Science.gov

Sample records for team performance skills

  1. Teaming Up for Performance Support: A Model of Roles, Skills, and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Burt; Lippincott, Jenifer; McMahon, Cathie; Witt, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses roles, skills, and competencies that comprise a development team engaged in creating electronic performance support systems (EPSS). Explains intrinsic, extrinsic, and external EPSS, presents case studies for each type, and suggests effective team strategies that include team formation and team-client communication. (LRW)

  2. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  3. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Developing Performance Measures for Manned-Unmanned Teaming Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Attn: DAPE-ARI-ZXM, 6000 6th Street (Building 1464 / Mail Stop: 5610), Fort Belvoir...10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral & Social Sciences 6000 6th Street, (Building 1464 / Mail...candidate performance measures and their associated rating scales for appropriateness of measure type, measure wording, scale type, and scale wording

  5. Metacognitive, Social and Interpersonal Skills and Aptitudes in Officer Performance With Distributed Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    relationships among team members and their relation to phases and the implementation phases take place in the outside world ( Katzenbach and Smith, 1994). The...cdmcPes Diverse Approaches. London, U.K. : Academic Press. Katzenbach , J.R., and Smith, D.K. (1993) The Rasmussen, J. (1983) Skills, rules, and

  6. Recruit for Attitude, Train for Skills: Creating High Performing Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on research investigating the factors which impact on the recruitment and support of high performing leadership teams, funded by the National College. The research involved a comprehensive literature review and case studies of nine English schools. The results show that four themes emerged in relation to high performing teams:…

  7. Influence of closed skill and open skill warm-ups on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks.

  8. Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT): A Resource for Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corinne; And Others

    The Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT) was developed for early intervention practitioners from a variety of disciplines to help them evaluate their ability to work as part of an early intervention team in identifying and serving young children with disabilities. The Team Member section is designed to help individual team members identify the skills…

  9. Team Talk: Communication Skills for Early Intervention Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses ways that early intervention team members can improve their communication, qualities of effective teams, roles that members assume on teams, a step-by-step process for creating a transdisciplinary team, verbal and nonverbal skills necessary for successful communicative interaction, and behaviors that serve as barriers to…

  10. Assessing Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

    Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing…

  11. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  12. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2014-12-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  13. Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2014-01-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

  14. Verbal communication improves laparoscopic team performance.

    PubMed

    Shiliang Chang; Waid, Erin; Martinec, Danny V; Bin Zheng; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2008-06-01

    The impact of verbal communication on laparoscopic team performance was examined. A total of 24 dyad teams, comprised of residents, medical students, and office staff, underwent 2 team tasks using a previously validated bench model. Twelve teams (feedback groups) received instant verbal instruction and feedback on their performance from an instructor which was compared with 12 teams (control groups) with minimal or no verbal feedback. Their performances were both video and audio taped for analysis. Surgical backgrounds were similar between feedback and control groups. Teams with more verbal feedback achieved significantly better task performance (P = .002) compared with the control group with less feedback. Impact of verbal feedback was more pronounced for tasks requiring team cooperation (aiming and navigation) than tasks depending on individual skills (knotting). Verbal communication, especially the instructions and feedback from an experienced instructor, improved team efficiency and performance.

  15. Effects of Above Real Time Training (ARTT) On Individual Skills and Contributions to Crew/Team Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Guckenberger, Dutch; Bageon, Kellye

    2001-01-01

    Above Real Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments on training of pilots performed by NASA engineers and others have indicated that real time training (RTT) reinforced with ARTT would offer an effective training strategy for such tasks which require significant effort at time and workload management. A study was conducted to find how ARTT and RTT complement each other for training of novice pilot-navigator teams to fly on a required route. In the experiment, each of the participating pilot-navigator teams was required to conduct simulator flights on a prescribed two-legged ground track while maintaining required air speed and altitude. At any instant in a flight, the distance between the actual spatial point location of the airplane and the required spatial point was used as a measure of deviation from the required route. A smaller deviation represented better performance. Over a segment of flight or over complete flight, an average value of the deviation represented consolidated performance. The deviations were computed from the information on latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the combined ARTT and RTT program, ARTT at intermediate training intervals was beneficial in improving the real time performance of the trainees. It was observed that the team interaction between pilot and navigator resulted in maintaining high motivation and active participation throughout the training program.

  16. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player’s performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players’ skills to the team’s success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players’ skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players’ respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player’s interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup. PMID:26351846

  17. Measuring non-technical skills of medical emergency teams: an update on the validity and reliability of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon J; Cant, Robyn P

    2014-01-01

    Medical emergency team performance including non-technical skills, is receiving increased attention due to the influences on patient safety. The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) was developed to enable standardized performance assessment and structured team debriefing. From several studies, the TEAM has demonstrated a substantial body of normative data confirming its validity and reliability. This includes high uni-dimensional validity, significant subscale relationships between Teamwork and Leadership and between Teamwork and Task Management (p<0.001), a Cronbach alpha of 0.92 and adequate construct validity. The tool has potential for team training to improve team's non-technical performance. Further testing is required in 'real' clinical settings.

  18. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  19. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  20. [Team Care for Patient Safety, TeamSTEPPS to Improve Nontechnical Skills and Teamwork--Actions to Become an HRO].

    PubMed

    Kaito, Ken

    2015-07-01

    It is important to develop safer medical systems and follow manuals of medical procedures for patient safety. However, these approaches do not always result in satisfactory results because of many human factors. It is known that defects of nontechnical skills are more important than those of technical skills regarding medical accidents and incidents. So, it is necessary to improve personal nontechnical skills and compensate for each other's defects based on a team approach. For such purposes, we have implemented TeamSTEPPS to enhance performance and patient safety in our hospital. TeamSTEPPS (team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety) is a useful method to improve the nontechnical skills of each member and the team. In TeamSTEPPS, leadership to share mental models among the team, continuous monitoring and awareness for team activities, mutual support for workload and knowledge, and approaches to complete communication are summarized to enhance teamwork and patient safety. Other than improving nontechnical skills and teamwork, TeamSTEPPS is also very important as a High Reliability Organization (HRO). TeamSTEPPS is worth implementing in every hospital to decrease medical errors and improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

  1. Defining and Assessing Team Skills of Business and Accountancy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghalith, Nabil; Blum, Michael; Medlock, Amanda; Weber, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the project are (1) to define the skills necessary for students to work effectively with others to achieve common goals, and (2) to develop an assessment instrument to measure student progress toward achieving these skills. The defined skill set will form a basis for common expectations related to team skills that will be shared…

  2. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  3. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  4. Developing a theory of the strategic core of teams: a role composition model of team performance.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Stephen E; Morgeson, Frederick P; Mannor, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous models of team performance have been articulated over the past 20 years, these models have primarily focused on the individual attribute approach to team composition. The authors utilized a role composition approach, which investigates how the characteristics of a set of role holders impact team effectiveness, to develop a theory of the strategic core of teams. Their theory suggests that certain team roles are most important for team performance and that the characteristics of the role holders in the "core" of the team are more important for overall team performance. This theory was tested in 778 teams drawn from 29 years of major league baseball (1974'-2002). Results demonstrate that although high levels of experience and job-related skill are important predictors of team performance, the relationships between these constructs and team performance are significantly stronger when the characteristics are possessed by core role holders (as opposed to non-core role holders). Further, teams that invest more of their financial resources in these core roles are able to leverage such investments into significantly improved performance. These results have implications for team composition models, as they suggest a new method for considering individual contributions to a team's success that shifts the focus onto core roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  6. Relation between social cohesion and team performance in soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Nicola, Nicola; Rizac, Anis

    2003-02-01

    Investigations of the influence on team performance of team composition, in terms of task-related attributes, e.g., personality traits, cognitive abilities, often assumes this relation to be mediated by the strength (intensity) of the interpersonal relations (social cohesion) among team members. However, there has been little empirical examination of how much social cohesion actually affects team outcomes. This preliminary study sought to examine this issue using soccer teams, which have been held to resemble workplace teams. Perceptions of team cohesion were collected from 198 Israeli soccer players (comprising 36 national league teams) during the week preceding their weekly games. A significant correlation was found between the perceptions of social cohesion and the results of the soccer matches, indicating a link between team social cohesion and team performance. Implications of the results, as well as the study's limitations, are discussed, and avenues for research are suggested.

  7. The Effect of Personality Style and Team Organization on Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    of work, quantity of work, initiative, interpersonal skills, planning and allocation, commitment to the team, and overall team performance. The...which a person is outgoing and is willing to interact with other people. The facets of extraversion are warmth , gregariousness, assertiveness...Discipline Impulsiveness Deliberation Vulnerability Extraversion Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Avtivity Excitement-Seeking Positive Emotions Figure

  8. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  9. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  10. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  11. Physiological compliance and team performance.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Amanda N; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W; Walker, Alexander D; Carpenter, Thomas L; Switzer, Fred S

    2009-11-01

    Physiological compliance (PC) refers to the correlation between physiological measures of team members over time. The goals of this study were to examine ways of measuring PC in heart rate variability (HRV) data and the relationship between PC and team performance. Teams were tasked with entering both real and simulated rooms and "shooting" individuals with a weapon and identifying individuals without a weapon. The linear correlation and directional agreement PC methods were shown to be the most sensitive to differences in performance, with greater PC being associated with better performance. The correlation method when applied to a measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) revealed a significant difference between high and low performers (t[8]=-2.31, p=0.03) and the directional agreement applied to inter-beat-intervals and RSA revealed trend-level differences (t[4.62]=-1.86, p=0.06 and t[8]=-1.68, p=0.07). These results suggest that PC may have merit for predicting team performance.

  12. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team

  13. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  14. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  15. Team and Collective Performance Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    missions with specific as well as general questions. Relationships between the indices have been analyzed by means of structural equation modeling [21... equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language’. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1993. [17] Berggren, P. (2000). ‘Situational awareness...2004. TEAM AND COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT RTO-TR-HFM-121-Part-II 7 - 15 [16] Jöreskog, K.G. and Sörbom, D. ‘LISREL8: Structural

  16. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  17. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  18. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  19. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  20. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  1. Common Factors of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bruce; Madsen, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of work teams is now wide spread in all types of organizations throughout the world. However, an understanding of the important factors common to high performance teams is rare. The purpose of this content analysis is to explore the literature and propose findings related to high performance teams. These include definition and types,…

  2. Forming Student Online Teams for Maximum Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel D.; Ringhand, Darlene G.; Kalinski, Ray C.; Ziegler, James G.

    2015-01-01

    What is the best way to assign graduate business students to online team-based projects? Team assignments are frequently made on the basis of alphabet, time zones or previous performance. This study reviews personality as an indicator of student online team performance. The personality assessment IDE (Insights Discovery Evaluator) was administered…

  3. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome.

  4. Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The roles of team charters and performance strategies.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Rapp, Tammy L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for both teamwork (i.e., team charters) and taskwork (performance strategies) can pay dividends in terms of more effective team performance over time. Using random coefficients growth modeling techniques, they found that teams with high-quality performance strategies outperformed teams with poorer quality strategies. However, a significant interaction between quality of the charters of teams and their performance strategies was found, such that the highest sustained performances were exhibited by teams that were high on both features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Improving Team Performance: Proceedings of the Rand Team Performance Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    the final stages in the design sequence. These stages should always be preceded by extensive analy- sis of the task environment and careful formulation...structure has been one of the primary foci for research on teams. The workshop papers and discussions include many hypotheses about the influence of...range of potential research issues. Both papers point out that the primary design problem lies not in communications hardware, but in the design of

  6. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  7. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  8. Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E

    2007-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values.

  9. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    PubMed

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance.

  10. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  11. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  13. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league.

  14. Performance assessment task team progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  15. What Are the Key Qualities and Skills of Effective Team Coaches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacox, William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify and understand the key qualities and skills of effective team coaches. The results serve to educate and inform those aspiring to be organizational team coaches, those presently serving as team coaches, those developing curriculum to train team coaches, and those responsible for choosing and hiring…

  16. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  17. We will be champions: Leaders' confidence in 'us' inspires team members' team confidence and performance.

    PubMed

    Fransen, K; Steffens, N K; Haslam, S A; Vanbeselaere, N; Vande Broek, G; Boen, F

    2016-12-01

    The present research examines the impact of leaders' confidence in their team on the team confidence and performance of their teammates. In an experiment involving newly assembled soccer teams, we manipulated the team confidence expressed by the team leader (high vs neutral vs low) and assessed team members' responses and performance as they unfolded during a competition (i.e., in a first baseline session and a second test session). Our findings pointed to team confidence contagion such that when the leader had expressed high (rather than neutral or low) team confidence, team members perceived their team to be more efficacious and were more confident in the team's ability to win. Moreover, leaders' team confidence affected individual and team performance such that teams led by a highly confident leader performed better than those led by a less confident leader. Finally, the results supported a hypothesized mediational model in showing that the effect of leaders' confidence on team members' team confidence and performance was mediated by the leader's perceived identity leadership and members' team identification. In conclusion, the findings of this experiment suggest that leaders' team confidence can enhance members' team confidence and performance by fostering members' identification with the team.

  18. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  19. Linking engineering and medicine: fostering collaboration skills in interdisciplinary teams.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Michael C K

    2012-07-01

    Biomedical engineering embodies the spirit of combining disciplines. The engineer's pragmatic approach to--and appetite for--solving problems is matched by a bounty of technical challenges generated in medical domains. From nanoscale diagnostics to the redesign of systems of health-care delivery, engineers have been connecting advances in basic and applied science with applications that have helped to improve medical care and outcomes. Increasingly, however, integrating these areas of knowledge and application is less individualistic and more of a team sport. Success increasingly relies on a direct focus on practicing and developing collaboration skills in interdisciplinary teams. Such an approach does not fit easily into individual-focused, discipline-based programs. Biomedical engineering has done its fair share of silo busting, but new approaches are needed to inspire interdisciplinary teams to form around challenges in particular areas. Health care offers a wide variety of complex challenges across an array of delivery settings that can call for new interdisciplinary approaches. This was recognized by the deans of the University of Southern California's (USC's) Medical and Engineering Schools when they began the planning process, leading to the creation of the Health, Technology, and Engineering (HTE@USC or HTE for short) program. “Health care and technology are changing rapidly, and future physicians and engineers need intellectual tools to stay ahead of this change,” says Carmen A. Puliafito, dean of the Keck School of Medicine. His goal is to train national leaders in the quest for devices and processes to improve health care.

  20. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  1. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  2. Performance of student software development teams: the influence of personality and identifying as team members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms should substantially influence the team's performance. This paper explores the influence of both these perspectives in university software engineering project teams. Eighty students worked to complete a piece of software in small project teams during 2007 or 2008. To reduce limitations in statistical analysis, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to extrapolate from the results of the original sample to a larger simulated sample (2043 cases, within 319 teams). The results emphasise the importance of taking into account personality (particularly conscientiousness), and both team identification and the team's norm of performance, in order to cultivate higher levels of performance in student software engineering project teams.

  3. Transactive memory system links work team characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Hempel, Paul S; Han, Yu-Lan; Tjosvold, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams from a variety of organizational settings in China and examined the relationships between team characteristics, TMS, and team performance. The results suggest that task interdependence, cooperative goal interdependence, and support for innovation are positively related to work teams' TMS and that TMS is related to team performance; moreover, structural equation analysis indicates that TMS mediates the team characteristics-performance links. Findings have implications both for team leaders to manage their work teams effectively and for team members to improve their team performance.

  4. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  5. Skill-dependent proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The importance of proximal-to-distal sequencing in human performance throwing has been reported previously. However, a comprehensive comparison of the proximal-to-distal sequence in team-handball throwing in athletes with different training experience and competition is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the ball velocity and proximal-to-distal sequence in the team-handball standing throw with run-up of players of different skill (less experienced, experienced, and elite). Twenty-four male team-handball players (n = 8 for each group) performed five standing throws with run-up with maximal ball velocity and accuracy. Kinematics and ball trajectories were recorded with a Vicon motion capture system and joint movements were calculated. A specific proximal-to-distal sequence, where elbow flexion occurred before shoulder internal rotation, was found in all three groups. These results are in line with previous studies in team-handball. Furthermore, the results of the present study suggest that in the team-handball standing throw with run-up, increased playing experience is associated with an increase in ball velocity as well as a delayed start to trunk flexion.

  6. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…

  7. Interactions of Team Mental Models and Monitoring Behaviors Predict Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtscher, Michael J.; Kolbe, Michaela; Wacker, Johannes; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how two team mental model properties (similarity vs. accuracy) and two forms of monitoring behavior (team vs. systems) interacted to predict team performance in anesthesia. In particular, we were interested in whether the relationship between monitoring behavior and team performance was moderated by team…

  8. Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with…

  9. Examining the Linkages between Team Learning Behaviors and Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Christopher C. A.; Lim, Lynn; Keasberry, Siew Kuan

    2003-01-01

    A survey on learning processes received 90% response from 141 managers in Brunei. Individual learning was not significantly related to organizational learning. Learning within teams was partially related to organizational learning. Cross-functional team learning was significantly related to organizational learning. A three-factor model of…

  10. Virtual Team Governance: Addressing the Governance Mechanisms and Virtual Team Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yihong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Ziheng

    As technology has improved and collaborative software has been developed, virtual teams with geographically dispersed members spread across diverse physical locations have become increasingly prominent. Virtual team is supported by advancing communication technologies, which makes virtual teams able to largely transcend time and space. Virtual teams have changed the corporate landscape, which are more complex and dynamic than traditional teams since the members of virtual teams are spread on diverse geographical locations and their roles in the virtual team are different. Therefore, how to realize good governance of virtual team and arrive at good virtual team performance is becoming critical and challenging. Good virtual team governance is essential for a high-performance virtual team. This paper explores the performance and the governance mechanism of virtual team. It establishes a model to explain the relationship between the performance and the governance mechanisms in virtual teams. This paper is focusing on managing virtual teams. It aims to find the strategies to help business organizations to improve the performance of their virtual teams and arrive at the objectives of good virtual team management.

  11. Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Elisa B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…

  12. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Toquam, J.; Gaddy, C.

    1991-09-01

    Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach`s components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications.

  13. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine.

    PubMed

    Flin, R; Maran, N

    2004-10-01

    The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined.

  14. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine

    PubMed Central

    Flin, R; Maran, N

    2004-01-01

    The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined. PMID:15465960

  15. Collaboration, credibility, compassion, and coordination: professional nurse communication skill sets in health care team interactions.

    PubMed

    Apker, Julie; Propp, Kathleen M; Zabava Ford, Wendy S; Hofmeister, Nancee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored how nurses communicate professionalism in interactions with members of their health care teams. Extant research show that effective team communication is a vital aspect of a positive nursing practice environment, a setting that has been linked to enhanced patient outcomes. Although communication principles are emphasized in nursing education as an important component of professional nursing practice, actual nurse interaction skills in team-based health care delivery remain understudied. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts with 50 participants at a large tertiary hospital revealed four communicative skill sets exemplified by nursing professionals: collaboration, credibility, compassion, and coordination. Study findings highlight specific communicative behaviors associated with each skill set that exemplify nurse professionalism to members of health care teams. Theoretical and pragmatic conclusions are drawn regarding the communicative responsibilities of professional nurses in health care teams. Specific interaction techniques that nurses could use in nurse-team communication are then offered for use in baccalaureate curriculum and organizational in-service education.

  16. Performance implications of leader briefings and team-interaction training for team adaptation to novel environments.

    PubMed

    Marks, M A; Zaccaro, S J; Mathieu, J E

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined how leader briefings and team-interaction training influence team members' knowledge structures concerning processes related to effective performance in both routine and novel environments. Two-hundred thirty-seven undergraduates from a large mid-Atlantic university formed 79 three-member tank platoon teams and participated in a low-fidelity tank simulation. Team-interaction training, leader briefings, and novelty of performance environment were manipulated. Findings indicated that both leader briefings and team-interaction training affected the development of mental models, which in turn positively influenced team communication processes and team performance. Mental models and communication processes predicted performance more strongly in novel than in routine environments. Implications for the role of team-interaction training, leader briefings, and mental models as mechanisms for team adaptation are discussed.

  17. Climate uniformity: its influence on team communication quality, task conflict, and team performance.

    PubMed

    González-Romá, Vicente; Hernández, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether climate uniformity (the pattern of climate perceptions of organizational support within the team) is related to task conflict, team communication quality, and team performance. We used a sample composed of 141 bank branches and collected data at 3 time points. The results obtained showed that, after controlling for aggregate team climate, climate strength, and their interaction, a type of nonuniform climate pattern (weak dissimilarity) was directly related to task conflict and team communication quality. Teams with weak dissimilarity nonuniform patterns tended to show higher levels of task conflict and lower levels of team communication quality than teams with uniform climate patterns. The relationship between weak dissimilarity patterns and team performance was fully mediated by team communication quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Investigation of team processes that enhance team performance in business organization].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Toru; Aoshima, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have suggested team processes that enhance team performance. However, past team process models were based on crew team, whose all team members perform an indivisible temporary task. These models may be inapplicable business teams, whose individual members perform middle- and long-term tasks assigned to individual members. This study modified the teamwork model of Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) and aimed to demonstrate a whole team process that enhances the performance of business teams. We surveyed five companies (member N = 1,400, team N = 161) and investigated team-level-processes. Results showed that there were two sides of team processes: "communication" and "collaboration to achieve a goal." Team processes in which communication enhanced collaboration improved team performance with regard to all aspects of the quantitative objective index (e.g., current income and number of sales), supervisor rating, and self-rating measurements. On the basis of these results, we discuss the entire process by which teamwork enhances team performance in business organizations.

  19. Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams.

  20. Evaluating the Relationship between Team Performance and Joint Attention with Longitudinal Multivariate Mixed Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-23

    models, with an emphasis on exploring the correlation structure between the variances in growth trajectories of team performance and joint attention...the correlation structure between the variances in growth trajectories of team performance and joint attention around estimated means. Observed...and transfer of human motor skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(1), 41-74. Chung, S. (2015). Do friends perform better?: A meta-analytic review of

  1. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  2. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Bart A; Dirks, Kurt T; Gillespie, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    Cumulating evidence from 112 independent studies (N = 7,763 teams), we meta-analytically examine the fundamental questions of whether intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and the conditions under which it is particularly important. We address these questions by analyzing the overall trust-performance relationship, assessing the robustness of this relationship by controlling for other relevant predictors and covariates, and examining how the strength of this relationship varies as a function of several moderating factors. Our findings confirm that intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and has an above-average impact (ρ = .30). The covariate analyses show that this relationship holds after controlling for team trust in leader and past team performance, and across dimensions of trust (i.e., cognitive and affective). The moderator analyses indicate that the trust-performance relationship is contingent upon the level of task interdependence, authority differentiation, and skill differentiation in teams. Finally, we conducted preliminary analyses on several emerging issues in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of trust and team performance (i.e., referent of intrateam trust, dimension of performance, performance objectivity). Together, our findings contribute to the literature by helping to (a) integrate the field of intrateam trust research, (b) resolve mixed findings regarding the trust-performance relationship, (c) overcome scholarly skepticism regarding the main effect of trust on team performance, and (d) identify the conditions under which trust is most important for team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R

    2003-08-01

    This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.

