Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea
"Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…
Bettis, Pamela J.; Adams, Natalie Guice
Cheerleading, an American invention, has 3.8 million participants in the United States, 97% of whom are female. It is an adult-sanctioned and typically school-affiliated activity that remains popular in spite of the increase in sports' opportunities for girls in schools. Drawing from popular culture and a middle school ethnography, the authors…
Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim
This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…
Vescio, Johanna A.; Crosswhite, Janice J.
Investigated initiatives to increase teenage girls' participation in sport and physical activities, examining good practice case studies from Australia. Surveys of national, state, and regional sporting organizations and various community and school organizations (including culturally diverse girls and girls with disabilities) highlighted three…
Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would be adopted by the participant. Teenage girls (N=89) were asked to perform a shopping task in a local supermarket. They had to shop with a same-sex confederate peer who had been instructed earlier to purchase either five low-kilocaloric food products, five average-kilocaloric or five high-kilocaloric food products. Significant main effects for the experimental purchase condition and hunger were found on the amount of kilocalories of the purchased food products. Teenage girls who shopped with a peer in the high-kilocaloric condition purchased higher kilocaloric food products relative to the girls who shopped with a peer in the low-kilocaloric condition. In addition, girls who reported to be hungry purchased higher kilocaloric food products in general. These findings might imply that teenage girls follow unhealthy food purchases of a peer during shopping. Health promotion might benefit from our findings by also focusing on food purchases and not only food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve
With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…
Background: With its increase in participation rate and complex stunts and gymnastic-like maneuvers, cheerleading injuries are on the rise. Objective: A structured narrative review of the literature was performed to discover the status of the literature on a growing yet under recognized sport. Cheerleading injuries are described in terms of distribution, etiology, and prevention. Methods: A literature search was conducted. The articles were then reviewed and included based on broad criteria set out by the author. Results: The search produced 87 articles related to cheerleading injuries or articles with a mention of cheerleading. A total of 26 articles were included in this review based on the inclusion criteria. The most common injury experienced by a cheerleader is an ankle ligament sprain. Summary: The recognition of cheerleading as a sport and a mandatory reporting database are needed along with further research for injury prevention strategies to be implemented. PMID:23204573
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean
To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Participants were sexually active teenage girls aged 15-18 years old (n = 965) who took part in the 2002 or 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Sixteen percent of sexually active teenage girls (n = 164) would be pleased (11 % a little pleased, 5 % very pleased) if they became pregnant. In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics (i.e., how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control) or had only discussed birth control with a parent were more likely to be very pleased with a teenage pregnancy than participants who had discussed both topics with a parent. Prior pregnancy, racial/ethnic group status, older age, and having parents with a high school education or less also increased the odds of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy. Being pleased with a teenage pregnancy was correlated with a lack of discussion of sexual health topics with parents, prior pregnancy, and sociodemographic factors (having less educated parents, racial/ethnic group status). Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes.
Lamb, Penny; Priyadharshini, Esther
The growth of cheerleading as a popular school-based physical activity for people of both genders in the UK poses a challenge for physical education teachers in particular and educators in general. This paper draws on theoretical concepts and empirical research on gender, performance and cheerleading to highlight the multilayered, diverse, even…
Sopracordevole, Francesco; Cigolot, Federica; Mancioli, Francesca; Agarossi, Alberto; Boselli, Fausto; Ciavattini, Andrea
To assess the knowledge of teenaged girls on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination 12 months after the start of a vaccine administration and information campaign. Between May 15 and June 15, 2009, an anonymous questionnaire was given to 629 girls attending a secondary school in a northeastern Italian city (286 were vaccinated against HPV, 343 were unvaccinated) to investigate their knowledge on HPV infection, transmission, prevention, vaccination, and post-vaccination behaviors. The responses were evaluated with respect to the vaccination status of the participants. Vaccinated teenaged girls had no more knowledge than unvaccinated ones about the route of HPV transmission, and the relationship between HPV and AIDS. Vaccinated girls had less knowledge than unvaccinated girls about preventing transmission by condom (P=0.003) and about the correlation between HPV and penile cancer (P=0.034) and warts (P=0.001). Furthermore, compared with unvaccinated girls, more vaccinated girls believed that contraceptive pills might prevent HPV-related disease (P=0.001). Vaccinated girls better understood the importance of performing regular Pap smears after vaccination (P=0.021). Knowledge on HPV infection and vaccination remains suboptimal, especially among vaccinated teenaged girls, despite a broad information campaign. Misconceptions about the utility of secondary prevention may increase risky sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hutchinson, Mark R.
Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…
Prevention Researcher, 2004
Dr. Harriet Mosatche is an advice columnist on a web site for teen girls, as well as the Senior Director of Research and Programs at the Girl Scouts of the USA. Because of these dual roles, she has a unique perspective on the bullying issue. In this interview she answers a number of questions about bullying among teenage girls, including how boys…
Nakajima, Mikiko; Valdez, Josepha M.
Cheerleading used to be about standing on the sidelines waving pom-poms. Now, cheerleaders are thrown 10 feet in the air and perform high-level gymnastics skills. For this reason, cheerleading has become the leading cause of catastrophic sport injuries in the United States. Football, which is one of the most dangerous sports, has abundant access…
Tshotsho, Nokwanda; Thwala, S'lungile K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics that make teenage girls vulnerable to bullying in high schools in the Manzini region of Swaziland. It determined how personality traits of victims of different parenting styles contribute to adolescent girls being bullied. The findings of the study revealed that bullying is very rife…
Teenage magazines are viewed by their readers as "trusted friends" that provide reliable information on sex and relationship issues. Agony aunts and uncles receive approximately half a million letters each year from teenagers in the UK. Objective: To understand the perceptions, pressures and needs of young girls on issues pertaining to their…
Hendrick, C. Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie
Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1 – 15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (N=2,066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51% white, 27% black, 22% Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576
Hendrick, C Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie
Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1-15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (n = 2066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51 % white, 27 % black, 22 % Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls.
Einberg, Eva-Lena; Lidell, Evy; Clausson, Eva K
In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that stress and mental health problems have increased among adolescents and especially among girls, although little is still known concerning what girls experience in their everyday lives. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of teenage girls' everyday lives, as experienced by the girls themselves. A phenomenological approach of reflective lifeworld research was used, and the findings are based on eight qualitative interviews with girls aged 13-16 years. The essence of teenage girls' everyday lives as experienced by the girls themselves can be described as consciousness regarding demands and unfairness and regarding the importance of connectedness and security. The girls are aware of the demands of appearance and success, and they are conscious of the gender differences in school and in the media that affect them. The girls are also conscious about the meaning of connectedness with friends and family, as well as the importance of the security of their confidence in friends and feeling safe where they stay. If teenage girls feel connected and secure, protective factors in the form of manageability and meaningfulness can act as a counterweight to the demands and unfairness of everyday life. For professionals who work with teenage girls, the results from this study can be important in their work to support these girls.
Suvivuo, Pia; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Kontula, Osmo
This qualitative narrative study examined contraceptive use and non-use in light of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The purpose of this paper was to understand contraceptive use and non-use among Finnish teenage girls: why do girls use or not use contraception in a sexually motivated situation and how do the determinants of the Theory of Planned…
This newsletter summarizes the current state of understanding about self-esteem in teenaged girls. It notes that self-esteem is a concept that is difficult to define and to measure. Current research indicates that self-esteem is composed of many factors; however, a reasonable functional definition is the value a person places on herself or…
Alizadeh, Venus; Törnkvist, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid
Approximately 1,500 young immigrant women living in Sweden sought help from various public organisations during 2004 due to problems related to Protection of Family Honour (PFH). Often they seek help from school nurses and counsellors. Information on how the school nurses and counsellors manage this complex PFH phenomenon is limited in Sweden. The aim was to generate a theoretical model that illuminates the experiences of school counsellors and school nurses counselling teenage girls, who worry about problems related to protection of family honour. Data were collected through individual interviews of the school welfare staff. The study subjects included welfare staff from six upper-secondary schools consisting of four nurses and six counsellors. Grounded theory methods were used to generate new knowledge as this is a new field of research. The staff's main goal was to provide the best support and help for the teenage girls. In addition, they wanted to be true to their professional ethics and values. However, this was difficult and created professional dilemmas because some teenage girls prevented them from doing what they thought was needed to support the teenage girls and protect them from violence. As a result, staff sometimes felt hampered, unable to help or able to help only in ways hidden from the teenage girls' families. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…
Lundholm, Jean K.; Littrell, John M.
Examined cheerleaders' desire for thinness in relationship to disordered eating and weight control behaviors. A Desire for Thinness Scale and selected scales from three eating disorder instruments were administered to 751 high school cheerleaders. Cheerleaders who expressed a strong desire for thinness had significantly higher scores on seven of…
Raabe, Johannes; Readdy, Tucker
Purpose: Cheerleading is one of the fastest-growing sports in the United States. Members of spirit squads play an undeniable role in developing a university's athletic image, and participation in cheer has the potential to affect adolescents and young adults in a positive manner. Yet, cheerleaders also encounter stereotypes, constant…
Zhou, Yin; Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Abel, Gary
Truancy has been linked to risky sexual behaviours in teenagers. However, no studies in England have examined the association between truancy and teenage pregnancy, and the use of truancy as a marker of teenagers at risk of pregnancy. Using logistic regression, we investigated the association between truancy at age 15 and the likelihood of teenage pregnancy by age 19 among 3837 female teenagers who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Young People of England. We calculated the areas under the ROC curves of four models to determine how useful truancy would be as a marker of future teenage pregnancy. Truancy showed a dose-response association with teenage pregnancy after adjusting for ethnicity, educational intentions at age 16, parental socioeconomic status and family composition ('several days at a time' versus 'none', odds ratio 3.48 95% confidence interval 1.90-6.36, P < 0.001). Inclusion of risk behaviours improved the accuracy of predictive models only marginally (area under the ROC curve 0.76 full model versus 0.71 sociodemographic characteristics only). Truancy is independently associated with teenage pregnancy among English adolescent girls. However, the discriminatory powers of models were low, suggesting that interventions addressing the whole population, rather than targeting high-risk individuals, might be more effective in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Raabe, Johannes; Readdy, Tucker
Cheerleading is one of the fastest-growing sports in the United States. Members of spirit squads play an undeniable role in developing a university's athletic image, and participation in cheer has the potential to affect adolescents and young adults in a positive manner. Yet, cheerleaders also encounter stereotypes, constant trivialization, and a relative lack of external rewards. Given this complex contextual and situational environment, the current investigation was designed to better understand why people are motivated to participate in collegiate cheerleading. More specifically, guided by the premises of self-determination theory (SDT), this study explored motivational profiles and basic psychological need satisfaction (i.e., competence, autonomy, and relatedness) across different contexts and situations that comprise the collegiate cheerleading environment. Consistent with established guidelines for qualitative inquiry, 12 collegiate cheerleaders were interviewed at 3 separate time points during the course of 1 academic semester. Deductive and inductive qualitative analyses yielded 3 higher-order themes, including: (a) context specificity of basic psychological need satisfaction, (b) contribution of performance to motivation, and (c) occurrences of intrinsic motivation. These results highlighted the complex nature of motivation and basic psychological need fulfillment, including a potential synergism between relatedness and competence fulfillment as well as an influence of academics on sport motivation. These nuances add to the theoretical understanding of SDT and offer valuable insight for coaches and sport psychology professionals working with collegiate spirit squads.
Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett
National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607
Davidson, Tatiana M; Lopez, Cristina M; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Danielson, Carla Kmett
National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting the rate of new infections being approximately four times higher compared to White women of comparable age . This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV-prevention programme for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV-prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV- prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV programme as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed.
This paper explores the geographical constitution of the "dirty weekend" and teenage girls' sexuality by interrogating the cultural habitus of the seaside resort. It reidentifies the littoral pleasure zone as an active agent in sexual learning and disrupts taken-for-granted inscriptions of the seaside as an inert backdrop against which…
Laudner, Kevin G; Metz, Betsy; Thomas, David Q
Approximately 62% of all cheerleaders sustain some type of orthopaedic injury during their cheerleading careers. Furthermore, the occurrence of such injuries has led to inquiry regarding optimal prevention techniques. One possible cause of these injuries may be related to inadequate conditioning in cheerleaders. To determine whether a strength and conditioning program produces quantifiable improvements in anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and stiffness. Descriptive laboratory study. University laboratory. A sample of 41 collegiate cheerleaders (24 experimental and 17 control participants) volunteered. No participants had a recent history (in the past 6 months) of upper extremity injury or any history of upper extremity surgery. The experimental group completed a 6-week strength and conditioning program between the pretest and posttest measurements; the control group did not perform any strength training between tests. We measured anterior GH laxity and stiffness with an instrumented arthrometer. We conducted a group × time analysis of variance with repeated measures on time (P < .05) to determine differences between groups. A significant interaction was demonstrated, with the control group having more anterior GH laxity at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.11). However, no main effect for time (P = .92) or group (P = .97) was observed. In another significant interaction, the control group had less anterior GH stiffness at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.12). Main effects for time (P = .02) and group (P = .004) were also significant. Cheerleaders who participate in a shoulder-strengthening program developed less anterior GH laxity and more stiffness than cheerleaders in the control group.
Krugu, J K; Mevissen, F E F; Prinsen, A; Ruiter, R A C
Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health concern, with diverse serious consequences, including increased health risk for mother and child, lost opportunities for personal development, social exclusion, and low socioeconomic attainments. Especially in Africa, teenage pregnancy rates are high. It is important to find out how girls without pregnancy experience differ in their contraceptive decision-making processes as compared with their previously studied peers with pregnancy experience to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with never been pregnant girls (N = 20) in Bolgatanga, Ghana, to explore the psychosocial and environmental factors influencing the sexual decision making of adolescents. Themes such as relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behavior guided the development of the interview protocol. Results showed that the girls did talk about sexuality with their mothers at home and did receive some form of sexual and reproductive health education, including the use of condoms discussions in school. Participants reported high awareness of pregnancy risk related to unprotected sex, were positive about using condoms and indicated strong self-efficacy beliefs towards negotiating condom use. The girls also formulated clear future goals, including coping plans such as ways to prevent unwanted pregnancies to reach these targets. On the other hand, their attitudes towards family planning (i.e., contraceptives other than condoms) were negative, and they hold boys responsible for buying condoms. An open parental communication on sexuality issues at home, comprehensive sex education in school and attitude, self-efficacy, risk perception towards contraception, alongside with goal-setting, seem to be protective factors in adolescent girls
Laudner, Kevin G; Metz, Betsy; Thomas, David Q
Context Approximately 62% of all cheerleaders sustain some type of orthopaedic injury during their cheerleading careers. Furthermore, the occurrence of such injuries has led to inquiry regarding optimal prevention techniques. One possible cause of these injuries may be related to inadequate conditioning in cheerleaders. Objective To determine whether a strength and conditioning program produces quantifiable improvements in anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and stiffness. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A sample of 41 collegiate cheerleaders (24 experimental and 17 control participants) volunteered. No participants had a recent history (in the past 6 months) of upper extremity injury or any history of upper extremity surgery. Intervention(s) The experimental group completed a 6-week strength and conditioning program between the pretest and posttest measurements; the control group did not perform any strength training between tests. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured anterior GH laxity and stiffness with an instrumented arthrometer. We conducted a group × time analysis of variance with repeated measures on time (P < .05) to determine differences between groups. Results A significant interaction was demonstrated, with the control group having more anterior GH laxity at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.11). However, no main effect for time (P = .92) or group (P = .97) was observed. In another significant interaction, the control group had less anterior GH stiffness at the posttest session than the strengthening group (P = .03, partial η2 = 0.12). Main effects for time (P = .02) and group (P = .004) were also significant. Conclusions Cheerleaders who participate in a shoulder-strengthening program developed less anterior GH laxity and more stiffness than cheerleaders in the control group. PMID:23672322
Fox, Andrew; And Others
This study analyzes the effects on 14- and 15-year-old black teenage girls of entering and participating in a specially designed work program. The girls were provided with supports in their work settings, well-defined tasks, supervisors as well as regularly scheduled peer interaction groups led by a young black woman considered to be an…
Aounallah, A; Ghariani Fetoui, N; Ksiaa, M; Boussofara, L; Saidi, W; Mokni, S; Sriha, B; Belajouza, C; Denguezli, M; Ghariani, N; Nouira, R
Cutaneous Crohn disease is a rare cutaneous manifestation of Crohn disease in children. Herein is reported a case of persistent vulvar lymphedema revealing Crohn disease in a teenage girl. A 14-year-old girl presented with an 8-month history of persistent vulvar swelling associated with chronic macrocheilia. Dermatologic examination showed an inflammatory vulvar lymphedema, associated with perianal fissures and hypertrophic gingivitis. Vulvar skin biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded no significant findings. The diagnosis of Crohn disease presenting as vulvar lymphedema was established. Oral metronidazole therapy resulted in partial improvement of cutaneous lesions beginning the 1st week. The originality of this case lies in the presentation of chronic macrocheilia with persistent vulvar lymphedema in a child, revealing Crohn disease without gastrointestinal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette
This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…
Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip
In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.
Thompson, Sharon H.; Digsby, Sohailla
Cheerleading, a staple of American schools, has received little attention in scholarly research. This sport is considered "high risk" for development of eating disorders; therefore, female, high school cheerleaders (n = 156, mean age = 15.43 years) from the southeastern region were surveyed in this preliminary study to determine rates of dieting,…
Colton, Patricia; Olmsted, Marion; Daneman, Denis; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary
To compare the prevalence of eating disturbances in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes to their nondiabetic peers. A cross-sectional, case-controlled study of 101 girls with type 1 diabetes, ages 9-14 years, and 303 age-matched, female nondiabetic control subjects was conducted. Participants completed a Children's Eating Disorder Examination interview. Socioeconomic status, BMI, and diabetes-related variables were assessed. Groups were compared using chi(2) analyses. Binge eating; the use of intense, excessive exercise for weight control; the combination of two disturbed eating-related behaviors; and subthreshold eating disorders were all more common in girls with type 1 diabetes. Metabolic control was not related to eating behavior in this study population. Eating disturbances, though mostly mild, were significantly more common in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes. Screening and prevention programs for this high-risk group should begin in the preteen years.
Van Kessel, Gisela; Kavanagh, Madeleine; Maher, Carol
Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls' perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention. Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years) with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy. Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered "uncool". Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention. This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications.
Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Monsma, Eva V.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Washburn, Stefanie A.
Context With increased media coverage and competitive opportunities, cheerleaders may be facing an increase in eating disorder (ED) prevalence linked to clothing-related body image (BI). Objective To examine ED risk prevalence, pathogenic weight control behaviors, and variation in clothing-specific BI across position and academic status among collegiate cheerleaders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and II institutions. Patients or Other Participants Female collegiate cheerleaders (n = 136, age = 20.4 ± 1.3 years, height = 160.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight = 57.2 ± 8.3 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) Participants self-reported height, weight, and desired weight and completed the Eating Attitudes Test. Body image perceptions in 3 clothing types (daily clothing, midriff uniform, full uniform) were assessed using sex-based silhouettes (body mass index = 18.3 kg/m2 for silhouette 1, 23.1 kg/m2 for silhouette 4). Results The ED risk for cheerleaders was estimated at 33.1%. However, when body mass index was controlled using backward stepwise logistic regression, flyers had greater odds (odds ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 13.2, P = .008) of being at risk compared with bases, but no difference was noted between the base and back-spot positions (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.5, 6.6, P = .333). A main effect of BI perceptions was seen (P < .001), with a significant interaction by clothing type (F2,133 = 22.5, P < .001, η2 = 0.14). Cheerleaders desired to be smaller than their perceived BIs for each clothing type, with the largest difference for midriff uniform (2.6 ± 0.8 versus 3.7 ± 0.9), followed by full uniform (2.7 ± 0.8 versus 3.5 ± 0.9) and daily clothing (2.8 ± 0.8 versus 3.5 ± 0.9). Conclusions Cheerleaders, especially flyers, appear to be at risk for EDs, with greatest BI dissatisfaction when wearing their most revealing uniforms (ie, midriffs). Universities, colleges, and the
Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15-18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n = 2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway - notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females' sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk approach to prevention, targeting groups
Alwassia, Ahmad A; Adhi, Mehreen; Duker, Jay S
We present a case of bilateral simultaneous central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) in a teenage girl with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. A 19-year-old Caucasian female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension, presented with gradual decrease in her central vision for 1 month. She was diagnosed with bilateral simultaneous CSCR, based on the findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), indocyanine green angiography (ICG), fundus auto-fluorescence, fluorescein angiography and color fundus photographs, which are described. Blood pressure was 134/95 mmHg at presentation. Systemic evaluation failed to reveal a cause for the high blood pressure, and included a panel of blood tests, which were all normal. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 OD and 20/25 OS. Dilated fundus examination showed normal optic discs and retinal vasculature, with no evidence of hypertensive retinopathy. However, shallow retinal fluid associated with pigmentary changes was noted in the center of both maculae. OCT and ICG findings were consistent with the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. CSCR can manifest in patients with demographics outside the range of those previously reported. This is the first report of CSCR occurring in a teenage girl, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. It is important to consider this disease in any patient who has a clinically compatible presentation.
Van Kessel, Gisela; Kavanagh, Madeleine; Maher, Carol
Background Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls’ perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years) with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy. Results Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered “uncool”. Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention. Conclusion This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications. PMID:26934191
Vuttanont, Uraiwan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffin, Mark; Boynton, Petra
In Thailand, rapid increases in economic prosperity have been accompanied by erosion of traditional cultural and religious values and by negative effects on sexual health of young people. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, norms, and values of teenagers, parents, teachers, and policymakers in relation to sex and sex education in Chiang Mai, Thailand, with a view to informing sex education policy. We selected six secondary schools for maximum variation in socioeconomic background, religious background, and location. Methods were: narrative interviews with key stakeholders, and analysis of key policy documents; questionnaire survey of 2301 teenagers; 20 focus groups of teenagers; questionnaire survey of 351 parents; and two focus groups of parents. Qualitative and quantitative data were assessed separately with thematic and statistical analysis, respectively, then combined. We noted five important influences on Thai teenagers' sexual attitudes and behaviour: ambiguous social roles leading to confused identity; heightened sexual awareness and curiosity; key gaps in knowledge and life skills; limited parental input; and impulsivity and risk-taking. Male teenagers aspire to be "smart boys", whose status depends on stories of sexual performance and conquests. Female teenagers, traditionally constrained and protected as "sweet girls", are managing a new concept of dating without their parents' support, and with few life skills to enable them to manage their desires or negotiate in potentially coercive situations. School-based sex education is biologically focused and inconsistently delivered. Results of this large exploratory study suggest five approaches that could be developed to improve sex education: targeted training and support for teachers; peer-led sex education by teenagers; story-based scenarios to promote applied learning; local development of educational materials; and use of trained sexual health professionals to address learning needs of pupils, teachers
This paper focuses on the forms of reflexivity that emerge in the conversational narratives of Latin American teenage school girls co-produced during sociolinguistic interviews, in a multicultural school in the centre of Madrid. The narratives about confrontation at school portray the girls' actions and ways of making sense of such behaviours, in…
Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M
Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people.
Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M
Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people. PMID:28316718
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…
Background To understand the key challenges and explore recommendations from teenagers to promote physical activity with a focus on ethnic minority children. Methods Focus groups with teenagers aged 16-18 of Bangladeshi, Somali or Welsh descent attending a participating school in South Wales, UK. There were seventy four participants (18 Somali, 24 Bangladeshi and 32 Welsh children) divided into 12 focus groups. Results The boys were more positive about the benefits of exercise than the girls and felt there were not enough facilities or enough opportunity for unsupervised activity. The girls felt there was a lack of support to exercise from their family. All the children felt that attitudes to activity for teenagers needed to change, so that there was more family and community support for girls to be active and for boys to have freedom to do activities they wanted without formal supervision. It was felt that older children from all ethnic backgrounds should be involved more in delivering activities and schools needs to provide more frequent and a wider range of activities. Conclusions This study takes a child-focused approach to explore how interventions should be designed to promote physical activity in youth. Interventions need to improve access to facilities but also counteract attitudes that teenagers should be studying or working and not 'hanging about' playing with friends. Thus, the value of activity for teenagers needs to be promoted not just among the teenagers but with their teachers, parents and members of the community. PMID:21627781
Are teenage girls being left behind in the technology race? According to author and professor Lesley Farmer, teenage girls are not embracing technology and all of its potential impact on their futures. In "Teen Girls and Technology", Farmer explores the developmental issues of teen girls, including the reality of girls and tech as it now stands.…
Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.
A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298
Hooke, Alister; Capewell, Simon; Whyte, Meg
Examines attitudes of 129 teenagers concerning teenage pregnancy and early sex. Results indicate that 73% of girls advocated joint responsibility for contraceptive protection compared with only 46% of boys. Significantly more boys than girls saw nothing wrong with casual sex and significantly less boys than girls upheld the virtue of commitment in…
Fonseca, Laura; Araujo, Helena C.; Santos, Sofia A.
This article focuses on Portuguese working-class teenage girls' voices and experiences concerning sexuality and pregnancy. Within a sociological, feminist and educational framework, it explores the girls' perspective on sexual and intimate citizenship as evidence of fairer forms of regulation of teenage sexualities. Through building life histories…
Slavick, Carol A.
In 1968 the California Education Code section on physically handicapped minors was amended to include pregnant girls. This change was intended to give school districts the responsibility and the funds to develop special classes or schools for teenage pregmant girls. This special class makes it possible to provide more educational materials,…
Borhani, Mahboobe; Sadeghi, Roya; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Vakili, Mohammad Ali
The progress of technology in developed countries has changed lifestyles to sedentary and has increased non-communicable diseases. Identifying factors affecting patterns of physical activity among adolescents is valuable and it is important to change these pattern. This study aimed to explore teenage girls' experiences regarding the determinants of physical activity promotion based on Pender's Health Promotion Model. This qualitative study is a content analysis research on the girls of three high schools in Minoodasht city for six months from September 2015 until the end of February 2016. The data were obtained by focused group discussions and semi-structured in-depth interviews from 48 girls ranging from 15 to 18 years old and six teachers. Data analysis was done using theory-driven qualitative content analysis. Data analysis resulted in a total number of 53 primary codes which were classified in the six predetermined classifications of Pender's Health Promotion Model (Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy of physical activity behavior, feelings related to physical activity behavior, interpersonal and situational influencers). The results showed that two classifications (perceived barriers, and situational influencers) were considered more important than other classifications in reducing levels of physical activity in adolescent girls and also high self-efficacy for promoting physical activity in adolescents. The results obtained from this study specified the determinants affecting the promotion of physical activity among adolescent girls and can help the planners to choose the most appropriate methods and strategies in order to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases in this age group and gender.
de Fatima Rato Padin, Maria; de Souza e Silva, Rebeca; Chalem, Elisa; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Barros, Marina Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
Objective: Delineate a socio-demographic profile of multiparous teenage mothers at a public hospital in Brazil. Method: This is a cross-sectional study consisting of 915 interviews with teenage girls, including 170 multiparous subjects whose babies were born alive. Results: The multiparous teenage mothers had the following average characteristics:…
Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J
Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.
Zenz Adamshick, Pamela
Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.
Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J
The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.
The problem of teenage pregnancy can be viewed as endemic, a part of American culture not easy to change. Although the number of girls under 15 who are becoming pregnant is not very large (13,000 in 1978), the cost of pregnancy to the girls themselves, their families, and society is very great. Results of data analyses from action research,…
Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip
Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…
Carvalho, Fábia; Medeiros, Inês de; Faria, Catarina; Cotu, Djamilla; Will, Endza Paula; Neves, Edgar; Pontes, Teresa
Introduction The increasing number of pregnant teenagers in São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) represents a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to characterize the population of pregnant adolescents followed in a health facility dedicated to maternal health in STP. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant teenagers that attended the Mother and Child Protection Center during the first quarter of 2017. The survey contained questions on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, family, partners and health support. Results The mean age of the 51 pregnant teenagers included was 16.37 ± 0.8 years. Eight girls reported that they had planned to fall pregnant. Teenagers whose pregnancy was unplanned usually present with a previous family history of adolescent pregnancy. About 59% of girls engaged in sexual activity before 16 years of age with a mean number of sexual partners of 1.84 ± 0.88. In this study, 51% of the girls do not use any contraceptive method, usually because their partner refuses to do so. The preferred contraceptive method are condoms. Information on contraception is given mainly at school. Pregnant girls' first medical consultation was at a mean gestational age of 6 weeks. Abortion was considered by 51% of girls after pregnancy was confirmed. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy imposes health problems for the mother and child and contributes to educational and socioeconomic disadvantages. The collaboration of healthcare providers, teachers and parents is needed to enhance sexual health education. This is the first study in STP on teenage pregnancy; although the sample is small, the authors believe that the results are representative of the general population.
Mikulechý, M; Soltés, L; Valachová, A
To identify and compare the time dynamics of artificial abortions in two (Czech and Slovak) ethnically, historically and socially closely related populations. Data have been taken separately for 12-15 and 16-18 year age girls from official exhaustive statistical sources and processed by advanced procedures of time series analysis. Czech and Slovak Republics. All girls of the given age. Legislative liberalization of abortions 1987. Estimated starting values of relative numbers of abortions by 1971, increasing linear trends, period lengths of fluctuation, coefficients of determination and those of cross-correlation. Level of significance alpha = 0.05. The Czech figures are significantly higher than the Slovak. Thus, estimated abortion percentage (from pregnancies) for 1971 was for younger Czech girls 53%, and for those from Slovakia 29%. All estimated trends were increasing significantly in all cases for the Czech population (by 1.5% per year in the younger group) and in one case for Slovakia. The estimated period lengths were usually 10-12 years. Czech and Slovak data display significant positive mutual cross-correlation, the delay being 1-3 years in Slovak girls. Surprisingly, all data significantly cross-correlate with the geomagnetic index value Ap, acting as lead-lag, with 3-6-year delay for abortions. Despite living in the same federal state--the former Czechoslovak Republic, both Czech and Slovak populations do differ in starting values and general trends of abortions in teenagers. This can be due to historical, racial and religious peculiarities as well as a more advanced process of industrialization in the western part--the Czech Republic. The latter hypothesis is corroborated by strong dynamism of changes and by the time delay in Slovakia. The periodicity exhibits a frequency resembling that known for solar motion round barycenter of solar system, for sunspots and geomagnetism.
Ben Salem, Hela; Gaigi, Imene; El Fray, Hamouda; Gaigi, Sadok; El Ati, Jalila
The disturbances related to the feeding behavior are increasing in Tunisia. To evaluate the impact of an adapted and personalized therapeutic program, including dietetic advises and practice of yoga in Tunisian teenagers suffering from bulimia or anorexia. Our study was carried out on 31 teenagers, old 16 to 19 years, 10 were anorexics (9 girls and 1 boy) and 21 were bulimics (14 girls and 7 boys). After twelve weeks of program application a clear improvement of the physical and mental state of our subjects was recorded. Indeed, an average fall of 7.3% of the body weight of the compulsive eaters and an increase of 6.6% of that of the anorexics were obtained. On the mental level, the frequency of the subjects which make daily crises passed from 29% to 19%. More half of the subjects (54.8%) paid more not to vomit but occasionally (less than one once out of two crises). These results show that an assumption of responsibility targeted of the teenagers suffering from food behavioral problems can help them to be left there.
Brayboy, Lynae M.; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren Mills, Benedict S.; Spencer, Noelle; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A.
