-K dimensions and the effects of parental harshness and childhood unpredictability on Super-K were consistent with past research. However, childhood socioeconomic status had a moderate positive effect on mating competition and no effect on Super-K, while unpredictability did not predict mating competition. We conclude that human LHS is more complex than previously suggested-there does not seem to be a single dimension of human LHS among Western adults and the effects of environmental components seem to vary between mating competition and Super-K.

  14. Behavioural mediators of genetic life-history trade-offs: a test of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Santostefano, Francesca; Wilson, Alastair J; Niemelä, Petri T; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2017-10-11

    The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts associations between life history and 'risky' behaviours. Individuals with 'fast' lifestyles should develop faster, reproduce earlier, exhibit more risk-prone behaviours, and die sooner than those with 'slow' lifestyles. While support for POLS has been equivocal to date, studies have relied on individual-level (phenotypic) patterns in which genetic trade-offs may be masked by environmental effects on phenotypes. We estimated genetic correlations between life history (development, lifespan, size) and risky behaviours (exploration, aggression) in a pedigreed population of Mediterranean field crickets ( Gryllus bimaculatus ). Path analyses showed that behaviours mediated some genetic relationships between life history traits, though not those involved in trade-offs. Thus, while specific predictions of POLS theory were not supported, genetic integration of behaviour and life history was present. This implies a major role for risky behaviours in life history evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  16. Bacteriophage Taxonomy: An Evolving Discipline.

    PubMed

    Tolstoy, Igor; Kropinski, Andrew M; Brister, J Rodney

    2018-01-01

    While taxonomy is an often-unappreciated branch of science it serves very important roles. Bacteriophage taxonomy has evolved from a mainly morphology-based discipline, characterized by the work of David Bradley and Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann, to the holistic approach that is taken today. The Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) takes a comprehensive approach to classifying prokaryote viruses measuring overall DNA and protein identity and phylogeny before making decisions about the taxonomic position of a new virus. The huge number of complete genomes being deposited with NCBI and other public databases has resulted in a reassessment of the taxonomy of many viruses, and the future will see the introduction of new viral families and higher orders.

  17. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  18. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  19. Life-history correlations with seasonal cold hardiness in maritime pine.

    PubMed

    Prada, Eva; Climent, José; Alía, Ricardo; Díaz, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Plants have developed mechanisms to withstand stressful environmental conditions, but the high energetic cost of these mechanisms may involve exchanges with other key functions. While trade-offs between cold hardiness and growth rates are a general assumption, we lack information regarding genetically based trade-offs between cold hardiness and other life-history traits. Such information has strong implications for tree conservation and breeding, especially in the context of ongoing climate change. We used a common garden progeny test to examine the relationships between seasonal cold hardiness and life-history traits of growth, reproduction, juvenile ontogeny, and phenology in 75 families of six maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) populations, three of continental and three of coastal origins. We found a clear differentiation among populations with regard to cold hardiness and life-history traits. Two continental Iberian populations showed high cold tolerance and slower growth, but faster ontogenetic development in relation to both vegetative heteroblastic change in juveniles and the onset of female reproduction. The coastal populations displayed the opposite behavior, while the continental Moroccan population presented a unique combination of traits. We confirmed trade-offs between cold-hardiness and growth at the population level, but not within populations. There were no trade-offs with other life-history traits at either level. Relevant local adaptation syndromes were identified in the relationship between cold hardiness and life-history traits. These should be considered in developing tree management guidelines aimed at increasing productivity or adaptability under the expected conditions of climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Linking habitat structure to life history strategy: Insights from a Mediterranean killifish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavraro, Francesco; Daouti, Irini; Leonardos, Ioannis; Torricelli, Patrizia; Malavasi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Modern theories of life history evolution deal with finding links between environmental factors, demographic structure of animal populations and the optimal life history strategy. Small-sized teleost fish, occurring in fragmented populations under contrasting environments, have been widely used as study models to investigate these issues. In the present study, the Mediterranean killifish Aphanius fasciatus was used to investigate the relationships between some habitat features and life history strategy. We selected four sites in the Venice lagoon inhabited by this species, exhibiting different combinations of two factors: overall adult mortality, related to intertidal water coverage and a consequent higher level of predator exposure, and the level of sediment organic matter, as indicator of habitat trophic richness. Results showed that these were the two most important factors influencing demography and life history traits in the four sites. Fish from salt marshes with high predator pressure were smaller and produced a higher number of eggs, whereas bigger fish and a lower reproductive investment were found in the two closed, not tidally influenced habitats. Habitat richness was positively related with population density, but negatively related with growth rate. In particular the synergy between high resources and low predation level was found to be important in shaping peculiar life history traits. Results were discussed in the light of the interactions between selective demographic forces acting differentially on age/size classes, such as predation, and habitat trophic richness that may represent an important energetic constraint on life history traits. The importance to link habitat productivity and morphology to demographic factors for a better understanding of the evolution of life history strategy under contrasting environments was finally suggested.

  1. Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Trang, Kathy

    2018-02-21

    Recent opposing trends towards earlier physical maturation and later social maturation present a conundrum of apparent biological-social mismatch. Here we use life history analysis from evolutionary ecology to identify forces that drive these shifts. Together with findings in developmental science, our life history analysis indicates that adolescence is a distinctive period for biological embedding of culture. Ethnographic evidence shows that mass education is a novel feature of the globalizing cultural configurations of adolescence, which are driven by transformations in labour, livelihood and lifestyle. Evaluation of the life history trade-offs and sociocultural ecologies that are experienced by adolescents may offer a practical basis for enhancing their development.

  2. Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Trang, Kathy

    2018-02-01

    Recent opposing trends towards earlier physical maturation and later social maturation present a conundrum of apparent biological-social mismatch. Here we use life history analysis from evolutionary ecology to identify forces that drive these shifts. Together with findings in developmental science, our life history analysis indicates that adolescence is a distinctive period for biological embedding of culture. Ethnographic evidence shows that mass education is a novel feature of the globalizing cultural configurations of adolescence, which are driven by transformations in labour, livelihood and lifestyle. Evaluation of the life history trade-offs and sociocultural ecologies that are experienced by adolescents may offer a practical basis for enhancing their development.

  3. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running inmore » even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  4. Predicting life-history adaptations to pollutants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maltby, L.

    1995-12-31

    Animals may adapt to pollutant stress so that individuals from polluted environments are less susceptible than those from unpolluted environments. In addition to such direct adaptations, animals may respond to pollutant stress by life-history modifications; so-called indirect adaptations. This paper will demonstrate how, by combining life-history theory and toxicological data, it is possible to predict stress-induced alterations in reproductive output and offspring size. Pollutant-induced alterations in age-specific survival in favor of adults and reductions in juvenile growth, conditions are predicted to select for reduced investment in reproduction and the allocation of this investment into fewer, larger offspring. Field observations onmore » the freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex, support these predictions. Females from metal-polluted sites had lower investment in reproduction and produced larger offspring than females of the same species from unpolluted sites. Moreover, interpopulation differences in reproductive biology persisted in laboratory cultures indicating that they had a genetic basis and were therefore due to adaptation rather than acclimation. The general applicability of this approach will be considered.« less

  5. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  6. Seedling architecture and life history evolution in pines

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Strauss; F. Thomas Ledig

    1985-01-01

    Much of the work on life history evolution in plants has dealt with allocation of reproductive effort (Abrahamson 1975; Abrahamson and Gadgil 1973; Gaines et al. 1974; McNaughton 1975; Oka 1976; Stearns 1976, 1977, 1980; Newell and Tramer 1978; Primack 1979). The juvenile period, however, occupies a major and critical portion of the life cycle of many species....

  7. Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Jade N.; Depczynski, Martial; Roberts, John D.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gagliano, Monica; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this. PMID:22912898

  8. Evolution of monogamy, paternal investment, and female life history in Peromyscus.

    PubMed

    Jašarević, Eldin; Bailey, Drew H; Crossland, Janet P; Dawson, Wallace D; Szalai, Gabor; Ellersieck, Mark R; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    The timing of reproductive development and associated trade-offs in quantity versus quality of offspring produced across the life span are well documented in a wide range of species. The relation of these aspects of maternal life history to monogamy and paternal investment in offspring is not well studied in mammals, due in part to the rarity of the latter. By using five large, captive-bred populations of Peromyscus species that range from promiscuous mating with little paternal investment (P. maniculatus bairdii) to social and genetic monogamy with substantial paternal investment (P. californicus insignis), we modeled the interaction between monogamy and female life history. Monogamy and high paternal investment were associated with smaller litter size, delayed maternal reproduction that extended over a longer reproductive life span, and larger, higher quality offspring. The results suggest monogamy and paternal investment can alter the evolution of female life-history trajectories in mammals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. A Life History Assessment of Early Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Life history theory provided a framework for examining the relations among child sexual abuse (CSA), childhood adversity, and patterns of reproductive development and behavior. A community survey that assessed CSA, life history variables (e.g., age of menarche), and social and family background was administered to 623 women (mean age=26.9 years).…

  10. The role of life histories and trophic interactions in population recovery.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Factors affecting population recovery from depletion are at the focus of wildlife management. Particularly, it has been debated how life-history characteristics might affect population recovery ability and productivity. Many exploited fish stocks have shown temporal changes towards earlier maturation and reduced adult body size, potentially owing to evolutionary responses to fishing. Whereas such life-history changes have been widely documented, their potential role on stock's ability to recover from exploitation often remains ignored by traditional fisheries management. We used a marine ecosystem model parameterized for Southeastern Australian ecosystem to explore how changes towards "faster" life histories might affect population per capita growth rate r. We show that for most species changes towards earlier maturation during fishing have a negative effect (3-40% decrease) on r during the recovery phase. Faster juvenile growth and earlier maturation were beneficial early in life, but smaller adult body sizes reduced the lifetime reproductive output and increased adult natural mortality. However, both at intra- and inter-specific level natural mortality and trophic position of the species were as important in determining r as species longevity and age of maturation, suggesting that r cannot be predicted from life-history traits alone. Our study highlights that factors affecting population recovery ability and productivity should be explored in a multi-species context, where both age-specific fecundity and survival schedules are addressed simultaneously. It also suggests that contemporary life-history changes in harvested species are unlikely to increase their resilience and recovery ability. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Expectations the Missing Link between Life History Strategies and Psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Kahl, Bianca L

    2018-01-01

    Despite advances in knowledge and thinking about using life history theory to explain psychopathology there is still a missing link. That is, we all have a life history strategy, but not all of us develop mental health problems. We propose that the missing link is expectations - a mismatch between expected environmental conditions (including social) set by variations in life history strategies and the current environmental conditions. The mismatch hypothesis has been applied at the biological level in terms of health and disease and we believe that it can also be applied more broadly at the psychological level in terms of perceived expectations in the social environment and the resulting distress-psychopathology-that manifests when our expectations are not met.

  13. Histoires de vie et Formation de Nouveaux Savoirs Vitaux (Life Histories and the Formation of New Life Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Gaston

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of life histories as a means for making sense of personal events and their application to education. Distinguishes three models for the use of life histories in education: the biographical model, the autobiographical model, and the dialectical model. (22 citations) (MAB)

  14. Unravelling the life history of Amazonian fishes through otolith microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Theodore W.; Stewart, Donald J.; Limburg, Karin E.; Castello, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian fishes employ diverse migratory strategies, but the details of these behaviours remain poorly studied despite numerous environmental threats and heavy commercial exploitation of many species. Otolith microchemistry offers a practical, cost-effective means of studying fish life history in such a system. This study employed a multi-method, multi-elemental approach to elucidate the migrations of five Amazonian fishes: two ‘sedentary’ species (Arapaima sp. and Plagioscion squamosissimus), one ‘floodplain migrant’ (Prochilodus nigricans) and two long-distance migratory catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and B. filamentosum). The Sr : Ca and Zn : Ca patterns in Arapaima were consistent with its previously observed sedentary life history, whereas Sr : Ca and Mn : Ca indicated that Plagioscion may migrate among multiple, chemically distinct environments during different life-history stages. Mn : Ca was found to be potentially useful as a marker for identifying Prochilodus's transition from its nursery habitats into black water. Sr : Ca and Ba : Ca suggested that B. rousseauxii resided in the Amazon estuary for the first 1.5–2 years of life, shown by the simultaneous increase/decrease of otolith Sr : Ca/Ba : Ca, respectively. Our results further suggested that B. filamentosum did not enter the estuary during its life history. These results introduce what should be a productive line of research desperately needed to better understand the migrations of these unique and imperilled fishes. PMID:27429777

  15. Quantitative genetics of immunity and life history under different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Deines, P; Wilson, A J; Rolff, J

    2012-05-01

    Insects with complex life-cycles should optimize age and size at maturity during larval development. When inhabiting seasonal environments, organisms have limited reproductive periods and face fundamental decisions: individuals that reach maturity late in season have to either reproduce at a small size or increase their growth rates. Increasing growth rates is costly in insects because of higher juvenile mortality, decreased adult survival or increased susceptibility to parasitism by bacteria and viruses via compromised immune function. Environmental changes such as seasonality can also alter the quantitative genetic architecture. Here, we explore the quantitative genetics of life history and immunity traits under two experimentally induced seasonal environments in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Seasonality affected the life history but not the immune phenotypes. Individuals under decreasing day length developed slower and grew to a bigger size. We found ample additive genetic variance and heritability for components of immunity (haemocyte densities, proPhenoloxidase activity, resistance against Serratia marcescens), and for the life history traits, age and size at maturity. Despite genetic covariance among traits, the structure of G was inconsistent with genetically based trade-off between life history and immune traits (for example, a strong positive genetic correlation between growth rate and haemocyte density was estimated). However, conditional evolvabilities support the idea that genetic covariance structure limits the capacity of individual traits to evolve independently. We found no evidence for G × E interactions arising from the experimentally induced seasonality.

  16. Life history migrations of adult Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the upper Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ertel, Brian D.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Koel, Todd M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Burckhardt, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of salmonid life history types at the watershed scale is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for effective management. In this study, we used radiotelemetry to characterize the life history movements of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri in the upper Yellowstone River, an extensive tributary that composes nearly half of the drainage area of Yellowstone Lake. In Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout have precipitously declined over the past 2 decades primarily due to predation from introduced Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. Radio tags were implanted in 152 Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout, and their movements monitored over 3 years. Ninety-six percent of tagged trout exhibited a lacustrine–adfluvial life history, migrating upstream a mean distance of 42.6 km to spawn, spending an average of 24 d in the Yellowstone River before returning to Yellowstone Lake. Once in the lake, complex postspawning movements were observed. Only 4% of radio-tagged trout exhibited a fluvial or fluvial–adfluvial life history. Low prevalence of fluvial and fluvial–adfluvial life histories was unexpected given the large size of the upper river drainage. Study results improve understanding of life history diversity in potamodromous salmonids inhabiting relatively undisturbed watersheds and provide a baseline for monitoring Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout response to management actions in Yellowstone Lake.

  17. Understanding a Pakistani Science Teacher's Practice through a Life History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the single case life history study was to understand a female science teacher's conceptions of the nature of science as explicit in her practice. While this paper highlights these understandings, an additional purpose is to give a detailed account of the process of creating a life history account through more than 13 in-depth…

  18. Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P.; Hodgson, David J.; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A.; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast–slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast–slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments. PMID:26699477

  19. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    PubMed

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-05

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  20. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates seven principles for evaluating and building intervention intensity based upon research. The Taxonomy's seven dimensions of intensity are strength, dosage, alignment, attention to transfer, comprehensiveness, behavioral support, and individualization (see Table 1). In…

  1. Life History Theory and Social Deviance: The Mediating Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, C. J.; Bianchi, J.; Figueredo, A. J.; Rushton, J. Philippe; Jacobs, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work examined predicted relations among Life History strategies, Executive Functions, socially antagonistic attitudes, socially antagonistic behaviors, and general intelligence. Life History (LH) theory predicts that Executive Functions and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors underpin an interrelated and coherent set of…

  2. A Taxonomy of Learning through Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a five-tiered taxonomy that describes the nature of participation in, and learning through, asynchronous discussion. The taxonomy is framed by a constructivist view of asynchronous discussion. The five tiers of the taxonomy include the following: (a) passive participation, (b) developmental participation, (c) generative…

  3. Telling Modernization: Three Voices. Life History, Gender and the Discourse of Modernization. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda

    The relationship between life history, gender, and the discourse of modernization was examined from the perspective of a researcher with extensive experience performing evaluations about modernization within human services in Denmark. Three stories about site-based management in two human service institutionsa youth center and a boarding school…

  4. Seedling architechture and life history evolution in pines

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Strauss; F. Thomas Ledig

    1985-01-01

    Much of the work on life history evolution in plants has dealt with allocation of reproductive effort (Abrahamson 1975; Abrahamson and Gadgil 1973; Gaines et al. 1974; McNaughton 1975; Oka 1976; Stearns 1976, 1977, 1980; Newel1 and Tramer 1978; Primack 1979). The juvenile period, however, occupies a major and critical portion of the life cycle of many species....

  5. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  6. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Melanin-specific life-history strategies.

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Bize, Pierre; Altwegg, Res; Henry, Isabelle; van den Brink, Valentijn; Gasparini, Julien; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of genetic variation is a long-standing issue because the adaptive value of life-history strategies associated with each genetic variant is usually unknown. However, evidence for the coexistence of alternative evolutionary fixed strategies at the population level remains scarce. Because in the tawny owl (Strix aluco) heritable melanin-based coloration shows different physiological and behavioral norms of reaction, we investigated whether coloration is associated with investment in maintenance and reproduction. Light melanic owls had lower adult survival compared to dark melanic conspecifics, and color variation was related to the trade-off between offspring number and quality. When we experimentally enlarged brood size, light melanic males produced more fledglings but in poorer condition, and they were less often recruited in the local breeding population than those of darker melanic conspecifics. Our results also suggest that dark melanic males allocate a constant effort to raise their brood independently of environmental conditions, whereas lighter melanic males finely adjust reproductive effort in relation to changes in environmental conditions. Color traits can therefore be associated with life-history strategies, and stochastic environmental perturbation can temporarily favor one phenotype over others. The existence of fixed strategies implies that some phenotypes can sometimes display a "maladapted" strategy. Long-term population monitoring is therefore vital for a full understanding of how different genotypes deal with trade-offs.

  8. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    demonstrate how to implement this taxonomy in Figaro, an open source probabilistic programming language. 2. INTRODUCTION Currently, US Space Command...Taxonomy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...demonstrate how to implement this taxonomy in Figaro, an open source probabilistic programming language. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  9. Person to Person: A Collection of Life History Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Brenda; Hadfield, Sara

    1988-01-01

    An oral history project paired deaf high school students with deaf senior citizens for five meetings over a two-month period. The students then wrote up life history stories. The experience gave students experience in interviewing skills, notetaking, and writing as well as developing friendships and increased understanding of deaf older people.…

  10. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  11. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.; Jah, M.; Pfeffer, A.

    2013-09-01

    Object recognition is the first step in positively identifying a resident space object (RSO), i.e. assigning an RSO to a category such as GPS satellite or space debris. Object identification is the process of deciding that two RSOs are in fact one and the same. Provided we have appropriately defined a satellite taxonomy that allows us to place a given RSO into a particular class of object without any ambiguity, one can assess the probability of assignment to a particular class by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that class. Ultimately, tree-based taxonomies delineate unique signatures by defining the minimum amount of information required to positively identify a RSO. Therefore, taxonomic trees can be used to depict hypotheses in a Bayesian object recognition and identification process. This work describes a new RSO taxonomy along with specific reasoning behind the choice of groupings. An alternative taxonomy was recently presented at the Sixth Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt, Germany. [1] The best example of a taxonomy that enjoys almost universal scientific acceptance is the classical Linnaean biological taxonomy. A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique name. This uniqueness and stability are a result of the acceptance by biologists specializing in taxonomy, not merely of the binomial names themselves. Fundamentally, the taxonomy is governed by rules for the use of these names, and these are laid down in formal Nomenclature Codes. We seek to provide a similar formal nomenclature system for RSOs through a defined tree-based taxonomy structure. Each categorization, beginning with the most general or inclusive, at any level is called a taxon. Taxon names are defined by a type, which can be a specimen or a taxon of lower rank, and a diagnosis, a statement intended to supply characters that

  12. Reevaluating geographic variation in life-history traits of a widespread Nearctic amphibian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Jon M.; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals from cold environments are usually larger than animals from warm environments, which often produce clines in body size. Because variation in body size can lead to trade-offs between growth and reproduction, life-history traits should also vary across climatic gradients. To determine if life-history traits of wood frogs Rana sylvatica vary with climate, we examined female and male body length, clutch size, and ovum size from 37 locations across an unprecedented 32° of latitude. In conflict with recent research, body size, and ovum size decreased in cold climates and at higher latitudes. Clutch size did not vary with climate or latitude, but reproductive effort (clutch size:female size) did, suggesting selection for a life-history traits that favors maximizing propagule number over propagule size in cold climates. With accelerating climate change that will expose populations to novel environmental conditions, it is important to identify the limits of adaptation, which can be informed by greater understanding of variation in life-history traits.

  13. Transcriptomic and macroevolutionary evidence for phenotypic uncoupling between frog life history phases

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Rodríguez, Ariel; Arias, Mónica; Shah, Abhijeet; Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Brown, Jason L.; Glaw, Frank; Amat, Felix; Künzel, Sven; Metzler, Dirk; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Anuran amphibians undergo major morphological transitions during development, but the contribution of their markedly different life-history phases to macroevolution has rarely been analysed. Here we generate testable predictions for coupling versus uncoupling of phenotypic evolution of tadpole and adult life-history phases, and for the underlying expression of genes related to morphological feature formation. We test these predictions by combining evidence from gene expression in two distantly related frogs, Xenopus laevis and Mantidactylus betsileanus, with patterns of morphological evolution in the entire radiation of Madagascan mantellid frogs. Genes linked to morphological structure formation are expressed in a highly phase-specific pattern, suggesting uncoupling of phenotypic evolution across life-history phases. This gene expression pattern agrees with uncoupled rates of trait evolution among life-history phases in the mantellids, which we show to have undergone an adaptive radiation. Our results validate a prevalence of uncoupling in the evolution of tadpole and adult phenotypes of frogs. PMID:28504275

  14. Libraries of life: using life history books with depressed care home residents.

    PubMed

    Plastow, Nicola Ann

    2006-01-01

    Depression is a common, and often undetected, psychiatric disorder in geriatric care home residents. Reminiscence, an independent nursing therapy used by a variety of health and social care professionals, can prevent or reduce depression. This practice development project explored the use of reminiscence life history books as an interpersonal therapeutic tool with 3 depressed care-home residents living in residential care and skilled nursing facilities. The process of choosing to produce a book, assessment of capabilities, and methods of construction are described using 3 illustrative case studies. Three themes emerged: reviewing the past, accepting the present, and dreaming of an alternative future. This project demonstrated that life history books, tailored to individual needs and abilities, can facilitate reminiscence and reduce depression by increasing social interaction. The benefits to residents, their families, and care staff are discussed and the relevance to nursing practice highlighted.

  15. Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history.

    PubMed

    Kamilar, J M; Tecot, S R

    2015-11-01

    At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate the relationship between pituitary gland size and life history variation. Because pituitary gland size should be related to hormone production and action, we predicted that species with relatively large pituitaries should be associated with fast life histories, especially increased foetal and post-natal growth rates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that total pituitary size and the size of the anterior lobe of the pituitary significantly predicted a life history axis that was correlated with several traits including body mass, and foetal and post-natal growth rates. Additional models directly examining the association between relative pituitary size and growth rates produced concordant results. We also found that relative pituitary size variation across mammals was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution, suggesting an important role of stabilizing selection. Our results support the idea that the size of the pituitary is linked to life history variation through evolutionary time. This pattern is likely due to mediating hormone levels but additional work is needed. We suggest that future investigations incorporating endocrine gland size may be critical for understanding life history evolution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. The evolution of trypanosomatid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kaufer, Alexa; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel

    2017-06-08

    Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates. Traditionally, monoxenous trypanosomatids such as Leptomonas were distinguished from morphologically similar dixenous species based on their restriction to an invertebrate host. Nonetheless, this criterion is somewhat flawed as exemplified by Leptomonas seymouri which reportedly infects vertebrates opportunistically. Similarly, Novymonas and Zelonia are presumably monoxenous genera yet sit comfortably in the dixenous clade occupied by Leishmania. The isolation of Leishmania macropodum from a biting midge (Forcipomyia spp.) rather than a phlebotomine sand fly calls into question the exclusivity of the Leishmania-sand fly relationship, and its suitability for defining the Leishmania genus. It is now accepted that classic genus-defining characteristics based on parasite morphology and host range are insufficient to form the sole basis of trypanosomatid taxonomy as this has led to several instances of paraphyly. While improvements have been made, resolution of evolutionary relationships within the Trypanosomatidae is confounded by our incomplete knowledge of its true diversity. The known trypanosomatids probably represent a fraction of those that exist and isolation of new species will help resolve relationships in this group with greater accuracy. This review incites a dialogue on how our understanding of the relationships between certain trypanosomatids has shifted, and discusses new knowledge

  17. The Development of a Taxonomy of the Life Skills Required to Become a Balanced Self-Determined Person = Essaie de Classification des Competences Necessaires pour Devenir une Personne Autonome et Bien Equilibree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul

    Intended for use by life skills coaches and students, program evaluators, and individuals developing lesson plans and other training materials, this taxonomy includes all of the terminal performance behaviors and corresponding sub-skills required to become and function as a balanced, self-determined person who manages the problems of everyday life…

  18. Generation time, life history and the substitution rate of neutral mutations.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Lanfear, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of molecular evolution is hampered by a lack of quantitative predictions about how life-history (LH) traits should correlate with substitution rates. Comparative studies have shown that neutral substitution rates vary substantially between species, and evidence shows that much of this diversity is associated with variation in LH traits. However, while these studies often agree, some unexplained and contradictory results have emerged. Explaining these results is difficult without a clear theoretical understanding of the problem. In this study, we derive predictions for the relationships between LH traits and substitution rates in iteroparous species by using demographic theory to relate commonly measured life-history traits to genetic generation time, and by implication to neutral substitution rates. This provides some surprisingly simple explanations for otherwise confusing patterns, such as the association between fecundity and substitution rates. The same framework can be applied to more complex life histories if full life-tables are available. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Consilience and Life History Theory: From Genes to Brain to Reproductive Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Vasquez, Geneva; Brumbach, Barbara H.; Schneider, Stephanie M. R.; Sefcek, Jon A.; Tal, Ilanit R.; Hill, Dawn; Wenner, Christopher J.; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2006-01-01

    We describe an integrated theory of individual differences that traces the behavioral development of life history from genes to brain to reproductive strategy. We provide evidence that a single common factor, the K-Factor, underpins a variety of life-history parameters, including an assortment of sexual, reproductive, parental, familial, and…

  20. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Life history theory (LHT) is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy), and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow). The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed) relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  1. [Quality of psychological strain in police work--development of a taxonomy of sources of stress].

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Stefan; Runde, Bernd; Bastians, Frauke; Weiss, Udo; Heuft, Gereon; Bär, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Police officers frequently face traumatic stressors of different origins and thus bear an increased risk of developing a post-traumatic stress disorder. The most mentally burdening situations range from shootings, death of fellow officers, dealing with dead bodies in general, the effects of shift work, time pressure or discontent with management due to mobbing. Part of the present study examines the quality of stress in police work with the goal of developing a taxonomy of the origins of stress. A stratified sample of 109 police officers participated in the study. They were interviewed about stressful situations in their work life. In the interviews participants generated incidents describing stressful or straining situations. These incidents were used to develop a taxonomy of stressful situations in everyday police work. A further 22 interviews with officers of the federal police were carried out to examine the transferability of the developed taxonomy to other occupational groups. The taxonomy distinguishes between five sources of strain. Strain can arise from (1.) the task itself, (2.) the organization and structure of work, (3.) the temporal conditions and (4.) the social conditions. The fifth category describes the source of strain based on other conditions. The results also show that the taxonomy is transferable to other occupational groups. This taxonomy leads to the systematisation of the differences among the stress phenomena which occur in police work. The results can help in the development of practical prevention, counselling and therapeutic programs.

  2. Ecological volatility and human evolution: a novel perspective on life history and reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-11-01

    Humans are characterized by a suite of traits that seem to differentiate them profoundly from closely related apes such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orang-utan. These traits include longevity, cooperative breeding, stacking of offspring, lengthy maturation, and a complex life-course profile of adiposity. When, how, and why these traits emerged during our evolutionary history is currently attracting considerable attention. Most approaches to life history emphasize dietary energy availability and the risk of mortality as the two key stresses shaping life-history variability between and within species. The high energy costs of the large Homo brain are also seen as the central axis around which other life-history traits were reorganized. I propose that ecological volatility may have been a key stress, selecting in favor of the suite of traits in order to tolerate periods of energy scarcity, and increase reproductive output during periods of good conditions. Theses life-history adaptations may have preceded and enabled the trend toward encephalization. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Predicting responses to climate change requires all life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In Focus: Radchuk, V., Turlure, C. & Schtickzelle, N. (2013) Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 275-285. Population-level responses to climate change depend on many factors, including unexpected interactions among life history attributes; however, few studies examine climate change impacts over complete life cycles of focal species. Radchuk, Turlure & Schtickzelle () used experimental and modelling approaches to predict population dynamics for the bog fritillary butterfly under warming scenarios. Although they found that warming improved fertility and survival of all stages with one exception, populations were predicted to decline because overwintering larvae, whose survival declined with warming, were disproportionately important contributors to population growth. This underscores the importance of considering all life history stages in analyses of climate change's effects on population dynamics. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  4. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Cody T.; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recently proposed that “moralistic” religions—those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual—emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with “slow life history” strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with “fast life history” strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions. PMID:29513766

  5. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  6. Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study.

    PubMed

    Macdonnell, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study In this paper, I explore how a critical feminist lens was a crucial element in creating a participatory policy study which used a qualitative design and comparative life history methodology. This study focused on Canadian nurses' political practice related to advocacy for lesbian health. Findings show that the combination of the gender lens and life history approach offers potential to create knowledge in ways aligned with health-promoting and emancipatory outcomes. However, the nature of participation and interaction by researcher and participants is contexualized and contested given complex dynamics of power that shape all aspects of this doctoral study process. The critical feminist lens with its focus on reflexivity informed the content and process of knowledge production in this study and shaped key turning points: the ways in which this policy study was conceptualized, the choice of comparative life history methodology, ethical considerations, data collection and analysis and representation of findings. Life history is unlikely to be the methodology that first comes to mind when undertaking a policy study. Its historical roots are associated with biographical, oral history and narrative approaches, which typically aim to elicit understanding of lived experience. Yet, it was this very aspect, this focus on lived experience, which rendered life history methodology fitting as I contemplated how to examine the relationship between nurses and policy. I was interested in understanding nurses' political practice, how policy influenced nurses' capacity to advocate in their everyday lives, as well as nurses' impacts on policy processes and their larger social worlds. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. BRIDGING SCALES IN THE EVOLUTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE LIFE HISTORIES: APPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Mideo, Nicole; Nelson, William A.; Reece, Sarah E.; Bell, Andrew S.; Read, Andrew F.; Day, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Within- and between-host disease processes occur on the same timescales, therefore changes in the within-host dynamics of parasites, resources, and immunity can interact with changes in the epidemiological dynamics to affect evolutionary outcomes. Consequently, studies of the evolution of disease life histories, that is, infection-age-specific patterns of transmission and virulence, have been constrained by the need for a mechanistic understanding of within-host disease dynamics. In a companion paper (Day et al. 2011), we develop a novel approach that quantifies the relevant within-host aspects of disease through genetic covariance functions. Here, we demonstrate how to apply this theory to data. Using two previously published datasets from rodent malaria infections, we show how to translate experimental measures into disease life-history traits, and how to quantify the covariance in these traits. Our results show how patterns of covariance can interact with epidemiological dynamics to affect evolutionary predictions for disease life history. We also find that the selective constraints on disease life-history evolution can vary qualitatively, and that “simple” virulence-transmission trade-offs that are often the subject of experimental investigation can be obscured by trade-offs within one trait alone. Finally, we highlight the type and quality of data required for future applications. PMID:22023593

  8. Masked expression of life-history traits in a highly variable environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Differing life-history strategies may act as a constraint on reproductive expression that ultimately limits the ability of individual species to respond to changes in the magnitude or frequency of environmental variation, and potentially underlies the variation often inherent in phenotypic and evolved responses to anthropogenic change. Alternatively, if there are environmental cues that predict reproductive potential, differential expression of life-history strategies may represent differences in the adaptive capacity to optimize current reproductive value given variation in environmental conditions. We compared several aspects of walleye Sander vitreus spawning ecology at two reservoirs that differ in environmental variability (i.e., annual water-level fluctuation) to identify the capacity of phenotypic expression and the corresponding association with age. Despite significant differences in female body and liver masses between reservoirs that differ in environmental variability, we found no difference in reproductive investment measured by egg size and fecundity. Walleye in a highly variable environment appear to exhibit reproductive traits more typical of a short-lived life-history strategy, which may be resultant from the interaction of environmental and anthropogenic pressures. This finding emphasizes the need to identify the degree to which life-history expression represents physiological constraints versus ecological optimization, particularly as anthropogenic change continues to alter environmental conditions. 