  5. A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Kirkman, Bradley L; Kanfer, Ruth; Allen, Don; Rosen, Benson

    2007-03-01

    A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to team performance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to team performance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed.

  6. Finding the key to a better code: code team restructure to improve performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cynthia R; Hines, Elizabeth J; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J

    2014-09-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient's status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team's resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital's code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role's position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients.

  7. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  8. Democracy, Performance, and Outcomes in Interdisciplinary Health Care Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, Stephanie J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines interdisciplinary health care teams, focusing on perceptions of team processes and their relationship to assessments of team performance and individual outcomes. Suggests that hospice interdisciplinary teams are perceived by their members as only somewhat democratic in the practice of decision making. (SG)

  9. Advanced Modeling of Teaming Data to Enable Superior Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    PATENT , TRADEMARK, OR COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT. This material has been approved...permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. CMMI® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark...Operations Team Culture Cost Quality Schedule Survey Q1 Survey Q2 Survey Q3 Survey Q4 Survey Q5 Survey Q6 Survey Q7 Survey Q8 Survey Q9 Survey Q10 Survey

  10. Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda Ann

    2014-01-01

    Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

  11. Finding the Key to a Better Code: Code Team Restructure to Improve Performance and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Cynthia R.; Hines, Elizabeth J.; Chyou, Po-Huang; Heegeman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Code teams respond to acute life threatening changes in a patient’s status 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If any variable, whether a medical skill or non-medical quality, is lacking, the effectiveness of a code team’s resuscitation could be hindered. To improve the overall performance of our hospital’s code team, we implemented an evidence-based quality improvement restructuring plan. The code team restructure, which occurred over a 3-month period, included a defined number of code team participants, clear identification of team members and their primary responsibilities and position relative to the patient, and initiation of team training events and surprise mock codes (simulations). Team member assessments of the restructured code team and its performance were collected through self-administered electronic questionnaires. Time-to-defibrillation, defined as the time the code was called until the start of defibrillation, was measured for each code using actual time recordings from code summary sheets. Significant improvements in team member confidence in the skills specific to their role and clarity in their role’s position were identified. Smaller improvements were seen in team leadership and reduction in the amount of extra talking and noise during a code. The average time-to-defibrillation during real codes decreased each year since the code team restructure. This type of code team restructure resulted in improvements in several areas that impact the functioning of the team, as well as decreased the average time-to-defibrillation, making it beneficial to many, including the team members, medical institution, and patients. PMID:24667218

  12. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  13. Teaching MBA Students Teamwork and Team Leadership Skills: An Empirical Evaluation of a Classroom Educational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Charles J.; Strupeck, David; Griffin, Andrea; Szostek, Jana; Rominger, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive educational program for teaching behavioral teamwork and team leadership skills was rigorously evaluated with 148 MBA students enrolled at an urban regional campus of a Midwestern public university. Major program components included (1) videotaped student teams in leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercises at the course beginning…

  14. Perfecting scientists’ collaboration and problem-solving skills in the virtual team environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfecting Scientists’ Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-lo...

  15. A Team-Sports-Based Life-Skills Program in a Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudas, Marios; Giannoudis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of a team-sports-based life-skills program taught as part of physical education lessons. One hundred sixty-five sixth and eighth graders were assigned either in an experimental or in a control group and received an abbreviated version of SUPER, a team-sports-based program. The program focused…

  16. Clinical experience and skills of physicians in hospital cardiac arrest teams in Denmark: a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Kasper G; Schmidt, Anders S; Caap, Philip; Aagaard, Rasmus; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of in-hospital resuscitation is poor and may be affected by the clinical experience and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. This study aimed to investigate the clinical experience, self-perceived skills, CPR training and knowledge of the guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation among physicians of cardiac arrest teams. Methods We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Denmark. Telephone interviews were conducted with physicians in the cardiac arrest teams in public somatic hospitals using a structured questionnaire. Results In total, 93 physicians (53% male) from 45 hospitals participated in the study. Median age was 34 (interquartile range: 30–39) years. Respondents were medical students working as locum physicians (5%), physicians in training (79%) and consultants (16%), and the median postgraduate clinical experience was 48 (19–87) months. Most respondents (92%) felt confident in treating a cardiac arrest, while fewer respondents felt confident in performing intubation (41%) and focused cardiac ultrasound (39%) during cardiac arrest. Median time since last CPR training was 4 (2–10) months, and 48% had attended a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Advanced Life Support course. The majority (84%) felt confident in terminating resuscitation; however, only 9% were able to state the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation. Conclusion Physicians of Danish cardiac arrest teams are often inexperienced and do not feel competent performing important clinical skills during resuscitation. Less than half have attended an ERC Advanced Life Support course, and only very few physicians know the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation. PMID:28331374

  17. Five Skills for Becoming a More Effective Team Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    Although 80% of all administrative decisions are made at the department level, many community college department chairs accept their positions without a clear understanding of the demands or training in leadership skills. It is critical to a productive department, however, that chairs possess the leadership skills to shape their departments into…

  18. Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Independent Business Owner/Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Managerial Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training independent business owner/managers. The first unit contains materials which deal with management skills relating to personal characteristics of successful business people, knowledge of self and chosen…

  19. Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills): Business and Industrial Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training business and industrial supervisors. Unit 1 is designed to help managers in business or industry increase management skills in regard to leadership techniques, problem solving and decision making, and…

  20. Increasing team skills: an evaluation of program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen-Webb, M L

    1985-11-01

    The need for health professionals with caring values and good communication skills is well established. To develop these skills requires building self-esteem, as is supported by the work of Carl Rogers, Maslow, and Jourard, and the development of communication skills, as is supported by Carkhuff. A six-hour developmental program was evaluated using alternate forms of the highly validated Personal Skills Map. The differences in participants' scores showed increases in self-esteem, comfort, and management skills (p less than .00), while aggression (p = .05) and deference (p less than .00) decreased. A longitudinal follow-up of participants showed that 65% continued to use the assessment tool six months to one year later. The program appears to be well suited for service settings, continuing education, and academic settings, and meets the need of a high tech, high touch era of change.

  1. Measuring the Impact of the Micronegotiation Technique on Team Member Satisfaction and Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jeffery David

    2013-01-01

    Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…

  2. Virtual Team Culture and the Amplification of Team Boundary Permeability on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of virtual teams is briskly increasing, particularly among transnational organizations that find global virtual teams a natural way to address their needs for global reach. While proximal and virtual teams share many attributes, including similar performance measures, they differ in characteristics in the nature of the work.…

  3. Markers for enhancing team cognition in complex environments: the power of team performance diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Burke, C Shawn; Nicholson, Denise; Howse, William R

    2007-05-01

    Team cognition has been identified as a key component to achieve mission goals in dynamic, team-based, stressful, distributed and multicultural operations. Effective team performance in complex environments requires that team members hold a shared understanding of the task, their equipment, and their teammates. So, many of the simulation-based training (SBT) systems and programs have been designed (partly) to enhance shared/team cognition. However, these simulation systems lack the sufficient robustness in their performance assessment tools or capabilities (if they have any) to allow for a rich and deep understanding of team cognition. Therefore, the purpose of this article is fourfold: I) to present a brief account of team cognition; 2) to develop the concept of performance diagnosis and present SBT as an approach to the performance diagnosis of team cognition; 3) to present a set of illustrative behavioral markers of team cognition; and 4) to explicate how these elements (performance diagnosis, team cognition, and SBT) can be leveraged to increase training effectiveness through the development of performance profiles--a rich, detailed, and informative set of metrics--and cognitive and behavioral indicators or illustrative markers of team cognition. Research needs are discussed in terms of realizing the potential of this approach in operational and embedded training contexts.

  4. Building an Inclusive Research Team: The Importance of Team Building and Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadová, Iva; Cumming, Therese M.; Knox, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inclusive research teams typically describe their experiences and analyse the type of involvement of researchers with disability, but the process of building research teams and the need for research training still remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: Four researchers with intellectual disabilities and four…

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  6. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  7. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  8. Management team learning orientation and business unit performance.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, J Stuart; Sutcliffe, Kathleen M

    2003-06-01

    Although research has suggested that teams can differ in the extent to which they encourage proactive learning and competence development among their members (a team learning orientation), the performance consequences of these differences are not well understood. Drawing from research on goal orientation and team learning, this article suggests that, although a team learning orientation can encourage adaptive behaviors that lead to improved performance, it is also possible for teams to compromise performance in the near term by overemphasizing learning, particularly when they have been performing well. A test of this proposition in a sample of business unit management teams provides strong support. The results confirm that an appropriate emphasis on learning can have positive consequences for team effectiveness.

  9. Team Cohesion, Player Attitude, and Performance Expectations in Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, William J.; Faria, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of team cohesion, participant attitude, and performance expectations to actual performance results in a simulation competition. Findings indicate a strong relationship between beginning team cohesion and performance expectations and final game performance, but little relationship between beginning participant attitudes…

  10. Relationships between study skills and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Rahim, Nasrudin; Meon, Hasni

    2013-04-01

    Study skills play an important role in influencing academic performance of university students. These skills, which can be modified, can be used as an indicator on how a student would perform academically in his course of study. The purpose of the study is to determine the study skills profile among Universiti Selangor's (Unisel) students and to find the relationships of these skills with student's academic performance. A sample of seventy-eight (78) foundation studies and diploma students of Unisel were selected to participate in this study. Using Study Skills Inventory instrument, eight skills were measured. They are note taking; test taking; textbook study; concentration and memory; time management; analytical thinking and problem solving; nutrition; and vocabulary. Meanwhile, student's academic performance was measured through their current Grade Point Average (GPA). The result showed that vocabulary skill scored the highest mean with 3.01/4.00, followed by test taking (2.88), analytical thinking and problem solving (2.80), note taking (2.79), textbook study (2.58), concentration and memory (2.54), time management (2.25) and nutrition (2.21). Correlation analysis showed that test taking (r=0.286, p=0.011), note taking (r=0.224, p=0.048), and analytical thinking and problem solving (r=0.362, p=0.001) skills were positively correlated with GPA achievement.

  11. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    PubMed

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance.

  12. Command and Control Teams: Techniques for Assessing Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    size is negatively re- lated to performance (Frank & Anderson, 1971; Marriot , 1949). 4 3. The relationship between group size ard performatice may...Psychology, 1955, 41, 103-113. Marriot , R. Size of working group and output. Occupational Psychology, 1949, 23, 47-57. Martens, R., & Peterson, J.A. Group

  13. Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.

    PubMed

    Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

    2012-06-01

    This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports.

  14. Interaction mining and skill-dependent recommendations for multi-objective team composition.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Skopik, Florian; Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

    2011-10-01

    Web-based collaboration and virtual environments supported by various Web 2.0 concepts enable the application of numerous monitoring, mining and analysis tools to study human interactions and team formation processes. The composition of an effective team requires a balance between adequate skill fulfillment and sufficient team connectivity. The underlying interaction structure reflects social behavior and relations of individuals and determines to a large degree how well people can be expected to collaborate. In this paper we address an extended team formation problem that does not only require direct interactions to determine team connectivity but additionally uses implicit recommendations of collaboration partners to support even sparsely connected networks. We provide two heuristics based on Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing for discovering efficient team configurations that yield the best trade-off between skill coverage and team connectivity. Our self-adjusting mechanism aims to discover the best combination of direct interactions and recommendations when deriving connectivity. We evaluate our approach based on multiple configurations of a simulated collaboration network that features close resemblance to real world expert networks. We demonstrate that our algorithm successfully identifies efficient team configurations even when removing up to 40% of experts from various social network configurations.

  15. Impact of Cooperative-Team Learning on Performance and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-20

    doing so. Collaborative skills include leadership, decision - making , trust-building, com- munication, and conflict-management skills. 5. Groups need...member actions are helpful and unhelpful and make decisions about what actions to continue or change. Such group processing enables learn- ing groups...experience of working together as part of a team makes the training program more realistic. If and when trainees become air traffic controllers, they will be

  16. Team performance and collective efficacy in the dynamic psychology of competitive team: a Bayesian network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuster-Parra, P; García-Mas, A; Ponseti, F J; Leo, F M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discover the relationships among 22 relevant psychological features in semi-professional football players in order to study team's performance and collective efficacy via a Bayesian network (BN). The paper includes optimization of team's performance and collective efficacy using intercausal reasoning pattern which constitutes a very common pattern in human reasoning. The BN is used to make inferences regarding our problem, and therefore we obtain some conclusions; among them: maximizing the team's performance causes a decrease in collective efficacy and when team's performance achieves the minimum value it causes an increase in moderate/high values of collective efficacy. Similarly, we may reason optimizing team collective efficacy instead. It also allows us to determine the features that have the strongest influence on performance and which on collective efficacy. From the BN two different coaching styles were differentiated taking into account the local Markov property: training leadership and autocratic leadership.

  17. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael M.; Memmert, Daniel; Frees, Anastasia; Radzevick, Joseph; Pretz, Jean; Noël, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination is good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer) players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination. PMID:26779110

  18. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership.

  19. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership. PMID:26779104

  20. Teams and seams: skill mix in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jenkins-Clarke, S; Carr-Hill, R; Dixon, P

    1998-11-01

    The study described in this paper is set against a background of rapid changes in primary (community) care delivery in the United Kingdom (UK) and consequently the methodology of the study has been shaped by three broad issues - workforce changes, increase in workload and changing roles and boundaries. Ten 'ordinary' general practices (general practitioners (GPs) and the 'attached' community nurses) participated in the study and a large amount of data were collected over a 2-week observation period. Three study objectives are described, relating to workload, delegation and attitudes to delegation. The characteristics of the workload of the three main groups of community nurses (practice nurses, district nurses and health visitors) are described and compared. Thirty-nine per cent of all the GP consultations (836) had a delegatable element and 17% were deemed to be delegatable in their entirety. General practitioners most frequently referred to delegation to practice nurses in the current team and nurse practitioners in an enhanced team. The study identified the activities most amenable to delegation to these two groups of nurses. Attitudes to delegation were sought through focus group discussions, with reservations being expressed by both doctors and community nurses. This study provides evidence that GPs are prepared to delegate a considerable proportion of their workload; this clearly has implications for the nursing profession.

  1. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  2. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  3. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  4. Performance factors in women's team handball: physical and physiological aspects--a review.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Carmen; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Vila, Helena; Ferragut, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2013-06-01

    Team handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many European countries. Nevertheless, a scientific knowledge regarding women's elite team handball demands is limited. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 33) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, physical attributes, throwing velocity, and on-court performances of women's team handball players. Such empirical and practical information is essential to design and implement successful short-term and long-term training programs for women's team handball players. Our review revealed that (a) players that have a higher skill level are taller and have a higher fat-free mass; (b) players who are more aerobically resistant are at an advantage in international level women team handball; (c) strength and power exercises should be emphasized in conditioning programs, because they are associated with both sprint performance and throwing velocity; (d) speed drills should also be implemented in conditioning programs but after a decrease in physical training volume; (e) a time-motion analysis is an effective method of quantifying the demands of team handball and provides a conceptual framework for the specific physical preparation of players. According to our results, there are only few studies on on-court performance and time-motion analysis for women's team handball players, especially concerning acceleration profiles. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different training programs of women's team handball players' physiological and physical attributes.

  5. [When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jeroen P; Curşeu, Petru L; Leenders, Roger Th A J

    2014-05-01

    The study of negative relationships in teams has primarily focused on the impact of negative relationships on individual team member attitudes and performance in teams. The mechanisms and contingencies that can buffer against the damaging effects of negative relationships on team performance have received limited attention. Building on social interdependence theory and the multilevel model of team motivation, we examine in a sample of 73 work teams the team-level attributes that foster the promotive social interaction that can neutralize the adverse effect of negative relationships on team cohesion and, consequently, on team performance. The results indicate that high levels of team-member exchange as well as high task-interdependence attenuate how team cohesion and team performance suffer from negative relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Developing Team Skills with Self- and Peer Assessment: Are Benefits Inversely Related to Team Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Self- and peer assessment has proved effective in promoting the development of teamwork and other professional skills in undergraduate students. However, in previous research approximately 30 percent of students reported that its use produced no perceived improvement in their teamwork experience. It was hypothesised that a significant…

  7. Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

  8. Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harold, III; Smarkusky, Debra; Corrigall, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Industry has indicated the desire for academic programs to produce graduates that are well-versed in collaborative problem solving and general project management concepts in addition to technical skills. The primary focus of a curriculum is typically centered on the technical training with minimal attention given to coalescing team and project…

  9. Sustaining Team Performance: A Systems Model\\

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    8217feHPfjld Figure 3-2b. Same data as Figure 3-2a with scores plotted against the logarithm of time. (from Woodworth arid Schlosberg, 1965) NOTE: Roth ...Nieva, Veronica F., Fleishman, Edwin A. and Rieck, Angela. Team dimensions: their identity, their measurement and their relationships. Advanced Re

  10. Team Cohesion Effects on Business Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Joseph; Box, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of teamwork and group decision making focuses on study of undergraduates conducted to identify the variables that affect team cohesion in a business game. A literature review on small groups and business games is presented, hypotheses tested are described, discriminant analyses are explained, and suggestions for further research are…

  11. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  12. Is team confidence the key to success? The reciprocal relation between collective efficacy, team outcome confidence, and perceptions of team performance during soccer games.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Decroos, Steven; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanroy, Jari; Boen, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript extends previous research on the reciprocal relation between team confidence and perceived team performance in two ways. First, we distinguished between two types of team confidence; process-oriented collective efficacy and outcome-oriented team outcome confidence. Second, we assessed both types not only before and after the game, but for the first time also during half-time, thereby providing deeper insight into their dynamic relation with perceived team performance. Two field studies were conducted, each with 10 male soccer teams (N = 134 in Study 1; N = 125 in Study 2). Our findings provide partial support for the reciprocal relation between players' team confidence (both collective efficacy and team outcome confidence) and players' perceptions of the team's performance. Although both types of players' team confidence before the game were not significantly related to perceived team performance in the first half, players' team confidence during half-time was positively related to perceived team performance in the second half. Additionally, our findings consistently demonstrated a relation between perceived team performance and players' subsequent team confidence. Considering that team confidence is a dynamical process, which can be affected by coaches and players, our findings open new avenues to optimise team performance.

  13. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    PubMed

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  14. High Performing Teams: The Moderating Effects of Communication Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    3 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 4...in Mogadishu, Somalia, Operation GOTHIC SERPENT quickly ran into several complications before turning into a rescue operation (Bowden, 1999). For...have on verbal team member communication and team performance? 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Collaborative Environments Because

  15. Developing observational measures of performance in surgical teams

    PubMed Central

    Healey, A; Undre, S; Vincent, C

    2004-01-01

    Team performance is increasingly recognised as an essential foundation of good surgical care and a determinant of good surgical outcome. To understand team performance and to develop team training, reliable and valid measures of team performance are necessary. Currently there is no firm consensus on how to measure teamwork, partly because of a lack of empirical data to validate measures. The input–process–output model provides a framework for surgical team studies. Objective observational measures are needed in surgery as a basis for interdisciplinary team assessment and training. The "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) tool assesses two facets of the surgical process. Observer 1 monitors specific tasks carried out by team members, under the categories patient, environment, equipment, provisions, and communications. Observer 2 uses a behavioural observation scale to rate behaviour for the three surgical phases (pre-operative, operative, and post-operative) with components of teamwork: cooperation, leadership, coordination, awareness, and communication. Illustrative data from an initial series of 50 cases is presented here. The OTAS tool enables two independent observers, a surgeon and psychologist, to record detailed information both on what the theatre team does and how they do it, and has the potential to identify constraints on performance that might relate to surgical outcome. PMID:15465953

  16. From Group to Team: Skilled Facilitation Moves a Group from a Collection of Individuals to an Effective Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ginny V.

    2009-01-01

    School-based learning depends on teachers' capacity to engage with each other around central issues of teaching and learning. While such collaboration is readily welcomed by some educators, others remain wedded to an "independent contractor" concept of teaching. Supporting teachers to view themselves as team members and to perform effectively as a…

  17. A web-based teamwork skills training program for emergency medical teams.

    PubMed

    Entin, Eleen B; Sidman, Jason; Mizrahi, Gilbert; Stewart, Barry; Lai, Fuji; Neal, Lisa; Mackenzie, Colin; Xiao, Yan

    2007-01-01

    T-TRANE is a scenario-based teamwork skills training program for emergency medical teams that uses web-enabled collaborative technologies. The program assumes students are skilled in clinical techniques but have minimal formal knowledge of teamwork. By providing training that focuses on teamwork skills in emergency medical settings, the program is designed to rapidly increase team proficiency. The program is comprised of information about and examples of teamwork skills, and scenario-based training exercises that provide practice in strategies to promote teamwork such as conducting pre-planning and debriefing sessions. T-TRANE is comprised of four modules, with both live (synchronous) interactive sessions and self-paced (asynchronous) sessions that students can complete at their convenience within scheduled intervals. The program includes an Instructor's Guide that provides the designated instructor the necessary support to conduct the training. The approach used in this program can be adapted to any domain in which distributed teams will benefit from pre-deployment training.

  18. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards.

  19. Leader-team Complementarity: Exploring the Interactive Effects of Leader Personality Traits and Team Power Distance Values on Team Processes and Performance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Judge, Timothy A

    2017-03-09

    Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team's potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-lagged, 3-source data from 71 teams, we found that leader extraversion had a positive indirect impact on team in-role and extrarole performance through relational identification, but only for high power distance teams; leader conscientiousness had a positive influence on team in-role performance through team potency, but only for high power distance teams; and leader agreeableness had a positive effect on team in-role and extrarole performance via relational identification and on team in-role performance via team potency, but only for low power distance teams. The findings address prior inconsistencies regarding the relationships between leader traits and team effectiveness, identify an important boundary condition and key team processes that bridge the links, and provide a deeper understanding of the role of leader traits in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Cognitive and Neural Bases of Skilled Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-09

    Skilled Performance, Neuroragnetic Techniques 19. A TRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Major unprovements were...functions can be eluci- dated. The earliest development occurred in two techniques that measure physiological processes accompanying neuronal activity... techniques to cognitive processes is limited by considerations of sensitivity (photon counts). Conse- quently, data must be recorded over a relatively long

  1. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  2. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  3. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-10-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.

  4. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-01-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine. PMID:21063558

  5. Human Performance Modeling and Simulation for Launch Team Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peaden, Cary J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Hoblitzell, Richard M., Jr.; Chandler, Faith T.; LaVine, Nils D.; Bagnall, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research into modeling and simulation of humans for launch team analysis, training, and evaluation. The initial research is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA's Exploration Program and is focused on current and future launch team operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The paper begins with a description of existing KSC launch team environments and procedures. It then describes the goals of new Simulation and Analysis of Launch Teams (SALT) research. The majority of this paper describes products from the SALT team's initial proof-of-concept effort. These products include a nominal case task analysis and a discrete event model and simulation of launch team performance during the final phase of a shuttle countdown; and a first proof-of-concept training demonstration of launch team communications in which the computer plays most roles, and the trainee plays a role of the trainee's choice. This paper then describes possible next steps for the research team and provides conclusions. This research is expected to have significant value to NASA's Exploration Program.

