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Sample records for teeth position eruption

  1. Teeth eruption in children with normal occlusion and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Legović, Mario; Legović, Asja; Slaj, Martina; Mestrović, Senka; Lapter-Varga, Marina; Slaj, Mladen

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the differences in eruption of permanent teeth (C, P1, P2 and M2) in a group of children with and without malocclusion. A sample of 1758 children (921 boys and 837 girls), aged 8-13 was randomly selected. The subjects were grouped by chronological age (11 groups) and by presence of malocclusion. Statistically significant differences were found for both, upper and lower canines in the age group 11 (p<0.01). Statistically significant difference was found in the age group 8.5 for upper first (p<0.05), upper second premolars (p<0.01) in the age group 10, and the lower second premolars in the age group 11 (p<0.05). Premature loss of deciduous teeth caused early eruption of succedaneus permanent teeth, possibly leading to development of a malocclusion.

  2. Beliefs about prematurely erupted teeth in rural Yoruba communities, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyejide, C O; Aderinokun, G A

    1992-11-01

    A descriptive study was carried out in two villages: Badeku and Olodo, near the city of Ibadan, between May and November 1990. The objective of the study was to investigate the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of respondents to premature eruption of deciduous teeth in babies. Of the 622 people interviewed, a large proportion (30.5%) believed that the first deciduous tooth should erupt between the age of 5-7 months; the next commonly mentioned time of tooth eruption was 7-9 months of age; and 50.3% of the respondents claimed to have seen a case of prematurely erupted primary teeth. There was a statistically significant association between age and also between educational status of respondents and having seen premature eruption of teeth (P < 0.01). The majority of the people (53.7%) felt that the condition was an indication of an evil child. Only 22.1% of those interviewed thought it could be just an individual variation. On the recommended remedy or management of the condition, as many as 26 (4.1%) said they would get rid of the child. A high percentage felt that sacrifices should be offered to appease the gods. It is suggested that a transcultural approach be adopted in managing cases in which the parents feel particularly anxious and uncomfortable about prematurely erupted teeth in order to cater for the social well-being of the child and family. It is also recommended that appropriate health education be directed at the society as a whole concerning this condition.

  3. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  4. Teething

    MedlinePlus

    Eruption of primary teeth; Well child care - teething ... 6 and 8 months old. All 20 baby teeth should be in place by the time a ... months old. Some children do not show any teeth until much later than 8 months, but this ...

  5. Relationship between formation/eruption of maxillary teeth and skeletal pattern of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Suda, Naoto; Hiyama, Shigetoshi; Kuroda, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that formation and eruption of the maxillary teeth, especially the molars, are delayed in skeletal Class III patients compared with Class I and Class II patients. However, the relationship between the formation/eruption of maxillary teeth and the skeletal pattern of the maxilla is not yet clear. To examine this relationship, we studied 81 skeletal Class III Japanese patients (mean age, 8.8 years). The sample was divided into 2 groups: a maxillary retrusion (MR) group, characterized by a small SNA angle and a short palatal length, and a control group in which those values were in the normal range for patients of Japanese descent. There was no significant difference in the rate of formation for the maxillary and mandibular teeth between the 2 groups. The eruption of the maxillary second molars was delayed in the MR group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups for any other teeth. A multiple-regression analysis was carried out to examine whether the skeletal pattern of the maxilla is a useful indicator for predicting the eruption of the maxillary teeth. The results showed that palatal length and chronologic age were significant independent (explanatory) variables for predicting eruption of the maxillary second molars. These findings indicated that the skeletal pattern of the maxilla is a useful indicator for predicting the timing of maxillary molar eruption when considering treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions.

  6. Eruption of supernumerary permanent teeth in a sample of urban primary school population in Genoa, Italy.

    PubMed

    Alberti, G; Mondani, P M; Parodi, V

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to describe the incidence and distribution of hyperdontia in the primary school population in Genoa (Italy) and to check its influence on the development of orthodontic problems in children. The collected data should also help to find out what is the best age range among children to direct a program for early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and oral diseases related to hyperdontia. The participating children (total number 1577, 814 males and 763 females, between 6 and 10 years of age) chosen in 19 public primary schools in Genoa have been examined by the same specialist through year 2004. Erupted permanent teeth, presence, position and form of supernumerary teeth, malocclusion presence and class, presence of orthodontic devices, age and sex have been noted down for each child. The global percentage of hyperdontia was 0.38%, more frequent in males (0.49%) than in females (0.26%). The most common kind of supernumerary tooth was mesiodens (83%). A significant increase of hyperdontia prevalence (from 0.64% to 1.06%) was noticed in children 9 years old. The incidence of malocclusion among children presenting hyperdontia was 83.3%, while the global incidence of malocclusion was 40%. An orthodontic treatment had been planned and started for 20% of children presenting malocclusion. The study has revealed an incidence of hyperdontia much more frequent in males than in females (2:1). The most common site of eruption of supernumerary teeth is maxillary anterior region. Hyperdontia is strictly related with dental malocclusion. The best age range to direct a program of early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and hyperdontia is 9 years old children.

  7. Curve of Spee and its relationship to vertical eruption of teeth among different malocclusion groups.

    PubMed

    Veli, Ilknur; Ozturk, Mehmet Ali; Uysal, Tancan

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to assess the depth of the curve of Spee (COS) in different malocclusion groups, to relate this to the eruption of anterior or posterior teeth quantitatively, and to determine whether the depth of the COS is affected by the vertical eruption of anterior or posterior teeth. Two hundred conventional lateral cephalograms and 3-dimensional models of untreated patients (70 boys, mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years; 130 young women, mean age: 18.1 ± 1.8 years) were included and assigned to 4 malocclusion groups as Class I, Class II Division 1, Class II Division 2, and Class III. The depth of the COS, overjet, and overbite were measured on 3-dimensional models. The perpendicular distance between the incisal tip of the mandibular central incisor (L1-MP), the deepest point of the COS (S-MP), and the distobuccal cusp tip of the mandibular second molar (L7-MP) to the mandibular plane were calculated and proportioned with each other. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated, and multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. Also, multivariate analysis of variance was performed at the P <0.05 level. The mesiobuccal cusp of the first molar was the deepest part of the COS in all groups, with a maximum depth of 2.44 ± 0.73 mm in the Class II Division 1 subjects and a minimum depth of 1.76 ± 0.94 in the Class III subjects. The depth of the COS changed as follows: Class II Division 1 > Class II Division 2 > Class I > Class III malocclusion groups. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the depth of the COS and L1-MP/S-MP (r = 0.541) and L7-MP/S-MP (r = 0.269) in the Class I and Class III subjects, and between the depth of the COS and overjet (r = 0.483) and L7-MP/S-MP (r = 0.289) in the Class II Division 1 subjects. All variables except overjet had positive correlations with the depth of the COS in Class II Division 2 subjects. The multivariate analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in overjet

  8. The chronology and sequence of eruption of human permanent teeth in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, R; Richardson, A

    1998-12-01

    To ascertain the average and range of ages and sequence of eruption of human permanent teeth, taking into account the effect of premature loss of primary antecedents. Longitudinal study. Caucasian subjects in Northern Ireland. Study casts at 6-monthly intervals from age 5 to 15 years of 276 children (146 males and 130 females) enrolled in the Belfast Growth Study. The mean and range of ages of eruption of each individual tooth were computed. Comparisons were made between the mean ages of eruption with and without premature loss of primary antecedents, between upper and lower arches, between right and left sides and between males and females. The sequence of eruption was also investigated. The means and ranges of eruption ages are reported. Premature loss of primary antecedents delayed eruption of permanent successors except for the upper premolars which were accelerated. The differences relating to the upper first premolar and lower canine were not statistically significant. Each lower tooth erupted before its upper counterpart except for the premolars. There was no significant difference in age of eruption between right and left sides. Females tended to erupt teeth before males with the exception of the second molars in both arches; however, the only differences to reach statistical significance related to upper and lower canines and upper lateral incisors. The most frequent orders of eruption were unique to the subject. These occurred in 22% of upper and 33% of lower arches. The classic sequences: first molar-central incisor-lateral incisor-first premolar-canine-second premolar-second molar (M1-I1-I2-PM1-C-PM2-M2) in the upper arch and I1-M1-I2-C-PM1-PM2-M2 in the lower arch occurred in only 16% of upper arches and 13% of lower arches. Males adhered to the textbook sequence (20% upper, 17% lower) more than females (12% upper, 8% lower). In the upper arch of females, the order M1-I1-I2-PM1-PM2-C-M2 in 10% of subjects was almost as frequent as the classic sequence

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Four Loci Associated with Eruption of Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Shaffer, John R.; Hansen, Thomas; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Boyd, Heather A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Lathrop, Mark; Smith, George Davey; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Olesen, Jes; Werge, Thomas; Marazita, Mary L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The sequence and timing of permanent tooth eruption is thought to be highly heritable and can have important implications for the risk of malocclusion, crowding, and periodontal disease. We conducted a genome-wide association study of number of permanent teeth erupted between age 6 and 14 years, analyzed as age-adjusted standard deviation score averaged over multiple time points, based on childhood records for 5,104 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Four loci showed association at P<5×10−8 and were replicated in four independent study groups from the United States and Denmark with a total of 3,762 individuals; all combined P-values were below 10−11. Two loci agreed with previous findings in primary tooth eruption and were also known to influence height and breast cancer, respectively. The two other loci pointed to genomic regions without any previous significant genome-wide association study results. The intronic SNP rs7924176 in ADK could be linked to gene expression in monocytes. The combined effect of the four genetic variants was most pronounced between age 10 and 12 years, where children with 6 to 8 delayed tooth eruption alleles had on average 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.9–4.1) fewer permanent teeth than children with 0 or 1 of these alleles. PMID:21931568

  10. Time and order of eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of post-larval life of Sicyopterus japonicus (Gobiidiae: Sicydiinae) during cranial metamorphosis at the time of river recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the time and order of eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of post-larval life of Sicyopterus japonicus (S. japonicus) during cranial metamorphosis at the time of river recruitment. Fishes were caught at the post-larval stage at a river mouth and maintained for 7 days in a water tank. Each of 10 specimens was evaluated every day for 7 days by using microcomputed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy with peculiar attention to the development of the upper jaw teeth. Fishes caught at the river mouth were mostly transparent, with a rostral terminal mouth, and no teeth could be found in either the upper or lower jaw. At 2 days after collection, the mouth position changed from terminal to subterminal, resulting from a change in head shape. The initial eruption of first functional teeth was detected at the anterior two-thirds region of each upper jaw. These teeth erupted in adjacent positions, most had a tricuspid crown, and they represented miniature versions of adult teeth. At 5 days, the position of the mouth became further relocated from terminal rostral to ventral. The number of erupted teeth increased, followed by spreading of them anteriorly and posteriorly. At 7 days, they formed a single row of close-set tricuspid teeth along the entire length of each upper jaw. The present study demonstrated that even under laboratory conditions a rapid and drastic cranial metamorphosis took place within a week after the time of collection of post-larval S. japonicus from a river. The eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of S. japonicus, which teeth are adapted to scraping algae off the substrate, was initially detected at 2 days after collection, and first functional dentition of the upper jaw was set up within 7 days after it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical management of impacted incisors in associate with supernumerary teeth: a combine case report of spontaneous eruption and orthodontic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Misra, J

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary permanent incisors impaction is not a frequent case in dental practice, but its treatment is challenging because of its importance to facial esthetics. Supernumerary teeth are the main cause of impaction of upper incisors. Supernumerary teeth when present can cause both esthetic and pathologic problems. Early detection of such teeth is most important if complications are to be avoided. In this reported case, the orthopantamogram of a 9-year-old boy revealed two impacted supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region, which was interfering with the eruption of the permanent central incisors. The impacted supernumerary teeth were surgically removed, 11 was repositioned in the arch as it was situated very high in the arch, close to the nasal floor. Twenty-one erupted spontaneously but orthodontic force was applied over 11 to bring it into the occlusion and alignment was achieved with 0.014 mm NiTi wire.

  12. Implant site development by orthodontic forced eruption of nontreatable teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Saffarpour, Anna; Sadrimanesh, Rouzbeh; Iranparvar, Kaveh; Saffarpour, Aida; Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Soolari, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Loss of bone and soft tissue attachment are common sequelae of periodontitis that may jeopardize the aesthetic outcome and compromise the functional and aesthetic outcomes of treatment. The following case report describes one of the most predictable techniques of vertical ridge augmentation, which is orthodontic extrusion or forced eruption of hopeless teeth. A 34-year-old woman who presented with severe attachment loss and deep pockets was diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The mobile maxillary incisors were consequently extracted and were replaced with dental implants. However, prior to extraction, orthodontic extrusion of the hopeless incisors was performed to correct vertical ridge defects. Following extrusion and extraction of the maxillary incisors, to prevent soft tissue collapse and to preserve the papillae during socket healing, the crowns of the extracted teeth were used as pontics on a removable partial provisional denture. After 8 weeks, the implants were placed, and an immediate functional restoration was delivered. After 4 months of healing, a fixed definitive partial prosthesis was fabricated and delivered. After periodontal treatment, over a 2-year period, the progression of aggressive periodontitis was controlled. The mean vertical movement of marginal bone was 3.6 mm. The use of the crowns of extracted teeth appears to be an effective method to maintain papillae. Orthodontic extrusion is a predictable method for the correction of vertical ridge defects. Orthodontic treatment does not aggravate or hasten the progression of aggressive periodontitis.

  13. Inactivation of IL11 Signaling Causes Craniosynostosis, Delayed Tooth Eruption, and Supernumerary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Pekka; Morgan, Neil V.; Fenwick, Aimée L.; Parmanen, Satu; Veistinen, Lotta; Mikkola, Marja L.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Giraud, Andrew; Judd, Louise; Arte, Sirpa; Brueton, Louise A.; Wall, Steven A.; Mathijssen, Irene M.J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.; Kreiborg, Sven; Thesleff, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Craniosynostosis and supernumerary teeth most often occur as isolated developmental anomalies, but they are also separately manifested in several malformation syndromes. Here, we describe a human syndrome featuring craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, delayed tooth eruption, and supernumerary teeth. We performed homozygosity mapping in three unrelated consanguineous Pakistani families and localized the syndrome to a region in chromosome 9. Mutational analysis of candidate genes in the region revealed that all affected children harbored homozygous missense mutations (c.662C>G [p.Pro221Arg], c.734C>G [p.Ser245Cys], or c.886C>T [p.Arg296Trp]) in IL11RA (encoding interleukin 11 receptor, alpha) on chromosome 9p13.3. In addition, a homozygous nonsense mutation, c.475C>T (p.Gln159X), and a homozygous duplication, c.916_924dup (p.Thr306_Ser308dup), were observed in two north European families. In cell-transfection experiments, the p.Arg296Trp mutation rendered the receptor unable to mediate the IL11 signal, indicating that the mutation causes loss of IL11RA function. We also observed disturbed cranial growth and suture activity in the Il11ra null mutant mice, in which reduced size and remodeling of limb bones has been previously described. We conclude that IL11 signaling is essential for the normal development of craniofacial bones and teeth and that its function is to restrict suture fusion and tooth number. The results open up the possibility of modulation of IL11 signaling for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:21741611

  14. Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Teeth Oral/dental health is a critical part of maintaining overall health in TSC. The teeth and gums in TSC individuals are slightly different ...

  15. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 on Irreversible Pulpitis of Mature Erupted Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eba, Hisanori; Murasawa, Yusuke; Iohara, Koichiro; Isogai, Zenzo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Misako

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA) complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis. PMID:23285075

  16. Assisted eruption of impacted teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Peamkaroonrath, Chonthicha; Manosudprasit, Montien; Godfrey, Keith

    2008-11-01

    To assist the eruption of impacted upper teeth into an alveolar bone graft in a patient with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. An 8-year-old Thai boy with left unilateral complete cleft lip and palate had the chief complaint of anterior crossbite. He presented with a mild skeletal 3, dental Class III subdivision malocclusion, anterior crossbite, left unilateral posterior crossbite, moderate crowding in the upper arch with impaction of upper the left lateral incisor (tooth 22) and canine (tooth 23). In the first phase of treatment the posterior crossbite was corrected with a removable appliance with a 3-way screw. In the second phase the impacted teeth were surgically exposed, moved into the alveolar bone graft and the teeth aligned with fixed appliances. The upper left lateral incisor was extracted because of its questionable longevity. The orthodontic treatment resulted in normal overjet, overbite and an acceptable facial profile. A prosthesis replaced tooth 22. Forced eruption of impacted teeth can be carried out successfully in the cleft patients after an appropriate treatment plan has been formulated and following preparation of alveolar bone graft in the cleft site.

  17. Uptake of fluoride into developing sheep teeth, following the 1995 volcanic eruption of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, G. E.; Cutress, T. W.; Suckling, G. W.

    1997-07-01

    In the southern Spring of 1995 (mid-October) the active volcano Mt Ruapehu in the central North Island of New Zealand erupted explosively, spreading up to 40 million m 3 of rhyolite tephra over thousands of km 2 of farmland during the lambing season. This ash contained a high concentration of soluble fluoride, and more than 2000 lactating ewes died of acute fluoride poisoning. To investigate the effects of this brief but acute dose on the teeth of grazing animals we examined the distributions of fluorine and calcium in the permanent incisor teeth of sheep which were one year old at the time. Where part of an incisor had been in the first (secretory) stage of calcification the erupted tooth disclosed surface pitting, a thin layer of enriched mineral across the enamel with as much as 1000 ppm F w/w, and a separate layer with ˜4000 ppm down the dentine. The part of an incisor which had attained the later (maturation) stage showed enriched layers only in the outer enamel and in the dentine. This study has demonstrated some important features of the calcification process, and the risk of fluoride toxicity to grazing animals.

  18. Impact of birth characteristics, breast feeding and vital statistics on the eruption of primary teeth among healthy infants in Saudi Arabia: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Alnemer, Kholoud Abdullah; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Althubaiti, Alaa M; Bawazeer, Manal

    2017-12-15

    This study aimed to explore the impact of gender, birth weight, maternal age, type of delivery, gestational age and feeding practices on the eruption of teeth in children with no underlying medical conditions or developmental defects in their first year of life. A cross-sectional observational study design was used. A primary healthcare setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All children in their first year of life attending a vaccination clinic (n=422) were included in the study. Infants with chronic childhood illnesses, those who were below the 5th percentile in height or weight, infants with congenital birth defects and chronic illnesses, infants who were born preterm and low birth weight infants were excluded from the study. The type of delivery, birth weight, age of mother, height and weight percentile for age (as plotted on the WHO growth chart for infants) and feeding practices were recorded by the examiner, and this was followed by a clinical examination to determine the presence or absence of each tooth. Regression models were developed to determine the effect of the different variables on the presence of primary teeth. There was a significant association between the weight percentile of the child (adjusted for age) and the number of erupted primary teeth, suggesting that heavier children have an earlier eruption of teeth. No association was observed between birth weight, height percentile for age or maternal age at the time of birth and the number of erupted primary teeth. Children who were exclusively breast fed were significantly more likely to have an erupted first primary tooth earlier than non-breastfed group. Breast feeding and the weight of the child may have an influence on the eruption of primary teeth in the first year of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Zebrafish sp7 mutants show tooth cycling independent of attachment, eruption and poor differentiation of teeth.

    PubMed

    Kague, E; Witten, P E; Soenens, M; Campos, C L; Lubiana, T; Fisher, S; Hammond, C; Brown, K Robson; Passos-Bueno, M R; Huysseune, A

    2018-03-15

    The capacity to fully replace teeth continuously makes zebrafish an attractive model to explore regeneration and tooth development. The requirement of attachment bone for the appearance of replacement teeth has been hypothesized but not yet investigated. The transcription factor sp7 (osterix) is known in mammals to play an important role during odontoblast differentiation and root formation. Here we study tooth replacement in the absence of attachment bone using sp7 zebrafish mutants. We analysed the pattern of tooth replacement at different stages of development and demonstrated that in zebrafish lacking sp7, attachment bone is never present, independent of the stage of tooth development or fish age, yet replacement is not interrupted. Without bone of attachment we observed abnormal orientation of teeth, and abnormal connection of pulp cavities of predecessor and replacement teeth. Mutants lacking sp7 show arrested dentinogenesis, with non-polarization of odontoblasts and only a thin layer of dentin deposited. Osteoclast activity was observed in sp7 mutants; due to the lack of bone of attachment, remodelling was diminished but nevertheless present along the pharyngeal bone. We conclude that tooth replacement is ongoing in the sp7 mutant despite poor differentiation and defective attachment. Without bone of attachment tooth orientation and pulp organization are compromised. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Combined Periodontal – Prosthetic Treatment Approach to Manage Unusual Gingival Visibility in Resting Lip Position and Inversely Inclined Upper Anterior Teeth: A Case Report with Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Biniraj, K R; Janardhanan, Mahija; Sunil, M M; Sagir, Mohammed; Hariprasad, A; Paul, Tony P; Emmatty, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gingival visibility during smile is a common esthetic complaint in dentistry, but excessive gingival visibility in resting lip position is relatively uncommon condition. Several exclusive radical to conservative surgical treatment or its combination with orthodontic therapy to treat this condition are within the reach of every patient nowadays. A case report of an excessive gingival visibility because of altered passive eruption along with inversely inclined maxillary anterior teeth is presented here. A relatively simple treatment approach combining periodontal and restorative therapy is used here to achieve the desirable aesthetic results. The gingival exposure resulting from altered passive eruption was completely managed by a gingivectomy, but the inclined appearance of teeth was still an aesthetic complaint. After complete healing of gingivectomy surgery, appropriately designed crowns were given to rectify the inversely inclined appearance. A complete rehabilitation of patient’s smile could be achieved, the case was followed up for 3 years and the condition was found satisfactory. PMID:25878482

  1. A combined periodontal - prosthetic treatment approach to manage unusual gingival visibility in resting lip position and inversely inclined upper anterior teeth: a case report with discussion.

    PubMed

    Biniraj, K R; Janardhanan, Mahija; Sunil, M M; Sagir, Mohammed; Hariprasad, A; Paul, Tony P; Emmatty, Rishi

    2015-03-01

    Excessive gingival visibility during smile is a common esthetic complaint in dentistry, but excessive gingival visibility in resting lip position is relatively uncommon condition. Several exclusive radical to conservative surgical treatment or its combination with orthodontic therapy to treat this condition are within the reach of every patient nowadays. A case report of an excessive gingival visibility because of altered passive eruption along with inversely inclined maxillary anterior teeth is presented here. A relatively simple treatment approach combining periodontal and restorative therapy is used here to achieve the desirable aesthetic results. The gingival exposure resulting from altered passive eruption was completely managed by a gingivectomy, but the inclined appearance of teeth was still an aesthetic complaint. After complete healing of gingivectomy surgery, appropriately designed crowns were given to rectify the inversely inclined appearance. A complete rehabilitation of patient's smile could be achieved, the case was followed up for 3 years and the condition was found satisfactory.

  2. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training.

  3. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors after predecessor pulpectomy: five cases.

    PubMed

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Barcelos, Roberta; Gleiser, Rogerio; Primo, Laura Guimaraes

    2011-01-01

    Pulpectomy in primary teeth is a common technique that preserves teeth in the oral environment and maintains or recovers periapical tissues to a healthy condition. This article describes the ectopic eruption of permanent incisors whose primary predecessors underwent pulpectomy using ZOE filler paste. In a group of 135 teeth that received pulpectomy therapy due to caries, 10 primary maxillary incisors had overretention and were followed for at least 3.5 years (mean time of 4.2 years), both clinically and radiographically, until the permanent teeth erupted. The proposed treatment included extraction of the overretained primary incisors based on permanent successor eruption chronology and contralateral eruption. Seven permanent teeth erupted ectopically. Autocorrection of the permanent tooth positions was observed in five cases. It can be concluded that periodic clinical and radiographic assessments are essential to verify radicular and filling paste resorptions and to avoid overretention and any subsequent malocclusion.

  4. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  5. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to <16 years was noted to be the range in which the correlation between the chronological age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.

  6. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients

    PubMed Central

    Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Materials and Methods Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. Results The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to <16 years was noted to be the range in which the correlation between the chronological age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. Conclusion It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth. PMID:24380069

  7. Method of control position of laser focus during surfacing teeth of cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdin, V. V.; Hisamutdinov, R. M.; Rakhimov, R. R.; Israfilov, I. H.; Akhtiamov, R. F.

    2017-09-01

    Providing the quality laser of surfacing the edges of teeth requires control not only the energy of the radiation parameters, but also the position of the focal spot. The control channel of position of laser focus during surfacing, which determines the parameters of quality of the deposited layer, was calculated in the work. The parameters of the active opto-electronic system for the subsystem adjust the focus position relative to the deposited layer with a laser illumination of the cutting edges the teeth cutters were calculated, the model of a control channel based on thermal phenomena occurring in the zone of surfacing was proposed.

  8. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  9. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  10. Concept and development of a computerized positioning of prosthetic teeth for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Busch, M; Kordass, B

    2006-04-01

    To date, CAD/CAM technology has made no noteworthy inroads into removable dentures. We want to present a new area of application for this in our study. Models of the maxilla and edentulous mandible were 3D scanned. The software detects and automatically reconstructs the reference structures that are anatomically important for the set-up of artificial teeth, such as the alveolar ridge centerlines and the interalveolar relations between the alveolar ridges. In a further step, the occlusal plane is semiautomatically defined and the front dental arch is designed. After these design features have been determined, artificial teeth are selected from a database and set up automatically. The dental technician can assess the esthetics and function of the suggested dental set-up on the computer screen and make slight corrections if necessary. Summarizing: The interplay of hardware and software components within on integrated solution including conversion of the "virtual" into a real positioning of prosthetic teeth is presented.

  11. Teething troubles?

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T; McIntyre, G M

    2002-03-09

    The relationship between the eruption of the deciduous teeth and the general health of infants has been documented for over 5,000 years. A variety of physical disturbances (anything from minor upsets to potentially fatal illnesses) have historically been attributed to teething, however a number of recent publications have alluded to a clarification of some of the disputed features of teething. It is now accepted that the localised symptoms of teething vary between individuals, however, 'teething' continues to be an inappropriate diagnosis proffered by both healthcare professionals and lay people. Severe systemic upsets are unrelated to teething and, if present, the infant should be promptly referred to a physician for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The treatment modalities used in teething have been diverse throughout the ages, frequently depending on the tenets of the medical profession and lay people, but now principally involve pain relief. This article examines the signs and symptoms frequently attributed to teething and their possible alternative causes. The contemporary principles of the management of teething are discussed, including supportive measures, the diverse range of available topical and systemic pharmacological preparations and the 'alternative' holistic therapies.

  12. Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Teeth What's in this ... help you talk. So let's talk teeth! Tiny Teeth Unlike your heart or brain, your teeth weren' ...

  13. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth.

    PubMed

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar bilaterally. The most common position of the mental

  14. A preliminary study for determination of three-dimensional root apex position of the maxillary teeth using camera calibration technology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jun; Yang, Il-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To propose a novel method for determining the three-dimensional (3D) root apex position of maxillary teeth using a two-dimensional (2D) panoramic radiograph image and a 3D virtual maxillary cast model. Methods: The subjects were 10 adult orthodontic patients treated with non-extraction. The multiple camera matrices were used to define transformative relationships between tooth images of the 2D panoramic radiographs and the 3D virtual maxillary cast models. After construction of the root apex-specific projective (RASP) models, overdetermined equations were used to calculate the 3D root apex position with a direct linear transformation algorithm and the known 2D co-ordinates of the root apex in the panoramic radiograph. For verification of the estimated 3D root apex position, the RASP and 3D-CT models were superimposed using a best-fit method. Then, the values of estimation error (EE; mean, standard deviation, minimum error and maximum error) between the two models were calculated. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient values exhibited good reliability for the landmark identification. The mean EE of all root apices of maxillary teeth was 1.88 mm. The EE values, in descending order, were as follows: canine, 2.30 mm; first premolar, 1.93 mm; second premolar, 1.91 mm; first molar, 1.83 mm; second molar, 1.82 mm; lateral incisor, 1.80 mm; and central incisor, 1.53 mm. Conclusions: Camera calibration technology allows reliable determination of the 3D root apex position of maxillary teeth without the need for 3D-CT scan or tooth templates. PMID:26317151

  15. Cone Beam Computed Tomography-based Evaluation of the Anterior Teeth Position Changes obtained by Passive Self-ligating Brackets.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Fernando K; Maltagliati, Liliana Á; de Castro Ferreira Conti, Ana C; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata R; Filho, Leopoldino C; de Almeida Cardoso, Maurício

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior teeth position changes obtained by passive self-ligating brackets using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty patients with a mean age of 16.5 years, class I malocclusion, constricted maxillary arch, and teeth crowding above 5 mm were enrolled in this study, and treated by passive orthodontic self-ligating brackets. A sequence of stainless steel thermoset wire was implemented with ending wire of 0.019" × 0.025". The CBCT and dental casts were obtained prior to the installation of orthodontic appliances (T1), and 30 days after rectangular steel wire 0.019" × 0.025" installation (T2). The measurements in CBCT were performed with the Anatomage software, and the dental casts were evaluated with a digital caliper rule with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. The CBCT data demonstrated mean buccal inclination of the upper and lower central incisors ranging from 6.55° to 7.24° respectively. The upper and lower lateral incisors ranged from 4.90° to 8.72° respectively. The lower canines showed an average increase of 3.88° in the buccal inclination and 1.96 mm in the transverse intercuspal distance. The upper canines showed a negative inclination with mean average of -0.36°, and an average increase of 0.82 mm in the transverse distance, with negative correlation with the initial crowding. Treatment with passive self-ligating brackets without obtaining spaces increases buccal inclination of the upper and lower incisors with no correlation with the amount of initial teeth crowding. The intercanine distance tends to a small increase showing different inclinations between the arches. When taking into account the self-ligating brackets, the amount of initial dental crowding is not a limitation factor that could increase the buccal inclination of the anterior teeth.