  9. Comprehensive Social Skills Taxonomy: Development and Application.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Nancy A; Kinnealey, Moya

    2015-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive social skills taxonomy based on archived children's social skill goal sheets, and we applied the taxonomy to 6,897 goals of children in 6 diagnostic categories to explore patterns related to diagnosis. We used a grounded theory approach to code and analyze social skill goals and develop the taxonomy. Multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc honestly significant difference test were used to analyze differences in social skill needs among diagnostic groups. We developed a taxonomy of 7 social skill constructs or categories, descriptions, and behavioral indicators. The 7 social skill categories were reflected across 6 diagnostic groups, and differences in social skill needs among groups were identified. This comprehensive taxonomy of social skills can be useful in developing research-based individual, group, or institutional programming to improve social skills. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    PubMed

    Finarelli, John A

    2010-06-23

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain-body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal mass, weaning time, weaning mass, litter size, litters per year). No significant correlations were recovered between encephalization and any life-history variable or BMR, arguing against hypotheses relating encephalization to maternal energetic investment. However, after correcting for clade-specific adaptations, I recovered significant correlations for several variables, and further analysis revealed a conserved carnivoran reproductive strategy, linking degree of encephalization to the well-documented mammalian life-history trade-off between neonatal mass and litter size. This strategy of fewer, larger offspring correlating with increased encephalization remains intact even after independent changes in encephalization allometries in the evolutionary history of this clade.

  11. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    PubMed Central

    Finarelli, John A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain–body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal mass, weaning time, weaning mass, litter size, litters per year). No significant correlations were recovered between encephalization and any life-history variable or BMR, arguing against hypotheses relating encephalization to maternal energetic investment. However, after correcting for clade-specific adaptations, I recovered significant correlations for several variables, and further analysis revealed a conserved carnivoran reproductive strategy, linking degree of encephalization to the well-documented mammalian life-history trade-off between neonatal mass and litter size. This strategy of fewer, larger offspring correlating with increased encephalization remains intact even after independent changes in encephalization allometries in the evolutionary history of this clade. PMID:20007169

  12. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2014-01-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: they can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi. PMID:23030977

  13. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-09-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

  14. Biologic History and the Cardinal Rule of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    In broad perspective, the history of life is remarkably static -- once set, a system that has changed little over all of geological time. The basic chemistry of living systems (CHONSP, and the monomers and polymers they compose), the genetics and cellular structure of life, even the ecologic division of the biologic world into "eaters" (heterotrophs) and "eatees" (autotrophs), are innovations all dating from the Archean that have carried over to the present. Throughout Earth history, biology has followed the Cardinal Rule of Life -- avoid change, never evolve at all! Biology maintains the status quo, opportunistically responding only if conditions change. Life's credo might well be "if it ain't broken, don't fix it." Of course, biomolecules do get "broken," by mutations, but living systems have many biochemical repair mechanisms. Evolution is a result of small changes that slip through unfixed. We see the results of evolution in the fossil record only because of the vastness, the true enormity, of geological time. What events punctuated this static underpinning to produce the modern living world? Only three, each in its own way shaping the course of life's history. The earliest, photosynthesis, freed life from dependence on foodstuffs made by nonbiologic processes. The advent of the advanced form of this process, oxygenic ("green plant") photosynthesis -- also an Archean innovation -- pumped oxygen into the environment (markedly increasing energy yields), "rusted the Earth" (evidenced by banded iron-formations), and, by ˜2,300 Ma ago, led to establishment of an aerobic-anaerobic ecosystem like that today. Not surprisingly, given the Cardinal Rule of Life, the inventors of this innovation, microbial cyanobacteria, evolved little over billions of years. The second major innovation was sex. In the modern world, this reproductive process is exhibited only by nucleated (eukaryotic) cells, derived from non-sexual eukaryotic ancestors. Although eukaryotes date from ˜2

  15. Density-dependence interacts with extrinsic mortality in shaping life histories

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Oskar; Kozłowski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The role of extrinsic mortality in shaping life histories is poorly understood. However, substantial evidence suggests that extrinsic mortality interacts with density-dependence in crucial ways. We develop a model combining Evolutionarily Stable Strategies with a projection matrix that allows resource allocation to growth, tissue repairs, and reproduction. Our model examines three cases, with density-dependence acting on: (i) mortality, (ii) fecundity, and (iii) production rate. We demonstrate that density-independent extrinsic mortality influences the rate of aging, age at maturity, growth rate, and adult size provided that density-dependence acts on fertility or juvenile mortality. However, density-independent extrinsic mortality has no effect on these life history traits when density-dependence acts on survival. We show that extrinsic mortality interacts with density-dependence via a compensation mechanism: the higher the extrinsic mortality the lower the strength of density-dependence. However, this compensation fully offsets the effect of extrinsic mortality only if density-dependence acts on survival independently of age. Both the age-pattern and the type of density-dependence are crucial for shaping life history traits. PMID:29049399

  16. Life-history evolution and the microevolution of intermediary metabolism: activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in life-history morphs of a wing-dimorphic cricket.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2003-03-01

    Although a considerable amount of information is available on the ecology, genetics, and physiology of life-history traits, much more limited data are available on the biochemical and genetic correlates of life-history variation within species. Specific activities of five enzymes of lipid biosynthesis and two enzymes of amino acid catabolism were compared among lines selected for flight-capable (LW[f]) versus flightless (SW) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. These morphs, which exist in natural populations, differ genetically in ovarian growth (100-400% higher in SW) and aspects of flight capability including the size of wings and flight muscles, and the concentration of triglyceride flight fuel (40% greater in LW[f]). Consistently higher activity of each enzyme in LW(f) versus SW-selected lines, and strong co-segregation between morph and enzyme activity, demonstrated genetically based co-variance between wing morph and enzyme activity. Developmental profiles of enzyme activities strongly paralleled profiles of triglyceride accumulation during adulthood and previous measures of in vivo lipid biosynthesis. These data strongly imply that genetically based elevation in activities of lipogenic enzymes, and enzymes controlling the conversion of amino acids into lipids, is an important cause underlying the elevated accumulation of triglyceride in the LW(f) morph, a key biochemical component of the trade-off between elevated early fecundity and flight capability. Global changes in lipid and amino-acid metabolism appear to have resulted from microevolutionary alteration of regulators of metabolism. Finally, strong genotype x environment (diet) interactions were observed for most enzyme activities. Future progress in understanding the functional causes of life-history evolution requires a more detailed synthesis of the fields of life-history evolution and metabolic biochemistry. Wing polymorphism is a powerful experimental model in such integrative studies.

  17. Individual heterogeneity in life histories and eco-evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity in life history shapes eco-evolutionary processes, and unobserved heterogeneity can affect demographic outputs characterising life history and population dynamical properties. Demographic frameworks like matrix models or integral projection models represent powerful approaches to disentangle mechanisms linking individual life histories and population-level processes. Recent developments have provided important steps towards their application to study eco-evolutionary dynamics, but so far individual heterogeneity has largely been ignored. Here, we present a general demographic framework that incorporates individual heterogeneity in a flexible way, by separating static and dynamic traits (discrete or continuous). First, we apply the framework to derive the consequences of ignoring heterogeneity for a range of widely used demographic outputs. A general conclusion is that besides the long-term growth rate lambda, all parameters can be affected. Second, we discuss how the framework can help advance current demographic models of eco-evolutionary dynamics, by incorporating individual heterogeneity. For both applications numerical examples are provided, including an empirical example for pike. For instance, we demonstrate that predicted demographic responses to climate warming can be reversed by increased heritability. We discuss how applications of this demographic framework incorporating individual heterogeneity can help answer key biological questions that require a detailed understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. PMID:25807980

  18. Seed after-ripening and dormancy determine adult life history independently of germination timing.

    PubMed

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Kovach, Katherine; Dittmar, Emily; Barua, Deepak; Barco, Brenden; Donohue, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    • Seed dormancy can affect life history through its effects on germination time. Here, we investigate its influence on life history beyond the timing of germination. • We used the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to chilling at the germination and flowering stages to test the following: how seed dormancy affects germination responses to the environment; whether variation in dormancy affects adult phenology independently of germination time; and whether environmental cues experienced by dormant seeds have an effect on adult life history. • Dormancy conditioned the germination response to low temperatures, such that prolonged periods of chilling induced dormancy in nondormant seeds, but stimulated germination in dormant seeds. The alleviation of dormancy through after-ripening was associated with earlier flowering, independent of germination date. Experimental dormancy manipulations showed that prolonged chilling at the seed stage always induced earlier flowering, regardless of seed dormancy. Surprisingly, this effect of seed chilling on flowering time was observed even when low temperatures did not induce germination. • In summary, seed dormancy influences flowering time and hence life history independent of its effects on germination timing. We conclude that the seed stage has a pronounced effect on life history, the influence of which goes well beyond the timing of germination. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. "It's Not Much of a Life": The Benefits and Ethics of Using Life History Methods With People Who Inject Drugs in Qualitative Harm Reduction Research.

    PubMed

    Harris, Magdalena; Rhodes, Tim

    2018-06-01

    A life history approach enables study of how risk or health protection is shaped by critical transitions and turning points in a life trajectory and in the context of social environment and time. We employed visual and narrative life history methods with people who inject drugs to explore how hepatitis C protection was enabled and maintained over the life course. We overview our methodological approach, with a focus on the ethics in practice of using life history timelines and life-grids with 37 participants. The life-grid evoked mixed emotions for participants: pleasure in receiving a personalized visual history and pain elicited by its contents. A minority managed this pain with additional heroin use. The methodological benefits of using life history methods and visual aids have been extensively reported. Crucial to consider are the ethical implications of this process, particularly for people who lack socially ascribed markers of a "successful life."

  20. New perspectives in the history of twentieth-century life sciences: historical, historiographical and epistemological themes.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Robert; Nickelsen, Kärin

    2018-01-18

    The history of twentieth-century life sciences is not exactly a new topic. However, in view of the increasingly rapid development of the life sciences themselves over the past decades, some of the well-established narratives are worth revisiting. Taking stock of where we stand on these issues was the aim of a conference in 2015, entitled "Perspectives for the History of Life Sciences" (Munich, Oct 30-Nov 1, 2015). The papers in this topical collection are based on work presented and discussed at and around this meeting. Just as the conference, the collection aims at exploring fields in the history of life sciences that appear understudied, sources that have been overlooked, and novel ways of engaging with this material. The papers convened in this collection may not be representative of the field as a whole; but we feel that they do indicate some elements that have received emphasis in recent years, and may become more central in the years to come, such as the history of previously neglected contexts and domains of the life sciences, the question of continuity and change on the level of practices, the history of complexity and diversity in twentieth-century life sciences and the reconsideration of the relationship between history and philosophy of life sciences.

  1. A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A.; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a more natural way of making sense of misdirection is to focus on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved. Our psychologically-based taxonomy has three basic categories, corresponding to the types of psychological mechanisms affected: perception, memory, and reasoning. Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories based on the mechanisms that control these effects. This new taxonomy can help organize magicians' knowledge of misdirection in a meaningful way, and facilitate the dialog between magicians and scientists. PMID:25538648

  2. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Katharine M.; Schoof, Valérie A.M.; Sheller, Claire R.; Rich, Catherine I.; Klingelhofer, Peter P.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12 months; N = 3), early juvenile (1 to <3 years; N = 10), late juvenile (3 to <6 years; N = 9), subadult (6 to <10 years; N = 8), subordinate adult (≥10 years; N = 3), and alpha adult (≥ 10 years; N = 4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. PMID:24184868

  3. The PRISMS taxonomy of self-management support: derivation of a novel taxonomy and initial testing of its utility.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Gemma; Parke, Hannah L; Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Bourne, Claire L A; Sheikh, Aziz; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2016-04-01

    Supporting self-management is a core response of health care systems globally to the increasing prevalence of long-term conditions. Lack of a comprehensive taxonomy (or classification) of self-management support components hinders characterization and, ultimately, understanding of these frequently complex, multi-component interventions. To develop a comprehensive, descriptive taxonomy of self-management support components. Components were derived from the 969 unique randomized controlled trials described in the 102 systematic reviews and 61 implementation trials, examining 14 diverse long-term conditions included in the Practical Reviews in Self-Management Support (PRISMS) project followed by discussion at an expert stakeholder workshop. The utility of the taxonomy was then tested using a self-management support intervention for cancer survivors. The PRISMS taxonomy comprises 14 components that might be used to support self-management (e.g. information about condition/management, provision of equipment, social support), when delivered to someone with a long-term condition or their carer. Overarching dimensions are delivery mode; personnel delivering the support; intervention targeting; and intensity, frequency and duration of the intervention. The taxonomy does not consider the effectiveness or otherwise of the different components or the overarching dimensions. The PRISMS taxonomy offers a framework to researchers describing self-management support interventions, to reviewers synthesizing evidence and to developers of health services for people with long-term conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Tree foliar chemistry in an African savanna and its relation to life history strategies and environmental filters.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Martin, Roberta E; Baldeck, Claire A; Asner, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of environment and life history strategies in determining leaf chemical traits remains a key objective of plant ecology. We assessed 20 foliar chemical properties among 12 African savanna woody plant species and their relation to environmental variables (hillslope position, precipitation, geology) and two functional traits (thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism). We found that combinations of six leaf chemical traits (lignin, hemi-cellulose, zinc, boron, magnesium, and manganese) predicted the species with 91% accuracy. Hillslope position, precipitation, and geology accounted for only 12% of the total variance in these six chemical traits. However, thorn type and seed dispersal mechanism accounted for 46% of variance in these chemical traits. The physically defended species had the highest concentrations of hemi-cellulose and boron. Species without physical defense had the highest lignin content if dispersed by vertebrates, but threefold lower lignin content if dispersed by wind. One of the most abundant woody species in southern Africa, Colophospermum mopane, was found to have the highest foliar concentrations of zinc, phosphorus, and δ(13)C, suggesting that zinc chelation may be used by this species to bind metallic toxins and increase uptake of soil phosphorus. Across all studied species, taxonomy and physical traits accounted for the majority of variability in leaf chemistry.

  5. Why bottom-up taxonomies are unlikely to satisfy the quest for a definitive taxonomy of situations.

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T

    2018-03-01

    The recent advent of methods for large-scale data collection has provided an unprecedented opportunity for researchers who seek to develop a taxonomy of situations. Parrigon, Woo, Tay, and Wang's (2017) CAPTIONs model is the latest such effort. In this comment, I argue that although bottom-up approaches of this sort have clear value, they are unlikely to provide the sort of definitive, comprehensive, and theoretically integrative taxonomy that the field wants and needs. In large part, this is because bottom-up taxonomies represent what is common about situations and not what is theoretically important and influential about them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Distributed computer taxonomy based on O/S structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.

    1985-01-01

    The taxonomy considers the resource structure at the operating system level. It compares a communication based taxonomy with the new taxonomy to illustrate how the latter does a better job when related to the client's view of the distributed computer. The results illustrate the fundamental features and what is required to construct fully distributed processing systems. The problem of using network computers on the space station is addressed. A detailed discussion of the taxonomy is not given here. Information is given in the form of charts and diagrams that were used to illustrate a talk.

  7. Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental constraints for life history variation in dinosaurs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dunham, A.E.; Overall, K.L.; Forster, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent speculation concerning the nature of life history variation in dinosaurs (Case, 1978; Bakker, 1986; Horner, 1982, 1984a). The purpose of this paper is to review the data on dinosaur life histories and to examine the nature and magnitude of the demographic and physiological factors that must have constrained life history variation in this group. 145 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Bridging scales in the evolution of infectious disease life histories: application.

    PubMed

    Mideo, Nicole; Nelson, William A; Reece, Sarah E; Bell, Andrew S; Read, Andrew F; Day, Troy

    2011-11-01

    Within- and between-host disease processes occur on the same timescales, therefore changes in the within-host dynamics of parasites, resources, and immunity can interact with changes in the epidemiological dynamics to affect evolutionary outcomes. Consequently, studies of the evolution of disease life histories, that is, infection-age-specific patterns of transmission and virulence, have been constrained by the need for a mechanistic understanding of within-host disease dynamics. In a companion paper (Day et al. 2011), we develop a novel approach that quantifies the relevant within-host aspects of disease through genetic covariance functions. Here, we demonstrate how to apply this theory to data. Using two previously published datasets from rodent malaria infections, we show how to translate experimental measures into disease life-history traits, and how to quantify the covariance in these traits. Our results show how patterns of covariance can interact with epidemiological dynamics to affect evolutionary predictions for disease life history. We also find that the selective constraints on disease life-history evolution can vary qualitatively, and that "simple" virulence-transmission trade-offs that are often the subject of experimental investigation can be obscured by trade-offs within one trait alone. Finally, we highlight the type and quality of data required for future applications. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Linkages between mitochondrial lipids and life history in temperate and tropical birds.

    PubMed

    Calhoon, Elisabeth A; Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Harper, James M; Jurkowitz, Marianne S; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Temperate birds tend to have a fast pace of life and short life spans with high reproductive output, whereas tropical birds tend to have a slower pace of life, invest fewer resources in reproduction, and have higher adult survival rates. How these differences in life history at the organismal level are rooted in differences at the cellular level is a major focus of current research. Here, we cultured fibroblasts from phylogenetically paired tropical and temperate species, isolated mitochondria from each, and compared their mitochondrial membrane lipids. We also correlated the amounts of these lipids with an important life history parameter, clutch size. We found that tropical birds tended to have less mitochondrial lipid per cell, especially less cardiolipin per cell, suggesting that cells from tropical birds have fewer mitochondria or less inner mitochondrial membrane per cell. We also found that the mitochondria of tropical birds and the species with the smallest clutch sizes had higher amounts of plasmalogens, a lipid that could serve as an antioxidant. Overall, our findings are consistent with the idea that there are underlying molecular and cellular physiological traits that could account for the differences in whole-animal physiology between animals with different life histories.

  10. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    Background The new "Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms" was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. Methods The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. Results The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates "The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms," and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. Conclusions This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and

  11. Ecogenomics and Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria Phylum

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Juline M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are major contributors to global biogeochemical cycles. The genetic diversity among Cyanobacteria enables them to thrive across many habitats, although only a few studies have analyzed the association of phylogenomic clades to specific environmental niches. In this study, we adopted an ecogenomics strategy with the aim to delineate ecological niche preferences of Cyanobacteria and integrate them to the genomic taxonomy of these bacteria. First, an appropriate phylogenomic framework was established using a set of genomic taxonomy signatures (including a tree based on conserved gene sequences, genome-to-genome distance, and average amino acid identity) to analyse ninety-nine publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Next, the relative abundances of these genomes were determined throughout diverse global marine and freshwater ecosystems, using metagenomic data sets. The whole-genome-based taxonomy of the ninety-nine genomes allowed us to identify 57 (of which 28 are new genera) and 87 (of which 32 are new species) different cyanobacterial genera and species, respectively. The ecogenomic analysis allowed the distinction of three major ecological groups of Cyanobacteria (named as i. Low Temperature; ii. Low Temperature Copiotroph; and iii. High Temperature Oligotroph) that were coherently linked to the genomic taxonomy. This work establishes a new taxonomic framework for Cyanobacteria in the light of genomic taxonomy and ecogenomic approaches. PMID:29184540

  12. Ecogenomics and Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria Phylum.

    PubMed

    Walter, Juline M; Coutinho, Felipe H; Dutilh, Bas E; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are major contributors to global biogeochemical cycles. The genetic diversity among Cyanobacteria enables them to thrive across many habitats, although only a few studies have analyzed the association of phylogenomic clades to specific environmental niches. In this study, we adopted an ecogenomics strategy with the aim to delineate ecological niche preferences of Cyanobacteria and integrate them to the genomic taxonomy of these bacteria. First, an appropriate phylogenomic framework was established using a set of genomic taxonomy signatures (including a tree based on conserved gene sequences, genome-to-genome distance, and average amino acid identity) to analyse ninety-nine publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Next, the relative abundances of these genomes were determined throughout diverse global marine and freshwater ecosystems, using metagenomic data sets. The whole-genome-based taxonomy of the ninety-nine genomes allowed us to identify 57 (of which 28 are new genera) and 87 (of which 32 are new species) different cyanobacterial genera and species, respectively. The ecogenomic analysis allowed the distinction of three major ecological groups of Cyanobacteria (named as i. Low Temperature; ii. Low Temperature Copiotroph; and iii. High Temperature Oligotroph) that were coherently linked to the genomic taxonomy. This work establishes a new taxonomic framework for Cyanobacteria in the light of genomic taxonomy and ecogenomic approaches.

  13. How Metamorphosis Is Different in Plethodontids: Larval Life History Perspectives on Life-Cycle Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Christopher K.; Ryan, Travis J.; Bonett, Ronald M.

    2017-01-01

    Plethodontid salamanders exhibit biphasic, larval form paedomorphic, and direct developing life cycles. This diversity of developmental strategies exceeds that of any other family of terrestrial vertebrate. Here we compare patterns of larval development among the three divergent lineages of biphasic plethodontids and other salamanders. We discuss how patterns of life-cycle evolution and larval ecology might have produced a wide array of larval life histories. Compared with many other salamanders, most larval plethodontids have relatively slow growth rates and sometimes exceptionally long larval periods (up to 60 mo). Recent phylogenetic analyses of life-cycle evolution indicate that ancestral plethodontids were likely direct developers. If true, then biphasic and paedomorphic lineages might have been independently derived through different developmental mechanisms. Furthermore, biphasic plethodontids largely colonized stream habitats, which tend to have lower productivity than seasonally ephemeral ponds. Consistent with this, plethodontid larvae grow very slowly, and metamorphic timing does not appear to be strongly affected by growth history. On the basis of this, we speculate that feeding schedules and stress hormones might play a comparatively reduced role in governing the timing of metamorphosis of stream-dwelling salamanders, particularly plethodontids. PMID:29269959

  14. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-02-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in

  16. Functional linkages for the pace of life, life-history, and environment in birds.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Miller, Richard A; Harper, James M; Wiersma, Popko

    2010-11-01

    For vertebrates, body mass underlies much of the variation in metabolism, but among animals of the same body mass, metabolism varies six-fold. Understanding how natural selection can influence variation in metabolism remains a central focus of Physiological Ecologists. Life-history theory postulates that many physiological traits, such as metabolism, may be understood in terms of key maturational and reproductive characteristics over an organism's life-span. Although it is widely acknowledged that physiological processes serve as a foundation for life-history trade-offs, the physiological mechanisms that underlie the diversification of life-histories remain elusive. Data show that tropical birds have a reduced basal metabolism (BMR), field metabolic rate, and peak metabolic rate compared with temperate counterparts, results consistent with the idea that a low mortality, and therefore increased longevity, and low productivity is associated with low mass-specific metabolic rate. Mass-adjusted BMR of tropical and temperate birds was associated with survival rate, in accordance with the view that animals with a slow pace of life tend to have increased life spans. To understand the mechanisms responsible for a reduced rate of metabolism in tropical birds compared with temperate species, we summarized an unpublished study, based on data from the literature, on organ masses for both groups. Tropical birds had smaller hearts, kidneys, livers, and pectoral muscles than did temperate species of the same body size, but they had a relatively larger skeletal mass. Direct measurements of organ masses for tropical and temperate birds showed that the heart, kidneys, and lungs were significantly smaller in tropical birds, although sample sizes were small. Also from an ongoing study, we summarized results to date on connections between whole-organism metabolism in tropical and temperate birds and attributes of their dermal fibroblasts grown in cell culture. Cells derived from

  17. "Chemistry Is in the News": Taxonomy of Authentic News Media-Based Learning Activities. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Rainer E.; Carson, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A brief history is given of approaches that aim at achieving a connectedness of the content of organic chemistry courses to real world issues. Recently, such approaches have relied more and more on online media resources, the tools of the Internet and the World Wide Web. We propose a six-level taxonomy of 'authentic news media-based learning…

  18. The Cartesian Heritage of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertucio, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to the critical reception of "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" by tracing the Taxonomy's underlying philosophical assumptions. Identifying Bloom's work as consistent with the legacy of Cartesian thought, I argue that its hierarchy of behavioral objectives provides a framework for certainty and…

  19. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  20. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2016).

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; King, Andrew M Q; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Mushegian, Arcady R; Nibert, Max; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Davison, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in April 2016.Changes to virus taxonomy (the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ICTV]) now take place annually and are the result of a multi-stage process. In accordance with the ICTV Statutes ( http://www.ictvonline.org/statutes.asp ), proposals submitted to the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) undergo a review process that involves input from the ICTV Study Groups (SGs) and Subcommittees (SCs), other interested virologists, and the EC. After final approval by the EC, proposals are then presented for ratification to the full ICTV membership by publication on an ICTV web site ( http://www.ictvonline.org/ ) followed by an electronic vote. The latest set of proposals approved by the EC was made available on the ICTV website by January 2016 ( https://talk.ictvonline.org/files/proposals/ ). A list of these proposals was then emailed on 28 March 2016 to the 148 members of ICTV, namely the EC Members, Life Members, ICTV Subcommittee Members (including the SG chairs) and ICTV National Representatives. Members were then requested to vote on whether to ratify the taxonomic proposals (voting closed on 29 April 2016).

  1. Backyard Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotsch, Margaret; Harris, Shannon

    1990-01-01

    Described is a backyard activity that can be used to introduce children to the divisions of the plant and animal kingdoms in their local environment. Preparation, procedures and followup are discussed. Background information on taxonomy and two activity cards are provided. (CW)

  2. Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Ji ARI Research Note 91-10 Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty N Taxonomy IFrederick A. Muckler, Sally Seven, and...11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Military intelligence Evaluation taxonomy MOS restructuring

  3. Unification theory of optimal life histories and linear demographic models in internal stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Life history of organisms is exposed to uncertainty generated by internal and external stochasticities. Internal stochasticity is generated by the randomness in each individual life history, such as randomness in food intake, genetic character and size growth rate, whereas external stochasticity is due to the environment. For instance, it is known that the external stochasticity tends to affect population growth rate negatively. It has been shown in a recent theoretical study using path-integral formulation in structured linear demographic models that internal stochasticity can affect population growth rate positively or negatively. However, internal stochasticity has not been the main subject of researches. Taking account of effect of internal stochasticity on the population growth rate, the fittest organism has the optimal control of life history affected by the stochasticity in the habitat. The study of this control is known as the optimal life schedule problems. In order to analyze the optimal control under internal stochasticity, we need to make use of "Stochastic Control Theory" in the optimal life schedule problem. There is, however, no such kind of theory unifying optimal life history and internal stochasticity. This study focuses on an extension of optimal life schedule problems to unify control theory of internal stochasticity into linear demographic models. First, we show the relationship between the general age-states linear demographic models and the stochastic control theory via several mathematical formulations, such as path-integral, integral equation, and transition matrix. Secondly, we apply our theory to a two-resource utilization model for two different breeding systems: semelparity and iteroparity. Finally, we show that the diversity of resources is important for species in a case. Our study shows that this unification theory can address risk hedges of life history in general age-states linear demographic models.

  4. Unification Theory of Optimal Life Histories and Linear Demographic Models in Internal Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Life history of organisms is exposed to uncertainty generated by internal and external stochasticities. Internal stochasticity is generated by the randomness in each individual life history, such as randomness in food intake, genetic character and size growth rate, whereas external stochasticity is due to the environment. For instance, it is known that the external stochasticity tends to affect population growth rate negatively. It has been shown in a recent theoretical study using path-integral formulation in structured linear demographic models that internal stochasticity can affect population growth rate positively or negatively. However, internal stochasticity has not been the main subject of researches. Taking account of effect of internal stochasticity on the population growth rate, the fittest organism has the optimal control of life history affected by the stochasticity in the habitat. The study of this control is known as the optimal life schedule problems. In order to analyze the optimal control under internal stochasticity, we need to make use of “Stochastic Control Theory” in the optimal life schedule problem. There is, however, no such kind of theory unifying optimal life history and internal stochasticity. This study focuses on an extension of optimal life schedule problems to unify control theory of internal stochasticity into linear demographic models. First, we show the relationship between the general age-states linear demographic models and the stochastic control theory via several mathematical formulations, such as path–integral, integral equation, and transition matrix. Secondly, we apply our theory to a two-resource utilization model for two different breeding systems: semelparity and iteroparity. Finally, we show that the diversity of resources is important for species in a case. Our study shows that this unification theory can address risk hedges of life history in general age-states linear demographic models. PMID:24945258

  5. An experimental manipulation of life-history trajectories and resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Bertrand, Sophie; Devevey, Godefroy; Prost, Josiane; Faivre, Bruno; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-09-01

    Optimal investment into life-history traits depends on the environmental conditions that organisms are likely to experience during their life. Evolutionary theory tells us that optimal investment in reproduction versus maintenance is likely to shape the pattern of age-associated decline in performance, also known as aging. The currency that is traded against different vital functions is, however, still debated. Here, we took advantage of a phenotypic manipulation of individual quality in early life to explore (1) long-term consequences on life-history trajectories, and (2) the possible physiological mechanism underlying the life-history adjustments. We manipulated phenotypic quality of a cohort of captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by assigning breeding pairs to either an enlarged or a reduced brood. Nestlings raised in enlarged broods were in poorer condition than nestlings raised in reduced broods. Interestingly, the effect of environmental conditions experienced during early life extended to the age at first reproduction. Birds from enlarged broods delayed reproduction. Birds that delayed reproduction produced less offspring but lived longer, although neither fecundity nor longevity were directly affected by the experimental brood size. Using the framework of the life-table response experiment modeling, we also explored the effect of early environmental condition on population growth rate and aging. Birds raised in reduced broods tended to have a higher population growth rate, and a steeper decrease of reproductive value with age than birds reared in enlarged broods. Metabolic resources necessary to fight off the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be the mechanism underlying the observed results, as (1) birds that engaged in a higher number of breeding events had a weaker red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress, (2) red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress predicted short-term mortality (but not longevity), and (3) was

  6. A Rain Taxonomy for Degraded Visual Environment Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Petersen, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a description of a rainfall taxonomy that defines the detailed characteristics of naturally occurring rainfall. The taxonomy is based on raindrop size measurements collected around the globe and encompasses several different climate types. Included in this TM is a description of these rainfall observations, an explanation of methods used to process those data, and resultant metrics comprising the rain taxonomy database. Each of the categories in the rain taxonomy are characterized by a unique set of raindrop sizes that can be used in simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation through a rain medium.

  7. Immune defense and host life history.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Marlene; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2002-10-01

    Recent interest has focused on immune response in an evolutionary context, with particular attention to disease resistance as a life-history trait, subject to trade-offs against other traits such as reproductive effort. Immune defense has several characteristics that complicate this approach, however; for example, because of the risk of autoimmunity, optimal immune defense is not necessarily maximum immune defense. Two important types of cost associated with immunity in the context of life history are resource costs, those related to the allocation of essential but limited resources, such as energy or nutrients, and option costs, those paid not in the currency of resources but in functional or structural components of the organism. Resource and option costs are likely to apply to different aspects of resistance. Recent investigations into possible trade-offs between reproductive effort, particularly sexual displays, and immunity have suggested interesting functional links between the two. Although all organisms balance the costs of immune defense against the requirements of reproduction, this balance works out differently for males than it does for females, creating sex differences in immune response that in turn are related to ecological factors such as the mating system. We conclude that immune response is indeed costly and that future work would do well to include invertebrates, which have sometimes been neglected in studies of the ecology of immune defense.