  6. Adopting Team Contracts to Initiate Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Patricia Ann

    2008-01-01

    Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teaming skills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team…

  7. Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training

    PubMed Central

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

  8. High-performance teams and the physician leader: an overview.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Aalap; Jain, Anshu K; Chaudry, Joseph; Schwartz, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of health care delivery within the United States continues to escalate in an exponential fashion driven by an explosion of medical technology, an ever-expanding research enterprise, and a growing emphasis on evidence-based practices. The delivery of care occurs on a continuum that spans across multiple disciplines, now requiring complex coordination of care through the use of novel clinical teams. The use of teams permeates the health care industry and has done so for many years, but confusion about the structure and role of teams in many organizations contributes to limited effectiveness and suboptimal outcomes. Teams are an essential component of graduate medical education training programs. The health care industry's relative lack of focus regarding the fundamentals of teamwork theory has contributed to ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As a follow-up to our earlier manuscripts on teamwork, this article clarifies a model of teamwork and discusses its application to high-performance teams in health care organizations. Emphasized in this discussion is the role played by the physician leader in ensuring team effectiveness. By educating health care professionals on the fundamentals of high-performance teamwork, we hope to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles to achieve the goals of trainee education and excellent patient care.

  9. Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

  10. The Power of "We": Effects of Psychological Collectivism on Team Performance over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierdorff, Erich C.; Bell, Suzanne T.; Belohlav, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member…

  11. Health care interprofessional education: encouraging technology, teamwork, and team performance.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    It is critical to prepare nurses for future practice to work in teams by engaging students in interprofessional education (IPE) that fosters positive attitudes toward teamwork. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-supported IPE on students’ attitudes and perceptions toward health care teamwork and team performance. A hybrid approach to IPE was used to provide students with an educational experience that combined the benefits of traditional face-to-face communication methodology with a computer-mediated platform that focused on reflection and team building. A statistically significant difference was found in students’ perceptions of team performance after engaging in computer-supported IPE. No statistically significant difference in students’ pretest–posttest composite attitude toward teamwork scores was noted; however, there was a positive trend toward improved scores.

  12. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2016-10-01

    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  13. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  14. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  15. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    PubMed

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  16. Match Running Performance and Success Across a Season in German Bundesliga Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, M W; Slomka, M; Baumgart, C; Weber, H; Freiwald, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the association between match running performance and success across a season in soccer teams competing within a European top league. We analyzed the match running performance data of all soccer teams from the German Bundesliga across the season 2012/13 (306 matches). The following match running performance data were used: total distance covered as well as number of running activities>18.0 km/h and > 22.7 km/h. Depending on the team's ball possession status, all match running performance data were also analyzed as those with and without ball possession. The success across the season was defined as the final competition points accumulated. The match running performance alone was not significantly correlated with the final points accumulated (best r=0.24; p=0.34). In contrast, positive-significant correlations were observed for the match running performance with ball possession (best r=0.77; p<0.01). However, of these latter correlations, only the total distance covered with ball possession was a significant predictor (p<0.01) and accounted for 60% of the variance (R(2)=0.60) in the final points accumulated. It is concluded that it is not the match running performance alone that is important for achieving success in German Bundesliga soccer teams, but rather its relation to technical/tactical skills with respect to ball possession.

  17. Maintaining Team Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Browning, Henry

    This booklet provides ways for organizational team leaders to assess their team's effectiveness at regular intervals and to monitor their team's performance. The booklet identifies six key aspects, or dimensions, consistent across all teams. If all six dimensions are strong within a team, the team has the means to conduct its work and perform…

  18. All together now: developing a team skills competency domain for global health education.

    PubMed

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Olsen, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Global health is by definition and necessity a collaborative field; one that requires diverse professionals to address the clinical, biological, social, and political factors that contribute to the health of communities, regions, and nations. While much work has been done in recent years to define the field of global health and set forth discipline-specific global health competencies, less has been done in the area of interprofessional global health education. This paper documents the results of a roundtable that was convened to study the need for an interprofessional team skills competency domain for global health students. The paper sets forth a preliminary set of team competencies based on existing scholarship and the results of the roundtable. Once an agreed upon set of competencies is defined, a valuable next task will be development of a model curriculum to teach team skills to students in global health. The preliminary competencies offered in this paper represent a good first step toward ensuring that global health professionals are able to collaborate effectively to make the field as cohesive and collaborative as the mighty task of global health demands.

  19. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  20. Effects of 6 Weeks Psychological Skill Training on Team Cohesion, Self-Confidence & Anxiety: A Case of Youth Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a six-week psychological skill training (PST) program that is based on a cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework on team cohesion, confidence, and anxiety of an intact team. Thirty-six male basketball players, 19 athletes for the experimental group and 17 athletes for the control group, aged…

  1. The Compositional Impact of Team Diversity on Performance: Theoretical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Sujin K.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, numerous theories have been postulated to test the compositional effects of member characteristics on group and organizational performance. However, the impact of team composition on performance and moderating variables potentially affecting this relationship is still not clearly understood, and research endeavors have,…

  2. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  3. TEAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  4. Combining Chemical Information Literacy, Communication Skills, Career Preparation, Ethics, and Peer Review in a Team-Taught Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lou Baker; Seybold, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The widely acknowledged need to include chemical information competencies and communication skills in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum can be accommodated in a variety of ways. We describe a team-taught, semester-length course at Wright State University which combines chemical information literacy, written and oral communication skills,…

  5. The power of "we": effects of psychological collectivism on team performance over time.

    PubMed

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Bell, Suzanne T; Belohlav, James A

    2011-03-01

    We examined the influences of different facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Concern, Norm Acceptance, and Goal Priority) on team functioning at 3 different performance depictions: initial team performance, end-state team performance, and team performance change over time. We also tested the extent to which team-member exchange moderated the relationships between facets of psychological collectivism and performance change over time. Results from multilevel growth modeling of 66 teams (N = 264) engaged in a business simulation revealed differential effects across facets of psychological collectivism and across different performance measurements. Whereas facets concerned with affiliation (Preference and Concern) were positively related to initial team performance, reliance was negatively related to initial team performance. Goal Priority was a strong predictor of end-state performance. Team-member exchange moderated the relationship between performance change and 3 of the 5 facets of psychological collectivism (Preference, Reliance, Norm Acceptance). Implications for team composition and team training are discussed.

  6. Team Proactivity as a Linking Mechanism between Team Creative Efficacy, Transformational Leadership, and Risk-Taking Norms and Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yuhyung; Eom, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on creativity in team contexts, very few attempts have been made to explore the team-level antecedents and the mediating processes of team creative performance on the basis of a theoretical framework. To address this gap, drawing on Paulus and Dzindolet's (2008) group creativity model, this study proposed team…

  7. Who Owns Your Team?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisen, Kathy; Love, Phyllis

    1988-01-01

    Feelings of team ownership promote team cohesiveness which yields better performance. Coaches should implement strategies that encourage team members to share with the coach responsibility for morale, skill-building, play improvement, and decision making. Maturity level of athletes influences the degree of ownership allowed. Strategies for…

  8. Physical, physiological and performance differences between Canadian national team and universiade volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Roberts, D; Watson, B

    1992-04-01

    Volleyball has been described as an 'interval' sport with both anaerobic and aerobic components. At the higher skill levels, technical performance may be limited by physical characteristics as well as physical fitness, and performance characteristics such as speed and vertical jump. This investigation compared teams at the two uppermost levels of men's volleyball in Canada for differences in physical, physiological and performance characteristics. The subjects were members of the national (n = 15) and universiade teams (n = 24). The parameters examined included percent body fat, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), anaerobic power, bench press, 20-m sprint time and vertical jumping ability. The only significant difference in physical characteristics between the two teams was in age. Despite similarities in standing and reach height, the national team players had significantly higher block (3.27 vs 3.21 m) and spike (3.43 vs 3.39 m) jumps. An evaluation of anaerobic power measures produced similar power outputs during a modified Wingate test, yet the national team members had higher scores (P less than 0.05) for spike and block jump differences as well as 20-m sprint time. The large aerobic component of elite volleyball play was supported by the high VO2 max value recorded for the national team players (56.7 vs 50.3 ml kg-1 min-1). The results suggest that either years of specific physical conditioning and playing or the selection of individuals for the national team who possess more desirable characteristics as a consequence of genetic endowment, plays a significant role in the preparation of international calibre volleyball players.

  9. Using brain-based measures to compose teams: how individual capabilities and team collaboration strategies jointly shape performance.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Anita Williams; Hackman, J Richard; Jerde, Thomas E; Chabris, Christopher F; Bennett, Sean L; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Advances in understanding neural processes open the possibility of using brain-based measures to compose collaborative work teams. Neuroimaging studies have shown that individual differences in patterns of brain activity can predict differences in performance of specific tasks. We extended this finding by examining performance not simply by a single brain, but by pairs of brains. We used measures derived from brain-based studies to compose 100 two-person teams in which members' roles were either congruent or incongruent with their individual abilities. The assessed abilities are rooted in the visual system, which comprises independent "spatial" and "object" subsystems. The team task required one member to navigate through a virtual maze (a spatial task) and the other to remember "tag" repetitions of complex "greebles" (an object-properties task). Teams in which members' role assignments were congruent with their abilities performed better than incongruent teams and teams in which both members scored high on only one of the abilities. In addition, verbal collaboration enabled members of incongruent teams to overcome their compositional disadvantage but did not enhance the performance of congruent teams-and actually impaired performance in teams in which both members were adept in only one of the two necessary abilities. The findings show that knowledge about brain systems can not only be used to compose teams, but also provides insights into how teams can best perform.

  10. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... have procedures for examining the performance skills of a person being evaluated for qualification as...

  11. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... have procedures for examining the performance skills of a person being evaluated for qualification as...

  12. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... have procedures for examining the performance skills of a person being evaluated for qualification as...

  13. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for examining skill performance. 240.127... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... have procedures for examining the performance skills of a person being evaluated for qualification as...

  14. Performance assessment in complex individual and team tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is an eclectic, performance based approach to assessing cognitive performance from multiple perspectives. The experience gained from assessing the effects of antihistamines and scenario difficulty on C (exp 2) decision making performance in Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) weapons director (WD) teams can serve as a model for realistic simulations in space operations. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility of measurement, hierarchical organization of measurement levels, data collection from multiple perspectives, and the difficulty of managing large amounts of data.

  15. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  16. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students

  17. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. High-performance teams in wildlife conservation: A species reintroduction and recovery example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Westrum, Ron

    1989-11-01

    Reintroduction of animals to the wild to establish free-ranging viable populations is a valuable conservation tool, but ecological skills alone are not enough to ensure a successful reintroduction; also needed to do the work are effectively designed and managed programs. This article suggests general guidelines for organizing and managing reintroduction programs, reviews some basic organizational issues, and considers ways to develop high-performance teams The need to integrate reintroduction programs into their larger interorganizational context is discussed. The reintroduction program's structure must be appropriate for its function and should be properly staffed, led, and buffered from its political environment It should process information well, learn rapidly from its own mistakes, and be creative A high-performance team devotes most of its energies to solving external rather than internal problems

  19. Sports teams as superorganisms: implications of sociobiological models of behaviour for research and practice in team sports performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith

    2012-08-01

    Significant criticisms have emerged on the way that collective behaviours in team sports have been traditionally evaluated. A major recommendation has been for future research and practice to focus on the interpersonal relationships developed between team players during performance. Most research has typically investigated team game performance in subunits (attack or defence), rather than considering the interactions of performers within the whole team. In this paper, we offer the view that team performance analysis could benefit from the adoption of biological models used to explain how repeated interactions between grouping individuals scale to emergent social collective behaviours. We highlight the advantages of conceptualizing sports teams as functional integrated 'super-organisms' and discuss innovative measurement tools, which might be used to capture the superorganismic properties of sports teams. These tools are suitable for revealing the idiosyncratic collective behaviours underlying the cooperative and competitive tendencies of different sports teams, particularly their coordination of labour and the most frequent channels of communication and patterns of interaction between team players. The principles and tools presented here can serve as the basis for novel approaches and applications of performance analysis devoted to understanding sports teams as cohesive, functioning, high-order organisms exhibiting their own peculiar behavioural patterns.

  20. 101 Tips, Traps, and To-Dos for Creating Teams: A Guidebook for School Leaders. Guiding Groups To Become Teams, Facilitating Them To Become High-Performance Teams, and Empowering Them To Become Technology-Based Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed; Bailey, Gwen L.; Lumley, Dan

    Using teams is an effective way to meet the challenges of breaking down teacher isolation, halting curriculum fragmentation, and creating a learning organization. This guide is designed to help school leaders train groups to become teams, guide them to become high-performance teams, and empower them to become technology-based teams. It contains…

  1. Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.

    PubMed

    Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals.

  2. Effect of training load on simulated team sport match performance.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Katie May; Wallace, Lee Kenneth; Bentley, David John; Coutts, Aaron James

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the effect of training load on running performance and plasma markers of anaerobic metabolism, muscle damage, and inflammation during a simulated team sport match performance. Seven team sport athletes (maximal oxygen uptake, 47.6 ± 4.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 60-min simulated team sport match before and after either 4 days of HIGH or LOW training loads. Venous blood samples were taken pre-match, immediately post-match, and 2 h post-match for interlukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, xanthine oxidase (XO), and hypoxanthine. Following HIGH training load, sprint velocity decreased (p < 0.001) and total distance covered was reduced (HIGH 5495 ± 670 m, LOW 5608 ± 674 m, p = 0.02) was observed during the simulated match protocol compared with the LOW match simulation. Decreased performance capacity was accompanied by a significant increase in serum CK concentration (HIGH 290 ± 62 U·L(-1), LOW 199 ± 33 U·L(-1), p = 0.005). The HIGH training also resulted in a decreased post-match hypoxanthine and MCP-1 and an increase in XO concentration 2 h post-match. Four days of increased training load reduced running performance during the match simulation and altered the metabolic and inflammatory response to high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  3. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

  4. Using Linguistic Analysis to Identify High Performing Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    linguistic analysis (specifically the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, LIWC) in identifying potential high performing teams. In a series of studies...usefulness of one technological tool, the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001), in identifying productive groups. The...LIWC analyzes text on a word -by- word basis, categorizes each word using 72 linguistic dimensions (e.g., pronoun, present tense, cognitive process), and

  5. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance: adhering to a consistent tournament strategy, player understanding, strong team cohesion, organized entertainment activities, detailed knowledge of opposition, an effective physical rest/recovery strategy, and previous tournament experience. Major factors perceived to have negatively influenced performance included: over-coaching, player boredom, player anxiety, physical superiority of the opposition, physical fatigue over the tournament, problems sleeping, and lack of information on the opposition. Eight overall dimensions emerged to describe the performance environment: planning and organization, physical environment, tactical factors, development and performance philosophy, psychological factors, physical factors, social factors, and coaching. The findings support recent work that suggests the performance environment is multifaceted, with performance being contingent upon a broad range of interacting factors that go beyond the traditional psychosocial and physical domains.

  6. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  7. Modeling Team Performance in the Air Defense Warfare Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    members as envisioned by the system designers. In Figures 6 we depict the different task flows between an ideal team (that envisioned by the system...Figure 1. The main difference between the ideal team and the tested teams is the degree to which the team members passed tasks between...themselves. The ideal team members handle tasks independently and in parallel; however, for teams 1 and 2 there were various degrees of “meddling” between

  8. Prosocial Bonuses Increase Employee Satisfaction and Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Anik, Lalin; Aknin, Lara B.; Norton, Michael I.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses – shifting the focus from the self to others – can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations. PMID:24058691

  9. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  10. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stuster, J

    1998-09-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  11. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2015-11-01

    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context.

  12. A Closer Look at Social Skills and School Performance: Students' Peer Relations Skills and Assertion Skills as Predictors for Their Written and Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…

  13. Building the infrastructure: the effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses.

  14. The Relationships between Work Team Strategic Intent and Work Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    objectives (Bennis & Biederman, 1997). In the classic written about teams, The Wisdom of Teams, authors Jon R. Katzenbach and Nicholas K. Smith identify... Katzenbach and Smith (2003) have accomplished extensive work in the study of teams and their effectiveness. They admitted that no empirical data exist...to prove their theories on team effectiveness. This research study provides data to support Katzenbach and Smith’s study (2003) and theories on

  15. Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations.

  16. Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

    2013-03-01

    Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  17. Exit Level Retesting Results, May 1-2, 1986. Preliminary Report. Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) exit level test was first administered to all eleventh grade students in October 1985. A make-up testing was conducted in January 1986. This report contains the results of the May 1986 retesting of approximately 3,200 11th-grade students who had previously failed to master either the…

  18. Technological Supports for Onsite and Distance Education and Students' Perceptions of Acquisition of Thinking and Team-Building Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Morin, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares students' perceptions of support provided in the acquisition of various thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the various activities, resources and technologies (ART) integrated into an upper level Distributed Computing (DC) course. The findings indicate that students perceived strong support for their acquisition…

  19. Standardized patient and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting: validation of a new performance-based assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Nagoshi, Michael; Oshiro-Wong, Celeste; Tin, Maung; Wen, Aida; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach is critical in the care of elderly adults. Performance-based tools to assess IDT skills have not been well validated. A novel assessment tool, the standardized patient (SP) and standardized interdisciplinary team meeting (SIDTM), consisting of two stations, was developed. First, trainees evaluate a SP hospitalized after a fall. Second, trainees play the role of the physician in a standardized IDT meeting with a standardized registered nurse (SRN) and standardized medical social worker (SMSW) for discharge planning. The SP-SIDTM was administered to 52 fourth-year medical students (MS4s) and six geriatric medicine fellows (GMFs) in 2011/12. The SP, SRN, and SMSW scored trainee performance on dichotomous checklists of clinical tasks and Likert scales of communication skills, which were compared according to level of training using t-tests. Trainees rated the SP-SIDTM experience as moderately difficult, length of time about right, and believability moderate to high. Reliability was high for both cases (Cronbach α = 0.73-0.87). Interobserver correlation between SRN and SMSW checklist scores (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.82, P < .001) and total scores (r = 0.69, P < .001) were high. The overall score on the SP-SIDTM case was significantly higher for GMF (75) than for MS4 (65, P = .002). These observations support the validity of this novel assessment tool.

  20. A Framework for Cross-Disciplinary Team Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Lei, Kimfong; Paulino, Lisette Reyes

    2008-01-01

    The construct of teamwork has been of considerable interest to researchers and practitioners across domains. The literature on teams includes many studies related to team composition, processes, and roles, but it pays much less attention to how teams learn and innovate. Studies examining how cross-disciplinary teams interact during projects are…

  1. Problem-Solving Teams and the Improvement of Organizational Performance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Alan B.; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Problem-solving teams substantially influence organizational performance in restructured schools. This article examines the concepts of teamwork and team effectiveness, as related to functions of problem-solving teams. A case study of a successful team effort to improve elementary students' reading scores provides a framework for developing…

  2. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal: The Impact of Perceived Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict.

  3. The Extent of Practicing the Skills of Team Work Leadership among Heads of Departments in Directorate of Education in Methnb, Saudi Arabia: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Norah Muhayya; Tayeb, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Sound leadership has an important role in achieving the success of any institution; so the leader must possess some work team leadership skills such as decision-taking, communication, motivation, conflict management and meeting management. The current study is an attempt to identify the extent of practicing team work leadership skills among the…

  4. Development and Initial Validation of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Navah Z.; Jarus, Tal

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ), addressed to measure performance skills of preschoolers, as reported by their parents. Participants included 231 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years old, with mild to moderate developmental disabilities and 240…

  5. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  6. Life Skills Yield Stronger Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Tommie, Jr.; Mabie, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    After one failed attempt to buttress the prospects of black males at a racially diverse high school, teachers fashioned a life skills class that was heavy on racial pride and personal insight. In so doing they borrowed liberally from the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching by Margery Ginsberg and Raymond Wlodkowski that leans…

  7. Monitoring and talking to the room: autochthonous coordination patterns in team interaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Michaela; Grote, Gudela; Waller, Mary J; Wacker, Johannes; Grande, Bastian; Burtscher, Michael J; Spahn, Donat R

    2014-11-01

    This paper builds on and extends theory on team functioning in high-risk environments. We examined 2 implicit coordination behaviors that tend to emerge autochthonously within high-risk teams: team member monitoring and talking to the room. Focusing on nonrandom patterns of behavior, we examined sequential patterns of team member monitoring and talking to the room in higher- and lower-performing action teams working in a high-risk health care environment. Using behavior observation methods, we coded verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 27 anesthesia teams performing an induction of general anesthesia in a natural setting and assessed team performance with a Delphi-validated checklist-based performance measure. Lag sequential analyses revealed that higher-performing teams were characterized by patterns in which team member monitoring was followed by speaking up, providing assistance, and giving instructions and by patterns in which talking to the room was followed by further talking to the room and not followed by instructions. Higher- and lower-performing teams did not differ with respect to the frequency of team member monitoring and talking to the room occurrence. The results illustrate the importance of patterns of autochthonous coordination behaviors and demonstrate that the interaction patterns, as opposed to the behavior frequencies, discriminated higher- from lower-performing teams. Implications for future research and for team training are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Assessment of Individual Student Performance in Online Team Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The use of team projects has been shown to be beneficial in higher education. There is also general agreement that team efforts should be assessed and that the grading ought to represent both (1) the quality of the product developed jointly by the team, as well as (2) the degree of participation and quality of contribution by each individual…

  9. Examining the Critical Factors of Success in Virtual Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Virtual teams are a burgeoning presence in the corporate environment today. Research shows that virtual teams have begun to surpass conventional teams in meeting the demands of organizations that are increasingly called on to apply and respond to new technologies that support, and in some cases, require a virtual teamwork approach. In order to…

  10. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    PubMed

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  11. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

    2010-11-01

    The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches.

