Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Teaching DICOM by problem solving.
Noumeir, Rita; Pambrun, Jean-François
2012-10-01
The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is the standard for encoding and communicating medical imaging information. It is used in radiology as well as in many other imaging domains such as ophthalmology, dentistry, and pathology. DICOM information objects are used to encode medical images or information about the images. Their usage outside of the imaging department is increasing, especially with the sharing of medical images within Electronic Health Record systems. However, learning DICOM is long and difficult because it defines and uses many specific abstract concepts that relate to each other. In this paper, we present an approach, based on problem solving, for teaching DICOM as part of a graduate course on healthcare information. The proposed approach allows students with diversified background and no software development experience to grasp a large breadth of knowledge in a very short time.
Teaching Problem Solving through Children's Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
This book helps general and special education teachers empower students in grades K-4 to independently solve problems by teaching them how characters in children's literature books solved similar problems. Students are also taught a problem solving strategy that they can apply to solve problems in any situation. The book contains ready-to-use…
The Important Thing about Teaching Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Sally K.
2010-01-01
The author teaches a content course in problem solving for middle school teachers. During the course, teacher candidates have the opportunity to confront their insecurities as they actively engage in solving math problems using a variety of strategies. As the semester progresses, they add new strategies to their problem-solving arsenal and…
Teaching through Collaborative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blandford, A. E.
1994-01-01
Discussion of a prototype intelligent education system called WOMBAT (Weighted Objectives Method by Arguing with the Tutor) focuses on dialogue and negotiation in collaborative problem solving. The results of a formative evaluation, in which the system was used by 10 subjects who commented on various aspects of the design, are presented. (Contains…
Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.
2008-01-01
Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barczi, Krisztina
2013-01-01
Teaching how to solve problems--from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks--has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might…
Teaching Problem-Solving. Informal Series/43.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
This monograph is designed to provide practical classroom suggestions, including sample lesson plans, to show how teachers can improve the problem-solving competence of students at all educational and ability levels. The examples provided show that problem-solving instruction can be integrated with teaching the content of particular topics. While…
Teaching Problem Solving: An Instructional Design Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, John A.; Maynes, Florence J.
1983-01-01
Instructional design strategy for improving problem solving is presented. The strategy entails selecting an appropriate domain of problem-solving tasks, learning hierarchies, teaching methods and assembling of learning materials, and designing teacher training and evaluation. Obstacles to be overcome and directions for future research are…
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pehkonen, Erkki; Näveri, Liisa; Laine, Anu
2013-01-01
The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open…
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinsella, John J.
1970-01-01
Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Teaching Problem Solving as Viewed Through a Theory of Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vest, Floyd
1976-01-01
An analysis of methods of teaching children to solve verbal arithmetic problems is presented together with transcriptions of interviews in which children solve problems by reference to problem types. (SD)
Computer Games Teach Problem-Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clayson, James
1982-01-01
The difficulty many students have in solving complex problems stems not from a lack of mathematical skill but from an inability to visualize the problem. An appropriately-structured computer game may assist students in achieving this visualization and in solving problems better. A heuristic approach in programing one game is provided. (Author/JN)
Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angseesing, J. P. A.
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
Teaching Production: A Problem Solving Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Litle, Michael
1982-01-01
Details an approach which involves taking students through the problems of film production while teaching (1) theory; (2) actual tools of production; and (3) practical methods of organizing work. Contends that precise, challenging, technical exercises performed in an interactive social framework maximize skill development. (PD)
Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R., Ed.
This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify…
Teaching Clinical Problem Solving in a Preclinical Operative Dentistry Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silvestri, Anthony R., Jr.; Cohen, Steven N.
1981-01-01
A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)
Problem Solving Cases in Teaching of Applied Pathology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
And Others; Levison, D. A.
1977-01-01
A problem solving case method of teaching practical pathology is described, illustrated, and compared with more traditional teaching methods. Advantages include: emphasis of the relevance of pathology to clinical medicine; encouragement of self-assessment; economy of equipment costs and staff time. (Author/LBH)
A Problem-Solving Approach To the Teaching of Evolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brewer, Steve
1996-01-01
Describes a research program that provides insight into the nature of phylogenetic problems and problem-solving methods and how these might be applied to teaching evolution. Contains a new description of the nature of phylogenetic problems and factors contributing to their difficulty. (AIM)
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to
An Expert System Shell to Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lippert, Renate C.
1988-01-01
Discusses the use of expert systems to teach problem-solving skills to students from grade 6 to college level. The role of computer technology in the future of education is considered, and the construction of knowledge bases is described, including an example for physics. (LRW)
The Problem Solving Method in Teaching Physics in Elementary School
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jandrić, Gordana Hajduković; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja
2010-01-01
The most of the teachers ask if there is a "best" known way to teach. The most effective teaching method depends on the specific goals of the course and the needs of the students. An investigation has been carried out to compare the effect of teaching selected physics topics using problem-solving method on the overall achievements of the acquired knowledge and teaching the same material by traditional teaching method. The investigation was performed as a pedagogical experiment of the type of parallel groups with randomly chosen sample of students attending grades eight. The control and experimental groups were equalized in the relevant pedagogical parameters. The obtained results were treated statistically. The comparison showed a significant difference in respect of the speed of acquiring knowledge, the problem-solving teaching being advantageous over traditional methodDo not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Teaching creativity and inventive problem solving in science.
DeHaan, Robert L
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures.
Teaching Creativity and Inventive Problem Solving in Science
2009-01-01
Engaging learners in the excitement of science, helping them discover the value of evidence-based reasoning and higher-order cognitive skills, and teaching them to become creative problem solvers have long been goals of science education reformers. But the means to achieve these goals, especially methods to promote creative thinking in scientific problem solving, have not become widely known or used. In this essay, I review the evidence that creativity is not a single hard-to-measure property. The creative process can be explained by reference to increasingly well-understood cognitive skills such as cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control that are widely distributed in the population. I explore the relationship between creativity and the higher-order cognitive skills, review assessment methods, and describe several instructional strategies for enhancing creative problem solving in the college classroom. Evidence suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes explicit strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities. Further research is required to determine whether college students' learning will be enhanced by these measures. PMID:19723812
Introductory Economic Geography: Problem-Solving or a Teaching Problem?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheeler, James O.
Because economic geography is viewed as a field with too many different aspects for one person to master, teaching an introductory course in the subject poses the challenge of selecting an organizing theme. One specific approach, organized around higher level generalizations and theories, is the use of location theory. Coupling location theory…
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Using Coaching to Improve the Teaching of Problem Solving to Year 8 Students in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kargas, Christine Anestis; Stephens, Max
2014-01-01
This study investigated how to improve the teaching of problem solving in a large Melbourne secondary school. Coaching was used to support and equip five teachers, some with limited experiences in teaching problem solving, with knowledge and strategies to build up students' problem solving and reasoning skills. The results showed increased…
View box exercises for teaching problem solving in radiology.
Miller, R E; Andrew, B J
1977-02-01
An organized radiologic problem-solving system is presented for developing improved view box exercises for students and residents. It is based on six components: (1) problem sensing, (2) problem hypothesizing, (3) problem searching and definition, (4) problem identification, (5) resolution, and (6) verification. Since all examinations by the practicing radiologist involve these components, worthwhile simulated clinical management games should also incorporate them. A simulated radiologic exercise should be a valid measurement of the resident's ability to manage a wide range of clinical situations and techniques and should improve problem-solving strategies. Use of simulated clinical cases eliminates risk to patients during the educational process.
Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-08-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.
Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying
2008-01-01
Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…
Teaching Pharmacy Students Problem-Solving: Theory and Present Status.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Raymond; Solad, Suzanne Wegener
1990-01-01
Two approaches for teaching a student how to define a problem, acquire pertinent data, generate possible solutions, and optimize them for the patient are described: guided design, originating in engineering education; and problem-based learning, which has roots in medical education. (Author/MLW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Brown, Ann L.
1988-01-01
Listening and reading comprehension are seen as problem-solving activities, which require instruction in thinking skills. An instructional technique, reciprocal teaching, is conducted as a group problem-solving activity to teach remedial and special education students to predict, question, summarize, and clarify while reading and listening to…
History of Mathematics and Problem Solving: A Teaching Suggestion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meavilla, V.; Flores, A.
2007-01-01
This note presents a teaching suggestion, using the history of mathematics, to give students from middle school and high school the possibility of facing problems found in old mathematics books and comparing their solutions with those given in those books. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)
Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Ann
2013-01-01
This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…
John Dewey--Problem Solving and History Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martorella, Peter H.
1978-01-01
Presents a model for introducing inquiry and problem-solving into middle grade history classes. It is based on an educational approach suggested by John Dewey. The author uses the model to explore two seemingly contradictory statements by Abraham Lincoln about slavery. (AV)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Espinosa, Allen A.; Nueva España, Rebecca C.; Marasigan, Arlyne C.
2016-01-01
The present study investigated pre-service chemistry teachers' problem solving strategies and alternative conceptions in solving stoichiometric problems and later on formulate a teaching framework based from the result of the study. The pre-service chemistry teachers were given four stoichiometric problems with increasing complexity and they need…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.
2012-01-01
The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hedges, Lowell E.
This document contains 48 sample lesson plans that practicing teachers of vocational and academic education have developed to train vocational students to think critically and to solve problems. Discussed in the introduction are the following topics: critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making as the building blocks of teaching;…
Teaching the Pressure-Flow Hypothesis of Phloem Transport in a Problem-Solving Session
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clifford, Paul
2004-01-01
Problem solving is an ideal learning strategy, especially for topics that are perceived as difficult to teach. As an example, a format is described for a problem-solving session designed to help students understand the pressure-flow hypothesis of phloem transport in plants. Five key facts and their discussion can lead to the conclusion that a…
Learning through Real-World Problem Solving: The Power of Integrative Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nagel, Nancy G.
This book is based on the idea that curriculum development projects focused on integrated or interdisciplinary teaching within the context of real-world problem solving creates dynamics and meaningful learning experiences for students. The real-world, problem-solving units presented in this book were created by four intern teachers, their mentor…
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki
2016-01-01
Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mike U.
Both teachers and students alike acknowledge that genetics and genetics problem-solving are extremely difficult to learn and to teach. Therefore, a number of recommendations for teaching college genetics are offered. Although few of these ideas have as yet been tested in controlled experiments, they are supported by research and experience and may…
Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cancer, Vesna
2014-01-01
This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mataka, Lloyd M.; Cobern, William W.; Grunert, Megan L.; Mutambuki, Jacinta; Akom, George
2014-01-01
This study investigate the effectiveness of adding an "explicit general problem solving teaching strategy" (EGPS) to guided inquiry (GI) on pre-service elementary school teachers' ability to solve heat transfer problems. The pre-service elementary teachers in this study were enrolled in two sections of a chemistry course for pre-service…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Hornberger, Erin
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a point-of-view video modeling intervention to teach mathematics problem-solving when working on word problems involving subtracting mixed fractions with uncommon denominators. Using a multiple-probe across students design of single-case methodology, three high school students with ASD completed the study. All three students demonstrated greater accuracy in solving fraction word problems and maintained accuracy levels at a 1-week follow-up.
Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roesler, Rebecca A.
2016-01-01
Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Hornberger, Erin
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a point-of-view video modeling intervention to teach mathematics problem-solving when working on word problems involving subtracting mixed fractions with uncommon denominators. Using a multiple-probe across students design of single-case methodology, three high school students with…
Research and Teaching: Teaching Students How to Check Their Work While Solving Problems in Genetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonnell, Lisa; Mullally, Martha
2016-01-01
An essential component skill of monitoring and reflection during problem solving is work checking, a process used by experts while solving problems to determine if their solution is achieving the goal. The results of work checking may reveal errors or inconsistencies, indicating a need for iteration. Using think-aloud interviews, the authors…
How to Teach Procedures, Problem Solving, and Concepts in Microbial Genetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bainbridge, Brian W.