  8. Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to Enhance Student Learning in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and enhance teaching and student learning in a discipline-specific manner in postsecondary education. The BBT was first designed and extensively tested for a study in which we ranked almost 600 science questions from college life science exams and standardized tests. The BBT was then implemented in three different collegiate settings. Implementation of the BBT helped us to adjust our teaching to better enhance our students' current mastery of the material, design questions at higher cognitive skills levels, and assist students in studying for college-level exams and in writing study questions at higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. From this work we also created a suite of complementary tools that can assist biology faculty in creating classroom materials and exams at the appropriate level of Bloom's Taxonomy and students to successfully develop and answer questions that require higher-order cognitive skills. PMID:19047424

  9. "Ant" and "grasshopper" life-history strategies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spor, Aymé; Wang, Shaoxiao; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2008-02-13

    From the evolutionary and ecological points of view, it is essential to distinguish between the genetic and environmental components of the variability of life-history traits and of their trade-offs. Among the factors affecting this variability, the resource uptake rate deserves particular attention, because it depends on both the environment and the genetic background of the individuals. In order to unravel the bases of the life-history strategies in yeast, we grew a collection of twelve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different industrial and geographical origins in three culture media differing for their glucose content. Using a population dynamics model to fit the change of population size over time, we estimated the intrinsic growth rate (r), the carrying capacity (K), the mean cell size and the glucose consumption rate per cell. The life-history traits, as well as the glucose consumption rate, displayed large genetic and plastic variability and genetic-by-environment interactions. Within each medium, growth rate and carrying capacity were not correlated, but a marked trade-off between these traits was observed over the media, with high K and low r in the glucose rich medium and low K and high r in the other media. The cell size was tightly negatively correlated to carrying capacity in all conditions. The resource consumption rate appeared to be a clear-cut determinant of both the carrying capacity and the cell size in all media, since it accounted for 37% to 84% of the variation of those traits. In a given medium, the strains that consume glucose at high rate have large cell size and low carrying capacity, while the strains that consume glucose at low rate have small cell size but high carrying capacity. These two contrasted behaviors may be metaphorically defined as "ant" and "grasshopper" strategies of resource utilization. Interestingly, a strain may be "ant" in one medium and "grasshopper" in another. These life-history strategies are discussed

  10. Life-history traits predict perennial species response to fire in a desert ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Shryock, Daniel F; DeFalco, Lesley A; Esque, Todd C

    2014-01-01

    The Mojave Desert of North America has become fire-prone in recent decades due to invasive annual grasses that fuel wildfires following years of high rainfall. Perennial species are poorly adapted to fire in this system, and post-fire shifts in species composition have been substantial but variable across community types. To generalize across a range of conditions, we investigated whether simple life-history traits could predict how species responded to fire. Further, we classified species into plant functional types (PFTs) based on combinations of life-history traits and evaluated whether these groups exhibited a consistent fire-response. Six life-history traits varied significantly between burned and unburned areas in short (up to 4 years) or long-term (up to 52 years) post-fire datasets, including growth form, lifespan, seed size, seed dispersal, height, and leaf longevity. Forbs and grasses consistently increased in abundance after fire, while cacti were reduced and woody species exhibited a variable response. Woody species were classified into three PFTs based on combinations of life-history traits. Species in Group 1 increased in abundance after fire and were characterized by short lifespans, small, wind-dispersed seeds, low height, and deciduous leaves. Species in Group 2 were reduced by fire and distinguished from Group 1 by longer lifespans and evergreen leaves. Group 3 species, which also decreased after fire, were characterized by long lifespans, large non-wind dispersed seeds, and taller heights. Our results show that PFTs based on life-history traits can reliably predict the responses of most species to fire in the Mojave Desert. Dominant, long-lived species of this region possess a combination of traits limiting their ability to recover, presenting a clear example of how a novel disturbance regime may shift selective environmental pressures to favor alternative life-history strategies. PMID:25247062

  11. Life-history traits predict perennial species response to fire in a desert ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shryock, Daniel F.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    The Mojave Desert of North America has become fire-prone in recent decades due to invasive annual grasses that fuel wildfires following years of high rainfall. Perennial species are poorly adapted to fire in this system, and post-fire shifts in species composition have been substantial but variable across community types. To generalize across a range of conditions, we investigated whether simple life-history traits could predict how species responded to fire. Further, we classified species into plant functional types (PFTs) based on combinations of life-history traits and evaluated whether these groups exhibited a consistent fire-response. Six life-history traits varied significantly between burned and unburned areas in short (up to 4 years) or long-term (up to 52 years) post-fire datasets, including growth form, lifespan, seed size, seed dispersal, height, and leaf longevity. Forbs and grasses consistently increased in abundance after fire, while cacti were reduced and woody species exhibited a variable response. Woody species were classified into three PFTs based on combinations of life-history traits. Species in Group 1 increased in abundance after fire and were characterized by short lifespans, small, wind-dispersed seeds, low height, and deciduous leaves. Species in Group 2 were reduced by fire and distinguished from Group 1 by longer lifespans and evergreen leaves. Group 3 species, which also decreased after fire, were characterized by long lifespans, large non-wind dispersed seeds, and taller heights. Our results show that PFTs based on life-history traits can reliably predict the responses of most species to fire in the Mojave Desert. Dominant, long-lived species of this region possess a combination of traits limiting their ability to recover, presenting a clear example of how a novel disturbance regime may shift selective environmental pressures to favor alternative life-history strategies.

  12. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  13. Agency and Female Teachers' Career Decisions: A Life History Study of 40 Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings of a wider, life history study on the factors affecting the career decisions of 40 female secondary school teachers in England. By using life history interviews, it was possible to gain rich and nuanced insights into the complexity of factors influencing women's career decisions. While acknowledging the…

  14. SCIRehab Project Series: The Psychology Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Catherine; Huston, Toby; Koval, Jill; Gordon, Samuel A; Schwebel, Andrea; Gassaway, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Context: The integration of psychologists as members of the rehabilitation team has occurred in conjunction with the evolution and adoption of interdisciplinary teams as the standard of care in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Although the value of psychological services during rehabilitation is endorsed widely, specific interventions and their association with patient outcomes have not been examined adequately. Objective: To address this shortcoming, psychologists from 6 SCI centers collaborated to develop a psychology intervention taxonomy and documentation framework. Methods: Utilizing an interactive process, the lead psychologists from 6 centers compiled an inclusive list of patient characteristics assessed and interventions delivered in routine psychological practice at the participating rehabilitation facilities. These were systematically grouped, defined, and compared. Results: The resulting taxonomy became the basis of a documentation framework utilized by psychologists for the study. The psychology taxonomy includes 4 major clinical categories (assessment, psychotherapeutic interventions, psychoeducational interventions, and consultation) with 5 to 10 specific activities in each category. Conclusions: Examination of psychological interventions and their potential association with positive outcomes for persons who sustain SCI requires the development of a taxonomy. Results of these efforts illustrate similarities and differences in psychological practice among SCI centers and offer the opportunity to blend research and clinical practice in an innovative approach to evidence-based practice improvement. The established taxonomy provides a basic framework for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions. PMID:19810633

  15. Application of a Taxonomy to Characterize the Public Health Workforce.

    PubMed

    Beck, Angela J; Meit, Michael; Heffernan, Megan; Boulton, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    A public health workforce taxonomy was published in 2014 to provide a standardized mechanism for describing public health worker characteristics. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) used 7 of the taxonomy's 12 axes as a basis for its survey response choices, 3 of which are the focus of this analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative utility, reliability, and accuracy of the public health workforce taxonomy in categorizing local and state public health workers using a survey tool. This specifically included the goal of reducing the number of responses classified as "other" occupation, certification, or program area by recoding responses into taxonomy categories and determining potential missing categories for recommendation to the advisory committee that developed the taxonomy. Survey questions associated with the occupation, certification, and program area taxonomy axes yielded qualitative data from respondents who selected "other." The "other" responses were coded by 2 separate research teams at the University of Michigan Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies and NORC at the University of Chicago. Researchers assigned taxonomy categories to all analyzable qualitative responses and assessed the percentage of PH WINS responses that could be successfully mapped to taxonomy categories. Between respondent self-selection and research team recoding, the public health workforce taxonomy successfully categorized 95% of occupation responses, 75% of credential responses, and 83% of program area responses. Occupational categories that may be considered for inclusion in the taxonomy in the future include disease intervention specialists and occupations associated with regulation, certification, and licensing. The public health workforce taxonomy performed remarkably well in categorizing worker characteristics in its first use in a national survey. The analysis provides some recommendations for future

  16. Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Experts in Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    This volume is an attempt to articulate a taxonomy of educational objectives that uses the best available research and theory accumulated since the publication of the taxonomy of educational objectives of B. Bloom and others in 1956. Like Bloom's taxonomy, this taxonomy defines six levels of mental processing: self-system thinking (Level 6);…

  17. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a standard language for reporting medication errors. This project maps the NCC MERP taxonomy of medication error to MedWatch medical errors involving infusion pumps. Of particular interest are human factors associated with medical device errors. The NCC MERP taxonomy of medication errors is limited in mapping information from MEDWATCH because of the focus on the medical device and the format of reporting.

  18. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  19. Diagnosing the dangerous demography of manta rays using life history theory.

    PubMed

    Dulvy, Nicholas K; Pardo, Sebastián A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Carlson, John K

    2014-01-01

    Background. The directed harvest and global trade in the gill plates of mantas, and devil rays, has led to increased fishing pressure and steep population declines in some locations. The slow life history, particularly of the manta rays, is cited as a key reason why such species have little capacity to withstand directed fisheries. Here, we place their life history and demography within the context of other sharks and rays. Methods. Despite the limited availability of data, we use life history theory and comparative analysis to estimate the intrinsic risk of extinction (as indexed by the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase r max) for a typical generic manta ray using a variant of the classic Euler-Lotka demographic model. This model requires only three traits to calculate the maximum intrinsic population growth rate r max: von Bertalanffy growth rate, annual pup production and age at maturity. To account for the uncertainty in life history parameters, we created plausible parameter ranges and propagate these uncertainties through the model to calculate a distribution of the plausible range of r max values. Results. The maximum population growth rate r max of manta ray is most sensitive to the length of the reproductive cycle, and the median r max of 0.116 year(-1) 95th percentile [0.089-0.139] is one of the lowest known of the 106 sharks and rays for which we have comparable demographic information. Discussion. In common with other unprotected, unmanaged, high-value large-bodied sharks and rays the combination of very low population growth rates of manta rays, combined with the high value of their gill rakers and the international nature of trade, is highly likely to lead to rapid depletion and potential local extinction unless a rapid conservation management response occurs worldwide. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to derive important insights into the demography extinction risk of data-poor species using well-established life history theory.

  20. Diagnosing the dangerous demography of manta rays using life history theory

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Sebastián A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Carlson, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The directed harvest and global trade in the gill plates of mantas, and devil rays, has led to increased fishing pressure and steep population declines in some locations. The slow life history, particularly of the manta rays, is cited as a key reason why such species have little capacity to withstand directed fisheries. Here, we place their life history and demography within the context of other sharks and rays. Methods. Despite the limited availability of data, we use life history theory and comparative analysis to estimate the intrinsic risk of extinction (as indexed by the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase rmax) for a typical generic manta ray using a variant of the classic Euler–Lotka demographic model. This model requires only three traits to calculate the maximum intrinsic population growth rate rmax: von Bertalanffy growth rate, annual pup production and age at maturity. To account for the uncertainty in life history parameters, we created plausible parameter ranges and propagate these uncertainties through the model to calculate a distribution of the plausible range of rmax values. Results. The maximum population growth rate rmax of manta ray is most sensitive to the length of the reproductive cycle, and the median rmax of 0.116 year−1 95th percentile [0.089–0.139] is one of the lowest known of the 106 sharks and rays for which we have comparable demographic information. Discussion. In common with other unprotected, unmanaged, high-value large-bodied sharks and rays the combination of very low population growth rates of manta rays, combined with the high value of their gill rakers and the international nature of trade, is highly likely to lead to rapid depletion and potential local extinction unless a rapid conservation management response occurs worldwide. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to derive important insights into the demography extinction risk of data-poor species using well-established life history theory

  1. Life Histories of Three Exemplary American Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the following article-style dissertation was to present the life histories of three exemplary physical educators, to give them voice, explore ways in which they experienced marginalization, and describe how they persevered in spite of difficulties they experienced in their careers. The participants included (a) Robin, a female…

  2. Intersections of life histories and science identities: the stories of three preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-03-01

    Grounded within Connelly and Clandinin's conceptualization of teachers' professional identity in terms of 'stories to live by' and through a life-history lens, this multiple case study aimed to respond to the following questions: (a) How do three preservice elementary teachers view themselves as future science teachers? (b) How have the participants' life histories shaped their science identity trajectories? In order to characterize the participants' formation of science identities over time, various data regarding their life histories in relation to science were collected: science biographies, self-portraits, interviews, reflective journals, lesson plans, and classroom observations. The analysis of the data illustrated how the three participants' identities have been in formation from the early years of their lives and how various events, experiences, and interactions had shaped their identities through time and across contexts. These findings are discussed alongside implications for theory, specifically, identity and life-history intersections, for teacher preparation, and for research related to explorations of beginning elementary teachers' identity trajectories.

  3. Putting all your eggs in one basket: life-history strategies, bet hedging, and diversification.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew Edward; Li, Yexin Jessica; Griskevicius, Vladas; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2013-05-01

    Diversification of resources is a strategy found everywhere from the level of microorganisms to that of giant Wall Street investment firms. We examine the functional nature of diversification using life-history theory-a framework for understanding how organisms navigate resource-allocation trade-offs. This framework suggests that diversification may be adaptive or maladaptive depending on one's life-history strategy and that these differences should be observed under conditions of threat. In three studies, we found that cues of mortality threat interact with one index of life-history strategy, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), to affect diversification. Among those from low-SES backgrounds, mortality threat increased preferences for diversification. However, among those from high-SES backgrounds, mortality threat had the opposite effect, inclining people to put all their eggs in one basket. The same interaction pattern emerged with a potential biomarker of life-history strategy, oxidative stress. These findings highlight when, and for whom, different diversification strategies can be advantageous.

  4. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Alerting Pipeline Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    for the consumer at the mo- ment but will soon become a commoditized, basic requirement. For example, as the baby boomers grow older, mobile services...Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Alerting Pipeline Taxonomy The WEA Project Team March 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-TR-019 CERT...report presents a taxonomy developed for the Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS). The CMAS Alerting Pipeline Taxonomy is a hierarchical classification

  5. Convergent and correlated evolution of major life-history traits in the angiosperm genus Leucadendron (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Tonnabel, Jeanne; Mignot, Agnès; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Rebelo, Anthony G; Schurr, Frank M; Midgley, Jeremy; Illing, Nicola; Justy, Fabienne; Orcel, Denis; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Natural selection is expected to cause convergence of life histories among taxa as well as correlated evolution of different life-history traits. Here, we quantify the extent of convergence of five key life-history traits (adult fire survival, seed storage, degree of sexual dimorphism, pollination mode, and seed-dispersal mode) and test hypotheses about their correlated evolution in the genus Leucadendron (Proteaceae) from the fire-prone South African fynbos. We reconstructed a new molecular phylogeny of this highly diverse genus that involves more taxa and molecular markers than previously. This reconstruction identifies new clades that were not detected by previous molecular study and morphological classifications. Using this new phylogeny and robust methods that account for phylogenetic uncertainty, we show that the five life-history traits studied were labile during the evolutionary history of the genus. This diversity allowed us to tackle major questions about the correlated evolution of life-history strategies. We found that species with longer seed-dispersal distances tended to evolve lower pollen-dispersal distance, that insect-pollinated species evolved decreased sexual dimorphism, and that species with a persistent soil seed-bank evolved toward reduced fire-survival ability of adults. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Fine scale relationships between sex, life history, and dispersal of masu salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitanishi, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Itsuro; Dunham, Jason B.; Higashi, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the patterns and processes driving dispersal is critical for understanding population structure and dynamics. In many organisms, sex-biased dispersal is related to the type of mating system. Considerably less is known about the influence of life history variability on dispersal. Here we investigated patterns of dispersal in masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) to evaluate influences of sex and life history on dispersal. As expected, assignment tests and isolation by distance analysis revealed that dispersal of marine-migratory masu salmon was male-biased. However, dispersal of resident and migratory males did not follow our expectation and marine-migratory individuals dispersed more than residents. This may be because direct competition between marine-migratory and resident males is weak or that the cost of dispersal is smaller for marine-migratory individuals. This study revealed that both sex and migratory life history influence patterns of dispersal at a local scale in masu salmon.

  7. Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices.

    PubMed

    Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Fishing-induced life-history changes degrade and destabilize harvested ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Boit, Alice; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Lassaux, Hélène; Martinez, Neo D

    2016-02-26

    Fishing is widely known to magnify fluctuations in targeted populations. These fluctuations are correlated with population shifts towards young, small, and more quickly maturing individuals. However, the existence and nature of the mechanistic basis for these correlations and their potential ecosystem impacts remain highly uncertain. Here, we elucidate this basis and associated impacts by showing how fishing can increase fluctuations in fishes and their ecosystem, particularly when coupled with decreasing body sizes and advancing maturation characteristic of the life-history changes induced by fishing. More specifically, using an empirically parameterized network model of a well-studied lake ecosystem, we show how fishing may both increase fluctuations in fish abundances and also, when accompanied by decreasing body size of adults, further decrease fish abundance and increase temporal variability of fishes' food resources and their ecosystem. In contrast, advanced maturation has relatively little effect except to increase variability in juvenile populations. Our findings illustrate how different mechanisms underlying life-history changes that may arise as evolutionary responses to intensive, size-selective fishing can rapidly and continuously destabilize and degrade ecosystems even after fishing has ceased. This research helps better predict how life-history changes may reduce fishes' resilience to fishing and ecosystems' resistance to environmental variations.

  9. Fishing-induced life-history changes degrade and destabilize harvested ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuparinen, Anna; Boit, Alice; Valdovinos, Fernanda S.; Lassaux, Hélène; Martinez, Neo D.

    2016-02-01

    Fishing is widely known to magnify fluctuations in targeted populations. These fluctuations are correlated with population shifts towards young, small, and more quickly maturing individuals. However, the existence and nature of the mechanistic basis for these correlations and their potential ecosystem impacts remain highly uncertain. Here, we elucidate this basis and associated impacts by showing how fishing can increase fluctuations in fishes and their ecosystem, particularly when coupled with decreasing body sizes and advancing maturation characteristic of the life-history changes induced by fishing. More specifically, using an empirically parameterized network model of a well-studied lake ecosystem, we show how fishing may both increase fluctuations in fish abundances and also, when accompanied by decreasing body size of adults, further decrease fish abundance and increase temporal variability of fishes’ food resources and their ecosystem. In contrast, advanced maturation has relatively little effect except to increase variability in juvenile populations. Our findings illustrate how different mechanisms underlying life-history changes that may arise as evolutionary responses to intensive, size-selective fishing can rapidly and continuously destabilize and degrade ecosystems even after fishing has ceased. This research helps better predict how life-history changes may reduce fishes’ resilience to fishing and ecosystems’ resistance to environmental variations.

  10. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    PubMed

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species.

  11. The Conservation and Management of Tunas and Their Relatives: Setting Life History Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species. PMID:23950930

  12. Evolution of dispersal and life history strategies – Tetrahymena ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Fjerdingstad, Else J; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Manhes, Pauline; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Clobert, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Background Considerable attention has focused on how selection on dispersal and other core life-history strategies (reproductive effort, survival ability, colonization capacity) may lead to so-called dispersal syndromes. Studies on genetic variation in these syndromes within species could importantly increase our understanding of their evolution, by revealing whether traits co-vary across genetic lineages in the manner predicted by theoretical models, and by stimulating further hypotheses for experimental testing. Yet such studies remain scarce. Here we studied the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila, a particularly interesting organism due to cells being able to transform into morphs differing dramatically in swim-speed. We investigated dispersal, morphological responses, reproductive performance, and survival in ten different clonal strains. Then, we examined whether life history traits co-varied in the manner classically predicted for ruderal species, examined the investment of different strains into short- and putative long-distance dispersal, while considering also the likely impact of semi-sociality (cell aggregation, secretion of 'growth factors') on dispersal strategies. Results Very significant among-strain differences were found with regard to dispersal rate, morphological commitment and plasticity, and almost all core life-history traits (e.g. survival, growth performance and strategy), with most of these traits being significantly intercorrelated. Some strains showed high short-distance dispersal rates, high colonization capacity, bigger cell size, elevated growth performance, and good survival abilities. These well performing strains, however, produced fewer fast-swimming dispersal morphs when subjected to environmental degradation than did philopatric strains performing poorly under normal conditions. Conclusion Strong evidence was found for a genetic covariation between dispersal strategies and core life history traits in T. thermophila, with a

  13. Potential effects of changes in temperature and food resources on life history trajectories of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and changes in food resources owing to climate change may alter the growth and migratory behavior of organisms. This is particularly important for salmonid species like Oncorhynchus mykiss, where some individuals remain in freshwater to mature (nonanadromous Rainbow Trout) and others migrate to sea (anadromous Steelhead). Whether one strategy is adopted over the other may depend on the individual's growth and size. In this study, we explored (1) how water temperature in Beaver Creek, a tributary to the Methow River, Washington, may increase under four climate scenarios, (2) how these thermal changes may alter the life history trajectory followed by O. mykiss (i.e., when and if to smolt), and (3) how changes in food quality or quantity might interact with increasing temperatures. We combined bioenergetic and state-dependent life history models parameterized for O. mykiss in Beaver Creek to mimic baseline life history trajectories. Based on our simulations, when mean water temperature was increased by 0.6°C there was a reduction in life history diversity and a 57% increase in the number of individuals becoming smolts. When mean temperature was increased by 2.7°C, it resulted in 87% fewer smolts than in the baseline and fewer life history trajectories expressed. A reduction in food resources led to slower growth, more life history trajectories, and a greater proportion of smolts. In contrast, when food resources were increased, fish grew faster, which reduced the proportion of smolts and life history diversity. Our modeling suggests that warmer water temperatures associated with climate change could decrease the life history diversity of O. mykiss in the central portion of their range and thereby reduce resiliency to other disturbances. In addition, changes in food resources could mediate or exacerbate the effect of water temperature on the life history trajectories of O. mykiss.

  14. Growth and life history variability of the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) across its range.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; McCauley, Douglas J; Pollock, Kydd; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven D; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2017-01-01

    For broadly distributed, often overexploited species such as elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), conservation management would benefit from understanding how life history traits change in response to local environmental and ecological factors. However, fishing obfuscates this objective by causing complex and often mixed effects on the life histories of target species. Disentangling the many drivers of life history variability requires knowledge of elasmobranch populations in the absence of fishing, which is rarely available. Here, we describe the growth, maximum size, sex ratios, size at maturity, and offer a direct estimate of survival of an unfished population of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) using data from an eight year tag-recapture study. We then synthesized published information on the life history of C. amblyrhynchos from across its geographic range, and for the first time, we attempted to disentangle the contribution of fishing from geographic variation in an elasmobranch species. For Palmyra's unfished C. amblyrhynchos population, the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) growth coefficient k was 0.05 and asymptotic length L∞ was 163.3 cm total length (TL). Maximum size was 175.5 cm TL from a female shark, length at maturity was estimated at 116.7-123.2 cm TL for male sharks, maximum lifespan estimated from VBGF parameters was 18.1 years for both sexes combined, and annual survival was 0.74 year-1. Consistent with findings from studies on other elasmobranch species, we found significant intraspecific variability in reported life history traits of C. amblyrhynchos. However, contrary to what others have reported, we did not find consistent patterns in life history variability as a function of biogeography or fishing. Ultimately, the substantial, but not yet predictable variability in life history traits observed for C. amblyrhynchos across its geographic range suggests that regional management may be necessary to set sustainable harvest

  15. Old world versus new world: life-history alterations in a successful invader introduced across Europe.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael G; Copp, Gordon H

    2014-02-01

    We examined differences in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) life-history traits between native North American and introduced European populations, and tested three life-history predictions related to the effect of temperature, growth, waterbody size, and the presence/absence of predators on native and non-native populations. Pumpkinseed populations exhibit more 'opportunistic' traits (earlier maturity, smaller size at maturity, and higher reproductive allocation) in their introduced European range than those in their native range. Predictions of life-history traits were improved when indicators of juvenile growth rate (mean length at age 2), waterbody size (surface area), and thermal regime (air temperature degree-days above 10 °C) were incorporated into models along with continental location, but European pumpkinseed populations exhibit more opportunistic life-history traits than North American populations even when these factors are accounted for. Native pumpkinseed in waterbodies containing piscivores mature later and at a larger size, and have lower gonadosomatic indices than those in waterbodies lacking piscivores, whereas there is no significant difference in the same three life-history traits between European waterbodies containing or lacking piscivores. Because congeneric competitors of the pumpkinseed are absent from Europe, the apparent absence of a predator life-history effect there could also be due to the absence of the major sunfish competitors. In either case, the evolution and maintenance of more opportunistic traits in European pumpkinseed can likely be attributed to enemy release, and this may explain the successful establishment and spread of pumpkinseed in many parts of Europe.

  16. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  17. Variation in reproductive life history traits between two populations of Blackbanded Darters (Percina nigrofasciata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughey, Myra C.; Heins, David C.; Jelks, Howard L.; Ory, Bridget A.; Jordan, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We examined the life history of Blackbanded Darters (Percina nigrofasciata) from two streams in the Choctawhatchee River drainage, Florida, over a three-year study period. Blackbanded Darters from Turkey Creek were longer than fish from Ten Mile Creek; however, size-adjusted clutch and egg sizes were similar between populations. Larger females produced larger clutches, whereas egg size did not vary with female body size. Seasonally, clutch sizes were greater in May than in August. When contrasted with previous studies of Blackbanded Darters in Alabama and Louisiana, the reproductive season of Blackbanded Darters in Florida was unusually long, ceasing for only a few months in late fall. The reproductive season was longer in Turkey Creek than in Ten Mile Creek. Differences in thermal regime among streams may explain differences in life history traits among local and distant populations of Blackbanded Darters. This research, alone and in combination with previous studies of this species, emphasizes two main points. First, it reaffirms that life history studies based on a single locality or conducted at a single point in time may fail to capture the full range of variation in life history traits. Second, it highlights the extensive phenotypic variation found in species with broad geographic ranges. Such species lend themselves to comparative and experimental research on patterns and causes of life history variation.

  18. Spumaretroviruses: Updated taxonomy and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifa S; Bodem, Jochen; Buseyne, Florence; Gessain, Antoine; Johnson, Welkin; Kuhn, Jens H; Kuzmak, Jacek; Lindemann, Dirk; Linial, Maxine L; Löchelt, Martin; Materniak-Kornas, Magdalena; Soares, Marcelo A; Switzer, William M

    2018-03-01

    Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes. Here, we describe an updated spumaretrovirus taxonomy that has been recently accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Executive Committee, and describe a virus nomenclature that is generally consistent with that used for other retroviruses, such as lentiviruses and deltaretroviruses. This taxonomy can be applied to distinguish different, but closely related, primate (e.g., human, ape, simian) foamy viruses as well as those from other hosts. This proposal accounts for host-virus co-speciation and cross-species transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2018).

    PubMed

    King, Andrew M Q; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Mushegian, Arcady R; Adams, Michael J; Dutilh, Bas E; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Junglen, Sandra; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Nibert, Max L; Rubino, Luisa; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Davison, Andrew J

    2018-05-12

    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in February 2018. A total of 451 species, 69 genera, 11 subfamilies, 9 families and one new order were added to the taxonomy. The current totals at each taxonomic level now stand at 9 orders, 131 families, 46 subfamilies, 803 genera and 4853 species. A change was made to the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature to allow the use of the names of people in taxon names under appropriate circumstances. An updated Master Species List incorporating the approved changes was released in March 2018 ( https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/ ).

  20. Horizontal Gene Transfer and the History of Life

    PubMed Central

    Daubin, Vincent; Szöllősi, Gergely J.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes acquire DNA from a variety of sources. The last decades, which have seen the development of genome sequencing, have revealed that horizontal gene transfer has been a major evolutionary force that has constantly reshaped genomes throughout evolution. However, because the history of life must ultimately be deduced from gene phylogenies, the lack of methods to account for horizontal gene transfer has thrown into confusion the very concept of the tree of life. As a result, many questions remain open, but emerging methodological developments promise to use information conveyed by horizontal gene transfer that remains unexploited today. PMID:26801681

  1. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Neoconocephalus (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) and the Evolution of Temperate Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Robert L.; Frederick-Hudson, Katy H.; Schul, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Background The katydid genus Neoconocephalus (25+ species) has a prominent acoustic communication system and occurs in large parts of the Neotropics and Nearctic. This group has been subject of numerous behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary studies of its acoustic communication system. Two distinct life histories occur in this group: The tropical life history incorporates multiple generations/year and direct egg development without environmental triggers. Temperate life history is characterized by overwintering in the egg stage, cold trigger of egg development, and one generation/year. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the genus to (1) determine the evolutionary history of the temperate life history, and (2) to support comparative studies of evolutionary and physiological problems in this genus. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP), and sequences of two nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The analysis included 17 ingroup and two outgroup species. AFLP and mitochondrial data provided resolution at the species level while the two nuclear loci revealed only deeper nodes. The data sets were combined in a super-matrix to estimate a total evidence tree. Seven of the temperate species form a monophyletic group; however, three more temperate species were placed as siblings of tropical species. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses support the reliability of the current taxonomic treatment of the Neoconocephalus fauna of Caribbean, Central, and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction of life history traits was not conclusive, however at least four transitions between life histories occurred among our sample of species. The proposed phylogeny will strengthen conclusions from comparative work in this group. PMID:19779617

  3. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  4. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Hobson, Elizabeth A.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post-breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life history data for an at-risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively managing captive populations of parrots. PMID:22389582

  5. Prey life-history and bioenergetic responses across a predation gradient.

    PubMed

    Rennie, M D; Purchase, C F; Shuter, B J; Collins, N C; Abrams, P A; Morgan, G E

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the importance of non-consumptive effects of predators on prey life histories under natural conditions, an index of predator abundance was developed for naturally occurring populations of a common prey fish, the yellow perch Perca flavescens, and compared to life-history variables and rates of prey energy acquisition and allocation as estimated from mass balance models. The predation index was positively related to maximum size and size at maturity in both male and female P. flavescens, but not with life span or reproductive investment. The predation index was positively related to size-adjusted specific growth rates and growth efficiencies but negatively related to model estimates of size-adjusted specific consumption and activity rates in both vulnerable (small) and invulnerable (large) size classes of P. flavescens. These observations suggest a trade-off between growth and activity rates, mediated by reduced activity in response to increasing predator densities. Lower growth rates and growth efficiencies in populations with fewer predators, despite increased consumption suggests either 1) a reduction in prey resources at lower predator densities or 2) an intrinsic cost of rapid prey growth that makes it unfavourable unless offset by a perceived threat of predation. This study provides evidence of trade-offs between growth and activity rates induced by predation risk in natural prey fish populations and illustrates how behavioural modification induced through predation can shape the life histories of prey fish species. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

  7. An Empirical Taxonomy of Hospital Governing Board Roles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wang, Virginia; Margolin, Frances S; Combes, John R

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a taxonomy of governing board roles in U.S. hospitals. Data Sources 2005 AHA Hospital Governance Survey, 2004 AHA Annual Survey of Hospitals, and Area Resource File. Study Design A governing board taxonomy was developed using cluster analysis. Results were validated and reviewed by industry experts. Differences in hospital and environmental characteristics across clusters were examined. Data Extraction Methods One-thousand three-hundred thirty-four hospitals with complete information on the study variables were included in the analysis. Principal Findings Five distinct clusters of hospital governing boards were identified. Statistical tests showed that the five clusters had high internal reliability and high internal validity. Statistically significant differences in hospital and environmental conditions were found among clusters. Conclusions The developed taxonomy provides policy makers, health care executives, and researchers a useful way to describe and understand hospital governing board roles. The taxonomy may also facilitate valid and systematic assessment of governance performance. Further, the taxonomy could be used as a framework for governing boards themselves to identify areas for improvement and direction for change. PMID:18355260

  8. eVITAL: A Preliminary Taxonomy and Electronic Toolkit of Health-Related Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Olson Walsh, Carolyn; Alonso, Federico; Gómez, Rafael; de Teresa, Carlos; Cabo-Soler, José Ricardo; Cano, Antonio; Ruiz, Mencía

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To create a preliminary taxonomy and related toolkit of health-related habits (HrH) following a person-centered approach with a focus on primary care. Methods. From 2003–2009, a working group (n = 6 physicians) defined the knowledge base, created a framing document, and selected evaluation tools using an iterative process. Multidisciplinary focus groups (n = 29 health professionals) revised the document and evaluation protocol and participated in a feasibility study and review of the model based on a demonstration study with 11 adult volunteers in Antequera, Spain. Results. The preliminary taxonomy contains 6 domains of HrH and 1 domain of additional health descriptors, 3 subdomains, 43 dimensions, and 141 subdimensions. The evaluation tool was completed by the 11 volunteers. The eVITAL toolkit contains history and examination items for 4 levels of engagement: self-assessment, basic primary care, extended primary care, and specialty care. There was positive feedback from the volunteers and experts, but concern about the length of the evaluation. Conclusions. We present the first taxonomy of HrH, which may aid the development of the new models of care such as the personal contextual factors of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and the positive and negative components of the multilevel person-centered integrative diagnosis model. PMID:22545016

  9. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Nyamiviridae.