  12. Does Virtual Team Composition Matter? Trait and Problem-Solving Configuration Effects on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turel, Ofir; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased importance and usage of self-managed virtual teams, many recent studies have examined factors that affect their success. One such factor that merits examination is the configuration or composition of virtual teams. This article tackles this point by (1) empirically testing trait-configuration effects on virtual team…

  13. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  14. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  15. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  16. Improving the Performance of Online Learning Teams--A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Burn, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the processes of Face-To-Face (FTF) teams and Online Learning Teams (OLTs) and proposes methods to improve the performance of OLTs. An empirical study reviewed the performance of fifteen FTF teams and OLTs and their communication patterns were coded by the TEMPO system developed by Futoran et al. (1989) in order to develop a…

  17. The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarantides, Niki; Blumner, Ellen

    The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project had the following objectives: perform literacy audits on at least 20 job titles within the port-related industries; develop curriculum modules providing literacy skill instruction using a functional context approach reflecting the Port of Baltimore needs; offer instructional services to at…

  18. Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Lisarenee

    Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is usually a task for the instructor in charge and may depend on student preference, proximity, or random assignment according to an arbitrary character such as the student's last name. Regardless of placement method, learning teams often experience negative outcomes due to friction between team members. This study addresses the possibility that friction is caused by intra team competition and that intra team competition can be eliminated through team design using the Intra-Team Function Assay (ITFA) (English 2001). Eight hundred and ninety one college students, in 62 sections of an introductory biology laboratory course, participated in the ITFA study during the Fall 2001, Spring 2002, and Summer 2002 semesters. Using a Latin Square all laboratory sections were assigned to one of the following groups: control, Hawthorne, or experimental. Students in the control and Hawthorne sections were assigned to student teams randomly without regard for the ITFA results, while students in the experimental group were assigned to teams dependent on their identified intra-team function. In seven out of ten grade assessments, students in the experimental group earned significantly higher grades than did students in the control group; with no significant difference in the remaining three measures. Student grades in the experimental group where significantly higher than student grades in the Hawthorne group on all team assessments with the exception of the final examination. Students in the experimental group also earned higher semester grades than did students in either the

  19. 49 CFR 240.127 - Criteria for examining skill performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Elements of the Certification Process § 240.127 Criteria for examining skill performance. (a) Each railroad... normal course of events after certification or (ii) Is at the controls of a Type I or Type II...

  20. Portraying the Contribution of Individual Behaviors to Team Cohesion and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Orasanu, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors of individuals in teams both contribute to and are molded by team dynamics. How they do so has been the subject of much research. A method of portraying individuals' behaviors in teams, the Team Diagramming Method (TDM) is presented. Behaviors are rated by other team members on three important dimensions: positivity/negativity, dominant/submissive, and task-orientedness/expressiveness. A study of 5-person teams engaging in a 3-day moon simulation task demonstrated that measures of these perceived behaviors as well as the variances of these behaviors correlated with cohesion measures and performance. The method shows strengths and weaknesses of particular teams and, by comparison with high-performing teams, suggests interventions based on individual as well as team behaviors. The primary goal of this study was to determine the extent to which these team level variables, derived from all team members' rated behaviors, were associated with previous methods of measuring cohesion and with performance. A secondary goal was to determine the stability of TDM measures over time by comparing team level variables based on ratings early and later in the team s work together.

  1. The delta cooperative model: a dynamic and innovative team-work activity to develop research skills in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Rios-Velazquez, Carlos; Robles-Suarez, Reynaldo; Gonzalez-Negron, Alberto J; Baez-Santos, Ivan

    2006-05-01

    The Delta Cooperative Model (DCM) is a dynamic and innovative teamwork design created to develop fundamentals in research skills. High school students in the DCM belong to the Upward Bound Science and Math (UBSM) program at the Inter American University, Ponce Campus. After workshops on using the scientific method, students were organized into groups of three students with similar research interests. Each student had to take on a role within the group as either a researcher, data analyst, or research editor. Initially, each research team developed hypothesis-driven ideas on their proposed project. In intrateam research meetings, they emphasized team-specific tasks. Next, interteam meetings were held to present ideas and receive critical input. Finally, oral and poster research presentations were conducted at the UBSM science fair. Several team research projects covered topics in medical, environmental, and general microbiology. The three major assessment areas for the workshop and DCM included: (i) student's perception of the workshops' effectiveness in developing skills, content, and values; (ii) research team self- and group participation evaluation, and (iii) oral and poster presentation during the science fair. More than 91% of the students considered the workshops effective in the presentation of scientific method fundamentals. The combination of the workshop and the DCM increased student's knowledge by 55% from pre- to posttests. Two rubrics were designed to assess the oral presentation and poster set-up. The poster and oral presentation scores averaged 83% and 75% respectively. Finally, we present a team assessment instrument that allows the self- and group evaluation of each research team. While the DCM has educational plasticity and versatility, here we document how the this model has been successfully incorporated in training and engaging students in scientific research in microbiology.

  2. Are declines in physical performance associated with a reduction in skill-related performance during professional soccer match-play?

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Dupont, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether declines in physical performance in a professional soccer team during match-play were associated with reductions in skill-related performance. Computerized tracking of performance in midfield players (n = 11) showed that total distance and distance covered in high-speed running (>14.4 km · h⁻¹) were greater in the first versus second half of games (both P < 0.001) and in the first versus the final 15 min of play (P < 0.05). Analysis of high-speed running across 5-min periods showed that more distance was covered in the first versus the final game period, and in the peak period of activity compared with the following period and game mean for other periods (all P < 0.05). Analysis of skill-related measures revealed no significant decline between halves, across 15-min intervals or in the 5-min period following that of peak high-speed activity compared with the game mean for other 5-min periods. In contrast, frequencies of passing, ball possessions, and duels were greater in the first 5-min than in the final 5-min period (P < 0.05). Neither physical nor skill-related performance was affected across three consecutive games within a period of ≤7 days. The results suggest that the players were generally able to maintain skill-related performance throughout games and when competing in successive matches within a short time.

  3. The Effects of Programmed Culture Training Upon the Performance of Volunteer Medical Teams in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Gordon E.; And Others

    This study compares the performance of volunteer medical teams who received a programmed culture assimilator test with teams who did not receive the assimilator. All team members, citizens of the United States, worked for three-week periods in Honduras and Guatemala and were rated on their success in conducting clinics and managing community…

  4. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

  5. Team Performance in the Army Acquisition Program Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    6 A. INTRODUCTION ................ ................. 6 B. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAMS 6 C. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OF THE TEAM... INTRODUCTION This literature review will introduce the concept of project management and the management functions that are integral to its operation. It also... Introduction , 1993, p. 11) This structure consists of program management offices that manage the development and acquisition of a specific system. For

  6. Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

  7. Athlete Characteristics and Team Competitive Performance as Moderators for the Relationship Between Coach Transformational Leadership and Athlete Performance.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai C; Schulte-Coerne, Paul; Diebig, Mathias; Rowold, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches' transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players' win orientation and teams' competitive performance on the leadership- individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership's facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.

  8. Personality, Political Skill, and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Meurs, James A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, Jutta; Noethen, Daniela; Kramer, Jochen; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology" (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance.…

  9. Modeling reciprocal team cohesion-performance relationships, as impacted by shared leadership and members' competence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Kukenberger, Michael R; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Reilly, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Despite the lengthy history of team cohesion-performance research, little is known about their reciprocal relationships over time. Using meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 17 CLP design studies, and analyze their results using SEM. Results support that team cohesion and performance are related reciprocally with each other over time. We then used longitudinal data from 205 members of 57 student teams who competed in a complex business simulation over 10 weeks, to test: (a) whether team cohesion and performance were related reciprocally over multiple time periods, (b) the relative magnitude of those relationships, and (c) whether they were stable over time. We also considered the influence of team members' academic competence and degree of shared leadership on these dynamics. As anticipated, cohesion and performance were related positively, and reciprocally, over time. However, the cohesion → performance relationship was significantly higher than the performance → cohesion relationship. Moreover, the cohesion → performance relationship grew stronger over time whereas the performance → cohesion relationship remained fairly consistent over time. As expected, shared leadership related positively to team cohesion but not directly to their performance; whereas average team member academic competence related positively to team performance but was unrelated to team cohesion. Finally, we conducted and report a replication using a second sample of students competing in a business simulation. Our earlier substantive relationships were mostly replicated, and we illustrated the dynamic temporal properties of shared leadership. We discuss these findings in terms of theoretical importance, applied implications, and directions for future research.

  10. How To Form a Team: Five Keys to High Performance. For the Practicing Manager. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaga, Kim; Kossler, Michael E.

    This practical guidebook is designed for managers and leaders who have responsibility for the creation and success of teams. First, a team is described as a workgroup whose members are dependent upon one another for the completion of a given task, and whose members possess different but complementary skill sets. A team manages its own work within…

  11. Using an Undergraduate Materials Research Project to Foster Multidisciplinary Teaming Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, James A.; Cleary, Doug D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of undergraduate materials multidisciplinary research projects as a means of addressing the growing industrial demand for graduates experienced in working in multidisciplinary teams. It includes a detailed description of a project in which a multidisciplinary team of chemical engineering and civil engineering students…

  12. Instructional Strategies Designed to Develop Trust and Team Building Skills in School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide readers with insight into "Team Building and Decision-Making" curriculum methods and strategies utilized in leadership for our administrators. The content is based on "The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable" by Lencioni (2002). The writer is working on developing a unique cascade of…

  13. The Cognitive, Perceptual, and Neural Bases of Skilled Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    technical report 3/15/90-3/14/93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Cognitive , Perceptual, and Neural Bases AFOSR 90-0175 of Skilled... COGNITIVE , PERCEPTUAL, AND NEURAL BASES OF SKILLED PERFORMANCE March 15, 1990-March 14, 1993 Principal Investigator: Stephen Grossberg Wang Professor of... Cognitive and Neural Systems Professor of Mathematics, Psychology, and Biomedical Engineering Director, Center for Adaptive Systems Chairman, Department

  14. Centrality and charisma: comparing how leader networks and attributions affect team performance.

    PubMed

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A

    2011-11-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model according to which the leader's charisma facilitates the occupation of a central position in the informal advice network. From this central position, the leader positively influences team performance. Second, we examined the centrality-to-charisma model according to which charisma is attributed to those leaders who are socially active in terms of giving and receiving advice. Attributed charisma facilitates increased team performance. We tested these 2 models in 2 different studies. In the first study, based on time-separated, multisource data emanating from members of 56 work teams, we found support for the centrality-to-charisma model. Formal leaders who were central within team advice networks were seen as charismatic by subordinates, and this charisma was associated with high team performance. To clarify how leader network centrality affected the emergence of charismatic leadership, we designed Study 2 in which, for 79 student teams, we measured leader networking activity and leader charisma at 2 different points in time and related these variables to team performance measured at a third point in time. On the basis of this temporally separated data set, we again found support for the centrality-to-charisma model.

  15. The development of a tool to predict team performance.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M A; Siemieniuch, C E; Haslam, R A; Henshaw, M J D C; Evans, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a tool to predict quantitatively the success of a team when executing a process. The tool was developed for the UK defence industry, though it may be useful in other domains. It is expected to be used by systems engineers in initial stages of systems design, when concepts are still fluid, including the structure of the team(s) which are expected to be operators within the system. It enables answers to be calculated for questions such as "What happens if I reduce team size?" and "Can I reduce the qualifications necessary to execute this process and still achieve the required level of success?". The tool has undergone verification and validation; it predicts fairly well and shows promise. An unexpected finding is that the tool creates a good a priori argument for significant attention to Human Factors Integration in systems projects. The simulations show that if a systems project takes full account of human factors integration (selection, training, process design, interaction design, culture, etc.) then the likelihood of team success will be in excess of 0.95. As the project derogates from this state, the likelihood of team success will drop as low as 0.05. If the team has good internal communications and good individuals in key roles, the likelihood of success rises towards 0.25. Even with a team comprising the best individuals, p(success) will not be greater than 0.35. It is hoped that these results will be useful for human factors professionals involved in systems design.

  16. A Fair Go for All? The Impact of Intragroup Diversity and Diversity-Management Skills on Student Experiences and Outcomes in Team-Based Class Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, James B.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 390 students in 64 Practical Organizational Behavior Education (PROBE) project teams was conducted on the effects of intragroup diversity and student diversity-management skills. The impact of gender, age, and nationality variables on student grades, cognitive processes, perceptions of team effectiveness, and satisfaction…

  17. Student Teams' Development over Time: Tracing the Relationship between the Quality of Communication and Teams' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Elen, Jan; Tarhonen, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    Current discussions in higher education and alumni training acknowledge the challenges training programs face in responding to the authentic needs of the labor market. In addition to academic knowledge, higher education institutions are expected to provide general twenty-first-century skills, such as problem-solving, critical thinking,…

  18. Team Performance in Emergency Medicine (MedTeams), Draft 3, Instructor Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    crossword puzzles . He graduated near the top of his college class and majored in philosophy. Is Frank (a) a librarian or (b) a businessman? i 3. Solution...words and behaviors in a culturally diverse environment. Maintain Team Structure and Climate ■ 1- 13 Several approaches to conflict...struggles to drain their resources. a. Outcomes of Conflict i Dsplay Slide 1- 13 Outcomes of Conflict OUTCOMES OF CONFUCT ?A. Outcome Approach

  19. Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.

    PubMed

    Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance.

  20. Working in Partnership: Skills Transfer in Developing a Cross-Cultural Research Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Jill; Dance, Phyll; Cubillo, Carmen; McDonald, David; Tongs, Julie; Brideson, Tom; Bammer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader study on Indigenous illegal drug use, the authors undertook skills training to increase cross-cultural mutual understanding of the often different approaches and methodologies between research and practice, as well as Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal understandings of these approaches. The study and the skills transfer training…

  1. A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Alison

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

  2. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  3. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P < 0.001) performances were better in the evening compared with the morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P < 0.001). Moreover, during the latter test, mean jump performance was higher in the evening compared to the morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  4. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  5. Circadian Phenotype Composition is a Major Predictor of Diurnal Physical Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Team performance is a complex phenomenon involving numerous influencing factors including physiology, psychology, and management. Biological rhythms and the impact of circadian phenotype have not been studied for their contribution to this array of factors so far despite our knowledge of the circadian regulation of key physiological processes involved in physical and mental performance. This study involved 216 individuals from 12 different teams who were categorized into circadian phenotypes using the novel RBUB chronometric test. The composition of circadian phenotypes within each team was used to model predicted daily team performance profiles based on physical performance tests. Our results show that the composition of circadian phenotypes within teams is variable and unpredictable. Predicted physical peak performance ranged from 1:52 to 8:59 p.m. with performance levels fluctuating by up to 14.88% over the course of the day. The major predictor for peak performance time in the course of a day in a team is the occurrence of late circadian phenotypes. We conclude that circadian phenotype is a performance indicator in teams that allows new insight and a better understanding of team performance variation in the course of a day as often observed in different groupings of individuals. PMID:26483754

  6. Harming high performers: a social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Van der Vegt, Gerben S; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu

    2011-05-01

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a telecommunication services company (Study 2). In both studies, social relations analyses revealed that in teams with less cooperative goals, comparison to a higher performing team member was positively associated with interpersonal harming behavior, but only when expectations of future performance similarity to that member were low. The interactive relationship of social comparison and expected future performance similarity with interpersonal harming was buffered, however, in teams with more cooperative goals.

  7. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…

  8. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINGENCY THEORY TO TEAM PERFORMANCE – AN INFORMATION PROCESSING AND KNOWLEDGE FLOWS PERSPECTIVE by Tara A. Leweling...Contingency Theory to Team Performance – An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective 6. AUTHOR(S): Tara A. Leweling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...contingency framework, I suggest that the intersection of the information processing structures and the contigent influence of knowledge sharing is an

  9. Toward Automated Computer-Based Visualization and Assessment of Team-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to provide insights into the valid assessment of team performance. However, in many settings, manual and therefore labor-intensive assessment instruments for team performance have limitations. Therefore, automated assessment instruments enable more flexible and detailed insights into the…

  10. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  11. The Development of Team Trust over Time and Its Effect on Performance When Using Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preast, Vanessa A.

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning (TBL) have claimed this teaching method quickly produces highly effective teams which are characterized by high trust among team members. Presumably, the high trust boosts performance because members feel less inhibited during discussions involving sharing personal views and challenging…

  12. Performance and retention of professional employees who work in teams: the effects of commitment and support.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of support and commitment on job performance and turnover intentions of professionals working in a team environment. As hypothesized, the results indicated that job performance was influenced positively by both professional and team commitment as well as by perceived organizational and team support. Intention to quit the organization went down as organizational support and commitment went up, and intention to leave the profession similarly was related to team support and commitment Interestingly, professional commitment had a deleterious effect on intention to quit the organization, whereas organizational support had a positive effect on professional commitment.

  13. Team-Based Learning Enhances Performance in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Given the problems associated with the traditional lecture method, the constraints associated with large classes, and the effectiveness of active learning, continued development and testing of efficient student-centered learning approaches are needed. This study explores the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) in a large-enrollment…

  14. High-performance teams for current and future physician leaders: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshu K; Thompson, Jon M; Chaudry, Joseph; McKenzie, Shaun; Schwartz, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    The scope of patient management increasingly crosses the defined lines of multiple medical specialties and services to meet patient needs. Concurrently, many hospitals and health-care systems have adapted new multidisciplinary team structures that provide patient-centric care as opposed to the more traditional discipline-centered delivery of care. As health care continues to evolve, the use of teams becomes even more critical in allowing interdependence between multiple disciplines to provide excellent care delivery and ongoing patient management. The use of teams permeates the health-care industry (and has done so for many years), but confusion about the structure, role, and use of teams contributes to limited effectiveness. The health-care industry's underuse of the fundamentals of corporate teamwork has, in part, created ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As the first in a series of documents on teamwork, this article is intended to introduce the reader to the rudiments of team theory and to present an introduction to a model of teamwork. The role of current and future physician leaders in ensuring team effectiveness is emphasized in this discussion. By educating health-care professionals on the foundations of high-performance teamwork, we hope to accomplish two main goals. The first goal is to help create a common and systematic taxonomy that physician leaders and institutional management can agree on and refer to concerning the development of high-performance health-care teams. The second goal is to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles as a powerful modality to achieve efficient and optimal patient care. Most importantly, we wish to emphasize that health care, both philosophically and practically, is delivered best through high-performance teams. For such teams to perform properly, the organizational environment must support the team concept tangibly. In concert, we believe the best manner in

  15. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  16. Skills Enhancement Program. Performance Report, Evaluation Report, and Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne County Community Coll., Detroit, MI.

    This document contains three products of the Skills Enhancement Program, a cooperative venture between Industrial Technology Institute (ITI), Wayne County (Michigan) Community College (WCCC), and Great Lakes Steel (GLS). The performance report describes the project's objective of designing a job-related literacy curriculum for hourly workers and…

  17. Game location and team quality effects on performance profiles in professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away) and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i) variables related to goals scored; (ii) variables related to offense and (iii) variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U) and multivariate (discriminant analysis) analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form. Key pointsHome teams have significantly higher figures for attack indicators probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects.The teams' game-related statistics profile varied according to game location and team quality.Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage.

  18. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  19. Team Teaching Verbal, Mathematics, and Learning Skills. Howard University. The Center for Academic Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Joan; Byrd, Roland

    Team teaching was used in three undergraduate courses to explore its potential for enhancing students' academic development. The courses were part of a program offered to freshmen with unrealized academic potential through the Howard University (District of Columbia) Center for Academic Reinforcement (CAR). A three-hour block of time was set aside…

  20. A Curriculum to Enhance Decision-Making Skills of Technical Personnel Working in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan S.; Xue, Yajiong

    2004-01-01

    Rapidly changing engineering designs and business scenarios make it essential for engineers and technical personnel to be trained to be effective team players and project managers. This paper reports the experiences gained in developing and implementing a workshop to train engineers at a steel manufacturing plant. The objective of the workshop was…

  1. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Interpersonal and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module was developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. The module is a 6-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following interpersonal and…

  2. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

  3. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  4. How to improve the performance of a good medical practice team: twelve techniques.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    It is incredibly easy to ignore the medical practice team that is doing a good job. However, when we allow good performers to continue as they are, they probably won't improve. Their performance may even worsen. This is unfortunate because with a little bit of effort and support, good performers can often learn to excel. This article offers 12 techniques medical practice managers can use to bring their team members from good performance to excellent. It describes how to use goal-setting, work assignments, modeling, confidence building, team retreats, rewards, incentives, and reinforcement to ratchet up a good medical practice team's performance. This article also identifies the signs of medical employee mediocrity. It describes why setting higher expectations of your medical practice employees will ultimately improve their performance. Finally, this article suggests 10 practical and affordable strategies that medical practice managers can use to reinforce excellent performance in their good employees.

  5. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, James E.; And Others

    Since teams perform a majority of mission-critical Navy tasks, a significant applied research problem is how to compose maximally effective task teams. Two problems have traditionally hindered the attainment of this goal: how to compose teams on bases other than ability or technical skill and how to classify team tasks, so that predictions can be…

  6. Use of Performance Measures to Evaluate, Document Competence and Deterioration of Advanced Surgical Skills Exposure for Trauma (ASSET) Surgical Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Skills Exposure for Trauma (ASSET) Surgical Skills ". The Title was abbreviated as Retention and Assessment of Surgical Performance (RASP) PRINCIPAL...Surgeons introduced a cadaver-based course to review the necessary surgical anatomy, procedure, skills , and techniques for rapid vascular exposure...that the objective assessment tool and “Trauma Readiness Index” metric distinguish between skill level groups, identify improvement and degradation

  7. The Impact of Team Identification on Biased Predictions of Player Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…

  8. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  9. Individual deals within teams: Investigating the role of relative i-deals for employee performance.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Singh, Satvir; Erdogan, Berrin; Chaudhry, Anjali; Posthuma, Richard; Anand, Smriti

    2016-11-01

    The authors extend i-deals theory to an individual-within-a-team context. Drawing upon social comparison theory, they contend that individuals will react to their own i-deals within the context of group members' i-deals. Therefore, they examine the role of relative i-deals (an individual's i-deals relative to the team's average) in relation to employee performance. Furthermore, integrating social comparison theory with social identity theory the authors assert that the behavioral outcomes of relative i-deals are influenced by the team's social and structural attributes of team orientation and task interdependence. Finally, they contend that the perceptions of one's relative standing with the leader, or leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC), mediate the i-deals-outcome relationship in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence. Results of multilevel modeling using time-lagged data from 321 employees nested in 46 teams demonstrated that the positive relationship between relative i-deals and employee performance was stronger in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence, and the mediation effect of LMXSC was stronger in teams with low rather than high team orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Validation of a self-efficacy instrument and its relationship to performance of crisis resource management skills.

    PubMed

    Plant, Jennifer L; van Schaik, Sandrijn M; Sliwka, Diane C; Boscardin, Christy K; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2011-12-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this area. While self-efficacy may influence performance, the true relationship between self-efficacy and performance in this setting has not been delineated. We developed an instrument to measure pediatric residents' self-efficacy in CRM skills and assessed its content validity, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. After administering the instrument to 125 pediatric residents, critical care fellows and faculty, we performed an exploratory factor analysis within a confirmatory factor analysis as well as a known group comparison. The analyses specified four factors that we defined as: situation awareness, team management, environment management, and decision making. Pediatric residents reported lower self-efficacy than fellows and faculty in each factor. We also examined the correlation between self-efficacy and performance scores for a subset of 30 residents who led video recorded simulated resuscitations and had their performances rated by three observers. We found a significant, positive correlation between residents' self-efficacy in situation awareness and environment management and their overall performance of CRM skills. Our findings suggest that in a specific context, self-efficacy as a form of self-assessment may be informative with regards to performance.