Study Objective Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application’s desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Design, Setting and Participants 39 girls ages 12–17 from Rhode Island participated in a two-phase prospective study. In Phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In Phase 2, 17 girls with iPhones® used Girl Talk for two weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Results Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants’ free time on weekends for 10–15 minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (35.3% vs. 94.1%; p < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to Anatomy and Physiology (4.2%), Sexuality and Relationships (3.5%) and STI Prevention (3.4%). Most participants (76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education prior to using Girl Talk, but 94.1% of participants stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Conclusion Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health versus traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. PMID:27393638
Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of teenage pregnancies in the world. In spite of that, there is paucity of empirical research on causes of teenage pregnancies in African countries. This paper investigates the determinants of teenage pregnancies based on a case study of Busia District in Kenya. The data are from a household survey conducted in 1998/1999. Empirical results indicate that girls' education level has significant influence on the probability of teenage birth, with non-schooling adolescents and those with primary school level education being more vulnerable. Among the variables used as proxies for access to sex education, availability of church forums that educate adolescents about sex and family life issues reduce probability of teenage pregnancy. Age is positively related to teenage pregnancies, with older adolescents being more predisposed to pregnancies. Though use of contraceptives is found to have a positive effect, only a small proportion of adolescents were using modern contraceptives and, supply side factors such as quality and availability were not accounted for. Other key factors as outlined by the adolescents themselves include peer pressure and social environment-related factors like inappropriate forms of recreation, which act as rendezvous for pre-marital sex, as well as lack of parental guidance and counselling. Overall, lack of access to education opportunities, sex education and information regarding contraceptives, as well the widespread poverty predispose girls to teenage pregnancies. The problem of teenage pregnancies should be viewed within the broader socio-economic and socio-cultural environment in which the adolescents operate. For instance, lack of parental guidance on issues of sexuality and sex education was reinforced by cultural taboos that inhibit such discussions. Adolescents should be equipped with the relevant knowledge to enable them make informed choices regarding sexual relationships. This should be
Sigusch, V; Schmidt, G
In 1970 the Institute for Sex Research at the University of Hamburg conducted a study of 302 males and 300 females aged 16-17. By age 16, 92% of the boys and 50% of the girls had experienced masturbation, 35% of the boys and 30% of the girls had experienced coitus. In the year before the study, 50% of the girls had an orgasm often or always during coitus. Boys achieved 80% of their orgasms through masturbation, 6% through petting, and 14% through coitus. The girls achieve 1/3 of their orgasms through each of these patterns. 18% of the boys and 6% of the girls had had at least 1 homosexual experience. About 70% of the respondents used contraception regularly. 40% to 50% used oral contraceptives and 20%-30% used condoms. The attitudes towards premarital coitus have become more permissive in the last 10 years, but the majority are still in favor of love and fidelity, and are oriented towards marriage.
Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja
Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.
Einberg, Eva-Lena; Lidell, Evy; Clausson, Eva K.
In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that stress and mental health problems have increased among adolescents and especially among girls, although little is still known concerning what girls experience in their everyday lives. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of teenage girls’ everyday lives, as experienced by the girls themselves. A phenomenological approach of reflective lifeworld research was used, and the findings are based on eight qualitative interviews with girls aged 13–16 years. The essence of teenage girls’ everyday lives as experienced by the girls themselves can be described as consciousness regarding demands and unfairness and regarding the importance of connectedness and security. The girls are aware of the demands of appearance and success, and they are conscious of the gender differences in school and in the media that affect them. The girls are also conscious about the meaning of connectedness with friends and family, as well as the importance of the security of their confidence in friends and feeling safe where they stay. If teenage girls feel connected and secure, protective factors in the form of manageability and meaningfulness can act as a counterweight to the demands and unfairness of everyday life. For professionals who work with teenage girls, the results from this study can be important in their work to support these girls. PMID:26084273
The Science Cheerleaders perform at a Women's History Month event for middle school and high school girls on Wednesday, March 16, 2011 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Science Cheerleaders are a group professional cheerleaders-turned-scientists and engineers who challenge stereotypes while helping to inspire young women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)
Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A
Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to anatomy and physiology (70.5% to 74.7% out of 7 questions), sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Dori; Edwards, Ned
This article explores how new knowledge about the adolescent female brain lends theoretical support to narrative and contemplative practices of spiritual formation of girls. Current brain research supports the use of particular methods of religious formation for teenagers in general, and teenage girls in particular. This article suggests that…
Redcross, Natalie Ryder; Grimes, Tresmaine
Teenage magazine content, after decades, continues to complicate decision making in the communication of the young, impressionable girls who read them. Previous research has indicated that teenagers can be negatively influenced by the media, including teen magazines (e.g., Redcross, 2003; Milkie, 2002; Durham, 2008; Lamb & Brown, 2006). These…
Hellevik, Per; Øverlien, Carolina
The aim of the present study was threefold: (1) learn more about factors associated with teenage intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization; (2) explore aspects of digital media use in connection with teenage IPV; (3) and compare the impact IPV victimization has on boys and girls. Survey data from 549 Norwegian students, mean age 15.2 years, who had experience(s) with being in intimate relationship(s), were examined. Experiences with psychological, physical, digital, and sexual violence were analyzed. In total, 42.9% of the participants had experienced some form of IPV: 29.1% had experienced digital violence; 25.9% had experienced psychological violence; 18.8% had experienced sexual violence; and 12.8% had experienced physical violence. Factors significantly associated with teenage IPV victimization were female gender, older partners, domestic violence, bullying victimization, low academic achievements, and sending sexual messages via digital media. Girls reported to be significantly more negatively impacted by the victimization than boys. CONCLUSIONS SOME TEENAGERS EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION IN THEIR INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS, AND FOR MANY DIGITAL MEDIA SEEMS TO PLAY A CENTRAL ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE TEENAGERS WHO EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION OUTSIDE THEIR RELATIONSHIPS OR HAVE RISKY LIFESTYLES HAVE A HIGHER RISK OF EXPERIENCING IPV VICTIMIZATION A FOCUS ON TEENAGE IPV, AND ESPECIALLY DIGITAL MEDIA'S ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE, IS NEEDED IF THIS PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE IS TO BE COMBATED. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Grebesheva, I I; El'tsova-Strelkova, V M; Gulevskaia, R M
As a result of sociological study conducted among teen-age girls--pupils of schools, technical schools and vocational schools the level of knowledge of the general facts about the relationship between sexes and methods of contraception was found. A large proportion of girls who have had sexual intercourse at this age was identified, their contraceptive culture was low. The main reasons for their reluctance to seek care at women's consultation centres were determined. The establishment of anonymous service for the teen-agers was suggested to improve the present form of gynaecological care for the teen-agers.
Gridina, I; Bidat, E; Chevallier, B; Stheneur, C
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperventilation syndrome in the general population of children and teenagers from the Île-de-France region (France). Three hundred children and teenagers (170 girls and 130 boys, aged 1 to17 years) were included in the study. To evaluate the probability of hyperventilation syndrome, we asked the children and teenagers to complete the Hyperventilation Syndrome Ambroise-Paré Enfant (SHAPE) questionnaire. The frequency of occurrence of the signs was evaluated by the child himself or herself with or without parental help. Children and teenagers with a score of 25 or over were considered to have hyperventilation syndrome. Sixty-three out of 300 questionnaires with a score of 25 or over revealed the presence of hyperventilation syndrome: 21% of the population evaluated. Among those surveyed, 42 were girls and 21 boys: 24.7 and 16.2%, respectively. The 280 questionnaires filled out among the non-asthmatics showed that 52 were positive (18.6%), while the positivity rate in the asthma group amounted to 55%. Although the diagnostic criteria for hyperventilation syndrome remains contested, this study shows that the disorder is real and frequent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.
An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.
Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.
Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…
Bell, Emily R; Glover, Lesley; Alexander, Tim
To explore teenagers' views of the future in relation to their choices to continue or terminate pregnancy. Despite recent decreases in the numbers of teenage pregnancies, across the world, the teenage pregnancy rate remains high. Consideration of views of the future (future orientation) appears to play an important part in teenage girls' decisions to continue with pregnancy. To date, no study has explored this in teenage pregnant girls at the time they make their decision to continue with or terminate their pregnancy. Cross-sectional mixed methods design. Three groups were included: termination of pregnancy (n = 19), antenatal (n = 9) and never pregnant (n = 23). Participants were 13-18 years old. The termination of pregnancy and antenatal groups were interviewed, and the never pregnant group completed postal questionnaires. Groups differed in individual aspects of future orientation, that is, education, career and family, and reasons for pregnancy resolution choice. The termination group had more clearly developed and longer-term plans for the future with a focus on career. The never pregnant group shared aspects of their future orientation with both the antenatal and termination of pregnancy groups. The impact of negative discourses about teenage pregnancy from others was identified as a significant issue. How pregnant teenage girls view the future has a relationship with their decision to terminate or continue with their pregnancy. The findings suggest that working with teenage girls to clarify their views of the future may be useful both in preventing future unwanted pregnancy and in supporting teenagers in making pregnancy decisions. Supporting pregnant teenagers in distancing themselves from negative stereotypes of teenage mothers may also be beneficial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Secura, Gina M.; Madden, Tessa; McNicholas, Colleen; Mullersman, Jennifer; Buckel, Christina M.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Background The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is higher than in other developed nations. Teenage births result in substantial costs, including public assistance, health care costs, and income losses due to lower educational attainment and reduced earning potential. Methods The Contraceptive CHOICE Project was a large prospective cohort study designed to promote the use of long-acting, reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods to reduce unintended pregnancy in the St. Louis region. Participants were educated about reversible contraception, with an emphasis on the benefits of LARC methods, were provided with their choice of reversible contraception at no cost, and were followed for 2 to 3 years. We analyzed pregnancy, birth, and induced-abortion rates among teenage girls and women 15 to 19 years of age in this cohort and compared them with those observed nationally among U.S. teens in the same age group. Results Of the 1404 teenage girls and women enrolled in CHOICE, 72% chose an intrauterine device or implant (LARC methods); the remaining 28% chose another method. During the 2008–2013 period, the mean annual rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among CHOICE participants were 34.0, 19.4, and 9.7 per 1000 teens, respectively. In comparison, rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among sexually experienced U.S. teens in 2008 were 158.5, 94.0, and 41.5 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions Teenage girls and women who were provided contraception at no cost and educated about reversible contraception and the benefits of LARC methods had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were much lower than the national rates for sexually experienced teens. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and others.) PMID:25271604
Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan
This ethnographic study conducted among young women aged 18-21 years in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, explored the parental control mechanisms imposed by Thai middle-class families on the sexuality of their daughters. It addressed the ways in which young women tactically use the social media in order to negotiate the sexual controls they encountered in everyday life. Taking the teenage girls' point of view, this paper argues that, as active agents, young women achieve a certain level of sexual autonomy and construct their own sexual selves in modern northern Thai society, despite their parents' attempts to prevent this. The paper highlights the ways in which social media are used by Thai girls in order to achieve such a goal. Research findings should inform the development of future programmes on sexual health promotion, parental skills and sexual communication between Thai parents and their children.
The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.
Explores the use of schools as settings for teenage horror films. Asserts that these narratives reflect the stress of social pressures and uncertainties, particularly young girls. Focuses on the television show, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer," while making this argument. Includes references. (CMK)
More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…
Brown, Lyn Mikel
Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…
Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine
A first aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an open group therapy for sexually abused teenagers using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest treatment design. A second aim was to explore whether differential gains were linked to an open versus a closed group format. Results indicate that sexually abused girls involved in an open group therapy showed significant gains relative to teenagers of the control group girls for the majority of the variables considered. Analyses contrasting the two formats of group therapy fail to identify statistical differences suggesting that both open and closed group formats are likely to be associated with the same significant gains for sexually abused teenagers.
Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina
We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Christofides, Nicola
Reducing rates of teenage pregnancy is an important part of the agenda of action for meeting most of the Millenium Development Goals. South Africa has important lessons for other countries in this regard as the rate of teenage pregnancy is high but has declined very substantially over the last twenty years. The country experiences waves of moral panic about teenage pregnancy, with assertions that current problems are rooted in accepting or even encouraging the sexual appetites of young people rather than sternly disciplining them. In this paper, we argue that the key to success in teenage pregnancy reduction has been an empowering social policy agenda that has sought to work with young people, making them aware of their rights and the risks of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, family responses and education policy have greatly reduced the potential negative impact of teenage pregnancy on the lives of teenage girls. There is tremendous scope for further progress in reducing teenage pregnancy and we argue that this lies in paying more attention to issues of gender and sexuality, including the terms and conditions under which teenagers have sex. There needs to be critical reflection and engagement with men and boys on issues of masculinity, including their role in child rearing, as well as examination within families of their engagement with supporting pregnancy prevention and responses to pregnancies.
Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Salway, Sarah Maria; Piercy, Hilary; Samarage, Sarath
In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy. A population health-register based sample survey was conducted in Badulla District, Sri Lanka. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were administered to two samples: 450 pregnant women aged less than 20 years; and 150 male partners of pregnant women aged less than 20 years. Bivariate statistics described the characteristics and context of teenage pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression explored correlates of unplanned pregnancy. Over 60% of pregnant teenagers and male partners indicated that the current pregnancy was planned; while 79% of pregnant teenagers and 85% of male partners welcomed the pregnancy. Most pregnant teenagers were living within stable and supportive family environments, with 94% reporting that they felt 'very well supported'. Nevertheless, a sub-group of pregnant teenagers appeared to be vulnerable, reporting unplanned and unhappy pregnancy; factors that were also associated with first intercourse being reported as not wanted. Levels of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge were poor among both pregnant teenagers and male partners. Just 46% of teenagers and 64% of male partners knew that pregnancy was possible at first intercourse. Mothers appear to be an important source of information and support for young women, with peers being reported far less often. Intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy must recognise the normative nature of early childbearing for the majority of girls who currently conceive and their
Kennedy, Catriona; Gray Brunton, Carol; Hogg, Rhona
Parental decision making about childhood vaccinations is complex and the vaccination schedule ever-changing. Vaccination may be controversial even in countries with historically high vaccination rates such as Scotland. Health behaviour models have aided understanding of individual vaccine intentions for specific vaccines. These are limited in explaining actual behaviours and are divorced from the impact of socio-cultural contexts on vaccination decision making. To explore vaccination views in Scotland amongst parents, teenage girls and health professionals across three controversial vaccines: the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), the Human Papilloma virus (HPV) and the Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. We used qualitative interviews and focus group discussions in a purposive sample of health professionals (n = 51), parents (n = 15) and teenage girls aged 12-15 years (n = 8) about their views of these vaccines. Discussions were analysed using thematic analysis. Two main themes are highlighted: 'vaccine risks revisited' in which we explored how the MMR legacy resurfaced and how worries about vaccine safety permeated the data. 'Vaccine responsibilities' indicated tensions regarding roles and responsibilities for vaccines. An overarching notion of 'just that little bit of doubt' referred to lingering doubts and uncertainties interwoven across the vaccines. Public health authorities should remain alert towards pervasive vaccine concerns. It is important for authorities to clarify vaccine roles and responsibilities in the face of new and existing vaccines and to acknowledge public concerns regarding vaccine safety.
Burnett, Gilbert H.
A problem that has an impact on many segments of our society today can be traced to unwed adolescent girls giving birth. This article details the consequences such births have on our nation as a whole, and explores ways to prevent the pregnancies rather than merely offering up more coping solutions once teenage girls become pregnant. (BF)
Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. © The Author(s) 2014.
Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling
Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256
Eisenhart, Margaret; Allaman, Erin
Digital technologies open new windows for ethnographic explorations of cultural experiences. In this paper, we examine text messaging among academically talented teenage girls of colour at three US urban high schools. Texting introduced a new communication modality into the girls' lives and created a space for new discourses mediating their…
Brisbane Girls Grammar School's new Creative Learning Centre was conceived to group arts studies which were previously scattered across the campus and to serve all students as a meeting place and technology hub. The building is specifically designed to provide the most flexible and innovative environment for teenaged girls, having special regard…
Zhang, Hai-Long; Fu, Qiang; Li, Wen-Hui; Liu, Su-Wei; Zhong, Hua; Duoji, Bai-Ma; Zhang, Mei-Zhi; Lv, Po; Xi, Huan-Jiu
We aimed to obtain the fat base value and the fat distribution characteristics of Tibetan children and teenagers by estimating their body fat content with the bioelectrical impedance method. We recruited 1427 healthy children and teenagers by a stratified cluster sampling method. By using bioelectrical impedance analysis, we obtained various values relevant to fat. We found that total body fat mass and the fat mass of various body parts increased with age in boys and girls. Yet there were no differences between age groups until 11 years. However, fat mass increased quickly between 11 and 18 years, and significant differences were seen between adolescent boys and girls; all fat indices were higher in girls than in boys (p<0.05). The characteristics of fat in Tibetan children and teenagers in Tibet is related to age and gender related hormone secretion, which reflects the physiological characteristics in different developmental stages.
Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C
Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hay, Jennifer L.; Geller, Alan C.; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C.
Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content, and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning, positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. PMID:25318997
In order to measure the effect on the attention of teenagers of thermal discomfort due to high temperature and humidity, two experiments were conducted in two different indoor conditions of temperature and humidity in non-air-conditioned classrooms. The participants were a heterogeneous group of 117 teenagers, aged 12 to 18 years, and the experiments reproduced the actual conditions of teaching in a classroom in the Mediterranean climate. In order to measure the attention index, a standard Toulouse-Pieron psychological test was performed on the 117 teenagers in these two conditions, and the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), the Standard effective Temperature (SET*) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices were calculated to estimate the grade of discomfort using the RayMan Pro model. Conditions of greater discomfort decreased the attention index in the whole group, especially in those aged 12-14, among whom the attention index dropped by around 45 % when compared to comfortable conditions. However, teenage attention at ages 17 and 18 shows little variation in discomfort in respect to thermally comfortable conditions. In addition, the attention index for boys and girls shows the same variation in discomfort conditions. However, girls have a slightly higher attention index than boys in discomfort and thermal comfort experiments.
Foley, E C; Bird, H A
The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.
Springer, Chaim; Wasser, Oren; Avital, Avraham; Koplewitz, Benjamin Z.
A teenage girl was evaluated for recurrent right pneumonia. The evaluation revealed a calcified mediastinal mass that compressed the right intermediate and middle lobar bronchi, as well as the right pulmonary artery and veins. The clinical picture together with imaging studies and borderline positive serology testing suggested a diagnosis of fibrosing mediastinitis associated with histoplasmosis. This rare condition is characterized by the local proliferation of invasive fibrous tissue within the mediastinum due to a hyperimmune reaction to Histoplasma capsulatum. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapies are usually ineffective, and surgical intervention contains a high morbidity risk. Palliative surgery and stenting of the compressed airway have been suggested. In the past, the prognosis was thought to be poor, but recent studies demonstrate a more positive outcome. Our patient had been radiologically and functionally stable under follow-up for over thirteen years and has married and delivered two healthy children, both following an uneventful pregnancy. PMID:29744231
Pomerantz, Shauna; Raby, Rebecca
This article explores how six teenage girls talk about being smart in the wake of celebratory discourses touting gender equality in education and beyond. Set against the neo-liberal backdrop of "What about the boys?" and "girl power", it is assumed that smart girls today "have it all" and, therefore, no longer require feminist interventions in the…
Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio-José
This study examined the association of physical activity and sedentarism with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in teenagers of both genders. A total number of 1897 Spanish teenagers (12-16 year-olds) took part in the present cross-sectional study. The variables were measured by means of questionnaires previously validated for these ages. Physical activity was positively associated to the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for both genders (ß = .144, P < .001 for boys and ß = .066, P< .05 for girls), and inversely associated to smoking for boys (ß = -.135, P = <.001). Sedentary behaviors for leisure purposes (TV and PC) were negatively associated to adherence to the Mediterranean diet for both boys (ß =-.100 and ß = -.104, both P < .05, respectively) and girls (ß= -.148 and ß = -.141, both P <.001), and positively associated to alcohol consumption for girls (ß = .114, P < .01 and ß = .199, P < .001, respectively). results suggest that physical activity and sedentary behaviors have an important relationship with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in teenagers. Also, higher levels of physical activity in boys can lead to reduced tobacco use, while watching TV and PC leisure can lead to increased alcohol consumption in girls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)
Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies
The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.
Cailliez, Eric; Beauvineau, Gwenael; Baratin, Clément; Le Daheron, Betty; Poiron, Audrey; Coutan, Régis; Penchaud, Anne-Laurence; Huez, Jean-François
The National Nutrition Health Study showed that the objectives of the National Nutrition Health Programme, launched in 2001 to promote the health of all French people, had not been achieved, especially in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to identify teenagers' representations regarding food. It was carried out in order to more effectively tailor prevention messages to this particular population, which is particularly concerned by the "nutritional risk". Qualitative investigations by semi-directive interviews with 46 teenage volunteers,from 5 high schools in 2 departments in the west of France. A content analysis was conducted inductively after full transcript of the interviews. The study showed that nutrition was a means of autonomy and emancipation from the parental influence. Teenagers were suspicious and anxious about the health risks associated with processed food. Fast food restaurants were a "place for teenagers" synonymous with pleasure and freedom. They valued "organic" and "homemade" foods. The sexual representations of food consisted of a "slim" image for girls and a "virile" image for boys. A close relationship between food and living beings was responsible for refusal of certain types of food. Although prevention messages were integrated in various ways, they were effectively recalled by teenagers. The nutritional representations of teenagers are poorly known and sometimes contrary to commonly health beliefs and must be taken into account when preparing nutrition prevention programmes.
Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies
The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13–18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25162234
Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.
Adolescent girls reported on their experiences both as perpetrators and as victims of several distinct forms of relational aggression. Details of these incidents were gathered from 114 ethnically diverse ninth and tenth graders via a secure online survey. The frequency with which girls perpetrated or were targeted for particular acts of relational…
Gadzhiev, R S; Ramazanov, R S
A total of 1646 teenagers were questioned (including students of schools, technical schools and high schools located in the city of Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan) for the purpose of working out mixed programs for the healthy mode of life and for the prevention of drug-addiction and toxicomania among youth. According to the study results, teenagers living in incomplete families are subjected more to bad habits versus those living in normal families. Above 95% of parents said they did not spend their free time with their children; 12% of boys and 3% of girls prefer to visit discos when they have free time--a place where one can easily buy psychoactive drugs; 22% of teenagers have a history of minor offences, which means they could potentially use psychoactives and live asocial life. Finally, a set of measures was worked out on the basis of study results for the healthy mode of life and for the prevention of drug-addiction and toxicomania among teenagers.
Khesht-Masjedi, Mahnaz Fallahi; Shokrgozar, Somayeh; Abdollahi, Elahe; Golshahi, Mahbuobe; Sharif-Ghaziani, Zahra
Introduction: Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as “feminine” is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 191 depressed adolescents, 108 males and 83 females aged 13–19 years old. Data collected for 10 years from 2005 to 2015 and their depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Results: Depressed girls felt sadness, guilt, punishment, worthlessness, low energy and fatigue, or more asthenia, whereas depressed boys have symptoms such as irritability, depression, suicidal thoughts, or desires to reduce their pleasure. The results of t-test showed that the difference between the total scores of boys and girls with depressive disorder (16.93) is significant at 0.001. F values for feeling sad (58.13), hatred of self (12.38), suicidal thoughts or desires (12.97), restlessness (17.35), and irritability (46. 41) were significant in the 0.001. Conclusion: Experiencing depression in boys and girls according to the role of gender was different. Gender can have an effective role in showing depression symptoms in adolescents. PMID:29564262
Khesht-Masjedi, Mahnaz Fallahi; Shokrgozar, Somayeh; Abdollahi, Elahe; Golshahi, Mahbuobe; Sharif-Ghaziani, Zahra
Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as "feminine" is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated. The sample consisted of 191 depressed adolescents, 108 males and 83 females aged 13-19 years old. Data collected for 10 years from 2005 to 2015 and their depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Depressed girls felt sadness, guilt, punishment, worthlessness, low energy and fatigue, or more asthenia, whereas depressed boys have symptoms such as irritability, depression, suicidal thoughts, or desires to reduce their pleasure. The results of t -test showed that the difference between the total scores of boys and girls with depressive disorder (16.93) is significant at 0.001. F values for feeling sad (58.13), hatred of self (12.38), suicidal thoughts or desires (12.97), restlessness (17.35), and irritability (46. 41) were significant in the 0.001. Experiencing depression in boys and girls according to the role of gender was different. Gender can have an effective role in showing depression symptoms in adolescents.
Situated in critical sociocultural theory of literacy with a particular focus on literacy in relation to space and displacement, this qualitative study considers how nine teenage girls who were resettled as refugees from Thailand engage in productions of translocality through multimodal literacy practices in digital spaces. The girls are…
Burt, M R
Teenage pregnancies end in an increasing number of abortions, a declining number of placements in adoptive homes, and an increasing number of children born to unmarried teens with large public expenditures for welfare and medical care. A study estimated that the public cost of a family started by a 1st birth to a teenager in 1979 would amount to $18,710; and all such families would cost $8.3 billion to taxpayers. Children of teenage parents face poorer infant health, lower academic achievement, greater risk of socioemotional problems, and a greater probability of becoming teen parents themselves. A recent New York City study indicated that 86% of homeless families were female-headed households, 83% received public assistance, and the likelihood of their genesis from a teenage birth was high. Over the past 10-15 years US culture has become more sexualized; as a result 7 million males and 5 million females are sexually active among 26 million young people aged 13-19, and fewer than 9% of them are married according to 1981 data. By 1979, 1/3 of white and 1/2 of black unmarried 16-year old girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Only 1/3 of sexually active teenagers use contraception consistently, and only 1/2 of them used any contraception at 1st intercourse. 20% of teen pregnancies occur within 1 month of 1st intercourse and 50% occur within the 1st 6 months. Fewer than 10% of teenagers receive a comprehensive sex or family life education course in high school. Cost-effective primary prevention activities focus on delay or abstention from sexual activity, or make contraceptives available. Expensive secondary prevention programs influence teenager's decision about whether to abort, carry the pregnancy to term, or place the baby up for adoption; they attempt to prevent various negative consequences of teenage pregnancy, including low birth weight, out-of-wedlock parenting, and educational and employment disadvantages.
Pettit, E. C.; Conner, L.; Tzou, C.
Expeditionary science differs from laboratory science in that expeditionary science teams conduct investigations in conditions that are often physically and socially, as well as intellectually, challenging. Team members live in close quarters for extended periods of time, team building and leadership affect the scientific process, and research tools are limited to what is available on site. Girls on Ice is an expeditionary science experience primarily for disadvantaged girls; it fully immerses girls in a mini scientific expedition to study alpine, glacierized environments. In addition to mentoring the girls through conducting their own scientific research, we encourage awareness and discussion of different sociocultural perspectives on the relation between the natural world, science, and society. The experience aligns closely with the apprenticeship model of learning, which can be effective in enhancing identification with science. Using a mixed-methods approach, we show that the Girls on Ice model helps girls (1) increase their interest and engagement in science and build a stronger science identity, (2) develop confidence, importantly they develop a combined physical and intellectual confidence; (3) engage in authentic scientific thinking, including critical thinking and problem solving; and (4) enhance leadership self-confidence. We discuss these results in a learning sciences framework, which posits that learning is inseparable from the social and physical contexts in which it takes place.
Hilton, S; Patterson, C; Smith, E; Bedford, H; Hunt, K
To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers' experiences of immunisation in school were not always positive
da Silvia, Antonio Marcio
This current study explores three contemporary Brazilian films' depiction of commercial sexual exploitation of young girls and teenagers. It points out how the young female characters cope with the abuses they suffer and proposes that these filmic representations of the characters' experiences expose a significant social problem of contemporary…
Kavak, Vatan; Pilmane, Mara; Kazoka, Dzintra
The aim of this study was to identify the usefulness of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in screening for obesity in teenagers by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). To select the sample set in this cross-sectional study, a stratified random sampling approach was utilized. Weight, height, WC, hip circumference and body fat percentage (BFP) were measured in 1118 children of both genders (597 boys and 521 girls), aged from 10 to 15 years old. Percentiles of BMI and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-United States (CDC-US)-growth chart for boys and girls aged from 10 to 15 years old were presented. ROC analyses were then used to evaluate the performances of three anthropometric indices; BMI, WC and WHR had strong positive correlations with BFP (r = 0.49-0.77) in both girls and boys within indicated age group. The area under the curves (AUCs) were high in both girls and boys for BMI, 0.795 and 0.893, respectively, and WC, 0.767 and 0.853, respectively, and were a little lower, 0.747 and 0.783, respectively, for WHR. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of being overweight and obese among teenagers of both sexes in our data set does not differ from CDC-US-growth chart. In addition, BMI and WC are two important predictors for teenagers to become overweight and obese, while WHR is less useful for this purpose.
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995
This theme issue of the Bernard van Leer Foundation newsletter focuses on the problem of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood in developing and developed nations, and examines the problems that teenage mothers face in different societies. It explores societal norms and values related to teenage parenting; the effects of teenage parents on…
Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Moral-García, José E.; Pantoja-Vallejo, Antonio
Physical education is a favourable educational framework for the development of programmes aimed at increasing physical activity in children and thus reducing sedentarism. The progressive increase of overweight students demands global control and follow-up measurement of these behaviours in both in and out of school. The pedometer can be a useful tool in this field. It is easy to use and allow Physical Education (PE) departments to quantify their students' number of steps/day. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a pedometer intervention on body fat and BMI levels in overweight teenagers. Besides, the effects of the programme are analysed according to two other variables: pedometer ownership and gender, distinguishing between out-of-school and school hours, weekdays and weekends. The sample comprises 112 overweight students (49 boys and 63 girls) from 5 secondary schools. Participants were asked to follow a physical activity programme consisting on a minimum of 12000 and 10000 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. It also allowed them to get up to 2 extra points in their PE marks. Results were measured after 6 weeks of programme application as well as after 6 weeks of retention. Results revealed significantly reduced BMI in the teenagers with their own pedometer (p < 0.05). The difference observed in the number of steps/day between boys (12050) and girls (9566) was significant in all measured time periods (p < 0.05). Besides, both overweight boys and girls were observed to take 1000 steps/day less at weekends than in weekdays. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposal of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight boys and girls, respectively, accompanied by a reinforcement programme in their final PE marks, seems sufficient to obtain significant BMI reductions. Besides, PE is shown a favourable framework for the proposal of pedometer-impelled weight loss programmes in overweight youth. Key pointsA programme of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight
Ortiz, Carmen G.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez
Examined the influence of family relationships and support, religion, and education on the Puerto Rican pregnant teenager's decision to carry or to abort. Found girls who carried were more significantly influenced and supported by family and friends, especially by mothers, than were those in abort group. Abort group girls reported greater…
Fung, Maria S C; Yuen, Mantak
The study investigated the relation between body image and eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Hong Kong. A sample of 358 senior secondary school girls completed the measures assessing body-part satisfaction and behaviors associated with eating. Analysis indicated that even though only 4.8% of the girls were overweight, 85.16% desired to weigh less. These Chinese teenage girls were concerned about their weight, and the desire for slimness was widespread. Correlations indicated that higher Body Mass Index was associated with lower satisfaction with weight. Lower scores on weight satisfaction were associated with higher scores on attitudes of dieting and food preoccupation.
Lutya, Thozama Mandisa
The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.