  16. Magma chamber deflation recorded by the Global Positioning System - The Hekla 1991 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, Pall; Bilham, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Between January 17 and March 11, 1991, 0.15 cu km of lava erupted initially from several radial fissures and subsequently from a single fissure on the SE flank of Hekla volcano, Iceland. Hekla is surrounded by an array of control points measured in 1989 using GPS geodesy and re-measured after the eruption. These measurements indicate that the eruption was associated with a surface deflation volume of 0.1 + 0.08 - 0.04 centered on Hekla (63.995 deg N +4 -3 km, 19.69 deg W +1.5 -2 km). The depth to the magma reservoir is 9 +6 -7 km, poorly constrained due to the absence of GPS control points close to the volcano.

  17. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the difficulties in studying late stages of tooth development and tooth movement and the lack of good model systems. Transgenic mice with eruption problems and short or no roots can be used as a powerful model for further deciphering of the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying root formation and tooth eruption. Better understanding of these processes can provide hints on delivering more efficient dental therapies in the future. PMID:23345536

  18. Wisdom teeth: mankind's future third vice-teeth?

    PubMed

    Zou, DuoHong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, WangHui; Xia, LunGuo; Jang, XinQuan; Huang, YuanLiang

    2010-01-01

    The third molar teeth (wisdom teeth) represent the last eruption of the teeth in the human dentition. Throughout evolution, the mandible has had a tendency to decrease in size; the third molar teeth are often impacted, resulting in incomplete tooth eruption that often causes clinical pericoronitis, dental caries, and pericemental abscess. Therefore, the wisdom teeth are often extracted. Moreover, wisdom teeth are often removed for clinical orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, tooth loss due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma, or a variety of genetic disorders continues to affect people's lives. Autologous tissues for dental tissue regeneration that could replace lost teeth could provide a vital alternative to currently available clinical treatments. To pursue this goal, we hypothesize that human third molar tooth buds can be obtained during development. Human wisdom tooth germination tissue could then be placed into an embryonic stem cell bank for storage. When the donor's other teeth are missing, embryonic stem cell and tissue engineering technologies, will permit the restoration of the missing teeth. Therefore wisdom teeth will be mankind's future third vice-teeth.

  19. Ectopic eruption of first permanent molars: presenting features and associations.

    PubMed

    Mooney, G C; Morgan, A G; Rodd, H D; North, S

    2007-09-01

    To investigate presenting features of ectopically erupting first permanent molars and associations with other dental anomalies. Prospective convenience study. 28 panoral radiographs were collected, over a 24-month period, of 7-11 year-old children with radiographic evidence of ectopic eruption of first permanent molars who presented to a Dental Teaching Hospital in the North of England. A further 20 radiographs were collected of matched patients with no evidence of ectopic molar eruption. All radiographs were analysed under standard conditions to record the distribution and type of ectopic eruption (if present). In addition, the presence of the following dental anomalies was noted: cleft lip and/or palate; supernumerary teeth; hypodontia, and infraocclusion of primary molars. Chi-squared analysis was performed to determine any significant differences in the frequency of these dental anomalies between ectopic molar and control groups. For patients with ectopic molar eruption, the majority demonstrated ectopic eruption of either one or two first permanent molars (32% and 57% of subjects respectively). There were a similar proportion of 'jumps' and 'holds'. 92% of these were maxillary teeth and there was equal left and right distribution. Interestingly, a positive record of ectopic eruption was only documented in the dental records of 35.7% of these subjects. Children with ectopic eruption were significantly more likely to have at least one additional dental anomaly than was the case for the control group (60.7% versus 25%). Notably, primary molar infraocclusion and cleft lip/palate were significantly more frequent in the ectopic group. This study, the first in a British population, has identified a significant association between ectopic eruption of first permanent molars and other dental anomalies. A multifactorial aetiology is thus supported and clinicians should be alert to the co-existence of ectopic eruption and other dental anomalies.

  20. The effects of alveolar bone loss and miniscrew position on initial tooth displacement during intrusion of the maxillary anterior teeth: Finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Sang-Jin; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the optimal loading conditions for pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth with miniscrews according to alveolar bone loss. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model was created for a segment of the six anterior teeth, and the positions of the miniscrews and hooks were varied after setting the alveolar bone loss to 0, 2, or 4 mm. Under 100 g of intrusive force, initial displacement of the individual teeth in three directions and the degree of labial tilting were measured. Results The degree of labial tilting increased with reduced alveolar bone height under the same load. When a miniscrew was inserted between the two central incisors, the amounts of medial-lateral and anterior-posterior displacement of the central incisor were significantly greater than in the other conditions. When the miniscrews were inserted distally to the canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors, the degree of labial tilting and the amounts of displacement of the six anterior teeth were the lowest, and the maximum von Mises stress was distributed evenly across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. Conclusions Initial tooth displacement similar to pure intrusion of the six maxillary anterior teeth was induced when miniscrews were inserted distal to the maxillary canines and an intrusion force was applied distal to the lateral incisors. In this condition, the maximum von Mises stresses were relatively evenly distributed across all the teeth, regardless of the bone loss. PMID:27668194

  1. Slow Orthodontic Teeth Extrusion to Enhance Hard and Soft Periodontal Tissue Quality before Implant Positioning in Aesthetic Area

    PubMed Central

    Maiorana, C; Speroni, S; Herford, A S; Cicciù, M

    2012-01-01

    Approaching bone defects of jaws treatments, hard and soft tissue augmentation could be considered as a goal for clinicians when performing dental implant placement. The increase in patients who want cosmetic treatment puts practitioners in an awkward position when choosing the best therapy to obtain the most desirable results. A private dentist referred a young patient to the Department of Implantology in Milan in order to place implants in the upper jaw. Radiographic evaluation of the two upper anterior incisors confirmed that the teeth had a poor prognosis The anterior ridge volume was clinically analyzed and several therapeutic choices were evaluated. Rapid extractions and immediate implant positioning were not considered due to the vertical and horizontal components of the bone defect. Therefore, the surgical team decided on increasing the bone volume by using slow orthodontic teeth extrusion technique. After 3 months of orthodontic treatment, the angular intra-bony defects of 1.1 tooth was completely healed. Implant guided positioning, associated with a small bone graft, showed optimal results at the time of healing screw placement. The soft tissue conditioning was obtained by a provisional acrylic crown. The final application of two integral ceramic crowns showed excellent aesthetic results. Radiographic investigation at a 24 month follow-up confirmed the integration of the dental implants and the recovery of the bone defects. Several safe surgical techniques are available today for reconstructing atrophic jaws. However, the same technique applied on the posterior area did not give the same predictable results as in the anterior areas of the jaw. PMID:23056158

  2. Effects of background, direction and intensity of ambient light, measuring position, and adjacent teeth, on anterior tooth colour measurement in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Feng; Du, Ruo Xi; Wang, Si Qian; Li, Yi Ming

    2010-01-01

    to investigate the effects of different background colours (black, white or pink), direction and intensity of ambient light, measuring position, and the adjacent teeth, on the in vitro colour measurement of maxillary anterior teeth, using the Minolta CR-321 colorimeter. ten extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected. A fibre-optic light MI-150 was used as the ambient illuminant. Teeth were irradiated from a 3- or 12-o'clock direction. L*a*b* values of seven sites on the labial surfaces were obtained by means of the Minolta CR-321 colorimeter, using three background colours, with or without the adjacent teeth. The recorded data were analysed with two-tailed Student t tests and analysis of variance (α = 0.05). the ambient light did not affect the colour measurement of anterior teeth, regardless of the presence or absence of the adjacent teeth. There were no statistically significant differences in L*a*b* values at the same position under different background colours, except ΔE12 (colour difference between site 1 and site 2) between black and white backgrounds. ΔE12 (under black background), ΔE13 and ΔE15 were greater than 1.5, while the others were lower than 1.5. the background, ambient light and the presence of adjacent teeth did not affect the colour measurement of anterior teeth using the Minolta CR-321 colorimeter in vitro. The inherent disadvantages of using the naked eye during clinical visual shade assessment may be overcome by the colorimeter.

  3. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Position and Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Canines in Cases of Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Cátia; Lavall, Asela; Pinho, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Assess whether the permanent maxillary canine (MC) has a natural tendency to erupt mesially in children with maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA), compared to children without agenesis. This retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study consisted of children between 5 and 12 years old divided into three groups: the first group with unilateral MLIA, in which an intraindividual analysis was performed, the second group presented bilateral MLIA, and the third group with patients without agenesis. These last two groups were matched for comparison interindividual, being pared by sex and maturation of the MC. The canine position in the horizontal sector showed a clear mesial positioning of the MC on the agenesis side in individuals with unilateral MLIA (group 1) when compared with the counter lateral side; and in individuals with bilateral MLIA (Group 2) compared with control Individuals without agenesis (group 3). Even with the maintenance of this deciduous tooth in the dental arch, the MC keeps its tendency to mesial eruption. There is a greater tendency for mesial angulation of the maxillary canine in patients with MLIA, regardless of the presence or absence of deciduous lateral incisor.

  5. Effect of retraction of anterior teeth on pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone position in Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S

    2016-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that the retraction of anterior teeth has no effect on the dimensions of pharyngeal airway and to evaluate the retraction of anterior teeth on each parameter of pharyngeal airway. Twenty-two adult patients of Class I bimaxillary protrusion requiring first premolar extractions with maximum anchorage requirements were selected. The pharyngeal airway and dentofacial parameters of the patients were compared using pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms with the help of Student's paired t -test ( P  < 0.05). The relationship between airway size and dentofacial parameters was also evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficient. The upper and lower lips were retracted by 2.25 and 5.4 mm after retraction of the incisors. The tips of upper and lower incisors were retracted by 7.75 and 7.15 mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in SPP-SPPW ( P  < 0.05), U-MPW ( P  < 0.001), TB-TPPW ( P  < 0.001), and change in HRGN ( P  < 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the amount of retraction of lower incisor and decrease in the pharyngeal airway posterior to soft palate ( r  = 0.102), tongue ( r  = 0.322), and change in HRGN ( r  = 0.265). The size of the pharyngeal (velopharyngeal and glossopharyngeal) airway reduced and hyoid bone position changed after retraction of the incisors in extraction space in bimaxillary protrusive adult patients.

  6. About Kids' Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links About Kids’ Teeth We have two sets of teeth during life: ... usually appeared. Learn about Nutrition Baby Teething Baby Teeth and Teething Baby teeth usually appear when your ...

  7. Laser fluorescence in monitoring the influence of targeted tooth brushing on remineralization of initial caries lesions on newly erupted molar teeth - RCT.

    PubMed

    Laitala, M-L; Jaanti, E; Vähänikkilä, H; Määttä, T; Heikka, H; Hausen, H; Anttonen, V

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to monitor mineralization changes in initial caries lesions on newly erupted second molars using laser fluorescence (LF) scanning after a 1-month targeted tooth brushing intervention. Altogether, 124 13- to 14-year-old school children were invited to participate. Of those who fulfilled the clinical criteria (at least one initial lesion with LF value >10 in second molars), 51 gave their written consent to participate. Laser fluorescence values were registered at baseline and after 1-month follow-up period. All participants were individually taught targeted tooth brushing of their second molars and randomly provided tooth paste with 0 or 1500 ppm fluoride. Brushing frequency was investigated at baseline and after the follow-up. Change in LF values was compared considering the tooth, content of fluoride in the paste and brushing frequency. In lesions with LF values ≤30 at baseline, change in LF values demonstrated improvement. Improvement was detected especially in upper molars. In lesions with LF values >30 at baseline, improvement was least detected. Brushing frequency increased slightly during the intervention. Laser fluorescence is a simple method and useful in monitoring remineralization of incipient lesions even in weeks. Targeted tooth brushing seems to induce remineralization even in weeks. Laser fluorescence could be a valuable motivating tool in promoting patients' self-care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Teething Tots

    MedlinePlus

    ... with liquid inside because they may break or leak. If you use a teething ring, chill it ... could cause the plastic to get damaged and leak chemicals. Teething biscuits and frozen or cold food ...

  9. Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Robert J; Lehmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs and golden moles, have been difficult to identify. Here, we suggest relatively late eruption of the permanent dentition as a shared characteristic of afrotherian mammals. This characteristic and other features (such as vertebral anomalies and testicondy) recall the phenotype of a human genetic pathology (cleidocranial dysplasia), correlations with which have not been explored previously in the context of character evolution within the recently established phylogeny of living mammalian clades. Results Although data on the absolute timing of eruption in sengis, golden moles and tenrecs are still unknown, craniometric comparisons for ontogenetic series of these taxa show that considerable skull growth takes place prior to the complete eruption of the permanent cheek teeth. Specimens showing less than half (sengis, golden moles) or two-thirds (tenrecs, hyraxes) of their permanent cheek teeth reach or exceed the median jaw length of conspecifics with a complete dentition. With few exceptions, afrotherians are closer to median adult jaw length with fewer erupted, permanent cheek teeth than comparable stages of non-afrotherians. Manatees (but not dugongs), elephants and hyraxes with known age data show eruption of permanent teeth late in ontogeny relative to other mammals. While the occurrence of delayed eruption, vertebral anomalies and other potential afrotherian synapomorphies resemble some symptoms of a human genetic pathology, these characteristics do not appear to covary significantly among mammalian clades. Conclusion Morphological characteristics shared by such physically disparate animals such as elephants and golden moles are not easy to recognize, but are now known to include late eruption of permanent teeth, in

  10. Malocclusion of teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Crowded teeth; Misaligned teeth; Crossbite; Overbite; Underbite; Open bite ... Occlusion refers to the alignment of teeth and the way that the upper and lower teeth fit together (bite). The upper teeth should fit slightly over the lower teeth. ...

  11. Guidance of eruption for general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Peter W; Kao, Elizabeth C; Wei, Stephen H

    2003-04-01

    The principle of early treatment through well-planned extraction of primary teeth followed by removal of permanent teeth has stood the test of time. The objective of this article is to develop some simple guidelines for general dental practitioners to perform 'guidance of eruption' in malocclusion with severe crowding.

  12. Clinical and radiological evaluation of inverse impaction of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Elif-Bahar; Kurklu, Esma; Gencay, Koray; Ak, Gulsum

    2013-07-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological features of children with inverted supernumerary teeth. Thirty eight patients with inverted supernumerary teeth (ST) were enrolled in this descriptive and restrospective study. Data from patient records including age, gender, status of dentition, number of ST, number of ST in inverted position, coexistence of ST in inverted and normal direction of eruption, location, orientation, morphology, clinical complications, management and radiography were assessed during 3-years period. Thirty eight patients with a mean age of 9.10 ± 1.97 years (range:6-13) and a strong male preponderance of 3.7:1 (male:30, female:8) had a total of 69 ST, of which 41 were in inverted position. Thirty five patients had one (92.1%) inverted tooth, whereas 3 patients had two inverted teeth per case (7.9%). All cases were located in the maxilla. Midline was the most frequent site for the single inverted supernumerary tooth in 18 (47.4%) patients, followed equally by the right and left premaxillary region in 10 patients each (26.3%). Regarding morphology, 30 patients had conical (78.9%) and 8 (21.1%) had incisiform ST. No tuberculate shaped ST was detected. There was no statistically significant difference between number of inverted teeth and delayed tooth eruption, diastema, local malocclusion, palatinal swelling (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between complications and age (p>0.05). Surgical removal at the time of diagnosis with subsequent follow-up during completion of permanent dentition was the treatment approach in all cases. Thorough clinical examination followed by a comprehensive radiographic screening is the crucial determinant of an accurate diagnosis of an impacted ST. Early diagnosis and timely management are key factors to prevent or minimize the complications, which may influence function and esthetics of the teeth and even psychological condition of the growing child.

  13. Clinical and radiological evaluation of inverse impaction of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kurklu, Esma; Gencay, Koray; Ak, Gulsum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical and radiological features of children with inverted supernumerary teeth. Study Design: Thirty eight patients with inverted supernumerary teeth (ST) were enrolled in this descriptive and restrospective study. Data from patient records including age, gender, status of dentition, number of ST, number of ST in inverted position, coexistence of ST in inverted and normal direction of eruption, location, orientation, morphology, clinical complications, management and radiography were assessed during 3-years period. Results: Thirty eight patients with a mean age of 9.10±1.97 years (range:6-13) and a strong male preponderance of 3.7:1 (male:30, female:8) had a total of 69 ST, of which 41 were in inverted position. Thirty five patients had one (92.1%) inverted tooth, whereas 3 patients had two inverted teeth per case (7.9%). All cases were located in the maxilla. Midline was the most frequent site for the single inverted supernumerary tooth in 18 (47.4%) patients, followed equally by the right and left premaxillary region in 10 patients each (26.3%). Regarding morphology, 30 patients had conical (78.9%) and 8 (21.1%) had incisiform ST. No tuberculate shaped ST was detected. There was no statistically significant difference between number of inverted teeth and delayed tooth eruption, diastema, local malocclusion, palatinal swelling (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between complications and age (p>0.05). Surgical removal at the time of diagnosis with subsequent follow-up during completion of permanent dentition was the treatment approach in all cases. Conclusions: Thorough clinical examination followed by a comprehensive radiographic screening is the crucial determinant of an accurate diagnosis of an impacted ST. Early diagnosis and timely management are key factors to prevent or minimize the complications, which may influence function and esthetics of the teeth and even psychological condition of the growing

  14. Prevalence of abnormalities in dental structure, position, and eruption pattern in a population of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Chiara; Meazzini, Maria C; Garattini, Giovanna; Brusati, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the dental characteristics of patients subjected to a protocol that included early secondary gingivoalveoloplasty (ESGAP). Panoramic radiographs of 87 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) were evaluated. Missing and supernumerary teeth were also quantified on the cleft and noncleft side and in the maxilla and mandible. Crown and root malformations and tooth rotations were quantified. A subsample in permanent dentition was extrapolated to analyze canine eruption patterns. A total of 48.8% of the UCLP patients presented with missing permanent lateral incisors in the cleft area and 6.1% contralaterally. A total of 4.9% presented with missing second maxillary premolars on the cleft site and 1.2% contralaterally. A total of 7.3% presented with supernumerary lateral incisors, and 45% of the BCLP cleft sites presented with missing lateral incisors, while 25% of the cleft sites presented second maxillary premolars agenesis. Five percent of the cleft sites presented with supernumerary lateral incisors. Evaluation of the subsample in permanent dentition showed that 15.5% had a canine retention and 4.4% of the canines had to be surgically exposed. A significant association was observed between canine inclination and retention but not with absence of the lateral incisor. The frequency of dental anomalies in this sample was similar to other cleft populations. As surgical trauma has been suggested to damage forming teeth, the results of this study indicated that ESGAP has no detrimental influence on subsequent dental development.

  15. Primary failure of eruption: further characterization of a rare eruption disorder.

    PubMed

    Frazier-Bowers, Sylvia A; Koehler, Karen E; Ackerman, James L; Proffit, William R

    2007-05-01

    Posterior open bite has several possible causes, including primary failure of eruption (PFE) that affects all teeth distal to the most mesial involved tooth, mechanical failure of eruption (MFE) (primarily ankylosis) that affects only the involved tooth or teeth, and soft-tissue interferences with eruption (other). Radiographs and other clinical records for 97 cases of failure of posterior eruption submitted for consultation were analyzed to further characterize PFE and distinguish it from MFE. Of the 97 cases, 38 were judged to be clear-cut PFE; 19 were diagnosed as MFE; 32 were classified as indeterminate failure because they were too young to be certain of the distinction between PFE and MFE; and 8 were placed in the "other" category. Two subtypes of PFE were observed. In type 1, eruption failure occurred at or near the same time for all teeth in an affected quadrant. In type 2, a gradient of the time of failure was present, so that some further development of the teeth posterior to the most mesial affected tooth was observed before eruption failure. A family history of eruption problems was noted in 10 of the 38 PFE subjects (26%), and a pedigree analysis was done for 4 families. This was consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. The distinction between PFE and MFE is clinically important because it determines whether all posterior teeth, or only individual affected teeth, will not respond to orthodontic force. Certain diagnosis often requires progress radiographs so that the pattern of eruption of teeth distal to the most mesial affected tooth can be observed.

  16. Orthodontic Management with Traction and Asymmetric Extraction for Multiple Impacted Permanent Maxillary Teeth - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiannan; Zhang, Liang; Dai, Juan; Li, Feifei; Feng, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Multiple impacted teeth are a rare eruption disturbance that increases the case complexity. In this article, we described a 13-year-old boy whose 5 permanent maxillary teeth were not erupted although their root formation was complete. The orthodontic treatment with traction and asymmetric extraction was performed to achieve a significantly improved functional and esthetic result.

  17. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Khosravifard, Negar; Golkari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all 8-10 year olds was calculated from patients’ dental models. Thirty-six children were randomly selected from those with TSALD of equal or less than 4mm (those with crowding). Each selected case was matched for sex and age with another child (as control) with TSALD>−4mm attending the same clinic, in the same time period. The existing panoramic radiographs were traced and the eruption percentages were measured for mandibular canine and first premolar teeth. The mean difference between canine and first premolar eruption percentages was compared between the case and control groups using the SPSS (version PASW 18) software and a paired sample t-test. Results: Canine and first premolar eruption percentages in the case group were 65.82±13.00 and 78.92±10.15 percent, respectively. The mean eruption percentages for canines and first premolars of the control group were 74.12±14.55 and 75.47±11.60 percent, respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-eruptive positions of canine and first premolar teeth in those with moderate to severe crowding when compared to the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings may improve the early diagnosis of children with high risk of developing moderate to severe crowding during mixed dentition. PMID:25110582

  18. Tooth Eruption Results from Bone Remodelling Driven by Bite Forces Sensed by Soft Tissue Dental Follicles: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafpour, Babak; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing; Zoellner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent tongue, lip and cheek forces influence precise tooth position, so we here examine the possibility that tissue remodelling driven by functional bite-force-induced jaw-strain accounts for tooth eruption. Notably, although a separate true ‘eruptive force’ is widely assumed, there is little direct evidence for such a force. We constructed a three dimensional finite element model from axial computerized tomography of an 8 year old child mandible containing 12 erupted and 8 unerupted teeth. Tissues modelled included: cortical bone, cancellous bone, soft tissue dental follicle, periodontal ligament, enamel, dentine, pulp and articular cartilage. Strain and hydrostatic stress during incisive and unilateral molar bite force were modelled, with force applied via medial and lateral pterygoid, temporalis, masseter and digastric muscles. Strain was maximal in the soft tissue follicle as opposed to surrounding bone, consistent with follicle as an effective mechanosensor. Initial numerical analysis of dental follicle soft tissue overlying crowns and beneath the roots of unerupted teeth was of volume and hydrostatic stress. To numerically evaluate biological significance of differing hydrostatic stress levels normalized for variable finite element volume, ‘biological response units’ in Nmm were defined and calculated by multiplication of hydrostatic stress and volume for each finite element. Graphical representations revealed similar overall responses for individual teeth regardless if incisive or right molar bite force was studied. There was general compression in the soft tissues over crowns of most unerupted teeth, and general tension in the soft tissues beneath roots. Not conforming to this pattern were the unerupted second molars, which do not erupt at this developmental stage. Data support a new hypothesis for tooth eruption, in which the follicular soft tissues detect bite-force-induced bone-strain, and direct bone remodelling at the inner surface of

  19. Tooth eruption results from bone remodelling driven by bite forces sensed by soft tissue dental follicles: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarrafpour, Babak; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing; Zoellner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent tongue, lip and cheek forces influence precise tooth position, so we here examine the possibility that tissue remodelling driven by functional bite-force-induced jaw-strain accounts for tooth eruption. Notably, although a separate true 'eruptive force' is widely assumed, there is little direct evidence for such a force. We constructed a three dimensional finite element model from axial computerized tomography of an 8 year old child mandible containing 12 erupted and 8 unerupted teeth. Tissues modelled included: cortical bone, cancellous bone, soft tissue dental follicle, periodontal ligament, enamel, dentine, pulp and articular cartilage. Strain and hydrostatic stress during incisive and unilateral molar bite force were modelled, with force applied via medial and lateral pterygoid, temporalis, masseter and digastric muscles. Strain was maximal in the soft tissue follicle as opposed to surrounding bone, consistent with follicle as an effective mechanosensor. Initial numerical analysis of dental follicle soft tissue overlying crowns and beneath the roots of unerupted teeth was of volume and hydrostatic stress. To numerically evaluate biological significance of differing hydrostatic stress levels normalized for variable finite element volume, 'biological response units' in Nmm were defined and calculated by multiplication of hydrostatic stress and volume for each finite element. Graphical representations revealed similar overall responses for individual teeth regardless if incisive or right molar bite force was studied. There was general compression in the soft tissues over crowns of most unerupted teeth, and general tension in the soft tissues beneath roots. Not conforming to this pattern were the unerupted second molars, which do not erupt at this developmental stage. Data support a new hypothesis for tooth eruption, in which the follicular soft tissues detect bite-force-induced bone-strain, and direct bone remodelling at the inner surface of the

  20. Development of coronal cementum in hypsodont horse cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki

    2014-04-01

    The horse is a grazing herbivore whose cheek teeth are hypsodon; that is, they possess long crowns that are completely covered by coronal cement at eruption. For elucidation of the sequential events in the formation of this coronal cementum in the mandibular horse cheek teeth, in the present study the lower 3rd permanent premolar teeth (PM4 ) from 3.5-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses were compared by using radiography, microcomputed tomography (Miro-CT), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study clearly showed that prior to coronal cementogenesis tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive odontoclasts resorbed on the enamel surface of the reserve crown in horse cheek tooth. Enamel resorption areas were relatively narrow, and started from the cuspal tips, and moved in the apical direction during tooth development. A primary cementum was initially deposited on the irregularly pitted enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) of the infolding and peripheral enamel. The infolding cementum filled grooves completely by the time of tooth eruption. On the other hand, in the peripheral cementum, the secondary and tertiary cementum layers were sequentially deposited on the primary cementum. These two cementum layers were sites for the insertion of the periodontal ligaments, and were continually laid down on the primary cementum coronally rather than apically throughout the life. The results of the present study suggest that the coronal cementum of horse cheek teeth is a multistructural and multifunctional tissue, meeting the requirements of its many different functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Creeping eruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... eruption is more common in countries with warm climates. In the United States, the Southeast has the ... MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department ...

  2. Jupiter Eruptions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-25

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances .

  3. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed.

    PubMed

    Haeussler, Silvia; Luepke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2014-02-21

    In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity.To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp.

  4. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  5. Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.

    PubMed

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case report: Management of severe posterior open bite due to primary failure of eruption.

    PubMed

    Mc Cafferty, J; Al Awadi, E; O'Connell, A C

    2010-06-01

    restorations. In this unique case, a profound unilateral posterior open bite occurred due to primary failure of eruption of the maxillary and mandibular teeth on the affected side. Orthodontic therapy was used to modify the position of the permanent canines and premolars to reduce the posterior open bite.