  11. Independent Business Owner/Managers. Project TEAMS. (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platte Technical Community Coll., Columbus, NE.

    Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by independent business owner/managers. Unit I provides…

  12. Team-Based Learning Exercise Efficiently Teaches Brief Intervention Skills to Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Batki, Steven L.; Satre, Derek D.; Satterfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of substance use screening and brief intervention (SBI) curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although effects on clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. Moreover, these curricula often require large amounts of training time and teaching resources. This study examined whether a 3-hour…

  13. Communication, and Team-Working Skills in Second-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Goldrick, Niamh B.; Marzec, Bartosz; Scully, P. Noelle; Draper, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, a multidisciplinary program has been used to encourage science students to build on their chemical knowledge and to appreciate how it applies to the world around them. The program is interactive and instills a new set of core learning skills that are often underrepresented in undergraduate curricula, namely, cooperative learning,…

  14. Skill mix, roles and remuneration in the primary care workforce: who are the healthcare professionals in the primary care teams across the world?

    PubMed

    Freund, Tobias; Everett, Christine; Griffiths, Peter; Hudon, Catherine; Naccarella, Lucio; Laurant, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    World-wide, shortages of primary care physicians and an increased demand for services have provided the impetus for delivering team-based primary care. The diversity of the primary care workforce is increasing to include a wider range of health professionals such as nurse practitioners, registered nurses and other clinical staff members. Although this development is observed internationally, skill mix in the primary care team and the speed of progress to deliver team-based care differs across countries. This work aims to provide an overview of education, tasks and remuneration of nurses and other primary care team members in six OECD countries. Based on a framework of team organization across the care continuum, six national experts compare skill-mix, education and training, tasks and remuneration of health professionals within primary care teams in the United States, Canada, Australia, England, Germany and the Netherlands. Nurses are the main non-physician health professional working along with doctors in most countries although types and roles in primary care vary considerably between countries. However, the number of allied health professionals and support workers, such as medical assistants, working in primary care is increasing. Shifting from 'task delegation' to 'team care' is a global trend but limited by traditional role concepts, legal frameworks and reimbursement schemes. In general, remuneration follows the complexity of medical tasks taken over by each profession. Clear definitions of each team-member's role may facilitate optimally shared responsibility for patient care within primary care teams. Skill mix changes in primary care may help to maintain access to primary care and quality of care delivery. Learning from experiences in other countries may inspire policy makers and researchers to work on efficient and effective teams care models worldwide.

  15. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  16. A multivariable approach toward predicting dental motor skill performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S G; Husak, W S

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential of a multivariable approach in predicting dental motor skill performance. Variables measuring cognitive knowledge, motor abilities, educational background, and family demographics were examined. Data were obtained from 33 first-year dental students. Scaling and root planing tests were administered to each student at the beginning and end of a 14-week preclinical periodontal course. Correlations were low and no variable significantly predicted pre- or posttest scaling and root planing performance. Results are discussed in terms of the problems associated with predicting motor performance.

  17. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  18. Temporal Control and Hand Movement Efficiency in Skilled Music Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goebl, Werner; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled piano performance requires considerable movement control to accomplish the high levels of timing and force precision common among professional musicians, who acquire piano technique over decades of practice. Finger movement efficiency in particular is an important factor when pianists perform at very fast tempi. We document the finger movement kinematics of highly skilled pianists as they performed a five-finger melody at very fast tempi. A three-dimensional motion-capture system tracked the movements of finger joints, the hand, and the forearm of twelve pianists who performed on a digital piano at successively faster tempi (7–16 tones/s) until they decided to stop. Joint angle trajectories computed for all adjacent finger phalanges, the hand, and the forearm (wrist angle) indicated that the metacarpophalangeal joint contributed most to the vertical fingertip motion while the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints moved slightly opposite to the movement goal (finger extension). An efficiency measure of the combined finger joint angles corresponded to the temporal accuracy and precision of the pianists’ performances: Pianists with more efficient keystroke movements showed higher precision in timing and force measures. Keystroke efficiency and individual joint contributions remained stable across tempo conditions. Individual differences among pianists supported the view that keystroke efficiency is required for successful fast performance. PMID:23300946

  19. Perceptual-cognitive skills and performance in orienteering.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; Pablos, Ana M; Pablos, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    The goal was analysis of the perceptual-cognitive skills associated with sport performance in orienteering in a sample of 22 elite and 17 nonelite runners. Variables considered were memory, basic orienteering techniques, map reading, symbol knowledge, map-terrain-map identification, and spatial organisation. A computerised questionnaire was developed to measure the variables. The reliability of the test (agreement between experts) was 90%. Findings suggested that competence in performing basic orienteering techniques efficiently was a key variable differentiating between the elite and the nonelite athletes. The results are discussed in comparison with previous studies.

  20. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

  1. An Experimental Study of Team Size and Performance on a Complex Task.

    PubMed

    Mao, Andrew; Mason, Winter; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between team size and productivity is a question of broad relevance across economics, psychology, and management science. For complex tasks, however, where both the potential benefits and costs of coordinated work increase with the number of workers, neither theoretical arguments nor empirical evidence consistently favor larger vs. smaller teams. Experimental findings, meanwhile, have relied on small groups and highly stylized tasks, hence are hard to generalize to realistic settings. Here we narrow the gap between real-world task complexity and experimental control, reporting results from an online experiment in which 47 teams of size ranging from n = 1 to 32 collaborated on a realistic crisis mapping task. We find that individuals in teams exerted lower overall effort than independent workers, in part by allocating their effort to less demanding (and less productive) sub-tasks; however, we also find that individuals in teams collaborated more with increasing team size. Directly comparing these competing effects, we find that the largest teams outperformed an equivalent number of independent workers, suggesting that gains to collaboration dominated losses to effort. Importantly, these teams also performed comparably to a field deployment of crisis mappers, suggesting that experiments of the type described here can help solve practical problems as well as advancing the science of collective intelligence.

  2. An Experimental Study of Team Size and Performance on a Complex Task

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Andrew; Mason, Winter; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between team size and productivity is a question of broad relevance across economics, psychology, and management science. For complex tasks, however, where both the potential benefits and costs of coordinated work increase with the number of workers, neither theoretical arguments nor empirical evidence consistently favor larger vs. smaller teams. Experimental findings, meanwhile, have relied on small groups and highly stylized tasks, hence are hard to generalize to realistic settings. Here we narrow the gap between real-world task complexity and experimental control, reporting results from an online experiment in which 47 teams of size ranging from n = 1 to 32 collaborated on a realistic crisis mapping task. We find that individuals in teams exerted lower overall effort than independent workers, in part by allocating their effort to less demanding (and less productive) sub-tasks; however, we also find that individuals in teams collaborated more with increasing team size. Directly comparing these competing effects, we find that the largest teams outperformed an equivalent number of independent workers, suggesting that gains to collaboration dominated losses to effort. Importantly, these teams also performed comparably to a field deployment of crisis mappers, suggesting that experiments of the type described here can help solve practical problems as well as advancing the science of collective intelligence. PMID:27082239

  3. The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.

    PubMed

    Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

    2013-09-01

    Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions.

  4. Key Performance Outcomes of Patient Safety Curricula: Root Cause Analysis, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, and Structured Communications Skills

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As colleges and schools of pharmacy develop core courses related to patient safety, course-level outcomes will need to include both knowledge and performance measures. Three key performance outcomes for patient safety coursework, measured at the course level, are the ability to perform root cause analyses and healthcare failure mode effects analyses, and the ability to generate effective safety communications using structured formats such as the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) situational briefing model. Each of these skills is widely used in patient safety work and competence in their use is essential for a pharmacist's ability to contribute as a member of a patient safety team. PMID:22102754

  5. Continuous outreach activities performed by a student project team of undergraduates and their program topics in optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokumitsu, Seika

    2016-09-01

    The out-of-curriculum project team "Rika-Kobo", organized by undergraduate students, has been actively engaged in a variety of continuous outreach activities in the fields of science and technology including optics and photonics. The targets of their activities cover wide ranges of generations from kids to parents and elderly people, with aiming to promote their interests in various fields of science and technologies. This is an out-of-curriculum project team with about 30 to 40 undergraduate students in several grades and majors. The total number of their activities per year tends to reach 80 to 90 in recent years. Typical activities to be performed by the project team include science classes in elementary and/or secondary schools, science classes at other educational facilities such as science museums, and experiment demonstrations at science events. Popular topics cover wide ranges from explanations and demonstrations of nature phenomena, such as rainbow colors, blue sky, sunset color, to demonstration experiments related to engineering applications, such as polarization of light, LEDs, and optical communications. Experimental topics in optics and photonics are especially popular to the audiences. Those activities are very effective to enhance interests of the audiences in learning related knowledges, irrespective of their generations. Those activities are also helpful for the student members to achieve and/or renew scientific knowledges. In addition, each of the activities provides the student members with effective and advantageous Project-Based-Learning (PBL) style experiences including manufacturing experiences, which are advantageous to cultivate their engineering skills.

  6. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams.

  7. Performance consistency of international soccer teams in euro 2012: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Taylor, Marc; Peñas, Carlos Lago

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of performance in successive matches for international soccer teams from Europe which qualified for the quarter final stage of EURO 2012 in Poland and Ukraine. The eight teams that reached the quarter final stage and beyond were the sample teams for this time series analysis. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions were used to analyze the consistency of play and its association with the result of match in sixteen performance indicators of each team. The results of autocorrelation function showed that based on the number of consistent performance indicators, Spain and Italy demonstrated more consistency in successive matches in relation to other teams. This appears intuitive given that Spain played Italy in the final. However, it is arguable that other teams played at a higher performance levels at various parts of the competition, as opposed to performing consistently throughout the tournament. The results of the cross-correlation analysis showed that in relation to goal-related indicators, these had higher associations with the match results of Spain and France. In relation to the offensive-related indicators, France, England, Portugal, Greece, Czech Republic and Spain showed a positive correlation with the match result. In relation to the defensive-related indicators, France, England, Greece and Portugal showed a positive correlation with match results. In conclusion, in an international soccer tournament, the successful teams displayed a greater degree of performance consistency across all indicators in comparison to their competitors who occasionally would show higher levels of performance in individual games, yet not consistently across the overall tournament. The authors therefore conclude that performance consistency is more significant in international tournament soccer, versus occasionally excelling in some metrics and indicators in particular games.

  8. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete’s behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs. PMID:27777565

  9. Believing in "us": exploring leaders' capacity to enhance team confidence and performance by building a sense of shared social identity.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit.

  10. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  11. Teacher Design in Teams as a Professional Development Arrangement for Developing Technology Integration Knowledge and Skills of Science Teachers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills among in-service science teachers. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Tanzania, where 12 in-service science teachers participated in a workshop about technology integration in…

  12. [Effects of task interdependence and communication technologies synchrony on performance in virtual teams].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ramón; Cohen, Susan G; Gil, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    Effects of task interdependence and communication technologies synchrony on performance in virtual teams. Survey results of 197 employees from 41 work groups in a large multinational software firm were used to investigate the effects of within-group task interdependence and the degree of communication synchrony on performance in virtual teams (VTs). The analyses revealed a moderating effect of task interdependence on the relationship between the degree of communications synchrony and performance in VT. We found that superior VTs performance is contingent on the fit between the nature of the task (i.e., task interdependence) and the choice of communications modality. This study complements previous research providing additional evidence of how task-technology interaction affects VTs performance, and extends previous findings obtained with ad-hoc groups in laboratory settings to natural, organizational teams.

  13. Workload Transition: Implications for Individual and Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    fatigue were unrelated to the duration of flights performed at night in the Kuiper Airborne Observatory of the National Aeronautics and Space...continuous noise when required to monitor only a single stimulus source (Blackwell and Belt . 1971; Davies and Hockey, 1966: Jerison, 1959a; Poulton and...Lehr 1962 Vigilance performance as a function of paired monitoring, Journal of Applied Psychology 46i341-343, Blackwell, P1., and J.A. Belt 197 1

  14. Home field advantage: new stadium construction and team performance in professional sports.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J

    2003-12-01

    To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.

  15. Investigating information-processing performance of different command team structures in the NATO Problem Space.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Rothrock, Ling; Harvey, Catherine; Sorensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The structure of command teams is a significant factor on their communications and ability to process, and act upon, information. The NATO Problem Space was used in this study to represent three of the main dimensions in the battle-space environment: familiarity, rate of change, and strength of information position. Results show that the five common team structures (chain, Y, circle, wheel and all-connected) did not generally perform as predicted in team literature. Findings suggest that under dynamic and highly variable conditions, high levels of synchronisation and trust should be present. On the other hand, synchronisation and trust are less important in hierarchical, highly centralised structures, because team members are more willing to accept the authority of a single leader and this tight control ensures that these teams can perform well as long as the Problem Space is familiar, information is explicit and the environment does not change. Practitioner Summary: Some types of team structures are better suited to particular constraints of the battle-space than others. This research has shown that the much touted all-connected structure is often the worst performing structure and that the traditional hierarchy of command and control has much merit in the digital information age.

  16. Training to Enhance Design Team Performance: A Cure for Tunnel Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, James W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Design Team performance is a function of the quality and degree of academic training and the cumulative, learned experience of the individual members of the team. Teamwork, leadership, and communications certainly are factors that affect the measure of the performance of the team, but they are not addressed here. This paper focuses on accelerating the learned experience of team members and describes an organizational approach that can significantly increase the effective experience level for any engineering design team. The performance measure of the whole team can be increased by increasing the engineering disciplines' cross awareness of each other and by familiarizing them with their affect at the system level. Discipline engineers know their own discipline well, but typically are not intimately familiar with their technical interaction with and dependencies on all the other disciplines of engineering. These dependencies are design integration functions and are worked out well by the discipline engineers as long as they are involved in the design of types of systems that they have experience with.

  17. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  19. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  2. Team Research at the Biology-Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John G.; Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics…

  3. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining High-Performance Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter offers thoughts on some key elements of a high-performing development environment. The author describes how good development officers love to be part of something big, something that transforms a place and its people, and that thinking big is a powerful concept for development officers. He reminds development officers to be clear…

  4. The interventional cardiologist as cath lab team leader.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, James C; Feldman, Barry; Ranaweera, Priyantha; Dent, John; Huang, Xiaoyan; Singer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Interventional cardiologists act as leaders every time they step into a catheterization laboratory (cath lab), but leadership training is rarely included in cardiology training programs. Cath lab physicians should cultivate and practice effective leadership skills. Specifically, (1) before each procedure assess whether the cath lab team is prepared; (2) delegate authority to trainees and team members when appropriate; (3) use every procedure to improve the performance of team members through teaching, coaching, and mentorship; (4) debrief the team after adverse events; (5) develop the traits, styles, and skills associated with successful leadership; and (6) provide team training for the cath lab team.

  5. Explaining match outcome in elite Australian Rules football using team performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Back, Nicole; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between team performance indicators and match outcome have been examined in many team sports, however are limited in Australian Rules football. Using data from the 2013 and 2014 Australian Football League (AFL) regular seasons, this study assessed the ability of commonly reported discrete team performance indicators presented in their relative form (standardised against their opposition for a given match) to explain match outcome (Win/Loss). Logistic regression and decision tree (chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID)) analyses both revealed relative differences between opposing teams for "kicks" and "goal conversion" as the most influential in explaining match outcome, with two models achieving 88.3% and 89.8% classification accuracies, respectively. Models incorporating a smaller performance indicator set displayed a slightly reduced ability to explain match outcome (81.0% and 81.5% for logistic regression and CHAID, respectively). However, both were fit to 2014 data with reduced error in comparison to the full models. Despite performance similarities across the two analysis approaches, the CHAID model revealed multiple winning performance indicator profiles, thereby increasing its comparative feasibility for use in the field. Coaches and analysts may find these results useful in informing strategy and game plan development in Australian Rules football, with the development of team-specific models recommended in future.

  6. In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Erin

    The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

  7. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Jonathan T.; Silva, Austin Ray; Avina, Glory Emmanuel; Forsythe, James C.

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  8. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  9. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  10. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories.

  11. Training high performance skills using above real-time training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckenberger, Dutch; Uliano, Kevin C.; Lane, Norman E.

    1993-01-01

    The Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) concept is a unique approach to training high performance skills. ARTT refers to a training paradigm that places the operator in a simulated environment that functions at faster than normal time. Such a training paradigm represents a departure from the intuitive, but not often supported, feeling that the best practice is determined by the training environment with the highest fidelity. This approach is hypothesized to provide greater 'transfer value' per simulation trial, by incorporating training techniques and instructional features into the simulator. These techniques allow individuals to acquire these critical skills faster and with greater retention. ARTT also allows an individual trained in 'fast time' to operate at what appears to be a more confident state, when the same task is performed in a real-time environment. Two related experiments are discussed. The findings appear to be consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation during training. Moreover, ARTT has merit in improving or maintaining transfer with sharp reductions in training time. There are indications that the effectiveness of ARTT varies as a function of task content and possibly task difficulty. Other implications for ARTT are discussed along with future research directions.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  13. Using Team-Based Learning to Teach Grade 7 Biology: Student Satisfaction and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, Christiane; Tayeh, Paula Abou; Zgheib, Nathalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative form of collaborative learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBL's effect on the performance and satisfaction of grade 7 students in biology in a private school in Lebanon, as well as teachers' willingness to implement this new methodology. An exploratory study was performed whereby two…

  14. Performance improvement through best practice team management: human factors in complex trauma.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon; Arul, G S; Pugh, H E J

    2014-06-01

    Human factors or non-technical skills are now commonplace in the medical literature, having taken the lead from the airline and nuclear industries and more recently Formula One motor racing. They have been suggested as playing a vital role in the success of the trauma teams in recent conflicts. This article outlines the background to human factors, referring to early papers and reports and also outlines high profile cases that highlight their importance. We then describe the importance of human factors in the deployed setting and some of the lessons that have been learnt from current conflicts.

  15. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997–1998 to 2006–2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the shock effect of a turnover has a positive impact on team performance in the short term. Results reveal no impact of coach turnover in the long term. The favourable short-term impact on team performance of a coach turnover is followed by continued gradual worsening of results. The turnover effect is nonexistent when the comparison between the new coach and the old coach is done over 10, 15 or 20 matches before and after termination. PMID:23487177

  16. Modelling the Progression of Competitive Performance of an Academy's Soccer Teams.

    PubMed

    Malcata, Rita M; Hopkins, Will G; Richardson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Progression of a team's performance is a key issue in competitive sport, but there appears to have been no published research on team progression for periods longer than a season. In this study we report the game-score progression of three teams of a youth talent-development academy over five seasons using a novel analytic approach based on generalised mixed modelling. The teams consisted of players born in 1991, 1992 and 1993; they played totals of 115, 107 and 122 games in Asia and Europe between 2005 and 2010 against teams differing in age by up to 3 years. Game scores predicted by the mixed model were assumed to have an over-dispersed Poisson distribution. The fixed effects in the model estimated an annual linear pro-gression for Aspire and for the other teams (grouped as a single opponent) with adjustment for home-ground advantage and for a linear effect of age difference between competing teams. A random effect allowed for different mean scores for Aspire and opposition teams. All effects were estimated as factors via log-transformation and presented as percent differences in scores. Inferences were based on the span of 90% confidence intervals in relation to thresholds for small factor effects of x/÷1.10 (+10%/-9%). Most effects were clear only when data for the three teams were combined. Older teams showed a small 27% increase in goals scored per year of age difference (90% confidence interval 13 to 42%). Aspire experienced a small home-ground advantage of 16% (-5 to 41%), whereas opposition teams experienced 31% (7 to 60%) on their own ground. After adjustment for these effects, the Aspire teams scored on average 1.5 goals per match, with little change in the five years of their existence, whereas their opponents' scores fell from 1.4 in their first year to 1.0 in their last. The difference in progression was trivial over one year (7%, -4 to 20%), small over two years (15%, -8 to 44%), but unclear over >2 years. In conclusion, the generalized mixed model

  17. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  18. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  19. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  20. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  1. 49 CFR 240.211 - Procedures for making the determination on performance skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... performance skills. 240.211 Section 240.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... determination on performance skills. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially certifying or recertifying any person... demonstrated, in accordance with the requirements of § 240.127 of this part, the skills to safely...

  2. Implementing Self-Managing Work Teams in a High Performance Work Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    TEAMS IN A HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK ENVIRONMENT THESIS Gerald L. Page, Captain, USAF AFIT/GLM/LSR/90S-42 4~ELECTE SDEC121l990 Approved for public r:elease...studies in this field. vii IMPLEMENTING SELF-MANAGING WORK TEAMS IN A HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK ENVIRONMENT I. Introduction Background Many organizations today...continuous improveimenIt be sustained by a positive work environment " (28:40). General Issue An aspect of TQM that shows great promise in achieving reduced

  3. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent.

  4. Comparison of traditional advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) course instruction vs. a scenario-based, performance oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method for Korean paramedic students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher C; Im, Mark; Kim, Tae Min; Stapleton, Edward R; Kim, Kyuseok; Suh, Gil Joon; Singer, Adam J; Henry, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course instruction involves a 2-day course with traditional lectures and limited team interaction. We wish to explore the advantages of a scenario-based performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method to implement core ACLS skills for non-English-speaking international paramedic students. The objective of this study was to determine if scenario-based, performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) improves educational outcomes for the ACLS instruction of Korean paramedic students. Thirty Korean paramedic students were randomly selected into two groups. One group of 15 students was taught the traditional ACLS course. The other 15 students were instructed using a SPOTI method. Each group was tested using ACLS megacode examinations endorsed by the American Heart Association. All 30 students passed the ACLS megacode examination. In the traditional ACLS study group an average of 85% of the core skills were met. In the SPOTI study group an average of 93% of the core skills were met. In particular, the SPOTI study group excelled at physical examination skills such as airway opening, assessment of breathing, signs of circulation, and compression rates. In addition, the SPOTI group performed with higher marks on rhythm recognition compared to the traditional group. The traditional group performed with higher marks at providing proper drug dosages compared to the SPOTI students. However, the students enrolled in the SPOTI method resulted in higher megacode core compliance scores compared to students trained in traditional ACLS course instruction. These differences did not achieve statistical significance due to the small sample size.

  5. The impact of trait emotional intelligence on nursing team performance and cohesiveness.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. However, despite the huge interest that media and business consultants put in EI and its fast-growing use in organizations, there is very little empirical evidence to support these claims. In this study, we investigated the relationships between EI, performance, and cohesiveness in 23 nursing teams. EI was assessed using the modified version of the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale and cohesiveness with the Group Cohesiveness Scale. Finally, nursing team performance was measured at four different levels: job satisfaction, chief nursing executives' rating, turnover rate, and health care quality. Results showed that health care quality was positively correlated with emotion regulation. Emotion regulation was also positively correlated with group cohesiveness. Surprisingly, it also appears that emotion appraisal was negatively correlated with the health care quality provided by teams. These results suggest that EI and, more specifically, Emotional Regulation may provide an interesting new way of enhancing nursing teams' cohesion and patient/client outcomes.