    PubMed

    Dietzgen, Ralf G; Ghedin, Elodie; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kuhn, Jens H; Song, Timothy; Vasilakis, Nikos; Wang, David; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses with unsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 11.3-12.2 kb that produce enveloped, spherical virions. Viruses of the genus Nyavirus are tick-borne and some also infect birds. Other nyamiviruses infecting parasitoid wasps and plant parasitic nematodes have been classified into the genera Peropuvirus and Socyvirus, respectively. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Nyamiviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/nyamiviridae.

  10. Blastocystis: Taxonomy, biology and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Jeremiah, SS

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular protist Blastocystis has long been an unsolved puzzle for taxonomists, microbiologists and clinicians. Over the years, the organism has been bounced on and off the different branches of the tree of life due the possession of unique phenotypic characters intermediary to different organisms. The organism is polymorphic with only few of forms such as vacuolar, granular, amoeboid, and the cyst form being commonly known. However it could exist in other forms much more frequently than the widely known forms which could be missed by the unaware observer. Certain older concepts in the life cycle of Blastocystis although has been proven wrong are still being followed in various textbooks and other trustworthy internet sources. The causal role of Blastocystis in human disease has long been a subject of controversy. It is widely believed that certain subtypes of the organism are virulent. But this is not so as other factors are also involved in the clinical outcome of the infection. In these contexts, this review intends to shed light on the past misconceptions and the recent findings on the taxonomy, biology and the virulence of this organism. PMID:23961437

  11. Rarity as a life-history correlate in Dudleya (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Ann E; Wilson, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Differences in rarity among species can be caused by adaptation to local conditions along with correlated evolution in characters that limit geographic range size. For this kind of divergence, the resulting species differ in their ability to thrive in varying environments. Because rare species are more prone to extinction than widespread species, trade-offs in life history predispose the resulting lineages to clade selection. Nine Dudleya species live in the Santa Monica Mountains: five neoendemics, one species intermediate in rarity, and three with broader ranges. Life-history traits were correlated against one another. To understand habitat dependence, the species were grown in an inland garden and in a coastal garden, and the disparity in growth and reproduction in the two gardens was compared among species. Rare species reproduced earlier and grew to be smaller than common species. The small body size of the rare species was correlated with small reproductive outputs compared with those of the large-bodied common species. The growth disparity between plants in the two gardens was greatest for the rare species. The rare species had a lower tolerance for hot, dry conditions compared with the common species. In the Santa Monica Mountains, the habitat conditions required by the rare species are not as prevalent as those of the common species. The data are consistent with the view that differences in life histories constrained by trade-offs affect range size. Such differences in rarity become the grist for clade selection at the scale of macroevolution.

  12. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fernández, María E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it

  13. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  14. Life History Traits of an Extended Longevity Phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Deepashree, S; Shivanandappa, T; Ramesh, S R

    2017-01-01

    Aging or senescence is a complex biological phenomenon. Artificially selected Drosophila for extended longevity is one of the experimental models used to understand the mechanisms involved in aging and to test various theories. To examine the life history traits and biochemical defenses in relation to aging in an extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster. Life history traits viz., survivability, fecundity, development time, dry weight, wing size, lipid content, starvation, desiccation and cold resistances, locomotory ability, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species level between control and selected lines of D. melanogaster were investigated. In our model of Drosophila, extended longevity is associated with no trade-off in fecundity and shows variable resistance to environmental stress such as starvation, cold and desiccation. Enhanced biochemical defense involving the antioxidant enzymes was positively correlated with longevity. Extended longevity phenotypes of Drosophila represent genomic plasticity associated with variable life history traits attributed to the genetic background of the progenitor population and the environment of selection. Oxidative stress resistance seems to be a significant factor in longevity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Life history factors, personality and the social clustering of sexual experience in adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Abram J; Mace, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms.

  16. Life history factors, personality and the social clustering of sexual experience in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543

  17. Bringing history to life: simulating landmark experiments in psychology.

    PubMed

    Boynton, David M; Smith, Laurence D

    2006-05-01

    The course in history of psychology can be challenging for students, many of whom enter it with little background in history and faced with unfamiliar names and concepts. The sheer volume of material can encourage passive memorization unless efforts are made to increase student involvement. As part of a trend toward experiential history, historians of science have begun to supplement their lectures with demonstrations of classic physics experiments as a way to bring the history of science to life. Here, the authors report on computer simulations of five landmark experiments from early experimental psychology in the areas of reaction time, span of attention, and apparent motion. The simulations are designed not only to permit hands-on replication of historically important results but also to reproduce the experimental procedures closely enough that students can gain a feel for the nature of early research and the psychological processes being studied.

  18. Pace of life, predators and parasites: predator-induced life-history evolution in Trinidadian guppies predicts decrease in parasite tolerance.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J F; van Oosterhout, C; Cable, J

    2015-11-01

    A common evolutionary response to predation pressure is increased investment in reproduction, ultimately resulting in a fast life history. Theory and comparative studies suggest that short-lived organisms invest less in defence against parasites than those that are longer lived (the pace of life hypothesis). Combining these tenets of evolutionary theory leads to the specific, untested prediction that within species, populations experiencing higher predation pressure invest less in defence against parasites. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, presents an excellent opportunity to test this prediction: guppy populations in lower courses of rivers experience higher predation pressure, and as a consequence have evolved faster life histories, than those in upper courses. Data from a large-scale field survey showed that fish infected with Gyrodactylus parasites were of a lower body condition (quantified using the scaled mass index) than uninfected fish, but only in lower course populations. Although the evidence we present is correlational, it suggests that upper course guppies sustain lower fitness costs of infection, i.e. are more tolerant, than lower course guppies. The data are therefore consistent with the pace of life hypothesis of parasite defence allocation, and suggest that life-history traits mediate the indirect effect of predators on the parasites of their prey. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Modeling tradeoffs in avian life history traits and consequences for population growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, M.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in population dynamics is inherently related to life history characteristics of species, which vary markedly even within phylogenetic groups such as passerine birds. We computed the finite rate of population change (??) from a matrix projection model and from mark-recapture observations for 23 bird species breeding in northern Arizona. We used sensitivity analyses and a simulation model to separate contributions of different life history traits to population growth rate. In particular we focused on contrasting effects of components of reproduction (nest success, clutch size, number of clutches, and juvenile survival) versus adult survival on ??. We explored how changes in nest success or adult survival coupled to costs in other life history parameters affected ?? over a life history gradient provided by our 23 Arizona species, as well as a broader sample of 121 North American passerine species. We further examined these effects for more than 200 passeriform and piciform populations breeding across North America. Model simulations indicate nest success and juvenile survival exert the largest effects on population growth in species with moderate to high reproductive output, whereas adult survival contributed more to population growth in long-lived species. Our simulations suggest that monitoring breeding success in populations across a broad geographic area provides an important index for identifying neotropical migratory populations at risk of serious population declines and a potential method for identifying large-scale mechanisms regulating population dynamics. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  1. Evidence of panmixia between sympatric life history forms of coastal cutthroat trout in two lower Columbia River tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Baumsteiger, Jason; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Hudson, J. Michael; Ardren, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii exhibit resident and migratory life history strategies that often occur sympatrically, but the relationship between these forms within a population is poorly characterized. Through use of passive integrated transponder technology, migratory and resident coastal cutthroat trout were identified in two lower Columbia River tributaries (Abernathy Creek and the Chinook River) separated by more than 80 km. Genetic data from 17 highly variable microsatellite loci were used to ascertain the genetic population structure of these life history forms within and between streams. No distinct genetic separation was observed between the life history forms within a stream, as assessed by four different statistical approaches: permutation tests based on the genetic differentiation index F ST, principal components analysis of individuals, analysis of molecular variance, and contingency tests of allele frequency heterogeneity. Genetic differences were an order of magnitude higher between stream samples (F ST > 0.03) than between life history forms within a stream (F ST < 0.003). The contingency test detected allele frequency differences between migratory and resident life history forms in Abernathy Creek (P = 0.001), but this result was influenced more by age-class structure than by reproductive isolation between life history forms. Results are consistent with a single, randomly mating population in each stream producing both migratory and resident life history forms. These data suggest that individual life history strategy in coastal cutthroat trout is predominantly determined by phenotypic plasticity rather than genotype.

  2. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    Information professionals who train or instruct others can use Bloom's taxonomy to write learning objectives that describe the skills and abilities that they desire their learners to master and demonstrate. Bloom's taxonomy differentiates between cognitive skill levels and calls attention to learning objectives that require higher levels of cognitive skills and, therefore, lead to deeper learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to a greater variety of tasks and contexts.

  3. GENOMIC BASIS OF AGING AND LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Silvia C.; Chang, Peter L.; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Hughes, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early-age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. PMID:23106705

  4. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia G; Banyard, Ashley C; Basler, Christopher F; Bavari, Sina; Bennett, Andrew J; Blasdell, Kim R; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Caì, Yíngyún; Calisher, Charles H; Campos Lawson, Cristine; Chandran, Kartik; Chapman, Colin A; Chiu, Charles Y; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Collins, Peter L; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Dolja, Valerian V; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M; Easton, Andrew J; Ebihara, Hideki; Echevarría, Juan E; Fooks, Anthony R; Formenty, Pierre B H; Fouchier, Ron A M; Freuling, Conrad M; Ghedin, Elodie; Goldberg, Tony L; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kityo, Robert; Kobinger, Gary P; Kondō, Hideki; Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Leroy, Eric M; Maes, Piet; Maisner, Andrea; Marston, Denise A; Mor, Sunil Kumar; Müller, Thomas; Mühlberger, Elke; Ramírez, Víctor Manuel Neira; Netesov, Sergey V; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Nowotny, Norbert; Palacios, Gustavo; Patterson, Jean L; Pawęska, Janusz T; Payne, Susan L; Prieto, Karla; Rima, Bertus K; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Siddell, Stuart; Smither, Sophie J; Song, Qisheng; Song, Timothy; Stenglein, Mark D; Stone, David M; Takada, Ayato; Tesh, Robert B; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Tomonaga, Keizō; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S; Vasilakis, Nikos; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Verdugo, Claudio; Volchkov, Viktor E; Wahl, Victoria; Walker, Peter J; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wellehan, James F X; Wiley, Michael R; Whitfield, Anna E; Wolf, Yuri I; Yè, Gōngyín; Zhāng, Yǒng-Zhèn; Kuhn, Jens H

    2018-04-11

    In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.

  5. Bloom's Taxonomy: Improving Assessment and Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza; Iqbal, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    This research study critically analyzes the scope and contribution of Bloom's Taxonomy in both assessment and teaching-learning process. Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six stages, namely; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating and moves from lower degree to the higher degree. The study applies Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  6. Growth and life history variability of the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) across its range

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    For broadly distributed, often overexploited species such as elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), conservation management would benefit from understanding how life history traits change in response to local environmental and ecological factors. However, fishing obfuscates this objective by causing complex and often mixed effects on the life histories of target species. Disentangling the many drivers of life history variability requires knowledge of elasmobranch populations in the absence of fishing, which is rarely available. Here, we describe the growth, maximum size, sex ratios, size at maturity, and offer a direct estimate of survival of an unfished population of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) using data from an eight year tag-recapture study. We then synthesized published information on the life history of C. amblyrhynchos from across its geographic range, and for the first time, we attempted to disentangle the contribution of fishing from geographic variation in an elasmobranch species. For Palmyra’s unfished C. amblyrhynchos population, the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) growth coefficient k was 0.05 and asymptotic length L∞ was 163.3 cm total length (TL). Maximum size was 175.5 cm TL from a female shark, length at maturity was estimated at 116.7–123.2 cm TL for male sharks, maximum lifespan estimated from VBGF parameters was 18.1 years for both sexes combined, and annual survival was 0.74 year-1. Consistent with findings from studies on other elasmobranch species, we found significant intraspecific variability in reported life history traits of C. amblyrhynchos. However, contrary to what others have reported, we did not find consistent patterns in life history variability as a function of biogeography or fishing. Ultimately, the substantial, but not yet predictable variability in life history traits observed for C. amblyrhynchos across its geographic range suggests that regional management may be necessary to set sustainable harvest

  7. Keys to soil taxonomy by soil survey staff (sixth edition)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This publication, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, serves two purposes. It provides the taxonomic keys necessary for the classification of soils according to Soil Taxonomy in a form that can be used easily in the field, and it also acquaints users of Soil Taxonomy with recent changes in the classification system. This volume includes all revisions of the keys that have so far been approved, replacing the original keys in Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys (1975), the work on which this abridged version, first published in 1983, is based. This publication incorporatesmore » all amendments approved to date and published in National Soil Taxonomy Handbook (NSTH) Issues 1-17.« less

  8. Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics.

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, P; Pot, B; Gillis, M; de Vos, P; Kersters, K; Swings, J

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a much broader range of taxonomic studies of bacteria has gradually replaced the former reliance upon morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization. This polyphasic taxonomy takes into account all available phenotypic and genotypic data and integrates them in a consensus type of classification, framed in a general phylogeny derived from 16S rRNA sequence analysis. In some cases, the consensus classification is a compromise containing a minimum of contradictions. It is thought that the more parameters that will become available in the future, the more polyphasic classification will gain stability. In this review, the practice of polyphasic taxonomy is discussed for four groups of bacteria chosen for their relevance, complexity, or both: the genera Xanthomonas and Campylobacter, the lactic acid bacteria, and the family Comamonadaceae. An evaluation of our present insights, the conclusions derived from it, and the perspectives of polyphasic taxonomy are discussed, emphasizing the keystone role of the species. Taxonomists did not succeed in standardizing species delimitation by using percent DNA hybridization values. Together with the absence of another "gold standard" for species definition, this has an enormous repercussion on bacterial taxonomy. This problem is faced in polyphasic taxonomy, which does not depend on a theory, a hypothesis, or a set of rules, presenting a pragmatic approach to a consensus type of taxonomy, integrating all available data maximally. In the future, polyphasic taxonomy will have to cope with (i) enormous amounts of data, (ii) large numbers of strains, and (iii) data fusion (data aggregation), which will demand efficient and centralized data storage. In the future, taxonomic studies will require collaborative efforts by specialized laboratories even more than now is the case. Whether these future developments will guarantee a more stable consensus classification remains an open question. PMID

  9. Classification and Taxonomy of Vegetable Macergens

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, Bukola R.; Babalola, Olubukola O.

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria). These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp., and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens. PMID:26640465

  10. Classification and Taxonomy of Vegetable Macergens.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Bukola R; Babalola, Olubukola O

    2015-01-01

    Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria). These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp., and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens.

  11. Increased Mortality Exposure within the Family Rather than Individual Mortality Experiences Triggers Faster Life-History Strategies in Historic Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans. PMID:24421897

  12. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans.

  13. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Twelve fundamental life histories evolving through allocation-dependent fecundity and survival.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jacob; Brännström, Åke; Metz, Johan A J; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity.

  15. Life-History and Developmental Antecedents of Female Vocational Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Laura S.; Muchinsky, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 296 female undergraduates completed the Strong Interest Inventory, Biographical Questionnaire, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and Self-Esteem Inventory. Life history was a better predictor of vocational interests than either sex-role orientation or self-esteem. The only significant exception was that Femininity correlated with interest in…

  16. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    PubMed

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  17. Religious People Are Trusted Because They Are Viewed as Slow Life-History Strategists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jordan W; Krems, Jaimie Arona; Cohen, Adam B

    2018-06-01

    Religious people are more trusted than nonreligious people. Although most theorists attribute these perceptions to the beliefs of religious targets, religious individuals also differ in behavioral ways that might cue trust. We examined whether perceivers might trust religious targets more because they heuristically associate religion with slow life-history strategies. In three experiments, we found that religious targets are viewed as slow life-history strategists and that these findings are not the result of a universally positive halo effect; that the effect of target religion on trust is significantly mediated by the target's life-history traits (i.e., perceived reproductive strategy); and that when perceivers have direct information about a target's reproductive strategy, their ratings of trust are driven primarily by his or her reproductive strategy, rather than religion. These effects operate over and above targets' belief in moralizing gods and offer a novel theoretical perspective on religion and trust.

  18. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  19. History of major depressive disorder prospectively predicts worse quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Minton, Susan; Andrykowski, Michael; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2012-06-01

    Data are scarce about whether past history of major depressive disorder in the absence of current depression places breast cancer patients at risk for worse quality of life. The current study prospectively examined quality of life during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder (n = 29) and no history of depression (n = 144). Women with Stages 0-II breast cancer were assessed prior to and at the completion of chemotherapy. Major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview and quality of life with the SF-36. Patients with past major depressive disorder displayed greater declines in physical functioning relative to patients with no history of depression (p ≤ 0.01). Findings suggest that breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder are at increased risk for declines in physical functioning during chemotherapy relative to patients with no history of depression.

  20. Imitative and Direct Learning as Interacting Factors in Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    Bullinaria, John A

    2017-01-01

    The idea that lifetime learning can have a significant effect on life history evolution has recently been explored using a series of artificial life simulations. These involved populations of competing individuals evolving by natural selection to learn to perform well on simplified abstract tasks, with the learning consisting of identifying regularities in their environment. In reality, there is more to learning than that type of direct individual experience, because it often includes a substantial degree of social learning that involves various forms of imitation of what other individuals have learned before them. This article rectifies that omission by incorporating memes and imitative learning into revised versions of the previous approach. To do this reliably requires formulating and testing a general framework for meme-based simulations that will enable more complete investigations of learning as a factor in any life history evolution scenarios. It does that by simulating imitative information transfer in terms of memes being passed between individuals, and developing a process for merging that information with the (possibly inconsistent) information acquired by direct experience, leading to a consistent overall body of learning. The proposed framework is tested on a range of learning variations and a representative set of life history factors to confirm the robustness of the approach. The simulations presented illustrate the types of interactions and tradeoffs that can emerge, and indicate the kinds of species-specific models that could be developed with this approach in the future.

  1. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-11-07

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach

    PubMed Central

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a ‘fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a ‘slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of ‘slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of ‘slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of ‘fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500–300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. PMID:26511055

  3. Pathogen and host genotype differently affect pathogen fitness through their effects on different life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Carson, Martin; May, Georgiana

    2012-08-02

    Adaptation of pathogens to their hosts depends critically on factors affecting pathogen reproductive rate. While pathogen reproduction is the end result of an intricate interaction between host and pathogen, the relative contributions of host and pathogen genotype to variation in pathogen life history within the host are not well understood. Untangling these contributions allows us to identify traits with sufficient genetic variation for selection to act and to identify mechanisms of coevolution between pathogens and their hosts. We investigated the effects of pathogen and host genotype on three life-history components of pathogen fitness; infection efficiency, latent period, and sporulation capacity, in the oat crown rust fungus, Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae, as it infects oats (Avena sativa). We show that both pathogen and host genotype significantly affect total spore production but do so through their effects on different life-history stages. Pathogen genotype has the strongest effect on the early stage of infection efficiency, while host genotype most strongly affects the later life-history stages of latent period and sporulation capacity. In addition, host genotype affected the relationship between pathogen density and the later life-history traits of latent period and sporulation capacity. We did not find evidence of pathogen-by-host genotypic (GxG) interactions. Our results illustrate mechanisms by which variation in host populations will affect the evolution of pathogen life history. Results show that different pathogen life-history stages have the potential to respond differently to selection by host or pathogen genotype and suggest mechanisms of antagonistic coevolution. Pathogen populations may adapt to host genotypes through increased infection efficiency while their plant hosts may adapt by limiting the later stages of pathogen growth and spore production within the host.

  4. Issues Using the Life History Calendar in Disability Research

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Tiffany N.; Harrison, Tracie

    2011-01-01

    Background Overall, there is a dearth of research reporting mixed-method data collection procedures using the LHC within disability research. Objective This report provides practical knowledge on use of the life history calendar (LHC) from the perspective of a mixed-method life history study of mobility impairment situated within a qualitative paradigm. Methods In this paper the method related literature referring to the LHC was reviewed along with its epistemological underpinnings. Further, the uses of the LHC in disability research were illustrated using preliminary data from reports of disablement in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White women with permanent mobility impairment. Results From our perspective, the LHC was most useful when approached from an interpretive paradigm when gathering data from women of varied ethnic and socioeconomic strata. While we found the LHC the most useful tool currently available for studying disablement over the life course, there were challenges associated with its use. The LHC required extensive interviewer training. In addition, large segments of time were needed for completion depending on the type of participant responses. Conclusions Researchers planning to conduct a disability study may find our experience using the LHC valuable for anticipating issues that may arise when the LHC is used in mixed-method research. PMID:22014674

  5. [Moffitt's developmental taxonomy as seen by new results--some remarks on the "adolescence-limited" delinquency].

    PubMed

    Roth, Marcus; Bartsch, Benno

    2004-12-01

    In her taxonomy Moffitt describes two developmental pathways into delinquent behaviour: an episodic, "adolescence-limited" occurrence of delinquent behavior and a pathway characterised by an early onset and a stable course of delinquent behavior ("life-course-persistent"). Referring to the results of recent longitudinal studies the present paper inspects the empirical validity of the theory. The reported studies support both pathways postulated by Moffitt and emphasise the relevance of the onset of delinquent behaviour in the developmental course (childhood-onset vs. adolescence-onset). However, contrary to Moffitts model, the results also pointed out, that "adolescence-onset" can not be put on one level with "adolescence-limited". The results let us rather assume that there exists another pathway beside the two postulated by Moffitt, in which delinquent behaviour starts in adolescence (without an antisocial history in childhood) and continues into adulthood. Based on these results a broadening of perspective is pled for, in which the adolescence is also expected as a "sensible period" to the beginning of a delinquent development. The questions arising from this are outlined for future research.

  6. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  7. Development of tools to study personal weight control strategies: OxFAB taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, Paul; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of the Oxford Food and Activity Behaviors (OxFAB) taxonomy and questionnaire to explore the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during weight management attempts. Methods The taxonomy was constructed through a qualitative analysis of existing resources and a review of existing behavior change taxonomies and theories. The taxonomy was translated into a questionnaire to identify strategies used by individuals. Think‐aloud interviews were conducted to test the face/concept validity of the questionnaire, and test–retest reliability was assessed in a sample of 138 participants. Results The OxFAB taxonomy consists of 117 strategies grouped into 23 domains. Compared to taxonomies used to describe interventions, around half of the domains and strategies identified are unique to the OxFAB taxonomy. The OxFAB questionnaire consists of 117 questions, one for each strategy from the taxonomy. Test–retest resulted in a mean PABAK score of 0.61 (SD 0.15). Questions were revised where appropriate. Conclusions The OxFAB taxonomy and questionnaire provide a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during attempts at weight control. PMID:26748902

  8. A taxonomy of medical uncertainties in clinical genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul K J; Umstead, Kendall L; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Green, Robert C; Joffe, Steven; Koenig, Barbara; Krantz, Ian; Waterston, Leo B; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2017-08-01

    Clinical next-generation sequencing (CNGS) is introducing new opportunities and challenges into the practice of medicine. Simultaneously, these technologies are generating uncertainties of an unprecedented scale that laboratories, clinicians, and patients are required to address and manage. We describe in this report the conceptual design of a new taxonomy of uncertainties around the use of CNGS in health care. Interviews to delineate the dimensions of uncertainty in CNGS were conducted with genomics experts and themes were extracted in order to expand on a previously published three-dimensional taxonomy of medical uncertainty. In parallel, we developed an interactive website to disseminate the CNGS taxonomy to researchers and engage them in its continued refinement. The proposed taxonomy divides uncertainty along three axes-source, issue, and locus-and further discriminates the uncertainties into five layers with multiple domains. Using a hypothetical clinical example, we illustrate how the taxonomy can be applied to findings from CNGS and used to guide stakeholders through interpretation and implementation of variant results. The utility of the proposed taxonomy lies in promoting consistency in describing dimensions of uncertainty in publications and presentations, to facilitate research design and management of the uncertainties inherent in the implementation of CNGS.Genet Med advance online publication 19 January 2017.

  9. A Taxonomy of Medical Uncertainties in Clinical Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K. J.; Umstead, Kendall L.; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Green, Robert C.; Joffe, Steven; Koenig, Barbara; Krantz, Ian; Waterston, Leo B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Clinical next generation sequencing (CNGS) is introducing new opportunities and challenges into the practice of medicine. Simultaneously, these technologies are generating uncertainties of unprecedented scale that laboratories, clinicians, and patients are required to address and manage. We describe in this report the conceptual design of a new taxonomy of uncertainties around the use of CNGS in health care. Methods Interviews to delineate the dimensions of uncertainty in CNGS were conducted with genomics experts, and themes were extracted in order to expand upon a previously published three-dimensional taxonomy of medical uncertainty. In parallel we developed an interactive website to disseminate the CNGS taxonomy to researchers and engage them in its continued refinement. Results The proposed taxonomy divides uncertainty along three axes: source, issue, and locus, and further discriminates the uncertainties into five layers with multiple domains. Using a hypothetical clinical example, we illustrate how the taxonomy can be applied to findings from CNGS and used to guide stakeholders through interpretation and implementation of variant results. Conclusion The utility of the proposed taxonomy lies in promoting consistency in describing dimensions of uncertainty in publications and presentations, to facilitate research design and management of the uncertainties inherent in the implementation of CNGS. PMID:28102863

  10. Life-History Traits and Population Structure of Pederson Cleaner Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Jessica A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2017-12-01

    Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A. pedersoni under laboratory conditions and their abundance and population size structure on coral reefs in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were fitted to the data to determine age-size relationships, and the Beverton-Holt model was used to estimate mortality rates and size at maximum yield. Individuals grew rapidly when young, then slowed their growth after reaching sexual maturity at ~6 months. Individuals were gonochoric, with males attaining significantly smaller body sizes and shorter life spans than did females. Prior to death at <2 years, members of both genders exhibited senescence during which they ceased reproducing, shrank (females only), and decreased their activity levels over ~1-4 weeks. Field populations were abundant and composed mostly of juveniles during both years examined. Populations appeared to be stable but highly dynamic in terms of individuals, reaching maximum yield at 4 months of age. We conclude that obligate symbiosis with large sea anemones and cleaner mutualism with reef fishes both contribute to explaining aspects of the life history of Pederson shrimps, especially their apparent mating system of pure-search polygynandry. This life-history information also provides a scientific basis for sustainable fishery management and aquaculture of this key coral reef organism.

  11. Plant Species Loss Affects Life-History Traits of Aphids and Their Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Schmid, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of plant species loss are rarely assessed in a multi-trophic context and especially effects on life-history traits of organisms at higher trophic levels have remained largely unstudied. We used a grassland biodiversity experiment and measured the effects of two components of plant diversity, plant species richness and the presence of nitrogen-fixing legumes, on several life-history traits of naturally colonizing aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in the field. We found that, irrespective of aphid species identity, the proportion of winged aphid morphs decreased with increasing plant species richness, which was correlated with decreasing host plant biomass. Similarly, emergence proportions of parasitoids decreased with increasing plant species richness. Both, emergence proportions and proportions of female parasitoids were lower in plots with legumes, where host plants had increased nitrogen concentrations. This effect of legume presence could indicate that aphids were better defended against parasitoids in high-nitrogen environments. Body mass of emerged individuals of the two most abundant primary parasitoid species was, however, higher in plots with legumes, suggesting that once parasitoids could overcome aphid defenses, they could profit from larger or more nutritious hosts. Our study demonstrates that cascading effects of plant species loss on higher trophic levels such as aphids, parasitoids and secondary parasitoids begin with changed life-history traits of these insects. Thus, life-history traits of organisms at higher trophic levels may be useful indicators of bottom-up effects of plant diversity on the biodiversity of consumers. PMID:20700511

  12. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    PubMed

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments.

  13. Evolutionary ecology of endocrine-mediated life-history variation in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Vleck, Carol M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-03-01

    The endocrine system plays an integral role in the regulation of key life-history traits. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone that promotes growth and reproduction, and it has been implicated in the reduction of lifespan. IGF-1 is also capable of responding plastically to environmental stimuli such as resource availability and temperature. Thus pleiotropic control of life-history traits by IGF-1 could provide a mechanism for the evolution of correlated life-history traits in a new or changing environment. An ideal system in which to investigate the role of IGF-1 in life-history evolution exists in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans, which derive from a single recent ancestral source but have evolved genetically divergent life-history characteristics. Snakes from meadow populations near Eagle Lake, California (USA) exhibit slower growth rates, lower annual reproductive output, and longer median adult lifespans relative to populations along the lakeshore. We hypothesized that the IGF-1 system has differentiated between these ecotypes and can account for increased growth and reproduction and reduced survival in lakeshore vs. meadow snakes. We tested for a difference in plasma IGF-1 levels in free-ranging snakes from replicate populations of each ecotype over three years. IGF-1 levels were significantly associated with adult body size, reproductive output, and season in a manner that reflects established differences in prey ecology and age/size-specific reproduction between the ecotypes. These findings are discussed in the context of theoretical expectations for a tradeoff between reproduction and lifespan that is mediated by pleiotropic endocrine mechanisms.

  14. A review of Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) life history and implications for spread

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) are among the most widespread fish invaders in Lake Superior. The objective of this study was to gather information on the complete life cycle of Ruffe in both their native and non-native ranges to characterize their life history strategies. A study ...

  15. Contrasting latitudinal patterns of life-history divergence in two genera of new world thrushes (Turdinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyce, Andy J.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Several long-standing hypotheses have been proposed to explain latitudinal patterns of life-history strategies. Here, we test predictions of four such hypotheses (seasonality, food limitation, nest predation and adult survival probability) by examining life-history traits and age-specific mortality rates of several species of thrushes (Turdinae) based on field studies at temperate and tropical sites and data gathered from the literature. Thrushes in the genus Catharus showed the typical pattern of slower life-history strategies in the tropics while co-occuring Turdus thrushes differed much less across latitudes. Seasonality is a broadly accepted hypothesis for latitudinal patterns, but the lack of concordance in latitudinal patterns between co-existing genera that experience the same seasonal patterns suggests seasonality cannot fully explain latitudinal trait variation in thrushes. Nest-predation also could not explain patterns based on our field data and literature data for these two genera. Total feeding rates were similar, and per-nestling feeding rates were higher at tropical latitudes in both genera, suggesting food limitation does not explain trait differences in thrushes. Latitudinal patterns of life histories in these two genera were closely associated with adult survival probability. Thus, our data suggest that environmental influences on adult survival probability may play a particularly strong role in shaping latitudinal patterns of life-history traits.

  16. Student Life in Canadian Universities: The Lessons of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the history of the student and contemporary student life is explored, and enduring patterns are identified in three areas: the social origins of students; student culture and activism; and the perceived academic quality of students. It is concluded that students should be heard and taken more seriously. (MSE)

  17. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Olivier; Guiry, Michael D; Leliaert, Frederik; Samyn, Yves; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2013-04-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a large community of algal taxonomists. The lack of any decline in the rate at which new species and genera are described, however, is indicative of the large proportion of undiscovered diversity and bears heavily on any prediction of global algal species diversity and the time needed to catalogue it. The saturation of accumulation curves of higher taxa (family, order, and classes) on the other hand suggest that at these taxonomic levels most diversity has been discovered. This reasonably positive picture does not imply that algal taxonomy does not face serious challenges in the near future. The observed levels of cryptic diversity in algae, combined with the shift in methods used to characterize them, have resulted in a rampant uncertainty about the status of many older species. As a consequence, there is a tendency in phycology to move gradually away from traditional names to a more informal system whereby clade-, specimen- or strain-based identifiers are used to communicate biological information. Whether these informal names for species-level clades represent a temporary situation stimulated by the lag between species discovery and formal description, or an incipient alternative or parallel taxonomy, will be largely determined by how well we manage to integrate historical collections into modern taxonomic research. Additionally, there is a pressing need for a consensus about the organizational framework to manage the information about algal species names. An eventual strategy

  18. Neuroethology and life history adaptations of the elasmobranch electric sense.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A; Tricas, Timothy C

    2002-01-01

    The electric sense of elasmobranch fishes (sharks and rays) is an important sensory modality known to mediate the detection of bioelectric stimuli. Although the best known function for the use of the elasmobranch electric sense is prey detection, relatively few studies have investigated other possible biological functions. Here, we review recent studies that demonstrate the elasmobranch electrosensory system functions in a wide number of behavioral contexts including social, reproductive and anti-predator behaviors. Recent work on non-electrogenic stingrays demonstrates that the electric sense is used during reproduction and courtship for conspecific detection and localization. Electrogenic skates may use their electrosensory encoding capabilities and electric organ discharges for communication during social and reproductive interactions. The electric sense may also be used to detect and avoid predators during early life history stages in many elasmobranch species. Embryonic clearnose skates demonstrate a ventilatory freeze response when a weak low-frequency electric field is imposed upon the egg capsule. Peak frequency sensitivity of the peripheral electrosensory system in embryonic skates matches the low frequencies of phasic electric stimuli produced by natural fish egg-predators. Neurophysiology experiments reveal that electrosensory tuning changes across the life history of a species and also seasonally due to steroid hormone changes during the reproductive season. We argue that the ontogenetic and seasonal variation in electrosensory tuning represent an adaptive electrosensory plasticity that may be common to many elasmobranchs to enhance an individual's fitness throughout its life history.