1977-01-01
Flow-diagrams, algorithms, decision logic tables, and concept maps are presented in detail as methods for teaching practical procedures, problem solving, and basic concepts in microbial genetics. It is suggested that the flexible use of these methods should lead to an improved understanding of microbial genetics. (Author/MA)
A Teaching-Learning Method Enhancing Problem Solving and Motivation in Secondary Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markoczi-Revak, Ibolya
2003-01-01
Presents a teaching-learning method for enhancing problem solving and motivation for studying science in secondary schools. Emerges from a former survey which, found that the motivation of 14-18-year-olds as measured by the Kozekik-Entwistle test was at a rather low level. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)
The Effectiveness of a CBI Program for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Middle Level Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langholz, Judith; Smaldino, Sharon E.
This study focuses on the effectiveness of "Solutions Unlimited," a computer software program developed to teach problem solving to middle level students. Fifty-one fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (21 girls and 30 boys) attending a private school in a small mid-west community were the subjects for this experiment; none had received…
Assessing Problem Solving Competence through Inquiry-Based Teaching in School Science Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zervas, Panagiotis; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Sampson, Demetrios G.
2015-01-01
Nowadays, there is a consensus that inquiry-based learning contributes to developing students' scientific literacy in schools. Inquiry-based teaching strategies are promoted for the development (among others) of the cognitive processes that cultivate problem solving (PS) competence. The build up of PS competence is a central objective for most…
Teaching the Grant Proposal as a Problem-Solving Strategy: A Rhetorical Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Herbert J.
Technical communications courses, which frequently present the research proposal as part of the report writing segment, rarely teach the grant proposal, even though it can provide the instructor with a vehicle for presenting such rhetorical strategies as audience analysis and persuasive writing. In addition to its problem solving structure, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erdamar, Gurcu; Alpan, Gulgun
2013-01-01
This study aims to examine the development of preservice teachers' epistemological beliefs and problem solving skills in the process of teaching practice. Participants of this descriptive study were senior students from Gazi University's Faculty of Vocational Education ("n" = 189). They completed the Epistemological Belief Scale and…
Solving Real Community Problems to Improve the Teaching of Public Affairs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yaghi, Abdulfattah; Alibeli, Madalla
2014-01-01
In order to achieve their course learning outcomes, public affairs instructors can train students to solve real community problems (SRCP). This approach focuses on the learners themselves and aims to transform the role of college professors from traditional teaching (lecturing) to facilitating and coaching students' learning activities. This study…
Teaching clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills using human patient simulation.
Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J; Caligiuri, Frank J
2011-11-10
This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided.
Simulation Technique in the Teaching and Testing of Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGuire, Christine
This presentation, by an invited speaker at the 46th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, describes simulation techniques used in the medical education program at the University of Illinois. Medical students interact with simulated patients and acquire problem-solving competencies for use in working with…
The problem-solving approach in the teaching of number theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toh, Pee Choon; Hoong Leong, Yew; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Guan Tay, Eng; Him Ho, Foo
2014-02-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to adopt a Pólya-style approach in learning mathematics. The Practical Worksheet is an instructional scaffold we adopted to help our pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. The Worksheet was initially used in a design experiment aimed at teaching problem solving in a secondary school. In this paper, we describe an application and adaptation of the MProSE (Mathematical Problem Solving for Everyone) design experiment to a university level number theory course for pre-service mathematics teachers. The goal of the enterprise was to help the pre-service mathematics teachers develop problem-solving dispositions alongside the learning of the subject matter. Our analysis of the pre-service mathematics teachers' work shows that the MProSE design holds promise for mathematics courses at the tertiary level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
Strengthen Instructional Components in Peer-Lead Problem-Solving Workshop with eTEACH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jia-Ling; Choe, B.; Fowler, P.; Gilsdorf, R.; Kirchdoerfer, T.; Kokemoor, A.; Lucas, G.; Madsen, T. J.; Romens, A.; Springer, M.
2009-03-01
Physics and mechanics are core topics that sometimes frighten beginning engineering students. Statistics have shown that an increasing number of students have given up engineering because of struggle in these courses. One common realization is a consensus among educators that the quality of teaching needs to be improved, and that traditional lectures, even with stellar instructors, fail to motivate students to meet learning challenges. One of the responses from the College of Engineering at UW-Madison has been comprehensive academic support services, specifically the Supplementary Instruction (SI) Program. SI, a student-lead problem-solving workshop has made a significant impact on teaching and learning in engineering for the past eight years. In this report, we describe how we develop eTEACH (an on-line teaching tool) to integrate features of subject- and problem-based learning. We discuss how we incorporate eTEACH to promote broader interactions between instructors and students, as well as among students. Our initial results showed that this change has assisted students with different learning preferences to improve problem-solving and learning strategies. We acknowledge support from Dr. G. Moses, Dr. D. Woolston, and the 2010 project in engineering college.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro
2016-09-01
Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.
Teaching problem solving: Don't forget the problem solver(s)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranade, Saidas M.; Corrales, Angela
2013-05-01
The importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences has long been known but educators have debated whether to and how to incorporate those topics in an already crowded engineering curriculum. In 2010, the authors used the classroom as a laboratory to observe the usefulness of including selected case studies and exercises from the fields of neurology, artificial intelligence, cognitive sciences and social psychology in a new problem-solving course. To further validate their initial findings, in 2012, the authors conducted an online survey of engineering students and engineers. The main conclusion is that engineering students will benefit from learning more about the impact of emotions, culture, diversity and cognitive biases when solving problems. Specifically, the work shows that an augmented problem-solving curriculum needs to include lessons on labelling emotions and cognitive biases, 'evidence-based' data on the importance of culture and diversity and additional practice on estimating conditional probability.
Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoppe, Stephanie Ann
Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.
A Concept for an Environment for Teaching and Learning Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosworth, Frank M., III; Savage, Ernest N.
1994-01-01
Components of a problem-solving lab include eight activity zones: problem setting, information gathering, problem analysis, modeling, problem evaluation, prototype, observation, and television studio. (SK)
Teaching Problem Solving--Secondary School Science. ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest No. 2, 1988.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blosser, Patricia E.
Problem solving is often identified as a goal of science education. What is considered problem solving varies from teacher to teacher. The ultimate goal of problem-solving education has been identified as a means of helping students develop higher-order thinking skills. This ERIC digest focuses on problem solving in secondary school science as…
The Teaching of Elementary Problem Solving in Engineering and Related Fields.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lubkin, James L., Ed.
This monograph presents 13 papers dealing with various aspects of elementary problem solving. They are: (1) "Training for Effective Problem Solving" (Gary A. Davis); (2) "Patterns of Problem Solving--A Campus-Wide Course at UCLA" (Moshe F. Rubinstein, L. Robin Keller, Edward A. Kazmarek); (3) "A Taxonomy of Problem-Solving Activities and Its…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niaz, Mansoor
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of teaching experiments within a dialectic-constructivist framework based on the following considerations: (a) Cognitive conflicts used in the teaching experiments must be based on problem-solving strategies that students find relatively convincing: (b) after having generated a cognitive conflict, it is essential that the students be provided with an experience that could facilitate the resolution of the conflict; and (c) the teaching strategy developed is used by an interactive constructivist approach within an intact classroom. The study was based on two sections of freshman students who had registered for Chemistry I at the Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela. One of the sections was randomly designated as the control group and the other as the experimental group. To introduce cognitive conflict, the experimental group was exposed to two teaching experiments dealing with stoichiometry problems based on the concept of limiting reagent. Students in the control group were exposed to the same problems - however, without the cognitive conflict teaching experiments format. To evaluate the effect of the teaching experiments, both groups were evaluated on five different problems at different intervals during the semester, referred to as posttests. All posttests formed part of the regular evaluation of the students. Results obtained show the advantage of the experimental group on four of the posttests. It is concluded that the experimental treatment was effective in improving performance on the immediate posttests. It was observed that some students protect their core belief [see Lakatos, I. (1970). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 91-196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] in stoichiometry (establishing equivalent relations between different elements or compounds) by ignoring the conflicting
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth
2005-09-01
Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.
Theme: Is Problem-Solving Teaching and SAE Needed in Agricultural Education in the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wardlow, George, Ed.
1999-01-01
Nine articles in this theme issue address problem-solving teaching and supervised agricultural experience. Topics covered include systems approaches to SAE, SAE for Y2K, SAE for science, applied SAE, types of SAE, and examples of activities. (JOW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.
1996-01-01
One group of Illinois secondary agriculture students was taught using a problem-solving approach (PSA), the other with a subject-matter approach (SMA). A problem-solving posttest and Group Embedded Figures Test showed significantly higher problem-solving ability in the PSA group. Field independent learners in the PSA group significantly increased…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, S. E.
2001-12-01
An NSF-funded project-based program was implemented by Clarkson University in 2000 to increase the interest and knowledge of middle school students in science, math and technology through the solution of an environmental problem that is relevant to their local school community. Clarkson students developed curricula for 7th and 8th grade science and technology classes and then worked with the middle school students throughout the year to reduce to transform solid waste into healthy soil for plant growth. The solution to this problem provided a vehicle to teach fundamental science and math content as well as the process of doing science and solving problems. Placing college science and engineering students in the classroom proved to be a great mechanism for engaging students in science topics and providing mentoring experiences that differ greatly from those that a practicing professional can provide. It is clear, however, that the students must be well prepared for this experience to maximize the benefits of university - school district partnership programs. The objective of this presentation will be to describe the training program that has been developed to prepare Clarkson students to work effectively in middle school classrooms. The Clarkson students are trained for their classroom experiences during the summer before they enter the classroom. They receive three credits for the training, curriculum development, and teaching efforts. It is expected that the students have the necessary background in science and technology to teach themselves the content and environmental relevance of the problem they will be teaching. Lectures and workshops focus on how to transform this knowledge into a project-based curriculum that meets the needs of the teachers, while also exciting the students. Lecture/workshops include: team work; components of an effective class and teacher; project planning and management; problem solving process; inquiry based learning, deductive
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.
2016-01-01
We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Sun A.; Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.
2015-01-01
This article investigates the effects of fraction word problem-solving instruction involving explicit teaching of the concrete-representational-abstract sequence with culturally relevant teaching examples for 3 low-performing Asian immigrant English learners who spoke a language other than English at home. We used a multiple probe design across…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reif, F.
Several central ideas emerging from a systematic approach to teaching problem-solving in the quantitative sciences (chemistry, physics, engineering) are discussed. Areas addressed include: differences between teaching and performance, between naturalistic and effective functioning, and between detailed observations and gross statistical data;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mompo, Rafael; Redoli, Judith
2010-01-01
With this article, we wish to transmit some key factors of success that we have used personally when faced with the structuring of a teaching programme based on e-learning. In particular, this paper reflects the experience of the authors in the usage of Internet tools in their teaching duties at university, in order to solve several problems that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, Kelley
2016-01-01
Legal reasoning is a type of problem solving, and is situated within thinking skills, one of the six threshold learning outcomes established under the auspices of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council's Bachelor of Laws Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement. The threshold learning outcomes define what law graduates are…
A four-tier problem-solving scaffold to teach pain management in dental school.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L
2013-06-01
Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education.
A new methodology for teaching clinical reasoning skills: problem solving clinical seminars.
Struyf, E; Beullens, J; Van Damme, B; Janssen, P; Jaspaert, H
2005-06-01
In the final year of the medical curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), a new methodology for teaching clinical skills was introduced: Problem Solving Clinical Seminars (PSCS). Two eight-week series of 70 seminars were offered. Students prepared for the seminars in groups of five students who worked on one or more clinical cases followed by half-open questions. Additional information was collected individually. At the clinical seminar the solutions were presented and discussed, guided by a clinical teacher. A questionnaire was administered to investigate whether students perceive the new type of clinical seminars as a powerful learning environment. Students were satisfied with the new methodology. The importance of the postulated educational aspects--preparation, clinical case and the seminar--was confirmed. The preparation phase (self-study and group work) and the clinical seminar were experienced as two separate and important learning events. The implementation of the problem solving clinical seminars is considered by students to be a powerful learning environment and therefore a broader applicability of the PSCS methodology is recommended.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Judy; Taylor, Merilyn
2015-01-01
Learning to teach is a complex matter, and many different models of pre-service teacher education have been used to support novice teachers' preparation for the classroom. More recently there have been calls for a focus on core high-leverage teaching practices and for novice teachers to engage in representations, decompositions, and approximations…
An Approach to Teaching Parents and Adolescents Problem-Solving Communication Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robin, Arthur L.; And Others
Parents and adolescents were taught to resolve conflicts concerning rules, responsibilities, and values through the use of problem solving and communication skills. Problem-solving included (1) defining the problem, (2) listing alternative solutions, (3) evaluating the solutions, and (4) planning implementation. Communication skills included (1)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Sophia; Koch, Doug
2010-01-01
This article focuses on how technology educators can challenge students to "think" about technical problems. A key aspect of success in quality problem solving is understanding learning preferences and problem-solving approaches. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) can be used to assess an individual's ideal way to learn, in essence, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Annette
This paper considers how active learning events in the form of problem solving/discussion events can be combined with the traditional lecture to better support good teaching and student learning in information systems (IS) education. A single case study is used to illustrate and evaluate the effectiveness of small group problem solving and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel
2010-01-01
Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loji, K.