  7. Popocatepetl Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl Volcano, almost 30 miles south of Mexico City, erupted yesterday (December 18, 2000) in what authorities are calling its most spectacular eruption since 800 A.D. This morning, Popocatepetl (pronounced poh-poh-kah-TEH-peh-til) continued spewing red-hot rocks as well as a column of smoke and ash about 2.5 miles high into the atmosphere. This true-color image of the volcano was acquired today by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. In this image, Popocatepetl's plume (greyish pixels) can be seen blowing southward, away from Mexico City. There is a large cloud bank (bright white pixels) just to the east of the volcanic plume. Although Popocatepetl has been active since 1994-when it awoke from a 70-year slumber-this most recent eruption is most concerning to the greater Mexico City region's 20 million residents. The volcano demonstrated what it can do in 800 A.D. when it belched forth enough lava to fill many of the valleys in the surrounding region. Earlier, scientists warned the citizens of Mexico that there is a dome of lava at the base of the volcano that is causing pressure to build inside. They are concerned that, if it continues to build unabated, this pressure could cause even larger eruptions in the future. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Overjet and overbite analysis during the eruption of the upper permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar A; Sella, Rodrigo C; Mamede, Igo; de Macedo, Fernanda A; Miranda-Zamalloa, Yésselin M; de Mendonça, Marcos R

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the overjet and overbite behavior during eruption of the upper permanent incisors. Fourth-eight plaster casts of 16 patients from ages 6-13 years were appraised longitudinally. It was found that the overjet remains constant, starting at the eruption of the upper permanent central incisors until eruption of the upper permanent canine teeth, while the overbite increases after eruption of the upper permanent lateral incisors and remains constant with the eruption of the canine teeth.

  9. Impacted Wisdom Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Impacted wisdom teeth Overview Impacted wisdom teeth are third molars at the back of the mouth that don' ... with an impacted wisdom tooth. Causes Wisdom teeth (third molars) become impacted because they don't have enough ...

  10. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  11. Wisdom Teeth Management

    MedlinePlus

    Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom teeth, or third molars, are the last teeth to develop and appear in your mouth. They come ... of third molars, disease status, and to suggest management options ranging from removal to a monitored retention ...

  12. Dental eruption sequence among colobine primates.

    PubMed

    Harvati, K

    2000-05-01

    Dental development is one aspect of growth that is linked to diet and to life history but has not been investigated among colobines since the work of Schultz [1935]. This study establishes the dental eruption sequence for several colobine species and compares it to that of other catarrhines. The mandibles and maxillae of two hundred and four juvenile colobine specimens were scored for presence or absence of permanent teeth and for stages of partial eruption. Eruption was defined as ranging between tooth emergence (any part of a tooth crown above the alveolar margin) and full occlusion, with three intermediate levels manifest between these boundaries. In African colobines, represented by C. guereza, C. angolensis and P. badius, M2 erupts before I2, and in C. angolensis it also erupts before I1. The canine is delayed, erupting after the premolars in females and after M3 in males. Asian colobines show greater diversity in eruption sequences. Nasalis shows no early eruption of the molars and is very similar to Macaca. In Trachypithecus and Pygathrix M(2) erupts before I(2). The canine in Trachypithecus is delayed, erupting after the premolars and, in some males, after M3. In Presbytis M2 erupts before both incisors; M3 erupts before C in both sexes, and often before both premolars. Although the actual timing of eruption is unknown, all colobine species examined except N. larvatus showed some degree of relatively early eruption of M2 and M3. The lack of this tendency in Nasalis sets this genus apart from all other colobines represented in this study. Dental eruption sequence is thought to reflect life history patterns. Early molar eruption in colobines was thought by Schultz (1935) to be a primitive character reflecting shorter life history. Faster growth rates found in folivorous primates have been interpreted as being related to an adaptation to folivory (Leigh 1994), and early eruption of molars may be part of this dietary specialization. The relationships between

  13. How does tooth eruption relate to vertical mandibular growth displacement?

    PubMed

    Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Buschang, Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the eruptive patterns of the mandibular teeth and assess their associations with mandibular growth displacements. Cephalograms for a mixed-longitudinal sample of 124 French-Canadian girls were evaluated between 10 and 15 years of age. Vertical mandibular displacement and mandibular eruption were evaluated by using cranial and mandibular superimpositions, respectively. Multilevel modeling procedures were used to estimate each subject's growth change over time. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine the amount and relative magnitudes of variations in mandibular eruption explained by mandibular growth displacement, controlling for vertical maxillary tooth movements. Cubic polynomial models explained between 91% and 98% of the variations in eruption and vertical growth displacement. All curves showed acceleration of eruption until approximately 12 years of age, after which eruption decelerated. The eruption of the mandibular teeth demonstrated greater relative variability than did vertical mandibular growth displacements. Independent of the overall movements of the maxillary molars, inferior mandibular growth displacement explained approximately 54% of the variation in mandibular molar eruption between 10.5 and 14.5 years of age. Inferior mandibular growth displacement and dental eruption followed similar patterns of change during adolescence. Based on their associations and the differences in variability identified, mandibular eruption appears to compensate for or adapt to growth displacements. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Complicated lichenoid drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Armour, Katherine; Lowe, Patricia

    2005-02-01

    We report a case of severe lichenoid drug eruption with multiple possible causative agents. A hepatitis C-positive male presented with a short history of painful erosions of the vermilion, lichenoid lesions on the buccal mucosa and glans penis, and erosions and lichenification of the scrotum. In addition, he had a pruritic polymorphic eruption over the scalp, trunk and limbs, comprising psoriasiform and eczematous lesions. He had received combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin, along with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for interferon-induced leucopenia, and propranolol for portal hypertension. The former three agents were ceased 3 weeks prior to presentation, but he remained on propranolol at the initial dermatology consultation. The polymorphous clinical picture was consistent with lichenoid drug eruption, which was confirmed on histology. The papulosquamous eruption responded quickly to 2 weeks of oral prednisone 25 mg daily, which was tapered to 1 mg over 3 months and then ceased. The mucosal lesions were slow to improve and required the addition of tacrolimus 0.03% solution t.d.s. for complete resolution.

  15. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Rao, Jitendra; Yadav, Lakhya; Hasija, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth in the absence of associated systemic condition or syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth need to have periodical radiographic observation. In the case of asymptomatic condition, as they impacted in the jaw, a careful examination is necessary because they may develop into pathological status such as dentigerous cysts. Surgical removal of such teeth is indicated if evidence of any pathologies, such as cystic lesion, resorption, delayed eruption, altered eruption and displacement of adjacent teeth, is evident or have occurred. PMID:23704431

  16. Arching Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-30

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory caught this image of an eruption on the side of the sun on June 18, 2015. The eruption ultimately escaped the sun, growing into a substantial coronal mass ejection, or CME — a giant cloud of solar material traveling through space. This imagery is shown in the 304 Angstrom wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, a wavelength that highlights material in the low parts of the sun’s atmosphere and that is typically colorized in red. The video clip covers about four hours of the event. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO Download: svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?11908 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Does Timing of Eruption in First Primary Tooth Correlate with that of First Permanent Tooth? A 9-years Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Poureslami, Hamidreza; Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Jamali, Zahra; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Hazem, Kameliya; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Predicting the teeth eruption time is a valuable tool in pediatric dentistry since it can affects scheduling dental and orthodontic treatments. This study investigated the relationship between the eruption time of first primary and permanent teeth and the variation in the eruption time considering socioeconomic status (SES) in a 9-year population- based cohort study. Materials and methods. 307 subjects were examined at bimonthly intervals during the first and second years of life and then at six-month intervals until the eruption of first permanent tooth. Eruption times of primary and permanent tooth were recorded for each child. A modified form of Kuppuswamy’s scale was used to assess the SES. Results. Among 267 subjects completed all follow-ups, the eruption time for first primary and permanent teeth indicated a direct strong correlation; in that one month delayed or early eruption of firstprimary tooth resulted in 4.21 months delayed or early eruption of first appearing permanent tooth (r = 0.91, n = 267, P <0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the eruption time of first primary and first permanent teeth and SES (P = 0.67, P = 0.75, respectively). Conclusion. The eruption timing for the first primary tooth had a correlation with the first permanent tooth eruption tim-ing, while SES did not have any influence on eruption times. PMID:26236432

  18. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000769.htm Brushing Your Child's Teeth To use the sharing features on this page, ... age. Taking care of your child's gums and teeth every day helps prevent tooth decay and gum ...

  19. Malocclusion of teeth (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Occlusion refers to the alignment of teeth and the way that the upper and lower teeth fit together (bite). Malocclusion is the most common reason for referral to an orthodontist. Most malocclusion is mild enough not to ...

  20. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S.; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed. PMID:22888456

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Quiescent Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Lu, M.; van Ballegooijen, A.

    2012-05-01

    We present a survey on the fine structure and dynamics of quiescent prominence eruptions observed both on the disk and at the limb. We have identified 45 quiescent prominence eruptions by looking at the SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory)/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly) daily movies from April to June in 2011. Among these events, there are 24 symmetric eruptions (coherent loop-like eruptions) and 21 asymmetric eruptions (one footpoint lifts off) as shown by AIA and STEREO/EUVI observations. Vertical filament threads are identified in 10 out of the 45 events, while horizontal threads are observed in almost all eruptions. We find 23 events with twisting/untwisting motions. For 14 selected limb events, we carry out a detailed study of the eruption dynamics using AIA observations at 304 Å. We find that the initial heights of these erupting prominences are located around 50-110 Mm above the limb. The eruptions start from a speed of less than 5 km/s, then increase to several tens km/s in the AIA field of view. The maximum speed of these events is 50 km/s. The acceleration plots show a positive acceleration in the range of 0 to 20 m/s2. No significant difference is identified in the dynamics of the symmetric and asymmetric eruptions.

  2. Jupiter Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This visible-light image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope taken on May 11, 2007. It shows the turbulent pattern generated by the two plumes on the upper left part of Jupiter.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vi gorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  3. Does fluoride in drinking water delay tooth eruption?

    PubMed

    Jolaoso, Ismail Adeyemi; Kumar, Jayanth; Moss, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of fluoride exposure on permanent tooth eruption patterns as well as to understand its effect on caries attack rate by accounting for the number of erupted tooth surfaces. We analyzed data from the 1986-1987 National Survey of Oral Health of US Schoolchildren to determine the mean number of erupted permanent teeth and permanent first molars according to fluoride level in drinking water. The analysis included 13,348 children aged 5-17 years with a history of single residence. We also estimated the attack rate (decayed, missing, and filled surfaces/surfaces at risk) for fluoride deficient, suboptimal, and optimally fluoridated areas adjusting for covariates. Multivariable statistical analyses were performed to control for potential confounders. By age 7, almost all permanent first molars had erupted. The adjusted mean number of erupted permanent first molars per child were 3.81, 3.67, and 3.92 in areas with <0.3, 0.3-<0.7, and 0.7-1.2 ppm of fluoride, respectively. The adjusted caries attack rate in the first permanent molars among 5- to 17-year-old children was 93, 81, and 78 per 1,000 surfaces in fluoride deficient, suboptimal, and optimally fluoridated areas, respectively (P < 0.0001). This pattern of higher first molar attack rate among children in the fluoride-deficient communities was also observed in all erupted teeth. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water did not delay the eruption of permanent teeth. The observed difference in dental caries experience among children exposed to different fluoride levels could not be explained by the timing of eruption of permanent teeth. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. The trouble with teething--misdiagnosis and misuse of a topical medicament.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P H R; Mason, C

    2002-05-01

    For many clinicians and parents "teething" remains a convenient diagnosis to explain all manner of local and systemic upset in the young child. Many therapies are on the market to help alleviate the symptoms of primary tooth eruption. In this article we highlight the problems of "teething" as a diagnosis by presenting a case where an initial misdiagnosis of teething compromised a patient's life. The same patient then suffered from topical analgesic misuse during the recovery period.

  5. Dental Anomalies in Permanent Teeth after Trauma in Primary Dentition.

    PubMed

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Pasini, Stefania; Majorana, Alessandra

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in permanent teeth as a result of a trauma concerning the predecessor primary teeth. A total of 241 records of children (118 males and 123 females, mean age 3.62 ± 1.40) affected by trauma on primary teeth were analyzed. All patients were recalled to evaluate the status of the permanent successor teeth by clinical and radiographic investigations. Out of 241 patients, 106 patients (for a total of 179 traumatized primary teeth) presented at the recall. Dental anomalies on successor permanent teeth were detected in 21 patients (19.8%), for a total of 26 teeth (14.5%) and 28 anomalies. Anomalies of the eruptive process were the most observed disturbances (60.7%), followed by enamel hypoplasia (25%) and white spots (14.3%). A higher percentage of anomalies on permanent teeth was observed when trauma occurred at an age less than 36 months (38.5% of cases). Intrusive and extrusive luxation were related with the most cases of clinical disturbances in the successor permanent teeth. The results of this study highlight the risk of dental anomalies after a trauma in primary dentition, especially in early-aged children and in case of intrusive luxation.

  6. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, G.E.; King, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments. PMID:18434571

  7. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  8. Emergence of Primary Teeth in Children of Sunsari District of Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anita; Hiremath, SS; Singh, SK; Poudyal, S; Niraula, SR; Baral, DD; Singh, RK

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the timing and eruption sequence of primary teeth in children of Sunsari district of Eastern Nepal and compared the eruption pattern of males & females between various, ethnic groups. Method This cross-sectional study, included 501 subjects, aged 3 months to 60 months selected by simple random sampling method. The determinant variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, and eruption of teeth were recorded. Results This study provides a model data on emergence of primary teeth and number of deciduous teeth in these children. This is a first study of its kind in Nepal. The findings of this study will help as a reference data for optimal use in clinical, academic, and research activities, especially for children of Eastern Nepal. PMID:18523631

  9. The association between childhood obesity and tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M; Tybor, David J; Lividini, Keith; Hayes, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a growth-promoting process as evidenced by its effect on the timing of puberty. Although studies are limited, obesity has been shown to affect the timing of tooth eruption. Both the timing and sequence of tooth eruption are important to overall oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and tooth eruption. Data were combined from three consecutive cycles (2001-2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed to examine associations between the number of teeth erupted (NET) and obesity status (BMI z-score >95th percentile BMI relative to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth reference) among children 5 up to 14 years of age, controlling for potential confounding by age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). Obesity is significantly associated with having a higher average NET during the mixed dentition period. On average, teeth of obese children erupted earlier than nonobese children with obese children having on average 1.44 more teeth erupted than nonobese children, after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (P < 0.0001). SES was not a confounder of the observed associations. Obese children, on average, have significantly more teeth erupted than nonobese children after adjusting for gender, age, and race. These findings may have clinical importance in the area of dental and orthodontic medicine both in terms of risk for dental caries due to extended length of time exposed in the oral cavity and sequencing which may increase the likelihood of malocclusions.

  10. The Association Between childhood Obesity and Tooth Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Tybor, David J.; Lividini, Keith; Hayes, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a growth-promoting process as evidenced by its effect on the timing of puberty. Although studies are limited, obesity has been shown to affect the timing of tooth eruption. Both the timing and sequence of tooth eruption are important to overall oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and tooth eruption. Data were combined from three consecutive cycles (2001–2006) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed to examine associations between the number of teeth erupted (NET) and obesity status (BMI z-score >95th percentile BMI relative to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth reference) among children 5 up to 14 years of age, controlling for potential confounding by age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). Obesity is significantly associated with having a higher average NET during the mixed dentition period. On average, teeth of obese children erupted earlier than nonobese children with obese children having on average 1.44 more teeth erupted than nonobese children, after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (P < 0.0001). SES was not a confounder of the observed associations. Obese children, on average, have significantly more teeth erupted than nonobese children after adjusting for gender, age, and race. These findings may have clinical importance in the area of dental and orthodontic medicine both in terms of risk for dental caries due to extended length of time exposed in the oral cavity and sequencing which may increase the likelihood of malocclusions. PMID:22310231

  11. Esthetic enhancement of a traumatized anterior tooth with a combination of forced eruption and tooth alignment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, So-Hee; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Sung-Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Exposing sound structure of a subgingivally fractured tooth using orthodontic extrusion is considered to be a conservative way to re-establish biologic width without sacrificing esthetics or jeopardizing periodontal support of neighboring teeth. When a misaligned tooth is traumatically involved, a more comprehensive approach combining tooth extrusion and re-alignment may be necessary for a successful restorative outcome. This case report describes a successful esthetic management of a patient with complicated crown-root fracture on the maxillary right central incisor and pre-existing malocclusion in the maxillary anterior region. Forced eruption along with re-alignment of teeth by orthodontic movement seems to allow re-positioning of the fracture line to a favorable position and correction of crowding, providing a better esthetic result. PMID:27508163

  12. Riga-Fede disease and neonatal teeth.

    PubMed

    Costacurta, M; Maturo, P; Docimo, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns. A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth. The extraction of neonatal teeth was selected as treatment of choice, over more conservative treatments, for the rapid resolution of the lesion and for the limited risk of inadequate nutrients intake. The extracted teeth underwent a macroscopic/microscopic examination. The complete healing of the lesion took 4 weeks; subsequently, the infant, revised at the 1-year follow-up visit. Early detection of RFD is recommended because such lesions properly may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant and growth retardation.

  13. [Cryopreservation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Melanie; Filippi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    After tooth loss dental implants or fixed prosthetic restorations are not indicated in children and adolescents due to incomplete maxillary and mandibular development. Cryopreservation is a method for long-term storage of healthy teeth which were removed for orthodontic reasons or due to traumatic origin. These preserved teeth can be used as autogenous replants or transplants after tooth loss. During transport to and from the freezing facilities prior to freezing the teeth are stored in a cell culture medium. The tooth is transferred into a freezing tube containing cell culture medium and cryoprotectant DMSO. Teeth autotransplanted after cryopreservation show vitality of the PDL cells. Usually no enamel and/or dentinal cracks can be observed. After tooth loss transplantation of cryopreserved teeth could be an effective and biological therapy for tooth replacement.

  14. Varanoid Tooth Eruption and Implantation Modes in a Late Cretaceous Mosasaur

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Reed, David A.; Cecchini, Giancarlo M.; Lu, Xuanyu; Ganjawalla, Karan; Gonzales, Carol S.; Monahan, Richard; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    Erupting teeth are some of the oldest witnesses of developmental processes in the vertebrate fossil record and provide an important resource for vertebrate cladistics. Here, we have examined a mosasaur jaw fragment from central Texas using ultrathin ground section histology and 3D tomographic imaging to assess features critical for the cladistic placement of mosasaurs among varanoids vs. snakes: (i) the orientation of replacement teeth compared to the major tooth axis, (ii) the occurrence of resorption pits, and (iii) the mode of tooth implantation/attachment to the tooth bearing element (TBE). The replacement tooth studied here developed in an inclined position slightly distal of the deciduous parent tooth, similar to another varanoid squamate, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Ground sections and tomographs also demonstrated that the replacement tooth attachment apparatus was entirely intact and that there was no evidence of mechanical deformation. Sections and tomographs further illustrated that the replacement tooth was located within a bony crypt and the inclination of the crypt matched the inclination of the replacement tooth. These preparations also revealed the presence of a resorption pit within the boundaries of the deciduous tooth that surrounded the developing replacement tooth. This finding suggests that developing mosasaur teeth developed within the walls of resorption pits similar to varanoid tooth germs and unlike developing snake teeth which are surrounded by fibrous connective tissue integuments. Finally, mosasaurs featured pseudo-thecodont tooth implantation with teeth anchored within a socket of mineralized tissue by means of a mineralized periodontal ligament. Together, these data indicate that the moderate inclination of the erupting mosasaur tooth studied here is neither a result of postmortem displacement nor a character representative of snakes, but rather a shared character between Mosasaurs and other varanoids such as Heloderma. In

  15. Varanoid Tooth Eruption and Implantation Modes in a Late Cretaceous Mosasaur.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Reed, David A; Cecchini, Giancarlo M; Lu, Xuanyu; Ganjawalla, Karan; Gonzales, Carol S; Monahan, Richard; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2016-01-01

    Erupting teeth are some of the oldest witnesses of developmental processes in the vertebrate fossil record and provide an important resource for vertebrate cladistics. Here, we have examined a mosasaur jaw fragment from central Texas using ultrathin ground section histology and 3D tomographic imaging to assess features critical for the cladistic placement of mosasaurs among varanoids vs. snakes: (i) the orientation of replacement teeth compared to the major tooth axis, (ii) the occurrence of resorption pits, and (iii) the mode of tooth implantation/attachment to the tooth bearing element (TBE). The replacement tooth studied here developed in an inclined position slightly distal of the deciduous parent tooth, similar to another varanoid squamate, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Ground sections and tomographs also demonstrated that the replacement tooth attachment apparatus was entirely intact and that there was no evidence of mechanical deformation. Sections and tomographs further illustrated that the replacement tooth was located within a bony crypt and the inclination of the crypt matched the inclination of the replacement tooth. These preparations also revealed the presence of a resorption pit within the boundaries of the deciduous tooth that surrounded the developing replacement tooth. This finding suggests that developing mosasaur teeth developed within the walls of resorption pits similar to varanoid tooth germs and unlike developing snake teeth which are surrounded by fibrous connective tissue integuments. Finally, mosasaurs featured pseudo-thecodont tooth implantation with teeth anchored within a socket of mineralized tissue by means of a mineralized periodontal ligament. Together, these data indicate that the moderate inclination of the erupting mosasaur tooth studied here is neither a result of postmortem displacement nor a character representative of snakes, but rather a shared character between Mosasaurs and other varanoids such as Heloderma. In

  16. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Teeth ... they help you look your best. Why Healthy Teeth Are Important How does taking care of your ...

  17. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Mouth and Teeth KidsHealth / For Parents / Mouth and Teeth What's in ... daily lives. Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth ...

  18. Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy KidsHealth / For Parents / Keeping Your Child's Teeth ... and guidelines. When Should Kids Start Brushing Their Teeth? Good dental care begins before a baby's first ...

  19. Study on digital teeth selection and virtual teeth arrangement for complete denture.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoling; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Chen, Hu; Yu, Changjiang; Sun, Yuchun

    2018-03-01

    In dentistry, the complete denture is a conventional treatment for edentulous patients. The computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been applied on the digital complete denture which is developed rapidly. Tooth selection and arrangement is one of the most important parts in digital complete denture. In this paper, we propose a new method of personalized teeth arrangement. This paper presents a method of arranging teeth virtually for a complete denture. First, scan and extract the feature points of the 3D triangular mesh data of artificial teeth (PLY format), then establish a tooth selection system. Second, scan and mark the anatomic characteristics of the maxillary and mandibular cast surfaces, such as facial midline, the curve of the arches. With the enter information, the study calculates the common arrangement lines of artificial teeth. Third, select the preferred artificial teeth and automatically arrange them virtually in the correct position by using our own software. After that, design the gingival part of the dentures on the basic of the arranged teeth on the screen and then fabricated it by using Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology, Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology or 3D printer technology. Finally, select artificial teeth were embedded in wax rims. This system can choose artificial teeth reasonably and the teeth placement can meet the dentist's request to a certain extent, whereas all the operations are based on the medical principles. The study performed here involves computer sciences, medicine, and dentistry, a teeth selection system was proposed and virtual teeth arrangement was described. This study has the capacity of helping operators to select teeth, which improved the accuracy of tooth arrangement, and customized complete denture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Herculaneum: Clues to Vesuvius eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    More than 80 skeletons have been unearthed in the ancient Mediterranean town of Herculaneum, west of Italy's Mount Vesuvius. This anthropological find corroborates a reinterpretation by three University of Rhode Island scientists of the sequence of the August A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius. In addition, the discovery is the first proof that large numbers of people perished as they tried to flee from the eruption, estimated to have been about 10 times more powerful than the May 1980 Mount St. Helens blast.‘Who says dead men don't talk? Their bones have something to say about them and their everyday lives,’ says Sara C. Bisel, a physical anthropologist who analyzed the skeletons. Among the remains are a cluster of skeletons from six adults, four children, and two infants trying to shield themselves from the volcanic onslaught; the skeleton of a sailor, still clutching an oar, lying on his back beside an 8-m-long capsized boat; a woman whose now bony hand was still graced with gem-encrusted gold rings; and a soldier (see Figure 1). From these and other finds the anthropological team was able to discern that the ancient Romans, on average, were shorter than modern citizens and, judging from the condition of some of the teeth, probably had a low-sugar diet.

  1. Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted maxillary central incisor: Surgical and orthodontic management

    PubMed Central

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Hegde, Manjunath; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2012-01-01

    Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management. PMID:22919229

  2. Targeted traction of impacted teeth with C-tube miniplates.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Lee, Dongjoo; Yang, Dong-Min; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic traction of impacted teeth has typically been performed using full fixed appliance as anchorage against the traction force. This conventional approach can be difficult to apply in the mixed dentition if the partial fixed appliance offers an insufficient anchor unit. In addition, full fixed appliance can induce unwanted movement of adjacent teeth. This clinical report presents 3 cases where impacted teeth were recovered in the mixed or transitional dentition with skeletal anchorage on the opposite arch without full fixed appliance. Instead, intermaxillary traction was used to bring the impacted teeth into position. With this approach, side effects on teeth and periodontal tissues adjacent to the impaction were minimized.

  3. Eruption Chronology in Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Arpana; Tyagi, Parimala; Jain, Ankur; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Gupta, Ruchika

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate reference standard for eruption timing of primary teeth in infants and preschool children of Bhopal city and to determine the role of various factors affecting the eruption of primary dentition. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among the infants and preschool children (4-36 months) attending the local government or private hospitals, and vaccination centers. Prior to the study, Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and informed written consent from the parents were obtained. The data were collected from full-term infants and preschool children of 4 to 36 months from Bhopal city. Oral examination was done under adequate natural light by a single examiner using mouth mirror and probe. Teeth present in the oral cavity were noted by using Federation Dentaire Internationale system of nomenclature in the preformed pro-forma. The teeth were considered as erupted, when any part of its crown had penetrated the gingiva and was visible in the oral cavity. Height, weight, birth weight, and other close-ended questions in questionnaire were asked from parents. Results and conclusion The data collected were statistically analyzed and it was observed that significant relation exists between tooth eruption and birth weight, feeding habits, socioeconomic status, and body mass index (BMI). Based on the findings, it may be concluded that Indian children experienced delayed eruption of primary teeth when compared with children of different countries and standard norms. How to cite this article Verma N, Bansal A, Tyagi P, Jain A, Tiwari U, Gupta R. Eruption Chronology in Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):278-282. PMID:29104389

  4. Common cytological and cytogenetic features of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive natural killer (NK) cells and cell lines derived from patients with nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas, chronic active EBV infection and hydroa vacciniforme-like eruptions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Nagata, Hiroshi; Ikeuchi, Tatsuro; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Oyoshi, Michiko K; Demachi, Ayako; Morio, Tomohiro; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Norio; Yamamoto, Kohtaro

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we describe the cytological and cytogenetic features of six Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell clones. Three cell clones, SNK-1, -3 and -6, were derived from patients with nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas; two cell clones, SNK-5 and -10, were isolated from patients with chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV); and the other cell clone, SNK-11, was from a patient with hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruptions. An analysis of the number of EBV-terminal repeats showed that the SNK cell clones had monoclonal EBV genomes identical to the original EBV-infected cells of the respective patients, and SNK cells had the type II latency of EBV infection, suggesting that not only the cell clones isolated from nasal T/NK-cell lymphomas but also those isolated from CAEBV and HV-like eruptions had been transformed by EBV to a certain degree. Cytogenetic analysis detected deletions in chromosome 6q in five out of the six SNK cell clones, while 6q was not deleted in four control cell lines of T-cell lineage. This suggested that a 6q deletion is a characteristic feature of EBV-positive NK cells, which proliferated in the diseased individuals. The results showed that EBV-positive NK cells in malignant and non-malignant lymphoproliferative diseases shared common cytological and cytogenetic features.

  5. Early prediction of eruption site using lightning location data: Estimates of accuracy during past eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Arason, Þórður; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Eruption of subglacial volcanoes may lead to catastrophic floods and therefore early determination of the exact eruption site may be critical to civil protection evacuation plans. Poor visibility due to weather or darkness often inhibit positive identification of exact eruption location for many hours. However, because of the proximity and abundance of water in powerful subglacial volcanic eruptions, they are probably always accompanied by early lightning activity in the volcanic column. Lightning location systems, designed for weather thunderstorm monitoring, based on remote detection of electromagnetic waves from lightning, can provide valuable real-time information on location of eruption site. Important aspect of such remote detection is its independence of weather, apart from thunderstorms close to the volcano. Individual lightning strikes can be 5-10 km in length and are sometimes tilted and to the side of the volcanic column. This adds to the lightning location uncertainty, which is often a few km. Furthermore, the volcanic column may be swayed by the local wind to one side. Therefore, location of a single lightning can be misleading but by calculating average location of many lightning strikes and applying wind correction a more accurate eruption site location can be obtained. In an effort to assess the expected accuracy, the average lightning locations during the past five volcanic eruptions in Iceland (1998-2011) were compared to the exact site of the eruption vent. Simultaneous weather thunderstorms might have complicated this analysis, but there were no signs of ordinary thunderstorms in Iceland during these eruptions. To identify a suitable wind correction, the vector wind at the 500 hPa pressure level (5-6 km altitude) was compared to mean lightning locations during the eruptions. The essential elements of a system, which predicts the eruption site during the first hour(s) of an eruption, will be described.