  6. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

  7. Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waubonsee Community Coll., Sugar Grove, IL.

    The Waubonsee Community College Comprehensive Development Plan in Office Skills served 208 students by assessment of basic skills and referral to appropriate programs or help with job skills and referral to employment during the 18-month grant period from December 1988 through June 30, 1990. The target population was minority women or economically…

  8. The effects of intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered the effects of unit technology and intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction. The model was tested using a nonexperimental design. Path analysis using multiple regression was used to test the model. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical center in a southeastern city. Findings indicated that intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative impact on intragroup conflict and work satisfaction. Intragroup conflict had direct negative effects on work satisfaction and team performance effectiveness. Unit technology had a direct negative impact on work satisfaction. Findings have implications for administrators to implement strategies to decrease a stressful work environment and increase team-building activities.

  9. The Impact of a Good Season Start on Team Performance in Elite Handball.

    PubMed

    Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Fernández-Villarino, María A; González-García, Iván; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important was a good season start in relation to elite handball teams' performance, and (ii) to examine if this impact was related to the clubs' financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the Spanish Professional Handball League during ten seasons. The dependent variable was the difference between the ranking of each team in accordance to the annual budget and the ranking of each team at the end of the season. A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs (HRBC), Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs (UMRBC), Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs (LMRBC) and Low Range Budget Clubs (LRBC). Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. Each position in the ranking above expected in accordance to the budget of the teams in Rounds 3, 4 or 5 improved by 0.47, 0.50 or 0.49, respectively, in the ranking at the end of the season (p<0.05). However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs' annual budget. For UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC a good start to the season had a positive effect on the final outcome (p<0.05). Nevertheless, for HRBC, a good or a bad start of the season did not explain their final position. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances.

  10. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  11. Computer-assisted communication and team decision-making performance: the moderating effect of openness to experience.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Hollenbeck, John R; Ilgen, Daniel R; LePine, Jeffrey A; Sheppard, Lori

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the effects of computer-assisted communication on team decision-making performance as a function of the team's openness to experience. Seventy-nine teams performing a multiple-cue probability learning task were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental conditions: (a) verbal communication or (b) computer-assisted communication (which combined verbal and computerized communication). The results indicated that access to computer-assisted communication improved the decision-making performance of teams, but only when the teams were high in openness to experience. This effect was observed using both global openness and more specific openness facets, as well as a variety of team-level aggregation strategies. Moreover, the beneficial effects of openness in computer-assisted conditions were mediated by the efficiency with which teams integrated verbal and computerized forms of communication.

  12. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower.

  13. Establishing and Maintaining High-Performing Leadership Teams: A Primary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Ian; Bush, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from a study into high-performing leadership teams in English primary schools. The schools, in the sample, received "outstanding" Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) grades overall, and for leadership and management, in their most recent school inspection. The evidence suggests that developing…

  14. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  15. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Conway, T. J.; Tobey, D. H.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Dalton, Angela C.; Pusey, Portia K.

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  16. A Memory Game to Demonstrate the Power of Collaborative Efforts to Improve Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is an important aspect of information systems (IS) education since work is typically performed in teams. However, IS students often do not fully appreciate the value of group work in their business courses. This teaching tip describes an activity that will objectively demonstrate the value of collaboration and diversity of…

  17. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: a quantitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris G

    2008-09-01

    We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the extent and magnitude of the impact of the factors comprising the performance environment. Overall, team and social factors were generally perceived to have the greatest positive impact, with players and staff showing high levels of consensus in their evaluations. Team leadership and strong team cohesion were identified by both groups as having the greatest positive impact. Overall, far fewer variables were perceived to have a negative impact on performance, especially for players. The main negatives common to both groups were players losing composure during games, player boredom, and a lack of available activities in the hotel. The major findings support those of Pain and Harwood (2007) and in using a larger sample helped to corroborate and strengthen the generalizability of the findings.

  18. We're All in This Together Now: Group Performance Feedback to Increase Classroom Team Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Eisenhart, Donald; Kane, Meghan; Schoener, Christine; Turkel, Kimberly; Riley, Megan; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary goal was to evaluate the use of performance feedback procedures delivered to a classroom team to increase daily data collection. Performance feedback (PFB) was delivered to four classroom teams responsible for the daily collection of data representing student performance during prescribed instructional activities. Using a…

  19. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  20. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  2. Key Principles of Open Motor-Skill Training for Peak Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…

  3. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Fastré, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group in which students receive a preset list of competence-based assessment criteria, describing what students should be able to do. The test phase revealed that the performance-based group outperformed the competence-based group on test task performance. In addition, higher performance of the performance-based group was reached with lower reported mental effort during training, indicating a higher instructional efficiency for novice students.

  4. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance

  5. The Impact of a Good Season Start on Team Performance in Elite Handball

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Villarino, María A.; González-García, Iván; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the current study was (i) to identify how important was a good season start in relation to elite handball teams’ performance, and (ii) to examine if this impact was related to the clubs’ financial budget. The match performances and annual budgets of all teams were collected from the Spanish Professional Handball League during ten seasons. The dependent variable was the difference between the ranking of each team in accordance to the annual budget and the ranking of each team at the end of the season. A k-means cluster analysis classified the clubs according to their budget as High Range Budget Clubs (HRBC), Upper-Mid Range Budget Clubs (UMRBC), Lower-Mid Range Budget Clubs (LMRBC) and Low Range Budget Clubs (LRBC). Data were examined through linear regression models. Overall, the results suggested that the better the team performance at the beginning of the season, the better the ranking at the end of the season. Each position in the ranking above expected in accordance to the budget of the teams in Rounds 3, 4 or 5 improved by 0.47, 0.50 or 0.49, respectively, in the ranking at the end of the season (p<0.05). However, the impact of the effect depended on the clubs’ annual budget. For UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC a good start to the season had a positive effect on the final outcome (p<0.05). Nevertheless, for HRBC, a good or a bad start of the season did not explain their final position. These variables can be used to develop accurate models to estimate final rankings. UMRBC, LMRBC and LRBC can benefit from fine-tuning preseason planning in order to accelerate the acquisition of optimal performances. PMID:28149357

  6. Novel Skill Learning and Gross Motor Performance Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Charles O.

    This research study determined the relative importance of various basic motor ability traits possessed by the learner in the process of acquiring neuromuscular skills. Fifty-two university students practiced two novel skills (ball toss and fli-back paddle ball) 5 days per week for 2 weeks. Prior to beginning practice, each subject was measured on…

  7. Operationalizing Heedful Interrelating: How Attending, Responding, and Feeling Comprise Coordinating and Predict Performance in Self-Managing Teams.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John Paul; Lyddy, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Team coordination implies a system of individual behavioral contributions occurring within a network of interpersonal relationships to achieve a collective goal. Current research on coordination has emphasized its relational aspects, but has not adequately accounted for how team members also simultaneously manage individual behavioral contributions and represent the whole system of the team's work. In the current study, we develop theory and test how individuals manage all three aspects of coordinating through the three facets described in the theory of heedful interrelating. We operationalize the facet of contributing as distributing attention between self and others, subordinating as responsively communicating, and representing as feeling the system of the team's work as a cohesive whole. We then test the relationships among these facets and their influence on team performance in an experiment with 50 ad hoc triads of undergraduate student self-managing teams tasked with collectively composing a song in the lab. In analyzing thin-slices of video data of these teams' coordination, we found that teams with members displaying greater dispersion of attentional distribution and more responsive communicating experienced a stronger feeling of the team as a whole. Responsive communication also predicted team performance. Accounting for how the three aspects of coordinating are managed by individual team members provides a more critical understanding of heedful interrelating, and insight into emergent coordination processes.

  8. Operationalizing Heedful Interrelating: How Attending, Responding, and Feeling Comprise Coordinating and Predict Performance in Self-Managing Teams

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, John Paul; Lyddy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Team coordination implies a system of individual behavioral contributions occurring within a network of interpersonal relationships to achieve a collective goal. Current research on coordination has emphasized its relational aspects, but has not adequately accounted for how team members also simultaneously manage individual behavioral contributions and represent the whole system of the team's work. In the current study, we develop theory and test how individuals manage all three aspects of coordinating through the three facets described in the theory of heedful interrelating. We operationalize the facet of contributing as distributing attention between self and others, subordinating as responsively communicating, and representing as feeling the system of the team's work as a cohesive whole. We then test the relationships among these facets and their influence on team performance in an experiment with 50 ad hoc triads of undergraduate student self-managing teams tasked with collectively composing a song in the lab. In analyzing thin-slices of video data of these teams' coordination, we found that teams with members displaying greater dispersion of attentional distribution and more responsive communicating experienced a stronger feeling of the team as a whole. Responsive communication also predicted team performance. Accounting for how the three aspects of coordinating are managed by individual team members provides a more critical understanding of heedful interrelating, and insight into emergent coordination processes. PMID:27047407

  9. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.

  10. Vertical jump performance in Italian male and female national team soccer players.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Castellini, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of vertical jump (VJ) performance variables in elite-standard male and female Italian soccer players. One hundred eighteen national team soccer players (n = 56 men and n = 62 women) were tested for countermovement (CMJ) and squatting jump (SJ) heights. The stretch-shortening cycle efficiency (SSCE) was assessed as percentage of CMJ gain over SJ ([INCREMENT]CMJ-SJ), difference (CMJ-SJ), and ratio (CMJ:SJ). Results showed significant sex difference in SJ and CMJ. Differences in SSCE were mainly in the absolute variables between sexes. Cutoff values for CMJ and SJ using sex as construct were 34.4 and 32.9 cm, respectively. No competitive level differences in VJ performance were detected in the male players. Female national team players showed VJ performance higher than the under 17 counterpart. The results of this study showed that VJ performance could not discriminate between competitive levels in male national team-selected soccer players. However, the use of CMJ and SJ normative data may help strength and conditioning coaches in prescribing lower limb explosive strength training in elite soccer players. In this, variations in VJ performance in the range of approximately 1 cm may be regarded as of interest in tracking noncasual variation in elite-standard soccer players.

  11. The effects of aviation-style non-technical skills training on technical performance and outcome in the operating theatre.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, P; Mishra, A; Handa, A; Dale, T; Hirst, G; Catchpole, K

    2009-04-01

    Unintended harm to patients in operating theatres is common. Correlations have been demonstrated between teamwork skills and error rates in theatres. This was a single-institution uncontrolled before-after study of the effects of "non-technical" skills training on attitudes, teamwork, technical performance and clinical outcome in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) operations. The setting was the theatre suite of a UK teaching hospital. Attitudes were measured using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Teamwork was scored using the Oxford Non-Technical Skills (NOTECHS) method. Operative technical errors (OTEs), non-operative procedural errors (NOPEs), complications, operating time and length of hospital stay (LOS) were recorded. A 9 h classroom non-technical skills course based on aviation "Crew Resource Management" (CRM) was offered to all staff, followed by 3 months of twice-weekly coaching from CRM experts. Forty-eight procedures (26 LC and 22 CEA) were studied before intervention, and 55 (32 and 23) afterwards. Non-technical skills and attitudes improved after training (NOTECHS increase 37.0 to 38.7, t = -2.35, p = 0.021, SAQ teamwork climate increase 64.1 to 69.2, t = -2.95, p = 0.007). OTEs declined from 1.73 to 0.98 (u = 1071, p = 0.009), and NOPEs from 8.48 to 5.16 per operation (t = 4.383, p<0.001). These effects were stronger in the LC group than in CEA procedures. The operating time was unchanged, and a non-significant reduction in LOS was observed. Non-technical skills training improved technical performance in theatre, but the effects varied between teams. Considerable cultural resistance to adoption was encountered, particularly among medical staff. Debriefing and challenging authority seemed more difficult to introduce than other parts of the training. Further studies are needed to define the optimal training package, explain variable responses and confirm clinical benefit.

  12. DOPS (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills) in undergraduate skills-lab: Does it work? Analysis of skills-performance and curricular side effects

    PubMed Central

    Profanter, Christoph; Perathoner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sufficient teaching and assessing clinical skills in the undergraduate setting becomes more and more important. In a surgical skills-lab course at the Medical University of Innsbruck fourth year students were teached with DOPS (direct observation of procedural skills). We analyzed whether DOPS worked or not in this setting, which performance levels could be reached compared to tutor teaching (one tutor, 5 students) and which curricular side effects could be observed. Methods: In a prospective randomized trial in summer 2013 (April – June) four competence-level-based skills were teached in small groups during one week: surgical abdominal examination, urethral catheterization (phantom), rectal-digital examination (phantom), handling of central venous catheters. Group A was teached with DOPS, group B with a classical tutor system. Both groups underwent an OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) for assessment. 193 students were included in the study. Altogether 756 OSCE´s were carried out, 209 (27,6%) in the DOPS- and 547 (72,3%) in the tutor-group. Results: Both groups reached high performance levels. In the first month there was a statistically significant difference (p<0,05) in performance of 95% positive OSCE items in the DOPS-group versus 88% in the tutor group. In the following months the performance rates showed no difference anymore and came to 90% in both groups. In practical skills the analysis revealed a high correspondence between positive DOPS (92,4%) and OSCE (90,8%) results. Discussion: As shown by our data DOPS furnish high performance of clinical skills and work well in the undergraduate setting. Due to the high correspondence of DOPS and OSCE results DOPS should be considered as preferred assessment tool in a students skills-lab. The approximation of performance-rates within the months after initial superiority of DOPS could be explained by an interaction between DOPS and tutor system: DOPS elements seem to have improved

  13. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  14. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U

    2013-03-01

    Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.

  15. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  16. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J; Cox, Ralf F; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes in order to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggests that rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes' motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.

  17. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.

  18. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  19. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Nuño, Alberto; Chirosa, Ignacio J; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: "light" (80 s recovery between laps), "moderate" (40 s), "hard" (20 s) and "very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments.

  20. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Nuño, Alberto; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: “light" (80 s recovery between laps), “moderate" (40 s), “hard" (20 s) and “very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments. PMID:28031762

  1. Survival of the fittest: implications of self-reliance and coping for leaders and team performance.

    PubMed

    Daus, C S; Joplin, J R

    1999-01-01

    Using a laboratory methodology, the authors sought to establish an association between self-reliance (based on attachment theory) and team performance and satisfaction. Three hypotheses (direct effect, mediator, and moderator) were tested. With a sample of 187 students, the authors compared leader self-reliance characteristics with group member self-reliance characteristics (group n = 50) as predictors of group performance and satisfaction. Only group member counterdependence was predictive of decreased performance. Further, the authors examined the possible mediating and moderating effects of coping on the self-reliance-group effectiveness relationships. Coping did not mediate the relationship but did operate as a significant moderator in some instances.

  2. How can leaders foster team learning? Effects of leader-assigned mastery and performance goals and psychological safety.

    PubMed

    Ashauer, Shirley A; Macan, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Learning and adapting to change are imperative as teams today face unprecedented change. Yet, an important part of learning involves challenging assumptions and addressing differences of opinion openly within a group--the kind of behaviors that pose the potential for embarrassment or threat. How can leaders foster an environment in which team members feel it is safe to take interpersonal risks in order to learn? In a study of 71 teams, we found that psychological safety and learning behavior were higher for teams with mastery than performance goal instructions or no goal instructions. Team psychological safety mediated the relationship between mastery and performance goal instructions and learning behavior. Findings contribute to our understanding of how leader-assigned goals are related to psychological safety and learning behavior in a team context, and suggest approaches to foster such processes.

  3. Improving Training and Performance of Navy Teams: A Design for a Research Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    previous attempts to influence team performance through manipulation of the task structure (e.g., Weiner, 1964; Lawrence and Lorsch , 1967; Shaw, 1971...Center, San Diego, Calif., 1974. Lawrence, P. U., and J. W. Lorsch , Organization and Environment, Harvard Uni- versity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1967. Leal...Physics Problems," presented at American Educational Research Association Meeting, San Francisco, 1979. Lawrence, P. R. and J. W. Lorsch , Organization

  4. Development of a Small-Group Team Performance Taxonomy Based on Meta-Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    interdependence, and the organizational structure. Study samples were to be comprised of young adults or adults . Many of the studies rejected from the acquired...group learning" (Johnson & Johnson, 1984; Slavin, 1980). Those studies had to be excluded since they are confined primarily to samples of young ...classifiable in that category did, however, deal with 7 adults and did measure team performance outcomes; these were mostly in management simulation and

  5. Effective Team Performance Under Stress and Normal Conditions: An Experimental Paradigm, Theory and Data for Studying Team Decision Making in Hierarchical Teams with Distributed Expertise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Fiedler, Claremont- McKenna College, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA. 20. Ilgen, D. R. (1991, March). Team research in the 1990s: Making...Florida University of Illinois Orlando, FL 32816 603 East Daniel Street Champaign, IL 61820 Dr. Paul Lehner Dr. Terence R. Mitchell Dept of Information

  6. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    PubMed

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P < 0.01). Non-TBL students had significantly lower attitudes toward teamwork (P < 0.01). Comparison of academic performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P < 0.001). When asked to rate their role in a team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork.

  7. Advances in Teaching and Assessing Nontechnical Skills.

    PubMed

    Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-08-01

    The importance of surgeons' nontechnical skills is gaining widespread recognition as a critical element of high-quality and safe surgical care. This article reviews the knowledge base on training and assessing surgeons, and operating room (OR) teams, in nontechnical aspects of their performance. Nontechnical skills are defined in the context of the OR and key assessment instruments that have been developed to capture these skills are reviewed. Key developments that have taken place in the past decade on formal skills training are discussed, and recommendations to further advance nontechnical skills and team-based training and assessment in surgery are presented.

  8. How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

  9. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  10. Team Formation under Normal versus Crisis Situations: Leaders’ Assessments of Task Requirements and Selection of Team Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    performance ( Katzenbach & Smith, 2003). Teams are different from groups in the sense that team formation is initiated for a unique purpose and with a...mutual commitment among team members towards it ( Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). Each individual contributes knowledge, skills, and abilities into the...towards a mutually accountable unique purpose, as well as commitment to other team members ( Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). Small size (approximately 8-10

  11. A multiple-goal, multilevel model of feedback effects on the regulation of individual and team performance.

    PubMed

    DeShon, Richard P; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Schmidt, Aaron M; Milner, Karen R; Wiechmann, Darin

    2004-12-01

    When working as a member of a team, individuals must make decisions concerning the allocation of resources (e.g., effort) toward individual goals and team goals. As a result, individual and team goals, and feedback related to progress toward these goals, should be potent levers for affecting resource allocation decisions. This research develops a multilevel, multiple-goal model of individual and team regulatory processes that affect the allocation of resources across individual and team goals resulting in individual and team performance. On the basis of this model, predictions concerning the impact of individual and team performance feedback are examined empirically to evaluate the model and to understand the influence of feedback on regulatory processes and resource allocation. Two hundred thirty-seven participants were randomly formed into 79 teams of 3 that performed a simulated radar task that required teamwork. Results support the model and the predicted role of feedback in affecting the allocation of resources when individuals strive to accomplish both individual and team goals.

  12. Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeanne M. Zanca, PhD, MPT...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Systematic Assessment of Caregiving Skill Performance by Individuals with Tetraplegia and Their Caregivers 5b. GRANT NUMBER...systematically evaluate and describe competence in self-direction of care by persons with tetraplegia (PWTs) and provision of care by their caregivers

  13. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  14. The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

  15. Simulating a Skilled Typist: A Study of Skilled Cognitive Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    A project studied the problem of control of skilled motor movements by concentrating on typing. The fundamental phenomena of typing, which fall into three categories, were reviewed: timing of key strokes, pattern of errors, and general organization of typing. A model for the simulation of these phenomena was developed, based on an…

  16. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  17. The Status of Alternative Assessments through the 1990s: Performance and Authentic Assessments in Relation to Vocational-Technical Education Technical Skills, Workplace Skills, and Related Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Border, Barbara

    This study examines performance and authentic assessments related to job and academic skills. It begins with a general historical perspective that discusses the evolution of assessment systems used by education and industry in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan. The influence of federal policy also is discussed,…

  18. The Moderating Role of Performance in the Link From Interactional Justice Climate to Mutual Trust Between Managers and Team Members.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Gracia, Esther; Moliner, Carolina; Molina, Agustín; Kuster, Inés; Vila, Natalia; Ramos, José

    2016-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the interaction between team members' performance and interactional justice climate in predicting mutual trust between managers and team members. A total of 93 small centers devoted to the attention of people with intellectual disability participated in the study. In each center, the manager (N = 93) and a group of team members (N = 746) were surveyed. On average, team members were 36.2 years old (SD = 9.3), whereas managers were 41.2 years old (SD = 8.8). The interaction between interactional justice climate and performance was statistically significant. Team members' performance strengthened the link from interactional justice climate to mutual trust.

  19. "We've Got Creative Differences": The Effects of Task Conflict and Participative Safety on Team Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Joshua; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both participative safety and team task conflict are widely thought to be related to team creative performance, the nature of this relationship is still not well understood, and prior studies have frequently yielded conflicting results. This study examines the ambiguity in the extant literature and proposes that "both"…

  20. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports.

  1. The Impact of Virtual Collaboration and Collaboration Technologies on Knowledge Transfer and Team Performance in Distributed Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Ngoma Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    Virtual teams are increasingly viewed as a powerful determinant of competitive advantage in geographically distributed organizations. This study was designed to provide insights into the interdependencies between virtual collaboration, collaboration technologies, knowledge transfer, and virtual team performance in an effort to understand whether…

  2. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  3. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  4. Graduates' Competence on Employability Skills and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abas, Maripaz C.; Imam, Ombra A.

    2016-01-01

    One critical measure of success in workplaces is an employee's ability to use competently the knowledge, skills and values that match the needs of his job, satisfy the demands of his employer, and contribute to the overall achievement of institutional goals. An explanatory-correlational research design was used to determine the extent of…

  5. Success Skills for Textile Workers. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Susan

    The Success Skills for Textile Workers project was established in November 1994 by Alabama educational institutions and textile manufacturers to provide workplace literacy training for textile workers. This report details project objectives and outcomes through October 31, 1997. Introductory materials describe project components and list…

  6. The Cafeteria Workers' Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam

    A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…

  7. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Business School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2009-01-01

    An intent of many business programs is to enhance the critical thinking capabilities of their students. Since AACSB accreditation requires evidence that business schools fulfill their goals, our students were required to take the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). As expected, the CCTST was significantly related to SAT performance…

  8. Accident Avoidance Skill Training and Performance Testing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterick, G. Richard; Barthurst, James R.