2012-01-01
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
The Power of Problem Solving: Practical Ideas and Teaching Strategies for Any K-8 Subject Area.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sorenson, Juanita S.; Buckmaster, Lynn R.; Francis, Mary Kay; Knauf, Karen M.
Based on the belief that giving students opportunities to think and solve problems independently is the best way to help them enjoy learning, this book provides guidelines and learning activities to help students in grades kindergarten through 8 to solve problems in all subject matter areas of the curriculum. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for…
Teaching People to Manage Constraints: Effects on Creative Problem-Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.; Hougen, Dean F.; Day, Eric A.; Mumford, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Constraints often inhibit creative problem-solving. This study examined the impact of training strategies for managing constraints on creative problem-solving. Undergraduates, 218 in all, were asked to work through 1 to 4 self-paced instructional programs focused on constraint management strategies. The quality, originality, and elegance of…
The Problem-Solving Approach in the Teaching of Number Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Pee Choon; Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Ho, Foo Him
2014-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to…
Teaching Problem Solving Strategies to Bilingual Students: What Do Research Results Tell Us?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mestre, Jose P.
Research indicates that Hispanic technical students exhibit patterns of performance in problem solving tasks that are clearly distinct from those exhibited by Anglo students. This may be because problem solvers working problems in a nonnative language are in more danger of misinterpreting problems due to sentence construction, jargon, etc., than…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westlander, Meghan Joanne
Interactive engagement environments are critical to students' conceptual learning gains, and often the instructor is ultimately responsible for the creation of that environment in the classroom. When those instructors are graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), one of the primary ways in which they can promote interactive engagement is through their interactions with students. Much of the prior research on physics GTA-student interactions focuses on GTA training programs (e.g. Ezrailson (2004); Smith, Ward, and Rosenshein (1977)) or on GTAs' specific actions and beliefs (e.g. West, Paul, Webb, and Potter (2013); Goertzen (2010); Spike and Finkelstein (2012a)). Research on students' ideas and behaviors within and surrounding those interactions is limited but important to obtaining a more complete understanding of how GTAs promote an interactive environment. In order to begin understanding this area, I developed the Issues Framework to examine how GTA-student interactions are situated in students' processes during physics problem solving activities. Using grounded theory, the Issues Framework emerged from an analysis of the relationships between GTA-student interactions and the students procedures and expressions of physics content in and surrounding those interactions. This study is focused on introducing the Issues Framework and the insight it can provide into GTA-student interactions and students' processes. The framework is general in nature and has a visually friendly design making it a useful tool for consolidating complex data and quickly pattern-matching important pieces of a complex process. Four different categories of Issues emerged spanning the problem solving process: (1) Getting Started, (2) Solution Approach, (3) Unit Conversions, and (4) Other. The framework allowed for identification of the specific contents of the Issues in each category as well as revealing the common stories of students' processes and how the interactions were situated in those
The Problems of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Charles E.
1976-01-01
Discusses some common pitfalls in problem-solving and outlines three basic approaches to successfully identifying problems and their causes. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (Author/JG)
Teaching Problem-Solving and Critical-Thinking Skills Online Using Problem-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romero, Liz; Orzechowski, Agnes; Rahatka, Ola
2014-01-01
The availability of technological tools is promoting a shift toward more student-centered online instruction. This article describes the implementation of a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model and the technological tools used to meet the expectations of the model as well as the needs of the students. The end product is a hybrid course with eight…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.
2010-01-01
The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finch, Curtis R.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three methods of teaching diagnostic problem-solving (troubleshooting) to automotive students. The sample consisted of 45 community college students enrolled in automotive courses. Initially, all students received a presentation on ignition principles, and the Otis Mental Ability Test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda
2016-01-01
One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dagseven Emecen, Deniz
2011-01-01
This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of direct instruction and problem solving approaches in teaching social skills to children with mental retardation. The design was adapted alternating treatment design. The subjects of the study consist of a girl and a boy between the ages of 11 and 13 who are mentally retarded. In…
Strategies for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.
Problem-solving skills are becoming increasingly important in the workplace, and more schools are including them in the curriculum. Knowledge of problem solving will be critical to a work force that is dealing with advanced technology, yet many students have yet to master these skills. Based on this premise, this guide attempts to show how…
Teaching Handwriting to Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities: A Problem-Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Datchuk, Shawn
2015-01-01
Problems with handwriting can negatively impact the writing of students with learning disabilities. In this article, an example is provided of a fourth-grade special education teacher's efforts to assist a new student by using a problem-solving approach to help determine an efficient course of action for special education teachers who are trying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marsh, Lynn G.; Cooke, Nancy L.
1996-01-01
Three third graders with a history of low achievement in math were first given verbal (abstract) instruction in solving word problems. Students were then introduced to manipulatives instruction using Cuisenaire rods to set up word problems. Students exhibited immediate and sustained improvement on subsequent probes administered without…
Teaching methods for systematic inventive problem-solving: evaluation of a course for teachers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barak, Moshe
2006-11-01
Systematic inventive problem-solving is an approach for finding original and useful ideas by systematically examining alterations in existing components within a system, their attributes, functions or internal relationships. This method, which aims at complementing divergent thinking in problem-solving and design, is gaining increased attention in industrial and academic frameworks. The current study examined how science and technology teachers learn, internalize and use the method within an academic course. Data were collected through pre-course and post-course quizzes and questionnaires, documentation of students’ activities, and interviews. The results showed that individuals can improve their problem-solving abilities by combining methods based on ‘ordered thinking’ and ‘disordered thinking,’ and that none of these approaches has preference over the other. Considerable additional work is required, however, to investigate how the proposed approach could be used to foster creative thinking in science and technology studies at school.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin
2011-01-01
In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…
A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Driving Force to Undergraduates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, William F.
1990-01-01
An approach to teaching electrochemical driving force that helps students comprehend the forces that govern ion flux across biological membranes and sets the stage for more elaborate analysis of biochemical signals is presented. Background information and two sample problems and answers are included. (KR)
2013-01-01
Background The most common teaching method used in China is lecturing, but recently, efforts have been widely undertaken to promote the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered education. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that permits students to work in small groups to solve clinical problems, promotes self-learning, encourages clinical reasoning and develops long-lasting memory. To our best knowledge, however, POPS has never been applied in teaching immunology in China. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching immunology and assess students’ and teachers’ perception to POPS. Methods 321 second-year medical students were divided into two groups: I and II. Group I, comprising 110 students, was taught by POPS, and 16 immunology teachers witnessed the whole teaching process. Group II including the remaining 211 students was taught through traditional lectures. The results of the pre- and post-test of both groups were compared. Group I students and teachers then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis before a discussion meeting attended only by the teachers was held. Results Significant improvement in the mean difference between the pre- and post-test scores of those in Groups I and II was seen, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS teaching. Most students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps them to understand topics and creates interest, and 88.12% of students favored POPS over simple lectures. Moreover, while they responded that POPS facilitated student learning better than lectures, teachers pointed out that limited teaching resources would make it difficult for wide POPS application in China. Conclusions While POPS can break up the monotony of dialectic lectures and serve as a better teaching method, it may not be feasible for the current educational environment in China. The main reason for this is the relative shortage of teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buxton, Cory A.
2010-01-01
The Social Problem Solving through Science (SPSS) project engaged middle school-aged youth in the study of local environmental challenges with implications for human health and well-being, both globally and locally. Students considered environmental risk factors in a series of structured activities to develop background knowledge on environmental…
An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Broomhead, Paul
2009-01-01
This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…
Simulation to Teach or Evaluate Problem-Solving in Professional Programs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Judith B.
Problem-solving skills are higher level cognitive processes which involve the invention of complex organizational schemes to resolve conflicts or confusion. These skills cannot be acquired by mastering a hierarchy of prerequisite skills; rather, their mastery is best facilitated by placing the student in an environment which forces him to apply…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi
2017-01-01
The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.
Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skolnick, Ronald
The purpose of this study was to examine the constructivist-based " case study teaching methodology" in High School Biology classes, specifically investigating the effect this methodology had on Academic Achievement, Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills. The effect of Teacher Beliefs toward constructivist learning environments was also explored and investigated, using a quantitative measure (the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, or CLES). A quasi-experimental design used eleven classes, five teachers, and two hundred fifty two high school biology students over two separate, consecutive quarters of a school year. Two researcher-made instruments measured Academic Achievement after each study quarter. T-Tests were used to compare the Experimental Group (Case Study Teaching Methodology) to the Control Group (Traditional Teaching) during each study quarter. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) scores were used as a covariate for ANCOVA tests. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on Academic Achievement during the first study quarter, but not the second quarter. Case Study Teaching Methodology had a statistically significant improvement on four of seven Science Attitudes, Problem Solving Skills, and Teamwork Skills during the second quarter of the study. This study is significant in that it addresses a knowledge gap regarding the effects of the constructivist-based case study teaching methodology on secondary science education. The theoretical implications of this study are meaningful: empirical evidence is added to the growing knowledge base regarding the benefits of constructivist theory. The practical implications are equally meaningful: case study teaching methodology is supported as an effective application of constructivist theory in the secondary science classroom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Charles; Yerushalmi, Edit; Kuo, Vince H.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia
2007-12-01
To identify and describe the basis upon which instructors make curricular and pedagogical decisions, we have developed an artifact-based interview and an analysis technique based on multilayered concept maps. The policy capturing technique used in the interview asks instructors to make judgments about concrete instructional artifacts similar to those they likely encounter in their teaching environment. The analysis procedure alternatively employs both an a priori systems view analysis and an emergent categorization to construct a multilayered concept map, which is a hierarchically arranged set of concept maps where child maps include more details than parent maps. Although our goal was to develop a model of physics faculty beliefs about the teaching and learning of problem solving in the context of an introductory calculus-based physics course, the techniques described here are applicable to a variety of situations in which instructors make decisions that influence teaching and learning.
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…
Circumference and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackburn, Katie; White, David
The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to…
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Tirosh, Dina
2005-01-01
Solving problems by reduction is an important issue in mathematics and science education in general (both in high school and in college or university) and particularly in computer science education. Developing reductive thinking patterns is an important goal in any scientific discipline, yet reduction is not an easy subject to cope with. Still,…
Achievement in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friebele, David
2010-01-01
This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…
Introspection in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell
2013-01-01
Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…
Universal Design Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.
Mitchell, Anita Witt
2013-01-01
ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.
Miller, A.
1999-06-01
Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.
Problem Solving and Reasoning.
1984-02-01
Sloan Foundation (HAS). This paper is a draft of a chapter to appear in R. C. Atkinson, R. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R. D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ...D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, (Revised Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING James G... LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takahashi, Akihiko
2016-01-01
Problem solving has been a major theme in Japanese mathematics curricula for nearly 50 years. Numerous teacher reference books and lesson plans using problem solving have been published since the 1960s. Government-authorized mathematics textbooks for elementary grades, published by six private companies, have had more and more problem solving over…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Shea, John; Leavy, Aisling M.