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Quiescent Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Muzhou; Su, Y.; Adriaan van Ballegooijen, A.

    2012-05-01

    We present a survey on the fine structure and dynamics of quiescent prominence eruptions observed both on the disk and at the limb. We have identified 45 quiescent prominence eruptions by looking at the SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory)/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly) daily movies from April to June in 2011. Among these events, there are 24 symmetric eruptions (coherent loop-like eruptions) and 21 asymmetric eruptions (one footpoint lifts off) as shown by AIA and STEREO/EUVI observations. Vertical filament threads are identified in 10 out of the 45 events, while horizontal threads are observed in almost all eruptions. We find 23 events with twisting/untwisting motions. For 14 selected limb events, we carry out a detailed study of the eruption dynamics using AIA observations at 304 Å. We find that the initial heights of these erupting prominences are located around 50-110 Mm above the limb. The eruptions start from a speed of less than 5 km/s, then increase to several tens km/s in the AIA field of view. The maximum speed of these events is 50 km/s. The acceleration plots show a positive acceleration in the range of 0 to 20 m/s^2. No significant difference is identified in the dynamics of the symmetric and asymmetric eruptions. Acknowledgments. This project is supported by the NASA contract SP02H1701R from LMSAL to Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M. Lu is supported under the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number ATM-0851866.

  7. Mt. Spurr's 1992 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    On 27 June, 1992, the Crater Peak vent on the south side of Mt. Spurr awoke from 39 years of dormancy and burst into sub-plinian eruption after 10 months of elevated seismicity. Two more eruptions followed in August and September. The volcano lies 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska's largest city and an important international hub for air travel. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was able to warn communities and the aviation industry well in advance of these eruptions.

  8. Large Prominence Eruption [video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-07

    The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs. Credit: NASA/Goddard/STEREO The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs.

  9. Failure of tooth eruption in two patients with cerebral palsy and bruxism-a 10-year follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Staufer, Kirsten; Hamadeh, Sinan; Gesch, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze delayed tooth eruption in two children with cerebral palsy who had severe bruxism and to determine whether treatment could influence tooth eruption and alignment. Extraction of primary teeth was carried out and orthodontic treatment was considered due to severe tooth wear of primary teeth, lack of space, and development of a class III malocclusion. Analysis was based on clinical examination, photographs, radiographs, and dental casts. In both patients, early mixed dentition was delayed for more than 5 years. Calcification and root development of posterior permanent teeth corresponded with the chronological age. Root resorption of the severely abraded primary teeth and eruption of their successors were delayed or failed. Eruption of permanent teeth occurred slowly after primary teeth were extracted. Orthodontic treatment succeeded in one patient, achieving a normal overjet in combination with a successful orofacial therapy. The disturbed exfoliation of abraded primary teeth and failure of tooth eruption of the posterior teeth could be linked to the systemic pathology and to bruxism. At age 20, eruption of the canines and premolars remained questionable.

  10. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from Hα Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 Å, show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  11. 3D accuracy of implant positions in template-guided implant placement as a function of the remaining teeth and the surgical procedure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Edelmann, Cornelia; Rudolph, Heike; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2018-01-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences between the virtually planned and clinically achieved implant positions in completely template-guided implantations as a function of the type of edentulous space, the residual natural dentition, and the surgical implementation. Fifty-six patient cases with a total of 122 implants were evaluated retrospectively. The implantations were completely template-based. The data of the planned implant positions were overlaid with the actual clinical implant positions, followed by measurements of the 3D deviations in terms of coronal (x c ) and apical distance, height (x h ), and angulation (ang) and statistical analysis. The mean x c was 1.2 mm (SD 0.7 mm); the mean x a was 1.8 mm (SD 0.9 mm), the mean x h was 0.8 mm (SD 0.7 mm); and the mean ang was 4.8° (SD 3.1). The type of edentulous space and the jaw (maxilla/mandible) had no significant effect on the results in terms of implant positions. The presence of an adjacent natural tooth at the time of implantation had a significant influence on x h (p = 0.04) and ang (p = 0.05). No significant differences were found regarding the surgical approach for any of the parameters examined. The results of our study are in the same range as those of other studies. Template-guided implantation offers a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of different configurations of the residual dentition or different surgical approaches. A clinical benefit is therefore present, especially from a prosthetic point of view. The clinically achievable accuracy can be described as sufficient for further prosthetic treatment, given the intrinsic and methodological tolerances, making prosthetic rehabilitation safe and predictable.

  12. An Eruption on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The first images returned to Earth by New Horizons during its close encounter with Jupiter feature the Galilean moon Io, snapped with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at 0840 UTC on February 26, while the moon was 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from the spacecraft.

    Io is intensely heated by its tidal interaction with Jupiter and is thus extremely volcanically active. That activity is evident in these images, which reveal an enormous dust plume, more than 150 miles high, erupting from the volcano Tvashtar. The plume appears as an umbrella-shaped feature of the edge of Io's disk in the 11 o'clock position in the right image, which is a long-exposure (20-millisecond) frame designed specifically to look for plumes like this. The bright spots at 2 o'clock are high mountains catching the setting sun; beyond them the night side of Io can be seen, faintly illuminated by light reflected from Jupiter itself.

    The left image is a shorter exposure -- 3 milliseconds -- designed to look at surface features. In this frame, the Tvashtar volcano shows as a dark spot, also at 11 o'clock, surrounded by a large dark ring, where an area larger than Texas has been covered by fallout from the giant eruption.

    This is the clearest view yet of a plume from Tvashtar, one of Io's most active volcanoes. Ground-based telescopes and the Galileo Jupiter orbiter first spotted volcanic heat radiation from Tvashtar in November 1999, and the Cassini spacecraft saw a large plume when it flew past Jupiter in December 2000. The Keck telescope in Hawaii picked up renewed heat radiation from Tvashtar in spring 2006, and just two weeks ago the Hubble Space Telescope saw the Tvashtar plume in ultraviolet images designed to support the New Horizons flyby.

    Most of those images will be stored onboard the spacecraft for downlink to Earth in March and April.

  13. Timing and sequence of primary tooth eruption in children with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Tatiana Yuriko; GOMIDE, Márcia Ribeiro; CARRARA, Cleide Felício de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the timing and sequence of eruption of primary teeth in children with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of the University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil, with a sample of 395 children (128 girls and 267 boys) aged 0 to 48 months, with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate Results Children with complete bilateral clefts presented a higher mean age of eruption of all primary teeth for both arches and both genders, compared to children without clefts. This difference was statistically significant for all teeth, except for the maxillary first molar. Mean age of eruption of most teeth was lower for girls compared to boys. The greatest delay was found for the maxillary lateral incisor, which was the eighth tooth of children with clefts of both genders. Analyzing by gender, the maxillary lateral incisor was the eighth tooth to erupt in girls and the last in boys. Conclusion The results suggest an interference of the cleft on the timing and sequence of eruption of primary teeth. PMID:20856997

  14. Polymorphism in the Eruption Sequence of Primary Dentition: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhojraj, Nandlal; Narayanappa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Primary teeth have shown wide variations in their eruption time among different population. Population specific eruption ages are provided as mean with standard deviations or median ages with its percentile range. This alone will be insufficient for prediction of tooth eruption sequence because they provide no information on the frequency of sequence variation within the pairs of teeth. Norms of polymorphic variation in the eruption sequence can be more useful. Aim This study aims at providing norms for the sequence polymorphism in primary teeth among the children of Mysore population. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with 1392 children, recruited from December 2015 to June 2016 by simple random sampling method. Tooth was recorded as present or absent. Across the entire possible intra quadrant tooth pair, cases of present-present, absent-absent, present-absent and absent-present and were counted and computed as percentages. Results Sequence polymorphisms were more common in 82-84 pairs of teeth. Significant polymorphic reverse sequence was observed in 52-54 (9%), 82-84 (35%) in males and 82-84 (18%) in females. There was no polymorphism in maxillary arch in females. Conclusion The present study provides the baseline data values for sequence variation in primary teeth eruption. To the best of investigators knowledge, there are no previous studies describing the sequence polymorphism in primary teeth in Indian population. The results of this study helps in assessment of eruption sequence problems in paediatric dentistry and in evaluation and prediction of tooth eruption sequence in individual child. PMID:28658912

  15. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  16. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  17. Initiation of Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    We consider processes occurring just prior to and at the start of the onset of flare- and CME-producing solar eruptions. Our recent work uses observations of filament motions around the time of eruption onset as a proxy for the evolution of the fields involved in the eruption. Frequently the filaments show a slow rise prior to fast eruption, indicative of a slow expansion of the field that is about co explode. Work by us and others suggests that reconnection involving emerging or canceling flux results in a lengthening of fields restraining the filament-carrying field, and the consequent upward expansion of the field in and around the filament produces the filament's slow rise: that is, the reconnection weakens the magnetic "tethers" ("tether-weakening" reconnection), and results in the slow rise of the filament. It is still inconclusive, however, what mechanism is responsible for the switch from the slow rise to the fast eruption.

  18. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  19. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  20. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filamentmore » that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.« less

  1. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Teeth ... may need braces or have other issues. More Dental Problems Dental caries (tooth decay) can attack the ...

  2. Management of a rare case of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in an adult female patient

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Karunakar; Kumar, Mahesh; Amanna, Susan; Sridharan, Srirangarajan; Reddy, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the multi-disciplinary approach in the management of an unusual presentation of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in a 20-year-old female patient. The case was unique in that, not only were there multiple missing permanent teeth, but also over retained deciduous teeth and attrited existing permanent teeth with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Since the patient was young, it was decided to retain all the erupted permanent teeth and extract the infected deciduous teeth with the objective of fabricating overlay complete dentures. This is a simple, reversible and an economical treatment modality, which satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated and, in addition, provides a stable occlusion. PMID:27621553

  3. Panoramic radiographic predictors of mandibular third molar eruption.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Iwona Anna; Drugacz, Jan; Kus, Nina; Kreska, Joanna

    2006-08-01

    Third molar (M3) eruption can be problematic. According to some orthodontic surgeons, the teeth are capable of aggravating the average crowding level in the dental arch. The question is whether it might be possible to give a prognosis for ultimate M3 position in the arch and make an early decision to extract or retain them. The purpose of the study was to determine which measurements made on panoramic tomograms might facilitate prognosis for M3 position in the dental arch over the years. The investigation involved 64 patients who had been enrolled to the study group 10 years earlier, ie, in 1993, when an analysis had been carried out regarding M3 effect on dental arch crowding. At that time panoramic tomograms had been taken, and dental casts made. The procedures were repeated in 2003. The following measurements were taken at baseline (1993) and at the end of the study (2003): (1)/the retromolar space to lower third molar crown width, (2) third molar angulation to the base of the mandible, and (3) third molar to second molar inclination. At some defined values of the Ganss ratio, and M3 inclination to mandibular base and second molar, it is possible to predict potential lower third molar alignment in the dental arch using a panoramic radiograph.

  4. Something to sink your teeth into: The presence of teeth augments ERPs to mouth expressions.

    PubMed

    daSilva, Elizabeth B; Crager, Kirsten; Geisler, Danika; Newbern, Powell; Orem, Benjamin; Puce, Aina

    2016-02-15

    If the whites of the sclera can impact neural processing of eye expressions (Hardee, Thompson, & Puce, 2008; Whalen et al., 1998), do seen teeth affect neural responses to mouth expressions? Twenty participants (10 females; ages 22-31) viewed avatar mouth images depicting grimaces, smiles and open mouth expressions that were presented with and without teeth. A continuous 256 channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects completed two tasks: an implicit task evaluating stimulus color and an explicit task evaluating mouth expression valence. Event related potential (ERP) peak amplitudes and latencies and area under the curve (AUC) were measured in individual subject averaged ERPs. Statistical testing revealed a main effect of the presence of Teeth for P100, N170, and vertex positive potential (VPP) amplitudes and for slow positive wave (SPW) AUC. Task by teeth interactions occurred for P250 amplitude, underscoring how explicit task demands can influence neural processing. Arousal ratings co-varied with teeth presence, suggesting that low-level visual features such as teeth may drive the saliency of emotional expressions, and lie at the core of differences in neural processing to different emotional expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial polymorphous cold eruption.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Eastern, J; Knox, J M

    1981-02-01

    An erythematous, burning papular eruption, constitutional symptoms, fever, and arthropathy developed in a 65-year-old patient after cold exposure. Involvement of other family members occurred in an autosomal dominant pattern. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen revealed telangiectasia and primarily neutrophilic perivascular inflammation, consistent with earlier biopsy reports of this syndrome. Although previously called "familial cold urticaria," this disease is not characterized by urticaria and may be best descriptively termed, "familial polymorphous cold eruption."

  6. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Expedition Two crewmember aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  7. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  8. Treatment stability with the eruption guidance appliance.

    PubMed

    Janson, Guilherme; Nakamura, Alexandre; Chiqueto, Kelly; Castro, Renata; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2007-06-01

    Although the eruption guidance appliance has been used to correct Class II malocclusions for many years and its effects have been demonstrated, there is no study on the stability of the changes it produces. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of cephalometric dentoskeletal and occlusal changes after eruption guidance appliance therapy. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. Occlusal evaluations were made with the peer asseessment rating index, and anterior tooth irregularity was evaluated with the Little irregularity index. Cephalometric and occlusal data were obtained at pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention. The data were analyzed by dependent 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparison between the 3 stages of the experimental group, with the Newman-Keuls test as a second step. To compare the cephalometric experimental group changes with mean population changes, the t test was used. Cephalometrically, in the postretention stage, overjet remained stable, overbite showed significant relapse, and molar relationship improved toward a Class I relationship. The peer asseessment rating index showed stability of the occlusion. The Little irregularity index demonstrated a statistically significant relapse of crowding in the postretention stage. Cephalometrically, overjet and molar relationship were stable in the long term after treatment with the eruption guidance appliance; however, there was relapse of the overbite. Occlusally, correction of the malocclusion elevated by the peer assessment rating was stable. There was relapse of the anterior teeth crowding.

  9. Serreta 1998-2001 submarine volcanic eruption, offshore Terceira (Azores): Characterization of the vent and inferences about the eruptive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, David; Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Martorelli, Eleonora; Sposato, Andrea; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belen; Chiocci, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution bathymetric data and seafloor sampling were used to characterize the most recent volcanic eruption in the Azores region, the 1998-2001 Serreta submarine eruption. The vent of the eruption is proposed to be an asymmetric topographic high, composed of two coalescing volcanic cones, underlying the location where lava balloons had been observed at the sea surface during the eruption. The volcanic products related to the 1998-2001 eruption are constrained to an area of 0.5 km2 around the proposed vent position. A submarine Strombolian-style eruption producing basaltic lava balloons, ash and coarse scoriaceous materials with limited lateral dispersion led to the buildup of the cones. The 1998-2001 Serreta eruption shares many similarities with other intermediate-depth lava balloon-forming eruptions (e.g., the 1891 eruption offshore Pantelleria and the 2011-2012 eruption south of El Hierro), revealing the particular conditions needed for the production of this unusual and scarcely documented volcanic product.

  10. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  11. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  12. Acneiform facial eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

  13. Io - Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of a volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io (dark fountain-like feature near the limb) was taken March 4, 1979, about 12 hours before Voyager 1's closest approach to Jupiter. This and the accompanying photo present the evidence for the first active volcanic eruption ever observed on another body in the solar system. This photo taken from a distance of 310,000 miles (499,000 kilometers), shows a plume-like structure rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface, a cloud of material being produced by an active eruption. At least four eruptions have been identified on Voyager 1 pictures and many more may yet be discovered on closer analysis. On a nearly airless body like Io, particulate material thrown out of a volcano follows a ballistic trajectory, accounting for the dome-like shape of the top of the cloud, formed as particles reach the top of their flight path and begin to fall back. Spherical expansion of outflowing gas forms an even larger cloud surrounding the dust. Several regions have been identified by the infrared instrument on Voyager 1 as being several hundred degrees Fahrenheit warmer than surrounding terrain, and correlated with the eruptions. The fact that several eruptions appear to be going on simultaneously makes Io the most active surface in the solar system and suggests to scientists that Io is undergoing continuous volcanism, revising downward the age of Io's surface once again. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. Classical music and the teeth.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth.

  15. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    PubMed

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  16. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline. PMID:24062875

  17. Eruptions from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  18. ASTER Images Merapi Continuing Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    This thermal infrared image from NASA Terra spacecraft of Merapi continuing eruption has been processed to reveal the dominant presence of volcanic ash in the eruption plume and clouds, displayed in dark red. The warm volcanic flow appears bright.

  19. Mt Agung (Bali) Eruption Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-05-23

    article title:  Mt Agung (Bali) Eruption Plumes     View larger image ... 2017 (left) and calculated plume heights (right)   Volcanic eruptions can generate a significant amount of atmospheric aerosols ...

  20. Utility of patch testing for patients with drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ohtoshi, S; Kitami, Y; Sueki, H; Nakada, T

    2014-04-01

    Patch testing is less dangerous than oral provocation testing for identification of the causative drug for patients with drug eruption; however, its usefulness for such identification is controversial. To clarify the rates of positive patch testing for patients with drug eruption, classified by causative drugs and clinical features. We analysed results during the period 1990-2010 for 444 patients (151 men, 293 women; mean ± SD age 49.9 ± 18.6 years) who were tested for drug eruption. In the patient group, there were 309 people (69.1%) with maculopapular eruption and 31 (6.9%) with severe drug eruption. The test materials were applied to the back and left for 2 days under occlusion, then results were assessed by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3 days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Of the 444 patients, 100 (22.4%) had a positive patch test result to a suspected drug. Positive rates were 23.6% and 20.0% for maculopapular eruption and fixed drug eruption, respectively. The class of materials to which most patients reacted positively was contrast medium (n = 53; 41.1%), followed by drugs acting on the central nervous system (n = 18; 28.6%). In the latter group, 16 of the 18 patients were positive to antiepileptics. Positive rates depend on the causative drug rather than the clinical features of the drug eruption. Patch testing is useful when contrast medium or antiepileptics are suspected to be the causative drugs. However, standardization of patch test materials and method of reading is needed, as well as guidelines regarding when testing should be performed. Although patch testing for drug eruption has significant potential, it requires further validation. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Cyclic flank-vent and central-vent eruption patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Akira

    Many basaltic and andesitic polygenetic volcanoes have cyclic eruptive activity that alternates between a phase dominated by flank eruptions and a phase dominated by eruptions from a central vent. This paper proposes the use of time-series diagrams of eruption sites on each polygenetic volcano and intrusion distances of dikes to evaluate volcano growth, to qualitatively reconstruct the stress history within the volcano, and to predict the next eruption site. In these diagrams the position of an eruption site is represented by the distance from the center of the volcano and the clockwise azimuth from north. Time-series diagrams of Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Kliuchevskoi, Etna, Sakurajima, Fuji, Izu-Oshima, and Hekla volcanoes indicate that fissure eruption sites of these volcanoes migrated toward the center of the volcano linearly, radially, or spirally with damped oscillation, occasionally forming a hierarchy in convergence-related features. At Krafla, terminations of dikes also migrated toward the center of the volcano with time. Eruption sites of Piton de la Fournaise did not converge but oscillated around the center. After the convergence of eruption sites with time, the central eruption phase is started. The intrusion sequence of dikes is modeled, applying crack interaction theory. Variation in convergence patterns is governed by the regional stress and the magma supply. Under the condition that a balance between regional extension and magma supply is maintained, the central vent convergence time during the flank eruption phase is 1-10 years, whereas the flank vent recurrence time during the central eruption phase is greater than 100 years owing to an inferred decrease in magma supply. Under the condition that magma supply prevails over regional extension, the central vent convergence time increases, whereas the flank vent recurrence time decreases owing to inferred stress relaxation. Earthquakes of M>=6 near a volcano during the flank eruption phase extend the

  2. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-30

    One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. NASA Terra satellite acquired this image on April 26, 2007

  3. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  4. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Botulinum neurotoxin type A in the masseter muscle: Effects on incisor eruption in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Alfonso L.; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Liu, Zi Jun; Ye, Wenmin; Greenlee, Geoffrey M.; Herring, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for the paralytic food poisoning, botulism. Commercial formulations such as botulinum neurotoxin type A are increasingly used for various conditions, including cosmetic recontouring of the lower face by injection of the large masseter muscles. The paralysis of a major muscle of mastication lowers occlusal force and thus might affect tooth eruption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral masseter muscle injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A on the rate of eruption of incisors in a rabbit model. We hypothesized that the teeth would overerupt in an underloaded environment. Methods Forty rabbits were injected with either botulinum neurotoxin type A or saline solution in 1 masseter muscle. Mastication and muscle force production were monitored, and incisor eruption rate was assessed by caliper measurement of grooved teeth. Results The injection of saline solution had no effect. The masseter muscle injected with botulinum neurotoxin type A showed a dramatic loss of force 3 weeks after injection despite apparently normal mastication. Incisor eruption rate was significantly decreased for the botulinum neurotoxin type A group, an effect attributed to decreased attrition. Conclusions This study has implications for orthodontics. Although findings from ever-growing rabbit incisors cannot be extrapolated to human teeth, it is clear that botulinum neurotoxin type A caused a decrease in bite force that could influence dental eruption. PMID:23561411

  6. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  7. Spontaneous Eruption of Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Irla Karlinne Ferreira; Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) is the second most common odontogenic cyst with greater incidence in young patients. It presents as a unilocular, asymptomatic radiolucency involving the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly noticed in X-rays to investigate absence, wrong tooth position, or delay in the chronology of eruption. Decompression/marsupialization (D/M) is the most implemented treatment, especially when preserving the tooth involved is advised. The aim of this study is to discuss the DC characteristics that contribute to spontaneous eruption of premolars, by reporting the case of a conservative treatment of DC. This eruption depends on factors such as age, angulation of inclusion, rate of root formation, depth of inclusion, and eruption space. This paper reports the case of a 10-year-old patient with a radiolucent lesion diagnosed as DC involving element 35, which erupted as a result of treatment. The patient was observed during 1 year and 6 months.

  8. Spontaneous Eruption of Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Anibal Henrique Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) is the second most common odontogenic cyst with greater incidence in young patients. It presents as a unilocular, asymptomatic radiolucency involving the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly noticed in X-rays to investigate absence, wrong tooth position, or delay in the chronology of eruption. Decompression/marsupialization (D/M) is the most implemented treatment, especially when preserving the tooth involved is advised. The aim of this study is to discuss the DC characteristics that contribute to spontaneous eruption of premolars, by reporting the case of a conservative treatment of DC. This eruption depends on factors such as age, angulation of inclusion, rate of root formation, depth of inclusion, and eruption space. This paper reports the case of a 10-year-old patient with a radiolucent lesion diagnosed as DC involving element 35, which erupted as a result of treatment. The patient was observed during 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27313912

  9. Eruptive Keratoacanthomas Associated With Pembrolizumab Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Freites-Martinez, Azael; Kwong, Bernice Y.; Rieger, Kerri E.; Coit, Daniel G.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Lacouture, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of eruptive keratoacanthomas (KAs) in patients receiving pembrolizumab. OBJECTIVE To report the cases of 3 consecutive patients with pembrolizumab-induced eruptive KAs and their management. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case report study of 3 patients from 2 centers with pembrolizumab-treated cancer who all developed eruptive KAs. INTERVENTIONS All 3 patients had AK treatment with clobetasol ointment and intralesional triamcinolone; 2 patients also underwent open superficial cryosurgery. RESULTS Three consecutive patients with cancer, 2 men and 1 woman (median age, 83 years; range 77–91 years), experienced pembrolizumab-associated eruptive KAs. All patients presented with a sudden onset of multiple lesions on sun-exposed areas of their extremities after a median of 13 months (range, 4–18 months) of pembrolizumab therapy. On lesional biopsy, a lichenoid infiltrate was observed in the underlying dermis, predominantly composed of CD3+ T cells, scattered CD20+ B cells, and relatively few PD-1+ (programmed cell death 1–positive) T cells, an immunophenotypic pattern also observed in other cases of anti–PD-1–induced lichenoid dermatitis. Patients were treated with clobetasol ointment and intralesional triamcinolone, alone or in combination with open superficial cryosurgery. All KAs resolved in all patients, and no new lesions occurred during close follow-up. Pembrolizumab treatment was continued without disruption in all 3 cases, and all patients had complete responses of their primary cancers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Pembrolizumab is used in advanced melanoma, advanced non–small-cell lung cancer, and in head and neck cancer. A variety of dermatologic immune-related adverse events including maculopapular eruption, lichenoid reactions, pruritus, and vitiligo have been described. This case series demonstrates that pembrolizumab therapy may also be associated with eruptive KAs with

  10. Effect of early childhood malnutrition on tooth eruption in Haitian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Psoter, W; Gebrian, B; Prophete, S; Reid, B; Katz, R

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the effects of early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (EC-PEM) and current nutritional status as defined by anthropomorphic measures on the exfoliation and eruption patterns of teeth among adolescents. Oral clinical examinations were conducted in 2005 using World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria on 498 11- to 13-year-old Haitians for whom early childhood malnutrition data were available. Anthropomorphic records (weight-for-age) from the Haitian Health Foundation computerized database on children from birth through 5-years old were utilized. Current heights and weights were ascertained. Both sets of data were converted to z-scores based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) referent database. Based upon these z-scores, EC-PEM and current malnutrition categories were developed for this study. The analyses separately regressed the number of primary and permanent teeth on age, gender, EC-PEM status and current nutritional status. Both a delayed exfoliation of primary teeth and a delayed eruption of permanent teeth were associated with EC-PEM and current stunting in adolescence. The observed associations were either direct and statistically significant or indirectly demonstrated by presenting evidence of confounding. The overall interpretation of the models is that malnutrition beginning in the earliest years and extending throughout childhood influences the exfoliation and eruption of teeth. These findings present evidence of an association between tooth exfoliation/eruption patterns and both EC-PEM and nutritional insufficiency (stunting) throughout childhood. This observed delay in the exfoliation of the primary dentition and in the eruption of the permanent dentition has practical significance in interpreting age-specific dental caries data from populations with different malnutrition experiences.

  11. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic En español Take Care of Your Child’s Teeth Browse Sections The Basics Overview Tooth Decay Take ... the toothpaste instead of swallowing it Make brushing teeth fun. Getting kids to brush their teeth can ...

  12. ClC-7 Deficiency Impairs Tooth Development and Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Pan, Meng; Ni, Jinwen; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Yutao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Jin; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Rong; He, Huiming; Wu, Buling; Duan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    CLCN7 gene encodes the voltage gated chloride channel 7 (ClC-7) in humans. The mutations in CLCN7 have been associated with osteopetrosis in connection to the abnormal osteoclasts functions. Previously, we found that some osteopetrosis patients with CLCN7 mutations suffered from impacted teeth and root dysplasia. Here we set up two in vivo models under a normal or an osteoclast-poor environment to investigate how ClC-7 affects tooth development and tooth eruption. Firstly, chitosan-Clcn7-siRNA nanoparticles were injected around the first maxillary molar germ of newborn mice and caused the delay of tooth eruption and deformed tooth with root dysplasia. Secondly, E13.5 molar germs infected with Clcn7 shRNA lentivirus were transplanted under the kidney capsule and presented the abnormal changes in dentin structure, periodontal tissue and cementum. All these teeth changes have been reported in the patients with CLCN7 mutation. In vitro studies of ameloblasts, odontoblasts and dental follicle cells (DFCs) were conducted to explore the involved mechanism. We found that Clcn7 deficiency affect the differentiation of these cells, as well as the interaction between DFCs and osteoclasts through RANKL/OPG pathway. We conclude that ClC-7 may affect tooth development by directly targeting tooth cells, and regulate tooth eruption through DFC mediated osteoclast pathway. PMID:26829236

  13. Quantitative evaluation of variance in secondary dentition eruption among ethnic groups in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Greer, Mark H K; Loo, Kevin J

    2003-03-01

    Though little scientific evidence existed to support the belief among dentists who treat Pacific Islander populations that many children of the region erupt secondary teeth earlier and at an eruption rate which exceeds Caucasian children. Based upon a data set created in Hawai'i during the 1998-1999 school year, of 26,097 public school children, the opportunity presented itself to examine for variance in eruption timing and sequence. Hawai'i is an ethnic diverse community, with a majority population comprised of Asians and Pacific Islanders. Children, 5 through 9 years of age, were examined for gender and ethnic variance. In the aggregate, at all ages, girls erupted teeth earlier than boys, however, while generally true among individual tooth types, that variance was not always statistically significant. By ethnic group, African Americans exhibited earlier eruption by contrast with Caucasians, however, Caucasian children caught up by nine years of age. Native Hawaiian, Samoan and Tongan children exhibited earlier and high rates of secondary dentition eruption than Caucasian or African American children. Children of various Asian cohorts did not exhibit significant variance by contrast with Caucasians. Based upon these findings, the authors recommend that dietary fluoride supplementation of Native Hawaiian, Samoan and Tongan children begin at birth rather than 6 months of age and that these children be targeted for pit & fissure sealants as early as five years of age.