Gager, Constance T.; Cooney, Teresa M.; Call, Kathleen Thiede
Longitudinal data collected from teenagers were analyzed for types of household chores the teens perform. The study determined that girls devoted more time to household tasks than boys, while both their efforts were greater in larger families and single-parent families. High school males spent more time on extracurricular and leisure activities,…
Ahorlu, Collins K; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit
Adolescent pregnancy exposes female adolescents to medical, social and economic risks. In Ghana, adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and delivery as compared to older mothers. This study examined the competencies of adolescent girls to either proactively prevent teenage pregnancy or reactively cope effectively with it. A cross-sectional survey approach was used to interview 820 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Accra, Ghana. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (various kinds of valued relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources, mainly cash and assets), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits; knowledge and tradition stored in material forms and institutionalized) and symbolic capital (honour, recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of competencies of adolescents to deal with the threat of teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Out of 820 adolescents interviewed, 128 (16%) were pregnant or mothers. Adolescents in both groups (62% never pregnant girls and 68% pregnant/young mothers) have access to social support, especially from their parents. Parents are taking the place of aunts and grandmothers in providing sexual education to their adolescent girls due to changing social structures where extended families no longer reside together in most cases. More (79%) pregnant girls and young mothers compared to never pregnant girls (38%) have access to economic support (P = <0.001). Access to social, economic and cultural capitals was associated with high competence to either prevent or deal with pregnancy among adolescent girls. Findings showed that adolescent girls, especially those that get pregnant should not be viewed as weak and vulnerable because many of them have developed competencies to cope with pregnancy and childbirth effectively. Thus, focusing on developing the competencies of girls to access social, economic and
Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E
Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to
Although the teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are falling in the 16 to 19 year old range, they are still rising in the 13 to 15 year olds. Overall, they remain one of the highest within Western Europe. Teenagers continue to present a challenge to the health services due to the increase in their sexual risk taking behaviour, the earlier age at which they are starting sexual activity and a reluctance to utilise services available to them. In an attempt to develop current services and make them more 'user friendly', a sexual health needs assessment was carried out on teenagers, part of which looked at their attitudes towards risk taking sexual behaviour and their declared sexual behaviour. A quantitative survey, using a questionnaire in schools, was answered by 1500 pupils aged between 13 and 18 years old, and showed that the majority of teenagers had declared some form of sexual contact with a partner with a degree of sexual activity increasing with age. Twenty per cent of 13 year olds reported that they had already had either full or oral sexual intercourse with a partner. Feeling peer pressure, not knowing the facts about sexual risk taking and a declared intent that would increase the likelihood of putting themselves or others at risk sexually were significantly more likely in the younger teenage boys surveyed. This study confirms that there remain many different factors involved in teenagers' decision-making processes, about their developing attitudes towards sex and their resultant behaviour. Despite a lack of maturity, such opinions and attitudes are bringing about definite views and sexual behaviour patterns in teenagers as young as 12 or 13 years old who are becoming fully sexually active. In particular teenage boys are becoming fully sexually active at a younger age than the girls and are taking risks in doing so. They are being influenced by peer pressure, condoning promiscuity and are declaring the intent to practice unsafe sexual intercourse. Their level
Vågstrand, Karin; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Linné, Yvonne
To describe the differences in socio-economic characteristics and body measurements between low, adequate and high energy reporting (LER, AER and HER) teenagers; furthermore, to investigate the relationship to misreporting mothers. Cross-sectional study. Habitual dietary intake was reported in a questionnaire. Classification into LER, AER and HER using the Goldberg equation within three activity groups based on physical activity questionnaire and calculated BMR. Stockholm, Sweden. Four hundred and forty-one 16-17-year-old teenagers (57 % girls) and their mothers. Of the teenagers, 17-19 % were classified as HER, while 13-16 % as LER. There was a highly significant trend from HER to LER in BMI (P < 0.001) and body fat % (P < 0.001). There was also a trend in number of working hours of mother (P = 0.01), family income (P = 0.008) and number of siblings (among boys only) (P = 0.02), but not in educational level of either father or mother. HER teenagers were lean, had mothers working fewer hours with lower income and had siblings. It was more likely that an LER girl had an LER mother than an AER mother (OR = 3.32; P = 0.002). The reasons for the high number of over-reporters could be many: misclassification due to growth, lacking established eating pattern due to young age or method-specific. Nevertheless, the inverted characteristic of HER compared to LER indicates that this is a specific group, worth further investigation.
Acharya, Pawan; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Neupane, Dipika; Thapa, Kiran; Bhandari, Parash Mani
Introduction Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Methods The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7.07%) were teenage mothers. The association between the background characteristics and institutional delivery was assessed separately for the teenage and non-teenage mothers using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for background characteristics, teenage mothers were found more likely to deliver at a health facility [AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 4.59] in comparison to the non-teenage mothers. Place of residence, occupation, socioeconomic status, and frequency of ANC visits were associated with institutional delivery in both the teenage and non-teenage mothers. However, educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy had statistically significant association with institutional delivery among the non-teenage mothers only. None of the background characteristics were significantly associated with institutional delivery in teenage mothers only. Conclusions This study identified a significant difference in institutional delivery service utilization among the teenage and non-teenage mothers. While the association of most of the background characteristics with institutional delivery was uniform for both teenage and non-teenage mothers, the association with educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy was significant only for non-teenage mothers. Considering this difference in the interaction of women’s background characteristics with institutional delivery between teenage and non-teenage mothers might help in
Daniel, Katherine Lyon; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A
The objective of this study was to determine how often children and adolescents share prescription medications and, because of teratogenic concerns, assess specific reasons why girls might engage in medication-sharing behaviors. Data were collected as part of Youthstyles, a mail survey of children and adolescents 9 through 18 years of age (764 girls and 804 boys) about health issues, attitudinal variables, and media preferences. Information collected by the survey included the respondent's history of borrowing or sharing prescription medications, the frequency with which sharing occurred, the reasons why medications might be borrowed or shared, and who influences their decisions to borrow or share medication. A total of 20.1% of girls and 13.4% of boys reported ever borrowing or sharing medications. Of the girls surveyed, 15.7% reported borrowing prescription medications from others, and 14.5% reported sharing their prescription medication with someone else. The reported likelihood of sharing increased with age. Medication sharing or borrowing was not a "one time only" emergency use for many: 7.3% of girls 15 through 18 years of age had shared medications >3 times. Reasons that girls gave for why they would share medications included having a prescription for the same medicine (40.2%), getting the medication from a family member (33.4%), having the same problem as the person who had the medication (29%), or wanting something strong for pimples or oily skin (10.5%). Medication sharing is relatively common among children and adolescents and is more common among girls than boys. An adolescent who receives a medication via sharing does not receive the appropriate information about its actions and possible negative interactions with other medications or any other associated risks. Sharing potentially teratogenic drugs is of special concern. Many barriers exist to communicating the risk about teratogenic drugs to women and girls, particularly if they are not planning a
Trueblood, Amber B; Shipp, Eva; Han, Daikwon; Ross, Jennifer; Cizmas, Leslie H
Acute exposure to pesticides is associated with nausea, headaches, rashes, eye irritation, seizures, and, in severe cases, death. We characterized pesticide-related hospitalizations in Texas among children and teenagers for 2004-2013 to characterize exposures in this population, which is less well understood than pesticide exposure among adults. We abstracted information on pesticide-related hospitalizations from hospitalization data using pesticide-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and E-codes. We calculated the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers aged #19 years for all hospitalizations, unintentional exposures, intentional exposures, pesticide classifications, and illness severity. We also calculated age- and sex-specific prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers was 2.1 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations per 100,000 population was 2.7 for boys and 1.5 for girls. The age-specific prevalence per 100,000 population was 5.3 for children aged 0-4 years, 0.3 for children and teenagers aged 5-14 years, and 2.3 for teenagers aged 15-19 years. Children aged 0-4 years had the highest prevalence of unintentional exposures, whereas teenagers aged 15-19 years had the highest prevalence of intentional exposures. Commonly reported pesticide categories were organophosphates/carbamates, disinfectants, rodenticides, and other pesticides (e.g., pyrethrins, pyrethroids). Of the 158 pesticide-related hospitalizations, most were coded as having minor (n=86) or moderate (n=40) illness severity. Characterizing the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers leads to a better understanding of the burden of pesticide exposures, including the type of pesticides used and the severity of potential
Wałdoch, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Joanna; Dorniak, Karolina
Libman-Sacks endocarditis may be the first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. The risk of its occurrence increases with the co-existence of the anti-phospholipid syndrome. Changes usually involve the mitral valve and the aortic valve. In this report, we present a case of Libman-Sacks endocarditis of the tricuspid valve in a teenage girl.
East, Patricia L.; Jacobson, Leanne J.
Followed for 1.5 years younger siblings of parenting and nonparenting teenagers. Found that relative to other youths, sisters of parenting teens exhibited a sharp increase in drug and alcohol use and partying behavior across time and had the highest pregnancy rate at Time 2. For girls, many hours spent caring for their sisters' children related to…
Strom, Kimberly; And Others
Reports on the qualitative findings extracted from a study of over 3,700 teenagers from urban, suburban, and small city settings, describing the array of difficulties teenagers face today. The themes that emerged from the students' comments offer a compelling portrait of life as a teenager in the 1990s and help shape an agenda for understanding…
Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.
Morris, Barbra; And Others
Targeted to secondary school students, this booklet discusses sexual harassment. The booklet opens with a vignette about a teenage girl who is harassed by a fellow student and several shorter vignettes describing various types of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is defined, and nine forms of harassment are listed. The right to a life and an…
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
Christofides, Nicola J; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; McCarty, Frances; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Nduna, Mzikazi; Sterk, Claire
Although teenage pregnancies in South Africa have declined, the short and longer term health and social consequences are a potential public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to describe the range of risk and protective factors for incident unwanted and unplanned pregnancies occurring over 2 years of follow-up among a cohort of adolescent women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It also investigated the relationship between gender inequality and gender-based violence and subsequent unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among the cohort. Teenage girls, aged 15-18 years (n=19), who were volunteer participants in a cluster randomized controlled trial and who had data from at least one follow-up were included in this analysis. To assess risk and protective factors for incident unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, we constructed multivariate polytomous regression models adjusting for sampling clusters as latent variables. Covariates included age, having a pregnancy prior to baseline, education, time between interviews, study intervention arm, contraceptive use, experience of intimate partner violence, belief that the teenage girl and her boyfriend are mutual main partners, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 174 pregnancies occurred over the 2-year follow-up period. Beliefs about relationship control were not associated with unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, nor were experiences of forced first sex or coerced sex under the age of 15. Hormonal contraception was protective against unplanned pregnancies (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.21-0.79); however, using condoms was not protective. Physical abuse (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.05-2.72) was a risk factor for, and having a pregnancy prior to baseline was protective against an unwanted pregnancy (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.07-0.80). Higher socioeconomic status was protective for both unplanned and unwanted pregnancies (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58-0.83 and OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.96). Believing that the teenage girl and her boyfriend were mutual main
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; McCarty, Frances; Shai, Nwabisa Jama; Nduna, Mzikazi; Sterk, Claire
Background Although teenage pregnancies in South Africa have declined, the short and longer term health and social consequences are a potential public health concern. This longitudinal study aimed to describe the range of risk and protective factors for incident unwanted and unplanned pregnancies occurring over 2 years of follow-up among a cohort of adolescent women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. It also investigated the relationship between gender inequality and gender-based violence and subsequent unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among the cohort. Objective Teenage girls, aged 15–18 years (n=19), who were volunteer participants in a cluster randomized controlled trial and who had data from at least one follow-up were included in this analysis. To assess risk and protective factors for incident unwanted or unplanned pregnancies, we constructed multivariate polytomous regression models adjusting for sampling clusters as latent variables. Covariates included age, having a pregnancy prior to baseline, education, time between interviews, study intervention arm, contraceptive use, experience of intimate partner violence, belief that the teenage girl and her boyfriend are mutual main partners, and socioeconomic status. Results Overall, 174 pregnancies occurred over the 2-year follow-up period. Beliefs about relationship control were not associated with unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, nor were experiences of forced first sex or coerced sex under the age of 15. Hormonal contraception was protective against unplanned pregnancies (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.21–0.79); however, using condoms was not protective. Physical abuse (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.05–2.72) was a risk factor for, and having a pregnancy prior to baseline was protective against an unwanted pregnancy (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.07–0.80). Higher socioeconomic status was protective for both unplanned and unwanted pregnancies (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58–0.83 and OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64–0.96). Believing that the teenage girl
This qualitative study used participatory visual research in order to develop an understanding of the educational experiences of urban poor adolescent girls in Kolkata and to elicit their capabilities. The sample comprised urban poor girls who were undergoing formal education at a religious, philanthropic primary school in Kolkata. Findings from…
Kopacz, Marek S
Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent
Sopracordevole, F; Cigolot, F; Gardonio, V; Di Giuseppe, J; Boselli, F; Ciavattini, A
The aim of this study was to assess teens' knowledge of HPV infection and vaccination one year after the initiation of the public vaccination programme and information campaign on the disease and the opportunity of vaccination. Between 15 May and 15 June 2009, a survey was carried out on 1,105 teenagers attending high schools in a town in the northeast of Italy by means of an anonymous and unannounced questionnaire covering the knowledge of HPV infection, transmission, prevention, vaccination and post-vaccination behaviours. Only 75% of teens knew what HPV infection is (92% of girls vs 51% of boys, p < 0.001); only 70% knew that it is a sexually-transmitted infection. Only 69.3% associated condoms with HPV disease prevention (72.6% girls vs 61.5% boys, p = 0.002). About 18.8% of girls and 33.2% of boys believe that HPV can lead to AIDS (p < 0.001). Among teens aware of HPV vaccination, 7.6% of girls and 21.8% of boys believe that it can prevent AIDS (p < 0.001). Only 75.5% of girls and 51.1% of boys (p < 0.001) believe that condom use remains useful for HPV prevention after vaccination. The need for regular pap smears after vaccination is reported by 93.3% of girls. Teens' knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination remains insufficient, despite a broad information campaign. Erroneous information may increase risky sexual behaviours. Without complete information about HPV infection and vaccination and information about other sexually-transmitted diseases, the latter might become difficult to control among teenagers, while some misunderstandings about the usefulness of secondary prevention might linger.
Hill, Andrew J
Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants.
Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Wang, C. K. John
Research shows a decline in participation in physical activity across the teenage years. It is important, therefore, to examine factors that might influence adolescent girl's likelihood of being physically active. This study used contemporary theoretical perspectives from psychology to assess a comprehensive profile of motivational and…
Cowley, Danielle M.
Across the United States young women with disabilities are experiencing economic and educational disadvantages. Although post-school outcomes have shown improvement, young women continue to experience high unemployment rates, low wages, and high rates of poverty. In this study, I explore the experiences of four teenage girls who have been labeled…
On a Monday morning in July, a fan as tall as a refrigerator churned noisily in the cavernous classroom. As the outdoor temperature crept higher, teenage girls wearing hardhats and safety glasses wiped perspiration and sawdust from their faces. This was not a field trip. This was the second hour of camp at Ranken Technical College in St. Louis,…
Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe
Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849
Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A.; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A.
The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies. PMID:28835911
Krishnamurthy, K. B.; Osborne, Patricia
Adolescence is a time of transition, marking a period in which a teen's sexuality is developing physically and emotionally. A parent's job is to help children understand these feelings and how to respond safely and appropriately. While sexuality is important for both boys and girls, many issues are unique to females. Young girls with seizures need…
Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kari, Kirsti; Pajukanta, Riitta; Elonheimo, Outi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H
The aim of our study was to investigate how teenage smoking affects the prevalence of periodontal bacteria and periodontal health with the hypothesis that smoking increases the prevalence of the bacteria. Oral health of 264 adolescents (15- to 16-year-olds) was clinically examined, and their smoking history was recorded. The participants also filled in a structured questionnaire recording their general health and health habits. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola. The prevalence of P. intermedia (21% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and T. forsythia and T. denticola (23% vs. 8%, p < 0.05, for both) was higher among female smokers than among non-smokers. T. forsythia and T. denticola were more often associated with bleeding on probing (29% vs. 12%; 25% vs. 10%, respectively) and deep pockets (25% vs. 15%; 23% vs. 10%, respectively) with smokers than non-smokers. Among the girls, a significant association was found between pack-years and the prevalence of P. nigrescens (p < 0.007). In both genders, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were rare in this study. To conclude, periodontal bacteria were associated with higher periodontal index scores among all teenage smokers. Smoking girls harbored more frequently certain periodontal bacteria than non-smokers, but this was not seen in boys. Hence, our study hypothesis was only partly confirmed.
Shipp, Eva; Han, Daikwon; Ross, Jennifer; Cizmas, Leslie H.
Objective Acute exposure to pesticides is associated with nausea, headaches, rashes, eye irritation, seizures, and, in severe cases, death. We characterized pesticide-related hospitalizations in Texas among children and teenagers for 2004–2013 to characterize exposures in this population, which is less well understood than pesticide exposure among adults. Methods We abstracted information on pesticide-related hospitalizations from hospitalization data using pesticide-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and E-codes. We calculated the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers aged #19 years for all hospitalizations, unintentional exposures, intentional exposures, pesticide classifications, and illness severity. We also calculated age- and sex-specific prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children. Results The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers was 2.1 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations per 100,000 population was 2.7 for boys and 1.5 for girls. The age-specific prevalence per 100,000 population was 5.3 for children aged 0–4 years, 0.3 for children and teenagers aged 5–14 years, and 2.3 for teenagers aged 15–19 years. Children aged 0–4 years had the highest prevalence of unintentional exposures, whereas teenagers aged 15–19 years had the highest prevalence of intentional exposures. Commonly reported pesticide categories were organophosphates/carbamates, disinfectants, rodenticides, and other pesticides (e.g., pyrethrins, pyrethroids). Of the 158 pesticide-related hospitalizations, most were coded as having minor (n=86) or moderate (n=40) illness severity. Conclusion Characterizing the prevalence of pesticide-related hospitalizations among children and teenagers leads to a better understanding of the burden of pesticide exposures, including the type of
Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Yamuna, Annasami; Ramachandran, Ambady
OBJECTIVE—The objectives of this study were to determine age- and sex-specific concentrations of adiponectin in Asian Indian teenagers and adults and to assess whether its blood levels correlated with insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied 196 teenagers (94 boys, 102 girls) 12–18 years of age, selected from a cohort of 2,640 individuals from a cross-sectional school-based survey in Chennai, India. For comparison, adiponectin and plasma insulin were measured in 84 healthy adults. Correlation of adiponectin with plasma levels of insulin, proinsulin, insulin resistance, anthropometry, and family history of diabetes were studied. RESULTS—Adiponectin showed a sex dimorphism, with girls having higher values (in μg/ml) (10.3 ± 5.0) than boys (8.4 ± 3.5) (P < 0.0001), and it showed a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol in boys only and not with other lipid parameters, insulin resistance, proinsulin, anthropometry, and family history of diabetes. In the adults, adiponectin correlated with fasting glucose and inversely with triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS—In Asian Indian adults and teenagers, adiponectin did not correlate directly with measures of insulin sensitivity, overweight, and other cardiometabolic variables. This was at variance with several reports in other populations showing an inverse association of adiponectin with insulin resistance, proinsulin, and BMI, suggesting ethnic differences in the relationship of adiponectin with insulin sensitivity. The role of adiponectin in relation to action of insulin needs more detailed studies in Asian Indians. PMID:18809626
Taylor, Kelley R.
A 15-year-old girl is arrested on child pornography charges for using her cell phone to send nude photos of herself to classmates. A young boy is put on probation after sending an explicit photo of his genitals to a girl's cell phone. Two high school cheerleaders are suspended from the squad after nude photos of them are sent by cell phone to the…
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J
Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives.
Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Jekielek, Susan; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Mincieli, Lisa
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this article examined how early maternal characteristics, an adolescent's family environment, and the adolescent's own attitudes and behaviors were associated with the odds of a nonmarital teenage birth among youth born to teenage mothers. Multivariate analyses indicated that these domains…
Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N
Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salami, Marie Onovroghene
Previous studies show that when Nigerian adolescent girls, especially those in the Niger Delta, become pregnant they drop out of school and may never go back again but become low level labourers or miscreants to the society. This study investigated the extent of teenagers involvement in sex, pre-disposition of females to pregnancy in the Niger…
Forero, Yibby; Rodríguez, Sandra Milena; Isaács, María Alexandra; Hernández, Jenny Alexandra
In Colombia, breastfeeding is inadequate and -especially in teenage girls- short. Given that adolescents are a social group with their own lifestyles, we need to know what meanings they have regarding breastfeeding, and also what the characteristics of their breastfeeding experience are, in order to identify issues that limit or facilitate this practice, which will produce the knowledge to improve breastfeeding promotion strategies. To characterize the experience of breastfeeding in nursing adolescents and identify strengths, limitations and perceived needs from their own perspective. This was a phenomenological qualitative study. We conducted 24 interviews and had three focal groups with female adolescents in different postpartum periods. Data collection was carried out in Bogotá, with women participating in a program of the Secretaría Distrital de Integración Social. The systematic process was developed in parallel with the analysis process. It involved the relationships between categories and the networks that form among them. Teenagers do not breastfeed exclusively, identifying several difficulties in the act of breastfeeding. Complementary feeding includes unnatural foods. Maternity and breastfeeding are not consistent with the perception of being a teenager. Adolescents recognize the benefits of breastfeeding for their children and for them; however, their breastfeeding experience differs from the recommendations to achieve exclusive breastfeeding and a healthy complementary feeding. Among the identified causes, we highlight the lack of accurate backing and timely support.
Ruiz-Trasserra, Alicia; Pérez, Anna; Continente, Xavier; O'Brien, Kerry; Bartroli, Montse; Teixidó-Compaño, Ester; Espelt, Albert
To estimate the prevalence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona in 2012. Cross-sectional survey to assess risk factors in a representative sample of secondary school students (aged 13-16 years, International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] 2, n=2,162; and 17-18 years, ISCED 3, n=1016) in Barcelona. We estimated MVPA prevalence overall, and for each independent variable and each gender. Poisson regression models with robust variance were fit to examine the factors associated with high-level MVPA, and obtained prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Only 13% of ISCED 2 and 10% of ISCED 3 students met the WHO physical activity recommendations. This percentage was lower among girls at both academic levels. MVPA was lower among ISCED 3 compared to ISCED 2 students, and among students with a lower socioeconomic status. Physical activity was associated with positive self-perception of the health status (e.g., positive self-perception of health status among ISCED 2 compared to ISCED 3 students: PR=1.31 [95%CI: 1.22-1.41] and 1.61 [95%CI: 1.44-1.81] for boys and girls, respectively]. The percentage of teenagers who met WHO MVPA recommendations was low. Strategies are needed to increase MVPA levels, particularly in older girls, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mardi, Afrouz; Ebadi, Abbas; Shahbazi, Shirin
Background and aim Early marriage threatens the health and human rights of millions of girls all around the world. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Iranian teenage women about marriage in adolescence. Methods A qualitative study was conducted based on the conventional content analysis approach on 14 teenage married women (aged13–19 years) who attended all urban-rural healthcare centers (4 centers) in Ardabil, Iran between May 2016 and Jan 2017. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Purposeful sampling was continued until data saturation. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Landman strategies. Results The mean age at marriage was 13.2 (SD=1.25) years and the duration of marital life ranged from 45 days to 3 years. During the data analysis, three main categories were extracted that each of them consisted of three sub-categories. The main categories, included “a false sense of sexual development”, “death of dreams”, and “threatened independence”. Conclusion Results of this study revealed that teenage women could not comprehend opportunities in life. These findings could help health care providers and policy makers to provide teenage women with special care and better support to prevent negative consequences of early marriage. PMID:29629050
Price, Eunice; Wardman, Janna; Bruce, Toni; Millward, Pam
Facebook is a frequently accessed social networking site with more than one billion active users worldwide. Although there are numerous studies on its impact on teenagers, none have investigated its impact on gifted and talented girls. This study's aim was to understand the social media experiences of talented female student leaders. A qualitative…
Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne
The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being
Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Ahsen, Noor Fatima; Iqbal, Humaira
Smoking is linked with adverse health outcomes and multi-organ diseases with six million deaths every year. The smoking population includes both genders and the habit is seen in minors as well. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore among teenagers belonging to high socioeconomic class. A sample of 191 students was recruited by convenience sampling. The teenagers were questioned on their perceptions relating to prohibition labels, factors that led them to smoke, and ideas to make health warnings more effective. Overall, 66(34.55%) teenagers were smokers, and of them, 50(75.75%) were boys and 16(24.24%) were girls. Besides, 25(37.9%) smokers were of the view that smoking is a bad habit; 40(60.6%) said prohibition labels would not change the mindset of the smoker; 35(53%)believed that a smoker is completely uninfluenced by prohibition labels. Results suggest that the warning labels on cigarette packs should be made more comprehensible and alarming for smokers.
Łazarczyk, Joanna B; Urban, Beata; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Żmudzka, Ewa; Kowzan, Urszula; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Juszczyk-Zajkowska, Karolina
A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study. The study group comprised 114 persons with myopia (81 girls and 33 boys), while the control group comprised 125 persons without refractive error (79 girls and 46 boys). Volunteers completed a set of questionnaires including: personal data, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (13-14 year-olds), or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (15-17 year-olds). The trait anxiety subscales were thus analyzed. Among younger adolescents (13-14 years of age) with myopia there was a significantly higher incidence of pathological intensification of anxiety as a constant trait. After taking into account the distribution of gender, there was a higher level of trait anxiety in the group of boys with myopia than in the control group aged 13-17 years and 13-14 years. There was also a higher level of trait anxiety detected in males than in females. Myopia may affect the level of trait anxiety among 13-14-year-olds. In both age groups of girls, a higher percentage of patients with high level of anxiety was discovered (≥7 sten), as compared to their peers without vision defects. Our results can contribute to a more accurate analysis of young teenagers' psychological problems, especially among boys diagnosed with myopia.
This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.
Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi
This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103
Christofaro, Dgd; Andrade, S M; Fernandes, R A; Cabrera, Mas; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Mesas, A E
It is unclear whether parents' weight affects their ability to recognise whether their teenage children are overweight. This study analysed whether overweight parents assessed their child's weight as well as normal weight parents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Londrina, Brazil, in 2011 and included teenagers between 14 and 17 years of age and their parents or guardians. We recorded the weight and height of the teenagers and asked the parents or guardians to fill in a questionnaire that included how they perceived their child's weight and demographic information. We studied 1231 teenagers - 58.2% girls - and 19.4% were overweight or obese. In 842 (68.4%) of cases both parents replied to the questionnaire. We found that 8.7% of the 1202 mothers and 10.0% of the 871 fathers underestimated how overweight their child was. The adjusted analyses confirmed they were twice as likely to underestimate their child's weight if they were overweight themselves, with an odds ratio of 1.96 for the mothers and 2.04 for the fathers. Sociodemographic characteristics did not affect the results. Overweight parents were twice as likely to underestimate the weight of their teenage children, regardless of the sociodemographic characteristics. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lester, David; Wilson, C.
The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)
Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Binns, Colin W
The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media.
Melcher, Ulrica; Sandell, Rolf; Henriksson, Anette
Teenagers are living through a turbulent period in their development, when they are breaking away from the family to form their own identities, and so they are particularly vulnerable to the stressful situation of having a parent affected by a progressive and incurable illness. The current study sought to gain more knowledge about the ways that teenagers themselves describe living in a family with a seriously ill and dying parent. More specifically, the aims were to describe how teenagers are emotionally affected by everyday life in a family with a dying parent and to determine how they attempt to adapt to this situation. The study employed a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative content analysis. A total of 10 teenagers (aged 14-19 years, 7 boys and 3 girls) participated through repeated, individual, informal interviews that were carried out as free-ranging conversations. While contending with their own vulnerable developmental period of life, the teenagers were greatly affected by their parent's illness and took on great responsibility for supporting their parents and siblings, and for maintaining family life. Lacking sufficient information and support left them rather unprepared, having to guess and to interpret the vague signs of failing health on their own, with feelings of uncertainty and loneliness as a consequence. Support from healthcare professionals should be designed to help and encourage parents to have open communications about their illness with their teenaged children. Our results add further support to the literature, reinforcing the need for an approach that uses a systemic perspective and considers the family to be the appropriate unit of care and offers a suitable support system.
Persky, V W; Chatterton, R T; Van Horn, L V; Grant, M D; Langenberg, P; Marvin, J
Between September 1984 and June 1985, a total of 75 adolescent girls, 35 vegetarians residing in a Seventh-Day Adventist school and 40 nonvegetarians residing in a private non-Adventist boarding school, underwent measurement of their plasma hormone levels in the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycles as well as dietary intake measured by 3-day food records, medical history, height, and weight. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in average age of the girls, weight, body mass index, age at menarche, years since the onset of menstruation, or percentage of girls with ovulatory cycles. Vegetarian girls had significantly higher levels of log follicular estradiol [2.00 +/- 0.27 (SD) versus 1.85 +/- 0.27 pg/ml, P less than or equal to 0.05] and luteal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHS) (1.88 +/- 0.71 versus 1.45 +/- 0.80 microgram/ml, P less than or equal to 0.05) than nonvegetarian girls. Follicular DHS was higher in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (1.72 +/- 0.79 versus 1.45 +/- 0.95 microgram/ml), but the difference was not significant. The differences in follicular and luteal DHS, but not the difference in log estradiol, were significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) after controlling for ovulation, smoking, and alcohol intake with multivariable regression analysis. There were no significant differences in testosterone or in percentage free estradiol levels between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Smoking was significantly associated with follicular and luteal DHS and with percentage free follicular estradiol, while alcohol use was significantly and inversely associated with percentage free follicular estradiol after controlling for other variables. The implications for breast cancer risk are discussed.
Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C
Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is
Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R
Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one
Gyesaw, Nana Yaa Konadu; Ankomah, Augustine
Background The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various responsible departments to address ignorance on sexual matters, and the challenges and risks associated with pregnancy and parenting by adolescents. Parenting techniques should be taught in sex education programs. PMID:24250233
Maynard, Rebecca, Ed.
This report synthesizes first-phase evaluation results of the Teenage Parent Demonstration program. This program, whose cornerstone is case management, responded to three concerns: (1) rising welfare caseloads; (2) persistently high rates of teenage pregnancies and births; and (3) the high probability that teenage parents will go onto welfare and…
The present paper explores the conceptual limitations of the bully discourses that ground UK anti-bullying policy frameworks and psychological research literatures on school bullying, suggesting they largely ignore gender, (hetero)sexuality and the social, cultural and subjective dynamics of conflict and aggression among teen-aged girls. To…
Kim, Justin Namuk; Choi, Eun Hee; Kim, Soo-Ki
To promote awareness of animal experimentation ethics among teenagers, we created an educational pamphlet and an accompanying questionnaire. One hundred Indian teenage school pupils were given the pamphlet and subsequently surveyed with the questionnaire, to evaluate: a) their perception of animal experimentation ethics; and b) their opinion on the effectiveness of the pamphlet, according to gender and school grade/age. There was a significant correlation between grade/age and support for animal experimentation, i.e. senior students were more inclined to show support for animal experimentation. There was also a significant correlation between gender and perception of the need to learn about animal experimentation ethics, with girls more likely to feel the need to learn about ethics than boys. In addition, the four questions relating to the usefulness of the pamphlet, and student satisfaction with its content, received positive responses from the majority of the students. Even though the pamphlet was concise, it was apparent that three quarters of the students were satisfied with its content. Gender and age did not influence this level of satisfaction. Overall, our study shows that there is a significant correlation between a pupil`s school grade/age and their support for animal experimentation, and that there is also a significant correlation between gender and the perceived need to learn about animal experimentation ethics. This pilot scheme involving an educational pamphlet and questionnaire could be beneficial in helping to formulate basic strategies for educating teenage school pupils about animal ethics. 2017 FRAME.
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Gossip has mainly been investigated as an oral discourse practice, one that serves as a mechanism to reaffirm relationships and to construct, monitor and maintain social norms and values within communities. This study investigates how a group of Aboriginal English speaking teenage girls constructed norms, values and identities in their email…
This paper focuses on the efforts of the Teen Health Initiative (THI) to meet the needs of teenagers for an accurate understanding of their rights to health care in New York. In particular, THI makes the state's laws understandable and explains the legal rights of minors to health care. In addition to the extensive training for professionals who work with adolescents, THI runs a peer education program. The program provides teenagers the opportunity to discuss their rights to confidential health care and gives them the tools to present that information to other adolescents around the state. An important aspect of the THI program is that it focuses on teenagers educating teenagers. Its workshop covers areas of health care to which minors can give informed consent and that they can receive confidentiality such as mental health care, drug and alcohol counseling, as well as areas of reproductive health such as birth control, pregnancy testing, prenatal care and counseling, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS testing and treatment, and abortion. The group believes that, when fully educated and treated respectfully, most teenagers are willing and able to make responsible choices about their health and their lives.
Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Chibani, Moncef; Bel Abed, Najet; Dahmen, Hayet; Ouerfelli, Nabil; Taher Maabouj, Mohamed; Hasni, Khadija; Askri, Moncef; Sellami, Lotfi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of smoker adolescents in Zaghouan, to seek for the smoking reasons, the used arguments, recording to them, to stop, and show their knowledge about prevention. A prospective study included 266 teenagers scolarised: 194 boys and 72 girls (aged from 12 to 16 years) from 3 colleges located in Zaghouan during 2006. A questionnaire was drawn up on these adolescents. It contains three parts: tabagic habits of smoking teenagers, the reasons of smoking and information about prevention. Twenty six percents of students are smokers, this percentage increases with the scholar level. They have parents' authorization in 18% of cases and have at least one smoker in their environment in 74% of cases. From whose who have tried tobacco, 65% became smokers. The most invoked causes are calming character of cigarettes and the pleasure to smoke. The first cigarette is smoked just for curiosity. The middle age of smoking initiation is 12 years. Twenty three percents of smoking students have tried to stop. The reasons are the dangerous character for health and the cost of tobacco. Adolescents prefer to use shocking pictures to self-sensitize (66%). Some pupils suggest calling smoker persons who are victims of tobacco to talk about their experiences. Adolescents' smoking is a Public Health priority in Tunisia. The rate of smoking, its cost and its bad health risks encourage us to make preventions, especially the education and information for children and help adolescents to stop smoking.
Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane
to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.
Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Methods Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. Results The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers’ position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. Conclusions It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and
This is an initial and exploratory comment on the pilot phase of a study into adolescent female white identity and socio-sexual desire in post-apartheid South Africa. In the course of this pilot it became apparent that historical issues of race and racism are openly discussed in these girls' classrooms. Yet, despite these everyday interactions the…
Beyene, Assefa; Muhiye, Abiyou; Getachew, Yeneneh; Hiruye, Abiy; Mariam, Damen Haile; Derbew, Millard; Mammo, Dereje; Enquselassie, Fikre
Teenage pregnancy is directly related to high incidence of pregnancy related complications contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality and social problems. There are no enough data on teenage pregnancy and related complications in Ethiopia and in Benishangul Gumuz region in particular. To investigate the magnitude and factors associated with teenage pregnancy among teenage females visiting Assosa general hospital for health care services. Facility-based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out among 783 randomly selected teenage females using structured and pre-tested questionnaire from January to April 2014. Teenage pregnancy is estimated at 20.4% in this study. The median age of subjects at first sexual intercourse and at first marriage being 16 and 17 years respectively. High proportion of (46.8%) teenagers had engaged in premarital sex. Among sexually active teenage females, 46.7% experienced their first sexual encounter by coercion. Being young [AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.67], single [AOR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.03-0.12], housemaid [AOR = 3.93, 95% CI = 1.71-9.04] and use of family planning [AOR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.20-4.75] have statistically significant association with teenage pregnancy. A range offactors including age, marital status, level of education, occupational status, average family income and use of family planning have influence on teenage pregnancy in the study area. Behavioral change communication, strengthening school health program, empowering young women specifically the rural women, and promoting parent-children discussion on sexuality is recommended.
Lohan, Maria; Aventin, Aine; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike; Linden, Mark; McDaid, Lisa
The World Health Organisation, amongst others, recognises that adolescent men have a vital yet neglected role in reducing teenage pregnancies and that there is a pressing need for educational interventions designed especially for them. This study seeks to fill this gap by determining the feasibility of conducting an effectiveness trial of the If I Were Jack intervention in post-primary schools. This 4-week intervention aims to increase teenagers' intentions to avoid unintended pregnancy and addresses gender inequalities in sex education by explicitly focusing on young men. A cluster randomised feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation will determine: recruitment, participation and retention rates; quality of implementation; acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and trial procedures; and costs.
Lee, Haeok; Kim, Minjin; Kiang, Peter; Shi, Ling; Tan, Kevin; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C
Parents have general influence over their children's health and health behavior. However, given the dearth of specific literature regarding knowledge level and social and cultural factors influencing HPV vaccination behaviors among Cambodian American (CA) parent, it is difficult to develop an effective, evidence-based public health HPV vaccination program. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the HPV vaccine uptakes among CA teenagers and to examine factors influencing HPV vaccine uptakes. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design and a combination of network and targeted sampling methods were used. CA mothers (n = 130) completed a health survey through face-to-face interviews in either English or Khmer language. Girls vaccination rates were 29% while that of boys was 16%. Awareness and knowledge of HPV among CA mothers was very low, and many believed that their daughters, who speak English and were educated in the U.S., had more knowledge about health than they did. Logistic regression analysis showed that CA girls had significantly higher odds of vaccination when their mothers possessed a higher level of English reading ability and had greater awareness and knowledge of HPV. The strikingly low rates of HPV vaccination among CA girls and boys underscore the need to improve vaccination outreach, education, and uptake. The findings can be used to develop targeted public health HPV vaccination programs for CAs, which will reduce cervical cancer disparities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morrissey, Michael; Ciorciari, Anthony J; Cunningham, Sandra J
The presentation of acute-onset hemiparesis in a teenager can be challenging and offers a wide differential diagnosis. We discuss the approach to the patient (which should begin with thorough history taking and physical examination) and advanced imaging as directed by the patient's signs and symptoms. We report the case of an otherwise well 17-year-old girl who presented to the pediatric emergency department with a 2-day history of left-sided weakness and difficulty ambulating. Her eventual diagnosis of Balo concentric sclerosis, a rare form of multiple sclerosis, is discussed.
Hokka, P; Palosuo, H; Zhuravleva, I; Pärna, K; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H; Lakomova, N
Comparative research of environmental attitudes has concentrated on adults of Western countries, whereas knowledge of environmental consciousness of East European people is modest. This article compares anxiety that teenagers in Helsinki, Moscow and Tallinn express about environmental hazards and their health effects. The data (Helsinki, N = 1396; Moscow, N = 618; Tallinn, N = 1268) were collected in schools by questionnaires from pupils between 13 and 18 years in 1994-1995. Air pollution, water pollution and survival of plant and animal species were considered most worrying environmental threats in every city. Environmental concern was usually highest in Moscow, but the effects of pollution on an individual's health worried Estonian teenagers most. The worry was most consistent in Moscow, where sex, class level or opinion of the state of one's own living environment did not usually have an effect on attitudes. Finnish girls and pupils in higher school classes were environmentally more conscious than boys or younger teenagers. In Tallinn, the sex and age differences in worry were smaller. Environmental worry seemed to have connections to a general sense of responsibility and risk behaviour such as heavy drinking and smoking. For all sites those pupils who often throw empty packages onto the street or into the nature expressed lower environmental concern than their more responsible peers. The differences of worry between the cities were difficult to interpret, but the greater total concern of young Muscovites may be part of their general social anxiety, which is associated with the instability of the Russian society.
Meena, Parth Singh; Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Solanki, Ram Kumar
Background: Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. Aims: the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young's internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: 24.74% of the students were having occasional or ‘frequency’ problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. Conclusion: With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get ‘addicted’ to such form of online social interaction. PMID:24250039
Meena, Parth Singh; Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Solanki, Ram Kumar
Social networking sites like Facebook, Orkut and Twitter are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends and meet other people based on shared interests. An exponential rise in usage of Social Networking Sites have been seen within the last few years. Their ease of use and immediate gratification effect on users has changed the way people in general and students in particular spend their time. Young adults, particularly teenagers tended to be unaware of just how much time they really spent on social networking sites. Negative correlates of Social Networking Sites usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. the aim of the study was to find out whether teenagers, specially those living in cities spend too much time on social networking websites. 200 subjects, both boys and girls were included in the cross sectional study who were given a 20 item Young's internet addiction test modified for social networking sites. The responses were analyzed using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. 24.74% of the students were having occasional or 'frequency' problems while 2.02% of them were experiencing severe problems due to excessive time spent using social networking sites. With the ever increasing popularity of social media, teenagers are devoting significant time to social networking on websites and are prone to get 'addicted' to such form of online social interaction.
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
The impact of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy was investigated in longitudinal studies in the United States (N = 242) and New Zealand (N = 520), in which community samples of girls were followed prospectively from early in life (5 years) to approximately age 18. Greater exposure to father absence was strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. This elevated risk was either not explained (in the U.S. study) or only partly explained (in the New Zealand study) by familial, ecological, and personal disadvantages associated with father absence. After controlling for covariates, there was stronger and more consistent evidence of effects of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy than on other behavioral or mental health problems or academic achievement Effects of father absence are discussed in terms of life-course adversity, evolutionary psychology, social learning, and behavior genetic models. PMID:12795391
This package of nutrition lessons was developed for teaching pregnant teenagers and teenaged parents enrolled in School-Aged Maternity (SAM) Programs in Wisconsin about nutrition. This guide provides a set of flexible lessons and resources for the SAM teacher (and for any person involved in teaching pregnant teenagers or teenaged parents) to…
Cussó-Calabuig, Roser; Carrera Farran, Xavier; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier
Aim/Purpose: This article presents a study of ICT use and attitudes related to the computer use of girls and boys from Catalonia in order to detect which gender differences may explain the low presence of women in the ICT field and to design a proposal of actions in schools to help reduce these differences. Background: Since the number of women in…
Mattoo, Shana; Remer, Lorraine; Anderson, Terry; Johnson, Courtrina; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)
Scientists of the NASA/GSFC and the staff of the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland (GSCM) have teamed up to introduce more girls and young women to earth system science. The girls now have the opportunity to earn the specially designed Planet Earth Council Patch. The Patch program includes a set of requirements tailored to the specific age level of the girl and the resource material to help the girl complete the requirements. At completion of the requirements the girl is awarded a patch to sew onto the back of her sash or vest. Girls do hands-on physical experiments, practice taking data, visit science centers and perform skits in order to complete the requirements. In addition to the Patch program, Project Planet Earth continues to encourage strong collaboration between the Girl Scouts of Maryland and NASA/GSFC. Girls volunteer at the GSFC visitor center during community events and in turn scientists are called on as keynote speakers and consultants for the Council. A special science interest group is forming for the teenage Girl Scouts of the Council that will network with scientists and help these young women pursue their interests, find internships and make career decisions.
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.
Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899
Varga-Tóth, Andrea; Paulik, Edit
The aim of this study was to assess whether the socioeconomic characteristics of adolescent girls, their knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their sexual activity are associated with whether or not they have already visited a gynecologist. A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed among secondary school girls (n = 589) who participated in professional education provided by a pediatric and adolescent gynecologist. The questionnaire comprised sociodemographic characteristics, sexual activity, knowledge on contraceptive methods, cervical screening and sources of their knowledge. Simple descriptive statistics, χ(2) and one-way-anova tests, multivariate logistic regression analysis and Pearson correlation were applied. All statistical analyses were carried out using spss 17.0 for Windows. A total of 50.3% of adolescent girls had already had a sexual contact. Half of the sexually active participants had already visited a gynecologist, and most of them did so due to some kind of complaint. The overall knowledge about cervical screening was quite low; higher knowledge was found among those having visited a gynecologist. Adolescent girls' knowledge on cervical screening was improved by previous visits to a gynecologist. The participation of an expert--a gynecologist--in a comprehensive sexual education program of teenage girls is of high importance in Hungary. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Past research has shown teenagers to be reluctant to read and less likely to visit libraries than younger children. These conclusions are debated and further investigation is needed. Difficulties abound in researching teenagers' opinions. Teenagers can be reluctant to participate in activities and peer support is often very important in…
Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Morales, Blanca; Strey, Marlene Neves
This study assesses the relationship between gender and use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs) by teenagers. In 2002, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sample of adolescents, 15 to 18 years of age. Subjects were interviewed using a self-applied confidential questionnaire. Smoking was more prevalent among girls, while alcohol consumption in the previous month was more common among boys. Meanwhile, the proportion of adolescents that reported drug use in the previous month was unrelated to gender. Higher cigarette consumption by girls suggests an increase in smoking by women in the future, which highlights the need for a special focus on this area.
Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura
in developing countries, including Colombia, teen pregnancy is a public health problem. It brings social, health and nutritional consequences for the mother/son binomial. to assess demographic, socioeconomic, food security, health and nutritional status characteristics in a group of pregnant teenagers and their newborns. a cross sectional analytical study was performed in 294 pregnant teenagers in their third trimester of pregnancy enrolled in the prenatal care programs of the public network of hospitals in Medellin-Colombia between 2011 and 2012. Association between the mother's body mass index, iron nutritional status and newborn's weight at birth using explicative variables was assessed. monthly incomes under a minimum salary were associated with low mother's weight and newborns small for gestational age. Low gestational weight was higher in pregnant women under 15 years of age and with a gynecological age under five years. The prevalence of anemia was low in the first trimester and increased at the end of pregnancy; 5.6% had adequate iron reserves. Low weight at birth was associated with infections and mother's low weight in the third trimester of pregnancy. teenage pregnancy is a complex problem associated with negative effects in the nutritional, health and social status of the girl and their newborn. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane
OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635
Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha
In the study we conducted we aimed at investigating the relation between personality profiles and risk diet behaviors in teenagers. This study was a case-control one and we applied 2 questionnaires (Freiburg Personality Inventory--FPI with 212 items) and CORT 2004 (items Q94-Q116 of diet behavior) on a sample of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5% boys). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0.730 for items Q101-Q109 of CORT. Personality profiles were built by an Excel 2003 Program. Statistical analysis was realized with SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (chi2) and gamma (gamma) correlation. Personality features of teenagers with high and without risk diet behavior were analyzed. Results obtained: personality profiles and statistical results indicated the existence of a significant statistical difference of aggressiveness and domination between teenagers with high and no consumption of butter and/or lard (Q103) (chi2 = 6.872, Sig. 0.032 and chi2 = 6.922, Sig. 0.031 respectively), of juices from the market (Q106) (chi2 = 9.055, Sig. 0.011 and chi2 = 14.571, Sig. 0.001 respectively). Aggressiveness correlated with consumption of fried potatoes (Q109) (chi2 = 6.144, Sig. 0.046) too. Correlation gamma indicated direct proportional relations of aggressiveness with: Q103 (gamma = 0.215, Sig. 0.017), Q106 (gamma = 0.224, Sig. 0.004), Q109 (gamma = 0.242, Sig. 0.012); and of domination with: Q103 (gamma = 0.234, Sig. 0.008), Q106 (gamma = 0.073, Sig. 0.000). In conclusion, there is a direct proportional relation between consumption of: butter/lard, juices from the market and teenagers' aggressiveness, domination; and a similar relation between consumption of fried potatoes and aggressiveness.
Johansson, L; Eriksson, A; Björnstig, U
To study non-fatal unintentional injuries among teenagers and to suggest preventive measures. The emergency care unit of the University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. All injured teenagers (N = 1044) attending the emergency care unit during 1991 were asked to answer a questionnaire focusing on when, where and how the injury occurred. All available medical records were examined. Data were coded according to the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committees Classification for Accident Monitoring, NOMESCO, and to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS. 1,043 teenagers were treated with sports and transportation related injuries as the most common ones. Most injuries were minor (AIS 1), transportation related injuries had the highest proportion of non-minor injuries (AIS > or = 2), 139 teenagers were admitted for in-patient care. Most injuries occurred during leisure/school time. Sports and transportation related injuries were most frequent. Body weight and length differs among teenagers, we suggest that teenagers should exercise and play together, not only by age, but also to some extent, to height and weight. Curfew laws, a compulsory bicycle helmet law are other injury reducing measures suggested.
Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra
Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.
Wilson, S H; Brown, T P; Richards, R G
Nationally available data on teenage fertility, family planning care and mortality were analysed to determine the relationship between teenage conception, availability of abortion and family planning care, and an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage--the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR). In the 14 regions of England the strongest correlate of teenage conception and of the proportion of teenage conceptions aborted was female all-causes SMR. High levels of provision of NHS abortion services and uptake of family planning clinic care did not significantly reduce teenage fertility. Provision of traditional family planning services obviously plays an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy, but innovation in this service coupled with a concerted effort to reduce social disadvantage might have a greater impact on teenage fertility in England.
Xu, Y; Xu, S Y; Wu, Q Q; Lyu, Q G; Hao, G; Zhao, Y S
To describe the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in different populations by sex and grades at school, and to provide evidence for the development of smoking control and health promotion programs. A total of 4 797 teenagers selected from 36 schools through stratified multi-stage cluster sampling in Zhejiang province and were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 3 886 eligible ones for analysis. Indicators as tried smoking, current smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure, etc., were calculated by weight on age proportions from the numbers of juniors in Zhejiang province. Prevalence rates of tried smoking and current smoking among teenagers were 10.91% and 2.07%, respectively. 7.72% of the juniors were susceptible to future tobacco use. The prevalence rates of tried smoking were 15.65% for boys and 5.58% for girls, 12.13% in rural and 9.24% in urban areas. Students from the 9(th) grade showed the highest rate (15.15%) while the 7(th) graders appeared the lowest level of susceptibility to future tobacco use (5.22%). The highest level of current smoking was seen in the group of " weekly allowance more than 30 Yuan, from parents"(4.07%). The prevalence of secondhand exposure to smoke in outdoor and indoor places, public transport, or at home were 57.60%, 54.45%, 46.97%, and 43.16%, respectively, among the teenagers. 3 071 juniors (77.33%) saw the smoking scenes in the past 30 days but only 1 367 juniors (28.30%) were aware of the basic knowledge on tobaccos in class, in the past 12 months. There were juniors who tried to smoke or were current smokers. The rate of secondhand exposure to smoking was high. A large number of the juniors were lack of education on knowledge related to tobacco control, in the classroom. It was important to promote and publicize the knowledge on tobacco so as to reduce the number of teenagers who were susceptible to future tobacco use.
de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória Ribeiro; Behrens, Jorge Herman
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of taste-related factors (craving for sweets, using food as a reward and pleasure) and food neophobia with nutritional status and food intake among teenagers. This was a cross-sectional study with 132 teenagers 15 to 19 y of age. Food behavior, anthropometrics, body composition, and lifestyle measurements were obtained and analyzed. Craving for sweets was associated with overweight, adiposity, meal skipping, physical inactivity, and intake of sweets (P < 0.05). Reward was linked to adiposity, physical inactivity, lack of interest in information about food, and intake of sweets (P < 0.05). Pleasure was associated with physical inactivity, lack of interest in information about food, and intake of sweets and soft drinks (P < 0.05). Teenage girls had a higher craving for sweets (22.88 ± 4.77) and higher pleasure scores (21.50 ± 3.82), body fat (25.33 ± 6.60), meal skipping (63.2%), and physical inactivity (64.7%) than their male counterparts (P < 0.05). There was no association among food neophobia, nutritional status, and food intake. The results of the present study indicated that, in contrast to food neophobia, taste-related factors can be associated with body fat and inadequate food choices in teenagers. However, this was a cross-sectional study and further cohort studies should be performed for in-depth investigation of a causal relationship between the findings of this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.
Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Objective Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. Design 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Results Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as ‘fun’ and having ‘great flavourings’. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube ‘vaping tricks’, prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Conclusions Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. PMID:27852721
Hung, Suet Lin
This paper reports on a qualitative study in 2007-08 on the abortion experiences of teenage women from deprived backgrounds in Hong Kong. Twenty-nine young women aged 13-24 who had undergone one or more induced abortions in their teen years were interviewed and participated in group empowerment sessions. Ten were unemployed, four were students, the rest were employed on low pay in unskilled occupations. Abortion services are legal and available in public and private services, but they charge fees ranging from HK$310 to $10,000, and do abortions only up to 24 weeks of pregnancy. Many young women resort to poor quality illegal clinics and clinics in mainland China because the cost is lower, they do not wish to tell their parents, who would be asked for consent, and/or they want to protect their sex partners, who may be reported and prosecuted if the girl is under-age. There is a need to strengthen services for teenage women in Hong Kong, especially those who are pregnant and from deprived backgrounds. There is also a need for professionals who deliver adolescent health and social welfare services, and for society to rethink and re-examine its views and attitudes towards teenage pregnancy, sexuality and abortion. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Teitelman, Anne M.; Bohinski, Julia M.; Boente, Alyssa
Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health. PMID:19544131
Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa
Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.
This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.
Royant-Parola, S; Londe, V; Tréhout, S; Hartley, S
Modification of sleep behaviors in teenagers has been observed over the past 30years with a reduction in overall sleep time and an increasing number of teenagers suffering from sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is linked to physical problems such as obesity but also to change in performance at school and mood disorders. Changes have been associated with the use of screens, cell phones, Internet and social media. Use of screens has been shown to delay sleep onset and melatonin secretion and stimulation of wake systems by interaction with social media may exacerbate these effects. The links between the use of social media and sleep patterns have not been fully explored. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of social media on teenagers' sleep and the impact of sleep deprivation. As part of a sleep education program conducted in middle schools, teenagers from 6th to 9th grade were invited to complete an online questionnaire on sleep habits with teacher supervision and after parental consent. Outcome measures were sleep and wake times with estimated sleep duration in school (SP) and rest periods (RP), use of screens (computers, tablets, smartphones and video game consoles), the use of social media and impact on visual analogue scales of sleep quality, mood and daytime functioning. Students were divided into those with clear sleep deprivation (sleep time<6hours in SP) and those whose sleep time was in line with the National Sleep Foundations recommended sleep needs for teenagers (9hours or more). A total of 786 questionnaires were completed and 776 were exploitable. Four schools took part with 408/786 girls (64.2 %) and a mean age of 12.4±1.24. Internet access was almost universal (98.3 %), 85.2 % had cell phones and 42.7 % had a personal computer in their bedroom. Social media was used by 64.6 %. After dinner, 52.6 % spent more than an hour and 14.7 % spent more than 2hours in front of a screen. After bedtime, 51.7 % regularly used electronic devices
Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion; Stephenson, Judith; Strange, Vicki
Existing failure rate studies indicate that typical use of oral contraception (OC) results in fewer unplanned pregnancies than condom use, even among teenagers. However, comparative data on pregnancy risk associated with different contraceptive methods are lacking for younger teenagers starting their first sexual relationship. This study examined associations between contraceptive method at first intercourse and subsequent pregnancy in 16-year-old girls. Six thousand three hundred forty-eight female pupils from 51 secondary schools completed a questionnaire at mean age 16 years; 2,501 girls reported sexual intercourse. Logistic regression (N = 1952) was used to model the association of contraceptive method at first intercourse with pregnancy. At first intercourse (median age 15 years) 54% reported using condoms only, 11% dual OC and condoms, 4% OC only, 4% emergency contraception, and 21% no effective method. Method used was associated with a similar method at a most recent intercourse. One in 10 girls reported a pregnancy. When compared to use of condoms only, greater pregnancy risk was found with no effective method (odds ratio [OR] 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-4.15) or OC only (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.29-4.60). Pregnancy risk for dual use and emergency contraception did not differ from that for condoms only. Both significant effects were partially attenuated by adjusting for user characteristics and sexual activity. Young teenagers may use OC less efficiently than condoms for pregnancy prevention. The characteristics of those using OC-only confirm vulnerability to unintended pregnancy, and suggest that alternative contraceptive strategies should be considered for these young women.
Nelson, Alison; Sethi, Sarla
To discover the phenomenon of breastfeeding as experienced by teenage mothers. Grounded theory method was used to study the first-time breastfeeding experiences of teenage mothers, aged 15 to 19 years. The research occurred between September 2000 and April 2001 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A purposive sample of 8 teenage mothers was recruited through self-identification and Calgary Health Region staff referral. DATA GENERATION AND ANALYSIS: The data were generated using informal interviews and demographic questionnaires. The data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using constant comparative method. The emergent core variable was Teenage Mothers: Continuously Committing to Breastfeeding. Four categories supported the core variable: (a) Deciding to Breastfeed, (b) Learning to Breastfeed, (c) Adjusting to Breastfeeding, and (d) Ending Breastfeeding. The two supporting subcategories were (a) Vacillating Between the Good Things and Hard Things About Breastfeeding and (b) Social Support and Other Social Influences. Teenage mothers' breastfeeding experiences may be similar to adult women's breastfeeding experiences, but teenage mothers may require additional breastfeeding support.
A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean
The present study examined the associations between initiation and intensity of substance use and with sexual experience with and without a history of teenage pregnancy. Participants were high school females (weighted n = 3,451) who participated in the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being sexually experienced (but never pregnant) and teenage pregnancy (reference group: never had sexual intercourse) as a function of age at substance use initiation (i.e., age 12 or younger, 13-14 years of age, and age 15 or older) and intensity of substance use (i.e., nonuser, experimental/ new or nondaily, nonexperimental/daily user) for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, while controlling for race/ethnicity, metropolitan location, symptoms of depression, and illegal drug availability at school. A major finding of our study is that substance use behaviors across each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) independently contributed to an increased risk in sexual intercourse experience with and without a history of teenage pregnancy (vs. nonsexually experienced females). A dose-response relationship was also observed between an increased likelihood of a teenage pregnancy and marijuana behaviors. Furthermore, the risk for teenage pregnancy was compounded for daily cigarette smokers who initiated use at age 12 or younger. Screening substance use behaviors can help to identify girls who may benefit from pregnancy prevention strategies. Targeting cigarette and marijuana behaviors as early as age 12 or younger may provide an added benefit. Prevention strategies should also consider the role of race above and beyond substance use behaviors.
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Åkerlind, Ingemar; Akhavan, Sharareh
The aim of this study is to explore and describe the experiences of being a teenage mother and taking care of infants less than 6 months of age. Ten teenage mothers were interviewed. Latent content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts with the teenage mothers. It was found that previous childrearing experiences and social support were important factors in determining how teenage mothers adapted to being a mother and how they practiced infant care. Becoming a mother created feelings of responsibility in the maternal role and led to affection toward their babies. Nevertheless, teenage mothers appreciated the help they received from their families and health-care providers. Instruction and assistance with infant care built self-confidence in the maternal role and in childrearing. PMID:24868133
Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.
Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female
Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.
Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…
Kalantar-Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Ravar, Roozbeh; Abbaszadeh-Kasbi, Ali; Rita Davai, Nazanin
BACKGROUND Rhinoplasty is among the most popular aesthetic surgical procedures selected by teenagers. When it comes to teenagers’ rhinoplasty, almost all surgeons believe that modified techniques should be considered because the nose is still growing. In this article, we prospectively followed teenagers who had undergone septorhinoplasty to assess the safety of procedure and its possible complications. METHODS All the patients who were under 18 years old but for those who had a bleeding disorder, allergic rhinitis, and cleft lip nose were included in the study. All the patients were operated by the Senior author through closed rhinoplasty. Age, gender, indication for surgery, postoperative complications, need for revision surgery, postoperative satisfaction, and disturbance in facial growth until puberty were gathered for each of patients. RESULTS Of all 40 patients, 38 (95%) patients were female and 2 (5%) patients were male. Mean age and follow up of patients was 16.1±0.8 years and 29.5±12.1 months, respectively. Fourteen (35%) patients had some degrees of nasal obstruction. Thirty-five (87.5%) patients expressed complete satisfaction with their rhinoplasty outcome. None of patients underwent revision rhinoplasty. CONCLUSION The study indicates that patients’ craniofacial growth was not affected by the procedure, and it seems that septorhinoplasty is safe in teenagers. PMID:29651398
Sherman, Susan Mary; Nailer, Emma
The incidence of cancers attributable to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) that affect males is on the rise. Currently in the UK teenage boys are not vaccinated against HPV while teenage girls are. The rationale for not vaccinating boys is that vaccinating girls should provide herd immunity to boys, however this does not protect men who have sex with men or men who have sex with unvaccinated women. The issue of whether to vaccinate boys or not is a controversial one with considerable lobbying taking place to change the existing policy. On one side of the debate are financial considerations while on the other side health equality is important. One avenue that has not been presented is the parental perspective. The current study uses a self-report questionnaire to explore what parents of teenage boys know about HPV and the vaccine and whether they want the vaccine for their sons. Only half of the parents had heard of HPV prior to completing the survey. Of those who had heard of HPV, knowledge about the health sequelae of HPV for men was poor relative to their knowledge about its impact on female health. Parents who would be willing to vaccinate their sons had higher levels of knowledge about HPV than those parents who would be unwilling or unsure. Irrespective of whether they had previously heard of HPV or not, once provided with a brief description of HPV, the majority of parents thought that boys should be offered the vaccination. There is a pressing need for public education about the potential impact of HPV on male health in order to facilitate uptake of the vaccine in the event of the vaccination programme being extended to men or to facilitate informed decision making about seeking the vaccine privately in the event that it isn't.
The incidence of cancers attributable to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) that affect males is on the rise. Currently in the UK teenage boys are not vaccinated against HPV while teenage girls are. The rationale for not vaccinating boys is that vaccinating girls should provide herd immunity to boys, however this does not protect men who have sex with men or men who have sex with unvaccinated women. The issue of whether to vaccinate boys or not is a controversial one with considerable lobbying taking place to change the existing policy. On one side of the debate are financial considerations while on the other side health equality is important. One avenue that has not been presented is the parental perspective. The current study uses a self-report questionnaire to explore what parents of teenage boys know about HPV and the vaccine and whether they want the vaccine for their sons. Only half of the parents had heard of HPV prior to completing the survey. Of those who had heard of HPV, knowledge about the health sequelae of HPV for men was poor relative to their knowledge about its impact on female health. Parents who would be willing to vaccinate their sons had higher levels of knowledge about HPV than those parents who would be unwilling or unsure. Irrespective of whether they had previously heard of HPV or not, once provided with a brief description of HPV, the majority of parents thought that boys should be offered the vaccination. There is a pressing need for public education about the potential impact of HPV on male health in order to facilitate uptake of the vaccine in the event of the vaccination programme being extended to men or to facilitate informed decision making about seeking the vaccine privately in the event that it isn’t. PMID:29641563
Littleton, Fiona Kisby
Despite an 'epidemic' of delayed childbirth in England and Wales beyond a woman's optimally fertile years, research shows that young adults are unaware of or misunderstand the risks regarding starting or extending families that such behaviour entails. Currently, sex education syllabi in British schools neglect these issues, rendering school leavers ignorant of them.These curricula cannot be improved until more is known about adolescents' knowledge of relevant topics. In the light of this, this article describes exploratory research on how teenage girls in one English school think about the reproductive lifespan. Going beyond recent 'scientific' investigations which have mostly only tested the extent of ignorance of young adults, this qualitative enquiry used theories of the life course and emerging adulthood to analyse data gathered in interviews. It sought to understand not only what girls know, but how they apply their knowledge in relation to their assumptions about aging, motherhood, pregnancy, parenting and employment. One finding is highlighted here: that whilst "correct" knowledge about the reproductive lifespan does appear to be held by teenage girls, the ability to apply that knowledge and connect the socio-cultural with the biological domain, may not always be in place. This is relevant for curriculum developers aiming to prepare future citizens to take full control of their reproductive health, and policy makers responsible for ensuring an appropriate public health message about these concerns is available after formal schooling ends.
Petrescu, Cristina; Stoian, Iasmina Rodica; Suciu, Oana; Bredicean, Cristina; Olariu, T R
In the performed study we investigated alcohol consumption--a frequent risk behavior that occurs in teenagers. The institutionalization of children from disturbed family could be a facilitator factor for alcohol consumption. A new group with different habits of the members is created and the information exchange could be useful or noxious. A transversal inquiry, with CORT (Comportamente cu Risc la Tineri--Risk Behaviors in Young People) questionnaire applying in a sample with 64 teenagers, which live in an Investment Center from Lugoj. We selected 16 items referring to alcohol consumption and the social environment. Obtained results showed frequent alcohol consumption in the social environment (group of friends--85% and disorganized family--debut of alcohol consumption under 8 years in boys group). The places of alcohol consumption are bars, restaurants (73% boys), in the Investment Center (59% boys and 29% girls), in the friends' houses, on the street. They consume alcohol in group and alone. The boys became drunk frequent (20% affirmed that became drunk more than 40 times in the last month). Discontent about relation inside the group increases the alcohol consumption outside the group. The alcohol consumption as a learned behavior in the origin disorganized family could be disseminated in the Centers for Children Protection.
This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…
Hirose, Mieko; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Iinuma, Kazuie
A case of forced normalization in childhood is presented. When zonisamide was administered to a five-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy, disappearance of seizures was accompanied by severe psychotic episodes such as communication disturbance, personal relationship failure, and stereotyped behavior, which continued after the withdrawal of zonisamide. These symptoms gradually improved by administration of fluvoxamine, however epileptic attacks reappeared. Although most patients with forced normalization are adult and teenager, attention should be paid to this phenomenon as adverse psychotic effects of zonisamide even in young children. Fluvoxamine may be effective for the symptoms.
Savona-Ventura, C; Grech, E S
The teenage population delivering in Malta during 1983-1986 were identified and the maternal characteristics and obstetric outcome of these patients were statistically compared to those of mothers aged 20-29 years. Teenage mothers were more likely to be primigravida and poor attenders for antenatal care. They were more likely to be cigarette smokers and the pregnancies were more frequently complicated by threatened abortion. The perinatal mortality and morbidity was increased from problems of prematurity.
Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin
The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…
Tucker, Janet S; Fitzmaurice, Ann E; Imamura, Mari; Penfold, Suzanne; Penney, Gillian C; Teijlingen, Edwin van; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate L
As part of the independent evaluation of Healthy Respect (a national demonstration project to improve teenage sexual health in Scotland) this study examined the effect of the school-based sexual health education intervention comprising multiprofessional classroom delivery and alongside drop-in clinics on teenage sexual behaviour outcomes. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys of secondary school pupils (average age 14 years and 6 months) were used in 10 Healthy Respect intervention schools in Lothian region and 5 comparison schools without intervention in Grampian region (2001 and 2003). By 2003, the proportion of pupils in Lothian feeling confident about getting condoms and using condoms properly significantly increased, more Lothian pupils (particularly boys) showed improved knowledge about condoms being protective against sexually transmitted infections. No further evidence of improved knowledge, attitudes, or intentions was evident after the intervention. Pupils in Lothian remained more likely to think using a condom would be embarrassing (especially girls), would reduce sexual enjoyment (especially boys), and intentions about condom use (as closer predictors of actual behaviour change) showed no significant improvement. More Lothian ( approximately 24%) than Grampian ( approximately 19%) pupils report having had sexual intercourse at age <16 years, both before and after the intervention, with no evidence of a significant reduction in Lothian by 2003. Overall differences in attitudes to condom use by gender were noted. Findings remain consistent in both unadjusted and adjusted comparisons. These findings demonstrate limited impact on sexual health behaviour outcomes, and raise questions about the likely and achievable sexual health gains for teenagers from school-based interventions.
Montazeri, Simin; Gharacheh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan
Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Designing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore determinants of early marriage from married girls' perspectives. The study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Three categories emerged from the qualitative data including "family structure," "Low autonomy in decision-making," and "response to needs." According to the results, although the participants were not ready to get married and intended to postpone their marriage, multiple factors such as individual and contextual factors propelled them to early marriage. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls.
... Print Share Teenage Sexuality Page Content Article Body Sex and sexuality During this time, many young people ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to ...
Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy
Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…
Hardy, Janet B.
The purposes of this paper are (1) to highlight some of the complex issues involved in teenage pregnancy and its consequences; (2) to comment on some of the problems that make solutions difficult to achieve; and (3) to indicate areas in which further research is of critical importance. Among the issues of teenage pregnancy discussed are the…
Dempsey, P L
The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role
Rolle, George E.; And Others
Many school administrators view teenage pregnancy as a top problems facing their school systems. Programs designed to reduce the teenage pregnancy rate must address multiple factors connected with teenage pregnancy. School-based clinic programs provide comprehensive primary health care for low income youth, require parental consent, provide mental…
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
In this study, we described and analyzed parents' experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A qualitative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents' norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage children's parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnancies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Tjepkes, Phyllis Kathleen; Hayden, Davis C.
A survey of research literature on teenage alcohol use will reveal many variables related to teenage drinking. This study compared these variables in two separate communities to ascertain their global validity. To investigate factors leading to teenage alcohol use, 218 high school seniors from Washington and Iowa were surveyed. Dependent variables…
Striepe, Susan E.
This article describes a case study that explores the question of how some art museums can appeal to teenagers. The significance of teenagers as the most underrepresented age demographic to visit museums is relevant to current museum practice where visitor studies have assumed increasing importance. As teenagers mature into adults, the long-term…
Prenatal care - teenage pregnancy ... the baby. If you decide to continue the pregnancy, it is important to have good prenatal care. ... trimester is the first 3 months of your pregnancy. During this time, you will have a prenatal ...
A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…
This article analyses British age-specific fertility rates by ethnic group, with a special interest in child-bearing by women below the age of 20. Birth statistics are not analysed by ethnic group, and teenage birth rates have been estimated from the dates of birth of mothers and children in the Labour Force Survey. The method appears to be robust. Caribbean, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi women were much more likely to have been teenage mothers than white women, but Indian women were below the national average. Teenage birth rates have been falling in all three South Asian communities.
Malus, Michael; Macaulay, Ann
A study of teenagers' thoughts about doctor/patient relationships revealed a high level of discomfort deriving from the physical examination. Our report attempts to clarify the indications for genital and breast examination and techniques for performing these exams in a manner least distressing to teenagers. PMID:21267220
Porter, Susan Eva
Teaching teenagers can be very rewarding; it can also be very challenging. Relating to Adolescents helps adults who work with teenagers to understand what happens in their dynamic with students. From the "Five Things Teens Need from Grown-Ups" to the "Seven Grown-Up Skills," this book covers all aspects of the adult-teenager relationship and…
McGrew, M C; Shore, W B
In this question and answer dialogue along with a case study, the psychosocial issues and medical aspects of teenage pregnancy are discussed. Suggestions for improving the situation included 1) developing a community based approach which utilizes school sex education integrated with parent, church, and community groups, 2) increasing teenage knowledge of contraception, and 3) providing counseling and medical and psychological health, education, and nutrition of the mother and father in order to reduce low birth weight babies and the school dropout rates. Advice to providers is to involved in supporting community based adolescent pregnancy and childbearing programs, and serving the needs of of teenagers by providing contraceptive information in confidence, and providing nonjudgmental information to parents and teenagers on sexuality, pregnancy and birth control. The cost of teenage childbearing is estimated at 16.6 billion for 1985, with the U.S. fertility rate, birth and abortion rates higher than Canada, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Sweden. Within 1 month of 1st initial intercourse, 20% result in teenage pregnancy. 50% will give birth to a second child. The health risk to the mother and child due to poor nutrition, toxemia conditions, while psychosocial effect is the cycle of failure and low self-esteem. For disadvantaged youth, a baby appears as a reachable achievement, and for those with an additional child, the goal of security and financial independence is less likely. Financial and emotional support from family or social services and family planning practices can lead to completion of H.S., limitation in family size, and independence. Of those receiving public assistance in 1969, 66% were independent, and only 12% receiving assistance between 1969 and 1974 were still receiving assistance. Teen fatherhood has not been adequately addressed, and findings suggest that parenting and contraceptive education, job training, support to stay in school are
Sedaghat-Yazdi, Farshad; Koenig, Peter R
Palpitations can result from cardiac awareness (increased conscious perception of the heart beating) or from a fast or irregular cardiac rhythm. Most causes for palpitations in the teenager can be diagnosed with minimal testing. Patients with an abnormal ECG, non-sinus tachycardia, abnormal cardiac examination, concerning family history, or palpitations associated with activity or syncope should be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This article discusses the evaluation, testing, and management of teenagers with palpitations. It also provides a general guideline for referral for subspecialty evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.
Dodds, Josiah; Chong-de, Lin
Chinese teenagers (n=1,861) rated overpopulation and environmental pollution as their greatest concerns about the future; these were usually rated quite low by teenagers in other countries. Although still of concern to Chinese teenagers, nuclear war seemed more remote to them than it did to U.S. and former Soviet teenagers in earlier studies.…
Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…
Foss, Robert D; Goodwin, Arthur H; McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A
On December 1, 2006, North Carolina began prohibiting use of any mobile communication device by drivers younger than 18. The current study examined the effects of the law on teenage drivers' cell phone use. Teenage drivers were observed at high schools in North Carolina 1-2 months before and approximately 5 months after the law took effect. The proportion of teenagers using cell phones did not change significantly (11.0% before the law took effect, 11.8% after). Cell phone use among teenage drivers at high schools in South Carolina, an adjacent state without a teenage driver phone ban, was stable at about 13%. Interviews were conducted with parents and teenagers in North Carolina both before and after the law took effect. In post-law interviews, teenagers were more likely than parents to say they knew about the cell phone restriction (64% vs. 39%), but support for the ban was greater among parents (95% vs. 74%). Only 22% of teenagers and 13% of parents believed the law was being enforced fairly often or a lot. Although the proportion of teenagers who reported using phones while driving declined somewhat following the law, about half admitted they used their phones, if they had driven, on the day prior to the interview. Overall, the findings suggest that North Carolina's cell phone restriction had little to no effect on teenage drivers' use of cell phones shortly after the law took effect.
Anthony, Kathryn H.
Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)
Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.
Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…
Millán, Teresa; Morera, Iván; Vargas, Nelson A
Teenager counseling to recognize risks and reinforce strengths is carried out in a primary care outpatient clinic since 2003. To describe the epidemiology and causes for consultation in this teenage counseling program. Retrospective review of the records of 116 teenagers (median age 13 years, 67% females) that received teenager counseling. Seventy percent of women and 50% of men came from nuclear families. More than two thirds were primogenital. Most adolescents were accompanied by their mother, that were the main adult raw model. Fifty percent had dysfunctional families. All were attending school regularly and 21% of women and 29% of men had repeated a school level. Sixty eight percent of women and 62% of men declared to have a life project. Twenty percent were worried about their physical appearance. Seventy seven percent of women and 62% of men considered themselves as happy. Thirty six percent of women and 14% of men smoked. The figures for alcohol consumption were 21% and 14%, respectively. The causes for consultation were obesity, overweight, unspecific symptoms, behavioral problems, bad school achievement, communication problems or pregnancy. Reasons for counseling were family dysfunction, low self esteem, bad school achievement and information about sexuality. The information obtained could help to improve the interdisciplinary work and to coordinate counseling with the family and schools.
Hinman, A R; Stroh, G; Gesche, M C; Whitaker, K F
The occurrence of early marriage, venereal disease, and pregnancy am ong teen-agers in 1973 in New York State (exclusive of New York City) is reported. During the period, 4740 females and 754 males under the age of 18 were married. 2329 cases of gonorrhea and 32 cases of primary and secondary infectious syphillis were reported. These figures represent over 11% of the total reported cases of gonorrhea and 7% of the total cases of syphillis in the state for the year. As a result, a statewide gonorrhea-screening program for females was initiated which revealed that teenagers represented 22.4% of the positive cultures found. There were 11,078 out-of-wedlock pregnancies, 4989 of which were terminated by abortion. It is recommended that unrestricted contraception services should be made available to teen-agers as quickly as possible.
Atkin, Charles; And Others
Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)
Olausson, P O; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of the genetic and environmental factors to the risk of teenage childbearing, and to study whether life style, socio-economic conditions, and personality traits could explain possible familial effects. We linked two population-based registers: the Swedish Twin Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The study covers female twin pairs born between 1953 and 1958, having their first infant before the age of 30 years (n = 1885). In order to separate familial effects from other environmental influences, and genetic effects from shared environmental effects, only complete twin pairs with known zygosity were included, in all 260 monozygotic and 370 dizygotic twin pairs. We used quantitative genetic analyses to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental effects for liability to teenage childbearing. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of life style, socio-economic situation, and personality on the probability of teenage childbearing, and to study whether psychosocial factors could explain possible familial effects. Fifty-nine percent (0-76%) of the variance in being a teenage mother was attributable to heritable factors; 0% (0-49%) was due to shared environmental factors; and 41% (23-67%) was explained by non-shared environmental factors. Thus, the data were consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation of teenage childbearing is completely explained by genetic factors, although the alternative hypothesis that familial aggregation is entirely explained by shared environmental factors cannot be ruled out. Significant effects of smoking habits, housing conditions, and educational level were found in relation to liability to teenage childbearing. However, the familial effects on risk of teenage childbearing were not mediated through similarities in life style and socio-economic factors. When studying risk factors for teenage childbearing, it is
Borhani, Mahboobe; Sadeghi, Roya; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Vakili, Mohammad Ali
Background The progress of technology in developed countries has changed lifestyles to sedentary and has increased non-communicable diseases. Identifying factors affecting patterns of physical activity among adolescents is valuable and it is important to change these pattern. Objective This study aimed to explore teenage girls’ experiences regarding the determinants of physical activity promotion based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Methods This qualitative study is a content analysis research on the girls of three high schools in Minoodasht city for six months from September 2015 until the end of February 2016. The data were obtained by focused group discussions and semi-structured in-depth interviews from 48 girls ranging from 15 to 18 years old and six teachers. Data analysis was done using theory-driven qualitative content analysis. Results Data analysis resulted in a total number of 53 primary codes which were classified in the six predetermined classifications of Pender’s Health Promotion Model (Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy of physical activity behavior, feelings related to physical activity behavior, interpersonal and situational influencers). The results showed that two classifications (perceived barriers, and situational influencers) were considered more important than other classifications in reducing levels of physical activity in adolescent girls and also high self-efficacy for promoting physical activity in adolescents. Conclusion The results obtained from this study specified the determinants affecting the promotion of physical activity among adolescent girls and can help the planners to choose the most appropriate methods and strategies in order to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases in this age group and gender. PMID:28979744
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.
During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…
While all teenage behavior and character traits can be challenging, the issues facing the at-risk teenager are particularly thorny. Anger, aggression, and a lack of good decision-making may happen on a minute-to-minute basis, as teachers try to guide these young adults. Unlocking the key to keeping them in school and facilitating proficiency in…
Montazeri, Simin; Gharacheh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan
Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Designing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore determinants of early marriage from married girls' perspectives. The study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Three categories emerged from the qualitative data including “family structure,” “Low autonomy in decision-making,” and “response to needs.” According to the results, although the participants were not ready to get married and intended to postpone their marriage, multiple factors such as individual and contextual factors propelled them to early marriage. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls. PMID:27123012
Aventin, Áine; Lohan, Maria; O'Halloran, Peter; Henderson, Marion
Following the UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys' and girls' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Perdereau-Noël, M; Saliou, P; Vic, P
Teenage sleeping disorders can have short- and long-term consequences such as learning disorders, accidents, depression, and type 2 diabetes. To assess the prevalence of sleeping disorders in high school students in the southwest of Brittany (Finistère), France. To search for family and social factors causing these disorders and drug use. Observational multicenter study that took place in May, 2015, asking high school students to anonymously complete a questionnaire during school time. A variable was created: sleep disorders (TrS+) when teenagers responded "often" or "very often" to at least one of the six questions concerning sleeping disorders. The prevalence of TrS+ was 73 % (4170/5556). These teenagers had difficulty falling asleep (36 %), woke up during the night (33 %), or had nightmares (10 %). Their sleep routine was disrupted (35 %), they did not feel rested the following day (49 %): 9 % were late for class related to their sleeping disorders. TrS+ were more recurrent among females (OR: 2.64; P<0.0001). A negative atmosphere in high school (OR: 2.64; P<0.0001), tobacco use (>10 cigarettes per a day) (OR: 2.39; P<0.0001), alcohol (OR: 1.4, P=0.009), marijuana (<1 time per day; OR: 2.05; P=0.009), and time spent using a computer or watching television (>8h per a day; OR: 2.7; P<0.0001) had an impact on their sleep quality. Ten percent of TrS+ individuals consume medications and 9 % cannabis to help them fall asleep. Technology, drugs, and well-being at school have an impact on sleep quality. Screening of teenagers with sleeping disorders and information programs for teenagers must be provided by the teaching and medical staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Eichelberger, Angela H; Teoh, Eric R; McCartt, Anne T
Previous research has shown that many newly licensed teenagers in the United States are driving vehicles with inferior crash protection. The objective of this study was to update and extend previous research on U.S. parents' choices of vehicles for their teenagers. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in May 2014 using a random sample of U.S. households likely to include teenagers. Participation was restricted to parents or guardians of teenagers who lived in the household and held either an intermediate or full driver's license. Parents were interviewed about the vehicle their teenager drives, the reason they chose the vehicle for their teenager, and the cost of purchased vehicles. Teenagers most often were driving 2000-06 model year vehicles (41%), with 30% driving a more recent model year and 19% driving an older model year. Teenagers most often were driving midsize or large cars (27%), followed by SUVs (22%), mini or small cars (20%), and pickups (14%). Far fewer were driving minivans (6%) or sports cars (1%). Forty-three percent of the vehicles driven by teenagers were purchased when the teenager started driving or later. A large majority (83%) were used vehicles. The median cost of the vehicles purchased was $5300, and the mean purchase price was $9751. Although parents report that the majority of teenagers are driving midsize or larger vehicles, many of these vehicles likely do not have key safety features, such as electronic stability control, which would be especially beneficial for teenage drivers. Many teenagers were driving older model year vehicles or vehicle types or sizes that are not ideal for novice drivers. Parents, and their teenage drivers, may benefit from consumer information about optimal vehicle choices for teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Luff, Gina M; Gray, James J
Seventeen and YM were assessed from 1956 through 2005 (n=312) to examine changes in the messages about thinness sent to teenage women. Trends were analyzed through an investigation of written, internal content focused on dieting, exercise, or both, while cover models were examined to explore fluctuations in body size. Pearson's Product correlations and weighted-least squares linear regression models were used to demonstrate changes over time. The frequency of written content related to exercise and combined plans increased in Seventeen, while a curvilinear relationship between time and content relating to dieting appeared. YM showed a linear increase in content related to dieting, exercise, and combined plans. Average cover model body size increased over time in YM while demonstrating no significant changes in Seventeen. Overall, more written messages about dieting and exercise appeared in teen's magazines in 2005 than before while the average cover model body size increased.
Biemesderfer, Susan C.; Bustos, Patrick D.
This state legislative report examines teenage pregnancy and parenting from the perspective of youth at-risk with a particular focus on comprehensive approaches to teenagers at-risk for pregnancy and parenting. The report is divided into two major sections: background on the youth at-risk problem with a special focus on teenage pregnancy and a…
This brief pamphlet on teenage alcoholism is one in a series published by the Public Affairs Committee. It was designed to give concise and useful information on teenage alcohol problems, and was written for both adults and youth. Statistics are offered as proof that large numbers of American teenagers are already problem drinkers. The current…
Wenrich, Marjorie D; Jackson, Molly Blackley; Maestas, Ramoncita R; Wolfhagen, Ineke H A P; Scherpbier, Albert J J
Medical students learn clinical skills at the bedside from teaching clinicians, who often learn to teach by teaching. Little is known about the process of becoming an effective clinical teacher. Understanding how teaching skills and approaches change with experience may help tailor faculty development for new teachers. Focusing on giving feedback to early learners, the authors asked: What is the developmental progression of clinician-teachers as they learn to give clinical skills feedback to medical students? This qualitative study included longitudinal interviews with clinician-teachers over five years in a new clinical skills teaching program for preclinical medical students. Techniques derived from grounded theory were used for initial analyses. The current study focused on one theme identified in initial analyses: giving feedback to students. Transcript passages were organized by interview year, coded, and discussed in year clusters; thematic codes were compared and emergent codes developed. Themes related to giving feedback demonstrated a dyadic structure: characteristic of less experienced teachers versus characteristic of experienced teachers. Seven dominant dyadic themes emerged, including teacher as cheerleader versus coach, concern about student fragility versus understanding resilience, and focus on creating a safe environment versus challenging students within a safe environment. With consistent teaching, clinical teachers demonstrated progress in giving feedback to students in multiple areas, including understanding students' developmental trajectory and needs, developing tools and strategies, and adopting a dynamic, challenging, inclusive team approach. Ongoing teaching opportunities with targeted faculty development may help improve clinician-teachers' feedback skills and approaches.
This study is an empirical study into the new literacy practices of five teenage "Twitter" users on Twitter. Qualitative methods were used to describe the most prominent ways of participating on "Twitter." Results indicate that teenagers used "Twitter" for self-expression, communication, friendship maintenance, and…
Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale
To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.
Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima
Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Lewis, Anne; And Others
This booklet was written to help parents understand their teenagers. Chapter One discusses changes in teenagers, both physical and emotional. The importance of peer groups is discussed. The changes in the world since the parents were teenagers, are discussed in Chapter Two including: (1) the school and (2) the emphasis on planning for the future.…
Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Thom, Bridgette
Despite overall reductions in teenage substance use, adolescent girls' rates of substance use remain unacceptably high. This article examines whether girls' substance use is associated with general risk and protective factors (goal setting, problem solving, refusal skills, peer use, and self-efficacy) and gender-specific risk and protective factors (communication style, coping skills, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). Cross-sectional data were collected in 2013 via online surveys from a nationwide sample of adolescent girls (N = 788), aged 13 and 14 years, who were recruited through Facebook. In multivariate analyses, controlling for correlates of adolescent substance use, 11 of the 13 general and gender-specific risk and protective factors were consistently associated with past-month alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use in the expected direction; past-month marijuana use was associated with 8 of the 13 factors. Refusal skills, peer use, coping, and depressive mood were most consistently and strongly associated with substance use. Substance abuse prevention programs targeting adolescent girls should focus on such general risk and protective factors as problem solving, refusal skills, peer influences, and self-efficacy, as well as such gender-specific risk and protective factors as communication style, coping, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, and mood management.
Bluestein, D; Starling, M E
Teenagers who are pregnant face many difficult issues, and counseling by physicians can be an important source of help. We suggest guidelines for this counseling, beginning with a review of the scope and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Communication strategies should be aimed at building rapport with techniques such as maintaining confidentiality, avoiding judgmental stances, and gearing communication to cognitive maturity. Techniques for exploring family relationships are useful because these relationships are key influences on subsequent decisions and behaviors. We discuss topics related to abortion and childbearing, such as safety, facilitation of balanced decision making, the use of prenatal care, and the formulation of long-term plans. Physicians who can effectively discuss these topics can help pregnant teenagers make informed decisions and improve their prospects for the future. PMID:7941531
Nwokocha, Ada R C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onukwuli, Vivian I; Manyike, Pius C
Menstruation in the teenage age has assumed variable trends which is been influenced by several variables. This study is aimed at determining the pattern and trend of menstruation among teens attending secondary school in south east Nigeria and associated factors. Menstruation patterns were investigated using a stratified random sampling method of teens from junior secondary schools in Enugu, south east Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and data analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 897 female teenagers aged 9-18 years completed the questionnaire with a mean age of 13.9±1.9 years. The mean age (SD) at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years. Teenage girls with higher BMI achieved menarche earlier at age 8 and 9 when compared with their counterparts with lower BMI and this is statistically significant. F=7.60, df=8, p<0.001. Teens with a 14-day cycle had a higher BMI when compared with teens with longer cycle but this is not statistically significant. F=1.05, df=4, p=0.381. There is a statistical significance difference between teens duration of menstrual flow and BMI. Those with higher BMI had longer duration(4-5 days) compared with those with lower BMI. F=3.329, df=4, p=0.01 CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the mean age at onset of menarche was 12.5±1.2 years showing a continuing decreasing trend. Teens with higher BMI attain menarche earlier and had longer days of periods when compared with their counterpart with lower BMI.
Vermeulen, Tom; Conraads, Viviane M; Vrints, Christiaan; Rodrigus, Inez E
Myxoma cordis is the most frequent primary cardiac tumour in adults. Paediatric primary cardiac tumours are rare, the most common type being rhabdomyoma. Atrial and ventricular myxomas occur infrequently in the paediatric age group. Intracardiac myxomas are seen with an estimated incidence of 0.5 per million population per year. Approximately 70% of the affected patients are of female gender. Recurrences are rare (1.3%). Asymptomatic recurrences are observed in young patients who have a familial history of tumour or multifocal myxomas. Although rare, cardiac aetiology (atrial fibrillation, intracardiac thrombi, patent foramen ovale, myxoma, endocarditis) should be considered. In children presenting with central neurological symptoms, a cardiac aetiology has to be considered. We describe a rare case of an 18-year-old girl presenting with a recurrent left ventricular myxoma, accompanied by neurological deficits.
Crowell, Sheila E; Beauchaine, Theodore P; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J; Stevens, Adrianne L; Sylvers, Patrick
Although parasuicidal behavior in adolescence is poorly understood, evidence suggests that it may be a developmental precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Current theories of both parasuicide and BPD suggest that emotion dysregulation is the primary precipitant of self-injury, which serves to dampen overwhelmingly negative affect. To date, however, no studies have assessed endophenotypic markers of emotional responding among parasuicidal adolescents. In the present study, we compare parasuicidal adolescent girls (n=23) with age-matched controls (n=23) on both psychological and physiological measures of emotion regulation and psychopathology. Adolescents, parents, and teachers completed questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, substance use, trait affectivity, and histories of parasuicide. Psychophysiological measures including electrodermal responding (EDR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) were collected at baseline, during negative mood induction, and during recovery. Compared with controls, parasuicidal adolescents exhibited reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at baseline, greater RSA reactivity during negative mood induction, and attenuated peripheral serotonin levels. No between-group differences on measures of PEP or EDR were found. These results lend further support to theories of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity in parasuicidal teenage girls.
Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Barros, Idna de Carvalho
To analyze the predictive factors of abortion among teenagers with gestational history. Cross-sectional study carried out with 464 teenagers aged between 15 and 19 years, from Teresina, Piauí, who completed a pregnancy in the first quarter of 2006 in six city maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008, at the teenagers' home, after their identification in the hospital records. For the univariate analysis of data, descriptive statistics was used, and for bivariate analysis, Pearson's χ2-test and Z-test were applied. Multivariate analysis was performed by means of the Multiple logistic regression (MLR), with significance level of 5%. Teenagers who had more than one pregnancy were almost nine times more likely to have an abortion when compared to those who had only one pregnancy (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the teenagers who reported being pressured by the partner to have an abortion were four times and a half more likely to do it, when compared to those pressured by relatives and friends (p = 0.007). The teenagers who had two or more pregnancies and were pressured by the partner to have an abortion were more prone to do it. Thus, it is necessary that programs of Family Planning include the teenagers more effectively, aiming at avoiding unwanted pregnancies among this population and, consequently, abortion induced in poor conditions.
Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice
The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Stefańiska, Ewa; Falkowska, Agnieszka; Ostrowska, Lucyna
The aim of the study was the evaluation of chosen nutritional habits in group of children and teenagers attending elementary schools and junior high schools in Bialystok. All together there were examined 1829 children aged 10 to 15 (884 children from primary school and 945 students ofjunior high school). Body height and weight were measured to assess Body Mass Index. The results were interpreted with the use of the centile charts for the children recommended by The Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. Nutritional habits of children and teenagers were assessed based on the questionnaire form (designed in the Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok). The questionnaire contained questions regarding the number and type commonly consumed meals, the regularity of consumption, the frequency of additional eating between meals, and the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products. In the study group of 1829 children the proper body weight was observed in more than 66% of the examined population. By analyzing the number of consumed meals it was stated that nearly half of all examined children consumed 4 meals a day. Among meals consumed most frequently were dinner, breakfast and supper. It was revealed that in comparison to boys girls of both younger and older group considerably more frequently included in their rations consumption of lunch. Eating between meals was rather common occurrence among all of the examined children. In all of compared groups low consumption of porridge, whole meal bread, milk, curd cheese, fishes, leguminous plants and raw fruits. At the same time it was shown that both older and younger boys considerably more often consumed meat and its preserves. Opposite tendency was noted in case of consumption of raw fruits. The majority of examined children and teenagers independently of gender groups declared excessive intake of sweets, which may have an unfavourable impact on their further
Lester, Carolyn; Allan, Alexandra
Purpose: In response to rising prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among teenagers, this study was designed to examine teenage perceptions of sex education, access to services, and attitudes relevant to STI. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group study was conducted in three schools to discuss the sexual health needs of…
Sears, Heather A; Byers, E Sandra; Whelan, John J; Saint-Pierre, Marcelle
This study examined adolescents' ideas about girls' and boys' use and experience of physical and psychological abuse in heterosexual dating relationships. Canadian high school students who were enrolled in Grades 9 and 11 took part in single-gender focus groups. Eight themes emerged from the analysis. The themes highlight the importance teenagers place on context for defining specific behaviors as abusive. They also underscore gender differences in the criteria adolescents use to make these judgments, in the forms of abusive behavior teenagers typically use in a dating relationship, and in the reasons for youths' declining use of physical abuse and increasing use of psychological abuse. These views have important implications for future research and for programs targeting adolescent dating violence.
Salami, Kabiru K; Ayegboyin, Matthew; Adedeji, Isaac A
Consistent high teenage pregnancy rates in South-western Nigeria are characteristically underpinned by the unmet social needs of the teenagers. To elicit intergenerational views on the influence of unmet social needs on teenage pregnancy. Through a descriptive and cross-sectional design, a total of 174 respondents who were either pregnant teenagers, teenage mothers during the survey or had been pregnant as teenagers, were interviewed, using questionnaire supplemented with 12 key informant interviews. With the mean age of 16.5 years, and educational status range of between primary and below (25.8%) and tertiary (9.8%) levels, only 39.7% respondents were married, about half (47.7%) remained single while others were separated (12.6%). Less than half (44.9%) of the respondents were engaged in occupational activities. The unmet material and financial supports expected from parents (43.1%), the lack of free education from government up till secondary school level (51.2%), the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity (53.4%) and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend (66.1%) prone teenagers to unplanned pregnancy. Promotion of sexual education and parental care is encouraged as strategy against unplanned pregnancy among teenagers.
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.
Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…
Bustos, Patrick D.
This document reviews three teenage pregnancy prevention strategies which were selected because of their easy access to teenagers and to illustrate the cost of implementation. After a discussion of the high cost of teenage pregnancy, the role of the state legislatures is described. Accessibility and acceptability are cited as two important…
Bound to the notion of teenage apathy is the concern that young people are increasingly disengaged from political and community issues and lacking in social capital. Voting is often regarded as the ultimate form of civic engagement, which implicitly excludes young teenagers from consideration through their status as non-voters. Teenagers'…
Hetzel, Alice M.; Cappetta, Marlene
This government publication presents statistics and discussion on teenage marriages, divorces, parenthood, and mortality. In sheer numbers teenagers account for a large share of the marriages and births, especially illegitimate births. In 1969, about one-third of all brides and 14 percent of grooms were teenagers; in 1968 17 percent of all births…
Heilborn, Maria Luiza; Brandão, Elaine Reis; Da Silva Cabral, Cristiane
This paper examines teenage pregnancy as a social-historical construction of increasing concern in Brazil. It presents findings from over five years of empirical research alongside an analysis of a sample of newspaper articles representative of the dominant positions in the Brazilian press concerning teenage pregnancy. In contrast to mainstream arguments and to broader moral panic surrounding teenage pregnancy, we argue that contemporary patterns of sexual behaviour among young people in Brazil do not signal growing permissiveness and are not straightforwardly related to poverty, family dysfunction or lack of life projects on the part of young people themselves. On the contrary, early pregnancy and parenthood retain strong continuities with core Brazilian values and norms of sexual culture.
Wilkinson, Paul; French, Rebecca; Kane, Ros; Lachowycz, Kate; Stephenson, Judith; Grundy, Chris; Jacklin, Paul; Kingori, Patricia; Stevens, Maryjane; Wellings, Kaye
The aim of this study was to quantify the change in the number of conceptions and abortions among women younger than 18 years in England in relation to the government's national teenage pregnancy strategy. We undertook geographic analysis of data for 148 top-tier local authority areas. The main outcomes were changes in under-18 conceptions, abortions, and births between the 5-year period before implementation of the strategy (1994-98) and the period immediately after implementation (1999-2003). The number of teenage conceptions peaked in 1998, then declined after the implementation in 1999 of the teenage pregnancy strategy. Under-18 conception rates fell by an average of 2.0% (95% CI 1.8 to 2.2) per year between 1998 and 2003, below the rate needed to achieve the target of 50% reduction by 2010. The net change between 1994-98 and 1999-2003 was a fall in conceptions of 3.2% (2.6 to 3.9) or 1.4 per 1000 women aged 15-17 years, a rise in abortions of 7.5% (6.5 to 8.6) or 1.4 per 1000, and a fall in births of 10.6% (9.9 to 11.3) or 2.8 per 1000. The change in the number of conceptions was greater in deprived and more rural areas, and in those with lower educational attainment. The change was greater in areas where services and access to them were poorer, but greater where more strategy-related resources had been targeted. The decline in under-18 conception and birth rates since 1998 and evidence that the declines have been greatest in areas receiving higher amounts of strategy-related funding provides limited evidence of the effect of England's national teenage pregnancy strategy. The full effect of local prevention will be clear only with longer observation, and substantial further progress is needed to remedy England's historically poor international position in teenage conceptions.
Ventura, S J; Curtin, S C; Mathews, T J
This report presents national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-98 and the percent change, 1991-98. State-specific teenage birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin for 1991 and 1998 and the percent change, 1991 to 1998, are also presented. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the Nation and each State, by age group, race, and Hispanic origin of the mother, are discussed. Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years declined nationally between 1991 and 1998 for all age and race and Hispanic origin populations, with the steepest declines recorded for black teenagers. State-specific rates fell significantly in all States for ages 15-19 years; declines ranged from 10 to 38 percent. In general, rates by State fell more for younger than for older teenagers, ranging by State from 10 to 46 percent for ages 15-17 years. Statistically significant reductions for older teenagers ranged from 3 to 39 percent. Reductions by State were largest for black teenagers 15-19 years, with rates falling 30 percent or more in 15 States. Among the factors accounting for these declines are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the implant and injectable contraceptives.