2013-01-01
The primary school mathematics curriculum in Ireland is based upon a constructivist philosophy of learning. As constructivism is a theory of learning and not teaching, implementing a constructivist approach in the classroom requires teachers to identify the implications and applications of constructivist philosophy for teaching. In this research,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoll, Patricia Donath
The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to construct test problems which assess skill in resolving problems in teaching reading, (2) to develop criteria for assessing performance on these problems, and (3) to explore the usefulness of the constructed problems in discussing the professional skills of those who teach reading. Data on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos
2015-01-01
In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Best Practices in Writing Instruction. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Steve, Ed.; MacArthur, Charles A., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Jill, Ed.
2007-01-01
Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.
2016-01-01
Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…
The Identity of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin
2005-01-01
This paper raises issues motivated by considering the "identity" of problem solving. This means that we are concerned with how other mathematics education topics impinge on problem solving, and with themes that naturally arise within the problem-solving agenda. We claim that some of these issues need more attention by educational research, while…
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
Measuring Family Problem Solving: The Family Problem Solving Diary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kieren, Dianne K.
The development and use of the family problem-solving diary are described. The diary is one of several indicators and measures of family problem-solving behavior. It provides a record of each person's perception of day-to-day family problems (what the problem concerns, what happened, who got involved, what those involved did, how the problem…
Teaching Mathematical Problem-Solving with the Brain in Mind: How Can Opening a Closed Problem Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ambrus, András
2014-01-01
In the international literature, increasing numbers of articles and books are published about teaching and learning, with the brain in mind. For a long time, I have been sceptical about this question. However, seeing many unresolved issues in the teaching and learning of mathematics, I slowly started to study the relevant literature and have…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Minyi Shih; Knight, Jacqueline; Jerman, Olga
2016-01-01
This article describes how to teach fraction and percentage word problems using a model-drawing strategy. This cognitive strategy places emphasis on explicitly teaching students how to draw a schematic diagram to represent the qualitative relations described in the problem, and how to formulate the solution based on the schematic diagram. The…
Problem Solving: Tips for Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Daffer, Phares G., Ed.; Schaaf, Oscar
1986-01-01
Describes: (1) a computation-oriented problem with procedures and some questions that might be asked of students; (2) four ways to help students develop positive problem-solving attitudes; (3) a strategy game; (4) a multiplication problem; and (5) several questions that will help students develop problem-solving skills. (JN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Root, Jenny R.; Browder, Diane M.; Saunders, Alicia F.; Lo, Ya-yu
2017-01-01
The current study evaluated the effects of modified schema-based instruction on the mathematical word problem solving skills of three elementary students with autism spectrum disorders and moderate intellectual disability. Participants learned to solve compare problem type with themes that related to their interests and daily experiences. In…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jahanzad, Farzaneh; Greenwood, Carmen
2014-01-01
Collaborative problem solving is an essential component of any 21st century science career. Scientists are hired, retained, and promoted for solving problems in dynamic and interdisciplinary teams. They discuss issues, explain and justify their opinions, debate, elaborate, and reflect on their collective knowledge. At the same time, both…
Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.
Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…
Resource Scarcity: Problems Technology Cannot Solve; Problems Technology Can Solve.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meadows, Dennis; Castle, Emery N.
1979-01-01
Lists resource problems technology can and cannot solve, and emphasizes the need for considering and restructuring the social environments and institutions as well as developing new technologies. (CK)
Technological Problem Solving: A Proposal.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waetjen, Walter B.
Examination of newer technology education materials reveals two recurring themes: one relates to curriculum content, familiarizing students with technology, and another to a technique of classroom instruction, i.e., problem solving. A problem-solving framework for technical education has the following components: (1) define the problem; (2)…
Solving Math Word Problems: A Software Roundup.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eiser, Leslie
1988-01-01
Reviewed are 11 software packages for the Apple II computer designed to help teach elementary and secondary school children how to solve mathword problems. Included in the review are hardware requirements, price, grade level, use of graphics, kinds of problems, tools provided, strengths, and weaknesses of each program. (CW)
Solving Geometry Problems via Mechanical Principles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu Kwong
2004-01-01
The application of physical principles in solving mathematics problems have often been neglected in the teaching of physics or mathematics, especially at the secondary school level. This paper discusses how to apply the mechanical principles to geometry problems via concrete examples, which aims at providing insight and inspirations to physics or…
Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.
2009-01-01
Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gao, Su; Wang, Jian
2016-01-01
Students' frequent exposure to inquiry-based science teaching is presumed more effective than their exposure to traditional didactic instruction in helping improve competence in content knowledge and problem solving. Framed through theoretical perspectives of inquiry-based instruction and culturally relevant pedagogy, this study examines this…
Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose
2009-01-01
Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…
1988-01-01
behavior theory by investigators such as Thorndike (1923), Tolman Now at Stanford University. (1928); Skinner (1938), and Hull (1943). The h*902tion of...were developed by Gestalt psychologists Coti1ct Number N00014-79-C-0215, Contract Identification such as Khler (IM), Duncker (1935/1%5), Nuat NR 667...are necessary components goals and adopting general plans or methods in of a theory of human thought. working on a problem. Models of general problem
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghez, Richard
2006-04-01
Counting and estimating are no doubt ancient survival skills. And yet, present educational methods tend to downplay these very skills. This breeds senseless innumeracy and social disruption. Jumbling inches with centimeters, for example, can cause a Mars mission to fail. With minor distortion, elementary and high schools (and beyond) teach that all fractions are simple, that all square roots are rational, and that trigonometric functions need be evaluated only for 30, 45, and 60 degrees. We thus inflict threefold damage on our children and students. First, they come to believe that numbers beyond 10 (except for current account deficits) are intuitively inaccessible; second, that answers to all mathematical questions are "formulas"; and third, that the art of estimation merely requires punching keys on a calculator—a dismal sort of black magic. These beliefs I wish to expose in the form of eight short numerical tales.
1981-05-18
obstacles that were not encountered previously in puzzle-like problems. Basically, the exact operators to be used are usually not given, the goal state...same height on other side 5. IF something goes down frictionless surface THEN can find acceleration of gravity on the incline using trigonometry 6
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitcher, Carrie Lynn
2005-08-01
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
Solving bearing overheating problems
Jendzurski, T.
1995-05-08
Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.
Modeling Applied to Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.
2009-10-01
Modeling Applied to Problem Solving (MAPS) is a pedagogy that helps students transfer instruction to problem solving in an expert-like manner. Declarative and Procedural syllabus content is organized and learned (not discovered) as a hierarchy of General Models. Students solve problems using an explicit Problem Modeling Rubric that begins with System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.). System and Interactions are emphasized as the key to a strategic description of the system and the identification of the appropriate General Model to apply to the problem. We have employed the pedagogy in a three-week review course for students who received a D in mechanics. The course was assessed by a final exam retest as well as pre and post C-LASS surveys, yielding a one standard deviation improvement in the students' ability to solve final exam problems and a statistically significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the C-LASS.
Irrelevance in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Alon Y.
1992-01-01
The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabel, Dorothy L.
The major purpose of this study was to determine whether certain types of instructional strategies (factor-label method, use of analogies, use of diagrams, and proportionality) were superior to others in teaching problem solving in four topics (mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity). Also of major interest was whether particular…
Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…
Common Core: Solve Math Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strom, Erich
2012-01-01
The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…
Supporting Problem Solving in PBL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonassen, David
2011-01-01
Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Student Problem-Solving Behaviors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harper, Kathleen A.
2006-04-01
Kathy Harper is director of undergraduate curriculum development in the physics department at The Ohio State University. She has been involved in local and national workshops for in-service teachers and conducts research in student problem solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones-Wilson, T. Michelle
2005-01-01
In traditional science teaching, teachers expect the average student to implicitly learn and apply subtle concepts and to connect seemingly disjointed information. Teachers expect them to actively assemble the building blocks of critical thinking, often without example (Meyers 1986). The critical analysis of issues and problems is second nature to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy
2014-01-01
Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…
Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, Julian
1985-01-01
Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey's…
Problem Solving through Paper Folding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wares, Arsalan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.
Mathematical problem solving by analogy.
Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J
1991-05-01
We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olowa, O. W.
2009-01-01
The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2016-07-12
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pizlo, Zygmunt
2008-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of more than 200 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo database. Journal papers, book chapters, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied settings, as well as…
Error Patterns in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Babbitt, Beatrice C.
Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…
Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffy, Jim; Gunther, Georg; Walters, Lloyd
1997-01-01
Studied the relationship between gender and mathematical problem solving in 83 male and 76 female high achieving Canadian 12-year-olds. Gender differences were found on the Canadian Test of Basic Skills but not on the GAUSS assessment. Implications for the discussion of the origin of gender differences in mathematics are discussed. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pizlo, Zygmunt
2007-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…
Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funke, Joachim
2013-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner
2015-01-01
Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fede, Jessica L.
2010-01-01
This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction…
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
Modeling Applied to Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.
2009-11-01
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.
Solving the Dark Matter Problem
Baltz, Ted
2016-07-12
Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.
Problem Solving 101: Making Most of Your Rehearsal Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maynard, Lisa M.
2007-01-01
One issue that all teachers at all proficiency levels deal with in teaching music--whether in individual or group settings--is how to effectively solve problems encountered during lessons or rehearsals. What differentiates novice teachers from master teachers is the skill and efficiency with which they solve these problems. The seemingly…
Designing Computer Software for Problem-Solving Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffield, Judith A.
1991-01-01
Discusses factors that might influence the effectiveness of computer software designed to teach problem solving. Topics discussed include the structure of knowledge; transfer of training; computers and problem solving instruction; human-computer interactions; and types of software, including drill and practice programs, tutorials, instructional…
Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oughton, John M.
1995-01-01
Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…
The Problem Solving Studio: An Apprenticeship Environment for Aspiring Engineers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Le Doux, Joseph M.; Waller, Alisha A.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving studio (PSS) learning environment. PSS was designed to teach students how to solve difficult analytical engineering problems without resorting to rote memorization of algorithms, while at the same time developing their deep conceptual understanding of the course topics. There are several key features of…
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2013-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…
King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borchardt, Donald A.
An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and…
Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swartz, Vicki
This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather…
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-01-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…
Research on Computers and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, John K.; And Others
1988-01-01
Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
THE ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING IN COMPLEX INTRAVERBAL REPERTOIRES
Sautter, Rachael A; LeBlanc, Linda A; Jay, Allison A; Goldsmith, Tina R; Carr, James E
2011-01-01
We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until problem solving was modeled and prompted. Following the model and prompts, all participants showed immediate significant increases in intraverbal categorization, and all prompts were quickly eliminated. Use of audible self-prompts was evident initially for all participants, but declined over time for 3 of the 4 children. Within-session response patterns remained consistent with use of the problem-solving strategy even when self-prompts were not audible. These findings suggest that teaching and prompting a problem-solving strategy can be an effective way to produce intraverbal categorization responses. PMID:21709781
Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others
1980-01-01
This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Nickey Owen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…
Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina
2013-01-01
This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…
A Component Analysis of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwieger, Ruben Don
The purpose of this study was the construction of a theoretical model for analyzing mathematical problem solving. A list of general problem-solving abilities was generated through a literature search. This list was narrowed to eight basic abilities pertinent to mathematics problem solving. Each of these was operationally defined and exemplified in…
Strategies for Problem Solving. Revised Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.
This manual provides a comprehensive approach to problem solving; it is written in narrative style with numerous examples. The guide is organized in eight sections that cover the following topics: (1) problem-solving overview (with suggested readings and recommendations for schools); (2) a five-step model for solving problems; (3) strategies for…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerushalmi, E.; Henderson, C.; Heller, K.; Heller, P.; Kuo, V.
2007-01-01
In higher education, instructors' choices of both curricular material and pedagogy are determined by their beliefs about learning and teaching, the values of their profession, and perceived external constraints. Dissemination of research-based educational reforms is based on assumptions about that mental structure. This study reports the initial…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paratore, Jeanne R. Ed.; McCormack, Rachel L. Ed.; Block, Cathy, Collins Ed.
2007-01-01
Showcasing assessment practices that can help teachers plan effective instruction, this book addresses the real-world complexities of teaching literacy in grades K-8. Leading contributors present trustworthy approaches that examine learning processes as well as learning products, that yield information on how the learning environment can be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrow, Lesley Mandel
This book offers essential guidance to preservice and inservice teachers seeking to create, revise, and/or add new strategies to the teaching of the language arts block. The book's focus is on how to implement effective strategies in the context of a well-planned classroom and smoothly choreographed daily schedule. A series of case studies in the…
Patient-Oriented Problem-Solving Instruction in Pharmacotherapeutics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Love, David W.; Shumway, James M.