  14. Eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-05

    STS068-155-094 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- (Kliuchevskoi Volcano) The crewmembers used a Linhof large format Earth observation camera to photograph this nadir view of the Kamchatka peninsula's week-old volcano. The eruption and the follow-up environmental activity was photographed from 115 nautical miles above Earth. Six NASA astronauts spent a week and a half aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in support of the Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) mission.

  15. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    PubMed

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

  17. Ionospheric "Volcanology": Ionospheric Detection of Volcano Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Shults, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.

    2016-12-01

    It is known that volcano eruptions and explosions can generate acoustic and gravity waves. These neutral waves further propagate into the atmosphere and ionosphere, where they are detectable by atmospheric and ionospheric sounding tools. So far, the features of co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations are not well understood yet. The development of the global and regional networks of ground-based GPS/GNSS receivers has opened a new era in the ionospheric detection of natural hazard events, including volcano eruptions. It is now known that eruptions with the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of more than 2 can be detected in the ionosphere, especially in regions with dense GPS/GNSS-receiver coverage. The co-volcanic ionospheric disturbances are usually characterized as quasi-periodic oscillations. The Calbuco volcano, located in southern Chile, awoke in April 2015 after 43 years of inactivity. The first eruption began at 21:04UT on 22 April 2015, preceded by only an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic activity. This first eruption lasted 90 minutes and generated a sub-Plinian (i.e. medium to large explosive event), gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater. A larger second event on 23 April began at 04:00UT (01:00LT), it lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km. The VEI was estimated to be 4 to 5 for these two events. In this work, we first study ionospheric TEC response to the Calbuco volcano eruptions of April 2015 by using ground-based GNSS-receivers located around the volcano. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the observed TEC variations and we estimate the propagation speed of the co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations. We further proceed with the normal mode summation technique based modeling of the ionospheric TEC variations due to the Calbuco volcano eruptions. Finally, we attempt to localize the position of the volcano from the ionospheric measurements, and we also estimate the time of the

  18. A Curriculum Vitae of Teeth: Evolution, Generation, Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koussoulakou, Despina S.; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Koussoulakos, Stauros L.

    2009-01-01

    The ancestor of recent vertebrate teeth was a tooth-like structure on the outer body surface of jawless fishes. Over the course of 500,000,000 years of evolution, many of those structures migrated into the mouth cavity. In addition, the total number of teeth per dentition generally decreased and teeth morphological complexity increased. Teeth form mainly on the jaws within the mouth cavity through mutual, delicate interactions between dental epithelium and oral ectomesenchyme. These interactions involve spatially restricted expression of several, teeth-related genes and the secretion of various transcription and signaling factors. Congenital disturbances in tooth formation, acquired dental diseases and odontogenic tumors affect millions of people and rank human oral pathology as the second most frequent clinical problem. On the basis of substantial experimental evidence and advances in bioengineering, many scientists strongly believe that a deep knowledge of the evolutionary relationships and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of a given tooth in its natural position, in vivo, will be useful in the near future to prevent and treat teeth pathologies and malformations and for in vitro and in vivo teeth tissue regeneration. PMID:19266065

  19. [Nutrition, diet and dental health--de- and remineralisation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Imfeld, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    There is little if any evidence that nutrition during the time of tooth formation has any clinically significant effect on caries susceptibility of erupted teeth in man. Caries, erosion and demastication are not nutritional diseases. They are, however, diet-related diseases because erupted teeth are subject to local chemical and mechanical effects of the diet contacting the teeth. Caries is the result of a chronic undermining demineralisation of the teeth by organic acids that are produced by the bacteria of the dental biofilm while fermenting carbohydrates from the human diet. Dental erosion is the result of a chronic localised loss of dental hard tissue etched away from the surface by acids derived from the diet or from gastric reflux. The physicochemical grounds of de- and remineralisation of teeth are explained using detailed diagrams. Initial caries lesions without cavitation of the surface can remineralise (heal) under conditions of low cariogenic diet and good oral hygiene. However, once the surface has broken and cavitation occurred, there is no alternative to restorative dental therapy because remineralisation is no more possible.

  20. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth].

    PubMed

    Osada, Tomoko

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p<0.01). Greater strengths were found for specimens with frameworks than those without frameworks (p<0.01). The breaking strength of the wrought palatal bar embedded near the occlusal surface was higher than that on the basal surface (p>0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (p<0.01) than those of the conventional frameworks. The breaking strengths of overdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  1. SOLAR MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS FROM A CONFINED MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang

    2016-09-20

    How eruption can recur from a confined magnetic structure is discussed based on the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the NOAA active region 11444, which produced three eruptions within 1.5 hr on 2012 March 27. The active region (AR) had the positive-polarity magnetic fields in the center surrounded by the negative-polarity fields around. Since such a distribution of magnetic polarity tends to form a dome-like magnetic fan structure confined over the AR, the multiple eruptions were puzzling. Our investigation reveals that this event exhibits several properties distinct from other eruptions associated with magnetic fan structures: (i) a long filament encirclingmore » the AR was present before the eruptions; (ii) expansion of the open–closed boundary (OCB) of the field lines after each eruption was suggestive of the growing fan-dome structure, and (iii) the ribbons inside the closed magnetic polarity inversion line evolved in response to the expanding OCB. It thus appears that in spite of multiple eruptions the fan-dome structure remained undamaged, and the closing back field lines after each eruption rather reinforced the fan-dome structure. We argue that the multiple eruptions could occur in this AR in spite of its confined magnetic structure because the filament encircling the AR was adequate for slipping through the magnetic separatrix to minimize the damage to its overlying fan-dome structure. The result of this study provides a new insight into the productivity of eruptions from a confined magnetic structure.« less

  2. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  3. Plaque and tartar on teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily, and the toothpaste should not be abrasive. Electric toothbrushes clean teeth better than manual ones. Brush for at least 2 minutes with an electric toothbrush each time. Floss gently at least once ...

  4. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluidmore » flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.« less

  5. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohletz, K. H.

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  6. Dental anomalies in primary dentition and their corresponding permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R R; Fonseca, J A C; Paula, L M; Acevedo, A C; Mestrinho, H D

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition in a sample of 2- to 5-year-old Brazilian preschool children, determine their distribution, and investigate their occurrence in the succedaneous teeth of the sample compared with a control group of children with no dental anomalies in the primary dentition. The one-stage sample comprised 1,718 two to five-year-old children with fully erupted primary dentition clinically examined for dental anomalies. All children presenting dental anomalies underwent panoramic radiographs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the studied variables. A control group matched by sex and age was studied to compare the prevalence ratio for dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition was 1.8 %, with no significant statistical difference between sexes. Double teeth were the most frequently observed. Dental anomalies on the succedaneous permanent teeth were diagnosed in 54.8 % of the children with affected primary dentition. The prevalence ratio (PR) for dental anomalies in the succedaneous permanent teeth was 17.1 (confidence interval (CI) 5.33-54.12) higher compared with the control group, higher in children with bilateral anomalies (PR = 31.2, CI 10.18-94.36). An association between anomalies of the permanent dentition and the presence of dental anomalies in primary teeth was observed, especially when they occur bilaterally. The results in the present study have a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of children with dental anomalies in primary dentition. Early identification of these anomalies can aid the dentist in planning dental treatment at the appropriate time.

  7. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respectmore » to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.« less

  8. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  9. Tooth eruption in a patient with craniometaphyseal dysplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashibara, T; Komura, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    2000-10-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a very rare genetic disorder of bone remodeling caused by osteoclast dysfunction. The clinical and radiographical features of oral findings are presented in a sporadic case of CMD in a child (age 10 years, 7 months). An intraoral examination showed severe malocclusions, including anterior crossbite and deep bite. Furthermore, a radiographic examination showed increased radiopacity of the maxilla and mandibular bones due to hyperostosis and sclerosis of the jaw. There was no root resorption of the canines or molars in the primary dentition, although root formation of the permanent teeth was proceeding. Dental age was calculated to be approximately 1 year, 4 months younger than his chronological age. The eruption speed of the permanent lateral incisors after the gingival emergence was shown to be within normal values, and we discuss whether the canines and premolars in the permanent dentition could erupt or not.

  10. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Parathyroid hormone-related protein is required for tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Philbrick, William M.; Dreyer, Barbara E.; Nakchbandi, Inaam A.; Karaplis, Andrew C.

    1998-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP)-knockout mice die at birth with a chondrodystrophic phenotype characterized by premature chondrocyte differentiation and accelerated bone formation, whereas overexpression of PTHrP in the chondrocytes of transgenic mice produces a delay in chondrocyte maturation and endochondral ossification. Replacement of PTHrP expression in the chondrocytes of PTHrP-knockout mice using a procollagen II-driven transgene results in the correction of the lethal skeletal abnormalities and generates animals that are effectively PTHrP-null in all sites other than cartilage. These rescued PTHrP-knockout mice survive to at least 6 months of age but are small in stature and display a number of developmental defects, including cranial chondrodystrophy and a failure of tooth eruption. Teeth appear to develop normally but become trapped by the surrounding bone and undergo progressive impaction. Localization of PTHrP mRNA during normal tooth development by in situ hybridization reveals increasing levels of expression in the enamel epithelium before the formation of the eruption pathway. The type I PTH/PTHrP receptor is expressed in both the adjacent dental mesenchyme and in the alveolar bone. The replacement of PTHrP expression in the enamel epithelium with a keratin 14-driven transgene corrects the defect in bone resorption and restores the normal program of tooth eruption. PTHrP therefore represents an essential signal in the formation of the eruption pathway. PMID:9751753

  12. Will Teide erupt again?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Joan; Geyer, Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of hazard in volcanic systems characterised by long repose period is difficult because the lack of knowledge of the past volcanic history and also because in many cases volcanism is not perceived as a potential problem, being only regarded as an attraction for tourism or a source of economic benefit, thus hiding the need to conduct hazard assessment. Teide, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands), is not an exception to this general rule and, despite being one of the largest composite volcanoes in the World, it is generally considered as a non-active volcano by population, visitors and even by some scientists. However, geological and geophysical evidence, including a large diversity of monitoring signals recorded during last decades, as well as a simple comparison with similar volcanoes that have erupted in recent times after hundreds or even thousands of years of quiescence, recommend to consider Teide as an active volcano and to take the necessary precaution in an island with nearly one million of permanent inhabitants and nearly 5 millions of visitors per year. What is the potential of Teide to erupt again? is the question that relies behind the fact of considering it as active, and that needs to be answered first. Based on the current volcanological, petrological and geophysical knowledge We propose a conceptual model on the magma recharge mechanisms, structure of the plumbing system, and eruption triggers and dynamics of Teide volcano that helps to understand its behaviour and to anticipate future activity. Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2012-11024)

  13. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    PubMed

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  14. Stereomicroscopic study on unsectioned extracted teeth

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, V. Keerthi; Varsha, V. K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Age has been considered as a reliable marker for establishing the identity of a person in the field of forensic medicine. Teeth are useful skeletal indicators of age at death since it can survive for decades. Nondestructive methods ensure the evident preservation of dental hard tissues that reflect age changes from the cradle to the grave. Therefore, an attempt was made for estimating the age using the nondestructive method. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study to assess whether physiological changes of the teeth allow possible correlation for accurate age estimation and to establish a graduation standard by microscopic observation for a better age correlation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 209 teeth samples extracted for orthodontic treatment or periodontal diseases comprised both maxillary and mandibular teeth across different age groups. The assessment of these changes was carried out by well-established standard methods with some proposed modifications. Results: Pearson correlation analyses revealed root dentin translucency with the highest correlation (r = 0.97) followed by periodontal ligament attachment (r = 0.95), root dentin color (r = 0.95), and attrition being the least correlated (r = 0.90). All the parameters taken for the study contributed to stepwise linear regression analysis (R = 0.98; P < 0.01) indicating a strongly positive relationship between age and the changes observed. A regression formula was obtained with mean error age difference ±1.0 years. Conclusion: The present study showed that extracted tooth is highly significant in identifying the age without being sectioned or further processed and also signifies the use of microscope for observation of these changes, thus reducing the errors of calibrating the age. PMID:29657494

  15. Data-driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling of a flux-emerging active region leading to solar eruption

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xuesheng; Hu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar eruptions are well-recognized as major drivers of space weather but what causes them remains an open question. Here we show how an eruption is initiated in a non-potential magnetic flux-emerging region using magnetohydrodynamic modelling driven directly by solar magnetograms. Our model simulates the coronal magnetic field following a long-duration quasi-static evolution to its fast eruption. The field morphology resembles a set of extreme ultraviolet images for the whole process. Study of the magnetic field suggests that in this event, the key transition from the pre-eruptive to eruptive state is due to the establishment of a positive feedback between the upward expansion of internal stressed magnetic arcades of new emergence and an external magnetic reconnection which triggers the eruption. Such a nearly realistic simulation of a solar eruption from origin to onset can provide important insight into its cause, and also has the potential for improving space weather modelling. PMID:27181846

  16. Force Eruption of Mandibular Second Incisor in an 11- Year Old Boy: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Sobhnamayan, F; Moazami, F; Hamedi, S; Meshki, R

    2013-01-01

    There is a great challenge in the treatment of deeply fractured and un-restorable teeth among dentists. Orthodontic force eruption is a method of treatment for these teeth to preserve natural root system and periodontal structures. This technical report is a new modification of this procedure presented in an 11- year old boy with deeply fractured left second mandibular incisor. The fractured teeth were treated with root canal therapy and a file #80 was modified to become a hook cemented into the fractured tooth. Anterior teeth were splinted and used as anchorage to help the root extrusion. 1-year follow up of the tooth showed the convenience of the treatment. This simple and low-cost method can be an acceptable alternative to the current high cost techniques, achieving the same results. PMID:24724126

  17. Snaking Filament Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-14

    A filament (which at one point had an eerie similarity to a snake) broke away from the sun and out into space (Nov. 1, 2014). The video covers just over three hours of activity. This kind of eruptive event is called a Hyder flare. These are filaments (elongated clouds of gases above the sun's surface) that erupt and cause a brightening at the sun's surface, although no active regions are in that area. It did thrust out a cloud of particles but not towards Earth. The images were taken in the 304 Angstrom wavelength of extreme UV light. Credit: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  19. Snaking Filament Eruption [video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-14

    A filament (which at one point had an eerie similarity to a snake) broke away from the sun and out into space (Nov. 1, 2014). The video covers just over three hours of activity. This kind of eruptive event is called a Hyder flare. These are filaments (elongated clouds of gases above the sun's surface) that erupt and cause a brightening at the sun's surface, although no active regions are in that area. It did thrust out a cloud of particles but not towards Earth. The images were taken in the 304 Angstrom wavelength of extreme UV light. Credit: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This dramatic view of Jupiter's satellite Io shows two simultaneously occurring volcanic eruptions. One can be seen on the limb, (at lower right) in which ash clouds are rising more than 150 miles (260 kilometers) above the satellite's surface. The second can be seen on the terminator (shadow between day and night) where the volcanic cloud is catching the rays of the rising sun. The dark hemisphere of Io is made visible by light reflected from Jupiter. Seen in Io's night sky, Jupiter looms almost 40 times larger and 200 times brighter than our own full Moon. This photo was taken by Voyager 1 on March 8, 1979, looking back 2.6 million miles (4.5 million kilometers) at Io, three days after its historic encounter. This is the same image in which Linda A. Morabito, a JPL engineer, discovered the first extraterrestrial volcanic eruption (the bright curved volcanic cloud on the limb). Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. The physics of large eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Based on eruptive volumes, eruptions can be classified as follows: small if the volumes are from less than 0.001 km3 to 0.1 km3, moderate if the volumes are from 0.1 to 10 km3, and large if the volumes are from 10 km3 to 1000 km3 or larger. The largest known explosive and effusive eruptions have eruptive volumes of 4000-5000 km3. The physics of small to moderate eruptions is reasonably well understood. For a typical mafic magma chamber in a crust that behaves as elastic, about 0.1% of the magma leaves the chamber (erupted and injected as a dyke) during rupture and eruption. Similarly, for a typical felsic magma chamber, the eruptive/injected volume during rupture and eruption is about 4%. To provide small to moderate eruptions, chamber volumes of the order of several tens to several hundred cubic kilometres would be needed. Shallow crustal chambers of these sizes are common, and deep-crustal and upper-mantle reservoirs of thousands of cubic kilometres exist. Thus, elastic and poro-elastic chambers of typical volumes can account for small to moderate eruptive volumes. When the eruptions become large, with volumes of tens or hundreds of cubic kilometres or more, an ordinary poro-elastic mechanism can no longer explain the eruptive volumes. The required sizes of the magma chambers and reservoirs to explain such volumes are simply too large to be plausible. Here I propose that the mechanics of large eruptions is fundamentally different from that of small to moderate eruptions. More specifically, I suggest that all large eruptions derive their magmas from chambers and reservoirs whose total cavity-volumes are mechanically reduced very much during the eruption. There are two mechanisms by which chamber/reservoir cavity-volumes can be reduced rapidly so as to squeeze out much of, or all, their magmas. One is piston-like caldera collapse. The other is graben subsidence. During large slip on the ring-faults/graben-faults the associated chamber/reservoir shrinks in volume

  2. Effect of non-functional teeth on accumulation of supra-gingival calculus in children.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, M; Miller, R; Levin, L

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of supra-gingival calculus in children aged 6-9 years with disuse conditions such as: presence of dental pain, open-bite or erupting teeth. A cohort of 327 children aged 7.64±2.12 (range: 6-9) years (45% girls) were screened for presence of supra-gingival calculus in relation to open bite, erupting teeth and dental pain. Presence of dental calculus was evaluated dichotomically in the buccal, palatinal/lingual and occlusal surfaces. Plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were also evaluated. Supra-gingival calculus was found in 15.9% of the children mainly in the mandibular incisors. Children aged 6-7 years had a higher prevalence of calculus as compared to children aged 7-8 years (23% vs. 13.5%, p=0.057) or 8-9 years (23% vs. 12.4%, p=0.078), respectively. No statistical relation was found between plaque and gingival indices and presence of calculus. The prevalence of calculus among children with openbite was significantly higher than that of children without open-bite (29.4% vs. 10.7%, p=0.0006, OR=3.489). The prevalence of calculus among children with erupting teeth in their oral cavity was higher than that of children without erupting teeth (17.7% vs. 9%, respectively, p=0.119). No statistical correlation was found between presence of dental pain and calculus (15.4% vs. 15.9%; p=0.738). Accumulation of calculus in children aged 6-10 years was found mainly in the mandibular incisors, decreased with age and was correlated with open-bite.

  3. Investigation and treatment of patients with teeth affected by tooth substance loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Watson, M L; Burke, F J

    2000-05-01

    Tooth substance loss, an increasing problem, may result from erosion, abrasion and attrition, often with more than one of these acting together. Investigation requires a detailed history and examination. The aim of treatment may be prevention of further damage in less affected cases. The treatment of severe tooth substance loss may be complex, especially in view of the reduced amounts of tooth substance which may be available and the need to find space because of the compensatory over-eruption of worn teeth.

  4. The relationships between the arrangement of teeth, root resorption, and dental maturity in bovine mandibular incisors

    PubMed Central

    An, Jin-kyu; Ono, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the eruption pattern and root resorption of the bovine anterior dentition in relation to growth-related parameters based on dental maturity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 bovine anterior mandibles by using standard radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and actual measurements. We determined the relationships between the stages of dental maturity by using a modification of Demirjian's method and various growth-related parameters, such as the activity of the root-resorbing tissue and mobility of the deciduous teeth. The correlation of growth-related parameters with interdental spacing and distal unusual root resorption (DRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was assessed. The cause of mesial unusual root resorption (MRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was determined on the basis of the arrangement of the permanent third incisor. Results An independent t-test and chi-square test indicated significant differences in growth-related parameters associated with dental arch length discrepancy and factors related to the shedding of deciduous teeth between the low and high dental maturity groups. The samples with interdental spacing and DRR showed a larger sum of mesiodistal permanent crown widths and higher dental maturity than did the respective controls. Samples with MRR tended to show a lingually rotated distal tip of the adjacent tooth crown. Conclusions Dental maturity has relevance to the interdental spaces and unusual root resorption of mixed dentition. The position of the adjacent tooth crown on CBCT may be correlated with the occurrence of unusual root resorption of the incisor. PMID:29090124

  5. Relationship of Number of Missing Teeth to Hip Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Cohort Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Jennifer; Wermers, Robert A; Sems, Stephen A; Viozzi, Christopher F; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-09-15

    To determine the relationship between the number of missing natural teeth or remaining natural teeth and osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly patients and to determine the relationship between the number of missing teeth or remaining teeth and osteoporotic fracture risk assessment (FRAX) probability. Number of missing teeth was determined by clinical oral exam on a total of 100 subjects, 50 with hip fractures and 50 without. Ten-year fracture risk and hip fracture risk probabilities were calculated using the FRAX tool. Statistical analyses were performed to determine strength of associations between number of missing natural teeth and likelihood of experiencing a fracture. Degree of correlation between number of missing natural teeth and FRAX probabilities were calculated. There appears to be an association between the number of missing natural teeth and hip fractures. For every 5-tooth increase in the number of missing teeth, the likelihood of being a subject in the hip fracture group increased by 26%. Number of missing natural teeth was positively correlated with FRAX overall fracture and hip fracture probability. Number of missing natural teeth may be a valuable tool to assist members of medical and dental teams in identifying patients with higher FRAX scores and higher likelihood of experiencing a hip fracture. Additional research is necessary to validate these findings. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Periodontal regeneration around natural teeth.

    PubMed

    Garrett, S

    1996-11-01

    1. Evidence is conclusive (Table 2) that periodontal regeneration in humans is possible following the use of bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration procedures, both without and in combination with bone grafts, and root demineralization procedures. 2. Clinically guided tissue regeneration procedures have demonstrated significant positive clinical change beyond that achieved with debridement alone in treating mandibular and maxillary (buccal only) Class II furcations. Similar data exist for intraosseous defects. Evidence suggests that the use of bone grafts or GTR procedures produce equal clinical benefit in treating intraosseous defects. Further research is necessary to evaluate GTR procedures compared to, or combined with, bone grafts in treating intraosseous defects. 3. Although there are some data suggesting hopeful results in Class II furcations, the clinical advantage of procedures combining present regenerative techniques remains to be demonstrated. Additional randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are needed to demonstrate the potential usefulness of these techniques. 4. Outcomes following regenerative attempts remain somewhat variable with differences in results between studies and individual subjects. Some of this variability is likely patient related in terms of compliance with plaque control and maintenance procedures, as well as personal habits; e.g., smoking. Variations in the defects selected for study may also affect predictability of outcomes along with other factors. 5. There is evidence to suggest that present regenerative techniques lead to significant amounts of regeneration at localized sites on specific teeth. However, if complete regeneration is to become a reality, additional stimuli to enhance the regenerative process are likely needed. Perhaps this will be accomplished in the future, with combined procedures that include appropriate polypeptide growth factors or tissue factors to provide additional stimulus.

  7. The ability of orthodontists and oral/maxillofacial surgeons to predict eruption of lower third molar.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Aline do Carmo; de Oliveira, Joelma Bezerra; Mello, Karina Flexa Ribeiro; Leão, Patrícia Botelho; Artese, Flavia; Normando, David

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of oral/maxillofacial surgeons (OMFSs) and orthodontists to predict third molar eruption by examining a simple panoramic radiograph in cases where full spontaneous eruption occurred. Panoramic radiographs of 17 patients, 13-16 years of age, were obtained just after orthodontic treatment (T1), when the third molars were intraosseous. The radiographs at T1 were presented to 28 OMFSs and 28 orthodontists-who were asked to give a prognosis for the lower third molars on both sides (n = 34). The full spontaneous eruption of all third molars was clinically observed when patients were older than 18 years (T2). These teeth were clinically asymptomatic at T1 and T2. OMFSs decided by extractions in 49.6 % of cases while orthodontists in 37.8 % (p < 0.001), when the radiographs were examined at T1. Agreement between OMFSs and orthodontists was excellent (Kappa = 0.76, p < 0.0001), as well as intragroup agreement for both OMFSs (Kappa = 0.83) and orthodontists (Kappa = 0.96). Despite a remarkable agreement for third molar prognosis, orthodontists and OMFSs were unable to predict lower third molar eruption by examining a simple panoramic radiograph. Both indicated extractions of a considerable number of spontaneously erupted asymptomatic teeth.

  8. Monitoring and Modeling: The Future of Volcanic Eruption Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, M. P.; Pritchard, M. E.; Anderson, K. R.; Furtney, M.; Carn, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Eruption forecasting typically uses monitoring data from geology, gas geochemistry, geodesy, and seismology, to assess the likelihood of future eruptive activity. Occasionally, months to years of warning are possible from specific indicators (e.g., deep LP earthquakes, elevated CO2 emissions, and aseismic deformation) or a buildup in one or more monitoring parameters. More often, observable changes in unrest occur immediately before eruption, as magma is rising toward the surface. In some cases, little or no detectable unrest precedes eruptive activity. Eruption forecasts are usually based on the experience of volcanologists studying the activity, but two developing fields offer a potential leap beyond this practice. First, remote sensing data, which can track thermal, gas, and ash emissions, as well as surface deformation, are increasingly available, allowing statistically significant research into the characteristics of unrest. For example, analysis of hundreds of volcanoes indicates that deformation is a more common pre-eruptive phenomenon than thermal anomalies, and that most episodes of satellite-detected unrest are not immediately followed by eruption. Such robust datasets inform the second development—probabilistic models of eruption potential, especially those that are based on physical-chemical models of the dynamics of magma accumulation and ascent. Both developments are essential for refining forecasts and reducing false positives. For example, many caldera systems have not erupted but are characterized by unrest that, in another context, would elicit strong concern from volcanologists. More observations of this behavior and better understanding of the underlying physics of unrest will improve forecasts of such activity. While still many years from implementation as a forecasting tool, probabilistic physio-chemical models incorporating satellite data offer a complement to expert assessments that, together, can form a powerful forecasting approach.