    A two-phased study was conducted to determine the feasibility of training drivers to acquire skills needed to avoid critical conflict motor vehicle accidents, and to develop the procedures and materials necessary for such training. Basic data were derived from indepth accident investigations and task analyses of driver behavior. Principal…

  9. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners perform effective roles on teams caring for Medicare patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Everett, Christine; Thorpe, Carolyn; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Bartels, Christie; Smith, Maureen A

    2013-11-01

    One approach to the patient-centered medical home, particularly for patients with chronic illnesses, is to include physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) on primary care teams. Using Medicare claims and electronic health record data from a large physician group, we compared outcomes for two groups of adult Medicare patients with diabetes whose conditions were at various levels of complexity: those whose care teams included PAs or NPs in various roles, and those who received care from physicians only. Outcomes were generally equivalent in thirteen comparisons. In four comparisons, outcomes were superior for the patients receiving care from PAs or NPs, but in three other comparisons the outcomes were superior for patients receiving care from physicians only. Specific roles performed by PAs and NPs were associated with different patterns in the measure of the quality of diabetes care and use of health care services. No role was best for all outcomes. Our findings suggest that patient characteristics, as well as patients' and organizations' goals, should be considered when determining when and how to deploy PAs and NPs on primary care teams. Accordingly, training and policy should continue to support role flexibility for these health professionals.

  10. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  11. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.

  12. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  13. Physiological, physical and on-ice performance criteria for selection of elite ice hockey teams

    PubMed Central

    Roczniok, R; Stanula, A; Mostowik, A; Kowalczyk, M; Fidos-Czuba, O; Zając, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and physical determinants of ice-hockey performance in order to assess their impact on the result during a selection for ice hockey. A total of 42 ice hockey players took part in the selection camp. At the end of the camp 20 best players were selected by team of expert coaches to the ice hockey team and created group G1, while the second group (G2) consisted of not selected players (non-successful group Evaluation of goodness of fit of the model to the data was based on the Hosmer Lemeshow test. Ice hockey players selected to the team were taller 181.95±4.02 cm, had lower% body fat 13.17±3.17%, a shorter time to peak power 2.47±0.35 s, higher relative peak power 21.34±2.41 W·kg−1 and higher relative total work 305.18±28.41 J·kg−1. The results of the aerobic capacity test showed significant differences only in case of two variables. Ice hockey players in the G1 had higher VO2max 4.07±0.31 l·min−1 values than players in the G2 as well as ice hockey players in G1 showed a higher level of relative VO2max 51.75±2.99 ml·min−1·kg−1 than athletes in G2. Ice hockey players selected to the team (G1) performed better in the 30 m Forwards Sprint 4.28±0.31 s; 6x9 Turns 12.19±0.75 s; 6x9 stops 12.79±0.49 s and Endurance test (6x30 m stops) 32.01±0.80 s than players in G2. The logistic regression model showed that the best predictors of success in the recruitment process of top level ice hockey players were time to peak power, relative peak power, VO2max and 30 m sprint forwards on ice. On the basis of the constructed predictive logistic regression model it will be possible to determine the probability of success of the athletes during following the selection processes to the team. PMID:26985133

  14. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  15. An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

    1991-01-01

    The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

  16. 78 FR 41187 - Driver Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Driver Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia...), on behalf of truck and bus drivers who are licensed in the Commonwealth of Virginia and need a Skill...: You may submit comments bearing the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) number FMCSA-2013-0147...

  17. Information and Strategic Internet Skills of Secondary Students: A Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deursen, A. J. A. M.; van Diepen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the information and strategic Internet skills of Dutch secondary students were measured in a performance test. Participating students were asked to complete assignments on the Internet. The findings reveal that the levels of both information and strategic Internet skills have much room for improvement. Of the variables that…

  18. National Skill Standards for Advanced High Performance Manufacturing. Version 2.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document presents and discusses the national skill standards for advanced high-performance manufacturing that were developed during a project that was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction explains the need for national skill standards. Discussed in the next three sections are the following: benefits of national…

  19. The Relationship between Writing Knowledge and Writing Performance among More and Less Skilled Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Graham, Steve

    2007-01-01

    One ingredient that may serve as a catalyst for writing development is changes in writing knowledge. This study assessed the veracity of two tenets underlying this proposal: that skilled writers are more knowledgeable than less skilled writers, and that individual differences in knowledge are related to writing performance. Both of these…

  20. Seven Sets of Evidence-Based Skills for Successful Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2011-01-01

    Very often, we understand differences in literacy performance exclusively in terms of the skills that individuals bring to the literacy tasks they face. Drawing on a new, highly integrative theory of functional literacy--the text-task-respondent (TTR) theory--this article presents a set of seven literacy skills that are required for everyday…

  1. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  2. Does Navigation Always Predict Performance? Effects of Navigation on Digital Reading Are Moderated by Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…

  3. Measures of Time-Sharing Skill and Gender as Predictors of Flight Simulator Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    psychomotor task. USAF: Research Bulletin 53-49, Perceptual and Motor Skills Research Laboratory, Lackland AFB, San Antonio , Tx. December, 1953. Adams...N. Motor learning and human performance. New York; Mac- millan , 1975. Sluchak, T. J. Secondary loading tasks and fundamentals of skill. Psy 545 term

  4. Does emotional intelligence change during medical school gross anatomy course? Correlations with students' performance and team cohesion.

    PubMed

    Holman, Michelle A; Porter, Samuel G; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Individual EI scores were then compared with composite course performance grade and team cohesion survey results. Mean pre-course EI score was 140.3 out of a possible 160. During the course, mean individual EI scores did not change significantly (P = 0.17) and no correlation between EI scores and academic performance was noted (P = 0.31). In addition, EI did not correlate with team cohesion (P = 0.16). While business has found significant utility for EI in increasing performance and productivity, its role in medical education is still uncertain.

  5. Nurses' Perceptions of Role, Team Performance, and Education Regarding Resuscitation in the Adult Medical-Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Sharon C; DeSanto-Madeya, Susan; Fealy, Natalie; Saba, Christine R; Smith, Stacey; McHugh, Allison T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perception of their roles, team performance, and educational needs during resuscitation using an electronic survey. Findings provide direction for clinical practice, nursing education, and future research to improve resuscitation care.

  6. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games.

  7. Exploring the Effects of Online Team-Based Learning and Co-Regulated Learning on Students' Development of Computing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2016-01-01

    As more and more educational institutions are providing online courses, it is necessary to design effective teaching methods integrated with technologies to benefit both teachers and students. The researcher in this study designed innovative online teaching methods of team-based learning (TBL) and co-regulated learning (CRL) to improve students'…

  8. Six habits to enhance MET performance under stress: A discussion paper reviewing team mechanisms for improved patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fein, Erich C; Mackie, Benjamin; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; O'Quinn, C Richard V; Ahmed, Ezaz

    2016-05-01

    Effective team decision making has the potential to improve the quality of health care outcomes. Medical Emergency Teams (METs), a specific type of team led by either critical care nurses or physicians, must respond to and improve the outcomes of deteriorating patients. METs routinely make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and suboptimal care outcomes still occur. In response, the development and use of Shared Mental Models (SMMs), which have been shown to promote higher team performance under stress, may enhance patient outcomes. This discussion paper specifically focuses on the development and use of SMMs in the context of METs. Within this process, the psychological mechanisms promoting enhanced team performance are examined and the utility of this model is discussed through the narrative of six habits applied to MET interactions. A two stage, reciprocal model of both nonanalytic decision making within the acute care environment and analytic decision making during reflective action learning was developed. These habits are explored within the context of a MET, illustrating how applying SMMs and action learning processes may enhance team-based problem solving under stress. Based on this model, we make recommendations to enhance MET decision making under stress. It is suggested that the corresponding habits embedded within this model could be imparted to MET members and tested by health care researchers to assess the efficacy of this integrated decision making approach in respect to enhanced team performance and patient outcomes.

  9. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  10. Social density processes regulate the functioning and performance of foraging human teams

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Myatt, Julia P.; Fürtbauer, Ines; Oesch, Nathan; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Sumner, Seirian; Usherwood, James R.; Hailes, Stephen; Brown, M. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Social density processes impact the activity and order of collective behaviours in a variety of biological systems. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how density of people affects collective human motion in the context of pedestrian flows. However, there is a distinct lack of empirical data investigating the effects of social density on human behaviour in cooperative contexts. Here, we examine the functioning and performance of human teams in a central-place foraging arena using high-resolution GPS data. We show that team functioning (level of coordination) is greatest at intermediate social densities, but contrary to our expectations, increased coordination at intermediate densities did not translate into improved collective foraging performance, and foraging accuracy was equivalent across our density treatments. We suggest that this is likely a consequence of foragers relying upon visual channels (local information) to achieve coordination but relying upon auditory channels (global information) to maximise foraging returns. These findings provide new insights for the development of more sophisticated models of human collective behaviour that consider different networks for communication (e.g. visual and vocal) that have the potential to operate simultaneously in cooperative contexts. PMID:26675584

  11. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key points The RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol

  12. Documenting Student Competence through Effective Performance Assessment: Employability Skills. Workshop Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This report contains 26 performance assessments for documenting student employability skills. Each performance assessment consists of the following: a competency; a terminal performance objective (outcome); competency builders and pupil performance objectives (criteria for documenting mastery of the objective); applied academic competencies;…

  13. Performance-Based Assessment: Improving the Value of Laboratory and Skills Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestrone, Judy M.

    2004-01-01

    Whether in the science or language laboratory, carrying out health care procedures or demonstrating performance arts, faculty can improve skill evaluation through transparency and authenticity in exam construction, format, and grading.

  14. Visual and skill effects on soccer passing performance, kinematics, and outcome estimations

    PubMed Central

    Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Land, William M.; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The role of visual information and action representations in executing a motor task was examined from a mental representations approach. High-skill (n = 20) and low-skill (n = 20) soccer players performed a passing task to two targets at distances of 9.14 and 18.29 m, under three visual conditions: normal, occluded, and distorted vision (i.e., +4.0 corrective lenses, a visual acuity of approximately 6/75) without knowledge of results. Following each pass, participants estimated the relative horizontal distance from the target as the ball crossed the target plane. Kinematic data during each pass were also recorded for the shorter distance. Results revealed that performance on the motor task decreased as a function of visual information and task complexity (i.e., distance from target) regardless of skill level. High-skill players performed significantly better than low-skill players on both the actual passing and estimation tasks, at each target distance and visual condition. In addition, kinematic data indicated that high-skill participants were more consistent and had different kinematic movement patterns than low-skill participants. Findings contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms required for successful performance in a self-paced, discrete and closed motor task. PMID:25784886

  15. Moving forward in patient safety: multidisciplinary team training.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kay; Auguste, Tamika

    2013-06-01

    Communication and teamwork deficiencies have been identified as major contributors to poor clinical outcomes in the labor and delivery unit. In response to these findings, multidisciplinary simulation-based team training techniques have developed to focus specifically on skills training for teams. The evidence demonstrates that multidisciplinary simulation-based team training minimizes poor outcomes by perfecting the elusive teamwork skills that cannot be taught in a didactic setting. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is also being used to detect latent system errors in existing or new units, to rehearse complicated procedures (surgical dress rehearsal), and to identify knowledge gaps of labor and delivery teams. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training should be an integral component of ongoing quality-improvement efforts to ultimately produce teams of experts that perform proficiently.

  16. Team Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Experience shows that teamwork produces powerful results. Working in a team environment, however, presents its own set of challenges. This handbook provides U.S. Department of Education managers and employees with guidance to develop high-performing teams. Based on input from agency employees throughout the country, the handbook was designed to…

  17. Research Performed within the Non-Destructive Evaluation Team at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Erin A.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing is essential in many fields of manufacturing and research in order to perform reliable examination of potentially damaged materials and parts without destroying the inherent structure of the materials. Thus, the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team at NASA Glenn Research Center partakes in various projects to improve materials testing equipment as well as analyze materials, material defects, and material deficiencies. Due to the array of projects within the NDE Team at this time, five research aims were supplemental to some current projects. A literature survey of "DE and testing methodologies as related to rocks was performed. Also, Mars Expedition Rover technology was assessed to understand the requirements for instrumentation in harsh space environments (e.g. temperature). Potential instrumentation and technologies were also considered and documented. The literature survey provided background and potential sources for a proposal to acquire funding for ultrasonic instrumentation on board a future Mars expedition. The laboratory uses a Santec Systems AcousticScope AS200 acoustography system. Labview code was written within the current program in order to improve the current performance of the acoustography system. A sample of Reinforced Carbon/Carbon (RCC) material from the leading edge of the space shuttle underwent various non-destructive tests (guided wave scanning, thermography, computed tomography, real time x-ray, etc.) in order to characterize its structure and examine possible defects. Guided wave scan data of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel was reanalyzed utilizing image correlations and signal processing variables. Additional guided wave scans and thermography were also performed on the CMC panel. These reevaluated data and images will be used in future presentations and publications. An additional axis for the guided wave scanner was designed, constructed, and implemented. This additional axis allowed incremental spacing

  18. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p < 0.001) and smaller (169.3 ± 4.9 cm, p < 0.001) than backcourt players (BP) (70.6 ± 5.3 kg, 177.0 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (PV) (72.5 ± 4.9 kg, 177.7 ± 4.9 cm). In conclusion, the present match observations revealed that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less

  19. The Impact of Leadership Modes on Team Dynamics and Performance in Undergraduate Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markulis, Peter; Jassawalla, Avan R.; Sashittal, Hemant

    2006-01-01

    In business school environments, teamwork often factors into discussions about effective pedagogy. However, leadership of classroom teams has attracted virtually no attention from scholars. How teams should be led in the classroom and what kinds of outcomes different types of team leaders produce remain underdeveloped areas of inquiry. In this…

  20. Project Leader's Dual Socialization and Its Impact on Team Learning and Performance: A Diagnostic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautam, Tanvi

    2009-01-01

    One of the important challenges for leadership in project teams is the ability to manage the knowledge, communication and coordination related activities of team. In cross-team collaboration, different boundaries contribute to the situated nature of knowledge and hamper the flow of knowledge and prevent shared understanding with those on the other…

  1. The myth of the top management team.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R

    1997-01-01

    Companies all across the economic spectrum are making use of teams. They go by a variety of names and can be found at all levels. In fact, you are likely to find the group at the very top of an organization professing to be a team. But even in the best of companies, a so-called top team seldom functions as a real team. Real teams must follow a well-defined discipline to achieve their performance potential. And performance is the key issue--not the fostering of "team values" such as empowerment, sensitivity, or involvement. In recent years, the focus on performance was lost in many companies. Even today, CEOs and senior executives often see few gains in performance from their attempts to become more teamlike. Nevertheless, a team effort at the top can be essential to capturing the highest performance results possible--when the conditions are right. Good leadership requires differentiating between team and nonteam opportunities, and then acting accordingly. Three litmus tests must be passed for a team at the top to be effective. First, the team must shape collective work-products--these are tangible performance results that the group can achieve working together that surpass what the team members could have achieved working on their own. Second, the leadership role must shift, depending on the task at hand. And third, the team's members must be mutually accountable for the group's results. When these criteria can be met, senior executives should come together to achieve real team performance. When the criteria cannot be met, they should rely on the individual leadership skills that they have honed over the years.

  2. Relationships Among Academic Performance, Basic Skills, Subject Matter Knowledge, and Teaching Skills of Teacher Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)

  3. The Effect of Performer Gender, Performer Skill Level, and Opponent Gender on Self-Confidence in a Competitive Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Evelyn G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies relationships among sex difference, performance expectation, and actual performance in video game competition between female and male subjects. Finds that self-confidence of females is not lower than that of males after competing against a good opponent, indicating that performance expectancies may be more related to skill level than to…

  4. Performance-Based Compensation: Linking Performance to Teacher Salaries. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the goal of attracting and retaining talented professionals in education, performance-based compensation systems (PBCS) must offer salaries that are both fair and sufficiently competitive at each point across an educator's career continuum. Although many states, especially with the support of the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants,…

  5. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed.

  6. [Development of guide to clinical performance and basic clinical skills for medical students].

    PubMed

    Roh, HyeRin; Lee, KeunMi; Eo, Eunkyung; Hong, Young Sun; Lee, Hakseung; Jang, Byung Woo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this report was to discuss the development and content of a guide on clinical performance and basic clinical skills for medical students. We published the first edition of this guide in 2010 and will publish the second edition in 2016. Initially, we took a survey on important clinical presentations and fundamental clinical and technical skills in 41 medical schools in Korea. Ultimately, we chose 80 core clinical presentations and 56 clinical skills. In the guide to basic clinical skills, we described the physical examination and technical skills according to the preprocedural preparation, procedure, and postprocedural process. In the guide on clinical performance, we reviewed patient encounters-from history taking and the physical examination to patient education. We included communication skills, principles of patient safety, and clinical reasoning schemes into the guides. In total, 43 academic faculty members helped develop the basic clinical skills guide, 75 participated in establishing the clinical performance guide, and 16 advisors from 14 medical specialty societies contributed to the guide. These guides can help medical students approach patients holistically and safely.

  7. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  8. Association of Hematological Variables with Team-Sport Specific Fitness Performance

    PubMed Central

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon P.; Rysman, Julien; Girard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated association of hematological variables with specific fitness performance in elite team-sport players. Methods Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in 25 elite field hockey players using the optimized (2 min) CO-rebreathing method. Hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were analyzed in venous blood. Fitness performance evaluation included a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test (8 x 20 m sprints, 20 s of rest) and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2). Results Hbmass was largely correlated (r = 0.62, P<0.01) with YYIR2 total distance covered (YYIR2TD) but not with any RSA-derived parameters (r ranging from -0.06 to -0.32; all P>0.05). [Hb] and MCHC displayed moderate correlations with both YYIR2TD (r = 0.44 and 0.41; both P<0.01) and RSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.41 and -0.44; both P<0.05). YYIR2TD correlated with RSA best and total sprint times (r = -0.46, P<0.05 and -0.60, P<0.01; respectively), but not with RSA sprint decrement score (r = -0.19, P>0.05). Conclusion Hbmass is positively correlated with specific aerobic fitness, but not with RSA, in elite team-sport players. Additionally, the negative relationships between YYIR2 and RSA tests performance imply that different hematological mechanisms may be at play. Overall, these results indicate that these two fitness tests should not be used interchangeably as they reflect different hematological mechanisms. PMID:26641647

  9. Clinical performance and skill retention after simulation-based education for nephrology fellows.

    PubMed

    Ahya, Shubhada N; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Tuazon, Jennifer; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that simulation-based education (SBE) improved temporary hemodialysis catheter (THDC) insertion skills by nephrology fellows. SBE, featuring deliberate practice and rigorous achievement standards, was a powerful method to enhance THDC insertion skills in nephrology fellows. However, experts have called for further research to evaluate skill transfer from the simulated environment to actual clinical care and skill retention. This is a prospective observational cohort study of THDC insertion skills. Twelve nephrology fellows from three academic centers in Chicago were evaluated using a skills checklist from July 2008 to June 2009. Simulator-trained fellows were tested after the SBE intervention and expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel. To assess transfer of skill to clinical care, three simulator-trained fellows were assessed at 6 months on actual patient THDC insertions using the checklist. To assess retention of skill, 11 of 12 simulator-trained fellows were reassessed at 1 year using the checklist and central venous catheter simulator. Outcomes were determined by THDC insertion skill performance. Simulator-trained fellows scored similarly during 6-month THDC insertions on actual patients and immediate posttest (M = 86.2%, SD = 22.3% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.32). However, 1 year after SBE, simulated THDC insertion scores were significantly lower than at immediate posttest (M = 73.4%, SD = 22.2% vs. M = 93.5%, SD = 5.3%, p = 0.01). Our results show that nephrology fellows who completed SBE displayed high levels of performance during THDC insertions on actual patients 6 months later. At 1 year, there was statistically significant skills decay. We recommend booster training at 6 months.

  10. Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

  11. Exploring relationship between face-to-face interaction and team performance using wearable sensor badges.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as "Calls per Hour." Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance.

  12. Why simulation-based team training has not been used effectively and what can be done about it.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Italo

    2012-05-01

    Advanced medical education simulators are broadly used today to train both technical/procedural and team-based skills. While there is convincing evidence of the benefits of training technical skills, this is not the case for team-based skills. Research on medical expertise could drive the creation of a new regime of simulation-based team training. The new regime includes first the understanding of complex systems such as the hospital and the operating room; then the performance of work-place assessment; thirdly, the deliberate training of weaknesses and team performance skills; and lastly the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of team competence. A new regime of deliberate training proposed by the author, which would need to be evaluated and validated, could elucidate the underlying mechanisms of team competence while providing evidence of the effect of simulation-based team training.

  13. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  14. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematics Skills

    PubMed Central

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematics skills was evaluated. Spatial skill independently predicted a significant amount of the variability in concurrent mathematics performance. Finally, the relationship between spatial assembly skill and socioeconomic status, gender, and parent-reported spatial language was examined. While children's performance did not differ by gender, lower-SES children were already lagging behind higher-SES children in block assembly. Furthermore, lower-SES parents reported using significantly fewer spatial words with their children. PMID:24112041

  15. The reliability of physiological and performance measures during simulated team-sport running on a non-motorised treadmill.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of a non-motorised treadmill team-sport simulation for measuring physiological responses and performance demands of team sports. Following familiarisation, 11 team-sport athletes completed a peak sprinting speed assessment followed by a 30-min team-sport simulation on the non-motorised treadmill, on three occasions, 5 days apart. Several performance (total distance, distance covered during each speed category, total work, high-intensity activity, mean maximal sprinting speed and power) and physiological variables (V(O)(2), heart rate and blood measures) were measured. A one-way analysis of variance and ratio limits of agreement were used to compare the results from each trial. Significant differences were established in total sprint distance and high-intensity activity between trials 1-2 and trials 1-3 and 3-s mean maximal sprinting speed for trials 1-3 (p<0.05). No other significant differences were identified. Moderate to high intraclass correlation coefficients (i.e., >0.8) were identified in 11 of the 18 physiological and performance variables measured. Ratio limits of agreement for total distance covered and total work performed during the team-sport simulation were 0.99 (*//1.05) and 0.97 (*//1.09), respectively. Largest measurement error was shown in post-exercise blood lactate concentration with a coefficient of variation of 17.6%. All other measures showed low coefficients of variation of < or = 10%. These results show that the non-motorised treadmill team-sport simulation provides a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance demands of team-sport activity. We recommend the inclusion of two familiarisation sessions prior to testing.

  16. Team-based learning increases active engagement and enhances development of teamwork and communication skills in a first-year course for veterinary and animal science undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education.

  17. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches. In addition, physiological measurements during match-play and in separate physical tests were carried out. A total distance of 4002±551 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time of 50:42±5:50 min:s, while full-time players covered 4693±333 m. On average, each player (n=83) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33 km · h(-1). High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p<0.05) 21.9% in the second half (44.9±16.8 m) compared to the first (57.5±21.3 m). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2-max) was 3.49±0.37 l O2 · min(-1) corresponding to 49.6±4.8 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1). Mean relative workload during match-play was 79.4±6.4% of VO2-max. Mean total running distance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) was 1436±222 m, which was greater in wing players (1516±172 m, p<0.05) than pivots (1360±118 m) and backcourt players (1352±148 m). In conclusion, modern female elite team handball is a physically demanding intermittent team sport, where players are exposed to high relative workloads with substantial estimated aerobic energy expenditure interspersed by short periods of dominant anaerobic energy production as reflected by the limited amount of high-intensity running. Indications of fatigue and a resulting decline in physical performance were identified, since the amount of high-intensity running and the relative workload levels decreased in the second half. Positional differences were observed

  18. Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doris I.