1983-01-01
The development and validation of a system teaching problem-solving in pharmacotherapeutics is described. The module was developed for both small group and self-instruction using clinical cases in hypertension. Results show the method to be an effective means of teaching therapeutic information focusing on patient situations. (MSE)
Problem Solving in the Borderland between Mathematics and Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jens Højgaard; Niss, Martin; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2017-01-01
The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect, if it focuses on solving so-called unformalized problems,…
Understanding Students' Problem-Solving Knowledge through Their Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Diana F.
2007-01-01
This article describes a teaching experiment conducted in a seventh-grade classroom. It explores ways that students used four types of problem-solving knowledge through writing their responses to algebraic problems. The problems were presented to students in the geometric contexts of growth and change and size and shape. It was found that writing…
Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails
2011-01-01
Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…
Stabilization: A Descriptive Framework for Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savrda, Sherry L.
2006-12-01
An alternative description of problem solving was tested against the think-aloud protocols of twelve introductory calculus-based physics students. Think-aloud protocols are transcripts of problem-solving sessions during which participants are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they attempt to solve a problem. The stabilization model tested considers perceptions of problem difficulty to be related to four primary factors: categorization, goal interpretation, resource relevance, and complexity. A fifth superordinate factor, stabilization, considers the shifting relationships between the four primary factors over the problem-solving process. Problem solving is then described in terms of a search for a stable relationship among the four primary factors. Results from the study to be presented suggest that with further refinement, the stabilization model could be an effective alternative model of problem solving. Results related to the observed problem-solving processes undertaken by the participants will also be presented.
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mairing, Jackson Pasini
2017-01-01
Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…
Understanding Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Processes †
Nehm, Ross H.
2010-01-01
Fostering effective problem-solving skills is one of the most longstanding and widely agreed upon goals of biology education. Nevertheless, undergraduate biology educators have yet to leverage many major findings about problem-solving processes from the educational and cognitive science research literatures. This article highlights key facets of problem-solving processes and introduces methodologies that may be used to reveal how undergraduate students perceive and represent biological problems. Overall, successful problem-solving entails a keen sensitivity to problem contexts, disciplined internal representation or modeling of the problem, and the principled management and deployment of cognitive resources. Context recognition tasks, problem representation practice, and cognitive resource management receive remarkably little emphasis in the biology curriculum, despite their central roles in problem-solving success. PMID:23653710
The Problem Life Solves (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shock, E.
2013-12-01
After forming, planets start the long process of dissipating energy into space. Early on, accretionary processes provide sufficient kinetic energy to raise temperatures enough to drive chemical systems rapidly toward equilibrium, maximizing the release of chemical energy. Eventually heat is dissipated, temperatures drop, and outer portions of planets cool enough to slow the rates of chemical reactions. As reaction rates slow to the scale of geologic time, chemical energy becomes trapped in assemblages of planetary materials far from equilibrium. Numerous examples are provided by chondritic meteorites, which show that activation energy barriers allow chemical energy to remain trapped for most of the age of the solar system even if heat dissipation is efficient -- and perhaps as a direct consequence. Activation energies that inhibit favorable reactions can be overcome by catalysis, which permits chemical systems to attain lower energy states. Catalysis in planets serves to continue the release of energy into space begun by heat dissipation. This implies that there is an overall thermodynamic drive for catalysis to appear as planets cool. Reasons why catalysis emerges in some cases and not others may depend on interactions of cooling rates and compositions but the specifics are murky at present. Life is a particularly efficient catalyst, and its emergence on a planet helps solve the problem generated by the catastrophic decrease in reaction rates during cooling. The single example we have of life on Earth got its start catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions arranged in states far from equilibrium by geologic processes. On the pre-photosynthetic Earth the boldest biosignatures were redox processes occurring at rates that could only be explained by catalysis, and specifically by catalytic processes that have no abiotic mechanism. Biologically enhanced rates of redox reactions persist to the present, and maintain the biogeochemical cycles that permit the photosynthetic
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
New Perspectives on Human Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldstone, Robert L.; Pizlo, Zygmunt
2009-01-01
In November 2008 at Purdue University, the 2nd Workshop on Human Problem Solving was held. This workshop, which was a natural continuation of the first workshop devoted almost exclusively to optimization problems, addressed a wider range of topics that reflect the scope of the "Journal of Problem Solving." The workshop was attended by 35…
Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil
1993-01-01
The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.
Learning to Solve Problems in Primary Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.
2008-01-01
Problem solving lies at the heart of mathematical learning. Children need opportunities to write, discuss, and solve problems on a regular basis. The problems must incorporate grade-appropriate content and be "accessible and engaging to the students, building on what they know and can do." Teachers also play a key role in establishing a classroom…
Heuristic Strategies: An Aid for Solving Verbal Mathematical Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giordano, Gerard
1992-01-01
Because of the importance of problem-solving skills in mathematics instruction of children with learning disabilities, this article offers guidance on teaching heuristic global strategies, including use of analogy, annotating problems, detail analysis, deletion of details, detail sorting, symbolizing operations, and designating formulas. (DB)
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macintyre, Tom
2006-01-01
A lot has been made of the topical puzzle Su Doku, with various claims that it can support development of mathematical abilities. The latest, in March this year, came from the Training and Development Agency when a giant puzzle was used to attract graduates into a career of maths teaching. A giant Su Doku puzzle toured busy city centres with the…
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.
Science Teachers and Problem Solving in Elementary Schools in Singapore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Tan, Li-Li; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Lee, Kam-Wah L.; Chia, Lian-Sai; Chin, Christine
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which science teachers taught problem solving in elementary science. The survey involved 348 teachers in 36 Singapore elementary schools. The study investigated the science teachers' views about their use of science instructional techniques in general and the problem-solving teaching approach in particular. It also focused on the difficulties faced by science teachers in implementing the problem-solving teaching approach in the science classroom. It was found that the most emphasised activities were completion of science workbooks, teachers' explanation of concepts, and hands-on activities. The least emphasised activities were computer-based learning, activities beyond the textbook and workbook, and visits to the ecology garden and other parts of the school. Only about one-third of the teachers often conducted activities pertaining to problem solving. Most of them were more concerned about covering the science syllabus for examinations, the physical constraints of the learning environment, and pupils' abilities and motivation. On the other hand, teacher-related factors ranked low: these included teachers' preference for teaching and learning outcomes, their ability to maintain control over pupils' learning, feelings of inadequacy of science knowledge, and insufficient understanding of the pedagogical method of teaching problem solving.
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-10-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.
Problem Solving & Comprehension. Fourth Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whimbey, Arthur; Lochhead, Jack
This book shows how to increase one's power to analyze and comprehend problems. First, it outlines and illustrates the methods that good problem solvers use in attacking complex ideas. Then it gives some practice in applying these methods to a variety of questions in comprehension and reasoning. Chapters include: (1) "Test Your Mind--See How…
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
Trigonometric problem cases well solved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröer, H.
2001-10-01
Content of the book are trigonometric problems that can be found scarely in the technical literature. It begins with using trigonometric functions to horizon and height. Interesting pure mathematical problems about tangent, inscribed tetragon and parallelogram follow. In chapter 6 is a generalization of Euclid's theorem fo the right-angled triangle. The next themes are exterior circle and incircle. In chapter 9 an unusual proof of the cosine law for sides is given. Further treated problems are the distance of two stars and eclipses. The aim group consists of mathematicians, natural scientists and technicians(also teacher) who have to do professionally with trigonometric problems and (or)who are interested in trigonometric problems. There is an english and a german edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, David F.; And Others
Recent research has demonstrated the promise of graphing software as an aid to teaching graphs in two content areas: line graphs of aspects of motion and graphs of algebraic functions. This study attempted to generalize the idea of computer-assisted graphing to include the use of several kinds of graphs to solve a wider range of problems. A unit…
Problem Posing and Solving with Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
English, Lyn D.; Fox, Jillian L.; Watters, James J.
2005-01-01
Mathematical modeling is explored as both problem posing and problem solving from two perspectives, that of the child and the teacher. Mathematical modeling provides rich learning experiences for elementary school children and their teachers.
Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool
Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.
Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette
2003-01-01
Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)
Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koleci, Carolann
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easton, Don
1999-03-01
This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
Cartreine, James A; Chang, Trina E; Seville, Janette L; Sandoval, Luis; Moore, John B; Xu, Shuai; Hegel, Mark T
2012-01-01
Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behaviors are modeled in the program, not only does the ePST program have the potential to deliver PST to patients but it may also serve as a training tool to teach clinicians how to deliver PST. Thirteen social workers and trainees used ePST self-instructionally and subsequently attended a day-long workshop on PST. Participants' PST knowledge level increased significantly from baseline to post-ePST (P = .001) and did not increase significantly further after attending the subsequent workshop. Additionally, attending the workshop did not significantly increase the participants' skill at performing PST beyond the use of the ePST program. Using the ePST program appears to train novices to a sufficient level of competence to begin practicing PST under supervision. This self-instructional training method could enable PST for depression to be widely disseminated, although follow-up supervision is still required.
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutner, Joanne
1987-01-01
Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)
The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George
2004-01-01
In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.
This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…
Can Television Enhance Children's Mathematical Problem Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others
1994-01-01
A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Problem-Solving Rules for Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collins, Angelo
The categories and applications of strategic knowledge as these relate to problem solving in the area of transmission genetics are examined in this research study. The role of computer simulations in helping students acquire the strategic knowledge necessary to solve realistic transmission genetics problems was emphasized. The Genetics…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waugh, Michael; And Others
Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr
2015-01-01
Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…
Problem Solving in the Middle Grades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malloy, Carol E.; Guild, D. Bruce
2000-01-01
Describes the mathematics curriculum proposed by the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM)in which students build new mathematical knowledge through problem-solving. Compares the role of PSSM problem solving with that in the 1989 curriculum standards. (YDS)
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Strategies for Solving Word Problems in Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garrigan, George A.
1997-01-01
Reviews the approaches presented in the Self-Paced Study of Strategies Useful for Solving Word Problems in the Physical and Biological Sciences that can be used by students to successfully solve word problems encountered in any entry-level science course. Describes the topics covered in five "study sessions" that allow the students to practice the…
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.
1999-01-01
Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.
This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…
Shewchuk, R M; Johnson, M O; Elliott, T R
2000-07-01
Self-report measures of social problem solving abilities have yet to be associated with objective problem solving performance in any consistent manner. In the present study, we investigated the relation of social problem solving abilities--as measured by the Social Problem Solving Skills Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R [Maydeu-Olivares, A. & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1996). A factor analytic study of the Social Problem Solving Inventory: an integration of theory and data. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 115-133])--to performance on a structured problem solving task. Unlike previous studies, we examined the relation of problem solving skills to performance curves observed in repeated trials, while controlling for affective reactions to each trial. Using hierarchical modeling techniques, a negative problem orientation was significantly predictive of performance and this effect was not mediated by negative affectivity. Results are discussed as they pertain to contemporary models of social problem solving.
Collection of solved problems in physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koupilová, ZdeÅka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie
2017-01-01
To solve physics problems is a key ability which students should reach during their physics education. Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of fully solved problems. The structure of problems' solutions is specially designed to substitute tutor's help during lesson and encourage students to solve at least some parts of a problem independently. Nowadays the database contains about 770 fully solved problems in physics in Czech, more than 100 problems in Polish and more than 140 problems in English. Other problems are still being translated. Except for physics problems, the Collection has also a mathematical part, which contains more than 300 fully solved problems in mathematics. This paper follows the presentation of the Collection of solved problems from previous years and introduces a new interface of the Collection, its enhanced functionality, new topics, newly created interface for teachers, user feedback and plans for future development. The database is placed at the website of the Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, the links are: http://reseneulohy.cz/fyzika (Czech version); http://www.physicstasks.eu/ (English version).
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1973-01-01
The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-29
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-29
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_{2}-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_{2} copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Causality in Solving Economic Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, A. Emanuel; Sloman, Steven A.; Hagmayer, York; Hertzog, Christopher K.