Babbage, Keen J.
What Financial future awaits the current generation of children and teenagers in the United States? Our children and teenagers did not cause the financial problems that confront the nation and impacts their families, but they will pay part of the price for these financial problems. What should children and teenagers know about personal finance?…
Wadsworth, J.; And Others
Developmental outcome was compared in 1,031 Singleton children of teenage mothers and 10,950 Singleton children of older mothers. Children born to teenage mothers and living with them through the first five years of life performed less well than other children in tests of vocabulary and behavior, were shorter on the average, and had smaller head…
Problems that may bring teenagers to the family physician's office include bizarre behavior such as drug or alcohol intoxication, psychosis, panic or anxiety attacks and stealing; being dangerous to themselves or to others; sexual emergencies including pregnancy, rape and incest; a crisis involving key people such as parents' divorce or illness; school phobia, and anxiety or other reactions to sickness, surgery or death. When evaluating troubled teens and their families, the physician should first see adolescents alone, so he is not biased by parents' complaints that prevent `accused' teens from expressing themselves. An evaluation should end with the teenager and adults together so the physician can summarize what happened in the interview and give treatment plans. The doctor should anticipate that he will need extra time in counselling teens about their problems, because it is also important to inform, support and direct parents, teachers and counsellors. PMID:21283424
Yates, Susan Hunter; Bline, Kerri; Bird, Chelsea; Bresnahan, Erin; Couper-Noles, Rebekah; Cutler, Sarah; Henderson, Susanne; Hymel, Erin; Salsman, Tracie; Tonellato, Malia; Steele, Annie; Lindenberg, Cathy Strachan
To interest multicultural, bilingual teenagers in nursing careers, an 8-week culturally focused summer program integrated life planning, mentorship, nursing assistant training, and college application assistance while providing stipends and scholarship opportunities. Twenty-four economically disadvantaged teenagers completed the program and passed…
Brown, Marjorie E.
This paper explores: precipitating social conditions which might predispose an adolescent girl to deviant sexual activity; experiences which may initiate entrance into prostitution; and the treatment of sexual deviance in young girls by the Juvenile Justice System. (Author)
David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.
ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten
In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…
Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan
Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (p<0.05). The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate of teenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.
For most adolescents, one of the joys of the teenage years is the feeling of being connected to others, not just parents. A death in the family can change that. Tragedy in the family often leaves teenagers to deal with their grief alone, as adults and younger children are given most of the attention. This book is written for teenagers and…
Suri, Kul Bhushan
Examines data surrounding issues related to educational attitudes and attainment and teenage pregnancy, nonmarital births, and child poverty. Addresses proximate and root causes of rising U.S. rates of teenage pregnancy, correlations between nonmarital births and educational and occupational expectations, and educational and economic consequences.…
Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann; Bonell, Chris
Purpose: The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which…
Bonnell, Karen H.; Caillouet, Larry M.
A survey examined students' attitudes about communication with their parents and others on sex-related topics, with particular emphasis given to the barriers to parent-teenager communication identified by the teenagers themselves and to suggestions for improving openness in communication. Subjects, 105 male and 142 female students aged 14 to 19…
Garlick, R; Ineichen, B; Hudson, F
Teenage motherhood is often said to be the result of deficient contraceptive and abortion services. Using data from the Public Health Common Data Set (PH CDS) we demonstrate two important effects in a Regional Health Authority: higher rates of conception are related to a live birth rather than an abortion pregnancy outcome; District Health Authorities (DHAs) with high underprivileged area scores (UPA) are more likely to have high rates of conception in the teenage years than those districts with low scores.
Ventura, S J; Freedman, M A
Teenage childbearing in the United States has declined significantly in the 1990s. Still the U.S. teen birth rate is higher than in other developed countries; in 1997 it was 52.3 births per 1000 women aged 15 to 19. A steep rise in teen birth rates in the late 1980s generated a great deal of public concern and a variety of initiatives targeted to reducing teen births. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System are used to review and describe trends and variations in births and birth rates for teenagers for the period 1960-1997. Teen birth rates were much higher in the early 1960s than at present; in fact, rates for 18- to 19-year-olds were double what they are currently. In the 1990s, birth rates for teenagers dropped for younger and older teenagers, with greater declines recorded for younger teens. While rates have fallen in all population groups, the greatest declines have been experienced by black teenagers, whose rates have dropped 24% on average. %Trends in teen births and birth rates since 1960 have been affected by a variety of factors. These include wide swings in the number of female teenagers, substantial declines in marriage among older teens, falling birth rates for married teens concurrent with rapidly rising birth rates for unmarried teens, and sharp increases in sexual activity among teens that have abated only recently, according to the National Center for Health Statistics' National Survey of Family Growth. This review article also tracks changes in contraceptive practice and abortion rates.
Machold, C; Judge, G; Mavrinac, A; Elliott, J; Murphy, A M; Roche, E
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have grown substantially, posing new hazards to teenagers. This study aimed to determine general patterns of Internet usage among Irish teenagers aged 11-16 years, and to identify potential hazards, including; bullying, inappropriate contact, overuse, addiction and invasion of users' privacy. A cross-sectional study design was employed to survey students at three Irish secondary schools, with a sample of 474 completing a questionnaire. 202 (44%) (n = 460) accessed the Internet using a shared home computer. Two hours or less were spent online daily by 285(62%), of whom 450 (98%) were unsupervised. 306 (72%) (n = 425) reported frequent usage of SNSs, 403 (95%) of whom were Facebook users. 42 (10%) males and 51 (12%) females experienced bullying online, while 114 (27%) reported inappropriate contact from others. Concerning overuse and the risk of addiction, 140 (33%) felt they accessed SNSs too often. These patterns among Irish teenagers suggest that SNS usage poses significant dangers, which are going largely unaddressed.
Tella, E; Beauchet, A; Vouldoukis, I; Séi, J-F; Beaulieu, P; Sigal, M-L; Mahé, E
Exposure to solar and artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiations is a major risk factor for skin cancers. France has enacted one of the strictest laws that, notably, restrict tanning-bed access to adults ≥18 years old. We evaluated artificial tanning behaviours of French teenagers (11-17 years old): sunless-tanning products, sunlamps and artificial tanning beds. An anonymous questionnaire evaluating sunburn history, skin phototype, behaviours with sunless-tanning products and indoor tanning, and parents' behaviours was distributed to students enrolled in two middle and high schools in Antony, a typical city of the middle class French population, located in the Paris suburbs. RESULTS Among 713 teenagers (mean age: 13.5 years: male/female: 1.1) responding, more than half declared that it was important to be tanned during the summer, 1% reported having already used tanning pills, 9.9% tanning creams and 1.4% indoor tanning. Female teenagers significantly more frequently resorted to indoor tanning (P = 0.02), cited the importance of being tanned all year long (P < 0.0001), used tanning pills (P < 0.0001) or tanning creams (P < 0.006), and their parents relied on indoor tanning (P < 0.0001). Profiles of tanning-pill and -cream users were similar. Mean ages for the two groups were comparable. French regulations for indoor tanning seem quite effective. Our analyses revealed a typical teenager profile with sun-exposure risk behaviours, for example, indoor tanning, and use of tanning pills or creams. They could be a selective target for sun-protection information campaigns. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Created by Coventry University in association with the Teenage Cancer Trust, this free e-learning web app aims to help those new to working with teenagers and young adults with cancer to understand their unique needs.
Rushovich, Berenice R; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Davis, C E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Elder, John P; Going, Scott; Marino, Vivian G
). However, unsupervised girls also were more likely to be dancing (14.0% vs. 9.3%) and listening to music (20.8% vs. 12.0%) (p < .05). Girls in an unsupervised environment engaged in fewer structured activities and did not immediately do their homework, but they were more likely to be physically active than supervised girls. These results may have implications for parents, school, and community agencies as to how to structure activities in order to encourage teenage girls to be more physically active.
Rushovich, Berenice R; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Davis, CE; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Elder, John P; Going, Scott; Marino, Vivian G
(n = 569). However, unsupervised girls also were more likely to be dancing (14.0% vs. 9.3%) and listening to music (20.8% vs. 12.0%) (p < .05). Conclusion Girls in an unsupervised environment engaged in fewer structured activities and did not immediately do their homework, but they were more likely to be physically active than supervised girls. These results may have implications for parents, school, and community agencies as to how to structure activities in order to encourage teenage girls to be more physically active. PMID:16879750
Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza
The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure.
Sweet, Richard; And Others
This staff brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It presents information on teenage pregnancy, programs to deal with teenage pregnancy, and proposed legislation from the 1989-1990 Wisconsin Legislative Session. Part I of the brief provides pregnancy data for…
A study described the effects of minimum wages on teenagers by using individual-level panel data on school and work transitions of teenagers. Panel data from 1979-92 measuring transitions among alternative employment and enrollment activities of teenagers were obtained from matched Current Population Surveys data sets. Findings indicated that…
Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.
According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…
Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O
Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.
Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria
Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.
Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg
Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310
Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Southwell, Brian G.
Background Smoking in movies is prevalent. However, use of content analysis to describe trends in smoking in movies has provided mixed results and has not tapped what adolescents actually perceive. Purpose To assess the prospective trends in the prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers, and identify predictors associated with these trends. Methods Using data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected during 2000–2006 when participants were aged between 12 and 18 years (N=4735), latent variable growth models were employed to describe the longitudinal trends in the perceived prevalence of smoking in movies using a 4-level scale (never to most of the time) measured every 6 months, and examined associations between these trends and demographic, smoking-related attitudinal and socio-environmental predictors. Analysis was conducted in 2009. Results At baseline, about 50% of participants reported seeing smoking in movies “some of the time”, and another 36% reported “most of the time”. The prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers declined over time, and the decline was steeper in those who were aged 14–16 years than those who were younger at baseline (p≤0.05). Despite the decline, teenagers still reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time. Teenagers who reported more close friends who smoked also reported a higher prevalence of smoking in movies at baseline (regression coefficients: 0.04–0.18, p<0.01). Conclusions Teenagers' perception of the prevalence of smoking in movies declined over time, which may be attributable to changes made by the movie industry. Despite the decline, teenagers were still exposed to a moderate amount of smoking imagery. Interventions that further reduce teenage exposure to smoking in movies may be needed to have an effect on adolescent smoking. PMID:21767724
This paper explores the role of sex and relationship education (SRE) in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. It critically examines some of the assumptions underlying the emphasis placed on SRE within the teenage pregnancy strategy ( SEU, 1999)--in particular, the view that ignorance of sexual matters plays a key part in teenage conception. An…
Cohen, L; Gras-Le Guen, C; Fleury, J; Caldagues, E; Dreno, L; Picherot, G; Vabres, N
Teenagers admitted to the emergency room for a violent attacks episode are increasingly numerous. The source of agitation is multifactorial for these teenagers, often with a complex course. They jeopardize hospital wards, which are often ill-suited for and overwhelmed during these outbursts. This study aims to identify and describe all the teenagers admitted to the hospital over 1 year for a violent outburst and discuss their management. Retrospective and descriptive study of teenagers admitted to the pediatric emergency department of the Nantes University Hospital for a violent outburst in 2015. During this 1-year study, 99 teenagers out of a total of 182 consultations were admitted for a violent outburst. We noted that 85% of them had a previous history of a violent outburst, 70% of them were seeing a psychologist, and 56% were followed by the child welfare services. Most of the outbursts took place at home and were hetero-aggressive. Upon arrival at the pediatric emergency ward, 90% of the teenagers had calmed down. The mean time spent in the emergency ward was 3h42min. Finally, 31% of the teenagers were hospitalized in the general pediatric unit, 14% in the children's psychiatric department, and 8% in the adult psychiatry ward. We observed a high proportion of complex cases in the teenagers admitted to our emergency department for a violent outburst. These teenagers in distress, with a complex previous history, illustrated the relation between violence against themselves and their own violent behavior toward others. Developing short-stay units for a temporary isolation could be an advantageous multidisciplinary approach to allow somatic, psychological, and social evaluation of these vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lundstrom, Mats; Ekborg, Margareta; Ideland, Malin
This article reports on a study of how teenagers made their decision on whether or not to vaccinate themselves against the new influenza. Its purpose was to identify connections between how teenagers talk about themselves and the decision they made. How do the teenagers construct their identities while talking about a specific socio-scientific…
This paper examines the nonmarital teenage childbearing behavior of two cohorts of women from the National Longitudinal Surveys (born between 1957-1964, making them teenagers during the 1970s-80s, and between 1980-94, making them teenagers during the late 1990s-early 2000s). The two cohorts faced substantially different social and economic…
In this article I offer a framework for thinking about how public schools in liberal societies ought to respond to instances of arranged marriages for girls from deeply communitarian cultural groups. Focusing on three cases of culturally and religiously arranged marriages from the Hmong, Islamic fundamentalist and Mormon fundamentalist…
Ventura, Stephanie J.; Curtin, Sally C.; Mathews, T. J.
This report presents national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-1998 and the percent change from 1991 to 1998. State-specific teenage birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin for 1991 and 1998, and the percent change, 1991 to 1998, are also presented. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the United…
Johansson, Lars; Lindqvist, Per; Eriksson, Anders
Background We have previously studied unintentional as well as intentional injury deaths among teenagers living in the four northernmost counties, forming approximately 55% of Sweden with 908,000 inhabitants in 1991. During this work, we found what we suspected to be a suicide cluster among teenagers and we also suspected contagion since there were links between these cases. In this present study, we investigate the occurrence of suicide clustering among teenagers, analyze cluster definitions, and suggest preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of teenager suicides autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Umeå, Sweden, during 1981 through 2000. Police reports, autopsy protocols, and medical records were studied in all cases, and the police officers that conducted the investigation at the scene were interviewed in all cluster cases. Parents of the suicide victims of the first cluster were also interviewed. Two aggregations of teenager suicides were detected and evaluated as possible suicide clusters using the US Centers for Disease Control definition of a suicide cluster. Results Two clusters including six teenagers were confirmed, and contagion was established within each cluster. Conclusion The general practitioner is identified as a key person in the aftermath of a teenage suicide since the general practitioner often meet the family, friends of the deceased, and other acquaintances early in the process after a suicide. This makes the general practitioner suitable to initiate contacts with others involved in the well-being of the young, in order to prevent suicide cluster formation and para-suicidal activities. PMID:16707009
Bredenberg, Alice M.
The background of Satanism and typical Satanic activities are described. It is noted that contemporary Satanism has three forms: solitary Satanists, outlaw cults, and neo-Satanic churches. Included in a description of Satanic activities are Heavy Metal music and fantasy games, both of which are intensely interesting to teenagers. The next section…
Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…
Ventura, S J; Mathews, T J; Hamilton, B E
This report presents trends in national birth rates for teenagers, with particular focus on the decade of the 1990s. The percent change in rates for 1991-2000 is presented for the United States, and the change for 1991-99 is presented for States. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the Nation and each State, by age group, race, and Hispanic origin, are discussed. Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years generally declined in the United States since the late 1950s, except for a brief, but steep, upward climb in the late 1980s until 1991. The 2000 rate (49 births per 1,000) is about half the peak rate recorded in 1957 (96 per 1,000). Still the U.S. rate is considerably higher than rates for other developed countries. During the 1990s rate declines were especially large for black teenagers. State-specific rates fell significantly in all States for ages 15-19 and 15-17 years, and in all but three States for ages 18-19 years. Overall the range of decline in State rates for ages 15-19 years was 11 to 36 percent. For teenagers 15-17 years, the range of decline by State was 13 to 43 percent. Reductions by State were largest for black teenagers 15-19 years, with rates falling 40 percent or more in seven States. The factors accounting for these declines include decreased sexual activity reflecting changing attitudes towards premarital sex, increases in condom use, and adoption of newly available hormonal contraception, implants, and injectables.
CONTEXT A substantial body of research has compared educational outcomes of teenage parents with those of their childless peers, but less attention has gone to variations among teenage parents. Additionally, gender differences in teenage parents’ educational outcomes have rarely been studied. METHODS Characteristics associated with high school graduation by age 26 were assessed among 317 teenage mothers and fathers who participated in the 1988–2000 National Education Longitudinal Study. Logistic regression models included socioeconomic and educational characteristics, gender, parenting responsibilities and resources, and gender interactions. RESULTS Married or cohabiting teenage parents living with no or one parent had 73% lower odds of graduation than single respondents living with two parents. Gender moderated the relationships between two parenting responsibilities and the likelihood of graduation: Fathers working at least half-time were less likely than nonworking fathers to graduate (odds ratio, 0.2), and fathers who were primary caregivers had substantially elevated odds of graduating (7.4), but no similar relationships were seen among mothers. Sixty-one percent of fathers who worked but were not primary care-givers were predicted to graduate by age 26, compared with 97% of those who were nonworking primary caregivers. CONCLUSIONS Traditional parenting norms, according to which mothers are primary caregivers and fathers are breadwinners, do not appear to be associated with improved odds of graduating. Policies and interventions aimed at helping teenage parents graduate may be most effective if they target both genders, but some are likely to be more beneficial for one gender than the other. PMID:20887284
Designed to better acquaint U.S. teenagers with their counterparts in India, the four lesson plans and supplementary materials contained in this document ask students to compare their lives with those of Indian teenagers in the following areas: education, recreation, dating/marriage, and problems. (DB)
Mohammadi, Nooredin; Montazeri, Simin; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Gharacheh, Maryam
Teenage pregnancy is a major health problem significantly associated with negative impacts on the health of both teenage mothers and their newborn. However, little is known about teenage pregnancy from teenager's perspective, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the experience of pregnancy in Iranian teenage women. An interpretive phenomenological study was used as a suitable research design to conduct this research. Data were collected through individual, semi structured and in-depth interview with 11 married teenage women aged between 15 and 19 years old, primigravida with singleton pregnancy. Data were analysed through thematic analysis approach. "Fast development" was the main theme that emerged from the participants' experiences. It refers to the unexpected development process that occurs simultaneously with other important development events. Fast development consists of three themes, 'unexpected development', 'development within development', and 'struggle with development'. Teenage pregnant women simultaneously encounter multiple developmental challenges related to adolescence period, marriage, pregnancy, and mothering responsibilities. According to the results, fast development concept should be considered by healthcare providers in order to offer comprehensive and age-appropriate health services to pregnant teenage women for successful transition from the multiple developmental stages. Moreover, this concept will help health care providers, especially midwives, to understand how to deal with pregnant teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Kelso-Chichetto, Natalie E.; Cottler, Linda B.
Purpose Little is known about the risk factors for nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription stimulants among adolescent girls. We aimed to measure the association of nonmedical prescription stimulant use with empirically linked risk factors, including weight control behavior (WCB), gambling, and depressed mood, in pre-teen and teenaged girls. Methods We assessed the relationship between age and race, gambling, WCB, depressive mood, and nonmedical prescription stimulant use using multivariable logistic regression. The study sample included 5,585 females, aged 10–18 years, recruited via an entertainment venue intercept method in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas as part of the National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (2008–2011). Results NMU of prescription stimulants was reported by 6.6% (n = 370) of the sample. In multivariable logistic regression, 1-year increase in age was associated with a 21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: .15, .28) increase in risk for NMU. Whites and other race/ethnicity girls had 2.67 (CI: 1.85, 3.87) and 1.71 (1.11, 2.65) times higher odds for NMU, compared to African-Americans. Depressive mood (adjusted odds ratio: 2.69, CI: 2.04, 5.57) and gambling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.90, 1.23, 2.92) were associated with increased odds for NMU. A dose-response was identified between WCB and NMU, where girls with unhealthy and extreme WCB were over five times more likely to endorse NMU. Conclusions We contribute to the literature linking WCB, depression, gambling, and the NMU of prescription stimulants in any population and uniquely do so among girls. PMID:27998704
Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D.; Tavares, Patrícia A.; Cruz, Suélen H.; Béhague, Dominique P.
In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people over the course of 10 years, our study found that young women who became teenage parents did not lack medical knowledge but were, rather, highly medicalised. Not only were they intensely concerned with the ill-effects of oral contraceptives on possible future fertility, they also engaged in intricate routines of contraceptive-use as a way of testing and safeguarding their fecundity. Our analysis attends to the way these practices are shaped by the problematisation of the economics of teenage pregnancy, as well as by the gendering of cultural norms relating to the transition to adulthood. We theorise the results by considering how contraceptive medicalisation enabled some women to engage with the authority of normative society, while developing a potent off-stage critique of this authority and of what they considered to be discriminatory messages imbedded in scientific discourses on teenage pregnancy. PMID:20972914
Kapoula, Zoï; Ruiz, Sarah; Spector, Lisa; Mocorovi, Marion; Gaertner, Chrystal; Quilici, Catherine; Vernet, Marine
Background and Study Hypothesis Are dyslexic children and teenagers more creative than non-dyslexic children and teenagers? Whether creativity is higher in dyslexia, and whether this could be related to neurological development specific to the dyslexic disorder, or to compensatory strategies acquired later in life, remains unclear. Here, we suggest an additional role of differential educational approaches taken in each school that could either enhance or suppress an already higher baseline creativity of dyslexic children and teenagers. Results Creativity in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children and teenagers from different schools in France and in Belgium, as well as in students from different universities, was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Children and teenagers with dyslexia and/or with other similar dysfunctions showed higher creativity scores than non-dyslexic participants. Moreover, the educational approach could further enhance the creative scores in dyslexia, which could be as high as those measured in students from art universities. Conclusions We conclude that dyslexic children and teenagers can be highly creative. Yet, expression of creativity can be modulated by educational approach, indicating a probable advantage for personal follow-up compared to normalizing education strategies. PMID:26950067
Kapoula, Zoï; Ruiz, Sarah; Spector, Lisa; Mocorovi, Marion; Gaertner, Chrystal; Quilici, Catherine; Vernet, Marine
Are dyslexic children and teenagers more creative than non-dyslexic children and teenagers? Whether creativity is higher in dyslexia, and whether this could be related to neurological development specific to the dyslexic disorder, or to compensatory strategies acquired later in life, remains unclear. Here, we suggest an additional role of differential educational approaches taken in each school that could either enhance or suppress an already higher baseline creativity of dyslexic children and teenagers. Creativity in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children and teenagers from different schools in France and in Belgium, as well as in students from different universities, was evaluated with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Children and teenagers with dyslexia and/or with other similar dysfunctions showed higher creativity scores than non-dyslexic participants. Moreover, the educational approach could further enhance the creative scores in dyslexia, which could be as high as those measured in students from art universities. We conclude that dyslexic children and teenagers can be highly creative. Yet, expression of creativity can be modulated by educational approach, indicating a probable advantage for personal follow-up compared to normalizing education strategies.
Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh
Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non-food-allergic teenagers. One focus group discussion with non-food-allergic teenagers (n = 11) and 14 semistructured interviewers (7 with food-allergic and 7 with non-food-allergic teenagers) were performed (age range, 12-18 years). The focus group discussion and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Teenagers from both groups (food-allergic and non-food-allergic) named sensory characteristics of foods as the main reason for choosing them. Some food-allergic teenagers downplayed their allergy and frequently engaged in risk-taking behavior in terms of their food choices. However, they reported difficulties in trying new foods, especially when away from home. Parental control was experienced as protective by those with food allergies, whereas non-food-allergic teenagers felt the opposite. Most teenagers, including food-allergic ones, expressed the wish to eat similar foods to their friends. Other themes did not vary between the 2 groups. Food-allergic teenagers strive to be able to make similar food choices to their friends, although differences to non-food-allergic teenagers exist. It is important to address these differences to improve their dietary management. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waldron, Linda M.
This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…
The article reviews research on teenage pregnancy, the special educational needs of the infants of these teenage mothers, and current intervention programs for teenage mothers and infants. Research demonstrates that intervention programs can impact infant mortality, morbidity, and prematurity as well as infant social and cognitive development.…
Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…
An example of the influence of television on the reading interests of teenagers may be seen in the popularity of the book "Eric," the true story of a boy's four-and-a-half-year battle with leukemia, which began just two days before he entered college. Although the television adaptation was inaccurate in many details concerning Eric's…
De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.
Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…
Perez, Sonia M.; Duany, Luis A.
This guide was designed to help Hispanic American community-based organizations develop and establish a teenage pregnancy prevention or teenage parenting program for Hispanic American adolescents. The guide does not assume prior knowledge of the scope of the teenage pregnancy problem in the United States, but it does underscore the critical role…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lovegrove, Peter J.
Much is known about how having a teenage mother influences children’s outcomes, but the relationship between teenage fatherhood and children’s health and development is less well documented. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, the authors investigated how teenage fathers matter for children. They expected teenage fathers’ influence on children to differ from adult fathers’ in three domains: the household context, the father–mother relationship, and the father–child relationship. Teenage fathers were less often married and more often cohabiting or nonresident, and their children experienced a variety of social disadvantages in their household contexts. The quality of the father–child relationship did not often differ between adolescent and adult fathers. Fathers’ marital status and children’s household contexts each fully explained the negative relationship between having a teen father and children’s cognitive and behavior scores at age 2. These findings suggest that policy interventions could possibly reduce these children’s developmental gaps in the critical preschool years. PMID:21927527
Davis, Richard A.
Broadly outlines scope of the problem of teenage pregnancy, some of its more obvious causes, and some of the long-term implications of not truly understanding the nature of the problem. Concludes with theoretical critique of social disorganizational, social definitional, and social organizational approaches to the problem of teenage pregnancy.…
Kaywell, Joan F.
"[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…
Today, many government and private agencies, clinics, foundations, and schools are sponsoring programs and literature for teen-age parents. These range in scope from fetal and maternal nutrition, to family planning counseling, to informal rap sessions on parenthood, to workshops on child care. (Author)
Miers, David; Abbott, Douglas; Springer, Paul R.
The objective of this phenomenological study was to develop an understanding of family needs following the suicide of a teenager. Six parent units living in the Midwest who lost a teenager to suicide were interviewed. Participants indicated several key themes that describe a parent's needs following the suicide of a teenager. These needs were…
Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.
Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and
Forster, Peter; Hohoff, Carsten; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Schürenkamp, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Neuhuber, Franz; Brinkmann, Bernd
Men age and die, while cells in their germline are programmed to be immortal. To elucidate how germ cells maintain viable DNA despite increasing parental age, we analysed DNA from 24 097 parents and their children, from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We chose repetitive microsatellite DNA that mutates (unlike point mutations) only as a result of cellular replication, providing us with a natural ‘cell-cycle counter’. We observe, as expected, that the overall mutation rate for fathers is seven times higher than for mothers. Also as expected, mothers have a low and lifelong constant DNA mutation rate. Surprisingly, however, we discover that (i) teenage fathers already set out from a much higher mutation rate than teenage mothers (potentially equivalent to 77–196 male germline cell divisions by puberty); and (ii) ageing men maintain sperm DNA quality similar to that of teenagers, presumably by using fresh batches of stem cells known as ‘A-dark spermatogonia’. PMID:25694621
Forster, Peter; Hohoff, Carsten; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Schürenkamp, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Neuhuber, Franz; Brinkmann, Bernd
Men age and die, while cells in their germline are programmed to be immortal. To elucidate how germ cells maintain viable DNA despite increasing parental age, we analysed DNA from 24 097 parents and their children, from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We chose repetitive microsatellite DNA that mutates (unlike point mutations) only as a result of cellular replication, providing us with a natural 'cell-cycle counter'. We observe, as expected, that the overall mutation rate for fathers is seven times higher than for mothers. Also as expected, mothers have a low and lifelong constant DNA mutation rate. Surprisingly, however, we discover that (i) teenage fathers already set out from a much higher mutation rate than teenage mothers (potentially equivalent to 77-196 male germline cell divisions by puberty); and (ii) ageing men maintain sperm DNA quality similar to that of teenagers, presumably by using fresh batches of stem cells known as 'A-dark spermatogonia'.
Krugu, John K; Mevissen, Fraujke E F; Flore, Kirsten A; Ruiter, Robert A C
There is extensive research on African girls sexual experiences, but much less is known about boys thoughts and actions. There is a need to understand the male perspective in order to develop sexuality education programmes that address the high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan Africa. For this qualitative, phenomenological study we spoke to 20 boys from Bolgatanga, Ghana and explored their sexual decision making, using semi-structured interviews designed to highlight psychosocial and environmental factors. Content analysis was used to construct categories and later the themes. Boys often had negative perceptions about sexual relationships. They believed that girls could not be trusted and mostly embarked on sexual relationships for material gain. The boys reported engaging in multiple sexual partnerships to secure their masculine status; however, they expected girls to be 'faithful'. We found that accurate knowledge of safe sex was lacking, boys were under peer pressure to conform to beliefs about masculinity and communication about sex mainly took place within peer groups. There is a need to emphasise condom use in established relationships. There should also be more discussion of issues surrounding fidelity and gender equality, as part of sexuality programmes aimed at boys in Ghana and in similar cultures.
Borzecki, Andrzej; Nieradko, Barbara; Gnasś, Bogumiła; Sieklucka-Dziuba, Maria
The work aimed to determine the leisure time activities in teenagers on weekdays, weekends, during winter and summer holidays. Vast majority of teenagers spend their leisure time resting in a passive way, i.e. watching TV or playing computer games irrespectively of the season. As a result of this, the number of kids with posture defects increase. On weekdays the country teenagers spend much more time doing outdoor sports and games than town children. They also more often help their parents and less frequently travel away from their homes than children living in towns.
This study analyses how teenaged instructors paired with older learners make use of scaffolding. Video data were categorised according to 15 types of direct scaffolding tactics, indirect scaffolding, and unused scaffolding opportunities. The results show that a teenager who is unprepared for the role of an instructor of Internet skills for older…
Mayton, Daniel M., II
With the rise of violent teenage crime, with an alarming number of child soldiers across the globe, and with the continually increasing number of children and adolescents who are victimized by violence and war, an instrument that measures nonviolent tendencies would be very useful. The Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT) was recently developed and…
Mugan, Guliz; Erkip, Feyzan
Teenagers spend much of their leisure time at shopping malls which is a result of factors such as parental constraints due to the incivility of the streets, financial dependence, and limited financial resources. Migros, a shopping mall in Ankara was chosen as the site for this research with the main purpose of studying discrimination patterns against teenagers in the mall environment. The research was carried out through observation and in-depth interviews with 104 teenagers. Results indicate that, although they have some complaints, most of the teenagers do not perceive discrimination in the mall, unlike their foreign counterparts.
Harman, P. K.; DeVore, E. K.
Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps. A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K - 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10: and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Daisy badge will be accomplished by following three steps with two choices each. Brownie to Ambassador badges will be awarded by completing five steps with three choices for each. The badges are interwoven with science activities, role models (SMEs), and steps that lead girls to explore NASA missions. External evaluators monitor three rounds of field-testing and deliver formative assessment reports. Badges will be released in Fall of 2018 and 2019. Girl Scout Stars supports two unique camp experiences. The University of Arizona holds an Astronomy Destination, a travel and immersion adventure for individual girls ages 13 and older, which offers dark skies and science exploration using telescopes, and interacting with SMEs. Girls lean about motion of celestial objects and become astronomers. Councils send teams of two girls, a council representative and an amateur astronomer to Astronomy Camp at Goddard Space Flight Center. The teams were immersed in science content and activities, and a star party; and began to plan their new Girl Scout Astronomy Clubs. The girls will lead the clubs, aided by the council and amateur astronomer. Camps are evaluated by the Girl Scouts Research Institute. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on
Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N
To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p < 0.001). The average age at which teenagers had the first mobile phone was 13 years old. Expenditure on mobile phones amounted to 15 3 a month in girls and 10 3 a month in boys, and mobiles were mainly used for sending messages. Nearly half the teenagers (46.4 %) took their mobile phones to high school and reported they had an average of three mobile phones at home. Most (82.1 %) surfed the net but boys preferred surfing and downloading games and girls preferred chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of
Kuang, Ying-min; Zhu, Yue-chun; Kuang, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Hua, Chen; He, Wen-yi
To investigate the effect of heroin on the immune function, growth and development in the teenager heroin addicts by measuring their T-lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 cytokines and serum growth hormone. Tlymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood from the teenager heroin addicts were measured by direct microvolume whole blood immunofluorescent staining technique by flow cytometer (FCM). Thl / Th2 cytokines were measured by BD cytometric bead array and serum growth hormone was assayed using the chemiluminescence method in the 20 teenager heroin addicts and 23 healthy teenagers. The levels of CD3(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+)/CD3(+)+ CD8(+), Th1 cytokines(IL-2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) and Th2 cytokines(IL-4 and IL-10) reduced significantly in the teenager heroin addicts compared with the healthy control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). The level of Th1 cytokines(IL-2 + TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma) decreased more than that of Th2 cytokines(IL-4 + IL-5 + IL-10)(P < 0.05). The level of serum growth hormone from the teenager heroin addicts was remarkably higher than that in control group (P<0.01). Heroin can inhibit the immunofunction especially the celluar immunity of the teenager heroin addicts. Besides, it can increase the level of serum growth hormone of the teenager heroin addicts.