  9. The Eruption Forecasting Information System: Volcanic Eruption Forecasting Using Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogburn, S. E.; Harpel, C. J.; Pesicek, J. D.; Wellik, J.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasting eruptions, including the onset size, duration, location, and impacts, is vital for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. The Eruption Forecasting Information System (EFIS) project is a new initiative of the US Geological Survey-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) and will advance VDAP's ability to forecast the outcome of volcanic unrest. The project supports probability estimation for eruption forecasting by creating databases useful for pattern recognition, identifying monitoring data thresholds beyond which eruptive probabilities increase, and for answering common forecasting questions. A major component of the project is a global relational database, which contains multiple modules designed to aid in the construction of probabilistic event trees and to answer common questions that arise during volcanic crises. The primary module contains chronologies of volcanic unrest. This module allows us to query eruption chronologies, monitoring data, descriptive information, operational data, and eruptive phases alongside other global databases, such as WOVOdat and the Global Volcanism Program. The EFIS database is in the early stages of development and population; thus, this contribution also is a request for feedback from the community. Preliminary data are already benefitting several research areas. For example, VDAP provided a forecast of the likely remaining eruption duration for Sinabung volcano, Indonesia, using global data taken from similar volcanoes in the DomeHaz database module, in combination with local monitoring time-series data. In addition, EFIS seismologists used a beta-statistic test and empirically-derived thresholds to identify distal volcano-tectonic earthquake anomalies preceding Alaska volcanic eruptions during 1990-2015 to retrospectively evaluate Alaska Volcano Observatory eruption precursors. This has identified important considerations for selecting analog volcanoes for global data analysis, such as differences between

  10. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  11. Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  12. Eruption at Bardarbunga, Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-27

    The main caldera of Bardarbunga volcano is tucked beneath Iceland’s largest glacier, Vatnajökull. Beginning in August, 2014, red-hot basaltic lava originating from Bardarbunga has been pouring from fissures just north of Vatnajökull, creating the massive Holuhraun lava field. As of January 6, 2015, the Holuhraun lava field had spread across more than 84 square kilometers (32 square miles), making it larger than the island of Manhattan. Holuhraun is Iceland’s largest basaltic lava flow since the Laki eruption in 1783–84, an event that killed 20 percent of the island’s population. Scientists from the University of Iceland’s Institute of Earth Sciences have estimated the thickness of the lava field based on data from surveillance flights. On average, the eastern part was about 10 meters (33 feet) thick, the center was 12 meters, and the western part was 14 meters. Their preliminary analysis put the volume of lava at 1.1 cubic kilometers, enough for the eruption to be considered a flood basalt. While Holuhraun continues to spew copious amounts of lava and sulfur dioxide, some observations suggest the eruption may be slowing down. As Edinburgh University volcanologist John Stevenson noted on his blog, Icelandic scientists have shown that the sinking (subsidence) of the caldera has declined from 80 centimeters (31 inches) to 25 centimeters per day—a sign that less magma is moving toward the surface. In addition, magnitude 5 or higher earthquakes that used to occur daily are now happening about once a week. Meanwhile, satellite observations of heat flux show a decline from more than 20 gigawatts in early September to fewer than 5 gigawatts by the end of November. As reported by Volcano Discovery, one bold scientist has even suggested that it is reasonable to forecast that the eruption may be over by March, 2015. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite flew over Iceland on January 18, 2015 and captured a false

  13. Attitude and beliefs of some nurses in government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria to natal/neonatal teeth in infants.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Oke, G A

    2013-09-01

    Eruption of the first deciduous teeth in children has shown much variation and occasionally may erupt prematurely at birth or within one month of life. Myths about natal/neonatal teeth abound in the Nigerian culture. Nurses are health care providers who are in constant close contact with patients and can be invaluable in helping to dispel these associated myths. However, to provide correct information they should be adequately equipped to do so. The aim of this study thus, was to assess the attitudes and beliefs of some nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria to natal/neonatal teeth in infants. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 380 nurses in the teaching, general and local government hospitals and clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Results revealed that 41.3% of the respondents would express shock and surprise if they assisted in delivering a baby with natal teeth. Half of the respondents (49.7%) felt that natal/neonatal teeth will be a great source of embarrassment to the family while a smaller proportion (11.8%), believed it was a curse (p = 0.01). On the advice the respondents would give to the mothers, more than a th (39.7%), would recommend immediate extraction of the teeth. A further 42 (11.1%) nurses were of the opinion that spiritual cleansing should be carried out prior to extraction. A greater proportion of the older nurses would advice immediate extraction of the teeth (p = 0.031). Regarding the perceived effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the children, (7.4%), (12.6%) and (29.2%) of the respondents believed that the children will behave strangely, will possess spiritual authority and be victims of stigmatization later in life respectively. This study has revealed that knowledge gaps about natal/neonatal teeth exist among the nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria. Health education programmes targeted at nurses are essential to correct these beliefs.

  14. Human Life History Evolution Explains Dissociation between the Timing of Tooth Eruption and Peak Rates of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher; Cole, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167

  15. Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Arnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Roberts, Matthew J; Oskarsson, Níels; Auriac, Amandine; Decriem, Judicael; Einarsson, Páll; Geirsson, Halldór; Hensch, Martin; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G; Sturkell, Erik; Sveinbjörnsson, Hjörleifur; Feigl, Kurt L

    2010-11-18

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During such eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic, closing airspace over much of Europe for days. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of basalt from 20 March to 12 April 2010. The 2010 eruptions are the culmination of 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. Here we show that deformation associated with the eruptions was unusual because it did not relate to pressure changes within a single magma chamber. Deformation was rapid before the first eruption (>5 mm per day after 4 March), but negligible during it. Lack of distinct co-eruptive deflation indicates that the net volume of magma drained from shallow depth during this eruption was small; rather, magma flowed from considerable depth. Before the eruption, a ∼0.05 km(3) magmatic intrusion grew over a period of three months, in a temporally and spatially complex manner, as revealed by GPS (Global Positioning System) geodetic measurements and interferometric analysis of satellite radar images. The second eruption occurred within the ice-capped caldera of the volcano, with explosivity amplified by magma-ice interaction. Gradual contraction of a source, distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation sources, is evident from geodetic data. Eyjafjallajökull's behaviour can be attributed to its off-rift setting with a 'cold' subsurface structure and limited magma at shallow depth, as may be typical for moderately active volcanoes. Clear signs of volcanic unrest signals over years to weeks may indicate reawakening of such volcanoes, whereas immediate short-term eruption precursors may be subtle and difficult to detect.

  16. The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics is always significant to preserve the trophism of adjacent tissues, establish the correct space, provide adequate function and maintain good esthetics for the patient. The treatment plan is based on radiographic examinations and measurements, and on an accurate clinical evaluation; it aims to achieve the best treatment possible depending on the complexity of the specific case. In the most difficult clinical cases it is very important to have an early diagnosis, which is essential to plan the treatment and achieve success. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. Case presentation This article presents two different difficult clinical cases of impacted teeth diagnosed during pediatric age, with a radiological analysis, and successfully treated with orthodontic devices designed for these specific cases. Clinical case 1 describes a 13-year-old Italian girl; clinical case 2 describes a 9-year-old Italian girl. The use of these devices achieved the desired treatment goals. The problems associated with impacted teeth and the biomechanical interventions used for these patients are discussed. Conclusions An early and careful diagnosis followed by an accurate treatment plan for the individual cases can lead to retrieval of the impacted teeth without affecting other anatomic structures and adjacent teeth. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. PMID:25301242

  17. An Analysis of Eruptions Detected by the LMSAL Eruption Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N. E.; Higgins, P. A.; Jaffey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the solar atmosphere reveals a wide range of real and apparent motions, from small scale jets and spicules to global-scale coronal mass ejections. Identifying and characterizing these motions are essential to advance our understanding the drivers of space weather. Automated and visual identifications are used in identifying CMEs. To date, the precursors to these — eruptions near the solar surface — have been identified primarily by visual inspection. Here we report on an analysis of the eruptions detected by the Eruption Patrol, a data mining module designed to automatically identify eruptions from data collected by Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We describe the module and use it both to explore relations with other solar events recorded in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase and to identify and access data collected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode for further analysis.

  18. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01 ). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01 ). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*,b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  19. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*, b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  20. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  1. A Universal Model for Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyper, Peter F.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Devore, C. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Magnetically driven eruptions on the Sun, from stellar-scale coronal mass ejections1 to small-scale coronal X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet jets, have frequently been observed to involve the ejection of the highly stressed magnetic flux of a filament. Theoretically, these two phenomena have been thought to arise through very different mechanisms: coronal mass ejections from an ideal (non-dissipative) process, whereby the energy release does not require a change in the magnetic topology, as in the kink or torus instability; and coronal jets from a resistive process, involving magnetic reconnection. However, it was recently concluded from new observations that all coronal jets are driven by filament ejection, just like large mass ejections. This suggests that the two phenomena have physically identical origin and hence that a single mechanism may be responsible, that is, either mass ejections arise from reconnection, or jets arise from an ideal instability. Here we report simulations of a coronal jet driven by filament ejection, whereby a region of highly sheared magnetic field near the solar surface becomes unstable and erupts. The results show that magnetic reconnection causes the energy release via 'magnetic breakout', a positive feedback mechanism between filament ejection and reconnection. We conclude that if coronal mass ejections and jets are indeed of physically identical origin (although on different spatial scales) then magnetic reconnection (rather than an ideal process) must also underlie mass ejections, and that magnetic breakout is a universal model for solar eruptions.

  2. A universal model for solar eruptions.

    PubMed

    Wyper, Peter F; Antiochos, Spiro K; DeVore, C Richard

    2017-04-26

    Magnetically driven eruptions on the Sun, from stellar-scale coronal mass ejections to small-scale coronal X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet jets, have frequently been observed to involve the ejection of the highly stressed magnetic flux of a filament. Theoretically, these two phenomena have been thought to arise through very different mechanisms: coronal mass ejections from an ideal (non-dissipative) process, whereby the energy release does not require a change in the magnetic topology, as in the kink or torus instability; and coronal jets from a resistive process involving magnetic reconnection. However, it was recently concluded from new observations that all coronal jets are driven by filament ejection, just like large mass ejections. This suggests that the two phenomena have physically identical origin and hence that a single mechanism may be responsible, that is, either mass ejections arise from reconnection, or jets arise from an ideal instability. Here we report simulations of a coronal jet driven by filament ejection, whereby a region of highly sheared magnetic field near the solar surface becomes unstable and erupts. The results show that magnetic reconnection causes the energy release via 'magnetic breakout'-a positive-feedback mechanism between filament ejection and reconnection. We conclude that if coronal mass ejections and jets are indeed of physically identical origin (although on different spatial scales) then magnetic reconnection (rather than an ideal process) must also underlie mass ejections, and that magnetic breakout is a universal model for solar eruptions.

  3. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF

    One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  4. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  5. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  6. Marsupialization of a large dentigerous cyst in the mandible with orthodontic extrusion of three impacted teeth. A case report.

    PubMed

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Abbasi, Arshad

    2017-09-01

    The dentigerous cyst (DC) is the most common type of developmental odontogenic cyst. It is usually asymptomatic and associated with the crown of an unerupted or impacted tooth. However, after a long duration, it is likely to cause significant bone resorption, cortical expansion, and tooth displacement. This report presents a large infected DC in the mandible of a 12-year-old female patient. The DC was located inferior to badly decayed primary molars and surrounded three impacted permanent teeth: canine, first premolar, which had a dilacerated root, and second premolar. The DC was treated successfully by marsupialization and extrusion of the impacted teeth. In conclusion, the combination of marsupialization with orthodontic extrusion is a conservative, efficient protocol that stimulates bone healing and promotes the eruption of cyst-associated teeth even if they are deeply impacted, crowded, or have a dilacerated root. Key words: Dentigerous cyst, marsupialization, impacted teeth, orthodontic extrusion, dilacerated root.

  7. Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases where the grinding and clenching make a child's face and jaw sore or damage the teeth, dentists may prescribe a special night guard. Molded to a child's teeth, the night guard is similar to the ...

  8. Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at ∼ 45 ° N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the ∼ 180km of known Roza fissure length could have supported ∼36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (∼ 66Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained flood basalt eruptions could have influenced

  9. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  10. Can tides influence volcanic eruptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girona, T.; Huber, C.

    2015-12-01

    The possibility that the Moon-Sun gravitational force can affect terrestrial volcanoes and trigger eruptions is a controversial issue that has been proposed since ancient times, and that has been widely debated during the last century. The controversy arises mainly from two reasons. First, the days of initiation of eruptions are not well known for many volcanoes, and thus a robust statistical comparison with tidal cycles cannot be performed for many of them. Second, the stress changes induced by tides in the upper crust are very small (10-3 MPa) compared to the tensile strength of rocks (~ 10-1-10 MPa), and hence the mechanism by which tidal stresses might trigger eruptions is unclear. In this study, we address these issues for persistently degassing volcanoes, as they erupt frequently and thus the initiation time of a significant number of eruptions (>30) is well known in several cases (9). In particular, we find that the occurrence of eruptions within ±2 days from neap tides (first and third quarter moon) is lower than 34% (e.g., 29% for Etna, Italy; 28% for Merapi, Indonesia), which is the value expected if eruptions occur randomly with no external influence. To understand this preference for erupting far away from neap tides, we have developed a new lumped-parameter model that accounts for the deformation of magma reservoirs, a partially open conduit, and a gas layer where bubbles accumulate beneath volcanic craters before being released. We demonstrate that this system reservoir-conduit-gas layer acts as an amplifier of the tidal stresses, such that, when a volcano approaches to a critical state, the gas overpressure beneath the crater can reach up to several MPa more during a spring tide (full and new moon) than during a neap tide. This amplification mechanism can explain why active volcanoes are sensitive to the moon cycles.

  11. Eruptive history and magmatic stability of Erebus volcano, Antarctica: Insights from englacial tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Nels A.; Kyle, Philip R.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; McIntosh, William C.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.

    2014-11-01

    A tephrostratigraphy of the active Antarctic Erebus volcano was determined from englacial tephra on the ice-covered flanks of Erebus and an adjacent volcano. The tephra are used to reconstruct the eruptive history and magmatic evolution of Erebus. More fine-grained and blocky particles define tephra formed in phreatomagmatic eruptions and larger fluidal shards are characteristic of magmatic eruptions and in some cases both eruptive types are identified in a single mixed tephra. The eruptions forming the mixed tephra likely started as phreatomagmatic eruptions which transitioned into Strombolian eruptions as the nonmagmatic water source was exhausted. We reconstructed the eruptive history of Erebus using the tephra layers stratigraphic position, 40Ar/39Ar ages, shard morphology, and grain size. Major and trace element analyses of individual glass shards were measured by electron probe microanalysis and LA-ICP-MS. Trachybasalt, trachyte, and phonolite tephra were identified. All phonolitic tephra are Erebus-derived with compositions similar to volcanic bombs erupted from Erebus over the past 40 years. The tephra show that Erebus magma has not significantly changed for 40 ka. The uniformity of the glass chemical composition implies that the phonolite magma has crystallized in the same manner without change throughout the late Quaternary, suggesting long-term stability of the Erebus magmatic system. Trachyte and trachybasalt tephra were likely erupted from Marie Byrd Land and the McMurdo Sound area, respectively. The trachytic tephra can be regionally correlated and could provide an important time-stratigraphic marker in Antarctic ice cores.

  12. Thermographic analysis of surface damage in teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Contreras, M.; Bante-Guerra, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, E.; Hernandez, A. M.; Trujillo, S.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    The analysis of the surface of teeth is an important field of research and technological development due to the importance of dental pieces in health and aesthetics. The presence of cracks as well as the etching effects on teeth surface, due to different chemical agents, affects not only the appearance of teeth but its integrity. In this work, laser thermography analysis of dental pieces with damage in the form of cracks is presented. The technique consists in the illumination of the surface at the center of the sample, using a 300 mW pulsed solid state laser beam focused with a gradium lens, and monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of the temperature field. The heating of the sample is monitored using a focal plane array infrared camera, sensitive in the spectral range 7.5-13 μm with a noise equivalent temperature difference of 0.12°C. The data acquisition was performed by the PC firewire port using a PCI-8254R card and a home-made program in Labview 8.0 was used for data acquisition. The images were processed in a home-made linux program to obtain the experimental table values. Our results are compared with position and frequency scans obtained by infrared photothermal radiometry. It is shown that the crack in the tooth appears as an increase in the photothermal signal. In contrast, the thermographic image shows a more detailed structure in which close to the crack the temperature increases, but at the crack the signal falls.

  13. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  14. Lingual eruption of mandibular permanent incisors: a space correlated phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Sohrabi, Aydin; Pouralibaba, Firuz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution according to various arch length conditions of lingually erupted mandibular permanent incisors and the effect of space condition on this phenomenon with long-term follow-up of these teeth. A total of 105 children aged 5-7.5 years with one or more permanent mandibular incisors erupting lingual to the corresponding primary incisors were included in the study. A space analysis was performed. The subjects were divided into six groups according to various space conditions. The subjects were followed for 2 years. In this study the prevalence of lingual eruption was 18.4%. Eighty-three point seven percent of the subjects had either equivalent space, mild space excess, or a space deficiency (not more than 3 mm). No relationship was found between groups and clinical outcomes (P>.05). Follow up of the main three groups (according to the space analysis results) revealed in the adequate space group 75% of the children lost their primary incisors without any intervention. Similar outcomes occurred in 85.7% and 57.14% of cases in the mild space excess and space deficiency groups, respectively. Considering the three main groups combined, equivalent space, mild space excess, and mild space deficiency, 70.45% of children lost their primary incisors without any intervention and 14.8% needed primary incisor extraction (17.4%, 14.3%, and 10.7% in each group, respectively). There was no predisposition toward a space deficiency or excess found in these subjects so the wait-and-see policy versus early extraction can be considered for lingually erupting permanent mandibular incisors. Lingual eruption of mandibular incisors is a common clinical problem in the early mixed dentition period that is a source of discomfort for parents of patients with this condition. The present study provides a unique insight into the prevalence of the problem as well as the clinical decisions such as favoring retention of primary

  15. Dental maturation, eruption, and gingival emergence in the upper jaw of newborn primates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Jankord, Kathryn D; Progar, Abbigal J; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sian; Williams, Lawrence; Vinyard, Christopher J; Deleon, Valerie B

    2015-12-01

    In this report we provide data on dental eruption and tooth germ maturation at birth in a large sample constituting the broadest array of non-human primates studied to date. Over 100 perinatal primates, obtained from natural captive deaths, were screened for characteristics indicating premature birth, and were subsequently studied using a combination of histology and micro-CT. Results reveal one probable unifying characteristic of living primates: relatively advanced maturation of deciduous teeth and M1 at birth. Beyond this, there is great diversity in the status of tooth eruption and maturation (dental stage) in the newborn primate. Contrasting strategies in producing a masticatory battery are already apparent at birth in strepsirrhines and anthropoids. Results show that dental maturation and eruption schedules are potentially independently co-opted as different strategies for attaining feeding independence. The most common strategy in strepsirrhines is accelerating eruption and the maturation of the permanent dentition, including replacement teeth. Anthropoids, with only few exceptions, accelerate mineralization of the deciduous teeth, while delaying development of all permanent teeth except M1. These results also show that no living primate resembles the altricial tree shrew (Tupaia) in dental development. Our preliminary observations suggest that ecological explanations, such as diet, provide an explanation for certain morphological variations at birth. These results confirm previous work on perinatal indriids indicating that these and other primates telegraph their feeding adaptations well before masticatory anatomy is functional. Quantitative analyses are required to decipher specific dietary and other influences on dental size and maturation in the newborn primate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dental maturation, eruption, and gingival emergence in the upper jaw of newborn primates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy D.; Muchlinksi, Magdalena N.; Jankord, Kathryn D.; Progar, Abbigal J.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Evans, Sian; Williams, Lawrence; Vinyard, Christopher J.; DeLeon, Valerie B.

    2015-01-01

    In this report we provide data on dental eruption and tooth germ maturation at birth in a large sample constituting the broadest array of non-human primates studied to date. Over 100 perinatal primates, obtained from natural captive deaths, were screened for characteristics indicating premature birth, and were subsequently studied using a combination of histology and micro-CT. Results reveal one probable unifying characteristic of living primates: relatively advanced maturation of deciduous teeth and M1 at birth. Beyond this, there is great diversity in the status of tooth eruption and maturation (dental stage) in the newborn primate. Contrasting strategies in producing a masticatory battery are already apparent at birth in strepsirrhines and anthropoids. Results show that dental maturation and eruption schedules are potentially independently co-opted as different strategies for attaining feeding independence. The most common strategy in strepsirrhines is accelerating eruption and the maturation of the permanent dentition, including replacement teeth. Anthropoids, with only few exceptions, accelerate mineralization of the deciduous teeth, while delaying development of all permanent teeth except M1. These results also show that no living primate resembles the altricial tree shrew (Tupaia) in dental development. Our preliminary observations suggest that ecological explanations, such as diet, provide an explanation for certain morphological variations at birth. These results confirm previous work on perinatal indriids indicating that these and other primates telegraph their feeding adaptations well before masticatory anatomy is functional. Quantitative analyses are required to decipher specific dietary and other influences on dental size and maturation in the newborn primate. PMID:26425925

  17. Solar Activity and Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2006-01-01

    Our Sun is a dynamic, ever-changing star. In general, its atmosphere displays major variation on an 11-year cycle. Throughout the cycle, the atmosphere occasionally exhibits large, sudden outbursts of energy. These "solar eruptions" manifest themselves in the form of solar flares, filament eruptions, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and energetic particle releases. They are of high interest to scientists both because they represent fundamental processes that occur in various astrophysical context, and because, if directed toward Earth, they can disrupt Earth-based systems and satellites. Research over the last few decades has shown that the source of the eruptions is localized regions of energy-storing magnetic field on the Sun that become destabilized, leading to a release of the stored energy. Solar scientists have (probably) unraveled the basic outline of what happens in these eruptions, but many details are still not understood. In recent years we have been studying what triggers these magnetic eruptions, using ground-based and satellite-based solar observations in combination with predictions from various theoretical models. We will present an overview of solar activity and solar eruptions, give results from some of our own research, and discuss questions that remain to be explored.

  18. Posterior Open Bite Due to Failure of Maxillary Molar Eruption.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Toshihiko; Sueishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Posterior open bite can cause problems with occlusion. It arises from systemic or local factors such as physical or functional interference, ankylosis, and failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that is difficult to differentiate from ankylosis and requires complex treatment strategies. Here we report a 12-year-old girl who was referred to our hospital by her dentist for re-evaluation of eruption failure of the left maxillary secondary premolar and first and second molars with congenitally missing maxillary lateral teeth. The maxillary first molar was extracted for a therapeutic diagnosis. The left maxillary secondary premolar and second molar reacted well to subsequent orthodontic treatment. Auto-transplantation of the mandibular premolar to the maxil-lary arch was carried out to achieve optimal overjet, overbite, and occlusion. The active treatment period spanned 4 years and 1 month. Assessment of the patient's medical and dental history, prior trauma, and clinical conditions resulted in a therapeutic diagnosis of PFE. Satisfactory orthodontic treatment results were achieved.

  19. PTH intermittent administration may be a useful therapeutic agent to avoid premature eruption of the tooth.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Daniel Fernando Pereira; Vasconcelos, Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães

    2016-03-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) acts as a controller of bone remodeling and has influence on periodontal tissues. In addition to the well-established catabolic effects (activation of bone resorption) of PTH, it is recognized that the PTH intermittent administration has anabolic effects (promotion of bone formation). However, there is no information regarding the effects of the PTH intermittent administration on the eruption tooth rate. Studies have shown that tooth eruption depends on the presence of osteoclasts to create an eruption pathway through the alveolar bone. It may also be controlled by osteoblast, precursor of osteoclast, and cells of periodontal ligament. Our hypothesis is based on previous studies showing that the PTH intermittent administration can promote bone formation, particularly in the areas around which the tooth erupts. Furthermore, the PTH intermittent administration influenced periodontal ligament fiber, what may be seen as greater organization, and isomerization, as well as higher birefringence of the periodontal ligament fiber, which then offers increased resistance to the process, delaying tooth eruption. Thus, this article opens new perspectives for the treatment and maintenance of teeth that can erupt early. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Teething ring. 872.5550 Section 872.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething ring. (a) Identification. A teething ring is a...

  1. A simple and efficient method for generating Nurr1-positive neuronal stem cells from human wisdom teeth (tNSC) and the potential of tNSC for stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Mei-Fang; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lin, Py-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We have isolated human neuronal stem cells from exfoliated third molars (wisdom teeth) using a simple and efficient method. The cultured neuronal stem cells (designated tNSC) expressed embryonic and adult stem cell markers, markers for chemotatic factor and its corresponding ligand, as well as neuron proteins. The tNSC expressed genes of Nurr1, NF-M and nestin. They were used to treat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery-inflicted Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to assess their therapeutic potential for stroke therapy. For each tNSC cell line, a normal human impacted wisdom tooth was collected from a donor with consent. The tooth was cleaned thoroughly with normal saline. The molar was vigorously shaken or vortexed for 30 min in a 50-mL conical tube with 15-20mL normal saline. The mixture of dental pulp was collected by centrifugation and cultured in a 25-cm(2) tissue culture flask with 4-5mL Medium 199 supplemented with 5-10% fetal calf serum. The tNSC harvested from tissue culture, at a concentration of 1-2x10(5), were suspended in 3 microL saline solution and injected into the right dorsolateral striatum of experimental animals inflicted with MCAO. Behavioral measurements of the tNSC-treated SD rats showed a significant recovery from neurologic dysfunction after MCAO treatment. In contrast, a sham group of SD rats failed to recover from the surgery. Immunohistochemistry analysis of brain sections of the tNSC-treated SD rats showed survival of the transplanted cells. These results suggest that adult neuronal stem cells may be procured from third molars, and tNSC thus cultivated have potential for treatment of stroke-inflicted rats.

  2. Characterization of pyroclastic deposits and pre-eruptive soils following the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Michaelson, G.; Ping, C.-L.; Plumlee, G.; Hageman, P.

    2010-01-01

    The 78 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano blanketed the island in newly generated pyroclastic deposits and deposited ash into the ocean and onto nearby islands. Concentrations of water soluble Fe, Cu, and Zn determined from a 1:20 deionized water leachate of the ash were sufficient to provide short-term fertilization of the surface ocean. The 2008 pyroclastic deposits were thicker in concavities at bases of steeper slopes and thinner on steep slopes and ridge crests. By summer 2009, secondary erosion had exposed the pre-eruption soils along gulley walls and in gully bottoms on the southern and eastern slopes, respectively. Topographic and microtopographic position altered the depositional patterns of the pyroclastic flows and resulted in pre-eruption soils being buried by as little as 1 m of ash. The different erosion patterns gave rise to three surfaces on which future ecosystems will likely develop: largely pre-eruptive soils; fresh pyroclastic deposits influenced by shallowly buried, pre-eruptive soil; and thick (>1 m) pyroclastic deposits. As expected, the chemical composition differed between the pyroclastic deposits and the pre-eruptive soils. Pre-eruptive soils hold stocks of C and N important for establishing biota that are lacking in the fresh pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits are a source for P and K but have negligible nutrient holding capacity, making these elements vulnerable to leaching loss. Consequently, the pre-eruption soils may also represent an important long-term P and K source. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  3. Primary Fused Teeth and Findings in Permanent Dentition.

    PubMed

    Açıkel, Hatice; İbiş, Sevgin; Şen Tunç, Emine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of primary fused teeth (PFT) and their effect on permanent dentition in a group of Turkish children. Dental records of 13,450 pediatric patients who attended the Pediatric Dental Clinic in northern Turkey between 2015 and 2017 were reviewed. Forty patients had been diagnosed with PFT and were included in the study. Clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted, and the distribution of PFT was calculated by type, sex, affected jaw, associated dental anomalies, and clinical complications. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics. A total of 50 PFT were detected in the 40 patients. The mean age of patients was 6.7 ± 0.3 years (range 3-10 years). The most common PFT were the mandibular lateral incisors and canines (34, 68%). The most prevalent type of PFT was type III (20, 40%). Of the 40 patients with PFT, 34 (85%) also ex-hibited other dental anomalies such as tooth aplasia, peg-shaped incisors, talon cusps, ectopic eruption, and delayed eruption in both related and unrelated areas. The most common complications of PFT were fusion-related tooth aplasia (n = 26 [76%]) and caries formation in the affected teeth (24 [48%]). In this study, PFT were frequently observed in the mandibular anterior region. Caries formation and dental anomalies, especially permanent tooth aplasia, were often encountered in areas where PFT were seen. Hence, parents should be informed about possible dental problems associated with PFT and be encouraged to schedule regular follow-up appointments. ©2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Dental caries, tooth eruption timing and obesity: a longitudinal study in a group of Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; Irigoyen, María Esther; Zepeda, Marco

    2010-01-01

    To identify the possible association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and to explore the effect of BMI on tooth eruption in a cohort of elementary schoolchildren. A 4-year longitudinal study was completed. A total of 110 children from a public elementary school, located in a middle-income area of Mexico City, entered the study; of these, 88 completed the 4-year follow-up period. Dental caries assessments were carried out using the WHO criteria for decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth indices (dmft and DMFT, respectively) and surface indices (dmfs and DMFS, respectively). BMI was used to classify the children's obesity status, according to the Centers for Disease Control 2000 reference charts. At 7 years of age, 29.6% of the children were in the overweight or at risk of being overweight categories and, by 11 years of age, this proportion had risen to 45.5%. The mean dmft for children aged 7 years was 2.70 and, for children aged 11 years, the DMFT was 0.54. Children in the higher BMI categories had more erupted teeth than the other children (p < 0.001). A lower dmfs index was detected in the overweight children, compared with children with a lower BMI (p < 0.001). The overweight children had more erupted teeth and a lower caries index. The complex relationships between body composition and oral health should be considered in pediatric patients.

  5. Fracture modes in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Chai, H; Lucas, P W; Thompson, V P; Lawn, B R

    2009-03-01

    The structural integrity of teeth under stress is vital to functional longevity. We tested the hypothesis that this integrity is limited by fracture of the enamel. Experiments were conducted on molar teeth, with a metal rod loaded onto individual cusps. Fracture during testing was tracked with a video camera. Two longitudinal modes of cracking were observed: median cracking from the contact zone, and margin cracking along side walls. Median cracks initiated from plastic damage at the contact site, at first growing slowly and then accelerating to the tooth margin. Margin cracks appeared to originate from the cemento-enamel junction, and traversed the tooth wall adjacent to the loaded cusp from the gingival to the occlusal surface. All cracks remained confined within the enamel shell up to about 550 N. At higher loads, additional crack modes--such as enamel chipping and delamination--began to manifest themselves, leading to more comprehensive failure of the tooth structure.

  6. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  7. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed.