2010-01-01
The role of causal beliefs in people's decisions when faced with economic problems was investigated. Two experiments are reported that vary the causal structure in prisoner's dilemma-like economic situations. We measured willingness to cooperate or defect and collected justifications and think-aloud protocols to examine the strategies that people…
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Problem Solving with Generic Algorithms and Computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larson, Jay
Success in using a computer in education as a problem-solving tool requires a change in the way of thinking or of approaching a problem. An algorithm, i.e., a finite step-by-step solution to a problem, can be designed around the data processing concepts of input, processing, and output to provide a basis for classifying problems. If educators…
Problem-Solving Analysis and Business Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myrsiades, Linda Suny
Problem solving skills such as patterning facts, locating problems, separating problems and solutions, and presenting effective written products are essential to success in the business community. Facts can be patterned using a grid relating a problem's effect at the individual, group, situational, and organizational level. Such a grid tests each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Harold C.; And Others
1992-01-01
The computer-based PlanAlyzer program was designed to teach clinical diagnosis to medical students, taking into account several characteristics common to the clinical problem solver: limited capacity for short-term memory; use of heuristic strategies; sequential information seeking; and problem conceptualization. Six years of development and…
Solving the Telomere Replication Problem
Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane
2017-01-01
Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of intermediate elementary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) program includes both…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene
2005-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.
The ideal science student and problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, Florence R.
2005-09-01
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an
Preparing Teachers of Gifted Students to Solve Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monaco, Theresa M.; Georgiades, William Den Hartog
1986-01-01
Teachers have successfully used three Principles of Teacher Training (Curry Sato, 1984) as guidelines for identifying and solving instructional problems with gifted students. Teaching styles were changed through training, which was (1) reinforced through appropriate materials; (2) attempted to meet participants' specific needs; and (3) was…
Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, John T.
1982-01-01
Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem…
Problem Solving in Social Studies: A Model Lesson.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.
These model lessons from the primary grades are on the techniques of advertising drawn from a unit on, "Creating and Producing Tools and Techniques". They include behaviorial objectives, teaching and motivational strategies, evaluation techniques. The model lessons follow the problem solving inquiry approach in social studies using multimedia…
Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving in Online Peer-Led Dialogues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wade, Suzanne E.; Fauske, Janice R.; Thompson, Audrey
2008-01-01
In this self-study of a secondary teacher education course, the authors investigated whether there was evidence of critically reflective problem solving on the part of prospective teachers who participated in a peer-led online discussion of a teaching case about English-language learners. They also examined what approaches to multicultural…
Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa
2011-01-01
Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.
This inventory was designed to assess the general problem solving ability of disadvantaged elementary school children from various ethnic backgrounds and grade levels. Twelve tasks are included in the inventory: sensing the problem, identifying the problem, asking questions, guessing causes, clarification of goals, judging if more information is…
Towards Automated Training of Legal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muntjewerff, Antoinette J.
An examination of Dutch research on legal case solving revealed that few law students get systematic instruction or testing in the technique of legal problem solving. The research being conducted at the Department of Computer Science and Law at the University of Amsterdam focuses on identifying the different functions in legal reasoning tasks in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mossuto, Mark
2009-01-01
The adoption of problem-based learning as a teaching method in the advertising and public relations programs offered by the Business TAFE (Technical and Further Education) School at RMIT University is explored in this paper. The effect of problem-based learning on student engagement, student learning and contextualised problem-solving was…
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Problem Solving under Time-Constraints,
2014-09-26
to interruptions. Data from the simulation is compared to data from college students doing the same task. Keywords include: Thinking ; problem solving; dual tasks; computer simulation; production systems; arithmetic.
Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas
1969-01-01
The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Problem Solving with an Icon Oriented Programming Tool: A Case Study in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavonen, Jari M.; Lattu, Matti; Meisalo, Veijo P.
2001-01-01
Finnish eighth graders used computer control software to find creative solutions to technological problems. The learning environment encouraged problem-centered and creative approaches. More systematic teaching of programming skills before problem solving was recommended. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)
Problem Solving in Mathematics. An ESEA Title IV-C Instructional Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaaf, Oscar; Brannan, Richard
1981-01-01
Problem solving is viewed as an ability required throughout life, and how we function is seen to be directly related to how well we solve problems. In this document, the issue of a steady decline in students' abilities in the area of mathematical problem solving is confronted and a program designed to teach students the necessary skills in this…
Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Helmi
2014-01-01
Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…
Implementing Problem Solving Technology into Classrooms: Four Case Studies of Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Haneghan, James P.; Stofflett, Rene T.
1995-01-01
Presents four case studies of fifth grade teachers who have implemented the Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, a videodisc problem-solving curriculum, in their classrooms, and proposes a model for problem-solving instruction. Discusses curriculum and teaching styles before and after the studies. Teacher interview questions are appended. (JMV)
Problem Solving Ability Confidence Levels among Student Teachers after a Semester in the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krug, Kevin; Love, John; Mauzey, Ed; Dixon, Wayne
2015-01-01
Subjective confidence for solving classroom problems while instructing students in appropriate academic material is crucial for effective teaching. One way to develop problem solving confidence may result from the semester most education majors spend in the classroom as student teachers. The problem solving inventory (PSI) was given to university…
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E
2012-10-07
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramaekers, Stephan; van Keulen, Hanno; Kremer, Wim; Pilot, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter
2011-01-01
Case-based learning formats, in which relevant case information is provided just in time, require teachers to combine their scaffolding role with an information-providing one. The objective of this study is to establish how this combination of roles affects teacher behavior and that, in turn, mediates students' reasoning and problem solving. Data…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Collaborative Everyday Problem Solving: Interpersonal Relationships and Problem Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strough, Jonell; Patrick, Julie Hicks; Swenson, Lisa M.; Cheng, Suling; Barnes, Kristi A.
2003-01-01
Older adults' preferred partners for collaborative everyday problem solving and the types of everyday problems solved alone and with others were examined in a sample of community dwelling older adults (N = 112, M age = 71.86 yrs., SD = 5.92 yrs.). Family members (i.e., spouses, adult children) were the most frequently nominated partners for…
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Middleton, Howard
2002-01-01
Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.
Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J
2016-11-01
Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Reasoning by Analogy in Solving Comparison Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
English, Lyn D.
1998-01-01
Investigates 10-year-old children's abilities to reason by analogy in solving addition and subtraction comparison problems involving unknown compare sets and unknown reference sets. Children responded in a consistent manner to the tasks involving the basic addition problems, indicating substantial relational knowledge of these but responded in an…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gregory, Anne
2010-01-01
Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were followed…
Solving Problems of Practice in Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen
1984-01-01
Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Scientific Problem Solving by Expert Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Good, Ron
1984-01-01
Human expert problem-solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas are used to describe BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driver heuristics and "expectations" such as symmetry. Implications of BACON.5 type research for traditional science education…
Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.
1985-01-01
Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)
Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.
Improving Problem-Solving Skills Through a Course In Guided Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Amour, Gene; Wales, Charles E.
1977-01-01
Describes a multidisciplinary course in the sciences, humanities, and engineering that teaches the use of evidence in problem-solving. The guided design teaching method is used, in which the instructor circulates among small discussion groups to advise them on problem-solving. (MLH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.
The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving
An Investigation of Secondary Teachers’ Understanding and Belief on Mathematical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani
2016-02-01
Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Problem solving in a distributed environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashid, R. F.
1980-01-01
Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was
Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.
Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M
2014-11-01
A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures.
Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardwell, Lisa V.
1991-09-01
The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.
Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS): Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving for Young Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
1993-01-01
Teachers of preschool and kindergarten children from low-income families used the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) program to help the children learn to think through and solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Compared to nontrained controls, the children exhibited fewer instances of impulsive and inhibited behaviors as observed in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of kindergarten and the primary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The 89 lessons are adaptable for various levels of ability throughout the…
I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Program. Preschool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of preschool to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. Originally developed for four-year-old children in a preschool setting, most three-year-old…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
2016-01-01
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application"…
Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cifarelli, Victor
The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…
Implicit Theories about Everyday Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herbert, Margaret E.; Dionne, Jean-Paul
Mental models or implicit theories held by adults about everyday problem solving were studied. Research questions were posed to 12 male and 12 female adults, aged 25 to 60 years, from a wide range of educational and occupational orientations. Subjects were interviewed in pairs. Verbal Protocol Analysis was used to analyze the data from two…
ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borg, Suzanne
2009-01-01
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…
Problem-Solving Interaction in GFL Videoconferencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoshii, Makiko; Schumacher, Nicole
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the interaction between upper intermediate German as a Foreign Language (GFL) learners in Tokyo and prospective GFL teachers in Berlin in an online videoconferencing environment. It focuses on the way problems in comprehension and production are brought up and solved in the subsequent interaction. Our findings illustrate that…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Why Some Communities Can Solve Their Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathews, David
1989-01-01
Effective communities are well-educated about themselves, have a better understanding of public information, talk through public issues to generate shared knowledge, appreciate the difference between public opinion and public judgment, and believe in public leadership as the key to using public power to solve community problems. (SK)
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
General Problem Solving: Navy Requirements and Solutions.
1985-03-01
Karat, 1982; Lukas, et. al., 1971; Pitt, 1983; Post and Brennan, 1976; Reif and Heller, 1982; Schwieger , 1° 4; Speedie, et. al., 1973; Thor- son...bVo°o ,o. 4*** h ° . . .. - - o. . . . o. , ’ Schwieger , Ruben Don, A Component Analysis of Mathematical Problem Solving, Ph.D
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and…
Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…
Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, Dave
1996-01-01
Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…
Problem Solving in Chemistry Using Eureka.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chau, F. T.; Chik, Andy S. W.
1989-01-01
Discusses a software package that allows the user to solve mathematical problems, analyze data, plot graphs, and to examine mathematical models. Presents the attributes of the program and the available mathematical functions. Provides an example of pH calculations. (MVL)
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeMul, Frits F. M.; Batlle, Cristina Martin i.; DeBruijn, Imme; Rinzema, Kees
2004-01-01
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential expressions and multi-dimensional integrations, and the Gauss and Ampère laws learnt in electromagnetism courses. To enhance those skills in a quick and efficient way we have developed 'Integrating Mathematics in University Physics', in which students are provided with a selection of problems (exercises) that explicitly deal with the relation between physics and mathematics. The project is based on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and available via the Internet (http://tnweb.tn.utwente.nl/onderwijs/; or http://www.utwente.nl/; search or click to: CONECT). Normally, in CAI a predefined student-guiding sequence for problem solving is used (systematic problem solving). For self-learning this approach was found to be far too rigid. Therefore, we developed the 'adventurous problem solving' (APS) method. In this new approach, the student has to find the solution by developing his own problem-solving strategy in an interactive way. The assessment of mathematical answers to physical questions is performed using a background link with an algebraic symbolic language interpreter. This manuscript concentrates on the subject of APS.
Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.
Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M
2014-08-15
The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning.
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Realization of Techniques in Problem Solving: The Construction of Bijections for Enumeration Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin
2004-01-01
This paper deals with a teaching approach aimed to help students become aware of targeted techniques of significance in problem solving. The teaching approach is to present a series of tasks that all can be solved by applying the same technique. Two levels of prompting are used; first for the students to realize solutions without necessarily being…
A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.
1989-01-01
A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.
Using Conceptual Scaffolding to Foster Effective Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2009-11-01
Traditional end-of-chapter problems often are localized, requiring formulas only within a single chapter. Students frequently can solve these problems by performing "plug-and-chug" without recognizing underlying concepts. We designed open-ended problems that require a synthesis of concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching time line, militating against students' blindly invoking locally introduced formulas. Each problem was encapsulated into a sequence with two preceding conceptually-based multiple-choice questions. These conceptual questions address the same underlying concepts as the subsequent problem, providing students with guided conceptual scaffolding. When solving the problem, students were explicitly advised to search for underlying connections based on the conceptual questions. Both small-scale interviews and a large-scale written test were conducted to investigate the effects of guided conceptual scaffolding on student problem solving. Specifically, student performance on the open-ended problems was compared between those who received scaffolding and those who did not. A further analysis of whether the conceptual scaffolding was equivalent to mere cueing also was conducted.