  19. Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object-Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  1. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  2. Defining viral species: making taxonomy useful.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-07-23

    Virus taxonomy at present is best characterized as a categorization of convenience, without a firm basis in the principles of evolutionary biology. Specifically, virus species definitions appear to depend more on tradition and popular opinion among virologists than on firm, quantitative biological evidence. I suggest a series of changes to underlying species concepts that would shift the field from one that simply files viruses away in taxonomic boxes to one that can learn important biological lessons from its taxonomy.

  3. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories.

    PubMed

    Waeber, Patrick O; Gardner, Charlie J; Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to

  4. History of Major Depressive Disorder Prospectively Predicts Worse Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Small, Brent J.; Minton, Susan; Andrykowski, Michael; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data are scarce about whether past history of major depressive disorder in the absence of current depression places breast cancer patients at risk for worse quality of life. Purpose The current study prospectively examined quality of life during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder (n=29) and no history of depression (n=144). Methods Women with Stages 0–II breast cancer were assessed prior to and at the completion of chemotherapy. Major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview and quality of life with the SF-36. Results Patients with past major depressive disorder displayed greater declines in physical functioning relative to patients with no history of depression (p≤0.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder are at increased risk for declines in physical functioning during chemotherapy relative to patients with no history of depression. PMID:22167580

  5. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the potomac river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Breece, M.; Atcheson, M.; Kieffer, M.; Mangold, M.

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: A saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. A Brief History of Family Life Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momanu, Mariana; Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Samoila, Magda-Elena

    2018-01-01

    Starting from the state of conceptual diversity, semantic ambiguity, and poor connection of family life education practices to current policies and theoretical models in Romania, our study aims at understanding the underlying meanings of these issues by recourse to the history of approaches in the field. To this purpose, we carried out a…

  7. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, T.; El-Kassaby, Y. A.

    2015-08-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet, very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavourable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span.

  8. The Teacher I Wish to Be: Exploring the Influence of Life Histories on Student Teacher Idealised Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of life histories and apprenticeship of observation on the formation of student teachers' idealised identities. The life histories of 15 student teachers are decoded. Through eliciting from the student teachers the teacher they wish to be, the paper focuses on the interplay between the personal histories and ideal…

  9. Sharing stories: life history narratives in stuttering research.

    PubMed

    Kathard, H

    2001-01-01

    The life experiences of people who stutter (PWS) have not featured prominently in research. Historically, the profession of speech and language therapy has amassed data and developed its theory of stuttering within a positivistic frame. As a consequence, the existing over-arching theory of research and practice does not engage holistically with the dynamic personal, socio-cultural and political contexts of the individual who stutters. Therefore a conceptual shift is required in ontology, epistemology and methodology underpinning the knowledge construction process. The use of the life history narratives as a research tool is promoted. An exploratory study of a single participant is presented to illuminate the methodological approach and emerging theoretical constructs.

  10. Life-history diversity and its importance to population stability and persistence of a migratory fish: steelhead in two large North American watersheds.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jonathan W; Yeakel, Justin D; Peard, Dean; Lough, Jeff; Beere, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Life-history strategies can buffer individuals and populations from environmental variability. For instance, it is possible that asynchronous dynamics among different life histories can stabilize populations through portfolio effects. Here, we examine life-history diversity and its importance to stability for an iconic migratory fish species. In particular, we examined steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an anadromous and iteroparous salmonid, in two large, relatively pristine, watersheds, the Skeena and Nass, in north-western British Columbia, Canada. We synthesized life-history information derived from scales collected from adult steelhead (N = 7227) in these watersheds across a decade. These migratory fishes expressed 36 different manifestations of the anadromous life-history strategy, with 16 different combinations of freshwater and marine ages, 7·6% of fish performing multiple spawning migrations, and up to a maximum of four spawning migrations per lifetime. Furthermore, in the Nass watershed, various life histories were differently prevalent through time - three different life histories were the most prevalent in a given year, and no life history ever represented more than 45% of the population. These asynchronous dynamics among life histories decreased the variability of numerical abundance and biomass of the aggregated population so that it was > 20% more stable than the stability of the weighted average of specific life histories: evidence of a substantial portfolio effect. Year of ocean entry was a key driver of dynamics; the median correlation coefficient of abundance of life histories that entered the ocean the same year was 2·5 times higher than the median pairwise coefficient of life histories that entered the ocean at different times. Simulations illustrated how different elements of life-history diversity contribute to stability and persistence of populations. This study provides evidence that life-history diversity can dampen fluctuations in

  11. Toxic hydrogen sulphide and dark caves: pronounced male life-history divergence among locally adapted Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, R; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2011-03-01

    Chronic environmental stress is known to induce evolutionary change. Here, we assessed male life-history trait divergence in the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but reproductively isolated toxic/nontoxic and surface/cave habitats. Examining both field-caught and common garden-reared specimens, we investigated the extent of differentiation and plasticity of life-history strategies employed by male P. mexicana. We found strong site-specific life-history divergence in traits such as fat content, standard length and gonadosomatic index. The majority of site-specific life-history differences were also expressed under common garden-rearing conditions. We propose that apparent conservatism of male life histories is the result of other (genetically based) changes in physiology and behaviour between populations. Together with the results from previous studies, this is strong evidence for local adaptation as a result of ecologically based divergent selection. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Development of tools to study personal weight control strategies: OxFAB taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Aveyard, Paul; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    To describe the development of the Oxford Food and Activity Behaviors (OxFAB) taxonomy and questionnaire to explore the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during weight management attempts. The taxonomy was constructed through a qualitative analysis of existing resources and a review of existing behavior change taxonomies and theories. The taxonomy was translated into a questionnaire to identify strategies used by individuals. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to test the face/concept validity of the questionnaire, and test-retest reliability was assessed in a sample of 138 participants. The OxFAB taxonomy consists of 117 strategies grouped into 23 domains. Compared to taxonomies used to describe interventions, around half of the domains and strategies identified are unique to the OxFAB taxonomy. The OxFAB questionnaire consists of 117 questions, one for each strategy from the taxonomy. Test-retest resulted in a mean PABAK score of 0.61 (SD 0.15). Questions were revised where appropriate. The OxFAB taxonomy and questionnaire provide a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive and behavioral strategies used by individuals during attempts at weight control. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  13. Life History and Environmental Requirements of Loggerhead Turtles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE Scientific name ........ .................... Caretta caretta Preferred common name ........ ................. Loggerhead...Green 51-105 113-140 Broad, oval Olive , dark- White- Small round 15(90)’ (100)a brown mottled yellowish Loggerhead 79-125 77-140 Heart-shaped Reddish...Cream- Very large 25 (110)8 (105)8 brown yellow triangular Kemp’s ridey 59-73 36-45 Circular Olive -green Yellow Medium 13 (70)a (42)’ pointed

  14. A value-based taxonomy of improvement approaches in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Colldén, Christian; Gremyr, Ida; Hellström, Andreas; Sporraeus, Daniella

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy. An illustrative qualitative case study in the context of psychiatric (psychosis) care is then presented that contains data from 23 interviews and focuses on the value concept, IAs, and the proposed taxonomy. Findings Respondents recognized the dimensions of the proposed taxonomy and indicated its usefulness as support for choosing and combining different IAs into a coherent management model, and for facilitating dialog about IAs. The findings also suggested that the view of value as "health outcomes" is widespread, but healthcare professionals are less likely than managers to also view value as a process. Originality/value The conceptual contribution of this paper is to delineate some important characteristics of IAs in relation to the emerging "value era". It also highlights the coexistence of different IAs in healthcare management practice. A taxonomy is proposed that can help managers choose, adapt, and combine IAs in local management models.

  15. Life-history strategies associated with local population variability confer regional stability.

    PubMed

    Pribil, Stanislav; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2003-07-07

    A widely held ecological tenet is that, at the local scale, populations of K-selected species (i.e. low fecundity, long lifespan and large body size) will be less variable than populations of r-selected species (i.e. high fecundity, short lifespan and small body size). We examined the relationship between long-term population trends and life-history attributes for 185 bird species in the Czech Republic and found that, at regional spatial scales and over moderate temporal scales (100-120 years), K-selected bird species were more likely to show both large increases and decreases in population size than r-selected species. We conclude that life-history attributes commonly associated with variable populations at the local scale, confer stability at the regional scale.

  16. Demography, life history, and the evolution of age-dependent social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, António M M

    2018-06-14

    Since the inception of modern social evolution theory, a vast majority of studies have sought to explain cooperation using relatedness-driven hypotheses. Natural populations, however, show a substantial amount of variation in social behaviour that is uncorrelated with relatedness. Age offers a major alternative explanation for variation in behaviour that remains unaccounted for. Most natural populations are structured into age-classes, with ageing being a nearly universal feature of most major taxa, including eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Despite this, the theoretical underpinnings of age-dependent social behaviour remain limited. Here, we investigate how group age-composition, demography, and life history shape trajectories of age-dependent behaviours that are expressed conditionally on an actor and recipient's age. We show that demography introduces novel age-dependent selective pressures acting on social phenotypes. Furthermore, we find that life history traits influence the costs and benefits of cooperation directly, but also indirectly. Life history has a strong impact not only on the genetic structure of the population but also on the distribution of group age-compositions, with both of these processes influencing the expression of age-dependent cooperation. Age of peak reproductive performance, in particular, is of chief importance for the evolution of cooperation, as this will largely determine the age and relatedness of social partners. Moreover, our results suggest that later-life reproductive senescence may occur because of demographic effects alone, which opens new vistas on the evolution of menopause and related phenomena. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  18. Extinction-effective population index: incorporating life-history variations in population viability analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2007-09-01

    Viability status of populations is a commonly used measure for decision-making in the management of populations. One of the challenges faced by managers is the need to consistently allocate management effort among populations. This allocation should in part be based on comparison of extinction risks among populations. Unfortunately, common criteria that use minimum viable population size or count-based population viability analysis (PVA) often do not provide results that are comparable among populations, primarily because they lack consistency in determining population size measures and threshold levels of population size (e.g., minimum viable population size and quasi-extinction threshold). Here I introduce a new index called the "extinction-effective population index," which accounts for differential effects of demographic stochasticity among organisms with different life-history strategies and among individuals in different life stages. This index is expected to become a new way of determining minimum viable population size criteria and also complement the count-based PVA. The index accounts for the difference in life-history strategies of organisms, which are modeled using matrix population models. The extinction-effective population index, sensitivity, and elasticity are demonstrated in three species of Pacific salmonids. The interpretation of the index is also provided by comparing them with existing demographic indices. Finally, a measure of life-history-specific effect of demographic stochasticity is derived.

  19. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  20. Life history trade-offs and relaxed selection can decrease bacterial virulence in environmental reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Mikonranta, Lauri; Friman, Ville-Petri; Laakso, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen virulence is usually thought to evolve in reciprocal selection with the host. While this might be true for obligate pathogens, the life histories of opportunistic pathogens typically alternate between within-host and outside-host environments during the infection-transmission cycle. As a result, opportunistic pathogens are likely to experience conflicting selection pressures across different environments, and this could affect their virulence through life-history trait correlations. We studied these correlations experimentally by exposing an opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens to its natural protist predator Tetrahymena thermophila for 13 weeks, after which we measured changes in bacterial traits related to both anti-predator defence and virulence. We found that anti-predator adaptation (producing predator-resistant biofilm) caused a correlative attenuation in virulence. Even though the direct mechanism was not found, reduction in virulence was most clearly connected to a predator-driven loss of a red bacterial pigment, prodigiosin. Moreover, life-history trait evolution was more divergent among replicate populations in the absence of predation, leading also to lowered virulence in some of the 'predator absent' selection lines. Together these findings suggest that the virulence of non-obligatory, opportunistic bacterial pathogens can decrease in environmental reservoirs through life history trade-offs, or random accumulation of mutations that impair virulence traits under relaxed selection.

  1. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy: an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2017-07-01

    Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.

  2. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  3. A Spurious Correlation in an Interpopulation Comparison of Atlantic Salmon Life Histories.

    PubMed

    Myers, Ransom A; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    1987-12-01

    We tested two hypotheses concerning geographical variation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life histories: (1) mean age at first reproduction is positively correlated with growth rate at sea and (2) within-population variation in age at first reproduction first increases and then decreases with latitude. Data on growth and age at first reproduction were compiled from 41 populations in eastern North America. Data reliability was checked by a redetermination of ages based on scale examination. The proportion of fish that were incorrectly aged was small (°0.7%); however, aging errors were primarily of one kind; salmon that had previously spawned were misclassified as virgin fish of an older age class. Growth rate at sea was found not to be positively correlated with age at maturation. Schaffer and Elson's (1975) positive correlation between growth and age at first reproduction can be attributed to a subtle statistical artifact caused by aging errors. We also found that within-population variation of age at maturation was not related to latitude. We conclude that tests of life history theories should not assume constancy in life history traits, such as mortality, among populations. © 1987 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Partitioning the non‑consumptive effects of predators on preywith complex life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Jon M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.

    2014-01-01

    Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators on prey can be as strong as consumptive effects (CEs) and may be driven by numerous mechanisms, including predator characteristics. Previous work has highlighted the importance of predator characteristics in predicting NCEs, but has not addressed how complex life histories of prey could mediate predator NCEs. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the effects of predator gape limitation (gape limited or not) and hunting mode (active or sit-and-pursue) on the activity, larval period, and size at metamorphosis of larval aquatic amphibians and invertebrates. Larval prey tended to reduce their activity and require more time to reach metamorphosis in the presence of all predator functional groups, but the responses did not differ from zero. Prey metamorphosed at smaller size in response to non-gape-limited, active predators, but counter to expectations, prey metamorphosed larger when confronted by non-gape-limited, sit-and-pursue predators. These results indicate NCEs on larval prey life history can be strongly influenced by predator functional characteristics. More broadly, our results suggest that understanding predator NCEs would benefit from greater consideration of how prey life history attributes mediate population and community-level outcomes.

  5. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  6. A review of Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) life history in its ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) have caused and have the potential to cause great ecological damage as invasive species in North America, parts of the European Union, Scandinavian countries, and the United Kingdom. The objectives of this review are to define the Ruffe's native and non-native range, examine the life history requirements of Ruffe, explore the Ruffe life cycle, and differentiate between the life stages. We compare Ruffe in their native range to Ruffe in their non-native range to determine if there are any differences in habitat, size, age, genotype, or migratory patterns in the winter. Literature from both the native and non-native ranges of Ruffe, with a particular emphasis on rare translated literature, is used. Ruffe have variability and plasticity in their chemical, physical, biological, and habitat requirements in their native and non-native ranges. Adult Ruffe have a suite of characteristics that make them adaptable to novel environments, including age and size at maturity, maximum age and length (and/ or weight), reproduction type, genotype, feeding habits, seasonal movements, and spawning movements. There is variability among these characteristics seen between the Ruffe's native, non-native North American, and European non-native populations. Based on the Ruffe's variable life history strategies and their recent range expansion, all of the Great Lakes and many other regions in the U.K., Europe, and Scandinavian countries could be vulnerable t

  7. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  8. Ecology, Life History, and Management of Tropilaelaps Mites.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, Lilia I; Williams, Geoffrey R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-04-01

    Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees. The possible introduction of Tropilaelaps mites outside their current range heightens existing dilemmas brought by Varroa mites. In this review, we provide historic, as well as current information on the taxonomic status, life history, distribution and host range, diagnosis, and control of Tropilaelaps mites. Because the biology of Tropilaelaps mites is not well known, we also suggest areas of research that demand immediate attention. Any biological information about Tropilaelaps mites will provide useful information for the development of control measures against them. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Establishing a Framework for a Natural Area Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Ebach, Malte C; Michaux, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    The identification of areas of endemism is essential in building an area classification, but plays little role in how natural areas are discovered. Rather area monophyly, derived from cladistics, is essential in the discovery of natural area classifications or area taxonomy. We propose Area Taxonomy to be a new sub-discipline of historical biogeography, one that can be revised and debated, and which has its own area nomenclature. Separately to area taxonomy, we outline how natural areas may be discovered by transcribing the concepts of homology and monophyly from biological systematics to historical biogeography, in the form of area homologues, area homologies and area monophyly.

  10. MO-G-BRE-08: Taxonomy of Corrective Actions in Radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sutlief, S; Brown, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various causal taxonomies have been developed for healthcare incidents and for radiation therapy in particular. The causal analysis of incidents leads to corrective actions which can also be organized into a taxonomy. Such a corrective action classification system would provide information about the situational context, the action type, and the leverage of the action in order to detect patterns in the corrective actions frequently employed in radiation therapy. It would also provide practical guidance to the radiation therapy community for determining the appropriateness and potential effectiveness of proposed corrective actions. Materials: A review of causal analysis reports and correctivemore » action plans was conducted using the following sources: US NRC medical event reports, IAEA reports, ROSIS submissions, US Veterans Health Administration reports, and singleincident report sources. The corrective actions presented in the published sources were then mapped onto four corrective action taxonomy prototypes: role-based, safety-context-based, responsibility-based, and hierarchy of hazard control. The resulting corrective action taxonomy was then validated through use of the published sources. Results: The responsibility-based taxonomy and hierarchy of hazard taxonomy provided more intuitive and sensible categories than the role-based taxonomy or the safety-context taxonomy. The most frequent corrective actions were added safety barriers, training, process standardization, and development of a quality improvement program where one was lacking. Conclusion: Published corrective action statements in radiation therapy emphasize what to do more so than whom the recipient is or which process step is affected. The hierarchy of hazard taxonomy provides a suitable framework for radiation therapy and has the advantage of providing insight into the likelihood that a particular corrective action will mitigate the recurrence of the error it was meant to correct

  11. Physical maturation, life-history classes and age estimates of free-ranging western gorillas--insights from Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Thomas; Hockemba, Mireille Breuer-Ndoundou; Olejniczak, Claudia; Parnell, Richard J; Stokes, Emma J

    2009-02-01

    Physical maturation and life-history parameters are seen as evolutionary adaptations to different ecological and social conditions. Comparison of life-history patterns of closely related species living in diverse environments helps to evaluate the validity of these assumptions but empirical data are lacking. The two gorilla species exhibit substantial differences in their environment, which allows investigation into the role of increased frugivory in shaping western gorilla life histories. We present behavioral and morphological data on western gorilla physical maturation and life-history parameters from a 12.5-year study at Mbeli Bai, a forest clearing in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Congo. We assign photographs of known individuals to different life-history classes and propose new age boundaries for life-history classes in western gorillas, which can be used and tested at other western gorilla research sites. Our results show that western gorillas are weaned at a later age compared with mountain gorillas and indicate slower physical maturation of immatures. These findings support the risk-aversion hypothesis for more frugivorous species. However, our methods need to be applied and tested with other gorilla populations. The slow life histories of western gorillas could have major consequences for social structure, mortality patterns and population growth rates that will affect recovery from population crashes of this critically endangered species. We emphasize that long-term studies can provide crucial demographic and life-history data that improve our understanding of life-history evolution and adaptation and help to refine conservation strategies. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. From metamorphosis to maturity in complex life cycles: equal performance of different juvenile life history pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Hödl, Walter; Schaub, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Performance in one stage of a complex life cycle may affect performance in the subsequent stage. Animals that start a new stage at a smaller size than conspecifics may either always remain smaller or they may be able to "catch up" through plasticity, usually elevated growth rates. We study how size at and date of metamorphosis affected subsequent performance in the terrestrial juvenile stage and lifetime fitness of spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus). We analyzed capture-recapture data of > 3000 individuals sampled during nine years with mark-recapture models to estimate first-year juvenile survival probabilities and age-specific first-time breeding probabilities of toads, followed by model selection to assess whether these probabilities were correlated with size at and date of metamorphosis. Males attained maturity after two years, whereas females reached maturity 2-4 years after metamorphosis. Age at maturity was weakly correlated with metamorphic traits. In both sexes, first-year juvenile survival depended positively on date of metamorphosis and, in males, also negatively on size at metamorphosis. In males, toads that metamorphosed early at a small size had the highest probability to reach maturity. However, because very few toadlets metamorphosed early, the vast majority of male metamorphs had a very similar probability to reach maturity. A matrix projection model constructed for females showed that different juvenile life history pathways resulted in similar lifetime fitness. We found that the effects of date of and size at metamorphosis on different juvenile traits cancelled each other out such that toads that were small or large at metamorphosis had equal performance. Because the costs and benefits of juvenile life history pathways may also depend on population fluctuations, ample phenotypic variation in life history traits may be maintained.

  13. A Perspective on Quercus Life History Characteristics and Forest Diturbance

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; John Kabrick; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2004-01-01

    Plant strategy theory suggests that life history characteristics reflect growth and reproductive adaptations to environmental disturbance. Species characteristics and abundance should correspond to predictions based on competitive ability and maximizing fitness in a given disturbance environment. A significant canonical correlation between oak growth attributes (height...

  14. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  15. Love, Sex, and Personality Pathology: A Life History View of Personality Pathologies and Sociosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jonason, Peter K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Hashmani, Talia

    2018-05-24

    Love and sex are fundamental needs of most people, yet little research has examined such aspects of life in relation to personality pathologies. We examined the associations between pathological personality traits (i.e., negative affectivity, disinhibition, antagonism, psychoticism, and detachment) and sociosexuality (i.e., short-term mating orientation, long-term mating orientation, and sexual behavior) among 702 university students. In addition, we examined the mediating role of life history speed and tested whether sex moderated the associations that these pathological personality traits had with sociosexuality. Detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism had positive associations with short-term mating interests and negative associations with long-term mating interests. Life history speed mediated the associations that detachment and disinhibition had with short-term mating orientation and long-term mating orientation. Although sex did moderate the association that negative affectivity had with previous sexual behavior, we found no evidence that these mediational processes differed between men and women. Results are discussed in terms of the way personality traits shape the sociosexuality of men and women using a life history paradigm.

  16. Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus): A range-wide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hileman, Eric T; King, Richard B; Adamski, John M; Anton, Thomas G; Bailey, Robyn L; Baker, Sarah J; Bieser, Nickolas D; Bell, Thomas A; Bissell, Kristin M; Bradke, Danielle R; Campa, Henry; Casper, Gary S; Cedar, Karen; Cross, Matthew D; DeGregorio, Brett A; Dreslik, Michael J; Faust, Lisa J; Harvey, Daniel S; Hay, Robert W; Jellen, Benjamin C; Johnson, Brent D; Johnson, Glenn; Kiel, Brooke D; Kingsbury, Bruce A; Kowalski, Matthew J; Lee, Yu Man; Lentini, Andrew M; Marshall, John C; Mauger, David; Moore, Jennifer A; Paloski, Rori A; Phillips, Christopher A; Pratt, Paul D; Preney, Thomas; Prior, Kent A; Promaine, Andrew; Redmer, Michael; Reinert, Howard K; Rouse, Jeremy D; Shoemaker, Kevin T; Sutton, Scott; VanDeWalle, Terry J; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Wynn, Doug; Yagi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size-fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range. We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size-fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change.

  17. Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus): A range-wide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    King, Richard B.; Adamski, John M.; Anton, Thomas G.; Bailey, Robyn L.; Baker, Sarah J.; Bieser, Nickolas D.; Bell, Thomas A.; Bissell, Kristin M.; Bradke, Danielle R.; Campa, Henry; Casper, Gary S.; Cedar, Karen; Cross, Matthew D.; DeGregorio, Brett A.; Dreslik, Michael J.; Faust, Lisa J.; Harvey, Daniel S.; Hay, Robert W.; Jellen, Benjamin C.; Johnson, Brent D.; Johnson, Glenn; Kiel, Brooke D.; Kingsbury, Bruce A.; Kowalski, Matthew J.; Lee, Yu Man; Lentini, Andrew M.; Marshall, John C.; Mauger, David; Moore, Jennifer A.; Paloski, Rori A.; Phillips, Christopher A.; Pratt, Paul D.; Preney, Thomas; Prior, Kent A.; Promaine, Andrew; Redmer, Michael; Reinert, Howard K.; Rouse, Jeremy D.; Shoemaker, Kevin T.; Sutton, Scott; VanDeWalle, Terry J.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.; Wynn, Doug; Yagi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating how life history traits vary geographically is important to understanding variation in population dynamics. Because many aspects of ectotherm life history are climate-dependent, geographic variation in climate is expected to have a large impact on population dynamics through effects on annual survival, body size, growth rate, age at first reproduction, size–fecundity relationship, and reproductive frequency. The Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a small, imperiled North American rattlesnake with a distribution centered on the Great Lakes region, where lake effects strongly influence local conditions. To address Eastern Massasauga life history data gaps, we compiled data from 47 study sites representing 38 counties across the range. We used multimodel inference and general linear models with geographic coordinates and annual climate normals as explanatory variables to clarify patterns of variation in life history traits. We found strong evidence for geographic variation in six of nine life history variables. Adult female snout-vent length and neonate mass increased with increasing mean annual precipitation. Litter size decreased with increasing mean temperature, and the size–fecundity relationship and growth prior to first hibernation both increased with increasing latitude. The proportion of gravid females also increased with increasing latitude, but this relationship may be the result of geographically varying detection bias. Our results provide insights into ectotherm life history variation and fill critical data gaps, which will inform Eastern Massasauga conservation efforts by improving biological realism for models of population viability and climate change. PMID:28196149

  18. Fracture history in osteoporosis: risk factors and its effect on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pınar; Akyüz, Gülseren; Cerşit, Hülya Peynirci; Çelenlioğlu, Alp Eren; Cumhur, Ahmet; Biricik, Şefikcan; Kozan, Seda; Gökşen, Aylin; Özdemir, Mikail; Lüleci, Emel

    2014-12-01

    Fractures are one of the main outcomes in osteoporosis and have an important effect on the general health status. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of major fracture history on quality of life. We also investigated the important risk factors and their effect on bone mineral density and fracture history. Cross-sectional study. We recruited 105 patients who were admitted to an osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Medical history, family history, calcium intake, physical activity level and biochemical tests were evaluated. Lumbar spine and femur neck bone mineral density were measured. The Qualeffo-41 questionnaire was also used for evaluating quality of life. The average age of the 105 patients included in the study was 56.04±13.73 and 89% of them were post-menopausal women. The average body mass index was 26.84±5.99, which means that the women were overweight. Also, 48.5% of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis and 51.5% of them were diagnosed as low bone density. A total of 34 patients had a fracture history with minor trauma and some of the patients had more than one fracture (12 ankle and foot, 10 forearm, 9 vertebral, 4 hand, 3 hip, 2 rib, 1 tibial). When the patients with and without fracture history were compared, the mean Qualeffo-41 score in patients with fracture was 43.85±2.57 and in the non-fracture group was 36.27±2.01. Forearm, ankle and foot fractures can be commonly seen in osteoporosis patients with fracture history. We suggest that it is important to recognise osteoporosis prior to first fracture and disease-specific quality of life assessment should be done.

  19. Exploring and Upgrading the Educational Business-Game Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman Blažic, Andrej; Džonova Jerman Blažic, Borka

    2015-01-01

    This article explores existing attempts to design a comprehensive and complex taxonomy framework for an educational business game intended to categorize and evaluate various properties. The identified missing elements in the current proposed taxonomies were used as a starting point for the design of a new category that addresses the game's…

  20. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  1. Modelling the sensitivity of life history traits to climate change in a temporary pool crustacean.

    PubMed

    Pinceel, Tom; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Brendonck, Luc; Buschke, Falko

    2016-07-11

    Temporary pool inhabitants face altered inundation regimes under climate change. While their exposure to these changes has received considerable attention, few studies have investigated their sensitivity or adaptability. Here, we use zooplankton as a model to explore how decreasing hydroperiods affect extinction risks and assess whether changes in life history traits could promote persistence. For this, we construct a three-stage matrix population model parameterised with realistic life-history values for the fairy shrimp Branchipodopsis wolfi from pools with varying hydroperiods. Our results suggest that extinction risks increase drastically once the median hydroperiod drops below a critical threshold. Although changes in life-history parameters could potentially compensate for this risk, the relative importance of each trait for population growth depends on the median hydroperiod. For example, survival of dormant eggs seemed to be most important when hydroperiods were short while the survival of freshly laid eggs and adult individuals were more important in longer-lived pools. Overall, this study demonstrates that zooplankton species are sensitive to climate change and that the adaptive capacity of organisms from temporary pools with dissimilar hydrology hinges on selection of different life history traits.

  2. [TRANSFORMATIONS OF LIFE CYCLES IN THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF TRYPANOSOMATIDAE. EXOTRANSFORMATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the analysis of exotransformations of life cycles in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae). Exotransformations are treated as processes associated with the transition of a trypanosomatid to a new host. The result of these transformations comprises both the inclusion of new hosts in life cycles of parasites and also epy formation of parasitic systems de novo. It is shown that exotransformations are one of the main modi in the evolution of trypanosomatids. Different examples of exotransformations of life cycle in all the taxonomic groups of Trypanosomatidae are given.

  3. [TRANSFORMATIONS OF LIFE CYCLES IN THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. MACROTRANSFORMATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The review concerns analysis of life cycle macrotransformations in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids. The term "macrotransformations" stands for evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of heteroxenous and secondary homoxenous life cycles within Trypanosomatidae. There were three direct macrotransformations in the evolution of the group resulting in the rise of heteroxenous genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Phytomonas, and one case of reverse macrotransformation in trypanosomes of T. (b.) brucei group. The issues of the origin, diversity and phylogeny of taxa whose emergence resulted from macrotransformations of life cycles of homoxenous trypanosomatids.

  4. 48 CFR 237.102-74 - Taxonomy for the acquisition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Taxonomy for the... Service Contracts-General 237.102-74 Taxonomy for the acquisition of services. See PGI 237.102-74 for OUSD(AT&L) DPAP memorandum, “Taxonomy for the Acquisition of Services,” dated November 23, 2010. [75 FR...

  5. 48 CFR 237.102-74 - Taxonomy for the acquisition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Taxonomy for the... Service Contracts-General 237.102-74 Taxonomy for the acquisition of services. See PGI 237.102-74 for OUSD(AT&L) DPAP memorandum, “Taxonomy for the Acquisition of Services,” dated November 23, 2010. [75 FR...

  6. 48 CFR 237.102-74 - Taxonomy for the acquisition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Taxonomy for the... Service Contracts-General 237.102-74 Taxonomy for the acquisition of services. See PGI 237.102-74 for OUSD(AT&L) DPAP memorandum, “Taxonomy for the Acquisition of Services,” dated November 23, 2010. [75 FR...

  7. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  8. Switch between life history strategies due to changes in glycolytic enzyme gene dosage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoxiao; Spor, Aymé; Nidelet, Thibault; Montalent, Pierre; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation is the process whereby a population or species becomes better fitted to its habitat through modifications of various life history traits which can be positively or negatively correlated. The molecular factors underlying these covariations remain to be elucidated. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we have investigated the effects on life history traits of varying the dosage of genes involved in the transformation of resources into energy. Changing gene dosage for each of three glycolytic enzyme genes (hexokinase 2, phosphoglucose isomerase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase) resulted in variation in enzyme activities, glucose consumption rate, and life history traits (growth rate, carrying capacity, and cell size). However, the range of effects depended on which enzyme was expressed differently. Most interestingly, these changes revealed a genetic trade-off between carrying capacity and cell size, supporting the discovery of two extreme life history strategies already described in yeast populations: the "ants," which have lower glycolytic gene dosage, take up glucose slowly, and have a small cell size but reach a high carrying capacity, and the "grasshoppers," which have higher glycolytic gene dosage, consume glucose more rapidly, and allocate it to a larger cell size but reach a lower carrying capacity. These results demonstrate antagonist pleiotropy for glycolytic genes and show that altered dosage of a single gene drives a switch between two life history strategies in yeast.