  8. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH FOR ENDODONTIC TEACHING

    PubMed Central

    Nassri, Maria Renata Giazzi; Carlik, Jaime; da Silva, Camila Roberta Nepomuceno; Okagawa, Renata Elisa; Lin, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching. A questionnaire was prepared and submitted to 18 professors of Endodontics from different Brazilian universities to evaluate the following features of five cloudy resin artificial teeth: internal and external anatomy; coronal chambers regarding their size, shape and canal path; root canal regarding their size, shape and position; fulfillment of the pulp chamber and root canals by considering the texture, quantity, color, and ease of handling; resin hardness and visualization of the radiographic image. The results presented favorable opinions, in terms of internal and external anatomy, coronal pulp chambers and root canal and handling and radiographic imaging. The contents of the pulp space and hardness of the teeth were considered satisfactory. The average grade assigned to the artificial tooth quality was 8.4, in a 0-10 scale. In conclusion, the artificial teeth have potential to replace the natural teeth in endodontic teaching; however, improvements are still necessary to reach a better quality model. PMID:19089288

  9. Forensic DNA typing from teeth using demineralized root tips.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Heitor Simões Dutra; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Pereira, Thiago Machado; Siebert Filho, Gilberto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Teeth are widely used samples in forensic human genetic identification due to their persistence and practical sampling and processing. Their processing, however, has changed very little in the last 20 years, usually including powdering or pulverization of the tooth. The objective of this study was to present demineralized root tips as DNA sources while, at the same time, not involving powdering the samples or expensive equipment for teeth processing. One to five teeth from each of 20 unidentified human bodies recovered from midwest Brazil were analyzed. Whole teeth were demineralized in EDTA solution with daily solution change. After a maximum of approximately seven days, the final millimeters of the root tip was excised. This portion of the sample was used for DNA extraction through a conventional organic protocol. DNA quantification and STR amplification were performed using commercial kits followed by capillary electrophoresis on 3130 or 3500 genetic analyzers. For 60% of the unidentified bodies (12 of 20), a full genetic profile was obtained from the extraction of the first root tip. By the end of the analyses, full genetic profiles were obtained for 85% of the individuals studied, of which 80% were positively identified. This alternative low-tech approach for postmortem teeth processing is capable of extracting DNA in sufficient quantity and quality for forensic casework, showing that root tips are viable nuclear DNA sources even after demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical analysis of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching.

    PubMed

    Nassri, Maria Renata Giazzi; Carlik, Jaime; da Silva, Camila Roberta Nepomuceno; Okagawa, Renata Elisa; Lin, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching. A questionnaire was prepared and submitted to 18 professors of Endodontics from different Brazilian universities to evaluate the following features of five cloudy resin artificial teeth: internal and external anatomy; coronal chambers regarding their size, shape and canal path; root canal regarding their size, shape and position; fulfillment of the pulp chamber and root canals by considering the texture, quantity, color, and ease of handling; resin hardness and visualization of the radiographic image. The results presented favorable opinions, in terms of internal and external anatomy, coronal pulp chambers and root canal and handling and radiographic imaging. The contents of the pulp space and hardness of the teeth were considered satisfactory. The average grade assigned to the artificial tooth quality was 8.4, in a 0-10 scale. In conclusion, the artificial teeth have potential to replace the natural teeth in endodontic teaching; however, improvements are still necessary to reach a better quality model.

  11. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pulgaonkar, Rohan; Chitra, Prasad

    2015-11-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered.

  12. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method and the use of 2 radiographs taken at right angles to each other are the 2 methods generally used to accurately localize teeth. For the parallax method, the combination of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph is recommended. This combination involves a vertical x-ray tube shift. Three case reports are presented that illustrate: (1) how this combination can accurately localize unerupted mandibular anterior teeth, (2) how a deceptive appearance of the labiolingual position of the unerupted tooth can be produced in an occlusal radiograph, (3) how increasing the vertical angle of the tube for the occlusal radiograph makes the tube shift easier to discern, (4) why occlusal radiographs are preferable to periapical radiographs for tube shifts, and (5) how localization can also be carried out with 2 radiographs at right angles to each other, one of which is an occlusal radiograph taken with the x-ray tube directed along the long axis of the reference tooth.

  13. Pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption in a third upper molar: clinical, tomographic and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Marceliano-Alves, M F; Alves, Frf; Pires, F R; Fidel, S

    2017-06-01

    Radiolucent or hypodense lesions in the crown of unerupted teeth may be due to pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption. Clinicians must be aware of this risk so that they can diagnose and appropriately treat this condition. The purpose of this study is to present a well-documented clinical case of pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption in an impacted third upper left molar of a 63 year old female patient. This was an unexpected finding, which occurred after cone-beam computed tomography was used to investigate the first upper left molar, which had an acute periradicular abscess. A multidisciplinary team followed up the case to describe clinical, radiographic and histological findings. The available treatment options were discussed, and the tooth extraction was the option chosen. Previous case studies describing such resorption in third upper molars have not been reported. This case shows that all permanent teeth in a pre-eruptive stage must be analysed radiographically to detect early pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Forecasting eruptions of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Robert W.; Klein, Fred W.; Okamura, Arnold T.; Okubo, Paul G.

    Past eruption patterns and various kinds of precursors are the two basic ingredients of eruption forecasts. The 39 historical eruptions of Mauna Loa from 1832 to 1984 have intervals as short as 104 days and as long as 9,165 days between the beginning of an eruption and the beginning of the next one. These recurrence times roughly fit a Poisson distribution pattern with a mean recurrence time of 1,459 days, yielding a probability of 22% (P=.22) for an eruption of Mauna Loa during any next year. The long recurrence times since 1950, however, suggest that the probability is not random, and that the current probability for an eruption during the next year may be as low as 6%. Seismicity beneath Mauna Loa increased for about two years prior to the 1975 and 1984 eruptions. Inflation of the summit area took place between eruptions with the highest rates occurring for a year or two before and after the 1975 and 1984 eruptions. Volcanic tremor beneath Mauna Loa began 51 minutes prior to the 1975 eruption and 115 minutes prior to the 1984 eruption. Eruption forecasts were published in 1975, 1976, and 1983. The 1975 and 1983 forecasts, though vaguely worded, were qualitatively correct regarding the timing of the next eruption. The 1976 forecast was more quantitative; it was wrong on timing but accurate on forecasting the location of the 1984 eruption. This paper urges that future forecasts be specific so they can be evaluated quantitatively.

  15. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.

    Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.

    Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.

    The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.

    Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.

    This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through

  16. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  17. Knowledge of consequences of missing teeth in patients attending prosthetic clinic in u.C.h. Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Dosumu, O O; Ogunrinde, J T; Bamigboye, S A

    2014-06-01

    Various causes of tooth loss such as caries, trauma, periodontal diseases, and cancer have been documented in the literature. In addition, factors that can modify these causes such as level of education, age and sex have been studied. There is however paucity of information on whether patients or people with missing teeth are aware of the side effects of tooth loss on them or on the remaining teeth. This study investigated the knowledge of consequences of missing teeth among partially edentulous patients in a teaching hospital. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the patients to collect information relating to demography, cause and duration of tooth loss, awareness of the consequences of tooth loss and their sources of information. Four clinical conditions including supra-eruption, mastication, teeth drifting, and facial collapse were used to assess the level of awareness of consequences of missing teeth. Two hundred and three participants were included in the study. Their mean age was 45.5±1.8 years. There was no significant difference between the knowledge of the consequences of missing teeth and sex or on level of education (p(·) 0.05). Dentists constituted the largest source of information to these patients (25.6%) while the media constituted the least (0.5%). The result of this study showed poor knowledge of the consequences of missing teeth among partially edentulous patients and the media that should be of assistance were equally unaware, signifying urgent need for public awareness on this subject.

  18. Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need sedation or extra behavioral care. Hospital dentistry is also an option if a patient cannot ... American Dental Association The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry State Dental Society – A call to the local ...

  19. Theoretical mechanisms for solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jun

    This thesis presents new theoretical models of solar eruptions which are derived from older models that involve a loss of equilibrium of the Sun's coronal magnetic field. These models consist of a magnetic flux rope nested within an arcade of magnetic loop. Prior to an eruption, the flux rope floats in the corona under a balance between magnetic compression and tension forces. When an eruption occurs, the magnetic compression exceeds the magnetic tension and causes the flux rope to be thrown outwards, away from the Sun. Three important factors which impact the occurrence and evolution of the eruptive processes are investigated. These factors are magnetic reconnection, new emerging flux, and the large scale curvature of the flux rope. First, our new results confirm that in the absence of reconnection, magnetic tension in two-dimensional configuration is always strong enough to prevent escape of the flux rope to infinity after it erupts. However, only a relatively small reconnection rate is needed to allow the flux rope to escape to infinity. Specifically, for a coronal density model that decreases exponentially with height we find that average Alfvén Mach number MA for the inflow into the reconnection site can be as small as M A = 0.005 and still be fast enough to give a plausible eruption. The best fit to observations is obtained by assuming an inflow rate on the order of MA ~ 0.1. Second, we have found that the emergence of new flux system in the vicinity of a preexisting flux rope can cause a loss of ideal-MHD equilibrium under certain circumstances. But the circumstances which lead to eruption are much richer and more complicated than commonly described in the existing literatures. Our model results suggest that the actual circumstances leading to an eruption are sensitive, not only to the polarity of the emerging region, but to several other parameters, such as its strength, distance, and area as well. The results also indicate that in general there is no

  20. Bayesian analysis of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    1990-10-01

    The simple Poisson model generally gives a good fit to many volcanoes for volcanic eruption forecasting. Nonetheless, empirical evidence suggests that volcanic activity in successive equal time-periods tends to be more variable than a simple Poisson with constant eruptive rate. An alternative model is therefore examined in which eruptive rate(λ) for a given volcano or cluster(s) of volcanoes is described by a gamma distribution (prior) rather than treated as a constant value as in the assumptions of a simple Poisson model. Bayesian analysis is performed to link two distributions together to give the aggregate behavior of the volcanic activity. When the Poisson process is expanded to accomodate a gamma mixing distribution on λ, a consequence of this mixed (or compound) Poisson model is that the frequency distribution of eruptions in any given time-period of equal length follows the negative binomial distribution (NBD). Applications of the proposed model and comparisons between the generalized model and simple Poisson model are discussed based on the historical eruptive count data of volcanoes Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Etna (Italy). Several relevant facts lead to the conclusion that the generalized model is preferable for practical use both in space and time.

  1. Automated detection of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Observation of the solar atmosphere reveals a wide range of motions, from small scale jets and spicules to global-scale coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Identifying and characterizing these motions are essential to advancing our understanding of the drivers of space weather. Both automated and visual identifications are currently used in identifying Coronal Mass Ejections. To date, eruptions near the solar surface, which may be precursors to CMEs, have been identified primarily by visual inspection. Here we report on Eruption Patrol (EP): a software module that is designed to automatically identify eruptions from data collected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA). We describe the method underlying the module and compare its results to previous identifications found in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase. EP identifies eruptions events that are consistent with those found by human annotations, but in a significantly more consistent and quantitative manner. Eruptions are found to be distributed within 15 Mm of the solar surface. They possess peak speeds ranging from 4 to 100 km/s and display a power-law probability distribution over that range. These characteristics are consistent with previous observations of prominences.

  2. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  3. Satellite View of Kilauea Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-07

    This image from NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft show recent eruptions of Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii (the Big Island). Following days of increased seismic activity, Kilauea erupted May 3, 2018, and triggered a number of additional fissure eruptions along the East Rift Zone. The eruptions and high level of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) prompted evacuations in the area, including the Leilani Estates subdivision near the town of Pahoa. The ASTER images, acquired on May 6, 2018, show different aspects of the eruption. A color composite depicts vegetation in red, and old lava flows in black and gray. Superimposed on the image in yellow are hotspots detected on the thermal infrared bands. The easternmost hot spots show the newly formed fissures and the lava flow spilling to the northwest. The middle spots are Pu'u O'o crater, and lava flows descending the slopes to the southeast. The westernmost area is the crater and lava lake on Kilauea's summit. The greenish area southwest of Pu'u O'o is ash deposits from its short eruption on Friday. The inset shows the massive sulfur dioxide plume is shown in yellow and yellow-green, extracted from ASTER's multiple thermal bands. A smaller, but thicker, sulfur dioxide gas plume can be seen coming from Kilauea. The prevailing trade winds blow the plumes to the southwest, out over the ocean. The images cover an area of 57.8 by 63 kilometers, and are located at 19.3 degrees North, 155.1 degrees West. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22450

  4. Total electron content anomalies associated with global VEI4 + volcanic eruptions during 2002-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Guo, Jinyun; Yue, Jianping; Shen, Yi; Yang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In previous studies, little attention has been paid to the total electron content (TEC) anomalies preceding the volcanic eruption. We analyze the coupling relationship between volcanic eruption and TEC anomalies, and discuss the spatial distribution of TEC anomalies associated with volcanic geographical location. We utilize the global ionosphere map (GIM) data from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) to analyze TEC variations before the global volcanic eruptions indicated by VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 4 + from 2002 to 2015 with the sliding interquartile range method. The results indicate the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before great volcanic eruptions is related with the volcanic type and geographical position. The occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before stratovolcano and caldera eruptions is higher than that before shield and pyroclastic shield eruptions, and the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies has a descending trend from low latitudes to high latitudes. The TEC anomalies before the volcanic eruptions in low-mid latitudes are within the volcanic affected areas, but do not coincide with the volcanic foci. The corresponding TEC anomalies could be observed in the conjugated region, and all the TEC anomalies in the volcanic affected areas are usually close to bounds of equatorial anomaly zones. However, the TEC anomalies preceding these eruptions in high latitudes usually surround the volcano, and no TEC anomalies appear in the conjugated region. These conclusions have potential applications to the prediction of great volcanic eruptions in the future.

  5. Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Sébastien; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Khodri, Myriam; Lavigne, Franck; Ortega, Pablo; Eckert, Nicolas; Sielenou, Pascal Dkengne; Daux, Valérie; Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Davi, Nicole; Edouard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Yong; Luckman, Brian H.; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Guiot, Joël; Beniston, Martin; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2017-01-01

    The eruption of Samalas in Indonesia in 1257 ranks among the largest sulfur-rich eruptions of the Common Era with sulfur deposition in ice cores reaching twice the volume of the Tambora eruption in 1815. Sedimentological analyses of deposits confirm the exceptional size of the event, which had both an eruption magnitude and a volcanic explosivity index of 7. During the Samalas eruption, more than 40 km3 of dense magma was expelled and the eruption column is estimated to have reached altitudes of 43 km. However, the climatic response to the Samalas event is debated since climate model simulations generally predict a stronger and more prolonged surface air cooling of Northern Hemisphere summers than inferred from tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions. Here, we draw on historical archives, ice-core data and tree-ring records to reconstruct the spatial and temporal climate response to the Samalas eruption. We find that 1258 and 1259 experienced some of the coldest Northern Hemisphere summers of the past millennium. However, cooling across the Northern Hemisphere was spatially heterogeneous. Western Europe, Siberia and Japan experienced strong cooling, coinciding with warmer-than-average conditions over Alaska and northern Canada. We suggest that in North America, volcanic radiative forcing was modulated by a positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Contemporary records attest to severe famines in England and Japan, but these began prior to the eruption. We conclude that the Samalas eruption aggravated existing crises, but did not trigger the famines.

  6. Sub-glacial volcanic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward

    1956-01-01

    The literature on sub-glacial volcanic eruptions and the related flood phenomena has been reviewed as a minor part of the larger problem of convective and conductive heat transfer from intrusive magma. (See Lovering, 1955, for a review of the extensive literature on this subject.) This summary of data on sub-glacial eruptions is part of a program that the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting in connection with its Investigations of Geologic Processes project on behalf of the Division of Research, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. Io - One of at Least Four Simultaneous Erupting Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of an active volcanic eruption on Jupiter's satellite Io was taken 1 hour, 52 minutes after the accompanying picture, late in the evening of March 4, 1979, Pacific time. On the limb of the satellite can be seen one of at least four simultaneous volcanic eruptions -- the first such activity ever observed on another celestial body. Seen against the limb are plume-like structures rising more than 60 miles (100 kilometers) above the surface. Several eruptions have been identified with volcanic structures on the surface of Io, which have also been identified by Voyager 1's infrared instrument as being abnormally hot -- several hundred degrees warmer than surrounding terrain. The fact that several eruptions appear to be occurring at the same time suggests that Io has the most active surface in the solar system and that volcanism is going on there essentially continuously. Another characteristic of the observed volcanism is that it appears to be extremely explosive, with velocities more than 2,000 miles an hour (at least 1 kilometer per second). That is more violent than terrestrial volcanoes like Etna, Vesuvius or Krakatoa.

  8. Naples between two fires: eruptive scenarios for the next eruptions by an integrated volcanological-probabilistic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Rossano, S.; Panizza, A.

    2009-04-01

    Probabilistic approaches based on available volcanological data from real eruptions of Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius, are assembled in a comprehensive assessment of volcanic hazards at the Neapolitan area. This allows to compare the volcanic hazards related to the different types of events, which can be used for evaluating the conditional probability of flows and falls hazard in case of a volcanic crisis. Hazard maps are presented, based on a rather complete set of numerical simulations, produced using field and laboratory data as input parameters relative to a large range (VEI 1 to 5) of fallout and pyroclastic-flow events and their relative occurrence. The results allow us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the hazard related to pyroclastic fallout and density currents (PDCs) at the Neapolitan volcanoes and their surroundings, including the city of Naples. Due to its position between the two volcanic areas, the city of Naples is particularly exposed to volcanic risk from VEI>2 eruptions, as recorded in the local volcanic succession. Because dominant wind directions, the area of Naples is particularly prone to fallout hazard from Campi Flegrei caldera eruptions in the VEI range 2-5. The hazard from PDCs decreases roughly radially with distance from the eruptive vents and is strongly controlled by the topographic heights. Campi Flegrei eruptions are particularly hazardous for Naples, although the Camaldoli and Posillipo hills produce an effective barrier to propagation to the very central part of Naples. PDCs from Vesuvius eruptions with VEI>4 can cover the city of Naples, whereas even VEI>3 eruptions have a moderate fallout hazard there.

  9. Mt. Etna Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Vis/NIR Image CloseupFigure 2: Difference Image

    October 2002 Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of SO2 injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    This image was made from a sensor on the AIRS instrument that is sensitive to the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. The visible/near infrared data show the smoke plume from Mt. Etna. The view is of Europe and the central Mediterranean with Italy in the center. Since the visible/near infrared sensor on AIRS is sensitive to wavelengths that are different than the human eye, vegetated regions appear red (compare the red color of Europe with the tan desert of North Africa in the lower left). Figure 1 is a closer view of Sicily and shows a long, brownish smoke plume extending across the Mediterranean to Africa. This is consistent with the enhanced feature in the difference image in Figure 2 and helps validate the information inferred from that image.

    Figure 2 clearly shows the SO2 plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to SO2. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the SO2 feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The

  10. Magmatic Ascent and Eruption Processes on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.

    2018-05-01

    MESSENGER volcanic landform data and information on crustal composition allow us to model the generation, ascent, and eruption of magma; Mercury explosive and effusive eruption processes differ significantly from other terrestrial planetary bodies.

  11. A MODEL FOR MAGNETICALLY COUPLED SYMPATHETIC ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Sympathetic eruptions on the Sun have been observed for several decades, but the mechanisms by which one eruption can trigger another remain poorly understood. We present a three-dimensional MHD simulation that suggests two possible magnetic trigger mechanisms for sympathetic eruptions. We consider a configuration that contains two coronal flux ropes located within a pseudo-streamer and one rope located next to it. A sequence of eruptions is initiated by triggering the eruption of the flux rope next to the streamer. The expansion of the rope leads to two consecutive reconnection events, each of which triggers the eruption of a flux ropemore » by removing a sufficient amount of overlying flux. The simulation qualitatively reproduces important aspects of the global sympathetic event on 2010 August 1 and provides a scenario for the so-called twin filament eruptions. The suggested mechanisms are also applicable for sympathetic eruptions occurring in other magnetic configurations.« less

  12. Orthodontically induced eruption of a horizontally impacted maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; Allgayer, Susiane; Batista, Eraldo Luiz; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota; Loro, Raphael Carlos Drumond

    2013-07-01

    This case report presents the clinical features and periodontal findings in a patient with a horizontally impacted maxillary central incisor that had been exposed and aligned after a closed-eruption surgical technique. By combining 3 treatment stages-maxillary expansion, crown exposure surgery, and induced eruption-the horizontally impacted incisor was successfully moved into proper position. The patient finished treatment with a normal and stable occlusion between the maxillary and mandibular arches, and an adequate width of attached gingiva, even in the area surrounding the crown. The 5-year follow-up of stability and periodontal health demonstrated esthetic and functional outcomes after orthodontically induced tooth eruption. Clinical evaluation showed that the treated central incisor had periodontal clinical variables related to visible plaque, bleeding on probing, width of attached gingiva, and crown length that resembled the contralateral incisor. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Impact Strength of Fragment Bonded Teeth and Intact Teeth: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, L; Lakshmi, M Narasimha; Babu, Devatha Ashok; Kiran, V Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: To test and compare the impact strength of fragment bonded teeth with that of intact teeth by using impact testing machine (pendulum type) as a mode of load. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted, maxillary, central incisors selected for this study (20 control group and 20 experimental group). In experimental group, teeth crowns were fractured with a microtome at 2.5 mm from mesioincisal angle cervically, fractured portion is attached to original crown portion with 3 M single bond dentin bonding agent and 3 M Z ‘100’, composite resin. Impact strength of fragment bonded teeth and intact teeth tested with impact testing machine and compared. Results: Mean impact strength of fragment bonded teeth (30.76 KJ/M2 ) is not statistically significant deferent from mean impact strength of intact teeth (31.11 KJ/M2 ). Conclusion: Mean impact strength of fragment bonded teeth is not statistically different with that of intact teeth. Hence, after fracture of teeth if it is restored with fragment reattachment by using 3 M single bond dentin bonding agent and 3 M Z ‘100’ composite resin is having impact strength like that of intact teeth. How to cite the article: Venugopal L, Lakshmi MN, Babu DA, Kiran VR. Comparative evaluation of impact strength of fragment bonded teeth and intact teeth: An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):73-6. PMID:25083037

  14. Study of teeth phosphorescence detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, De-Fang; Wang, Shui-ping; Yang, Zhen-jiang; An, Yuying; Huang, Li-Zi; Liang, Yan

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of research and analysis into optical properties of teeth, this paper introduces the techniques to transform teeth phosphorescence excited by ultraviolet light into electric signals and following steps for data collection, analysis and processing. Also presented are the methods to diagnose pulp-vitality, decayed teeth, and, especially, infant caries and pre-caries diseases. By measurement of a tooth's temperature, other stomatic illnesses can be diagnosed.

  15. Two Types of Magnetic Flux Cancellation in the Solar Eruption of 2007 May 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterlin, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Mason, Helen

    2010-01-01

    We study a solar eruption of 2007 May 20, in an effort to understand the cause of the eruption's onset. The event produced a GOES class B6.7 flare peaking at 05:56 UT, while ejecting a surge/filament and producing a coronal mass ejection (CME). We examine several data sets, including H-alpha images from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode, EUV images from TRACE, and line-of-sight magnetograms from SOHO/MDI. Flux cancelation occurs among two different sets of flux elements inside of the erupting active region: First, for several days prior to eruption, opposite-polarity sunspot groups inside the region move toward each other, leading to the cancelation of approximately 10^{21} Mx of flux over three days. Second, within hours prior to the eruption, positive-polarity moving magnetic features (MMFs) flowing out of the positive-flux spots at approximately 1 kilometer per second repeatedly cancel with field inside a patch of negative-polarity flux located north of the sunspots. The filament erupts as a surge whose base is rooted in the location where the MMF cancelation occurs, while during the eruption that filament flows out along the polarity inversion line between the converging spot groups. We conclude that a plausible scenario is that the converging spot fields brought the magnetic region to the brink of instability, and the MMF cancelation pushed the system "over the edge." triggering the eruption.

  16. Radiological age estimation: based on third molar mineralization and eruption in Turkish children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karadayi, Beytullah; Kaya, Ahsen; Kolusayın, Melek Ozlem; Karadayi, Sükriye; Afsin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Radiographic evaluation of mineralization and eruption stages of third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic sciences and legal medicine. The third molar tooth is utilized for dental age estimation about the age span of 15-23 years because it represents the only tooth still in development. The aim of this study is to obtain and analyze data regarding third molar development and eruption in Turkish population for dental age estimation. A total of 744 dental panoramic radiographies of 394 female and 350 male subjects aged between 8 and 22 years were examined. Third molar development was determined according to the Nolla classification system, and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Mandibular and maxillary third molars were generally found at similar stages of development on both sides. Nolla stage 6 (completed crown calcification) was reached at around the age of 15 in both maxillary and mandibular third molars in both sexes. Alveolar emergence was at around the age of 16 in males and around age of 17 in females. Although third molars' eruption shows greater variability than development of third molars, data which were obtained from this study about eruption of these teeth can be supportive to development data for age estimation.

  17. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alline J; Silveira, Maria Lg; Duarte, Danilo A; Diniz, Michele B

    2018-01-01

    The pediatric dental approach to the oral cavity of newborns requires special attention, as many aspects are unique and peculiar to this period of life. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric dentists be aware of the characteristics within normal newborn patterns and prepared to make a correct diagnosis of abnormalities at early stages. Congenital eruption cysts (ECs) are rarely observed in newborns, as at this stage of a child's life, tooth eruption is unusual. This study reports a case of EC treated successfully by monitoring of the lesion, without any surgical procedure. In the 4th month, the lesion had completely regressed, and the deciduous central incisors had erupted without problems. The clinical and radiographic monitoring of ECs in newborns seems to be a satisfactory management procedure, similar to what is recommended for older children. How to cite this article: de Oliveira AJ, Silveira MLG, Duarte DA, Diniz MB. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(1):58-60.

  18. ASTER Tracks Continuing Popocatepetl Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-27

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows Popocatepetl, the nearly 18.000-foot-high volcano about 40 miles southeast of Mexico City, continuing to spew water vapor, gas, ashes and glowing rocks from its latest eruption, which started in mid-April 2012.

  19. Whitening of endodontically untreated calcified anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Pedorella, C A; Meyer, R D; Woollard, G W

    2000-01-01

    Definitive treatment for whitening endodontically untreated anterior teeth with dystrophic calcification is provided by removing the coronal sclerotic dentin and utilizing internal and external bleaching as necessary.

  20. Influences on the variability of eruption sequences and style transitions in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Procter, Jonathan; Agustín-Flores, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monogenetic basaltic volcanism is characterised by a complex array of eruptive behaviours, reflecting spatial and temporal variability of the magmatic properties (e.g. composition, eruptive volume, magma flux) as well as environmental factors at the vent site (e.g. availability of water, country rock geology, faulting). These combine to produce changes in eruption style over brief periods (minutes to days) in many eruption episodes. Monogenetic eruptions in some volcanic fields often start with a phreatomagmatic vent-opening phase that later transforms into "dry" magmatic explosive or effusive activity, with a strong variation in the duration and importance of this first phase. Such an eruption sequence pattern occurred in 83% of the known eruption in the 0.25 My-old Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. In this investigation, the eruptive volumes were compared with the sequences of eruption styles preserved in the pyroclastic record at each volcano of the AVF, as well as environmental influencing factors, such as distribution and thickness of water-saturated semi- to unconsolidated sediments, topographic position, distances from known fault lines. The AVF showed that there is no correlation between ejecta ring volumes and environmental influencing factors that is valid for the entire AVF. In contrary, using a set of comparisons of single volcanoes with well-known and documented sequences, resultant eruption sequences could be explained by predominant patterns of the environment in which these volcanoes were erupted. Based on the spatial variability of these environmental factors, a first-order susceptibility hazard map was constructed for the AVF that forecasts areas of largest likelihood for phreatomagmatic eruptions by overlaying topographical and shallow geological information. Combining detailed phase-by-phase breakdowns of eruptive volumes and the event sequences of the AVF, along with the new susceptibility map, more realistic eruption scenarios can be

  1. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption

    PubMed Central

    Wimer, H.F.; Yamada, S.S.; Yang, T.; Holmbeck, K.; Foster, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP−/−) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  2. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05). In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most commonly seen in teeth ≤5

  4. Reasons for and patterns relating to the extraction of permanent teeth in a subset of the Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Alesia, Khalil; Khalil, Hesham S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for and patterns of extraction of permanent teeth in a subset of the Saudi population. During a 3-month period, dentists were asked to record, using a specially designed survey form, the reasons for every extraction of a permanent tooth. The reasons for tooth extraction were assigned to different causes, ie, dental caries, periodontal disease, eruption problems, trauma, orthodontics, failed root canal treatment, and others. The data requested for each extraction were: patient age, gender, nationality, and type of tooth removed and the reason for its extraction. The highest percentage of extractions was observed in young females aged 10-30 years. Presence of caries was observed to be the main reason for extraction (50.2%) followed by orthodontic problems (18.2%), eruption problems (17.5%), and periodontal problems (8.2%). The most frequently extracted posterior teeth were the third mandibular molar (19.4%), the third maxillary molar (16.4%), the first maxillary premolar (13.2%), and the first mandibular molar (10.9%). Dental caries was found to be the most common reason for extraction of teeth. Molar teeth were found to be the most frequently extracted, with an increased number of extracted first premolars as a result of orthodontic treatment. The highest percentage of extractions was observed in young females aged 10-30 years.