Giant Story Problems: Reading Comprehension through Math Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goularte, Renee
Primary students solve "oversized" story problems using drawings, equations, and written responses, helping them understand the links between the language of story problems and the numerical representations of matching equations. The activity also includes oral language and reflective writing, thus bringing together a variety of language…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Garderen, Delinda
2008-01-01
A random sample of middle school special education teachers from various classroom settings completed a survey asking them about what instructional practices and materials they used to teach students with disabilities how to solve word problems, how much time they allocated to problem solving instruction, and what type of problems they gave their…
A Comparison of Two Mathematics Problem-Solving Strategies: Facilitate Algebra-Readiness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake; Park, Joo Young; Tom, Kinsey; Whipple, Amanda; Si, Luo
2011-01-01
The authors compared a conceptual model-based problem-solving (COMPS) approach with a general heuristic instructional approach for teaching multiplication-division word-problem solving to elementary students with learning problems (LP). The results indicate that only the COMPS group significantly improved, from pretests to posttests, their…
Human Problem Solving in Fault Diagnosis Tasks
1986-04-01
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Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Elaine Boswell; Schlundt, David G.; Pichert, James W.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Backer, Barbara A.
2002-01-01
Nurses, dietitians, physicians, and a pharmacist (n=33) attended a patient teaching and problem-solving course emphasizing assessment, brainstorming, collaboration, and direct instruction skills. Analysis of videotaped patient teaching exercises revealed significant improvement in all four skills. Length of teaching sessions remained the same.…
A Problem Solving Model for Use in Science Student Teacher Supervision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Tice, Craig J.
1993-01-01
Describes and suggests the use of a problem-solving model that improves communication between student teachers and supervisors through the student teaching practicum. The aim of the model is to promote experimentation with various teaching techniques and to stimulate thinking among student teachers about their teaching experiences. (PR)
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Problem-solving analysis: A piagetian study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, James P.
Fifty-nine second-year medical students were asked to solve 12 Piagetian formal operational tasks. The purpose was to describe the formal logical characteristics of this medical student sample (59 of a total 65 possible) in terms of their abilities to solve problems in four formal logical schemata-combinatorial logic, probabilistic reasoning, propositional logic, and proportional reasoning. These tasks were presented as videotape demonstrations or in written form, depending on whether or not equipment manipulation was required, and were scored using conventional, prespecified scoring criteria. The results of this study show approximately 96% of the sample function at the transitional (Piaget's 3A level) stage of formal operations on all tasks and approximately 4% function at the full formal (Piaget's 3B level) stage of formal operations on all tasks. This sample demonstrates formal level thinking to a much greater degree than other samples reported in the literature to date and suggests these students are adequately prepared and developed to meet the challenge of their training (i.e., medical problem solving).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Karen M.
This study investigated the effects of Oregon's Lane County "Problem Solving in Mathematics" (PSM) materials on middle-school students' attitudes, beliefs, and abilities in problem solving and mathematics. The instructional approach advocated in PSM includes: the direct teaching of five problem-solving skills, weekly challenge problems,…
Solving optimization problems on computational grids.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-05-01
Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software
Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maries, Alexandru
This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayel Al-Srour, Nadia; Al-Ali, Safa M.; Al-Oweidi, Alia
2016-01-01
The present study aims to detect the impact of teacher training on creative writing and problem-solving using both Futuristic scenarios program to solve problems creatively, and creative problem solving. To achieve the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two groups, the first consist of 20 teachers, and 23 teachers to second…
Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali
2016-06-30
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szetela, W.; Super, D.
A problem-solving program supplemented by calculators in one treatment group was conducted in 63 grade 7 classes with about 1350 students. Teachers were provided with problems correlated with textbooks, and instruction for teaching problem-solving strategies. School districts provided calculators and problem-solving materials. Pretest scores…
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-01-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610
Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.
Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard
2016-03-01
There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.
Exploring the role of conceptual scaffolding in solving synthesis problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2011-12-01
It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring a solver to conduct a general search for underlying concepts. Hypothesizing that complete reliance on EOC problems trains students to rely on a nonexpert approach, we designed and implemented “synthesis” problems, each combining two major concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching timeline. To provide students with guided conceptual scaffolding, we encapsulated each synthesis problem into a sequence with two preceding conceptually based multiple-choice questions. Each question contained one of the major concepts covered in the subsequent synthesis problem. Results from a small-scale interview study and two large-scale written tests showed that the scaffolding encouraged students to search for and apply appropriate fundamental principles in solving synthesis problems, and that repeated training using scaffolded synthesis problems also helped students to make cross-topic transfers.
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
Solving Optimization Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Airport Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José
2014-01-01
This paper describes how the author's students (in-service and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers) enrolled in college geometry courses use the Geometers' Sketchpad (GSP) to gain insight to formulate, confirm, test, and refine conjectures to solve the classical airport problem for triangles. The students are then provided with strategic…
Aha: A Connectionist Perspective on Problem Solving
1988-06-08
DOCUMENTATION PAGE 7, -REPORtT SEC.l CASPFC.A’C ON R7ESRtC’ vE %MARK.%GS Unclassif led 22 SECRITY C ASSPFCATION Aur~oRifv 3 ; S’R @Bu ON AjALA81L 3 F...Typically, the search perspective has been used to desc ,.,e problem solving behavior occurring on a macro-level time scale of seconds as opposed to the...unit /. The constants S, E and / (all set to .05 for the simulations described below) scale the strength of the external input, the excitatory input from
Can galileons solve the muon problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamm, Henry
2015-09-01
The leptonic bound states positronium and muonium are used to constrain Galileon contributions to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Through the application of a variety of bounds on lepton compositeness, it is shown that either the assumption of equating the charge radius of a particle with its Galileon scale radius is incompatible with experiments, or the scale of Galileons must be M >1.33 GeV , too large to solve the muon problem. The possibility of stronger constraints in the future from true muonium is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel
2016-01-01
In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving…
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcus, Michael
2003-01-01
Describes a teaching method involving problem-solving techniques used by project teams in industry that have been tailored for use in an introductory engineering technology course. Provides step-by-step guidelines for each component. (JOW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna Beth
1979-01-01
Descriptive and evaluative information is presented about the Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving (ICPS) program, which utilizes sequenced games and dialogs to teach young children new ways of thinking about and coping with interpersonal difficulties. (SJL)
Assessing Problem-Solving Abilities in the Theatre Curriculum: A Cumulative and Sequential Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Runkel, Richard
1990-01-01
Describes a plan designed to teach and assess (cumulatively and sequentially) five levels of problem-solving ability in three standard courses in the theater curriculum at Alverno College in Wisconsin. (SR)
Learning Problem-Solving through Making Games at the Game Design and Learning Summer Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akcaoglu, Mete
2014-01-01
Today's complex and fast-evolving world necessitates young students to possess design and problem-solving skills more than ever. One alternative method of teaching children problem-solving or thinking skills has been using computer programming, and more recently, game-design tasks. In this pre-experimental study, a group of middle school…
Developing Problem-Solving Skills of Students Taking Introductory Physics via Web-Based Tutorials
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, Chandralekha; Haileselassie, Daniel
2010-01-01
Science teaching and learning can be made both engaging and student-centered using pedagogical, computer-based learning tools. We have developed self-paced interactive problem-solving tutorials for introductory physics. These tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem-solving techniques, as well as opportunities for…
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS): A Cognitive Approach to Preventing Early High Risk Behaviors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.; And Others
This outline presents a program designed to teach children "how" to think, not what to think--so as to help them solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Through games, stories, puppets, illustrations, and role plays, children learn a pre-problem solving vocabulary, feeling word concepts, and ways to arrive at solutions to…
An In-Service Teachers' Workshop on Mathematical Problem Solving through Activity-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam
2007-01-01
This paper describes an in-service professional development course in introducing creative approaches to teach mathematics for teachers from the private-funded schools in Java, Indonesia. The course focused on introducing teachers to problem-solving processes and skills, and samples of activity-based worksheet on problem solving through secondary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Babbitt, Beatrice C.; Miller, Susan Peterson
1996-01-01
This article reviews current knowledge about using computers to teach problem-solving skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). It presents the case for use of hypermedia to improve students' mathematics problem-solving abilities. Specific suggestions are given for applying hypermedia to cognitive strategy instruction and the graduated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Amy F.
2011-01-01
It can be difficult to find adequate strategies when teaching problem solving in a standard based mathematics classroom. The purpose of this study was to improve students' problem solving skills and attitudes through differentiated instruction when working on lengthy performance tasks in cooperative groups. This action research studied for 15 days…
Design, Development and Validation of a Model of Problem Solving for Egyptian Science Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahat, Mohamed A.; Ohle, Annika; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.
2013-01-01
Educators and policymakers envision the future of education in Egypt as enabling learners to acquire scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills. In this article, we describe the validation of a model for problem solving and the design of instruments for evaluating new teaching methods in Egyptian science classes. The instruments were based on…
MULTICATEGORICAL EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE IN CLINICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING TESTS. FINAL REPORT.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
WILDS, PRESTON L.; ZACHERT, VIRGINIA
THIS PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO DETERMINE IF NUMERICAL SCORING SYSTEMS FOR CLINICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING TESTS COULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH WOULD MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS IN TEACHING CLINICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS. THE PROJECT WAS TO VALIDATE AND CROSS-VALIDATE THE SCORING SYSTEMS BY TESTS OF POPULATION SAMPLES OF KNOWN…
Mathematical Problem Solving among Latina/o Kindergartners: An Analysis of Opportunities to Learn
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Celedon-Pattichis, Sylvia
2011-01-01
This study explores opportunities to learn mathematics problem solving for Latina/o students in 3 kindergarten classrooms in the southwest. Mixed methods were used to examine teaching practices that engaged Latina/o students in problem solving and supported their learning. Findings indicate that although students in all 3 classrooms showed growth…
Analytical Derivation: An Epistemic Game for Solving Mathematically Based Physics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-01-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the "analytical derivation" game. This game involves deriving an…
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef
1988-01-01
An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.
Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving
Gilhooly, Kenneth J.
2016-01-01
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective
Ganor-Stern, Dana
2016-01-01
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework
2012-08-15
multiplayer card game Creature Capture now supports an offline multiplayer mode (sharing a single computer), in response to feedback from teachers that a...Planetopia overworld will be ready for use by a number of physical schools as well as integrated into multiple online teaching resources. The games will be...From - To) 7/1/2012 – 7/31/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGAGE: A Game Based Learning and Problem Solving Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b
Solving Maxwell eigenvalue problems for accelerating cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbenz, Peter; Geus, Roman; Adam, Stefan
2001-02-01
We investigate algorithms for computing steady state electromagnetic waves in cavities. The Maxwell equations for the strength of the electric field are solved by a mixed method with quadratic finite edge (Nédélec) elements for the field values and corresponding node-based finite elements for the Lagrange multiplier. This approach avoids so-called spurious modes which are introduced if the divergence-free condition for the electric field is not treated properly. To compute a few of the smallest positive eigenvalues and corresponding eigenmodes of the resulting large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems, two algorithms have been used: the implicitly restarted Lanczos algorithm and the Jacobi-Davidson algorithm, both with shift-and-invert spectral transformation. Two-level hierarchical basis preconditioners have been employed for the iterative solution of the resulting systems of equations.
Analytical derivation: An epistemic game for solving mathematically based physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Thompson, John R.
2016-06-01
Problem solving, which often involves multiple steps, is an integral part of physics learning and teaching. Using the perspective of the epistemic game, we documented a specific game that is commonly pursued by students while solving mathematically based physics problems: the analytical derivation game. This game involves deriving an equation through symbolic manipulations and routine mathematical operations, usually without any physical interpretation of the processes. This game often creates cognitive obstacles in students, preventing them from using alternative resources or better approaches during problem solving. We conducted hour-long, semi-structured, individual interviews with fourteen introductory physics students. Students were asked to solve four "pseudophysics" problems containing algebraic and graphical representations. The problems required the application of the fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC), which is one of the most frequently used mathematical concepts in physics problem solving. We show that the analytical derivation game is necessary, but not sufficient, to solve mathematically based physics problems, specifically those involving graphical representations.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?
Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R
2016-05-01
Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.
Dynamics of students’ epistemological framing in group problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hai D.; Chari, Deepa N.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
2016-11-01
Many studies have investigated students’ epistemological framing when solving physics problems. Framing supports students’ problem solving as they decide what knowledge to employ and the necessary steps to solve the problem. Students may frame the same problem differently and take alternative paths to a correct solution. When students work in group settings, they share and discuss their framing to decide how to proceed in problem solving as a whole group. In this study, we investigate how groups of students negotiate their framing and frame shifts in group problem solving.
Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2010-01-01
This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roesler, Rebecca A.
2017-01-01
The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
Problem-Solving Processes Used by Students in Organic Synthesis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowen, Craig W.; Bodner, George M.
1991-01-01
A model for problem solving stressing both psychological and cultural influences is presented. This model is based on the analyses of how graduate students (n=10) solve organic synthesis problems, along with two models of problem solving and a constructivist epistemological stance. (KR)
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Harmony Theory: Problem Solving, Parallel Cognitive Models, and Thermal Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smolensky, Paul; Riley, Mary S.
This document consists of three papers. The first, "A Parallel Model of (Sequential) Problem Solving," describes a parallel model designed to solve a class of relatively simple problems from elementary physics and discusses implications for models of problem-solving in general. It is shown that one of the most salient features of problem…
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…
Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng
2010-01-01
In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewe, Eric
2006-12-01
Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).
Problem Solving as a Professional Development Strategy for Teachers: A Case Study with Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perdomo-Díaz, Josefa; Felmer, Patricio; Randolph, Valeria; González, Guillermo
2017-01-01
In this paper we present a professional development course designed to impact on teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching fractions. The main features of the course are the use of i) problem solving activities related with mathematical knowledge for teaching fractions ii) peer discussions and iii) monitor's interventions focused on answering…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan
2015-01-01
This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…
Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000?
Stearns, A T
2002-09-01
It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha
2011-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
MAUVE: A New Strategy for Solving and Grading Physics Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Nicole Breanne
2016-05-01
MAUVE (magnitude, answer, units, variables, and equations) is a framework and rubric to help students and teachers through the process of clearly solving and assessing solutions to introductory physics problems. Success in introductory physics often derives from an understanding of units, a command over dimensional analysis, and good bookkeeping. I developed MAUVE for an introductory-level environmental physics course as an easy-to-remember checklist to help students construct organized and thoughtful solutions to physics problems. Environmental physics is a core physics course for environmental and sustainability science (ESS) majors that teaches principles of radiation, thermodynamics, and mechanics within the context of the environment and sustainable energy systems. ESS student concentrations include environmental biology, applied ecology, biogeochemistry, and natural resources. The MAUVE rubric, inspired by nature, has encouraged my students to produce legible and tactical work, and has significantly clarified the grading process.
Young children's analogical problem solving: gaining insights from video displays.
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S
2013-12-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. The sample of 2- and 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older, but not younger, toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video and spontaneously transferred the strategy to solve isomorphic problems. Transfer by analogy from the video was evident only when the video illustrated the complete problem goal structure, including the character's intention and the action needed to achieve a goal. The same action isolated from the problem-solving context did not serve as an effective source analogue. These results illuminate the development of early representation and processes involved in analogical problem solving. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.
Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.
2017-03-01
Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.
A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.
1989-03-01
This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee
2005-01-01
A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.
The Problem-Solving Power of Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Ariel
2013-01-01
Risk takers of all kinds have joined the effort to find new and better ways to structure nearly every aspect of teaching and learning. But as teacher leader and blogger Ariel Sacks notes, "Sadly, most of the experiments in education reform come from the imaginations of people who don't actually teach children." Top-down experiments…
Learning Nucleic Acids Solving by Bioinformatics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunes, Rhewter; de Almeida Júnior, Edivaldo Barbosa; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Malafaia, Guilherme
2015-01-01
The article describes the development of a new approach to teach molecular biology to undergraduate biology students. The 34 students who participated in this research belonged to the first period of the Biological Sciences teaching course of the Instituto Federal Goiano at Urutaí Campus, Brazil. They were registered in Cell Biology in the first…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
Design and Performance Frameworks for Constructing Problem-Solving Simulations
Stevens, Ron; Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin
2003-01-01
Rapid advancements in hardware, software, and connectivity are helping to shorten the times needed to develop computer simulations for science education. These advancements, however, have not been accompanied by corresponding theories of how best to design and use these technologies for teaching, learning, and testing. Such design frameworks ideally would be guided less by the strengths/limitations of the presentation media and more by cognitive analyses detailing the goals of the tasks, the needs and abilities of students, and the resulting decision outcomes needed by different audiences. This article describes a problem-solving environment and associated theoretical framework for investigating how students select and use strategies as they solve complex science problems. A framework is first described for designing on-line problem spaces that highlights issues of content, scale, cognitive complexity, and constraints. While this framework was originally designed for medical education, it has proven robust and has been successfully applied to learning environments from elementary school through medical school. Next, a similar framework is detailed for collecting student performance and progress data that can provide evidence of students' strategic thinking and that could potentially be used to accelerate student progress. Finally, experimental validation data are presented that link strategy selection and use with other metrics of scientific reasoning and student achievement. PMID:14506505
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sarrazy, Bernard
2002-01-01
How can it be explained that, aside from inter-individual differences, pupils in certain classes are more responsive than others to the formal aspects of a problem that has been set? The author puts forward the hypothesis that teachers differ in their ability to operate relevant variations in the conception of problems. The differences in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel
2016-08-01
In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and assess their effectiveness in improving students' ability to solve problems in university-level physics. Firstly, we analyze the effect of using simulation-based materials in the development of students' skills in employing procedures that are typically used in the scientific method of problem-solving. We found that a significant percentage of the experimental students used expert-type scientific procedures such as qualitative analysis of the problem, making hypotheses, and analysis of results. At the end of the course, only a minority of the students persisted with habits based solely on mathematical equations. Secondly, we compare the effectiveness in terms of problem-solving of the experimental group students with the students who are taught conventionally. We found that the implementation of the problem-solving strategy improved experimental students' results regarding obtaining a correct solution from the academic point of view, in standard textbook problems. Thirdly, we explore students' satisfaction with simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and we found that the majority appear to be satisfied with the methodology proposed and took on a favorable attitude to learning problem-solving. The research was carried out among first-year Engineering Degree students.
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge.
2014-01-01
Background Healthcare worldwide needs translation of basic ideas from engineering into the clinic. Consequently, there is increasing demand for graduates equipped with the knowledge and skills to apply interdisciplinary medicine/engineering approaches to the development of novel solutions for healthcare. The literature provides little guidance regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, effective interdisciplinary learning for engineering and medical students in a team-based project context. Methods A quantitative survey was distributed to engineering and medical students and staff in two universities, one in Ireland and one in Belgium, to chart knowledge and practice in interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and of the teaching of innovation. Results We report important differences for staff and students between the disciplines regarding attitudes towards, and perceptions of, the relevance of interdisciplinary learning opportunities, and the role of creativity and innovation. There was agreement across groups concerning preferred learning, instructional styles, and module content. Medical students showed greater resistance to the use of structured creativity tools and interdisciplinary teams. Conclusions The results of this international survey will help to define the optimal learning conditions under which undergraduate engineering and medicine students can learn to consider the diverse factors which determine the success or failure of a healthcare engineering solution. PMID:24450310
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez
2012-01-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seyhan, Hatice Güngör
2015-01-01
This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…
Graphical statics a forgotten tool for solving plane mechanical problems.
Baumgart, E
2000-05-01
Graphical statics is an almost forgotten, intuitive drawing method for solving plane mechanical problems. It was already in use in the 19th century for biomechanical problems. It was still a standard method employed by civil engineers in the 1940s. Superceded by modern analytical methods, graphical statics disappeared almost completely. The method is restricted to plane static problems, but still remains a useful tool for visualizing, understanding and checking the actions of force groups occurring in modern biomechanical problems. After defining the basic mechanical terminology (body, motion, forces), the paper is written mainly as a teaching tool for immediate application. Many illustrative examples (sporting activities, functional forces in joints) help to clarify the difficult biomechanical content. For application, it must be assumed that the bodies investigated behave as rigid bodies under the action of the forces, but this does not prevent application of the method to deformable living bodies if specific static configurations of the bodies are considered. The application of the method requires a good anatomical knowledge and experience with the function of the musculoskeletal apparatus of living bodies. If reliable models are used, the method delivers quantitative results of sufficient accuracy. The paper may also help provide a better understanding of publications containing graphical solutions to bio-static problems.
The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.
2012-12-01
Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schacter, John; And Others
This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…
A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves the students' problems solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: i) finds step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept ii) enable students' to solve word problems on their own…
A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own by…
Future Problem Solving--One Program Meeting Many Needs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hume, Katherine C.
2002-01-01
This article describes the Future Problem Solving Program, a year-long curriculum project with competitive and non-competitive options. The international program involves 250,000 students and is designed to help students enlarge, enrich, and make more accurate their images of the future. Team problem solving and individual problem solving…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Theory of Constructions and Set in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.; And Others
Hierarchically organized knowledge about actions has been postulated to explain planning in problem solving. Perdix, a simulation of problem solving in geometry with schematic planning knowledge, is described. Perdix' planning knowledge enables it to augment the problem space it is given by constructing auxiliary lines. The planning system also…
Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University
1997-01-01
Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and…
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…
Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Matthew T.
2013-01-01
In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
Problem Solving Treatment for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezu, Christine Maguth; Fiore, Alicia A.; Nezu, Arthur M.
2006-01-01
Over the past thirty years, Problem Solving Therapy (PST) has been shown to be an effective treatment for many different problems and patient populations (Nezu, 2004). Among its many clinical applications, PST interventions were developed for persons with intellectually disabilities (ID), where improving problem-solving skills led to adaptive…
A general architecture for intelligent tutoring of diagnostic classification problem solving.
Crowley, Rebecca S; Medvedeva, Olga
2003-01-01
We report on a general architecture for creating knowledge-based medical training systems to teach diagnostic classification problem solving. The approach is informed by our previous work describing the development of expertise in classification problem solving in Pathology. The architecture envelops the traditional Intelligent Tutoring System design within the Unified Problem-solving Method description Language (UPML) architecture, supporting component modularity and reuse. Based on the domain ontology, domain task ontology and case data, the abstract problem-solving methods of the expert model create a dynamic solution graph. Student interaction with the solution graph is filtered through an instructional layer, which is created by a second set of abstract problem-solving methods and pedagogic ontologies, in response to the current state of the student model. We outline the advantages and limitations of this general approach, and describe it's implementation in SlideTutor - a developing Intelligent Tutoring System in Dermatopathology.
Effect of case-based learning on the development of graduate nurses' problem-solving ability.
Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee
2014-01-01
Case-based learning (CBL) is a teaching strategy which promotes clinical problem-solving ability. This research was performed to investigate the effects of CBL on problem-solving ability of graduate nurses. This research was a quasi-experimental design using pre-test, intervention, and post-test with a non-synchronized, non-equivalent control group. The study population was composed of 190 new graduate nurses from university hospital A in Korea. Results of the research indicate that there was a statistically significant difference in objective problem-solving ability scores of CBL group demonstrating higher scores. Subjective problem-solving ability was also significantly higher in CBL group than in the lecture-based group. These results may suggest that CBL is a beneficial and effective instructional method of training graduate nurses to improve their clinical problem-solving ability.
Business Communication: A Problem-Solving Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poe, Roy W.; Fruehling, Rosemary T.
Taking the stance that there is no "formula" approach to the teaching of business writing and that the student must begin his practice of business correspondence immediately upon his undertaking the study, this book is a guide for good business communication. Topics covered include writing request letters, memos, acknowledgements, and letters of…
Musical Creative Learning and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, Mary T.
1986-01-01
Educators need to develop teaching strategies that allow children to explore creative musical processes that will nurture musical skills, self-awareness, and imagination. A sequence of five lessons encompassing language arts and music demonstrates how students can develop creativity by writing haiku and then composing music to accompany the poems.…