Quinlivan, Julie A; Tan, Louisa H; Steele, Angela; Black, Kirsten
Teenage pregnancy has been well studied from a demographic risk perspective, but less data examining the early interpersonal family experiences of teenage mothers are available. We aimed to explore the relative impact of demographic, early interpersonal family relationships and depressive symptomatology as associations for teenage, as compared to non-teenage, childbearing. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Data from consecutive teenage (teenage) and non-teenage (control) subgroups of antenatal women were compared. Subjects were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: demographic, drug use and lifestyle; early life experiences; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and General Health Questionnaire-28. In multivariate analysis, the following factors had a significant independent association with younger age of motherhood in order of magnitude: a history of parental separation/divorce in early childhood; exposure to family violence in early childhood; illicit drug use (ever or in pregnancy); idealization of the pregnancy; low family income; a positive HADS-A or HADS-D subscale score; and a low level of education. Interventions to reduce the rate of teenage births need to be multifocal and should include strategies to address early childhood exposure to parental separation and violence, reduce idealization of pregnancy, diagnose psychological symptomatology and offer alternative career choices to children defaulting in the education system.
Johnson, Nicola F.; Humphry, Nicoli
The take-up of digital technology by young people is a well-known phenomenon and has been subject to socio-cultural analysis in areas such as youth studies and cultural studies. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN) research project investigates how teenagers develop technological expertise in techno-cultural contexts via the use of a purposefully…
Amin, Raid; Decesare, Julie Zemaitis; Hans, Jennifer; Roussos-Ross, Kay
To investigate the geographic variation in the average teenage birth rates by county in the contiguous United States. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used in this retrospective cohort to count the total number of live births to females aged 15-19 years by county between 2006 and 2012. Software for disease surveillance and spatial cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of high or low teenage births in counties or areas of greater than 100,000 teenage females. The analysis was then adjusted for percentage of poverty and high school diploma achievement. The unadjusted analysis identified the top 10 clusters of teenage births. The cluster with the highest rate was a city and the surrounding 40 counties, demonstrating an average teen birth rate of 67 per 1,000 females in the age range, 87% higher than the rate in the contiguous United States. Adjustments for poverty rates and high school diploma achievement shifted the top clusters to other areas. Despite an overall national decline in the teenage birth rate, clusters of elevated teenage birth rates remain. These clusters are not random and remain higher than expected when adjusted for poverty and education. This data set provides a framework to focus targeted interventions to reduce teenage birth rates in this high-risk population.
Adamson, Peter; Brown, Giorgina; Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna
This third Innocenti Report Card presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive survey so far of teenage birth rates in the industrialized world. And it attempts at least a partial analysis of why some countries have teenage birth rates that are ten or even fifteen times higher than others. The starting point is a new league table of teenage birth…
Cheng, Tsung O.
Examines the increasing problem of teenage smoking in modern China. Reviews China's smoking control efforts, a major feature of which has been to educate the youth against smoking so as to prevent them from starting and reduce the overall number of new smokers. (Contains 61 references.) (Author/GCP)
As discourse in sexual education classes across the USA in 1996 began to change, media outlets became important sources of education for teenage girls. Unaffected directly by government policy, one of the most popular teenage girls' magazines, "Seventeen," provided a plethora of information on sex. Several scholars have examined…
Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Many programs emphasize subsequent pregnancy prevention and high school graduation among teenage mothers; however, less is known about their ability to increase financial earnings from employment opportunities while concurrently enrolled in school. This study evaluates factors influencing employment status among teenage mothers after…
Pregnancy in a teenager may be an expression of her angst. From a lack of contraception or its failure, to the desire to be pregnant, she may be expressing her wish to acquire the status of an adult or to offset depression and anxiety resulting from abandonment. The situation is further compounded by the physical changes she undergoes. Providing the teenager with global support is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto
To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.
Toutenu, Pauline; Chauvin, Franck
In France, teenagers with cancer are managed mainly in paediatric units, given that there are only few teenage cancer units. This situation leads to the following question: are teenagers with cancer provided with tailored patient education? The object of this study was to identify education programmes specifically designed for teenagers in French paediatric oncology units. This study was conducted first by questionnaires, second by interviews with health care providers in units where information programs had been implemented. Nine information programmes or projects were identified: 2 booklets, one log book, one Web chat, one video, one DVD, one educative muppet, one peer based education group project, one nursing education session project and one qualitative study project. Only 5 from these programmes or project were specifically designed for teenagers. Four approaches can be identified: conception of education materials, individual patient education, group patient education, informal patient education.
De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D
Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers.
Barret, Robert L.; Robinson, Bryan E.
Presents a comprehensive review of the literature on teenage fathers along with recommendations on how services to unwed adolescent parents of both sexes can be improved. Discusses empirical research, demographics, psychological factors, and paternal involvement. (Author)
McAfee, M L; Geesey, M R
The drop-out rate for pregnant students in the York (Pennsylvania) City School District is dramatically lower than the national average because the district recognized the need for meeting the unique problems of the pregnant student. In York, as in the rest of the nation, teen-age pregnancy was on the increase. Administrators of the district realized that a separately housed alternative education program would be too costly. In January 1979, the authors designed and implemented an in-school program called "Changing Roles." Five years later, that program has become an important factor in keeping the majority of pregnant students in school, at the same time, providing the girls the special information they need. In the 1982-83 school year, only 9.5% of the pregnant students dropped out of York City schools. This rate is far below the national drop-out rate of 80% to 90%.
Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C
The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand
Harman, P. K.
Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) engages Girl Scouts in observing the 2017 eclipse. Three councils are host-sponsors of Girl Scout Total Eclipse Destinations,. Total Eclipse of the Heartland, sponsored by Girl Scouts of Southern Illinois, begins with planetarium, and science center visits in St. Louis, and transits to Carbondale for the eclipse. The Great Eclipse Adventure, sponsored by the Girl Scouts of the Missouri Heartland, features hands-on science activities led by Astronomy and Physics faculty and grad students at University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and observing the eclipse at a camp nearby. Eyes to the Sky: A Once in a Lifetime Destination, by the Girl Scouts of South Carolina - Mountains to Midlands, visits a Challenger Center, a planetarium, and observatory, and culminates at Camp MaBak, Marietta, SC. Girl Scout Destinations are travel adventures, for individual girls ages 11 and older, that are inspiring, life-changing experiences. Destinations are determined via an application and review process by Girls Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout Stars also developed an Eclipse Activity Guide and kit box of materials, distributed the materials to 91 Girl Scout Councils, and delivered webinar training to councils. The eclipse materials enrich the girls' summer camp experiences with activities that promote understanding the Sun-Earth-Moon relationship, the solar system and safe eclipse viewing; and that feature science practices. Examples of the reach of the kit boxes are Girl Scouts of Montana and Wyoming Total Eclipse Event in Casper, WY, and the Girl Scouts of Northern California summer camps featuring the activities. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on activities where girls can team up and work together
This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)
Henderson, Morag; Scourfield, Jonathan; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sharland, Elaine; Sloan, Luke
Objective: This study investigated outcomes of social service contact during teenage years. Method: Secondary analysis was conducted of the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England (N = 15,770), using data on reported contact with social services resulting from teenagers' behavior. Outcomes considered were educational achievement and…
Wisniewski, Megan M; O'Connell, Heather A
Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity. We find, overall, limited support for a connection between clinic distance and local teenage birth rates. However, clinics seem to matter most for explaining non-Hispanic white teenage birth rates, particularly in high-poverty zip codes. The racial/ethnic and economic variation in the importance of clinic distance suggests tailoring clinic outreach to more effectively serve a wider range of teenage populations. We argue social accessibility should be considered in addition to geographic accessibility in order for clinics to help prevent teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Background In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to various characteristics, including education and ethnicity, (both associated with non-attendance to the national cervical screening program), sexual behaviour and knowledge of HPV. Methods In 2010, 19,939 nationwide randomly-selected 16–17 year-old girls (2009 vaccination campaign) were invited to fill out an online questionnaire. A knowledge scale score and multivariable analyses identified variables associated with vaccination status. Results 2989 (15%) of the selected girls participated (65% vaccinated, 35% unvaccinated). The participants were comparable with regard to education, ethnicity, most sexual risk behaviour and had similar knowledge scores on HPV transmission and vaccination. However, unvaccinated girls lived in more urbanised areas and were more likely to have a religious background. Irrespective of vaccination status, 81% of the girls were aware of the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer, but the awareness of the necessity of cervical screening despite being vaccinated was limited. Conclusions HPV vaccine uptake was not associated with knowledge of HPV and with factors that are known to be associated with non-attendance to the cervical cancer screening program in the Netherlands. Furthermore, most sexual behaviour was not related to vaccination status meaning that teenage unvaccinated girls were not at a disproportionally higher risk of being exposed to HPV. Routine HPV vaccination may reduce the social inequity of prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:24679163
Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.
In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.
De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.
Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12–18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers. PMID:21279428
Enomoto, Carl E.
Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)
Patten, Christi A.
Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…
Greene, Kaylin M; Staff, Jeremy
Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents recent nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study suggesting that limited hours of paid work do not crowd out developmentally appropriate after-school activities. A review of the literature also supports the idea that employment for limited hours in good jobs can promote career readiness and positive development. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of youth work for practitioners and policymakers who are delivering career-related programming. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…
Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others
Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…
Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis
This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement.
Smith, P B; Mumford, D M; Goldfarb, J L; Kaufman, R H
Contraceptive, educational, and vocational behavior patterns of postpartum adolescents were examined. Eight months after delivery 269 teenage girls who participated in a comprehensive antepartum psycho-social program were mailed follow-up questionnaires. Eighty-three percent of teenage mothers who responded reported using birth control pills as a form of contraception. We found that single girls were more actively involved in vocational and educational training. This and other observations indicate that marital status of teenage participants is important to their postpartum actions.
Scott, Joseph W.
Examines mother-daughter relationships and teenage pregnancy prevention in 153 school-aged mothers. The consistent finding is that negative daughter-mother relationships foster earlier first pregnancies, whereas positive relationships resulted in later-age pregnancies. Consistently positive relationships are second in potency for delaying or…
Suri, K B
Unmarried pregnant teenagers comprise the most significant challenge to contemporary US social welfare policy. In 1986, never-married women who first gave birth in adolescence represented 37% of all poor, female-headed families. Education has been widely recognized as both a cause and a consequence of adolescent motherhood. Failure to complete high school is a major predictor of poverty and the duration of receipt of welfare benefits. The pattern is intergenerational: teenagers whose parents have not completed high school are substantially more likely to become pregnant and have an out-of-wedlock birth than are their peers whose parents have at least a secondary education. Even when socioeconomic factors are controlled for, unmarried teenage mothers average two years less education than their peers. More critical, the literature suggests, than the number of years of schooling is performance in and attitudes toward school. An adolescent who is performing below grade level and aware that her occupational choices are limited as a result is more likely to choose to become an unwed mother than to seek abortion or adoption. This finding suggests the importance of identifying teenagers with risk factors for out-of-wedlock birth (e.g., coming from single-parent households, low socioeconomic family status, chronic school underachievement) and providing them with enriched educational and occupational motivation and opportunities.
Empfield, Maureen; Bakalar, Nicholas
The incidence of teenage depression has increased all over the world. In some populations it is has been accompanied by suicide, but suicide remains rare. Clinical depression, which entails many debilitating physical and psychological symptoms, is a serious disease that can do terrible and even permanent damage to a teenager's developmental…
Welch, David; Reddy, Ravi; Hand, Jennifer; Devine, Irina May
We investigated the change in hearing-health behaviour amongst teenagers trained to deliver the Dangerous Decibels programme to younger children. The Dangerous Decibels programme uses a two-stage process to train 8-12 year-old children to protect their hearing from noise: (1) a team of experts train 'Educators' who (2) give classroom training to children in schools. Training teenagers as Educators may add a second level of benefit if teenagers internalize the hearing-health messages that they present and thus protect their own hearing better. They were assessed before training, immediately after, and three months later (after all had presented the classroom training) using a questionnaire. In addition, a focus group was conducted with a subgroup of the Educators to assess their subjective experience. We trained 44 Educators aged 14-17 years. Results were generally positive: there were significant and sustained improvements in knowledge, self-reported behaviour, and perceived supports towards protecting hearing, and trends but not significant changes in attitudes or perceived barriers to hearing protection. Providing training to teenagers had benefits beyond the delivery of training to younger children, but improvements in the delivery model may increase the uptake and impact on the teenagers.
Masemola-Yende, J P F; Mataboge, Sanah M
The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.
Grogger, J; Bronars, S
A study based on census data from 1970 and 1980 examines the socioeconomic effects of unplanned teenage childbearing by comparing teenage mothers whose first birth was to twins with those whose first birth was to a single infant. Among black women, an unplanned teenage birth--represented by the secondborn twin--results in significantly lower rates of high school graduation and labor-force participation and significantly higher rates of poverty and welfare recipiency. Ten years after giving birth, black women who have an unplanned child are also significantly less likely than women who have not to be currently married, but are not less likely to have ever been married. Like black women, white women who have an unplanned teenage birth have significantly higher rates of poverty and welfare recipiency; they also have significantly lower family earnings and household income.
Thornberg, Robert; Knutsen, Sven
The aim of the present study was to explore how teenagers explain why bullying takes place at school, and whether there were any differences in explaining bullying due to gender and prior bullying experiences. One hundred and seventy-six Swedish students in Grade 9 responded to a questionnaire. Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods)…
This patient update presents information about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. In the US, one million teenagers become pregnant each year, and 85% of these pregnancies are unplanned. Pregnancy can occur the first time a person has sexual intercourse, and, without the use of contraception, 90% of sexually active teenagers will become pregnant within a year. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted during first intercourse, and about 25% of sexually active teenagers (three million) get an STD each year. The best protection against STDs and AIDS is abstinence, followed by use of a latex male condom or a female condom. It is known that many teenagers are afraid to use contraceptives because they fail to realize that contraception is safer than pregnancy and delivery. Common fears about oral contraceptives (that the body need a "rest" from their use and that they cause cancer, weight gain, future problems with pregnancy, and birth defects) arise from misinformation. In fact, this type of contraception has many beneficial effects. Similarly, fears about the condom (it is not effective, it may break, it will interfere with pleasure), contraceptive implants (they will hurt, they are not safe, they can break in the arm), and injectables (they are not effective, they cause heavy menstrual bleeding, and they cause cancer) are also ill-founded. This patient information sheet provides accurate information in each case.
Osofsky, Howard J.
Concerned with teen-aged pregnancy, the text includes discussions of premarital pregnancy, the pregnant teen as a member of the poor, as nonwhite, and as a teen-ager, obstetrical concepts, pregnancy results, factors which influence medical prognosis, and solutions to minimize medical risk. Additional areas of concern are a research review and a…
Matthews, Hugh; Taylor, Mark; Percy-Smith, Barry; Limb, Melanie
Examines attitudes toward the role of the shopping mall as a place for congregating. Notes that adult attitudes reflect a discomfort with teenagers being in a place where they have no clear role, while teenagers transgress and question the spatial hegemony of adulthood, creating a "thirdspace" reflecting their place between adulthood and…
Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mathews, T. J.; Curtin, Sally C.
This report includes national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-98; the percent of change, 1991-98; state-specific teenage birth rates for 1991 and 1997; and the percent change, 1991-97. Data are in the form of tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates by age group, race, and Hispanic origin of the mother. The data…
Noting that family members need to work together to find ways of relating that feel comfortable, this book is intended to help teenage stepchildren understand stepfamily life and to find ways to make it happier. The chapters are: (1) "Divided Loyalty," including being a go-between for divorcing parents and where to live; (2) "Can Access Be Fun?"…
Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E
Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p < .001). The use and abuse of mood/mind-altering licit and illicit substances appear to be increasing among older teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.
Condon, L.; Rhodes, C.; Warren, S.; Withall, J.; Tapp, A.
Aim: To explore teenagers experiences of the breastfeeding promotion and support delivered by health professionals. Design: A qualitative study conducted in an English city. Methods: Pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers (n = 29) took part in semi-structured interviews and focus groups between March and July 2009. Results: Breastfeeding is…
Gans, Gian; Hetzel, Barbara A.
The lessons developed in this guide were designed for pregnant teenagers and teenage parents enrolled in the Wisconsin School-Age Parent (SAPAR) Program. The lessons can also be adapted for use in non-SAPAR courses such as family and consumer education, health, and language arts. The guide has eight chapters: Introduction (a preliminary lesson…
These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…
Rodrigues, Erika Marafon; Boog, Maria Cristina Faber
Obesity is a public health issue with relevant social determinants in its etiology and where interventions with teenagers encounter complex biopsychological conditions. This study evaluated intervention in nutritional education through a problem-posing approach with 22 obese teenagers, treated collectively and individually for eight months. Speech acts were collected through the use of word cards, observer recording, and tape-recording. The study adopted a qualitative methodology, and the approach involved content analysis. Problem-posing facilitated changes in eating behavior, triggering reflections on nutritional practices, family circumstances, social stigma, interaction with health professionals, and religion. Teenagers under individual care posed problems more effectively in relation to eating, while those under collective care posed problems in relation to family and psychological issues, with effective qualitative eating changes in both groups. The intervention helped teenagers understand their life history and determinants of eating behaviors, spontaneously implementing eating changes and making them aware of possibilities for maintaining the new practices and autonomously exercising their role as protagonists in their own health care.
DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific
Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and
Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap
[Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers.
Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie
Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…
Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo
Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion.
Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart
Because young drivers' vehicles have been found to offer poor occupant protection in many countries, this study sought to identify the most appropriate audience for information and publicity designed to change purchasing preferences to improve these vehicles and resultant injury outcomes. An analysis of New Zealand vehicles crashed by drivers aged 19 years or less linked to data on the owner of the vehicle was undertaken. Details on the crashed vehicles were merged with licensing information to identify the owner's age group. It was presumed that most vehicles driven by teens but owned by someone aged 30 to 59 would be owned by a parent of the teen. Only 14 percent of vehicles crashed by teens were owned by teens. Generally, older vehicles with poor crashworthiness were provided for the teenage driver, whatever the age group of the owner. However, cars crashed by teens but owned by their parents were on average almost 2 years younger and had relatively superior crashworthiness than the teenager-owned and crashed vehicles, although their crashworthiness was still poor compared to vehicles driven by older drivers. Evidently, parents are key people in making vehicle purchasing decisions regarding the cars that teenagers drive and should be the main audience for measures to improve the poor secondary safety performance of teenagers' vehicles.
Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments. PMID:22409884
Ortiz, Manuel; Ortiz, Eugenia
Treatment compliance among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, is low in 50% of diabetic teenagers, becoming a social and medical problem. To determine psycho-social factors associated to treatment compliance among Chilean diabetic type 1 teenagers. A non experimental study of 61 diabetic teenagers (age 14.9+/-1.9 years, 37 male). The number of blood glucose determinations, socioeconomic level and practice of sports was measured. Psychological tests were applied to analyze self-efficiency, motivation of achievement, self-esteem and knowledge of the illness and its treatment. As a measure of patient compliance, glycosilated hemoglobin (HB1Ac) was measured. Six patients had a good control of diabetes (HB1Ac <7%), 24 had HB1Ac values between 7 and 8.9, and 31 (51%) had values of 9% or more, considered as a poor diabetes control. The intensified insulin treatment scheme, the knowledge of the illness and its treatment and the sense of self-efficiency, were the factors associated with a better compliance with treatment. Teenagers of higher socio-economical levels had a better compliance with treatment. Fifty percent of Chilean diabetic teenagers in this sample had a poor control of the disease and the variable knowledge about the disease is the better predictor of patient compliance.
Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S
Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.
Nkani, Nomvuyo; Bhana, Deevia
Research addressing the sexual health and reproductive rights of pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers is growing, although attention to the sexual well-being of young mothers who are already in school remains limited. This omission places teenage mothers at risk, who may be susceptible to repeated pregnancies that may compromise their well-being…
Coyne, Claire A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.
In the decade and a half since Coley & Chase-Lansdale’s (1998) review of teenage childbearing there have been a number of studies investigating teenage childbearing from a developmental psychological perspective. Many of these studies have focused primarily on identifying individual, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors in childhood and adolescence that are highly correlated with teenage sexual behavior and teenage childbearing. We have an emerging understanding of teenage childbearing as the culmination of a complex cascade of experiences and decisions that overlap greatly with the risks for antisocial behavior. Much of this research, however, is limited by its reliance on correlational and cross-sectional research designs, which are not able to rigorously test causal inferences or to identify mechanisms associated with teenage childbearing. Innovative studies using large, nationally representative samples with quasi-experimental and longitudinal designs can expand on such descriptive studies. In particular, quasi-experimental studies can help answer questions about which risk factors are causally associated with teenage childbearing and suggest potential mechanisms that can explain how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes. Future studies also will need to incorporate more precise measures of developmental processes and explore heterogeneity among adolescent mothers. Although advances have been made in the psychological study of teenage childbearing, more research is needed in order to answer important questions about which psychological processes are causally related to teenage childbearing and how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes for young mothers and their offspring. PMID:22675905
Breheny, Mary; Stephens, Christine
Teenage motherhood is routinely discussed in medical and nursing journals as a cause for concern and a social problem. Taking these accounts as a starting point, this paper uses discursive analysis to understand how the teenage mother is produced as an unsuitable mother. Beginning with a 'Public Health' discourse, early motherhood is understood as a disease requiring surveillance and a public health response. Using an 'Economic' discourse, teenage mothers are positioned as a financial drain on society and early motherhood as a cost to the mothers themselves. An 'Ethnicity' discourse classifies young mothers into ethnic groups and explains differential fertility rates through the resistance of appropriate reproductive technology among minority group members. These understandings are reflected in a 'Eugenics' discourse, which engages metaphors of parenting as a biological priority and highlights the unsuitability of young mothers as parents. An examination of these discourses shows that concern about teenage motherhood is as much about the wrong sort of young women becoming mothers, as mothering too soon.
Ross, James G.; And Others
Six articles describe the background, design, methods, findings, and implications of the 1986-89 Teenage Health Teaching Modules Evaluation study which (1) determined whether one comprehensive secondary school health education curriculum could positively affect student health knowledge, attitudes, practices, and self-reported behaviors; and (2)…
Viklund, Gunnel; Wikblad, Karin
Decision-making is an important prerequisite for empowerment. The aim of this study was to explore teenagers' perceptions of factors affecting decision-making competence in diabetes management. A previous study that assessed an empowerment programme for teenagers with diabetes showed no effects on metabolic control or empowerment outcomes, which is not in accordance with results from studies on adult diabetes patients. The definition of empowerment highlights the patient's own responsibility for decision-making. Earlier studies have shown that many teenagers' may not be mature in decision-making competence until late adolescence. To explore the significance of decision-making competence on the effectiveness of empowerment education we wanted to explore teenagers' own view on factors affecting this competence. An explorative, qualitative interview study was conducted with 31 teenagers with type 1 diabetes, aged 12-17 years. The teenagers were interviewed two weeks after completing an empowerment education programme. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories stood out as important for decision-making competence: cognitive maturity, personal qualities, experience, social network and parent involvement. Based on the content in the interviews and the five categories, we made an interpretation and formulated an overall theme: 'Teenagers deserve respect and support for their short-comings during the maturity process'. Our conclusion is that teenagers deserve respect for their immature decision-making competence. Decision-making competence was described as cognitive abilities, personal qualifications and experience. To compensate for the deficiencies the teenagers deserve constructive support from their social network and the essential support is expected to come from their parents. These findings can be useful for diabetes team members in supporting teenagers with diabetes and their parents both in individual meetings and when
"Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt
DeVore, E. K.; Harman, P. K.; Berg, J.; Friedman, W.; Fahy, J.; Henricks, J.; Chin, W.; Hudson, A.; Grissom, C.; Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D.; Gurton, S. P.; White, V.; Summer, T.; Mayo, L.; Patel, R.; Bass, K.
Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance science, technology, engineering and mathermatics (STEM) experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12 through the national Girl Scout Leadership Experience. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA's Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today's tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Girl Scout Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of online materials provided by NASA for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, and "Destination" events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univeristy of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts. There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the experienced space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars to Councils across the USA with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl
Hagenhoff, Carol; And Others
The review provides a social learning model for explaining adolescent sexual behavior and use/nonuse of contraceptives. The model explains behavior patterns responsible for epidemic rates of teenage pregnancies, suggests research that will result in prevention of teenage pregnancies, and incorporates a range of social/cultural factors. (DB)
Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap
[Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516
In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…
Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.
Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030
Mackenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; Van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh
A disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) scale enables the impact of current and new interventions on the HRQL of teenagers with food hypersensitivity (FHS) to be evaluated. No such scale exists for teenagers with FHS living in the U.K. This research aimed to develop and validate a disease-specific HRQL scale for this group, thus facilitating HRQL measurement in this population. A preliminary 51-item questionnaire was generated from interviews with 21 teenagers with FHS, the coverage and acceptability of which was refined in pre- and pilot testing (N = 102). On the basis of the field test data (N = 299), principal components analysis identified those items best measuring HRQL. The final 34-item You and Your Food Allergy scale covered five domains: social well-being and independence, support, day-to-day activities, family relations and emotional well-being. The whole scale displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87). The scale correlated as hypothesised with a generic HRQL scale (PedsQL) and discriminated by disease severity, providing evidence for its construct validity. The You and Your Food Allergy scale is the first HRQL scale to have been developed and validated with U.K. teenagers with FHS. Subject to further evaluation of its psychometric properties, its development has important applications in future research into the HRQL of teenagers with FHS. Short and easy-to-complete, the scale has been designed to appeal to teenagers and is likely to be useful to facilitate discussion of HRQL issues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Barreto-Hauzeur, Eliane; Sáenz-Lozada, María L; Velandia-Sepulveda, Fabiola; Gómez-González, Jeny
Ascertaining the meaning of teenage pregnancy for teenagers and their immediate families. This was an analytical, cross-sectional, exploratory, qualitative study. Data was obtained through in-depth interviews with 10 pregnant teenagers and their immediate families, plus a focus group involving another 12 pregnant teenagers. Analysis by category revealed a tenuous limit between adolescents' narrative identity and a lack of such identity and identity based on the concept of family. Pregnancy provokes a series of responses within families, including fear in a pregnant adolescent and her partner, disappointment on the part of the parents, social isolation and eventual acceptance and redefinition of such pregnancy. Pregnancy can provide the means for an adolescent to redress a deficit in her emotional needs, such condition keeping the family together at the expense of a teenager's emancipation and may represent an intergenerational legacy.
Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.
If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…
Lindqvist, P.; Johansson, L.
Objective—To disclose recurrent, dynamic, and static factors in teenage suicide involving the suicidee, his/her family, and the community; and to investigate the feasibility of using police as informants for suicide studies. Subjects—All deaths categorised as suicide 1993 through 1995 among teenagers in Northern Sweden (n=15). Method—Semiqualitative interviews with police officers, and, when applicable, general practitioners. Police reports, necropsy protocols, medical records, and conscription data were also analysed. Results—Most suicides occurred in rural and depopulated areas. In contrast to males, females often had a history of overt psychiatric problems with suicide attempts. At least two thirds of the suicides were planned. Conclusion—Cultural and sociopolitical aspects are important in teenage suicide as well as gender differences. Police officers can provide essential information. Identifying teenagers at risk remains difficult, however, due to low baseline rates. PMID:10875667
McLoughlin, A B; Gould, M S; Malone, K M
The object of this article is to review the past decade of research on teenage suicide, with a particular emphasis on epidemiologic trends by age, gender and indigenous ethnicity. As such, a review of research literature from 2003 to 2014 was conducted via a comprehensive search of relevant psychological and medical databases. Wide gaps in our knowledge base exist concerning the true extent of teenage suicide due to lack of data, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a Western bias. The gender paradox of elevated suicidality in females with higher completed suicide rates in males is observed in teenage populations worldwide, with the notable exceptions of China and India. Native and indigenous ethnic minority teens are at significantly increased risk of suicide in comparison to general population peers. Often those with the highest need for mental health care (such as the suicidal adolescent) have least access to therapeutic support.Globally, suicide in teenagers remains a major public health concern. Further focused research concerning completed suicides of youth below the age of 18 is required across countries and cultures to understand more about risk as children progress through adolescence. Gender and ethnic variations in suicidality are embedded within cultural, historical, psychological, relational and socio-economic domains. Worldwide, the absence of child/adolescent-specific mental health policies may delay the development of care and suicide prevention. Overall, it is vital that clinicians adopt a holistic approach that incorporates an awareness of age and gender influences, and that cultural competency informs tailored and evaluated intervention programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
This research investigates how three high school students in the USA developed new literacies practices through their participation in teenage Twitter. Data was collected from two sources, including archival data from participants' Twitter over a two-year span, and semi-structured interviews. Results found that teenagers developed a number of…
Tung, Chen-Yin; Chao, Keh-Ping
Several studies have focused on the potential impact of children's hearing loss on learning and development. Recently, numerous teenage students have been found to be fond of listening to music on personal devices and participating in recreational music activities. The objective of this study was to investigate teenage students' hearing…
Fakhari, Ali; Tabatabavakili, Mehdi; Javid, Yousef Sayah; Farhang, Sara
The family plays the first and may be the most important role in the development of individuals' personality, health and function. The current study aimed to evaluate different aspects of violence against a sample of school girls of Iranian population and its effect on their mental health. A cluster, randomized sample consisting of 399 school girls was selected from all of the high schools in Tabriz city, northwest of Iran. Students were asked to participate in this study anonymously. Signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the General health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) measuring their social function and physical situation as well. Another inquiry form involving questions about different kinds of violence and neglect gathered information about their situation during the recent year. The mean (SD) age of the students was 14.9 (0.8) and all were under 18. The mean (SD) total score of GHQ-28 was 24.18(13.61). The sub-threshold score in GHQ-28 (under 23) was observed in 44.1% of students which indicates considerable problems in mental health status. The type of reported violence was not significantly associated with an abnormal score of GHQ-28. A higher score of somatic symptoms was related to verbal violence at home by parents and the educational level of mother. High score on social dysfunction was predicted by lower educational level of mother. The depression scale was related to humility, neglect and discrimination at home. The factors were not predicting the score of anxiety or insomnia subscales. The current study observed a noticeable amount of problems in the mental health of teenage girls in a sample of the Iranian population. The educational level of the mother plays an important role in the mental health of school girls. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.
Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, passenger presence was associated with a greater number of vehicles before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and susceptibility to peer pressure
Levinsohn, Florence; Kelly, G. Lombard
One of a series of illustrated books written by physicians for their patients, this publication, aimed at te teenager, points out some biological and psychological changes which occur in adolescence. The first few chapters deal with sex drives, male anatomy, female anatomy, conception and pregnancy. Sociological and controversial aspects of…
van der Velden, Maja; El Emam, Khaled
The literature describes teenagers as active users of social media, who seem to care about privacy, but who also reveal a considerable amount of personal information. There have been no studies of how they manage personal health information on social media. To understand how chronically ill teenage patients manage their privacy on social media sites. A qualitative study based on a content analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 hospital patients (12-18 years). Most teenage patients do not disclose their personal health information on social media, even though the study found a pervasive use of Facebook. Facebook is a place to be a "regular", rather than a sick teenager. It is a place where teenage patients stay up-to-date about their social life-it is not seen as a place to discuss their diagnosis and treatment. The majority of teenage patients don't use social media to come into contact with others with similar conditions and they don't use the internet to find health information about their diagnosis. Social media play an important role in the social life of teenage patients. They enable young patients to be "regular" teenagers. Teenage patients' online privacy behavior is an expression of their need for self-definition and self-protection.