    1980-01-01

    Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)

  19. Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Sumner, Anna; Towne, Tyler J; Rodriguez, Paola; Anders Ericsson, K

    2016-11-20

    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of one of the highest scoring players of the video game Space Fortress (Towne, Boot, & Ericsson, ). This analysis revealed how certain behaviors contributed to his exceptional performance. In this study, we recruited a participant for a similar training regimen, but we collected concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol data throughout training. Protocol analysis revealed insights into strategies, errors, mental representations, and shifting game priorities. We argue that these insights into the developing representations that guided skilled performance could only easily have been derived from the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. We propose that the described approach could be applied to understand performance and skill acquisition in many different video games (and other short- to medium-term skill acquisition paradigms) and help reveal mechanisms of transfer from gameplay to other measures of laboratory and real-world performance.

  20. Basic and advanced numerical performances relate to mathematical expertise but are fully mediated by visuospatial skills.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Sader, Elie; Lolliot, Simon; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Basic and Advanced Numerical Performances Relate to Mathematical Expertise but Are Fully Mediated by Visuospatial Skills

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. PMID:26913930

  2. MTF Database: A Repository of Students' Academic Performance Measurements for the Development of Techniques for Evaluating Team Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min; Zheng, Xiang-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The Measurements for Team Functioning (MTF) database contains a series of student academic performance measurements obtained at a national university in Taiwan. The measurements are acquired from unit tests and homework tests performed during a core mechanical engineering course, and provide an objective means of assessing the functioning of…

  3. Dialogues in Performance: A Team-Taught Course on the Afterlife in the Classical and Italian Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosetti-Murrayjohn, Angela; Schneider, Federico

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a reflection on a team-teaching experience in which performative dialogues between co-instructors and among students provided a pedagogical framework within which comparative analysis of textual traditions within the classical tradition could be optimized. Performative dialogues thus provided a model for and enactment of…

  4. Measurement of the Behavioural, Cognitive, and Motivational Factors Underlying Team Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    interdependence. Effective teams are seen to possess greater potential to manage work environments of this nature than are employees working...contexts for the fulfilment of operational requirements. The ability of personnel to contribute as members of a team in a dynamic military environment ... environments that are dynamic, complex, stressful, and time-pressured. Examples of such teams include military command and control (C2), fire

  5. The Influence of Training and Structure Transitioning On Command and Control Team Performance: A Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    significant main effect for extraversion. This implies that on average, across conditions , back-up recipients who were high on extraversion secured more help...main and interaction effect for emotional stability. The main effect revealed that on average, across conditions , teams with back-up providers that...of team behavior, those of teamwork and learning. It also moved from static conditions to dynamic ones where teams needed to adjust their structure to

  6. Locomotion characteristics and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, P; Madsen, K

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full-time players covered 3 945±538 m. The mean speed was 6.40±1.01 km · h - 1. High-intensity running constituted only 1.7±0.9% of TPT per match corresponding to 7.9±4.9% of the total distance covered. An average of 1 482.4±312.6 activity changes per player (n=82) with 53.2±14.1 high-intensity runs were observed per match. Total distance covered was greater in BP (3 765±532 m) and WP (3 641±501 m) than PV (3 295±495 m) (p<0.05), and WP performed more high-intensity running (10.9±5.7% of total distance covered) than PV (8.5±4.3%, p<0.05) and BP (6.2±3.2%, p<0.01). The amount of high-intensity running was lower (p<0.05) in the second (130.4±38.4 m) than in the first half (155.3±47.6 m) corresponding to a decrease of 16.2%.In conclusion, modern male elite TH is a complex team sport that comprises several types of movement categories, which during match-play place moderate-to-high demands on intermittent endurance running capacity and where the amount of high-intensity running may be high during brief periods of the match. Signs of fatigue-related changes were observed in terms of temporary impaired physical performance, since the amount of high-intensity running was reduced in the second half. Notably, physical demands differed between playing positions, with WP demonstrating a more intensive activity pattern than BP and PV, respectively.

  7. The effect of teamwork training on team performance and clinical outcome in elective orthopaedic surgery: a controlled interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lauren; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter; New, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of aviation-style teamwork training in improving operating theatre team performance and clinical outcomes. Setting 3 operating theatres in a UK district general hospital, 1 acting as a control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. Participants 72 operations (37 intervention, 35 control) were observed in full by 2 trained observers during two 3-month observation periods, before and after the intervention period. Interventions A 1-day teamwork training course for all staff, followed by 6 weeks of weekly in-service coaching to embed learning. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured team non-technical skills using Oxford NOTECHS II, (evaluating the whole team and the surgical, anaesthetic and nursing subteams, and evaluated technical performance using the Glitch count. We evaluated compliance with the WHO checklist by recording whether time-out (T/O) and sign-out (S/O) were attempted, and whether T/O was fully complied with. We recorded complications, re-admissions and duration of hospital stay using hospital administrative data. We compared the before–after change in the intervention and control groups using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Results Mean NOTECHS II score increased significantly from 71.6 to 75.4 in the active group but remained static in the control group (p=0.047). Among staff subgroups, the nursing score increased significantly (p=0.006), but the anaesthetic and surgical scores did not. The attempt rate for WHO T/O procedures increased significantly in both active and control groups, but full compliance with T/O improved only in the active group (p=0.003). Mean glitch rate was unchanged in the control group but increased significantly (7.2–10.2/h, p=0.002) in the active group. Conclusions Teamwork training was associated with improved non-technical skills in theatre teams but also with a rise in operative glitches. PMID:25897025

  8. The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8217 AFIT/CI/NR 86- 81D . TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a...34I i. ’’ , ’."k’ ’* The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by Bruce Jaeger Captain, USAF 1986 NTIS GRA...Carolina State University I I p -. ~~ h~~~A k. .IbJ .~ .2~ ~or The Effects of Local Exertion and Anticipation on the Performance of a Discrete Skill by

  9. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  10. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

  11. Effect of Mirrored Views on Endoscopic and Arthroscopic Skill Performance

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, Emanuel; Meier, Christoph; Wirth, Stefan; Koch, Peter Philipp; Meyer, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopic procedures may be technically challenging because of impaired vision, limited space, and the 2-dimensional vision of a 3-dimensional structure. Spatial orientation may get more complicated when the camera is pointing toward the surgeon. Hypothesis: Spatial orientation and arthroscopic performance may be improved by simply mirroring the image on the monitor in different configurations regarding the position and orientation of camera and instrument. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Thirty volunteers from an orthopaedic department were divided into 3 equal groups according to their arthroscopic experience (beginners, intermediates, seniors). All subjects were asked to perform a standardized task in a closed box mimicking an endoscopic space. The same task had to be performed in 4 different configurations regarding camera and instrument position and orientation (pointing toward or away from the subject) with either the original or mirrored image on the monitor. Efficiency (time per stick; TPS), precision (successful completion of the task), and difficulty rating using a visual analog scale (VAS) were analyzed. Results: Mirroring the image demonstrated no advantage over the original images in any configuration regarding TPS. Successful completion of the task was significantly better when the image was mirrored in the configuration with the camera pointing toward and the instrument away from the surgeon. There was a positive correlation between TPS and subjective VAS difficulty rating (r = 0.762, P = .000) and a negative correlation between the successful completion of the task and VAS (r = −0.515, P = .000). Conclusion: Mirroring the image may have a positive effect on arthroscopic performance of surgeons in certain configurations. A significantly improved performance was seen when the arthroscope was pointing toward and the grasping instrument pointing away from the subject. Mirroring the image may facilitate surgery in

  12. Team Research at the Biology–Mathematics Interface: Project Management Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Radunskaya, Ami E.; Lee, Arthur H.; de Pillis, Lisette G.; Bartlett, Diana F.

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented. PMID:20810964

  13. Team research at the biology-mathematics interface: project management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Milton, John G; Radunskaya, Ami E; Lee, Arthur H; de Pillis, Lisette G; Bartlett, Diana F

    2010-01-01

    The success of interdisciplinary research teams depends largely upon skills related to team performance. We evaluated student and team performance for undergraduate biology and mathematics students who participated in summer research projects conducted in off-campus laboratories. The student teams were composed of a student with a mathematics background and an experimentally oriented biology student. The team mentors typically ranked the students' performance very good to excellent over a range of attributes that included creativity and ability to conduct independent research. However, the research teams experienced problems meeting prespecified deadlines due to poor time and project management skills. Because time and project management skills can be readily taught and moreover typically reflect good research practices, simple modifications should be made to undergraduate curricula so that the promise of initiatives, such as MATH-BIO 2010, can be implemented.

  14. To Think or Not to Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J. F.; Sutton, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this…

  15. The Impact of Digital Skills on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Performance Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Laura; Argentin, Gianluca; Gui, Marco; Stanca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Digital skills are increasingly important for labour market outcomes and social participation. Do they also matter for academic performance? This paper investigates the effects of digital literacy on educational outcomes by merging data from the Italian National Assessment in secondary schools with an original data-set on performance tests of…

  16. Using a Surrogate Test of Math Skills to Predict Performance of Non-Traditional Accounting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Jonathan B.

    1989-01-01

    A study was designed to predict student performance in the introductory accounting course, specifically the performance of nontraditional students. A predictive instrument to measure mathematical abilities was employed; outcomes were compared to individuals' final course grade. Results indicate that a brief math skills test can predict performance…

  17. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  18. Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

  19. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  20. Skilled Memory and Expertise: Mechanisms of Exceptional Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    recruited from a local Shakespeare festival held each sumner in Boulder, CO. Three plays were performed in rotation at each summer festival, and the major...words or more) or several reasonably large roles (1000 words or more). The single largest part memorized by a subject was Hamlet , which is about...or contained the probe. For example, an actor portraying Hamlet , when presented the probe "question," could respond with "that is the question", or

  1. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

  2. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development. PMID:25697602

  3. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Aziz, Yang Faridah Abdul; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students' unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  4. Final Evaluation Report. SAELP Interagengy Collaborative Governance Project. Creating a Culture that Supports High Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, representatives of the New Jersey Department of Education, the New Jersey School Boards Association, and the New Jersey Association of School Administrators, conceived a joint venture aimed at assisting board of education teams, including their superintendents, to function better as cohesive teams and foster improved academic achievement…

  5. Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

  6. The Discipline of Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.

    1993-01-01

    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  7. Does team-based learning improve performance in an infectious diseases course in a preclinical curriculum?

    PubMed Central

    Behling, Kathryn C.; Kim, Rose; Gentile, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether introduction of Team-based Learning (TBL) improves student learning resulting in improved performance on final examination questions and decreased failures in an infectious diseases course. Methods To improve mastery of course content, we designed an intervention, which provided weekly TBL exercises in study years 2 and 3 to review concepts presented during didactic lectures and laboratory exercises.  The remaining course structure and content was essentially unchanged. All students taking the course (n=50 in year 1, n=64 in year 2, and n=72 in year 3) participated in this study. Student final examination performance and performance on individual final examination questions were collected and analyzed for changes in response to the study intervention. Results Addition of weekly TBL exercises improved student performance on the course final examination as demonstrated by a statistically significant increase in the distribution of correct answer percentages for questions in common between the final examinations in years 1 and 2 and between years 1 and 3 (t(99) = 3.1454, p<0.05 and t(99) = 4.1268, p<0.01, respectively; Student-Newman-Keuls).  There was no statistical difference (t(97) = 0.9814, p> 0.05; Student-Newman-Keuls) in the distribution of correct answer percentages between years two and three. There was also a decrease in final examination failures in years two and three. Conclusions The results suggest that TBL could be used to improve mastery and retention of course content in a preclinical infectious diseases course. Weekly exercises allow students to identify and ameliorate weaknesses in understanding and make adjustments early in the course. PMID:28178641

  8. Professional Nurses' Perceptions of Skills Required for Performing Preterm Infants' Follow-up Assessments.

    PubMed

    Cordewener, Debbie; Lubbe, Welma

    2017-02-14

    Improved perinatal and neonatal care enhances preterm infant survival rates, but the adverse outcomes remain high. Nurses play vitally important roles regarding the follow-up assessments, treatment, and care of preterm infants. This explorative, descriptive study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of skills required to perform effective preterm infant assessments. Thirteen semistructured interviews were conducted. Identified themes included the role of the professional nurse, the importance of preterm infant assessments, lack of skills and knowledge to conduct quality assessments, formal and continuous development training needs, the absence of assessment tools and physical resources to perform standardized assessments of preterm infants, and the required support and referral systems.

  9. Variations in Hypoxia Impairs Muscle Oxygenation and Performance during Simulated Team-Sport Running

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Alice J.; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C.; Rodriguez, Ramón F.; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of acute hypoxia on muscle oxygenation and power during simulated team-sport running. Methods: Seven individuals performed repeated and single sprint efforts, embedded in a simulated team-sport running protocol, on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (sea-level), and acute normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of 2,000 and 3,000 m). Mean and peak power was quantified during all sprints and repeated sprints. Mean total work, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, and quadriceps muscle deoxyhaemoglobin concentration (assessed via near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured over the entire protocol. A linear mixed model was used to estimate performance and physiological effects across each half of the protocol. Changes were expressed in standardized units for assessment of magnitude. Uncertainty in the changes was expressed as a 90% confidence interval and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Results: Mean total work was reduced at 2,000 m (−10%, 90% confidence limits ±6%) and 3,000 m (−15%, ±5%) compared with sea-level. Mean heart rate was reduced at 3,000 m compared with 2,000 m (−3, ±3 min−1) and sea-level (−3, ±3 min−1). Blood oxygen saturation was lower at 2,000 m (−8, ±3%) and 3,000 m (−15, ±2%) compared with sea-level. Sprint mean power across the entire protocol was reduced at 3,000 m compared with 2,000 m (−12%, ±3%) and sea-level (−14%, ±4%). In the second half of the protocol, sprint mean power was reduced at 3,000 m compared to 2,000 m (−6%, ±4%). Sprint mean peak power across the entire protocol was lowered at 2,000 m (−10%, ±6%) and 3,000 m (−16%, ±6%) compared with sea-level. During repeated sprints, mean peak power was lower at 2,000 m (−8%, ±7%) and 3,000 m (−8%, ±7%) compared with sea-level. In the second half of the protocol, repeated sprint mean power was reduced at 3,000 m compared to 2,000 m (−7%, ±5%) and sea-level (−9%, ±5%). Quadriceps muscle

  10. Validation of a Self-Efficacy Instrument and Its Relationship to Performance of Crisis Resource Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Jennifer L.; van Schaik, Sandrijn M.; Sliwka, Diane C.; Boscardin, Christy K.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is thought to be important for resuscitation proficiency in that it influences the development of and access to the associated medical knowledge, procedural skills and crisis resource management (CRM) skills. Since performance assessment of CRM skills is challenging, self-efficacy is often used as a measure of competence in this…

  11. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  12. Perceptual-cognitive skill and the in situ performance of soccer players.

    PubMed

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Mann, David L; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-11-21

    Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed. The results revealed that on-field performance could not be predicted on the basis of performance on the perceptual-cognitive tests. Moreover, there were no strong correlations between the level of performance on the different tests. The analysis of gaze behaviour revealed differences in search rate, fixation duration, fixation order, gaze entropy, and percentage viewing time when performing the test of pattern recall, suggesting that it is driven by different processes to those used for anticipation and decision making. Altogether, the results suggest that the perceptual-cognitive tests may not be as strong determinants of actual performance as may have previously been assumed.

  13. Comparison of performance on process- and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samuel W; Barnett, Lisa M; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Stodden, David F

    2017-04-01

    Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current study aimed to: (1) compare process and product assessments of the standing long jump, hop and throw across age groups and (2) determine the capacity of process assessments to classify levels of MC. Participants included 170 children classified into three age groups: 4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years old. Participants' skills were examined concurrently using three process assessments ((Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition [TGMD-2]), Get Skilled; Get Active, and developmental sequences) and one product measure (throw speed, jump and hop distance). Results indicate moderate to strong correlations between (1) process assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .37-70) and (2) process and product assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .26-.88). In general, sensitivity to detect advanced skill level is lowest for TGMD-2 and highest for developmental sequences for all three skills. The use of process and product assessments is suggested to comprehensively capture levels of MC in human movement.

  14. Analyses of WIN Team Functioning and Job Requirements, Final Report: Duties Performed and Style of Functioning, in Relation to Team Effectiveness. Technical Report 72-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Richard P.

    Data were collected from a total of 110 WIN (Work Incentive Programs) Employability Development Teams to obtain information regarding the staffing composition of WIN teams, the extent to which distribution of job effort among team members emphasizes duty area specialization by job position title, the style of functioning in making client-oriented…

  15. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  16. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Would you like to lead a world renowned team that draws out all the talents and expertise of its members and consistently out performs all others in the industry? Ever wonder why so many organizations fail to truly learn from past mistakes only to repeat the same ones at a later date? Are you a program/project manager or team member in a high-risk organization where the decisions made often carry the highest of consequences? Leadership, communication, team building, critical decision-making and continuous team improvement skills and behaviors are mere talking points without the attitudes, commitment and strategies necessary to make them the very fabric of a team. Developing Expert Teams with a Strong Safety Culture, will provide you with proven knowledge and strategies to take your team soaring to heights you may have not thought possible. A myriad of teams have applied these strategies and techniques within their organization team environments: military and commercial aviation, astronaut flight crews, Shuttle flight controllers, members of the Space Shuttle Program Mission Management Team, air traffic controllers, nuclear power control teams, surgical teams, and the fire service report having spectacular success. Many industry leaders are beginning to realize that although the circumstances and environments of these teams may differ greatly to their own, the core elements, governing principles and dynamics involved in managing and building a stellar safety conscious team remain identical.

  17. Inclusion and Student Learning: A Quantitative Comparison of Special and General Education Student Performance Using Team and Solo-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to determine whether there were significant statistical differences between the performance scores of special education and general education students' scores when in team or solo-teaching environments as may occur in inclusively taught classrooms. The investigated problem occurs because despite education's stated…

  18. On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2010-12-01

    Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior.

  19. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  20. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  1. Effects of Short Term Camp Periods on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Parameters in Ice Hockey National Team Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the 15-day camp period, 10-minute running and stretching for warming and then…

  2. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  3. Fluctuations in running and skill-related performance in elite rugby union match-play.

    PubMed

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Chris

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated end-game and transient changes in running activities and whether these were concomitantly associated with reductions in skill-related performance in senior international rugby union match-play. Altogether, 18 official matches were analysed (322 individual observations) using computerised video-based tracking and event coding (Amisco Pro(®), SUP, Nice, France). In forwards and backs, trivial to small reductions (% difference: -2.1, ±1.3 to -10.0, ±4.0%) in total distance and that covered at high speeds (>18.0 km h(-1)) occurred in the second- versus the first-half while there were trivial differences in skill-related performance measures (-2.3, ±4.5 to 7.5, ±14.0%). In both positions, small to moderate declines (-42, ±10 to -21, ±7%) occurred in high-speed running in the final 10-min and 5-min periods versus mean values for all other 10-min and 5-min periods throughout the game while only small changes (-18, ±51 to 13, ±41%) in skill-related performance were observed. Trivial changes in running and skill-related performance (-11, ±74 to 7, ±39%) were observed in the 5-min period immediately following the most intense 5-minute periods of play compared to mean performance over the other 5-min periods. These findings suggest that international rugby union players were generally able to maintain skill-related performance over the course of match-play even when declines in running performance occurred.

  4. A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

    PubMed

    Gully, Stanley M; Incalcaterra, Kara A; Joshi, Aparna; Beauien, J Matthew

    2002-10-01

    Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine level of analysis and interdependence as moderators of observed relationships between task-specific team-efficacy, generalized potency, and performance. Sixty-seven empirical studies yielding 256 effect sizes were identified and meta-analyzed. Results demonstrated that relationships are moderated by level of analysis. Effect sizes were stronger at the team level (p = .39) than at the individual level (p = .20). At the team level, both team-efficacy and potency had positive relationships with performance (ps = .41 and .37, respectively). Interdependence significantly moderated the relationship between team-efficacy and performance, but not between potency and performance. The relationship between team-efficacy and performance was stronger when interdependence was high (p = .45) than when it was low (p = .34).

  5. [Team and team work].

    PubMed

    Richer, E

    1990-01-01

    The coordinator draws conclusions on the symposium day devoted to the teams. After defining "team" he gives several thoughts on the team's work its advantages and its difficulties. During this day the teams talked about their questions and their certainties in the various fields of their work. They also discussed their hard ships and their need of psychological support which the hospital departments do not have the means to satisfy.

  6. Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Pasqua, Leonardo; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni; Roschel, Hamilton; Solis, Marina; Tobias, Gabriel; Klansener, Christian; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Franchini, Emerson; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate responses and the temporal pattern of the effort/recovery during a simulated canoe polo match. The main results are as follows: body fat, 12.3 ± 4.0%; upper-body peak and mean power, 6.8 ± 0.5 and 4.7 ± 0.4 W · kg(-1), respectively; 1-RM bench press, 99.1 ± 11.7 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 44.3 ± 5.8 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); total energy intake, 42.8 ± 8.6 kcal · kg(-1); protein, carbohydrate, and fat intakes, 1.9 ± 0.1, 5.0 ± 1.5, and 1.7 ± 0.4 g · kg(-1), respectively; mean heart rate, 146 ± 11 beats · min(-1); plasma lactate, 5.7 ± 3.8 mmol · L(-1) at half-time and 4.6 ± 2.2 mmol · L(-1) at the end of the match; effort time (relative to total match time), 93.1 ± 3.0%; number of sprints, 9.6 ± 4.4. The results of this study will assist coaches, trainers, and nutritionists in developing more adequate training programmes and dietary interventions for canoe polo athletes.

  7. Virtuoso teams.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced.

  8. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  9. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  10. Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

  11. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  12. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research…

  13. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  14. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  15. Is There a Relationship between Improving Human Relation Skills and Levels of Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Jolene; Byrne, Susan; Kiedaisch, Jan; Thiele, Nancy; Weber, Gwyn

    This Action Research Project implemented a program for improving human relation skills intended to raise the academic performance level of students. The target population consists of kindergarten, seventh grade (regular/at-risk), and high school (regular/behavior disordered) students. Analysis of both research literature and problem evidence…

  16. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  17. Skill Level as a Factor in the Relationship Between Worker Satisfaction and Worker Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dennis A.; Warner, Stephen J.

    Thirty-three adult male employees at a chemical plant completed a Worker Opinion Questionnaire (WOQ) designed to yield a measure of worker satisfaction. The quality of their job performance was obtained by means of supervisor ratings. Eighteen of the subjects were involved in "skilled labor and fifteen in "unskilled" labor. It was hypothesized…

  18. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  19. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  20. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…