  9. Deciphering the adjustment between environment and life history in annuals: lessons from a geographically-explicit approach in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Marcer, Arnald; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment with 279 geo-referenced accessions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana collected across a native region of its distribution range, the Iberian Peninsula. We quantified variation in life-history traits throughout the entire life cycle. We built a geographic information system to generate an environmental data set encompassing climate, vegetation and soil data. We analysed the spatial autocorrelation patterns of environmental variables and life-history traits, as well as the relationship between environmental and phenotypic data. Almost all environmental variables were significantly spatially autocorrelated. By contrast, only two life-history traits, seed weight and flowering time, exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. Flowering time, and to a lower extent seed weight, were the life-history traits with the highest significant correlation coefficients with environmental factors, in particular with annual mean temperature. In general, individual fitness was higher for accessions with more vigorous seed germination, higher recruitment and later flowering times. Variation in flowering time mediated by temperature appears to be the main life-history trait by which A. thaliana adjusts its life history to the varying Iberian environmental conditions. The use of extensive geographically-explicit data sets obtained from field experiments represents a powerful approach to unravel adaptive patterns of variation. In a

  10. Proposal of an Extended Taxonomy of Serious Games for Health Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Moreira, Pedro Miguel; Reis, Luís Paulo

    2018-06-29

    Serious Games is a field of research that has evolved substantially with valuable contributions to many application domains and areas. Patients often consider traditional rehabilitation approaches to be repetitive and boring, making it difficult for them to maintain their ongoing interest and assure the completion of the treatment program. Since the publication of our first taxonomy of Serious Games for Health Rehabilitation (SGHR), many studies have been published with game prototypes in this area. Based on literature review, our goal is to propose an updated taxonomy taking into account the works, updates, and innovations in game criteria that have been researched since our first publication in 2010. In addition, we aim to present the validation mechanism used for the proposed extended taxonomy. Based on a literature review in the area and on the analysis of the contributions made by other researchers, we propose an extended taxonomy for SGHR. For validating the taxonomy proposal, a questionnaire was designed to use on a survey among experts in the area. An extended taxonomy for SGHR was proposed. As we have identified that, in general, and besides the mechanisms associated with the adoption of a given taxonomy, there were no reported validation mechanisms for the proposals, we designed a mechanism to validate our proposal. The mechanism uses a questionnaire addressed to a sample of researchers and professionals with experience and expertise in domains of knowledge interrelated with SGHR, such as Computer Graphics, Game Design, Interaction Design, Computer Programming, and Health Rehabilitation. The extended taxonomy proposal for health rehabilitation serious games provides the research community with a tool to fully characterize serious games. The mechanism designed for validating the taxonomy proposal is another contribution of this work.

  11. Life-history variation and allometry for sexual size dimorphism in Pacific salmon and trout

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    Allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common in animals, but how different evolutionary processes interact to determine allometry remains unclear. Among related species SSD (male:female) typically increases with average body size, resulting in slopes of less than 1 when female size is regressed on male size: an allometric relationship formalized as ‘Rensch's rule’ . Empirical studies show that taxa with male-biased SSD are more likely to satisfy Rensch's rule and that a taxon's mean SSD is negatively correlated with allometric slope, implicating sexual selection on male size as an important mechanism promoting allometry for SSD. I use body length (and life-history) data from 628 (259) populations of seven species of anadromous Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) to show that in this genus life-history variation appears to regulate patterns of allometry both within and between species. Although all seven species have intraspecific allometric slopes of less than 1, contrary to expectation slope is unrelated to species' mean SSD, but is instead negatively correlated with two life-history variables: the species' mean marine age and variation in marine age. Second, because differences in marine age among species render SSD and body size uncorrelated, the interspecific slope is isometric. Together, these results provide an example of how evolutionary divergence in life history among related species can affect patterns of allometry for SSD across taxonomic scales. PMID:15695207

  12. The rate-size trade-off structures intraspecific variation in Daphnia ambigua life history parameters.

    PubMed

    DeLong, John P; Hanley, Torrance C

    2013-01-01

    The identification of trade-offs is necessary for understanding the evolution and maintenance of diversity. Here we employ the supply-demand (SD) body size optimization model to predict a trade-off between asymptotic body size and growth rate. We use the SD model to quantitatively predict the slope of the relationship between asymptotic body size and growth rate under high and low food regimes and then test the predictions against observations for Daphnia ambigua. Close quantitative agreement between observed and predicted slopes at both food levels lends support to the model and confirms that a 'rate-size' trade-off structures life history variation in this population. In contrast to classic life history expectations, growth and reproduction were positively correlated after controlling for the rate-size trade-off. We included 12 Daphnia clones in our study, but clone identity explained only some of the variation in life history traits. We also tested the hypothesis that growth rate would be positively related to intergenic spacer length (i.e. the growth rate hypothesis) across clones, but we found that clones with intermediate intergenic spacer lengths had larger asymptotic sizes and slower growth rates. Our results strongly support a resource-based optimization of body size following the SD model. Furthermore, because some resource allocation decisions necessarily precede others, understanding interdependent life history traits may require a more nested approach.

  13. Potential fitness benefits of the half-pounder life history in Klamath River steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, Brian W.; Wilzbach, Peggy; Duffy, Walter G.

    2014-01-01

    Steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from several of the world's rivers display the half-pounder life history, a variant characterized by an amphidromous (and, less often, anadromous) return to freshwater in the year of initial ocean entry. We evaluated factors related to expression of the half-pounder life history in wild steelhead from the lower Klamath River basin, California. We also evaluated fitness consequences of the half-pounder phenotype using a simple life history model that was parameterized with our empirical data and outputs from a regional survival equation. The incidence of the half-pounder life history differed among subbasins of origin and smolt ages. Precocious maturation occurred in approximately 8% of half-pounders and was best predicted by individual length in freshwater preceding ocean entry. Adult steelhead of the half-pounder phenotype were smaller and less fecund at age than adult steelhead of the alternative (ocean contingent) phenotype. However, our data suggest that fish of the half-pounder phenotype are more likely to spawn repeatedly than are fish of the ocean contingent phenotype. Models predicted that if lifetime survivorship were equal between phenotypes, the fitness of the half-pounder phenotype would be 17–28% lower than that of the ocean contingent phenotype. To meet the condition of equal fitness between phenotypes would require that first-year ocean survival be 21–40% higher among half-pounders in freshwater than among their cohorts at sea. We concluded that continued expression of the half-pounder phenotype is favored by precocious maturation and increased survival relative to that of the ocean contingent phenotype.

  14. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae

    PubMed Central

    Bó, Elena Dal; da Graça, John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3–12.5 kb divided into 3–4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae. PMID:28635587

  15. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.

    PubMed

    Zell, R; Delwart, E; Gorbalenya, A E; Hovi, T; King, A M Q; Knowles, N J; Lindberg, A M; Pallansch, M A; Palmenberg, A C; Reuter, G; Simmonds, P; Skern, T; Stanway, G; Yamashita, T; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/picornaviridae.

  16. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    PubMed

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  17. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  18. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Partitiviridae.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Eeva J; Chiba, Sotaro; Ghabrial, Said A; Maiss, Edgar; Roossinck, Marilyn; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Xie, Jiatao; Nibert, Max; Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-01-01

    The Partitiviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses with bisegmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genomes of 3-4.8 kbp. The two genome segments are individually encapsidated. The family has five genera, with characteristic hosts for members of each genus: either plants or fungi for genera Alphapartitivirus and Betapartitivirus, fungi for genus Gammapartitivirus, plants for genus Deltapartitivirus and protozoa for genus Cryspovirus. Partitiviruses are transmitted intracellularly via seeds (plants), oocysts (protozoa) or hyphal anastomosis, cell division and sporogenesis (fungi); there are no known natural vectors. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Partitiviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/partitiviridae.

  19. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Claudio L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N; Collins, Peter L; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M; Easton, Andrew J; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A M; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W; Kobinger, Gary P; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L; Payne, Susan L; Paweska, Janusz T; Randall, Rick E; Rima, Bertus K; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J; Stenglein, Mark D; Stone, David M; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A; Walker, Peter J; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E; Xiè, Ji Tāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H

    2016-08-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  20. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afonso, C.L.; Kurath, Gael; 82 Additional Authors,

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  1. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián

    2016-05-23

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  2. TAXONOMY OF THE ORDER MONONEGAVIRALES: UPDATE 2016

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R.; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H.; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N.; Collins, Peter L.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M.; Easton, Andrew J.; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M.; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Kobinger, Gary P.; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A.; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M.; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L.; Payne, Susan L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Randall, Rick E.; Rima, Bertus K.; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Stone, David M.; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B.; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A.; Walker, Peter J.; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E.; Xiè, Jiǎtāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). PMID:27216929

  3. The Basic/Essential Skills Taxonomy. Second Edition--Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lester M., Jr.

    This revision of the "Basic/Essential Skills Taxonomy" exhibits changes based on use of the original taxonomy in the field. It features more precise definitions of the levels of key words and phrases, the deletion of some science items that ranged above basic skills, the combination of the language arts sections from the original two parts, and…

  4. Development and evaluation of a new taxonomy of mobility-related assistive technology devices.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Laura L; Lenker, James A; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Demers, Louise; DeRuyter, Frank

    2010-10-01

    This article reports on the development of a new taxonomy for mobility-related assistive technology devices. A prototype taxonomy was created based on the extant literature. Five mobility device experts were engaged in a modified Delphi process to evaluate and refine the taxonomy. Multiple iterations of expert feedback and revision yielded consensual agreement on the structure and terminology of a new mobility device taxonomy. The taxonomy uses a hierarchical framework to classify ambulation aids and wheeled mobility devices, including their key features that impact mobility. Five attributes of the new taxonomy differentiate it from previous mobility-related device classifications: (1) hierarchical structure, (2) primary device categories are grouped based on their intended mobility impact, (3) comprehensive inclusion of technical features, (4) a capacity to assimilate reimbursement codes, and (5) availability of a detailed glossary. The taxonomy is intended to support assistive technology outcomes research. The taxonomy will enable researchers to capture mobility-related assistive technology device interventions with precision and provide a common terminology that will allow comparisons among studies. The prominence of technical features within the new taxonomy will hopefully promote research that helps clinicians predict how devices will perform, thus aiding clinical decision making and supporting funding recommendations.

  5. Experiences of using life histories with health workers in post-conflict and crisis settings: methodological reflections

    PubMed Central

    Namakula, Justine; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Wurie, Haja; Theobald, Sally; Mashange, Wilson; Ros, Bandeth; Buzuzi, Stephen; Mangwi, Richard; Martineau, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Life history is a research tool which has been used primarily in sociology and anthropology to document experiences of marginalized individuals and communities. It has been less explored in relation to health system research. In this paper, we examine our experience of using life histories to explore health system trajectories coming out of conflict through the eyes of health workers. Methods: Life histories were used in four inter-related projects looking at health worker incentives, the impact of Ebola on health workers, deployment policies, and gender and leadership in the health sector. In total 244 health workers of various cadres were interviewed in Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia. The life histories were one element within mixed methods research. Results: We examine the challenges faced and how these were managed. They arose in relation to gaining access, data gathering, and analysing and presenting findings from life histories. Access challenges included lack of familiarity with the method, reluctance to expose very personal information and sentiments, lack of trust in confidentiality, particularly given the traumatized contexts, and, in some cases, cynicism about research and its potential to improve working lives. In relation to data gathering, there was variable willingness to draw lifelines, and some reluctance to broach sensitive topics, particularly in contexts where policy-related issues and legitimacy are commonly still contested. Presentation of lifeline data without compromising confidentiality is also an ethical challenge. Conclusion: We discuss how these challenges were (to a large extent) surmounted and conclude that life histories with health staff can be a very powerful tool, particularly in contexts where routine data sources are absent or weak, and where health workers constitute a marginalized community (as is often the case for mid-level cadres, those serving in remote areas, and staff who have lived

  6. Life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseur, Aletha Johnson

    The research conducted in this study focuses on life histories of female elementary teachers and their science/teacher role construction. Identity theorists argue that the self consists of a collection of identities founded on occupying a particular role. Who we are depends on the roles we occupy. These roles are often referred to as "role identities". In the case of these participants, many role identities (mother, wife, sibling, and teacher) exist. This study focuses primarily on their (science) teacher role identity. Literature on women's lives, as learners and teachers, suggest that women's experiences, currently and throughout history influenced their teacher role construction. There is however, little knowledge of women's lives as elementary teachers of science and the affect of their experiences, currently and throughout history, on their (science) teacher identity construction. Schools delineated by race, class, and gender relations, are similar to other sectors of society's, social and cultural spheres within which race, class, and gender identities are constructed. Using in-depth-interviews female elementary teachers were encouraged to actively reconstruct their life and work-life experiences focusing on family, school and science interactions. They addressed the intellectual and emotional connections between their life and work experiences by focusing on details of their past and present experiences and examining the meaning of those experiences. It was the scrutiny of these connections between their life and work experiences, the meaning derived from them and historical events, and the constraints imposed on their personal choices by broader power relations, such as those of class, race, and gender that informed why we teach, how we teach, and what we teach.

  7. Individual covariation in life-history traits: seeing the trees despite the forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Monnat, J.-Y.; Danchin, E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of age on survival and breeding rates in a long-lived species Rissa tridactyla using models with individual random effects permitting variation and covariation in fitness components among individuals. Differences in survival or breeding probabilities among individuals are substantial, and there was positive covariation between survival and breeding probability; birds that were more likely to survive were also more likely to breed, given that they survived. The pattern of age-related variation in these rates detected at the individual level differed from that observed at the population level. Our results provided confirmation of what has been suggested by other investigators: within-cohort phenotypic selection can mask senescence. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied in humans and captive animals, conclusive evidence of the discrepancy between population-level and individual-level patterns of age-related variation in life-history traits is extremely rare in wild animal populations. Evolutionary studies of the influence of age on life-history traits should use approaches differentiating population level from the genuine influence of age: only the latter is relevant to theories of life-history evolution. The development of models permitting access to individual variation in fitness is a promising advance for the study of senescence and evolutionary processes.

  8. Growth patterns and life-history strategies in Placodontia (Diapsida: Sauropterygia)

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nicole; Neenan, James M.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2015-01-01

    Placodontia is a clade of durophagous, near shore marine reptiles from Triassic sediments of modern-day Europe, Middle East and China. Although much is known about their primary anatomy and palaeoecology, relatively little has been published regarding their life history, i.e. ageing, maturation and growth. Here, growth records derived from long bone histological data of placodont individuals are described and modelled to assess placodont growth and life-history strategies. Growth modelling methods are used to confirm traits documented in the growth record (age at onset of sexual maturity, age when asymptotic length was achieved, age at death, maximum longevity) and also to estimate undocumented traits. Based on these growth models, generalized estimates of these traits are established for each taxon. Overall differences in bone tissue types and resulting growth curves indicate different growth patterns and life-history strategies between different taxa of Placodontia. Psephoderma and Paraplacodus grew with lamellar-zonal bone tissue type and show growth patterns as seen in modern reptiles. Placodontia indet. aff. Cyamodus and some Placodontia indet. show a unique combination of fibrolamellar bone tissue regularly stratified by growth marks, a pattern absent in modern sauropsids. The bone tissue type of Placodontia indet. aff. Cyamodus and Placodontia indet. indicates a significantly increased basal metabolic rate when compared with modern reptiles. Double lines of arrested growth, non-annual rest lines in annuli, and subcycles that stratify zones suggest high dependence of placodont growth on endogenous and exogenous factors. Histological and modelled differences within taxa point to high individual developmental plasticity but sexual dimorphism in growth patterns and the presence of different taxa in the sample cannot be ruled out. PMID:26587259

  9. Entanglement is a costly life-history stage in large whales.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie; Corkeron, Peter; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales. Differences in measured blubber thicknesses and estimated blubber volumes between normal and entangled, emaciated whales indicate between 7.4 × 10 10  J and 1.2 × 10 11  J of energy are consumed during the course to death of a lethal entanglement. Increased thrust power requirements to overcome drag forces suggest that when entangled, whales require 3.95 × 10 9 to 4.08 × 10 10  J more energy to swim. Individuals who died from their entanglements performed significantly more work (energy expenditure × time) than those that survived; entanglement duration is therefore critical in determining whales' survival. Significant sublethal energetic impacts also occur, especially in reproductive females. Drag from fishing gear contributes up to 8% of the 4-year female reproductive energy budget, delaying time of energetic equilibrium (to restore energy lost by a particular entanglement) for reproduction by months to years. In certain populations, chronic entanglement in fishing gear can be viewed as a costly unnatural life-history stage, rather than a rare or short-term incident.

  10. Consensus statement: Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Mike J; Benkő, Mária; Breitbart, Mya; Brister, J Rodney; Carstens, Eric B; Davison, Andrew J; Delwart, Eric; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Harrach, Balázs; Hull, Roger; King, Andrew M Q; Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Nibert, Max L; Orton, Richard; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sullivan, Matthew B; Suttle, Curtis A; Tesh, Robert B; van der Vlugt, René A; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, F Murilo

    2017-03-01

    The number and diversity of viral sequences that are identified in metagenomic data far exceeds that of experimentally characterized virus isolates. In a recent workshop, a panel of experts discussed the proposal that, with appropriate quality control, viruses that are known only from metagenomic data can, and should be, incorporated into the official classification scheme of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Although a taxonomy that is based on metagenomic sequence data alone represents a substantial departure from the traditional reliance on phenotypic properties, the development of a robust framework for sequence-based virus taxonomy is indispensable for the comprehensive characterization of the global virome. In this Consensus Statement article, we consider the rationale for why metagenomic sequence data should, and how it can, be incorporated into the ICTV taxonomy, and present proposals that have been endorsed by the Executive Committee of the ICTV.

  11. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: implications and continuations.

    PubMed

    P Dijkers, Marcel; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; M Zanca, Jeanne; Packel, Andrew; Tsaousides, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    In relation to the conceptual framework for a rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT), which has been proposed in other articles in this supplement, this article discusses a number of issues relevant to its further development, including creating distinctions within the major target classes; the nature and quantity of allowable targets of treatment; and bracketing as a way of specifying (1) the skill or knowledge taught; (2) the nature of compensation afforded by changes in the environment, assistive technology, and orthotics/prosthetics; and (3) the ingredients in homework a clinician assigns. Clarification is provided regarding the role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, focusing a taxonomy on ingredients versus other observable aspects of treatment, and regarding our lack of knowledge and its impact on taxonomy development. Finally, this article discusses the immediate implications of the work to date and presents the need for rehabilitation stakeholders of all disciplines to be involved in further RTT development. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic and life-history consequences of extreme climate events

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Marc; Jesensek, Dusan; Garza, John Carlos; Crivelli, Alain J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. Tests on empirical data of theory-based predictions on the consequences of extreme climate events are thus necessary to understand the adaptive potential of species and the overarching risks associated with all aspects of climate change. We tested predictions on the genetic and life-history consequences of extreme climate events in two populations of marble trout Salmo marmoratus that have experienced severe demographic bottlenecks due to flash floods. We combined long-term field and genotyping data with pedigree reconstruction in a theory-based framework. Our results show that after flash floods, reproduction occurred at a younger age in one population. In both populations, we found the highest reproductive variance in the first cohort born after the floods due to a combination of fewer parents and higher early survival of offspring. A small number of parents allowed for demographic recovery after the floods, but the genetic bottleneck further reduced genetic diversity in both populations. Our results also elucidate some of the mechanisms responsible for a greater prevalence of faster life histories after the extreme event. PMID:28148745

  13. Genetic and life-history consequences of extreme climate events.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Mangel, Marc; Jesensek, Dusan; Garza, John Carlos; Crivelli, Alain J

    2017-02-08

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. Tests on empirical data of theory-based predictions on the consequences of extreme climate events are thus necessary to understand the adaptive potential of species and the overarching risks associated with all aspects of climate change. We tested predictions on the genetic and life-history consequences of extreme climate events in two populations of marble trout Salmo marmoratus that have experienced severe demographic bottlenecks due to flash floods. We combined long-term field and genotyping data with pedigree reconstruction in a theory-based framework. Our results show that after flash floods, reproduction occurred at a younger age in one population. In both populations, we found the highest reproductive variance in the first cohort born after the floods due to a combination of fewer parents and higher early survival of offspring. A small number of parents allowed for demographic recovery after the floods, but the genetic bottleneck further reduced genetic diversity in both populations. Our results also elucidate some of the mechanisms responsible for a greater prevalence of faster life histories after the extreme event. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. An Evidence-based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Dating Apps.

    PubMed

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-21

    Advances in technologies including development of smartphone features have contributed to the growth of mobile applications, including dating apps. However, online dating services can be misused. To support law enforcement investigations, a forensic taxonomy that provides a systematic classification of forensic artifacts from Windows Phone 8 (WP8) dating apps is presented in this study. The taxonomy has three categories, namely: Apps Categories, Artifacts Categories, and Data Partition Categories. This taxonomy is built based on the findings from a case study of 28 mobile dating apps, using mobile forensic tools. The dating app taxonomy can be used to inform future studies of dating and related apps, such as those from Android and iOS platforms. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Duplouy, Anne; Wong, Swee C; Corander, Jukka; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hanski, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to local habitat conditions may lead to the natural divergence of populations in life-history traits such as body size, time of reproduction, mate signaling or dispersal capacity. Given enough time and strong enough selection pressures, populations may experience local genetic differentiation. The genetic basis of many life-history traits, and their evolution according to different environmental conditions remain however poorly understood. We conducted an association study on the Glanville fritillary butterfly, using material from five populations along a latitudinal gradient within the Baltic Sea region, which show different degrees of habitat fragmentation. We investigated variation in 10 principal components, cofounding in total 21 life-history traits, according to two environmental types, and 33 genetic SNP markers from 15 candidate genes. We found that nine SNPs from five genes showed strong trend for trait associations ( p -values under 0.001 before correction). These associations, yet non-significant after multiple test corrections, with a total number of 1,086 tests, were consistent across the study populations. Additionally, these nine genes also showed an allele frequency difference between the populations from the northern fragmented versus the southern continuous landscape. Our study provides further support for previously described trait associations within the Glanville fritillary butterfly species across different spatial scales. Although our results alone are inconclusive, they are concordant with previous studies that identified these associations to be related to climatic changes or habitat fragmentation within the Åland population.

  16. Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Corander, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    Background Adaptation to local habitat conditions may lead to the natural divergence of populations in life-history traits such as body size, time of reproduction, mate signaling or dispersal capacity. Given enough time and strong enough selection pressures, populations may experience local genetic differentiation. The genetic basis of many life-history traits, and their evolution according to different environmental conditions remain however poorly understood. Methods We conducted an association study on the Glanville fritillary butterfly, using material from five populations along a latitudinal gradient within the Baltic Sea region, which show different degrees of habitat fragmentation. We investigated variation in 10 principal components, cofounding in total 21 life-history traits, according to two environmental types, and 33 genetic SNP markers from 15 candidate genes. Results We found that nine SNPs from five genes showed strong trend for trait associations (p-values under 0.001 before correction). These associations, yet non-significant after multiple test corrections, with a total number of 1,086 tests, were consistent across the study populations. Additionally, these nine genes also showed an allele frequency difference between the populations from the northern fragmented versus the southern continuous landscape. Discussion Our study provides further support for previously described trait associations within the Glanville fritillary butterfly species across different spatial scales. Although our results alone are inconclusive, they are concordant with previous studies that identified these associations to be related to climatic changes or habitat fragmentation within the Åland population. PMID:28560112

  17. Whale baleen trace element signatures: a predictor of environmental life history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Brault, S.; Mayo, C.; Oktay, S.; Hannigan, R.

    2009-12-01

    The analysis of trace element composition of biogenic structures (e.g., otoliths, feathers) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides unique insights into the environmental life history of individuals. We studied the trace element chemistry of right whale baleens in an attempt to reconstruct migration patterns. Though much is known about the feeding and breeding habitats of these whales, little is known about the location in which they spend most of their adult years. Baleens, made of keratin, grow continuously and are metabolically inactive. Previous work showed that the stable isotope chemistry along the length of a baleen records changes in diet, such as weaning. Baleen chemistry should, therefore, also record the environmental life history of the individual. Trace metal chemistry along a single baleen plate from a right whale were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. Semi-quantitative elemental signatures were obtained using NIST 612 (glass standard) and MACS-3 (calcium carbonate standard). These concentrations were then compared for accuracy to acid digested baleen laterally adjacent to the laser ablation site via aqueous ICP-MS. Elemental chemistry was compared to known feeding/breeding locations of the individual (water chemistry). Using these comparisons as well as principal components analysis, life history of the individual was reconstructed. Development of an in-house keratin standard is in progress and is expected to strengthen the confidence in results. Future work is expected to bring a more complete knowledge of right whale wintering habits.

  18. Recent taxonomy changes and their impact on biocontrol agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The revolution in DNA sequencing technology has led to and improved understanding of genetics and taxonomy of biocontrol agents. Our lab recently reported the genomes of some important Bacillus bacterial biocontrol agents, which in turn resulted in a change of taxonomy for these commercially importa...

  19. Size-Mediated Tradeoffs in Life-History Traits in Dusky Salamanders

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Among salamanders of the genus Desmognathus, the larger species tend to be more aquatic and the smaller more terrestrial. I studied life histories in assemblages of Desmognathus in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina at sites in the Cowee and southern Nantahala Mountains. Traits evaluated included mortality/survival...

  20. Revision of the genus Dinotoperla Tillyard, 1921 (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae) using morphological characters and molecular data: Establishes two new genera, three new species and updates the larval taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Mynott, Julia H; Suter, Phillip J; Theischinger, Gunther

    2017-01-23

    The larval taxonomy of Australian stoneflies (Plecoptera) shows a large disparity in knowledge when compared to the adult taxonomy with many species having undescribed larval forms. The importance of stoneflies as an indicator group for monitoring aquatic ecosystems means knowledge of the larval taxonomy and the ability to identify species is essential. This study combined morphology and mitochondrial gene sequences to associate the adult and larval life-stages for species of Dinotoperla Tillyard. Morphological identification of adult males was recognised for 17 of the 35 Dinotoperla species and combining molecular data with morphology confirmed eight new adult-larval life stage associations. Further, molecular data supported the larval taxonomy for five morphospecies which remain unassociated. The combination of molecular and morphological methods enabled the larval morphology to be reassessed for the genus Dinotoperla and this has led to the establishment of two new genera, Odontoperla, gen. nov. and Oedemaperla, gen. nov., and the new species Dinotoperla aryballoi, sp. nov, D. tasmaniensis, sp. nov. and Oedemaperla shackletoni, sp. nov. as well as the new or updated descriptions of the larvae of 31 species and a comprehensive dichotomous key to these larvae.

  1. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  2. An Analytical Overview of Spirituality in NANDA-I Taxonomies.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Caldeira, Sílvia; Chaves, Erika; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2017-03-01

    To discuss the approach of spirituality in NANDA-I taxonomies, based on the elements that characterize this phenomenon. This study was based on concepts that are usually adopted in the literature for defining spirituality and on the analysis of the NANDA-I taxonomies from I to III. Spirituality is included in all taxonomies but all three are missing some attributes to guarantee the completeness of this dimension for nursing diagnosis. Taxonomy III makes different approaches to spirituality and some inconsistencies. Contribute to the development and review of the new proposal for taxonomy. Discutir a abordagem à espiritualidade nas taxonomias da NANDA-I, baseada nos elementos que caracterizam este fenômeno. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi baseado em conceitos usualmente adotados na literatura de enfermagem para definir espiritualidade e na análise das taxonomias da NANDA-I, desde a I à III. A espiritualidade está incluída nas taxonomias, porém estas carecem de atributos do seu conceito. CONCLUSÕES: A taxonomia III faz diferentes abordagens à espiritualidade, porém com algumas inconsistências identificadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A ENFERMAGEM: Esta análise pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento e revisão da taxonomia III. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  3. Taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of maternity care.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Downe, Soo; Gottfreðsdóttir, Helga; Rijnders, Marlies; du Preez, Antoinette; Vaz Rebelo, Piedade

    2015-09-01

    The linear focus of 'normal science' is unable to adequately take account of the complex interactions that direct health care systems. There is a turn towards complexity theory as a more appropriate framework for understanding system behaviour. However, a comprehensive taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of health care is lacking. This paper aims to build a taxonomy based on the key complexity theory components that have been used in publications on complexity theory and health care, and to explore their explanatory power for health care system behaviour, specifically for maternity care. A search strategy was devised in PubMed and 31 papers were identified as relevant for the taxonomy. The final taxonomy for complexity theory included and defined 11 components. The use of waterbirth and the impact of the Term Breech trial showed that each of the components of our taxonomy has utility in helping to understand how these techniques became widely adopted. It is not just the components themselves that characterise a complex system but also the dynamics between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Future of phytonematode taxonomy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The future of nematode taxonomy will be characterized by rapid accumulation of new and revised taxa examined in light of a refined understanding of phenotypic plasticity and cryptic speciation, multiple molecular markers and appropriate phylogenetic analyses. The inevitable result will be improved t...

  5. Brucella taxonomy and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ficht, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomy and nomenclature represent man-made systems designed to enhance understanding of the relationship between organisms by comparison of discrete sets of properties. Initial efforts at bacterial taxonomy were flawed as a result of the previous use of nonsystematic approaches including common names resulting in confusing and inaccurate nomenclature. A decision was made to start afresh with bacterial nomenclature and to avoid the hazards experienced in the taxonomic classification of higher organisms. This was achieved by developing new rules designed to simplify classification and avoid unnecessary and confusing changes. This article reviews the work of a number of scientists attempting to reconcile new molecular data describing the phylogenetic relationship between Brucella organisms and a broader family of organisms with widely variant phenotypes that include human virulence and host range against a backdrop of strict regulatory requirements that fail to recognize significant differences between organisms with similar nomenclature. PMID:20521932

  6. Psychometrics and life history strategy: the structure and validity of the High K Strategy Scale.

    PubMed

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven

    2014-03-22

    In this paper, we critically review the conceptualization and implementation of psychological measures of life history strategy associated with Differential K theory. The High K Strategy Scale (HKSS: Giosan, 2006) was distributed to a large British sample (n = 809) with the aim of assessing its factor structure and construct validity in relation to theoretically relevant life history variables: age of puberty, age of first sexual encounter, and number of sexual partners. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the HKSS in its current form did not show an adequate statistical fit to the data. Modifications to improve fit indicated four correlated factors (personal capital, environmental stability, environmental security, and social capital). Later puberty in women was positively associated with measures of the environment and personal capital. Among men, contrary to Differential K predictions but in line with female mate preferences, earlier sexual debut and more sexual partners were positively associated with more favorable environments and higher personal and social capital. We raise concerns about the use of psychometric indicators of lifestyle and personality as proxies for life history strategy when they have not been validated against objective measures derived from contemporary life history theory and when their status as causes, mediators, or correlates has not been investigated.

  7. Numerical taxonomy on data: Experimental results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cohen, J.; Farach, M.

    1997-12-01

    The numerical taxonomy problems associated with most of the optimization criteria described above are NP - hard [3, 5, 1, 4]. In, the first positive result for numerical taxonomy was presented. They showed that if e is the distance to the closest tree metric under the L{sub {infinity}} norm. i.e., e = min{sub T} [L{sub {infinity}} (T-D)], then it is possible to construct a tree T such that L{sub {infinity}} (T-D) {le} 3e, that is, they gave a 3-approximation algorithm for this problem. We will refer to this algorithm as the Single Pivot (SP) heuristic.