Gershon, Pnina; Ehsani, Johnathon; Zhu, Chunming; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Risky driving behavior may contribute to the high crash risk among teenage drivers. The current naturalistic driving study assessed predictors for teenagers' kinematic risky driving (KRD) behavior and the interdependencies between them. The private vehicles of 81 novice teenage drivers were equipped with data acquisition system that recorded driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver, passengers and the driving environment. Psychosocial measures were collected using questionnaires administered at licensure. Poisson regression analyses and model selection were used to assess factors associated with teens' risky driving behavior and the interactions between them. Driving own vs shared vehicle, driving during the day vs at night, and driving alone vs with passengers were significantly associated with higher KRD rates (Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 1.60, 1.41, and 1.28, respectively). Teenagers reporting higher vs lower levels of parental trust had significantly lower KRD rates (IRR = 0.58). KRD rates were 88% higher among teenagers driving with a passenger in their own vehicle compared to teenagers driving with a passenger in a shared vehicle. Similarly, KRD rates during the day were 74% higher among teenagers driving their own vehicle compared to those driving a shared vehicle. Novice teenagers' risky driving behavior varied according to driver attributes and contextual aspects of the driving environment. As such, examining teenagers' risky driving behavior should take into account multiple contributing factors and their interactions. The variability in risky driving according to the driving context can inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce the crash risk of novice teenage drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M
Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141
Väisänen, Heini; Murphy, Michael
Teenagers of low socioeconomic status are more likely to get pregnant, and less likely to choose abortion, than more privileged teenagers. Few studies have used longitudinal data to examine whether these differences persist as overall teenage pregnancy rates decline. Nationally representative register data from 259,242 Finnish women in three birth cohorts (1955-1959, 1965-1969 and 1975-1979) were analyzed using Cox regression to assess socioeconomic differences in teenagers' risks of pregnancy and abortion. Binary logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic differences in the odds of pregnant teenagers' choosing abortion. Socioeconomic differences in abortion risk did not change substantially across cohorts; however, differences in the risk of childbirth rose between the first two cohorts and then returned to their earlier level. In all cohorts, teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds, the most privileged group, had the lowest risks of abortion and childbirth (44-53% and 53-69% lower, respectively, than those for manual workers' children). Teenagers whose parents were lower-level employees or farmers also had reduced risks of both outcomes in all cohorts; results for other socioeconomic groups were less consistent. Pregnant teenagers from upper-level employee backgrounds had 2-3 times the odds of abortion of manual workers' children; the largest difference was found in the 1950s cohort. Despite the declining overall teenage pregnancy rate, poorer background continues to be associated with a higher risk of conceiving and of giving birth. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Tabane, Ntswaleng S; Peu, Mmapheko D
Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers' perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers'perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.
Preusser, D F; Williams, A F; Lund, A K; Zador, P L
Several U.S. cities have curfew ordinances that limit the late night activities of minor teenagers in public places including highways. Detroit, Cleveland, and Columbus, which have curfew ordinances, were compared to Cincinnati, which does not have such an ordinance. The curfew ordinances were associated with a 23% reduction in motor vehicle related injury for 13- to 17-year-olds as passengers, drivers, pedestrians, or bicyclists during the curfew hours. It was concluded that city curfew ordinances, like the statewide driving curfews studied in other states, can reduce motor vehicle injury to teenagers during the particularly hazardous late night hours.
Hu, T W; Lin, Z; Keeler, T E
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between school performance, smoking, and quitting attempts among teenagers. METHODS: A logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of being a current smoker or a former smoker. Data were derived from the 1990 California Youth Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: Students' school performance was a key factor in predicting smoking and quitting attempts when other sociodemographic and family income factors were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Developing academic or remedial classes designed to improve students' school performance may lead to a reduction in smoking rates among teenagers while simultaneously providing a human capital investment in their futures. PMID:9618625
Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
In this study, we compared perceived father roles among teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand. The design was cross-sectional and comparative, and the sample involved 70 teenage and 70 adult fathers, whose children were 2-6 months old. The fathers were recruited from 32 primary healthcare centers in the western region of Thailand. Three validated, self-reported questionnaires with multiple-choice questions were used for data collection. Differences between the two groups were analyzed using χ(2)-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results revealed differences between teenage and adult fathers concerning income, educational level, and intention to have a baby. The teenage father group had a lower sense of competence, and scored lower on childrearing behavior and father-child relationship than the adult father group. These findings provide healthcare professionals with increased knowledge and understanding of teenage fathers' needs in preparing for parenthood. Given that we now know the importance of positive father roles in children's lives, health authorities should be expected to provide resources to help support these fathers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.
As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…
Barr, Gavin C; Kane, Kathleen E; Barraco, Robert D; Rayburg, Timarie; Demers, Lauren; Kraus, Chadd K; Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Rupp, Valerie A; Hamilton, Kimberly M; Kane, Bryan G
The Centers for Disease Control reports that motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury and death among U.S. teenagers, and disproportionately affect males. Among preventable causes of MVCs involving teenage drivers, distracted driving continues to be a serious public health problem. To describe gender differences in teenage drivers' self-perceptions of safe driving behaviors, and self-reported risk behaviors and distractions while driving. We prospectively surveyed teenage drivers from four high schools in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Gender comparisons were made between self-reported perceptions and self-reported driving behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared testing were used in data analyses; significance was set at p < 0.05. Seven hundred fifty-six high school teenage drivers completed surveys. Males (52%) and females (48%) were equally distributed; 32% of males reported that they were extremely safe drivers, whereas only 18% of females reported that they were extremely safe drivers (p < 0.001). Significantly more females (91%) compared to males (77%) reported always wearing their seatbelts (p < 0.001). Female drivers were more likely than male drivers to self-report that they always make their passengers wear a seat belt (76% vs. 63%, p < 0.001). A higher proportion of males reported using their cell phones while driving, compared to females (68% vs. 56%, p = 0.004), and 42% of males reported texting while driving, compared to 34% of females (p = 0.037). Teenage male drivers perceive themselves to be safe drivers, but report engaging in more distracted driving and risky behaviors compared to females. These results suggest that there is an opportunity for gender-specific educational and injury prevention programs for teen drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Stephen P.
Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. Although some experts believe that the problem of teenage pregnancy has been overstated, other recent studies have led many people to believe that…
Hughes, M E; Furstenberg, F F; Teitler, J O
In an assessment conducted 30 months after a Philadelphia-area project increased the resources that community family planning agencies devoted to teenage services, teenagers in targeted communities showed no generalized improvement in rates of pregnancy and childbearing, in knowledge or use of clinic services, or in attitudes toward contraception compared with those of teenagers in the entire city. Samples of adolescents aged 14-18 from the clinics' catchment areas and from the entire city were interviewed in mid-1988, when the project's activities began, and 2.5 years later. The results suggest that while community family planning clinics may provide effective services to the teenagers who seek them out, they may not be the most effective strategy for decreasing rates of pregnancy and childbearing in the overall teenage population.
Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonucci, Toni C.; Jackson, James S.
Examines the influences of supportive and conflictual mother/daughter relationships on depressive symptoms expressed by African-American and White teenage mothers and grandmothers. Findings indicated that African-American teenage mothers were more likely than White mothers to report childrearing conflicts with grandmothers. Discusses implications…
Miers, David; Abbott, Douglas; Springer, Paul R
The objective of this phenomenological study was to develop an understanding of family needs following the suicide of a teenager. Six parent units living in the Midwest who lost a teenager to suicide were interviewed. Participants indicated several key themes that describe a parent's needs following the suicide of a teenager. These needs were organized into 6 main categories: (a) support by listening and responding, (b) support from another suicide survivor, (c) support in finding direction, (d) support when viewing the deceased teen, (e) support in remembering the teen, and (f) support in parents giving back to the community.
Background: Teenagers experience wars not only in the actual war zones but also in the home, school, and street fronts. Sometimes they are the innocent victims of bullying. Often confused, they do not know how to survive in bullying situations. Adults such as movie makers and educators have taken on the responsibility of helping teenagers. The…
Ovsyanik, Olga A.; Belinskaya, Darya B.; Kochetkov, Igor G.; Deberdeeva, Nelia A.
The importance of the studied problem is determined by a continuous growth of suicidal activity in a majority of economically developed countries of the world. The statistical data on teenage suicides is especially frightening: according to the recent data (2014) among teenagers at the age of 15-19 there are 5,9 suicidal cases for 100 thousand…
Sooki, Zahra; Shariati, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Keramat, Afsaneh
Context Family, especially the mother, has the most important role in the education, transformation of information, and health behaviors of girls in order for them to have a healthy transition from the critical stage of puberty, but there are different views in this regard. Objectives Considering the various findings about the source of information about puberty, a meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the extent of the mother’s role in informing girls about puberty. Data Sources This meta-analysis study was based on English articles published from 2000 to February 2015 in the Scopus, PubMed, and Science direct databases and on Persian articles in the SID, Magiran, and Iran Medex databases with determined key words and their MeSH equivalent. Study Selection Quantitative cross-sectional articles were extracted by two independent researchers and finally 46 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. STROBE list were used for evaluation of studies. Data Extraction The percent of mothers as the current and preferred source of gaining information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls was extracted from the articles. The results of studies were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model) and the studies’ heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 calculation index. Variance between studies was analyzed using tau squared (Tau2) and review manager 5 software. Results The results showed that, from the perspective of teenage girls in Iran and other countries, in 56% of cases, the mother was the current source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation. The preferred source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation was the mother in all studies at 60% (Iran 57%, and other countries 66%). Conclusions According to the findings of this study, it is essential that health professionals and officials of the ministry of health train
Seiferth, Berniece B.; Tyree, Carolyn L.
There are many reasons for implementing a course in parenting education in the schools. Among them are: (1) In the past decade, premarital sex among teenage girls has risen from 30 to 50 percent; (2) One child of every five is born to teenage parents and 94 percent of these teenagers keep their babies; and (3) 90 percent of teenage mothers drop…
In this article, the author describes how researchers study the adolescent brain--a subject of inquiry that did not exist a generation ago. Any parent of a teenager knows that adolescents often have difficulty navigating through their world. Now scientists are starting to find out why. Peering into the minds of maturing youngsters, researchers are…
Wheatley, Iris Alicia Velez
This guide was prepared for the ESL teacher to help bilingual students learn the English reading and writing skills necessary to acquire a summer job. These lessons are relevant to students' needs, an important factor in generating interest and motivation. General objectives are: to design a relevant ESL program for teenagers; to help monolingual…
Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria
The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character - and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area.
Part, Kai; Moreau, Caroline; Donati, Serena; Gissler, Mika; Fronteira, Inês; Karro, Helle
To study cross-country and regional variations and trends in reported teenage pregnancies in the context of legislation and youth sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in Europe. Data were collected on teenage live births and induced abortions, abortion legislation and youth SRH services. Population-based statistics from the European Union (EU) member states. Fifteen- to nineteen-year-old female teenagers. Detailed statistical information for each member state about teenage live births, induced abortions, abortion legislation and youth SRH services were compiled relying on national and international data sources. The annual reported pregnancies per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. Teenage pregnancy rates have declined since 2001, although progress has been uneven across regions and countries. Eastern Europe has a higher average teenage pregnancy rate (41.7/1000) than Northern (30.7/1000), Western (18.2/1000) and Southern Europe (17.6/1000). While data on teenage live births are available across Europe, data on teenage abortions are unavailable or incomplete in more than one-third of EU countries. Reported teenage pregnancy rates are generally lower for countries where parental consent for abortion is not required, youth SRH services are available in all areas and contraceptives are subsidized for all minors, compared with countries where these conditions are not met. The collection of standardized teenage pregnancy statistics is critically needed in the EU. The remarkable variability in teenage pregnancy rates across the EU is likely to be explained, among other factors, by varying access to abortion and youth SRH services. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Hong, Y; Chan, K; Wang, Y
A study on the data of the physique investigated in teenagers was carried out between Hong Kong and inland cities to compare their cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular fitness. Results revealed that cardiopulmonary endurance in school teenagers of both sex at different ages in inland cities was better than that in Hong Kong. Muscular strength and endurance of sports performance of teenagers, except for standing long jump, in Hong Kong were weaker than that in inland cities. It suggests that attention should be paid to the involvement of teenagers in physical education with the increase of people's living standard.
James, Sindiwe; Rall, Nadine; Strümpher, Juanita
Pregnancy in teenagers seems to be a challenge that might contribute to a struggle to fulfil the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals directly related to women's reproductive health and neonatal care. The challenge becomes worse as midwives and nurses find it difficult to fully supervise all these pregnancies, because teenagers stay away or default from clinic attendance. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of pregnant teenagers of the antenatal care (ANC) clinic environment and to recommend guidelines to midwifery operational managers for strategies to create teenager-friendly ANC clinic environments. The study applied a qualitative research design with explorative, descriptive and contextual research approaches. The ethical principles that guided this study were respect for the person, beneficence and justice. Semi-structured interviews utilising a predetermined interview schedule with a central open-ended question to address the study objectives were used. Data were collected from pregnant teenagers attending ANC clinics in Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. Participants were unanimous in that they perceived the clinic environment as causing discomfort to them. Different reasons attributed to this experience were related to their young age. The age difference between themselves and other women attending the clinic made participants perceive themselves as inferior and as being treated as such at the clinic. They found this embarrassing and recommended having their own waiting area and additional midwives at the clinic so that they would not be subjected to humiliating scrutiny and disapproval from older pregnant women. Pregnant teenagers' recall of their experiences of the ANC clinic environment suggests that they perceive themselves as not being adequately cared for, as judged, and as forced to be in an environment that is insensitive to their needs. As a result some of their peers stayed away from the clinic and
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…
Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.
Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…
Rossi, Gustavo Pablo
The methods of intervention and/or treatment of children/teenagers under 18 years old who are accused or found guilty of crimes are analyzed taking into consideration multidisciplinary intervention tools, especially those including any kind of 'psy' outpatient care. These programs, which are usually deployed in the social milieu, involve a conflictive junction between the fields of Law and Mental Health. It shall be required to review the different social responses to such children and teenagers and the current state of legal discussions in order to reflect upon the singular inclusion of the therapeutic approach to these complex contexts, where the 'socio-educational' aspect has occupied a substantial position.
Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L; Erickson, Darin J; Lazovich, Deann; Southwell, Brian G
Smoking in movies is prevalent. However, use of content analysis to describe trends in smoking in movies has provided mixed results and has not tapped what adolescents actually perceive. To assess the prospective trends in the prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers and identify predictors associated with these trends. Using data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected during 2000-2006 when participants were aged between 12 and 18 years (N=4735), latent variable growth models were employed to describe the longitudinal trends in the perceived prevalence of smoking in movies using a four-level scale (never to most of the time) measured every 6 months, and examined associations between these trends and demographic, smoking-related attitudinal and socio-environmental predictors. Analysis was conducted in 2009. At baseline, about 50% of participants reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time, and another 36% reported most of the time. The prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers declined over time, and the decline was steeper in those who were aged 14-16 years than those who were younger at baseline (p≤0.05). Despite the decline, teenagers still reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time. Teenagers who reported more close friends who smoked also reported a higher prevalence of smoking in movies at baseline (regression coefficients=0.04-0.18, p<0.01). Teenagers' perception of the prevalence of smoking in movies declined over time, which may be attributable to changes made by the movie industry. Despite the decline, teenagers were still exposed to a moderate amount of smoking imagery. Interventions that further reduce teenage exposure to smoking in movies may be needed to have an effect on adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Most parents want to prepare their adolescents for sexual relationships, but find it difficult to discuss sex with their teenagers. This books aims to help families improve communication and presents in a short-story format, factual information on sexuality. It is intended as an introduction to the subject of sex and as a quick reference tool for…
Alemi, F; Cherry, F; Meffert, G
This paper presents a new approach to preventing adolescent pregnancy. Information alone is not sufficient to prevent teenage pregnancy. The teenagers ability to choose and remain committed to a decision also needs to be developed. Because decision making skills are best learned through practice in an environment with frequent feedback, we have developed a computer game which simulates the consequences of different sexual roles. In addition, the game is intended to increase communication about sex between teenagers and their role models (peers, teachers and/or parents). Increased communication is expected to reduce the feeling of guilt and lead to either consistent abstention from sex or consistent contraceptive use. The paper reports on the development of the computer game and the preliminary evaluation of its impact.
The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.
Taylor, Myra F; Westbrook, Dominique; Chang, Paul
This study aimed to determine whether the viewing of a personal photoaged photograph had the capacity to alter Western Australian teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen teenagers. The teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes prior to viewing their photoaged photograph are encapsulated in the study's central theme: 'You've got to look after your skin and use sunscreen, but I always forget!'. Post-viewing their photoaged facial image many teenagers reiterated their intentions to adopt (when they remembered) skin-protective measures. However, photoaged photography did not alter other teenagers' intention to tan. NEW KNOWLEDGE: Teenagers who choose to continue to tan were aware of the long-term health risks associated with ultra-violet over-exposure. However, their desire remained strong to emulate the media promoted image of bronzed youth being popular individuals. Indeed, the social benefits of being considered attractive to their peers became an attitudinal barrier to the teenagers' adoption of skin-protective behaviours. Those teenagers who changed their pro-tanning attitudes following their viewing of their ultra-violet photoaged photograph did so because of the shock they received when they saw their sun-damaged facial image. This suggests that photoageing photography can be effective with many adolescents because it reduces the cause-and-effect delay that exists between the occurrence of sun-damage and its visual presentation in later-life. Greater effort needs to be focused on increasing teenagers' understanding of how sun-damage occurs, when it is appropriate to apply sunscreen, as well as in changing the prevailing media image of an attractive body being a tanned body.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Dominick, Joseph R.
Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)
Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V
ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years.
Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit
The use of the internet among teenagers has increased in recent years and nearly 92% of all teenagers in Israel surf the internet. This study examined the characteristics of involvement in cyberbullying among 114 adolescents in the Muslim Arab sector, and its relationships with emotional aspects. The students completed questionnaires regarding…
Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob
This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…
Manlove, Jennifer; Steward-Streng, Nicole; Peterson, Kristen; Scott, Mindy; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
Rates of teenage childbearing are high in the United States, and they differ substantially by race and ethnicity and nativity status. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to link characteristics of white, black, U.S.-born Hispanic and foreign-born Hispanic adolescents to teenage childbearing. Following a sample of 3,294 females aged 12-16 through age 19, discrete-time logistic regression analyses were used to examine which domains of teenagers' lives were associated with the transition to a teenage birth for each racial and ethnic group, and whether these associations help explain racial and ethnic and nativity differences in this transition. In a baseline multivariate analysis controlling for age, compared with whites, foreign-born Hispanics had more than three times the odds of a teenage birth (odds ratio, 3.5), while blacks and native-born Hispanics had about twice the odds (2.1 and 1.9, respectively). Additional controls (for family environments; individual, peer and dating characteristics; characteristics of first sexual relationships; and subsequent sexual experience) reduced the difference between blacks and whites, and between foreign-born Hispanics and whites, and eliminated the difference between U.S.-born Hispanics and whites. Further, if racial or ethnic minority adolescents had the same distribution as did white teenagers across all characteristics, the predicted probability of a teenage birth would be reduced by 40% for blacks and 35% for U.S.-born Hispanics. Differences in the context of adolescence may account for a substantial portion of racial, ethnic and nativity differences in teenage childbearing. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.
According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…
Singh, Shakila; Hamid, Alvi
Objectives: In the context of women's vulnerability to sexual violence, HIV infection and unintended pregnancy in South Africa, this paper explores the ways in which teenage mothers who are in school reflect on their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. We attempt to understand how teenage mothers reflect on their experiences within the…
Zilka, Gila Cohen
Aim/Purpose: Awareness of eSafety and potential online dangers for children and teenagers. Background: The study examined eSafety among children and teenagers from their own perspectives, through evaluations of their awareness level of eSafety and of potential online dangers. Methodology: This is a mixed-method study with both quantitative and…
In the past few years, new scientific research has addressed the sleep needs and patterns of teenagers. Research indicates that teenagers require approximately the same amount of sleep as younger children, and their optimal sleep cycles apparently begin later at night than those of younger children. There is clinical evidence suggesting that…
Jarvinen, Margaretha; Gundelach, Peter
This article analyses alcohol-related lifestyles among Danish teenagers. Building on Bourdieu's reasoning on symbolic capital and distinction, we analyse three interrelated themes. First, we show that alcohol-related variables (drinking patterns, drinking debut, experience of intoxication, etc.) can be used to identify some very distinctive life…
El Emam, Khaled
Background The literature describes teenagers as active users of social media, who seem to care about privacy, but who also reveal a considerable amount of personal information. There have been no studies of how they manage personal health information on social media. Objective To understand how chronically ill teenage patients manage their privacy on social media sites. Design A qualitative study based on a content analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 hospital patients (12–18 years). Results Most teenage patients do not disclose their personal health information on social media, even though the study found a pervasive use of Facebook. Facebook is a place to be a “regular”, rather than a sick teenager. It is a place where teenage patients stay up-to-date about their social life—it is not seen as a place to discuss their diagnosis and treatment. The majority of teenage patients don't use social media to come into contact with others with similar conditions and they don't use the internet to find health information about their diagnosis. Conclusions Social media play an important role in the social life of teenage patients. They enable young patients to be “regular” teenagers. Teenage patients' online privacy behavior is an expression of their need for self-definition and self-protection. PMID:22771531
... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... she may need help identifying a strong support system. Teens and young girls who have babies can ...
McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R
Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R; Fields, Michele; Braitman, Keli A; Hellinga, Laurie A
The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of the strength of US state graduated driver licensing laws and specific licensing components on the rate of teenage driver fatal crash involvements per 100,000 teenagers during 1996-2007. The strengths of state laws were rated good, fair, marginal, or poor based on a system developed previously by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Analysis was based on quarterly counts of drivers involved in fatal crashes. Associations of overall ratings and individual licensing components with teenage crash rates were evaluated using Poisson regression, with the corresponding fatal crash rate for drivers ages 30-59 controlling for state- or time-dependent influences on crash rates unrelated to graduated licensing laws. Compared with licensing laws rated poor, laws rated good were associated with 30 percent lower fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Laws rated fair yielded fatal crash rates 11 percent lower. The longer the permit age was delayed, or the longer the licensing age was delayed, the lower the estimated fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Stronger nighttime restrictions were associated with larger reductions, and reductions were larger for laws limiting teenage passengers to zero or one than laws allowing two or more teenage passengers or laws without passenger restrictions. After the effects of any related delay in licensure were accounted for, an increase in the minimum learner's permit holding period showed no association with fatal crash rates. An increase in required practice driving hours did not appear to have an independent association with fatal crash rates. Graduated licensing laws that include strong nighttime and passenger restrictions and laws that delay the learner's permit age and licensing age are associated with lower teenage fatal crash rates. States that adopt such laws can expect to achieve substantial reductions in crash deaths.
Friedo, David A.
Physicians have developed and tested a profile to be used by parents and professionals to help identify potential teenage suicide victims. The profile was developed using a study of 27 male and 37 female teenagers hospitalized in the Children's Psychiatric Hospital at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Adolescents were shown to be reliable…
Say, Matthieu; Beauchet, Alain; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Beauchet, Pascale; Boudet, Monique; Tella, Emilie; Mahé, Emmanuel
The major risk factor for skin cancers is exposure to solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation, in particular during childhood and adolescence. In France, a law was restricted for tanning-bed access to adults (≥18 years) since 1997. To evaluate teenagers' artificial tanning behaviour in 2016 and to compare results with those obtained in a similar survey performed in 2011. The SOLADO 2011 and 2016 surveys were conducted in a general school in Antony and a technical school in Fontenay-aux-Roses (Paris suburb). In 2016, 630 teenagers (mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 y: Males/Females: 301/329) completed the questionnaire, 1.3% of teenagers reported using tanning beds, 1.1% tanning pills and 8.9% tanning creams. Between 2011 and 2016, the use of tanning beds decreased from 1.4% to 0.7% in Antony (P = .26) and from 9.5% to 4.8% in Fontenay-aux-Roses (P = .01), and the use of tanning creams from 39.8% to 17.6% in Fontenay-aux-Rose (P = .0007). The incidence of sunburn decreased from 60.5% to 54.0% in Antony (P = .02) and from 55.4% to 42.4% in Fontenay-aux-Roses (P = .05). As compared to 2011, teenagers used artificial tanning methods less frequently in 2016. In particular, they used tanning beds less frequently, suggesting that the new stricter legislation has been effective. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Karlsson, Agneta; Arman, Maria; Wikblad, Karin
Becoming autonomous is an important aspect of teenagers' psychosocial development, and this is especially true of teenagers with type 1 diabetes. Previous studies exploring the everyday problems of teenagers with diabetes have focused on adherence to self-care management, how self-determination affects metabolic control, and the perception of social support. The aim of the study was to elucidate lived experiences, focusing on the transition towards autonomy in diabetes self-management among teenagers with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected using interviews, and a qualitative phenomenological approach was chosen for the analysis. Thirty-two teenagers (18 females and 14 males) were interviewed about their individual experiences of self-management of diabetes. The lived experiences of the transition towards autonomy in self-management were characterized by the over-riding theme "hovering between individual actions and support of others". The findings indicate that individual self-reliance and confirmation of others are helpful in the transition process. Growth through individual self-reliance was viewed as a developmental process of making one's own decisions; psychological maturity enabled increased responsibility and freedom; motivation was related to wellbeing and how well the diabetes could be managed. The theme "confirmation of others" showed that parental encouragement increased the certainty of teenagers' standpoints; peers' acceptance of diabetes facilitated incorporation of daily self-management activities; support from the diabetes team strengthened teenagers' self-esteem. In striving for autonomy, teenagers needed distance from others, but still to retain the support of others. A stable foundation for self-management includes having the knowledge required to practice diabetes management and handle different situations.
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module attempts to help adolescents understand the meaning of stress in their…
Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina
Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Early Education and Development.
Facts on teenage pregnancy, particularly with reference to Minnesota, are discussed. Contents discuss the following topics: Teenage pregnancy is a significant problem in the United States; adolescents' stage of development influences their views on sexuality; many sexually active adolescents do not use contraceptives; adolescent males have special…
Hotz, V. Joseph; McElroy, Susan Williams; Sanders, Seth G.
The results that are associated with the study conducted on teenage childbearing, in the United States conducted by the social scientists using innovative methods, are presented. Some concluding comments, on the findings of the study, are also mentioned.
McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.
Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…
Farmer, Charles M; Kirley, Bevan B; McCartt, Anne T
The objective was to determine if teenage driving behavior improves when a monitoring and feedback device is installed in the teen's vehicle. Vehicles of 85 teenage drivers were fit with a device that detected all instances of sudden braking/acceleration, speeding, and nonuse of seat belts. Drivers were assigned randomly to one of four research groups, differing in whether or not an alert sounded in the vehicle and whether or not parents were given access to websites containing notification records. Time trends in event rates per mile traveled were compared using Poisson regression. Seat belt use improved when violations were reported to the parent websites, and improved even more when in-vehicle alerts were activated. Consistent reductions in speeding were achieved only when teenagers received alerts about their speeding behavior, believed their speeding behavior would not be reported to parents if corrected, and when parents were being notified of such behavior by report cards. Electronic monitoring of teenage drivers can reduce the incidence of risky behavior, especially seat belt nonuse. More complicated behavior is more difficult to change, however. Parent participation is key to successful behavioral modification, but it is yet to be determined how best to encourage such participation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nordfeldt, S; Hanberger, L; Malm, F; Ludvigsson, J
The main aim of this study was to develop and test in a pilot study a PC-based interactive diabetes simulator prototype as a part of future Internet-based support systems for young teenagers and their families. A second aim was to gain experience in user-centered design (UCD) methods applied to such subjects. Using UCD methods, a computer scientist participated in iterative user group sessions involving teenagers with Type 1 diabetes 13-17 years old and parents. Input was transformed into a requirements specification by the computer scientist and advisors. This was followed by gradual prototype development based on a previously developed mathematical core. Individual test sessions were followed by a pilot study with five subjects testing a prototype. The process was evaluated by registration of flow and content of input and opinions from expert advisors. It was initially difficult to motivate teenagers to participate. User group discussion topics ranged from concrete to more academic matters. The issue of a simulator created active discussions among parents and teenagers. A large amount of input was generated from discussions among the teenagers. Individual test runs generated useful input. A pilot study suggested that the gradually elaborated software was functional. A PC-based diabetes simulator may create substantial interest among teenagers and parents, and the prototype seems worthy of further development and studies. UCD methods may generate significant input for computer support system design work and contribute to a functional design. Teenager involvement in design work may require time, patience, and flexibility.
Fernando, Kumari; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; Luty, Suzanne E; McKenzie, Janice; Mulder, Roger T; Joyce, Peter R
The age at which a depressive episode is first experienced may be associated with particular individual and clinical characteristics. This study compares individual, clinical, and family characteristics across individuals who experienced their first major depressive episode when a child, teenager, or adult. Participants were 372 depressed outpatients who participated in 2 completed randomized trials for depression. The first compared fluoxetine and nortriptyline, whereas the second compared cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. Assessment across the studies included structured clinical interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I/II diagnoses and a range of self-report measures of symptoms, functioning, and childhood experiences. Participants with childhood- and teenage-onset depression had a greater number of comorbid Axis I diagnoses, were more likely to meet criteria for Avoidant and Paranoid personality disorder (PD), and were more likely to have attempted suicide than those with adult-onset depression. Those with teenage-onset depression were more likely to meet criteria for a PD than those with adult-onset depression. Participants with childhood- and teenage-onset depression reported lower perceptions of paternal care before the age of 16 years, compared to participants with adult-onset depression. Retrospective recall was used to classify individuals into childhood-, teenage-, and adult-onset groups and is subject to recall biases. The sample also consisted of treatment-seeking individuals. There were relatively few differences between teenage and childhood depression. Depressive episodes that begin in childhood or teenage years are associated with more comorbid diagnoses, a higher likelihood of Avoidant and Paranoid PD, a greater likelihood of attempted suicide, and poorer perceptions of paternal care. Compared to adult-onset depression, childhood-onset depression is associated with greater
Nuptiality norms in rural Bangladesh favour birth during the teenage years. An appreciable proportion of teenage births are, in fact, second births. This study examines the relationship between teenage fertility and high infant mortality. It is hypothesized that if physiological immaturity is responsible, then the younger the mother, the higher would be the mortality risk, and the effect of mother's 'teenage' on mortality in infancy, particularly in the neonatal period, would be higher for the second than the first births. Vital events recorded by the longitudinal demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh, in 1990-92 were used. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects on early and late neonatal (0-3 days and 4-28 days respectively) and post-neonatal mortality of the following variables: mother's age at birth, parity, education and religion, sex of the child, household economic status and exposure to a health intervention programme. The younger the mother, the higher were the odds of her child dying as a neonate, and the odds were higher for second children than first children of teenage mothers. First-born children were at higher odds of dying in infancy than second births if mothers were in their twenties. Unfavourable mother's socioeconomic conditions were weakly, but significantly, associated with higher odds of dying during late neonatal and post-neonatal periods. The results suggest that physical immaturity may be of major importance in determining the relationship between teenage fertility and high neonatal mortality.
Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J
A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.
Lundborg, Petter; Nystedt, Paul; Rooth, Dan-Olof
We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.
Bagni, Ursula Viana; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da
To verify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia according to sexual maturation stages and its association with overweight as well as excessive body fat in adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed. Anemia was assessed by measuring the hemoglobin level (Hb). Nutritional status was defined by sex and age specific body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, and body fat (BF) was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Sexual maturation was assessed by breasts/genitalia and pubic hair development stages. Statistical analyses considered the effect of cluster sampling design (classes) and sampling expansion corrected by relative weight. Odds ratio and general linear modeling were used to assess the associations, regarding the value of p < 0.05 for statistical significance. Public schools in the Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Probabilistic sample of 707 teenagers between 11.0 and 19.9 years old. The prevalence of anemia among the adolescents was 22.8% (95%CI 16.7-30.2%), higher among girls than among boys (30.9% vs. 10.9%; p < 0.01). The chance of developing anemia did not change with the nutritional status according BMI or BF percentage, however, overweight girls presented lower Hb levels than those who were not overweight (12.2 g/dL vs. 12.8 g/dL, p < 0.01). In boys this association was not observed. Sexual maturation did not change the association of Hb and anemia with overweight and excessive body fat. The reduction of Hb levels points at overweight as a risk factor for the development of iron deficiency among adolescents. © 2012 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.