  8. The harms of screening: a proposed taxonomy and application to lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Harris, Russell P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Lewis, Carmen L; Barclay, Colleen; Vu, Maihan B; Kistler, Christine E; Golin, Carol E; DeFrank, Jessica T; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-02-01

    Making rational decisions about screening requires information about its harms, but high-quality evidence is often either not available or not used. One reason may be that we lack a coherent framework, a taxonomy, for conceptualizing and studying these harms. To create a taxonomy, we categorized harms from several sources: systematic reviews of screening, other published literature, and informal discussions with clinicians and patients. We used this information to develop an initial taxonomy and vetted it with local and national experts, making revisions as needed. We propose a taxonomy with 4 domains of harm from screening: physical effects, psychological effects, financial strain, and opportunity costs. Harms can occur at any step of the screening cascade. We provide definitions for each harm domain and illustrate the taxonomy using the example of screening for lung cancer. The taxonomy provides a systematic way to conceptualize harms as experienced by patients. As shown in the lung cancer screening example, the taxonomy also makes clear where (which domains of harms and which parts of the screening cascade) we have useful information and where there are gaps in our knowledge. The taxonomy needs further testing and validation across a broad range of screening programs. We hope that further development of this taxonomy can improve our thinking about the harms of screening, thus informing our research, policy making, and decision making with patients about the wisdom of screening.

  9. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  10. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: Rebuilding from scratch?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Amaral, Gilda R.; Campeão, Mariana

    2014-12-23

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. We re-evaluated the prokaryote species twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. We will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  11. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  12. A mechanism that maintains alternative life histories in a loggerhead sea turtle population.

    PubMed

    Hatase, Hideo; Omuta, Kazuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2013-11-01

    Intrapopulation variation in habitat use is commonly seen among mobile animals, yet the mechanisms maintaining it have rarely been researched among untrackable species. To investigate how alternative life histories are maintained in a population of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), cumulative reproductive output was evaluated and compared between small planktivores inhabiting oceanic areas (with water depths > 200 m) and large benthivores inhabiting neritic areas (depths < 200 m) that sympatrically nested at Yakushima Island, Japan, from 1986 to 2011. In total, 362 nesting females sampled in three different years were classified into the two foraging groups based on stable isotope ratios in egg yolks. There were significant differences between the two foraging groups in most recorded life history parameters (clutch size, clutch frequency, breeding frequency, and remigration intervals), with the exception of emergence success. We did not find evidence of life history trade-offs, nor age-related changes in fecundity. Over the 26-year study period, we calculated a 2.4-fold greater reproductive output for neritic foragers than for oceanic ones, accounting for breeding and clutch frequency. Temporal consistencies in stable isotope ratios and remigration intervals within females suggested that female Japanese loggerheads show fidelity to respective foraging habitats throughout the adult stage. The large difference in productivity between the two groups was unlikely to be offset by the difference in survival during the period from aboveground emergence to first reproduction, suggesting that oceanic foragers have a lower level of fitness than neritic ones. Together with an absence of genetic structure between foraging groups, we infer that alternative life histories in a loggerhead turtle population are maintained by a conditional strategy.

  13. Bridging developmental boundaries: lifelong dietary patterns modulate life histories in a parthenogenetic insect.

    PubMed

    Roark, Alison M; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus) to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the confounding influences of pair-housing, mating, and male behavior. In our study, growth rate prior to reproductive maturity was positively correlated with both adult and reproductive lifespans but negatively correlated with total lifespan. Food limitation had opposing effects on lifespan depending on when it was imposed, as it protracted development in juveniles but hastened death in adults. Food limitation also constrained reproduction regardless of when food was limited, although decreased fecundity was especially pronounced in individuals that were food-limited as late juveniles and adults. Additional carry-over effects of juvenile food limitation included smaller adult size and decreased body condition at the adult molt, but these effects were largely mitigated in insects that were switched to ad libitum feeding as late juveniles. Our data provide little support for the existence of a trade-off between longevity and fecundity, perhaps because these functions were fueled by different nutrient pools. However, insects that experienced a switch to the limited diet at reproductive maturity seem to have fueled egg production by drawing down body stores, thus providing some evidence for a life-history trade-off. Our results provide important insights into the effects of food limitation and indicate that performance is modulated by intake both within and across life-history stages.

  14. Divergent life histories of invasive round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in Lake Michigan and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kornis, Matthew; Weidel, Brian C.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2017-01-01

    Round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) have invaded benthic habitats of the Laurentian Great Lakes and connected tributary streams. Although connected, these two systems generally differ in temperature (Great Lakes are typically colder), food availability (Dreissenid mussels are more prevalent in Great Lakes), and system size and openness. Here, we compare round goby life histories from inshore Lake Michigan and adjacent tributary systems—an uncommon case study of life-history differences between connected systems. Tributary round gobies grew much faster (average length-at-age of 122.3 vs. 65.7 mm for Age 2 +  round gobies), appeared to have shorter life spans (maximum observed age of 2 vs. 5) and had lower age-at-50% maturity (1.6 vs. 2.4 years; females only) compared to gobies from Lake Michigan. In addition, tributary gobies had greater fecundity at Ages 1–2 than lake gobies, but had fewer eggs for a given body size prior to the first spawning event of the summer. We were not able to determine the cause of the observed life-history differences. Nonetheless, the observed differences in growth, maturation and longevity were consistent with known effects of water temperature, as well as predictions of life-history theory for animals at invasion fronts exposed to novel environmental conditions. The high degree of phenotypic plasticity in connected populations of this invasive species has implications for our understanding of invasive species impacts in different habitats.

  15. Natural Selection on Female Life-History Traits in Relation to Socio-Economic Class in Pre-Industrial Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettay, Jenni E.; Helle, Samuli; Jokela, Jukka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2007-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that resource scarcity constrains individual optimal reproductive strategies and shapes the evolution of life-history traits. In species where the inherited structure of social class may lead to consistent resource differences among family lines, between-class variation in resource availability should select for divergence in optimal reproductive strategies. Evaluating this prediction requires information on the phenotypic selection and quantitative genetics of life-history trait variation in relation to individual lifetime access to resources. Here, we show using path analysis how resource availability, measured as the wealth class of the family, affected the opportunity and intensity of phenotypic selection on the key life-history traits of women living in pre-industrial Finland during the 1800s and 1900s. We found the highest opportunity for total selection and the strongest selection on earlier age at first reproduction in women of the poorest wealth class, whereas selection favoured older age at reproductive cessation in mothers of the wealthier classes. We also found clear differences in female life-history traits across wealth classes: the poorest women had the lowest age-specific survival throughout their lives, they started reproduction later, delivered fewer offspring during their lifetime, ceased reproduction younger, had poorer offspring survival to adulthood and, hence, had lower fitness compared to the wealthier women. Our results show that the amount of wealth affected the selection pressure on female life-history in a pre-industrial human population. PMID:17622351

  16. The Treatment of Geological Time & the History of Life on Earth in High School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…

  17. Intrapopulation Genome Size Variation in D. melanogaster Reflects Life History Variation and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lisa L.; Huang, Wen; Quinn, Andrew M.; Ahuja, Astha; Alfrejd, Ben; Gomez, Francisco E.; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Moore, Kristi L.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Tarone, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions. PMID:25057905

  18. A new view of avian life-history evolution tested on an incubation paradox.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2002-02-07

    Viewing life-history evolution in birds based on an age-specific mortality framework can explain broad life-history patterns, including the long incubation periods in southern latitudes documented here. I show that incubation periods of species that are matched phylogenetically and ecologically between Argentina and Arizona are longer in Argentina. Long incubation periods have mystified scientists because they increase the accumulated risk of time-dependent mortality to young without providing a clear benefit. I hypothesize that parents of species with low adult mortality accept increased risk of mortality to their young from longer incubation if this allows reduced risk of mortality to themselves. During incubation, songbird parents can reduce risk of mortality to themselves by reducing nest attentiveness (percentage of time on the nest). Here I show that parents of species with lower adult mortality exhibit reduced nest attentiveness and that lower attentiveness is associated with longer incubation periods. However, the incubation period is also modified by juvenile mortality. Clutch size variation is also strongly correlated with age-specific mortality. Ultimately, adult and juvenile mortality explain variation in incubation and other life-history traits better than the historical paradigm.

  19. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    PubMed

    Macho, Gabriele A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results highlight

  20. Niche Partitioning in Sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: Implications for Life History Strategies and for Reconstructing the Evolution of Hominin Life History

    PubMed Central

    Macho, Gabriele A.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals’ hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the “risk aversion” hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results

  1. A Taxonomy of Functions of Dental X-Ray Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.; And Others

    The taxonomy of the functions of dental x-ray technologists presented in this report resulted from a dental radiography curriculum development project undertaken at Middlesex County College (MCC) in 1981. After an introductory section citing arguments for creating taxonomies of objectives, the report explains the impetus for the curriculum…

  2. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  3. 78 FR 65249 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... information on the species biology, ecology, life history, threats, and conservation status from information... descriptions of the species' natural history. More details can be found in Meadows and Coll (2013). Natural History of the Adriatic Sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) Taxonomy and Distinctive Characteristics Acipenser...

  4. Life history linked to immune investment in developing amphibians.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bell, Sara C; Bigler, Laurent; Caprioli, Richard M; Chaurand, Pierre; Lam, Brianna A; Reinert, Laura K; Stalder, Urs; Vazquez, Victoria M; Schliep, Klaus; Hertz, Andreas; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    The broad diversity of amphibian developmental strategies has been shaped, in part, by pathogen pressure, yet trade-offs between the rate of larval development and immune investment remain poorly understood. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in skin secretions is a crucial defense against emerging amphibian pathogens and can also indirectly affect host defense by influencing the composition of skin microbiota. We examined the constitutive or induced expression of AMPs in 17 species at multiple life-history stages. We found that AMP defenses in tadpoles of species with short larval periods (fast pace of life) were reduced in comparison with species that overwinter as tadpoles and grow to a large size. A complete set of defensive peptides emerged soon after metamorphosis. These findings support the hypothesis that species with a slow pace of life invest energy in AMP production to resist potential pathogens encountered during the long larval period, whereas species with a fast pace of life trade this investment in defense for more rapid growth and development.

  5. Learning to Be Froebelian: Student Teachers' Life Histories 1952-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Sue; Hoskins, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the life histories of nine women who were trained at Froebel College in the 1950s and 1960s, this paper examines the women's narratives as Froebelian student teachers and explores their remembered constructions of their experiences. Using an analytical framework underpinned by theories of identity and language their stories are shown to…

  6. Fluctuating asymmetry and human male life-history traits in rural Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Waynforth, D

    1998-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), used as a measure of phenotypic quality, has proven to be a useful predictor of human life-history variation, but nothing is known about its effects in humans living in higher fecundity and mortality conditions, typical before industrialization and the demographic transition. In this research, I analyse data on male life histories for a relatively isolated population in rural Belize. Some of the 56 subjects practise subsistence-level slash-and-burn farming, and others are involved in the cash economy. Fecundity levels are quite high in this population, with men over the age of 40 averaging over eight children. Low FA successfully predicted lower morbidity and more offspring fathered, and was marginally associated with a lower age at first reproduction and more lifetime sex partners. These results indicate that FA may be important in predicting human performance in fecundity and morbidity in predemographic transition conditions. PMID:9744105

  7. A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae.

    PubMed

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Daugherty, Matthew D; Moens, Ugo; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Johne, Reimar; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Many distinct polyomaviruses infecting a variety of vertebrate hosts have recently been discovered, and their complete genome sequence could often be determined. To accommodate this fast-growing diversity, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Polyomaviridae Study Group designed a host- and sequence-based rationale for an updated taxonomy of the family Polyomaviridae. Applying this resulted in numerous recommendations of taxonomical revisions, which were accepted by the Executive Committee of the ICTV in December 2015. New criteria for definition and creation of polyomavirus species were established that were based on the observed distance between large T antigen coding sequences. Four genera (Alpha-, Beta, Gamma- and Deltapolyomavirus) were delineated that together include 73 species. Species naming was made as systematic as possible - most species names now consist of the binomial name of the host species followed by polyomavirus and a number reflecting the order of discovery. It is hoped that this important update of the family taxonomy will serve as a stable basis for future taxonomical developments.

  8. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it.The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour.In this study we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments.Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and build safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad-lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  9. A Taxonomy of Psychomotor Forms. Occasional Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael

    A taxonomy of psychomotor skills provides a classification of all human movement forms. The development of motor skills in this hierarchy begins with the reflexive physical responses of the infant. The stages of growth include basic interactive movement forms, skilled movement forms, and functional and creative movement forms. This taxonomy offers…

  10. An exercise in rational taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Ho, M W

    1990-11-07

    The quest for a rational taxonomy of living forms began in the 17th century. Since the general acceptance of Darwin's theory of descent with modification, however, students of morphology became preoccupied with a systematics based on the genealogy of groups; and the rise of molecular phylogenies in recent years results in a further decline in the science of morphology. Reconstructing phylogenies by itself brings us no closer to the goal of rational taxonomy, which is to uncover the natural order inherent in the forms of living things. It is proposed that the rational taxonomy of forms should be derived from a study of development, much as von Baer had envisaged. To illustrate the method, a set of segmentation abnormalities in Drosophila larvae (previously exposed to either vapour) is considered, which can be individually classified as distinct disturbances in the process responsible for establishing normal segmental pattern. The process consists of a hierarchy of four successive bifurcations dividing the embryo's body first into two parts, then four, eight, and finally 16 subdivisions or segments. This gives rise to a taxonomic map of all possible transformations which contains the "phylogeny" of the actual forms and provides a natural system for classifying them. Attempts to recover the "true" phylogeny by various numerical methods are summarized and their implications for the validity of the basic assumptions of contemporary systematics discussed.

  11. Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cyst nematodes comprise a group of sedentary endoparasitic nematodes that impact a wide range of crops in both tropical and temperate regions of the world. This chapter updates the taxonomy and phylogeny of this group and describes the nuclear protein coding, ribosomal, and mitochondrial sequenc...

  12. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    PubMed

    Bik, Holly M

    2017-08-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  13. Hot tadpoles from cold environments need more nutrients--life history and stoichiometry reflects latitudinal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Liess, Antonia; Rowe, Owen; Guo, Junwen; Thomsson, Gustaf; Lind, Martin I

    2013-11-01

    1. High-latitude species (and populations within species) are adapted to short and cold summers. They often have high growth and development rates to fully use the short growing season and mature before the onset of winter. 2. Within the context of ecological stoichiometry theory, this study combines ecology with evolution by relating latitudinal life-history adaptations to their molecular consequences in body nutrient composition in Rana temporaria tadpoles. 3. Temperature and food quality were manipulated during the development of tadpoles from Arctic and Boreal origins. We determined tadpole growth rate, development rate, body size and nutrient content, to test whether (i) Arctic tadpoles could realize higher growth rates and development rates with the help of higher-quality food even when food quantity was unchanged, (ii) Arctic and Boreal tadpoles differed in their stoichiometric (and life history) response to temperature changes, (iii) higher growth rates lead to higher tadpole P content (growth rate hypothesis) and (iv) allometric scaling affects tadpole nutrient allocation. 4. We found that especially Arctic tadpoles grew and developed faster with the help of higher-quality food and that tadpoles differed in their stoichiometric (and life history) response to temperature changes depending on region of origin (probably due to different temperature optima). There was no evidence that higher growth rates mediated the positive effect of temperature on tadpole P content. On the contrary, the covariate growth rate was negatively connected with tadpole P content (refuting the growth rate hypothesis). Lastly, tadpole P content was not related to body size, but tadpole C content was higher in larger tadpoles, probably due to increased fat storage. 5. We conclude that temperature had a strong effect on tadpole life history, nutrient demand and stoichiometry and that this effect depended on the evolved life history. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology

  14. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys

    PubMed Central

    Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R.; Kingsford, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia’s iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973–2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = −0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution. PMID:26536832

  15. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys.

    PubMed

    Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R; Kingsford, Richard T

    2015-11-05

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia's iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973-2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = -0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution.

  16. Streambed microstructure predicts evolution of development and life history mode in the plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Ronald M; Chippindale, Paul T

    2006-01-01

    Background Habitat variation strongly influences the evolution of developmentally flexible traits, and may drive speciation and diversification. The plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis is endemic to the geologically diverse Ozark Plateau of south-central North America, and comprises both strictly aquatic paedomorphic populations (achieving reproductive maturity while remaining in the larval form) and more terrestrial metamorphic populations. The switch between developmental modes has occurred many times, but populations typically exhibit a single life history mode. This unique system offers an opportunity to study the specific ecological circumstances under which alternate developmental and life history modes evolve. We use phylogenetic independent contrasts to test for relationships between a key microhabitat feature (streambed sediment) and this major life history polymorphism. Results We find streambed microstructure (sediment particle size, type and degree of sorting) to be highly correlated with life-history mode. Eurycea tynerensis is paedomorphic in streams containing large chert gravel, but metamorphoses in nearby streams containing poorly sorted, clastic material such as sandstone or siltstone. Conclusion Deposits of large chert gravel create loosely associated streambeds, which provide access to subsurface water during dry summer months. Conversely, streambeds composed of more densely packed sandstone and siltstone sediments leave no subterranean refuge when surface water dries, presumably necessitating metamorphosis and use of terrestrial habitats. This represents a clear example of the relationship between microhabitat structure and evolution of a major developmental and life history trait, and has broad implications for the role of localized ecological conditions on larger-scale evolutionary processes. PMID:16512919

  17. Life in the colonies: learning the alien ways of colonial organisms.

    PubMed

    Winston, Judith E

    2010-12-01

    Who needs to go to outer space to study alien beings when the oceans of our own planet abound with bizarre and unknown creatures? Many of them belong to sessile clonal and colonial groups, including sponges, hydroids, corals, octocorals, ascidians, bryozoans, and some polychaetes. Their life histories, in many ways unlike our own, are a challenge for biologists. Studying their ecology, behavior, and taxonomy means trying to “think like a colony” to understand the factors important in their lives. Until the 1980s, most marine ecologists ignored these difficult modular organisms. Plant ecologists showed them ways to deal with the two levels of asexually produced modules and genetic individuals, leading to a surge in research on the ecology of clonal and colonial marine invertebrates. Bryozoans make excellent model colonial animals. Their life histories range from ephemeral to perennial. Aspects of their lives such as growth, reproduction, partial mortality due to predation or fouling, and the behavior of both autozooids and polymorphs can be studied at the level of the colony, as well as that of the individual module, in living colonies and over time.

  18. Toward unification of taxonomy databases in a distributed computer environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kitakami, Hajime; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    1994-12-31

    All the taxonomy databases constructed with the DNA databases of the international DNA data banks are powerful electronic dictionaries which aid in biological research by computer. The taxonomy databases are, however not consistently unified with a relational format. If we can achieve consistent unification of the taxonomy databases, it will be useful in comparing many research results, and investigating future research directions from existent research results. In particular, it will be useful in comparing relationships between phylogenetic trees inferred from molecular data and those constructed from morphological data. The goal of the present study is to unify the existent taxonomymore » databases and eliminate inconsistencies (errors) that are present in them. Inconsistencies occur particularly in the restructuring of the existent taxonomy databases, since classification rules for constructing the taxonomy have rapidly changed with biological advancements. A repair system is needed to remove inconsistencies in each data bank and mismatches among data banks. This paper describes a new methodology for removing both inconsistencies and mismatches from the databases on a distributed computer environment. The methodology is implemented in a relational database management system, SYBASE.« less

  19. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest), Pacific Oyster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Requirements of Coastal Fishes o and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) LEICT o PACIFIC OYSTER E2I 8 Coastal Ecology Group Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways...Profiles-: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific N rthwest) PACIFIC OYSTER by Gilbert B. Pauley...Fish and Wildlife Service. 1983-19. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates . U.S. Fish

  20. Does life history shape sexual size dimorphism in anurans? A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is likely constrained by life history. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we examined correlations between SSD among anurans and their life history traits, including egg size, clutch size, mating combat, and parental care behaviour. We used sexual dimorphism index (SDI = Body-sizefemale /Body-sizemale –1) as the measurement for SSD. Body size, life history and phylogenetic data were collected from published literature. Data were analysed at two levels: all anuran species and within individual families. Results Female-biased SSD is the predominant form in anurans. SSD decreases along with the body size increase, following the prediction of Rensch’s rule, but the magnitude of decrease is very small. More importantly, female body size is positively correlated with both fecundity related traits, egg size and clutch size, and SDI is also positively correlated with clutch size, suggesting fecundity advantage may have driven the evolution of female body size and consequently leads to the evolution of female-biased SSD. Furthermore, the presence of parental care, male parental care in particular, is negatively correlated with SDI, indicating that species with parental care tend to have a smaller SDI. A negative correlation between clutch size and parental care further suggests that parental care likely reduces the fecundity selection pressure on female body size. On the other hand, there is a general lack of significant correlation between SDI and the presence of male combat behaviour, which is surprising and contradictory to previous studies. Conclusions We find clear evidence to support the ‘fecundity advantage hypothesis’ and the ‘parental care hypothesis’ in shaping SSD in anurans. Nevertheless, the relationships of both parental care and combat behaviour to the evolution of SSD are complex in anurans and the extreme diversity of life history traits may have masked some potential interesting

  1. Experiences of using life histories with health workers in post-conflict and crisis settings: methodological reflections.

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Namakula, Justine; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Wurie, Haja; Theobald, Sally; Mashange, Wilson; Ros, Bandeth; Buzuzi, Stephen; Mangwi, Richard; Martineau, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Life history is a research tool which has been used primarily in sociology and anthropology to document experiences of marginalized individuals and communities. It has been less explored in relation to health system research. In this paper, we examine our experience of using life histories to explore health system trajectories coming out of conflict through the eyes of health workers. Life histories were used in four inter-related projects looking at health worker incentives, the impact of Ebola on health workers, deployment policies, and gender and leadership in the health sector. In total 244 health workers of various cadres were interviewed in Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia. The life histories were one element within mixed methods research. We examine the challenges faced and how these were managed. They arose in relation to gaining access, data gathering, and analysing and presenting findings from life histories. Access challenges included lack of familiarity with the method, reluctance to expose very personal information and sentiments, lack of trust in confidentiality, particularly given the traumatized contexts, and, in some cases, cynicism about research and its potential to improve working lives. In relation to data gathering, there was variable willingness to draw lifelines, and some reluctance to broach sensitive topics, particularly in contexts where policy-related issues and legitimacy are commonly still contested. Presentation of lifeline data without compromising confidentiality is also an ethical challenge. We discuss how these challenges were (to a large extent) surmounted and conclude that life histories with health staff can be a very powerful tool, particularly in contexts where routine data sources are absent or weak, and where health workers constitute a marginalized community (as is often the case for mid-level cadres, those serving in remote areas, and staff who have lived through conflict and crisis). © The Author 2017

  2. Are disease reservoirs special? Taxonomic and life history characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Tristan L.; Eskew, Evan A.; Roth, Tara M.; Stephenson, Nicole; Foley, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens that spill over between species cause a significant human and animal health burden. Here, we describe characteristics of animal reservoirs that are required for pathogen spillover. We assembled and analyzed a database of 330 disease systems in which a pathogen spills over from a reservoir of one or more species. Three-quarters of reservoirs included wildlife, and 84% included mammals. Further, 65% of pathogens depended on a community of reservoir hosts, rather than a single species, for persistence. Among mammals, the most frequently identified reservoir hosts were rodents, artiodactyls, and carnivores. The distribution among orders of mammalian species identified as reservoirs did not differ from that expected by chance. Among disease systems with high priority pathogens and epidemic potential, we found birds, primates, and bats to be overrepresented. We also analyzed the life history traits of mammalian reservoir hosts and compared them to mammals as a whole. Reservoir species had faster life history characteristics than mammals overall, exhibiting traits associated with greater reproductive output rather than long-term survival. Thus, we find that in many respects, reservoirs of spillover pathogens are indeed special. The described patterns provide a useful resource for studying and managing emerging infectious diseases. PMID:28704402

  3. Hope Amidst Hopelessness: Life Histories of Illiterate Oraon Tribal Women in Jharkhand, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minz, Nijhar Jharia

    2012-01-01

    This interpretive study asked the question: "What education and literacy insights can be gained from the studies of the life stories of illiterate Oraon women in Jharkhand, India?" Life history methodology was used to gain insights into the lived experiences of illiterate women. I hoped to provide meaning and give voice to the voiceless.…

  4. Demographic and life history characteristics influence the cytonuclear composition of mosquitofish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.; Avise, John C.; Beaumont, A.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental laboratory crosses and population experiments reveal significant differences in individual life-history traits and population demography between two related species of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. With respect to life-history traits, progeny from G. holbrooki exhibit larger size at birth and earlier age at sexual maturity than do progeny from G. affinis parents. With respect to demography, populations of G. holbrooki exhibit higher recruitment and carrying capacity and loser overwinter mortality than do populations of G. affinis. These differences help t explain the dramatic changes in cytonuclear genotype frequency observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations of Gambusia monitored over 52 weeks. These experimental results are interpreted in the context of introgression patterns previously studied indirectly from distributions of cytonuclear genotypes in a natural mosquitofish hybrid zone.

  5. Completing the cycle: maternal effects as the missing link in plant life histories.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Kathleen

    2009-04-27

    Maternal effects on seed traits such as germination are important components of the life histories of plants because they represent the pathway from adult to offspring: the pathway that completes the life cycle. Maternal environmental effects on germination influence basic life-history expression, natural selection on germination, the expression of genetic variation for germination and even the genes involved in germination. Maternal effects on seed traits can even influence generation time and projected population growth rates. Whether these maternal environmental effects are imposed by the maternal genotype, the endosperm genotype or the embryonic genotype, however, is as yet unknown. Patterns of gene expression and protein synthesis in seeds indicate that the maternal genotype has the opportunity to influence its progeny's germination behaviour. Investigation of the phenotypic consequences of maternal environmental effects, regardless of its genetic determination, is relevant for understanding the variation in plant life cycles. Distinguishing the genotype(s) that control them is relevant for predicting the evolutionary trajectories and patterns of selection on progeny phenotypes and the genes underlying them.

  6. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Atlantic silverside

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) is an important link in estuarine food webs as an opportunistic omnivore and as forage for large piscivores such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Many times the Atlantic silverside is the most abundant fish species encountered in estuaries and tributaries. They mature at age 1 and spawn in the intertidal zone of estuaries from March to June in the mid-Atlantic region. Few 2-year-oldmore » fish are ever encountered, so the Atlantic silverside is basically a short-lived species. Most spawning occurs at high tide during new or full moon phases. Eggs are adhesive and are found attached to submerged vegetation. Larvae, juveniles, and adults generally inhabit similar areas. Sex is determined in larval development 32 to 46 days after hatching, and is a function of parental genotype and water temperature regime during the critical period. Fisheries for this species are not documented. Eggs can tolerate water temperatures between 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C, and larvae need temperatures above 15/sup 0/C for survival. Larvae tolerate relatively acute temperature increases. Upper lethal temperatures for juveniles and adults range from 30.5/sup 0/ to 33.8/sup 0/C, depending on acclimation temperature. Salinities of 20 ppt or lower significantly delay hatching and affect larval survival. Juveniles and adults tolerate the full range of naturally occurring salinities (i.e., freshwater to at least 37.8 ppt). 57 references, 2 figures.« less

  7. Positive predictors of quality of life for postpartum mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jessica L; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Muzik, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The postpartum period brings a host of biopsychosocial, familial, and economic changes, which may be challenging for new mothers, especially those with trauma histories. Trauma-exposed women are at heightened risk for psychiatric symptomatology and reduced quality of life. The current study sought to evaluate whether a set of hypothesized promotive factors assessed during the first 18 months postpartum (positive parenting, family cohesion, and maternal resilience) are associated with life satisfaction in this population, after controlling for income and postpartum psychiatric symptoms. Analyses were based on data collected for 266 mother-infant dyads from a longitudinal cohort study, Maternal Anxiety during the Childbearing Years (MACY), of women oversampled for childhood maltreatment history. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate the study hypotheses. Consistent with prior work, greater postpartum psychiatric symptoms and less income predicted poor perceptions of life quality. In hierarchical regressions controlling for income and psychiatric symptoms, positive parenting and family cohesion predicted unique variance in mothers' positive perceptions of life quality, and resilience was predictive beyond all other factors. Factors from multiple levels of analysis (maternal, dyadic, and familial) may serve as promotive factors predicting positive perceptions of life quality among women with childhood trauma histories, even those struggling with high levels of psychiatric or economic distress.

  8. Estimation of fitness from energetics and life-history data: An example using mussels.

    PubMed

    Sebens, Kenneth P; Sarà, Gianluca; Carrington, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Changing environments have the potential to alter the fitness of organisms through effects on components of fitness such as energy acquisition, metabolic cost, growth rate, survivorship, and reproductive output. Organisms, on the other hand, can alter aspects of their physiology and life histories through phenotypic plasticity as well as through genetic change in populations (selection). Researchers examining the effects of environmental variables frequently concentrate on individual components of fitness, although methods exist to combine these into a population level estimate of average fitness, as the per capita rate of population growth for a set of identical individuals with a particular set of traits. Recent advances in energetic modeling have provided excellent data on energy intake and costs leading to growth, reproduction, and other life-history parameters; these in turn have consequences for survivorship at all life-history stages, and thus for fitness. Components of fitness alone (performance measures) are useful in determining organism response to changing conditions, but are often not good predictors of fitness; they can differ in both form and magnitude, as demonstrated in our model. Here, we combine an energetics model for growth and allocation with a matrix model that calculates population growth rate for a group of individuals with a particular set of traits. We use intertidal mussels as an example, because data exist for some of the important energetic and life-history parameters, and because there is a hypothesized energetic trade-off between byssus production (affecting survivorship), and energy used for growth and reproduction. The model shows exactly how strong this trade-off is in terms of overall fitness, and it illustrates conditions where fitness components are good predictors of actual fitness, and cases where they are not. In addition, the model is used to examine the effects of environmental change on this trade-off and on both fitness

  9. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite-A life-history perspective.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie; Rühr, Peter T; Schmitz, Helmut; Egas, Martijn; Blanke, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction. Here, we test whether the sneaking tactic displayed by young males of the two-spotted spider mite can be explained by life-history theory. We tested whether young sneaker males survive longer than young fighter males after a bout of mild or strong competition with old fighter males. We also investigated whether old males have a more protective outer skin-a possible proxy for RHP-by measuring cuticle hardness and elasticity using nanoindentation. We found that young sneaker males survived longer than young fighter males after mild male competition. This difference was not found after strong male competition, which suggests that induction of sneaking tactic is affected by male density. Hardness and elasticity of the skin did not vary with male age. Given that earlier work could also not detect morphometric differences between fighter and sneaker males, we conclude that there is no apparent increase in RHP with age in the mite and age-dependent male mating tactics in the mite can be explained only by life-history theory. Because it is likely that fighting incurs a survival cost, age-dependent alternative mating tactics may be explained by life-history theory in many species when reproduction of old males is a significant factor in fitness.

  10. SCIRehab Project Series: The Therapeutic Recreation Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Cahow, Claire; Skolnick, Susan; Joyce, Joan; Jug, Julie; Dragon, Charlotte; Gassaway, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Outcomes research of therapeutic recreation (TR) activities and interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation is made more difficult by a lack of uniform descriptions and the absence of a formal treatments classification system (taxonomy). The objective of this study was to describe a taxonomy developed by Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists. Methods: TR lead clinicians and researchers from 6 SCI rehabilitation centers developed a TR documentation system to describe the details of each TR session involving patients with SCI enrolled in the SCIRehab study. The SCIRehab study uses the practice-based evidence methodology, a rigorous observational methodology that examines current practice without introducing additional treatments, to capture details of each TR session for 1,500 SCI rehabilitation patients at 6 US inpatient SCI rehabilitation facilities. This may be the first attempt to document the many details of the TR rehabilitation process for patients with SCI. Results: The TR taxonomy consists of 6 activities (eg, leisure education and counseling, outings, and leisure skill work in center) and activity-specific interventions, as well as time spent on each activity. Activity descriptions are enhanced with additional details that focus on assistance needs for each activity, patient ability to direct care, and patient/family involvement, which may help to determine TR activity selection. Conclusion: Development and application of a TR taxonomy, which is comprehensive for patients with SCI and efficient to use, are feasible despite significantly different TR programs at the 6 SCIRehab centers. PMID:19810631

  11. A taxonomy has been developed for outcomes in medical research to help improve knowledge discovery.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Susanna; Clarke, Mike; Becker, Lorne; Mavergames, Chris; Fish, Rebecca; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing recognition that insufficient attention has been paid to the choice of outcomes measured in clinical trials. The lack of a standardized outcome classification system results in inconsistencies due to ambiguity and variation in how outcomes are described across different studies. Being able to classify by outcome would increase efficiency in searching sources such as clinical trial registries, patient registries, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database of core outcome sets (COS), thus aiding knowledge discovery. A literature review was carried out to determine existing outcome classification systems, none of which were sufficiently comprehensive or granular for classification of all potential outcomes from clinical trials. A new taxonomy for outcome classification was developed, and as proof of principle, outcomes extracted from all published COS in the COMET database, selected Cochrane reviews, and clinical trial registry entries were classified using this new system. Application of this new taxonomy to COS in the COMET database revealed that 274/299 (92%) COS include at least one physiological outcome, whereas only 177 (59%) include at least one measure of impact (global quality of life or some measure of functioning) and only 105 (35%) made reference to adverse events. This outcome taxonomy will be used to annotate outcomes included in COS within the COMET database and is currently being piloted for use in Cochrane Reviews within the Cochrane Linked Data Project. Wider implementation of this standard taxonomy in trial and systematic review databases and registries will further promote efficient searching, reporting, and classification of trial outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Development of a Taxonomy of Wrongdoing in Medical Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, James M.; Yates, Elena; Vasher, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    “Ethical disasters” or egregious violations of professional ethics in medicine often receive substantial amounts of publicity, leading to mistrust of the medical system. Efforts to understand wrongdoing in medical practice and research are hampered by the absence of a clear taxonomy. This article describes the authors’ process of developing a taxonomy based on: (1) reviews of academic literature, ethics codes, government regulations, and cases of wrongdoing; (2) consultation with experts in health law and healthcare ethics; and (3) application of the taxonomy to published cases of wrongdoing in medical research and practice. The resulting taxonomy includes 14 categories of wrongdoing in medical practice, and 15 categories of wrongdoing in medical research. This taxonomy may be useful to oversight bodies, researchers who seek to understand and reduce the prevalence of wrongdoing in medicine, and librarians who index literature on wrongdoing. PMID:22176853

  13. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F; Bavari, Sina; Beer, Martin; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R; Bochnowski, Alisa; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H; Chandran, Kartik; Collins, Peter L; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Dolnik, Olga; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M; Easton, Andrew J; Ebihara, Hideki; Fang, Qi; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A M; Ghedin, Elodie; Harding, Robert M; Hewson, Roger; Higgins, Colleen M; Hong, Jian; Horie, Masayuki; James, Anthony P; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kobinger, Gary P; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Leroy, Eric M; Li, Ming; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L; Payne, Susan L; Paweska, Janusz T; Pearson, Michael N; Randall, Rick E; Revill, Peter A; Rima, Bertus K; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Smither, Sophie J; Song, Qisheng; Stone, David M; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S; Vasilakis, Nikos; Volchkov, Viktor E; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walker, Peter J; Wang, Beibei; Wang, David; Wang, Fei; Wang, Lin-Fa; Werren, John H; Whitfield, Anna E; Yan, Zhichao; Ye, Gongyin; Kuhn, Jens H

    2017-08-01

    In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species. Five new rhabdovirus genera and one new nyamivirus genus were established to harbor 41 of these species, whereas the remaining new species were assigned to already established genera. Furthermore, non-Latinized binomial species names replaced all paramyxovirus and pneumovirus species names, thereby accomplishing application of binomial species names throughout the entire order. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  14. Type material in the NCBI Taxonomy Database

    PubMed Central

    Federhen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Type material is the taxonomic device that ties formal names to the physical specimens that serve as exemplars for the species. For the prokaryotes these are strains submitted to the culture collections; for the eukaryotes they are specimens submitted to museums or herbaria. The NCBI Taxonomy Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) now includes annotation of type material that we use to flag sequences from type in GenBank and in Genomes. This has important implications for many NCBI resources, some of which are outlined below. PMID:25398905

  15. Evolution of dispersal and life history interact to drive accelerating spread of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Perkins, T Alex; Phillips, Benjamin L; Baskett, Marissa L; Hastings, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Populations on the edge of an expanding range are subject to unique evolutionary pressures acting on their life-history and dispersal traits. Empirical evidence and theory suggest that traits there can evolve rapidly enough to interact with ecological dynamics, potentially giving rise to accelerating spread. Nevertheless, which of several evolutionary mechanisms drive this interaction between evolution and spread remains an open question. We propose an integrated theoretical framework for partitioning the contributions of different evolutionary mechanisms to accelerating spread, and we apply this model to invasive cane toads in northern Australia. In doing so, we identify a previously unrecognised evolutionary process that involves an interaction between life-history and dispersal evolution during range shift. In roughly equal parts, life-history evolution, dispersal evolution and their interaction led to a doubling of distance spread by cane toads in our model, highlighting the potential importance of multiple evolutionary processes in the dynamics of range expansion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Human Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  17. Sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life among women with a history of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete

    2016-09-01

    To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (P<0.001) and participants with a history of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial Selection and Local Adaptation Jointly Shape Life-History Evolution during Range Expansion.

    PubMed

    Van Petegem, Katrien H P; Boeye, Jeroen; Stoks, Robby; Bonte, Dries

    2016-11-01

    In the context of climate change and species invasions, range shifts increasingly gain attention because the rates at which they occur in the Anthropocene induce rapid changes in biological assemblages. During range shifts, species experience multiple selection pressures. For poleward expansions in particular, it is difficult to interpret observed evolutionary dynamics because of the joint action of evolutionary processes related to spatial selection and to adaptation toward local climatic conditions. To disentangle the effects of these two processes, we integrated stochastic modeling and data from a common garden experiment, using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model species. By linking the empirical data with those derived form a highly parameterized individual-based model, we infer that both spatial selection and local adaptation contributed to the observed latitudinal life-history divergence. Spatial selection best described variation in dispersal behavior, while variation in development was best explained by adaptation to the local climate. Divergence in life-history traits in species shifting poleward could consequently be jointly determined by contemporary evolutionary dynamics resulting from adaptation to the environmental gradient and from spatial selection. The integration of modeling with common garden experiments provides a powerful tool to study the contribution of these evolutionary processes on life-history evolution during range expansion.

  19. A model for brain life history evolution.

    PubMed

    González-Forero, Mauricio; Faulwasser, Timm; Lehmann, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brain's energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological settings. We apply the model to find uninvadable allocation strategies under a baseline setting ("me vs nature"), namely when energy-extraction challenges are environmentally determined and are overcome individually but possibly with maternal help, and use modern-human data to estimate model's parameter values. The resulting uninvadable strategies yield predictions for brain and body mass throughout ontogeny and for the ages at maturity, adulthood, and brain growth arrest. We find that: (1) a me-vs-nature setting is enough to generate adult brain and body mass of ancient human scale and a sequence of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood stages; (2) large brains are favored by intermediately challenging environments, moderately effective skills, and metabolically expensive memory; and (3) adult skill is proportional to brain mass when metabolic costs of memory saturate the brain metabolic rate allocated to skills.

  20. A model for brain life history evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brain’s energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological settings. We apply the model to find uninvadable allocation strategies under a baseline setting (“me vs nature”), namely when energy-extraction challenges are environmentally determined and are overcome individually but possibly with maternal help, and use modern-human data to estimate model’s parameter values. The resulting uninvadable strategies yield predictions for brain and body mass throughout ontogeny and for the ages at maturity, adulthood, and brain growth arrest. We find that: (1) a me-vs-nature setting is enough to generate adult brain and body mass of ancient human scale and a sequence of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood stages; (2) large brains are favored by intermediately challenging environments, moderately effective skills, and metabolically expensive memory; and (3) adult skill is proportional to brain mass when metabolic costs of memory saturate the brain metabolic rate allocated to skills. PMID:28278153

  1. Developing an integrative level-dimensional taxonomy model for rehabilitation psychology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Mermis, Bernie J

    2018-02-01

    The present article concerns the development of a taxonomy model for organizing and classifying all aspects of rehabilitation psychology from an integrative level-dimensional conceptualization. This conceptualization is presented as an alternative to a primarily categorical approach to classification. It also assumes a continuity perspective for all aspects of behavior and experience. Development of this taxonomy model involves organizing information relevant to levels/domains of all aspects of behavior and experience, and to constructs describing their underlying components conceptually as well as dimensions which constitute the measurable basis of constructs. A taxonomy model with levels/domains, representative examples of constructs and dimensions is presented as a foundation for development of the present taxonomy model, with specific relevance to rehabilitation psychology. This integrative level-dimensional taxonomy model provides a structure for organizing all aspects of rehabilitation psychology relevant to understanding, assessing, and influencing the rehabilitation process. Suggestions for development and research are provided for the taxonomy model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy

    PubMed Central

    Springthorpe, Vicki; Penfield, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.001 PMID:25824056

  3. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: life-history adaptations in a livebearing fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    Life-history traits are very sensitive to extreme environmental conditions, because resources that need to be invested in somatic maintenance cannot be invested in reproduction. Here we examined female life-history traits in the Mexican livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana from a variety of benign surface habitats, a creek with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a sulfidic cave, and a non-sulfidic cave. Previous studies revealed pronounced genetic and morphological divergence over very small geographic scales in this system despite the absence of physical barriers, suggesting that local adaptation to different combinations of two selection factors, toxicity (H2S) and darkness, is accompanied by very low rates of gene flow. Hence, we investigated life-history divergence between these populations in response to the selective pressures of darkness and/or toxicity. Our main results show that toxicity and darkness both select for (or impose constraints on) the same female trait dynamics: reduced fecundity and increased offspring size. Since reduced fecundity in the sulfur cave population was previously shown to be heritable, we discuss how divergent life-history evolution may promote further ecological divergence: for example, reduced fecundity and increased offspring autonomy are clearly beneficial in extreme environments, but fish with these traits are outcompeted in benign habitats.

  4. Asteroid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  5. Influences on Bythotrephes longimanus life-history characteristics in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Warner, David M.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Nalepa, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We compared Bythotrephes population demographics and dynamics to predator (planktivorous fish) and prey (small-bodied crustacean zooplankton) densities at a site sampled through the growing season in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Although seasonal average densities of Bythotrephes were similar across lakes (222/m2 Erie, 247/m2 Huron, 162/m2 Michigan), temporal trends in abundance differed among lakes. In central Lake Erie where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by small individuals (60%), where planktivorous fish densities were high (14,317/ha), and where a shallow water column limited availability of a deepwater refuge, the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a small mean body size, large broods with small neonates, allocation of length increases mainly to the spine rather than to the body, and a late summer population decline. By contrast, in Lake Michigan where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by large individuals (72%) and planktivorous fish densities were lower (5052/ha), the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a large mean body size (i.e., 37–55% higher than in Erie), small broods with large neonates, nearly all growth in body length occurring between instars 1 and 2, and population persistence into fall. Life-history characteristics in Lake Huron tended to be intermediate to those found in Lakes Michigan and Erie, reflecting lower overall prey and predator densities (1224/ha) relative to the other lakes. Because plasticity in life history can affect interactions with other species, our findings point to the need to understand life-history variation among Great Lakes populations to improve our ability to model the dynamics of these ecosystems.

  6. Life-history differences favor evolution of male dimorphism in competitive games.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Johansson, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male morph coexistence has not yet been investigated within a single framework. Here we integrate demography and game theory into a two-sex population model to study the evolution of strategies that result in the coexistence of fighters and sneakers. We incorporate differences in maturation time between the morphs and use a mating-probability matrix analogous to the classic hawk-dove game. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that male dimorphism evolves more easily in our model than in classic game theory approaches. Our results also revealed an interaction between life-history differences and sneaker competitiveness, which shows that demography and competitive games should be treated as interlinked mechanisms to understand the evolution of male dimorphism. Applying our approach to empirical data on bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and bullhorned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) indicates that observed occurrences of male dimorphism are in general agreement with model predictions.

  7. A Taxonomy of Delivery and Documentation Deviations During Delivery of High-Fidelity Simulations.

    PubMed

    McIvor, William R; Banerjee, Arna; Boulet, John R; Bekhuis, Tanja; Tseytlin, Eugene; Torsher, Laurence; DeMaria, Samuel; Rask, John P; Shotwell, Matthew S; Burden, Amanda; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Gaba, David M; Levine, Adam; Park, Christine; Sinz, Elizabeth; Steadman, Randolph H; Weinger, Matthew B

    2017-02-01

    We developed a taxonomy of simulation delivery and documentation deviations noted during a multicenter, high-fidelity simulation trial that was conducted to assess practicing physicians' performance. Eight simulation centers sought to implement standardized scenarios over 2 years. Rules, guidelines, and detailed scenario scripts were established to facilitate reproducible scenario delivery; however, pilot trials revealed deviations from those rubrics. A taxonomy with hierarchically arranged terms that define a lack of standardization of simulation scenario delivery was then created to aid educators and researchers in assessing and describing their ability to reproducibly conduct simulations. Thirty-six types of delivery or documentation deviations were identified from the scenario scripts and study rules. Using a Delphi technique and open card sorting, simulation experts formulated a taxonomy of high-fidelity simulation execution and documentation deviations. The taxonomy was iteratively refined and then tested by 2 investigators not involved with its development. The taxonomy has 2 main classes, simulation center deviation and participant deviation, which are further subdivided into as many as 6 subclasses. Inter-rater classification agreement using the taxonomy was 74% or greater for each of the 7 levels of its hierarchy. Cohen kappa calculations confirmed substantial agreement beyond that expected by chance. All deviations were classified within the taxonomy. This is a useful taxonomy that standardizes terms for simulation delivery and documentation deviations, facilitates quality assurance in scenario delivery, and enables quantification of the impact of deviations upon simulation-based performance assessment.

  8. Walking a Fine Balance: The Life History of a Woman Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Hope-Arlene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the leadership journey of Kathryn, an educational leader, in relation to current research on women's experiences as educational leaders. This life history was developed as a grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) study. Conducted over a two-year period, the semi-structured interviews used to conduct the study were…

  9. The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

  10. Using Life Histories to Individualize Nursing Home Staff Attitudes toward Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrukowicz, Mary E.; Johnson, Mitzi M. S.

    1991-01-01

    Nurse's aides (n=43) at two institutions answered questions about their experience and knowledge of aging and rated nursing home residents on a semantic differential (attitude) scale. Results indicated including a brief life history in a routine medical chart caused aides to perceive residents in a more positive manner. (Author/ABL)

  11. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan

    2009-04-01

    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.

  13. Developing a taxonomy of coordination behaviours in nuclear power plant control rooms during emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dunxing; Gao, Qin; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Ma, Liang

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to develop a taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We summarised basic coordination behaviours from literature in aviation, health care and nuclear field and identified coordination behaviours specific to the nuclear domain by interviewing and surveying control crew operators. The established taxonomy includes 7 workflow stages and 24 basic coordination behaviours. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy, we analysed 12 videos of operators' training sessions by coding coordination behaviours with the taxonomy and the inter-rater reliability was acceptable. Further analysis of the frequency, the duration and the direction of the coordination behaviours revealed four coordination problems. This taxonomy provides a foundation of systematic observation of coordination behaviours among NPP crews, advances researchers' understanding of the coordination mechanism during emergencies in NPPs and facilitate the possibility to deepen the understanding of the relationships between coordination behaviours and team performance. Practitioner Summary: A taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants was developed. Reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy was verified through the analysis of 12 training sessions. The taxonomy can serve as an observation system for analysis of coordination behaviours and help to identify coordination problems of control crews.

  14. The influence of life-history strategy on genetic differentiation and lineage divergence in darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    PubMed

    Fluker, Brook L; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Harris, Phillip M

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies determined that darters with specialized breeding strategies can exhibit deep lineage divergence over fine geographic scales without apparent physical barriers to gene flow. However, the extent to which intrinsic characteristics interact with extrinsic factors to influence population divergence and lineage diversification in darters is not well understood. This study employed comparative phylogeographic and population genetic methods to investigate the influence of life history on gene flow, dispersal ability, and lineage divergence in two sympatric sister darters with differing breeding strategies. Our results revealed highly disparate phylogeographic histories, patterns of genetic structure, and dispersal abilities between the two species suggesting that life history may contribute to lineage diversification in darters, especially by limiting dispersal among large river courses. Both species also showed striking differences in demographic history, indicating that extrinsic factors differentially affected each species during the Pleistocene. Collectively, our results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic factors have influenced levels of gene flow among populations within both species examined. However, we suggest that life-history strategy may play a more important role in lineage diversification in darters than previously appreciated, a finding that has potentially important implications for understanding diversification of the rich North American freshwater fish fauna. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    PubMed

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies.

  16. Taxonomy of Learning Skills. Interim Technical Report for the Period February 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Shute, Valerie J.

    Questions concerning individual differences in learning ability may be more precisely addressed in light of an agreed-upon taxonomy of learning skills. Existing taxonomies are reviewed, and their shortcomings are described. A taxonomy is then proposed based on a synthesis of current thought consisting of four dimensions: the forms of knowledge;…

  17. Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas.

    PubMed

    Stearns, S C

    1976-03-01

    This review organizes ideas on the evolution of life histories. The key life-history traits are brood size, size of young, the age distribution of reproductive effort, the interaction of reproductive effort with adult mortality, and the variation in these traits among an individual's progeny. The general theoretical problem is to predict which combinations of traits will evolve in organisms living in specified circumstances. First consider single traits. Theorists have made the following predictions: (1) Where adult exceeds juvenile mortality, the organism should reproduce only once in its lifetime. Where juvenile exceeds adult mortality, the organism should reproduce several times. (2) Brood size should macimize the number of young surviving to maturity, summed over the lifetime of the parent. But when optimum brood-size unpredictably in time, smaller broods should be favored because they decrease the chances of total failure on a given attempt. (3) In expanding populations, selection should minimize age at maturity. In stable populations, when reproductive success depends on size, age, or social status, or when adult exceeds juvenile mortality, then maturation should be delayed, as it should be in declining populations. (4) Young should increase in size at birth with increased predation risk, and decrease in size with increased resource availability. Theorists have also predicted that only particular combinations of traits should occur in specified circumstances. (5) In growing populations, age at maturity should be minimized, reproductive effort concentrated early in life, and brood size increased. (6) One view holds that in stable environments, late maturity, broods, a few, large young, parental care, and small reproductive efforts should be favored (K-selection). In fluctuating environments, early maturity, many small young, reduced parental care, and large reproductive efforts should be favored (r-selection). (7) But another view holds that when juvenile

  18. Life history of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in fragmented versus continuous landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Duplouy, Anne; Ikonen, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation threaten the long-term viability of innumerable species of plants and animals. At the same time, habitat fragmentation may impose strong natural selection and lead to evolution of life histories with possible consequences for demographic dynamics. The Baltic populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) inhabit regions with highly fragmented habitat (networks of small dry meadows) as well as regions with extensive continuous habitat (calcareous alvar grasslands). Here, we report the results of common garden studies on butterflies originating from two highly fragmented landscapes (FL) in Finland and Sweden and from two continuous landscapes (CL) in Sweden and Estonia, conducted in a large outdoor cage (32 by 26 m) and in the laboratory. We investigated a comprehensive set of 51 life-history traits, including measures of larval growth and development, flight performance, and adult reproductive behavior. Seventeen of the 51 traits showed a significant difference between fragmented versus CL. Most notably, the growth rate of postdiapause larvae and several measures of flight capacity, including flight metabolic rate, were higher in butterflies from fragmented than CL. Females from CL had shorter intervals between consecutive egg clutches and somewhat higher life-time egg production, but shorter longevity, than females from FL. These results are likely to reflect the constant opportunities for oviposition in females living in continuous habitats, while the more dispersive females from FL allocate more resources to dispersal capacity at the cost of egg maturation rate. This study supports theoretical predictions about small population sizes and high rate of population turnover in fragmented habitats selecting for increased rate of dispersal, but the results also indicate that many other life-history traits apart from dispersal are affected by the degree of habitat fragmentation. PMID:24455144

  19. Life-history trade-offs mediate 'personality' variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Kloesener, Michaela H; Baeumer, Jana; Beinlich, Felix; Eggers, Till

    2015-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, life span) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was measured repeatedly to classify individuals as consistent droppers, consistent nondroppers or inconsistents. Red morphs experienced stronger trade-offs between early reproduction and life span than green morphs; and red consistent (non)droppers had highest lifetime reproductive success. Red droppers followed a risk-averse life-history strategy (high late reproduction), red nondroppers a risk-prone strategy (high early reproduction), while reproductive rates were equivalent for all green behavioural types and red inconsistents. This suggests that red morphs suffer the highest costs of dropping (they are most conspicuous to predators), which 'equivalates' fitness payoffs to both risk-takers (red non-droppers) and risk-averse red droppers. The strong trade-off also means that committing to a particular lifestyle (being consistent) maximises fitness. Our study suggests that life-history trade-offs likely mediate personality variation but effects might depend on interactions with other organismal characteristics (here: colour morph). © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  20. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Beck M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, allowed us to document patterns of migration during 11 years that encompassed a wide array of environmental conditions. We used two new techniques to properly account for interval-censored data and disentangle effects of broad-scale climate, local weather patterns, and plant phenology on seasonal patterns of migration, while incorporating effects of individual life-history characteristics. Timing of autumn migration varied substantially among individual deer, but was associated with the severity of winter weather, and in particular, snow depth and cold temperatures. Migratory responses to winter weather, however, were affected by age, nutritional condition, and summer residency of individual females. Old females and those in good nutritional condition risked encountering severe weather by delaying autumn migration, and were thus risk-prone with respect to the potential loss of foraging opportunities in deep snow compared with young females and those in poor nutritional condition. Females that summered on the west side of the crest of the Sierra Nevada delayed autumn migration relative to east-side females, which supports the influence of the local environment on timing of migration. In contrast, timing of spring migration was unrelated to individual life-history characteristics, was nearly twice as synchronous as autumn migration, differed among years, was related to the southern oscillation index, and was influenced by absolute snow depth and advancing phenology of plants

  1. Exploring a taxonomy for aggression against women: can it aid conceptual clarity?

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah; Parrott, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of aggression against women is demanding primarily because assessment strategies do not share a common language to describe reliably the wide range of forms of aggression women experience. The lack of a common language impairs efforts to describe these experiences, understand causes and consequences of aggression against women, and develop effective intervention and prevention efforts. This review accomplishes two goals. First, it applies a theoretically and empirically based taxonomy to behaviors assessed by existing measurement instruments. Second, it evaluates whether the taxonomy provides a common language for the field. Strengths of the taxonomy include its ability to describe and categorize all forms of aggression found in existing quantitative measures. The taxonomy also classifies numerous examples of aggression discussed in the literature but notably absent from quantitative measures. Although we use existing quantitative measures as a starting place to evaluate the taxonomy, its use is not limited to quantitative methods. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  2. Taxonomy for colorectal cancer screening promotion: Lessons from recent randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Paul; Myers, Ronald E; Serenity, Mardie; Gupta, Samir; Inadomi, John M; Green, Beverly B; Jerant, Anthony; Tinmouth, Jill; Paszat, Lawrence; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Rabeneck, Linda

    2017-08-01

    To derive a taxonomy for colorectal cancer screening that advances Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and screening uptake. Detailed publication review, multiple interviews with principal investigators (PIs) and collaboration with PIs as co-authors produced a CRCS intervention taxonomy. Semi-structured interview questions with PIs (Drs. Inadomi, Myers, Green, Gupta, Jerant and Ritvo) yielded details about trial conduct. Interview comparisons led to an iterative process informing serial interviews until a consensus was obtained on final taxonomy structure. These taxonomy headings (Engagement Sponsor, Population Targeted, Alternative Screening Tests, Delivery Methods, and Support for Test Performance (EPADS)) were used to compare studies. Exemplary insights emphasized: 1) direct test delivery to patients; 2) linguistic-ethnic matching of staff to minority subjects; and 3) authorization of navigators to schedule or refer for colonoscopies and/or distribute stool blood tests during screening promotion. PIs of key RCTs (2012-2015) derived a CRCS taxonomy useful in detailed examination of CRCS promotion and design of future RCTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Civic Life as Conveyed in United States Civics and History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.; Simmons, Annette M.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes six U.S. civics and history textbooks used in grades seven through nine to determine what messages these texts convey to young people about the nature of civic life. Explores the results in three sections: (1) learning about the nature of democracy; (2) national identity and loyalty; and (3) diversity. (CMK)

  4. Enriching the Historiography of Religious Education: Insights from Oral Life History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doney, Jonathan; Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to exemplify the extent to which oral life history research can enrich existing historiographies of English Religious Education (RE). Findings are reported from interviews undertaken with a sample of key informants involved in designing and/or implementing significant curriculum changes in RE in the 1960s and 1970s. The…

  5. Some Life History Narratives of Religious Education Coordinators in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Belmonte, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to gain a better understanding of religious education coordinators (RECs) in contemporary Catholic schools. This is done by using life history narratives to explore how participants came to be RECs. This study takes place in a wider cultural context that sees strong religious commitment, manifested by taking leadership positions…

  6. Environmental forcing on life history strategies: Evidence for multi-trophic level responses at ocean basin scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, Robert M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Hatch, Scott A.; Frederiksen, Morten; Wanless, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Variation in life history traits of organisms is thought to reflect adaptations to environmental forcing occurring from bottom-up and top-down processes. Such variation occurs not only among, but also within species, indicating demographic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. From a broad literature review, we present evidence for ocean basin- and large marine ecosystem-scale variation in intra-specific life history traits, with similar responses occurring among trophic levels from relatively short-lived secondary producers to very long-lived apex predators. Between North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean basins, for example, species in the Eastern Pacific exhibited either later maturation, lower fecundity, and/or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Western Atlantic. Parallel variations in life histories among trophic levels also occur in adjacent seas and between eastern vs. western ocean boundaries. For example, zooplankton and seabird species in cooler Barents Sea waters exhibit lower fecundity or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Northeast Atlantic. Sea turtles exhibit a larger size and a greater reproductive output in the Western Pacific vs. Eastern Pacific. These examples provide evidence for food-web-wide modifications in life history strategies in response to environmental forcing. We hypothesize that such dichotomies result from frequency and amplitude shifts in resource availability over varying temporal and spatial scales. We review data that supports three primary mechanisms by which environmental forcing affects life history strategies: (1) food-web structure; (2) climate variability affecting the quantity and seasonality of primary productivity; (3) bottom-up vs. top-down forcing. These proposed mechanisms provide a framework for comparisons of ecosystem function among oceanic regions (or regimes) and are essential in modeling ecosystem response to climate change, as well as for creating dynamic ecosystem

  7. "Never Really Had a Good Education You Know, Until I Came in Here": Educational Life Histories of Young Adult Male Prisoner Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Jane; Maunsell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational life histories of nine prisoner learners aged between 18 and 21 years which were collated as part of doctoral work which sought to access the life histories of adult male prisoners who were attending a prison school while incarcerated in prison. The nine life histories of the young men were collated not only…

  8. Deep phylogeny, ancestral groups and the four ages of life

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Organismal phylogeny depends on cell division, stasis, mutational divergence, cell mergers (by sex or symbiogenesis), lateral gene transfer and death. The tree of life is a useful metaphor for organismal genealogical history provided we recognize that branches sometimes fuse. Hennigian cladistics emphasizes only lineage splitting, ignoring most other major phylogenetic processes. Though methodologically useful it has been conceptually confusing and harmed taxonomy, especially in mistakenly opposing ancestral (paraphyletic) taxa. The history of life involved about 10 really major innovations in cell structure. In membrane topology, there were five successive kinds of cell: (i) negibacteria, with two bounding membranes, (ii) unibacteria, with one bounding and no internal membranes, (iii) eukaryotes with endomembranes and mitochondria, (iv) plants with chloroplasts and (v) finally, chromists with plastids inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Membrane chemistry divides negibacteria into the more advanced Glycobacteria (e.g. Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria) with outer membrane lipolysaccharide and primitive Eobacteria without lipopolysaccharide (deserving intenser study). It also divides unibacteria into posibacteria, ancestors of eukaryotes, and archaebacteria—the sisters (not ancestors) of eukaryotes and the youngest bacterial phylum. Anaerobic eobacteria, oxygenic cyanobacteria, desiccation-resistant posibacteria and finally neomura (eukaryotes plus archaebacteria) successively transformed Earth. Accidents and organizational constraints are as important as adaptiveness in body plan evolution. PMID:20008390

  9. Paulsenella Chatton (Dinophyta), ectoparasites of marine diatoms: development and taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.

    1988-09-01

    All members of the dinophyte Paulsenella are ectoparasites on marine planktonic diatoms. At present three species are known, two of which are described here for the first time. The taxonomy of the type species, P. chaetoceratis, is paid critical attention. The species are clearly distinguished by their host specificity and additionally by differences in morphology, especially of the trophonts. Using clonal cultures the life cycles of the three species are compared. The vegetative development may be interrupted by formation of temporary and resting cysts. In ageing cultures, stages with nuclear cyclosis occur, believed to indicate meiosis. In P. vonstoschii, the meiospores are capable of developing into resting cysts. As yet, knowledge on sexual reproduction is still incomplete.

  10. Viral taxonomy needs a spring clean; its exploration era is over.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Adrian J

    2013-08-09

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has recently changed its approved definition of a viral species, and also discontinued work on its database of virus descriptions. These events indicate that the exploration era of viral taxonomy has ended; over the past century the principles of viral taxonomy have been established, the tools for phylogenetic inference invented, and the ultimate discriminatory data required for taxonomy, namely gene sequences, are now readily available. Further changes would make viral taxonomy more informative. First, the status of a 'taxonomic species' with an italicized name should only be given to viruses that are specifically linked with a single 'type genomic sequence' like those in the NCBI Reference Sequence Database. Secondly all approved taxa should be predominately monophyletic, and uninformative higher taxa disendorsed. These are 'quality assurance' measures and would improve the value of viral nomenclature to its users. The ICTV should also promote the use of a public database, such as Wikipedia, to replace the ICTV database as a store of the primary metadata of individual viruses, and should publish abstracts of the ICTV Reports in that database, so that they are 'Open Access'.

  11. Towards the Development of a Taxonomy for Visualisation of Streamed Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibolla, B. H.; Van Zyl, T.; Coetzee, S.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  12. Movements of Blue Sharks (Prionace glauca) across Their Life History

    PubMed Central

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  13. Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) across their life history.

    PubMed

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  14. Instruments and Taxonomy of Workplace Bullying in Health Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jun; Lee, Mikyoung; Park, Myungsook

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the methodological issues and comprehensiveness of workplace bullying instruments and to suggest a taxonomy of psychological abuse. Nineteen instruments applied in health care organizations and 469 questionnaire items mainly regarding psychological abuse were collected through a literature review. Three researchers classified the questionnaire items according to a "taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace." Many instruments of workplace bullying were developed in the 2000s using a reflective measurement model, but their psychometric property was not sufficient and the measurement model is questioned. Based on the questionnaire items, the "taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace" was modified by adding two new subcategories (unachievable work and unfair treatment) and clarifying some operational definitions. According to the modified taxonomy of 11 (sub)categories, the reviewed instruments assessed 6.5 (sub)categories on average. No instrument measured all (sub)categories. Category 4.2 (disrespect, humiliation, and rejection of the person) was measured in all instruments, followed by Categories 5 (professional discredit and denigration) and 1.2 (social isolation) behaviors. The current instruments are not comprehensive enough. It is suggested that the modified taxonomy is verified and guide more reliable and inclusive instruments in the future. Furthermore, a formative measurement model, which defines a bullying as an inventory of different types of behaviors, should be used. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Plant Taxonomy as a Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests methods of teaching plant identification and taxonomic theory using keys, statistical analyses, and biometrics. Population variation, genotype- environment interaction and experimental taxonomy are used in laboratory and field. (AL)

  16. Life-History Evolution on Tropidurinae Lizards: Influence of Lineage, Body Size and Climate

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Renata; Navas, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of life history variation is central to the evolutionary theory. In many ectothermic lineages, including lizards, life history traits are plastic and relate to several sources of variation including body size, which is both a factor and a life history trait likely to modulate reproductive parameters. Larger species within a lineage, for example tend to be more fecund and have larger clutch size, but clutch size may also be influenced by climate, independently of body size. Thus, the study of climatic effects on lizard fecundity is mandatory on the current scenario of global climatic change. We asked how body and clutch size have responded to climate through time in a group of tropical lizards, the Tropidurinae, and how these two variables relate to each other. We used both traditional and phylogenetic comparative methods. Body and clutch size are variable within Tropidurinae, and both traits are influenced by phylogenetic position. Across the lineage, species which evolved larger size produce more eggs and neither trait is influenced by temperature components. A climatic component of precipitation, however, relates to larger female body size, and therefore seems to exert an indirect relationship on clutch size. This effect of precipitation on body size is likely a correlate of primary production. A decrease in fecundity is expected for Tropidurinae species on continental landmasses, which are predicted to undergo a decrease in summer rainfall. PMID:21603641

  17. Quantifying the life-history response to increased male exposure in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Fricke, Claudia; Gerrard, Dave T; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-02-01

    Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female wer