  5. Prediction of Solar Eruptions Using Filament Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Ashna; Schanche, Nicole; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal

    2018-05-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of erupting and non-erupting solar filaments to determine the properties related to the eruption potential. In order to perform this study, we correlate filament eruptions documented in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) with HEK filaments that have been grouped together using a spatiotemporal tracking algorithm. The HEK provides metadata about each filament instance, including values for length, area, tilt, and chirality. We add additional metadata properties such as the distance from the nearest active region and the magnetic field decay index. We compare trends in the metadata from erupting and non-erupting filament tracks to discover which properties present signs of an eruption. We find that a change in filament length over time is the most important factor in discriminating between erupting and non-erupting filament tracks, with erupting tracks being more likely to have decreasing length. We attempt to find an ensemble of predictive filament metadata using a Random Forest Classifier approach, but find the probability of correctly predicting an eruption with the current metadata is only slightly better than chance.

  6. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS CONNECTED BY CORONAL DIMMINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Hong Junchao

    2011-09-10

    We present for the first time detailed observations of three successive, interdependent filament eruptions that occurred one by one within 5 hr from different locations beyond the range of a single active region. The first eruption was observed from an active region and was associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME), during which diffuse and complex coronal dimmings formed, largely extending to the two other filaments located in quiet-Sun regions. Then, both quiescent filaments consecutively underwent the second and third eruptions, while the nearby dimmings were persistent. Comparing the result of a derived coronal magnetic configuration, the magnetic connectivity betweenmore » the dimmings suggested that they were caused by the joint effect of simple expansion of overlying loop systems forced by the first eruption, as well as by its erupting field interacting or reconnecting with the surrounding magnetic structures. Note that the dimming process in the first eruption indicated a weakening and partial removal of an overlying magnetic field constraint on the two other filaments, and thus one can physically connect these eruptions as sympathetic. It appears that the peculiar magnetic field configuration in our event was largely favorable to the occurrence of sympathetic filament eruptions. Because coronal dimmings are frequent and common phenomena in solar eruptions, especially in CME events, it is very likely that they represent a universal agent that can link consecutive eruptions nearby with sympathetic eruptions.« less

  7. Volcanic eruption volume flux estimations from very long period infrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taishi; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masato; Hendrasto, Muhamad

    2017-01-01

    We examine very long period infrasonic signals accompanying volcanic eruptions near active vents at Lokon-Empung volcano in Indonesia, Aso, Kuchinoerabujima, and Kirishima volcanoes in Japan. The excitation of the very long period pulse is associated with an explosion, the emerging of an eruption column, and a pyroclastic density current. We model the excitation of the infrasound pulse, assuming a monopole source, to quantify the volume flux and cumulative volume of erupting material. The infrasound-derived volume flux and cumulative volume can be less than half of the video-derived results. A largely positive correlation can be seen between the infrasound-derived volume flux and the maximum eruption column height. Therefore, our result suggests that the analysis of very long period volcanic infrasound pulses can be helpful in estimating the maximum eruption column height.

  8. January 30, 1997 eruptive event on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, as monitored by continuous GPS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, S.; Segall, P.; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Murray, M.; Bevis, M.; Foster, J.

    2000-01-01

    A continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) network on Kilauea Volcano captured the most recent fissure eruption in Kilauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) in unprecedented spatial and temporal detail. The short eruption drained the lava pond at Pu'u O' o, leading to a two month long pause in its on-going eruption. Models of the GPS data indicate that the intrusion's bottom edge extended to only 2.4 km. Continuous GPS data reveal rift opening 8 hours prior to the eruption. Absence of precursory summit inflation rules out magma storage overpressurization as the eruption's cause. We infer that stresses in the shallow rift created by the continued deep rift dilation and slip on the south flank decollement caused the rift intrusion.

  9. Two-step solar filament eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B.

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely related to eruptive filaments and usually are the continuation of the same eruptive process into the upper corona. There are failed filament eruptions when a filament decelerates and stops at some greater height in the corona. Sometimes the filament after several hours starts to rise again and develops into the successful eruption with a CME formation. We propose a simple model for the interpretation of such two-step eruptions in terms of equilibrium of a flux rope in a two-scale ambient magnetic field. The eruption is caused by a slow decrease of the holding magnetic field. The presence of two critical heights for the initiation of the flux-rope vertical instability allows the flux rope to stay after the first jump some time in a metastable equilibrium near the second critical height. If the decrease of the ambient field continues, the next eruption step follows.

  10. Nyiragongo Volcano before the Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated on the Eastern African Rift; it is part of Africa's Virunga Volcanic Chain. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers of lava streaming down its western and eastern flanks. Previous lava flows from Nyiragongo have been observed moving at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour (60 kph). The lava flows from the January 17 eruption destroyed more than 14 villages in the surrounding countryside, forcing tens of thousands to flee into the neighboring country of Rwanda. Within one day the lava ran to the city of Goma, situated on the northern shore of Lake Kivu about 12 miles (19 km) south of Nyiragongo. The lava cut a 200 foot (60 meter) wide swath right through Goma, setting off many fires, as it ran into Lake Kivu. Goma, the most heavily populated city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to about 400,000 people. Most of these citizens were forced to flee, while many have begun to return to their homes only to find their homes destroyed. This true-color scene was captured by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, on December 11, 2001, just over a month before the most recent eruption. Nyiragongo's large crater is clearly visible in the image. As recently as June 1994, there was a large lava lake in the volcano's crater which had since solidified. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Both peaks are also notorious for releasing large amounts of sulfur dioxide, which presents another health hazard to people and animals living in close proximity. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data supplied

  11. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  12. Effect of recent minor volcanic eruptions on temperatures in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sanjay Kumar; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    The impact of the recent minor volcanic eruptions during 2001-2010 in the temperature of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is investigated using data from the Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO), three radiosonde compilations and two reanalyses (ERA-Interim and MERRA). The volcanic signals are identified in the residual temperature time series after removal of the linear trend, the quasi-biennial oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation components. Eight minor volcanic eruptions (six from the tropics and two from midlatitude) over the last decade (2001-2010) are analyzed in this study. We found significant volcanic signals in the UTLS temperature only in association with the tropical Soufrière Hills and Tavurvur eruptions (in May 2006 and in October 2006, respectively). Other four tropical eruptions had very small aerosol perturbations and did not show any significant UTLS temperature change. Out of the two midlatitude eruptions, Sarychev peak had similar stratospheric aerosol perturbations as Soufrière Hills and Tavurvur eruptions, but did not show any significant UTLS temperature change. The volcanic signals in the UTLS temperature from the tropical Soufrière Hills and Tavurvur eruptions were observed for the period of 7 months after August 2006. A warming of 0.5-0.8 K in the tropical 16-18.5 km (100-70 hPa) layer was observed in association with these two tropical eruptions.

  13. Teething myths among community health officers.

    PubMed

    Denloye, O; Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A

    2005-03-01

    Many symptoms are attributed to teething in infants as a result of myths and opinions of people in the community. These myths have given false security with the belief that these symptoms are part of the teething process. The purpose of the study was to investigate the beliefs and practices of Community health Officers about teething. 60% of the respondents whose responses were analyzed believed that children have systemic problems during teething periods. Fever and diarrhea were the most frequent symptoms associated with teething. As health care providers at the community level, there is a need for this cadre of health care providers to separate cultural beliefs from scientific and proven medical practices. This can be achieved by their attendance at regular refresher courses organized for them after their graduation.

  14. Volcanic eruption detection with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is designed for mapping of the atmospheric ozone distribution. Absorption by sulfur dioxide at the same ultraviolet spectral wavelengths makes it possible to observe and resolve the size of volcanic clouds. The sulfur dioxide absorption is discriminated from ozone and water clouds in the data processing by their spectral signatures. Thus, the sulfur dioxide can serve as a tracer which appears in volcanic eruption clouds because it is not present in other clouds. The detection limit with TOMS is close to the theoretical limit due to telemetry signal quantization of 1000 metric tons (5-sigma threshold) within the instrument field of view (50 by 50 km near the nadir). Requirements concerning the use of TOMS in detection of eruptions, geochemical cycles, and volcanic climatic effects are discussed.

  15. Chilean Volcanic Eruption Nighttime View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-27

    The April 18, 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano in Chile, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, led to the evacuation of thousands of citizens near the summit, blanketed nearby towns with a layer of ash, and disrupted air traffic. One week later, on April 26, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired this nighttime thermal infrared image of Calbuco. Hot eruptive material at the summit appears in white (hot), with a purple plume streaming to the right, indicating that it is ash-laden. The image covers an area of 3.1 by 4.1 miles (5 by 6.6 kilometers), and is located at 41.3 degrees south, 72.5 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19382

  16. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  17. The 1883 eruption of Krakatau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The 1883 eruption of Krakatau was a modest ignimbrite-forming event. The deposits are primarily coarse-grained dacitic, non-welded ignimbrite. Large explosions produced pyroclastic flows that entered the sea, generating destructive tsunami. Grain-size studies of the ignimbrite suggest that these explosions were not driven by magma-seawater interaction. The total bulk volume of pyroclastic deposits, including co-ignimbrite ash, is estimated to be 18-21 cu km.

  18. Development of dental charts according to tooth development and eruption for Turkish children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Afşin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi; Karadayı, Şükriye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we aimed to develop dental charts for Turkish children and young adults of both genders within the age group of 4.5-22.5 years according to tooth mineralization and eruption in a format similar to that proposed by AlQahtani et al. Materials and Methods In total, 753 digital panoramic radiographs from 350 males and 403 females were assessed. The permanent teeth were evaluated according to the classification system described by Demirjian et al. The eruption stage was assessed with Bengston's system, which was modified by AlQahtani et al at four points. Results Teeth generally developed earlier in females than in males. This was particularly notable in the age group of 5-14 years. However, this difference was usually visible in only one stage, not in all teeth. It has been determined that the mixed dentition period ended with the shedding of the second deciduous molars in both genders. Conclusion The dental charts presented here included information that could be beneficial to dental clinicians in making appropriate diagnosis and planning orthodontic and surgical procedures. These charts also provided datasets for preliminary dental age estimation in Turkish children and young adults. PMID:24944959

  19. Medical effects of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.

    1990-09-01

    Excluding famine and tsunamis, most deaths in volcanic eruptions have been from pyroclastic flows and surges (nuées ardentes) and wet debris flows (lahars). Information on the causes of death and injury in eruptions is sparse but the available literature is summarised for the benefit of volcanologists and emergency planners. In nuées, thermal injury may be at least as important as asphyxia in causing immediate deaths. The high temperature of the gases and entrained particles readily causes severe burns to the skin and the air passages and the presence of both types of injury in an individual may combine to increase the delayed mortality risk from respiratory complications or from infection of burns. Trauma from missiles or body displacement is also common, but the role of asphyxiant or irritant gases, and steam, remains unclear. The ratio of dead: injured is much higher than in other natural disasters. At the periphery of a nuée being protected inside buildings which remain intact appears to greatly increase the chances of survival. In lahars, infected wounds and crush injury are the main delayed causes of death, and the scope for preventive measures, other than evacuation, is small. The evidence from Mount St. Helens, 1980, and other major eruptions indicates that, although mortality is high within the main zone of devastation and in the open, emergency planning should concentrate on the periphery of a nuée where preventive measures are feasible and could save many lives in densely populated areas.

  20. Improved pathologic teeth migration following gingivectomy in a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Seki, Keisuke; Sato, Shuichi; Asano, Yukhiro; Akutagawa, Hideyasu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A case is reported of a 20-year-old woman with generalized severe gingival overgrowth covering almost all of the teeth with diastemata, diagnosed as idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After initial therapy, the patient underwent surgery consisting of a full-mouth internal beveled gingivectomy. Postoperatively, the maxillary anterior teeth spontaneously moved to almost optimal positions. Removing the cause by gingivectomy can lead to spontaneous correction of the pathologic tooth migration. With supportive periodontal treatment, the patient showed no recurrence of gingival enlargement or repositioning of the teeth at the 5-year follow-up.

  1. A Quantitative Analysis of a Probiotic Storage Media for Avulsed Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of a storage medium, probiotic yogurt (Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010) in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), saline and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Materials and methods Thirty-six freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with closed apices were divided into six experimental groups (N=6). The teeth were extracted as atraumatically as possible and washed in sterile saline solution to eliminate residual blood. Following extractions, the coronal 3 mm of PDL tissues were scraped with a #15 scalpel to remove cells that may have been damaged. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 minutes and an 8-hour dry time, respectively. After extraction, the positive control teeth were immediately treated with dispase and collagenase. The negative control teeth were bench-dried for 8 h, with no follow-up storage solution time, and then placed in the dispase and collagenase. The number of viable protective least significant difference PDL cells were counted under a light microscope with a hemocytometer at 20× magnification and analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using Nonparametric ANOVA complemented by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparisons Test. Results Positive control was found to be significantly better than the others, there were statistically significant differences between positive control and other test groups (p=0.000). The teeth stored in positive control demonstrated the highest number of viable PDL cells followed in order by probiotic yogurt, HBSS, saline and milk. Conclusion Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010 seems to be an alternative for the temporary storage of avulsed teeth, due to high number of viable PDL cells. Probiotics may be suitable transport media for avulsed teeth, but further research is warranted using the commercially available products. PMID

  2. Mouth and Teeth: How To Keep Them Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Share Print Taking good care of your mouth and teeth throughout your whole life can help prevent problems ...

  3. A set of hypotheses on tribology of mammalian herbivore teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas M.; Clauss, Marcus; Schulz-Kornas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    Once erupted, mammal cheek teeth molars are continuously worn. Contact of molar surfaces with ingesta and with other teeth contribute to this wear. Microscopic wear features (dental surface texture) change continuously as new wear overprints old texture features. These features have been debated to indicate diet. The general assumption in relating occlusal textures to diet is that they are independent of masticatory movements and forces. If this assumption is not accepted, one needs to propose that occlusal textures comprise signals not only from the ‘last supper’ but also from masticatory events that represent ecological, species- or taxon-specific adaptations, and that occlusal textures therefore give a rather unspecific, somehow diet-related signal that is functionally inadequately understood. In order to test for mechanical mechanisms of wear, we created a hypothesis matrix that related sampled individuals with six tribological variables. Three variables represent mechanically relevant ingesta properties, and three represent animal-specific characteristics of the masticatory system. Three groups of mammal species (free ranging Cetartiodactyla and Perissodactyla, free ranging primates, and artificially fed rabbits) were investigated in terms of their 3D dental surface textures, which were quantified employing ten ISO 25178 surface texture parameters. We first formulated a set of specific predictions based on theoretical reflections on the effects of diet properties and animal characteristics, and subsequently performed discriminant analysis to test which parameters actually followed these predictions. We found that parameters Vvc, Vmc, Sp, Sq allowed the prediction of both, ingesta properties and properties of the masticatory system, if combined with other parameters. Sha, Sda and S5v had little predictive power in our dataset. Spd seemed rather unrelated to ingesta properties and made this parameter a suitable indicator of masticatory system properties.

  4. The 2006 lava dome eruption of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia): Detailed analysis using MODIS TIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Brett B.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc

    2016-02-01

    Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active and dangerous volcanoes. Prior to the 2010 VEI 4 eruption, activity at Merapi during the 20th century was characterized by the growth and collapse of a series of lava domes. Periods of very slow growth were punctuated by short episodes of increased eruption rates characterized by dome collapse-generated pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). An eruptive event of this type occurred in May-June, 2006. For effusive eruptions such as this, detailed extrusion rate records are important for understanding the processes driving the eruption and the hazards presented by the eruption. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites to estimate extrusion rates at Merapi Volcano during the 2006 eruption using the method of Harris and Ripepe (2007). We compile a set of 75 nighttime MODIS images of the eruptive period to produce a detailed time series of thermal radiance and extrusion rate that reveal multiple phases of the 2006 eruption. These data closely correspond to the published ground-based observational record and improve observation density and detail during the eruption sequence. Furthermore, additional analysis of radiance values for thermal anomalies in Band 21 (λ = 3.959 μm) of MODIS images results in a new framework for detecting different styles of activity. We successfully discriminate among slow dome growth, rapid dome growth, and PDC-producing dome collapse. We also demonstrate a positive correlation between PDC frequency and extrusion rate, and provide evidence that extrusion rate can increase in response to external events such as dome collapses or tectonic earthquakes. This study represents a new method of documenting volcanic activity that can be applied to other similar volcanic systems.

  5. Eruption Forecasting in Alaska: A Retrospective and Test of the Distal VT Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean, S. G.; Pesicek, J. D.; Wellik, J.; Cameron, C.; White, R. A.; McCausland, W. A.; Buurman, H.

    2015-12-01

    United States volcano observatories have successfully forecast most significant US eruptions in the past decade. However, eruptions of some volcanoes remain stubbornly difficult to forecast effectively using seismic data alone. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has responded to 28 eruptions from 10 volcanoes since 2005. Eruptions that were not forecast include those of frequently active volcanoes with basaltic-andesite magmas, like Pavlof, Veniaminof, and Okmok volcanoes. In this study we quantify the success rate of eruption forecasting in Alaska and explore common characteristics of eruptions not forecast. In an effort to improve future forecasts, we re-examine seismic data from eruptions and known intrusive episodes in Alaska to test the effectiveness of the distal VT model commonly employed by the USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP). In the distal VT model, anomalous brittle failure or volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquake swarms in the shallow crust surrounding the volcano occur as a secondary response to crustal strain induced by magma intrusion. Because the Aleutian volcanic arc is among the most seismically active regions on Earth, distinguishing distal VT earthquake swarms for eruption forecasting purposes from tectonic seismicity unrelated to volcanic processes poses a distinct challenge. In this study, we use a modified beta-statistic to identify pre-eruptive distal VT swarms and establish their statistical significance with respect to long-term background seismicity. This analysis allows us to explore the general applicability of the distal VT model and quantify the likelihood of encountering false positives in eruption forecasting using this model alone.

  6. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  7. The study of barium concentration in deciduous teeth, impacted teeth, and facial bones of Polish residents.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Malara, Piotr; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-10-01

    The study determines the concentration of Ba in mineralized tissues of deciduous teeth, permanent impacted teeth, and facial bones. The study covers the population of children and adults (aged 6-78) living in an industrial area of Poland. Teeth were analyzed in whole, with no division into dentine and enamel. Facial bones and teeth were subjected to the following preparation: washing, drying, grinding in a porcelain mortar, sample weighing (about 0.2 g), and microwave mineralization with spectrally pure nitric acid. The aim of the study was to determinate the concentration of Ba in deciduous teeth, impacted permanent teeth, and facial bones. The concentration of barium in samples was determined over the ICP OES method. The Ba concentration in the tested bone tissues amounted to 2.2-15.5 μg/g (6.6 μg/g ± 3.9). The highest concentration of Ba was present in deciduous teeth (10.5 μg/g), followed by facial bones (5.2 μg/g), and impacted teeth (4.3 μg/g) (ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis rank test, p = 0.0002). In bone tissue and impacted teeth, Ba concentration increased with age. In deciduous teeth, the level of Ba decreased with children's age.

  8. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  9. Rugometric and microtopographic inspection of teeth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Pereira, Pedro B.

    2013-06-01

    The roughness of teeth' enamel is an important parameter in orthodontics. One example is the application in the process of decreasing tooth-size by reducing the interproximal enamel surfaces (stripping) of teeth. In order to achieve smooth surfaces clinicians have been testing various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic technique. The evaluation the surface roughness following teeth interproximal reduction is fundamental in the process. In general tooth' surface is not flat presenting a variety of complex geometries. In this communication we will report on the metrological procedure employed on the rugometric and microtopographic inspection by optical active triangulation of raw and processed (interproximal stripping) tooth surfaces.

  10. Current Sheet Properties and Dynamics During Sympathetic Breakout Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Edmondson, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    We present the continued analysis of the high-resolution 2.5D MHD simulations of sympathetic magnetic breakout eruptions from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the generation of X- and O-type null points during the current sheet tearing and track the magnetic island formation and evolution during periods of reconnection. The magnetic breakout eruption scenario forms an overlying 'breakout' current sheet that evolves slowly and removes restraining flux from above the sheared field core that will eventually become the center of the erupting flux rope-like structure. The runaway expansion from the expansion-breakout reconnection positive feedback enables the formation of the second, vertical/radial current sheet underneath the rising sheared field core as in the standard CHSKP eruptive flare scenario. We will examine the flux transfer rates through the breakout and flare current sheets and compare the properties of the field and plasma inflows into the current sheets and the reconnection jet outflows into the flare loops and flux rope ejecta.

  11. Correlational study of impacted and non-functional lower third molar position with occurrence of pathologies.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Igor Batista; Sobrinho, João Batista; Andrade, Emanuel Sávio de Souza; Van Sickels, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    Lower third molar (M3) eruption is unpredictable. The purpose of this study was to correlate radiographic position of M3 on a preexistent film with the current clinical, histopathological, and radiographic findings. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The sample was collected from a database of patients covered by Medical Fund of Brazilian Army. Radiographs were obtained a minimum of 5 years prior to the presurgical visit and after their clinical exam. The primary outcome variables were the teeth positions using Pell and Gregory/Winter classifications on panoramic X-rays. Those variables were analyzed at both the beginning (T0) and end of the study (T1). Clinical assessments and histopathological study of the thirds that were extracted were performed only at T1. Correlation between the teeth positions were related to the clinical, histopathological, and radiographic parameters using statistical analysis tests with significance set at p < 0.05. Twenty-six patients with 49 M3 were assessed over 10 months. Mean age was 14.92 years at T0 and 21.87 years at T1. The average time between T0 and T1 was 6.77 years. A significant relationship (p = 0.024) was found between the presences of root resorption on the second molar if M3 presented in an IB horizontal position at T1. There was also a significant correlation (p = 0.039) between dental crowding of the anterior lower teeth with IIIB position at T0 and if the patient finished orthodontic treatment without lingual retainers. Lower M3 in position IIIB seen in a teenager and IB seen in an adult is more likely to have negative consequences and should be followed closely.

  12. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  13. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Madu Ghana Shyam; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Babu, Duvvi Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth. PMID:28748053

  14. Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. Here we document the dental pattern and development of non-functional (null generation) and functional generations of teeth during embryonic development. Tooth development is followed from initiation to cytodifferentiation and ankylosis, as the tooth germs develop from bud, through cap to bell stages. The fate of the single generation of non-functional (null generation) teeth is shown to be variable, with some teeth being expelled from the oral cavity, while others are incorporated into the functional bone and teeth, or are absorbed. Fate appears to depend on the initiation site within the oral cavity, with the first null generation teeth forming before formation of the dental lamina. We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals. PMID:22780101

  15. Does the presence of antagonist remaining teeth affect implant overdenture success? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, C; Baek, K W

    2010-04-01

    Many patients who need implant overdentures are not completely edentulous; they still have antagonist natural teeth or implant fixed prostheses. In such cases, however, little is known about whether existing natural teeth affect the success of implant overdentures positively or act as a complicating factor. This systematic review attempts to clarify the correlation between existing remaining teeth and the survival/success rate of maxillary and mandibular implant overdentures. An assessment of available relevant articles published in English from 1990 to 2009 was performed using an online database and a manual search in libraries. Although the opposing natural dentition was not sufficiently described in the literature, 10 articles about the mandible and 10 articles about the maxilla were selected. As there was no controlled study on the natural teeth opposing implant overdentures, this review could not reach a clear conclusion. The review did reveal a remarkably high success/survival rate for mandibular implant overdentures; maxillary implant overdentures showed a lower rate. The presence of antagonist teeth hardly seems to be a risk factor for success for mandibular implant overdentures. For maxillary implant overdentures, the existence of antagonist teeth might act negatively for implant survival, but they are certainly not a contraindication. Although a few articles stated this relationship, we could not find an apparent correlation between the remaining antagonist teeth and the success of the implant overdentures. A detailed description of the opposing dentate status and results of randomized controlled clinical trials would be required to characterize this evidence-based implant overdenture treatment.

  16. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  17. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  18. Large Prominence Eruption (October 3, 2014)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs. Credit: NASA/Goddard/STEREO The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs.

  19. SOLAR ERUPTION AND LOCAL MAGNETIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeongwoo; Chae, Jongchul; Liu, Chang

    It is now a common practice to use local magnetic parameters such as magnetic decay index for explaining solar eruptions from active regions, but there can be an alternative view that the global properties of the source region should be counted as a more important factor. We discuss this issue based on Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of the three successive eruptions within 1.5 hr from the NOAA active region 11444 and the magnetic parameters calculated using the nonlinear force-free field model. Two violent eruptions occurred in the regions with relatively high magnetic twist number (0.5–1.5) and high decay index (0.9–1.1)more » at the nominal height of the filament (12″) and otherwise a mild eruption occurred, which supports the local-parameter paradigm. Our main point is that the time sequence of the eruptions did not go with these parameters. It is argued that an additional factor, in the form of stabilizing force, should operate to determine the onset of the first eruption and temporal behaviors of subsequent eruptions. As supporting evidence, we report that the heating and fast plasma flow continuing for a timescale of an hour was the direct cause for the first eruption and that the unidirectional propagation of the disturbance determined the timing of subsequent eruptions. Both of these factors are associated with the overall magnetic structure rather than local magnetic properties of the active region.« less

  20. Rootless eruption of a mandibular permanent canine.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Yehoshua; Kuftinec, Mladen M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the rootless eruption of a mandibular permanent canine in a 10-year-old boy; his mandible had been fractured in a car accident. The fracture was at the region of the developing canine, resulting in arrested root formation and causing abnormal, rootless eruption. Current theories on tooth eruption and the important role of the dental follicle in the process of eruption are discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental teeth clenching in man.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L V

    1989-01-01

    The thesis develops an electromyographic (EMG) method to quantify maximum voluntary teeth clenching (MVC), studies the onset and endurance of jaw muscle fatigue and pain from MVC, and explores the prevention of the discomforts through pharmacological and physical means. MVC, or maximum voluntary static work efforts by the elevator muscles of the mandible, was quantified by continuous (integral) functions of variations in both time and recruitment/rate coding of motor units in the masseter muscle. Fatigue was felt in the masseter muscle after about 30 seconds of MVC; differential calculus suggested that the appearance and disappearance of fatigue was associated with primarily recruitment and decruitment of masseteric motor units, respectively. About 60 seconds of MVC elicited a mild pain in the masseter and temporalis muscles; about 120 seconds of MVC induced a moderate pain and complete exhaustion of the isometrically contracting muscles. Although pain releasing maximum static work efforts are stable variables they cannot predict the pain magnitude of brief and prolonged MVC, probably because of modulations (recruitment/decruitment/rate coding) of masseteric motor units. It is suggested that the modulations begin with the onset of fatigue, are practically complete with the onset of pain, and are absent or negligible with an experience of exhaustion. A single oral dose of 1000 mg of ibuprofen did not affect the onset, endurance, and magnitude of pain from MVC. By contrast, 30 minutes of cooling (ice) of the masseter muscle effectively prevented the onset of pain; it also increased the masseteric EMG, credibly because of modulations of myoelectrical signals and, possibly, increased MVC efforts in the absence of pain.

  2. Influence of metabolic-linked early life factors on the eruption timing of the first primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Un Lam, Carolina; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Yee, Robert; Koh, David; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Cai, Meijin; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith; Gluckman, Peter; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-11-01

    Early eruption of permanent teeth has been associated with childhood obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggesting links between tooth eruption and metabolic conditions. This longitudinal study aimed to identify pre-, peri- and postnatal factors with metabolic consequences during infancy that may affect the eruption timing of the first primary tooth (ETFT) in children from an ethnically heterogeneous population residing within the same community. Participants were recruited (n = 1033) through the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) birth cohort (n = 1237). Oral examinations were performed at 3-month intervals from 6 to 18 months of age. Crude and adjusted analyses, with generalized linear modelling, were conducted to link ETFT to potential determinants occurring during pregnancy, delivery/birth and early infancy. Overall mean eruption age of the first primary tooth was 8.5 (SD 2.6) months. Earlier tooth eruption was significantly associated with infant's rate of weight gain during the first 3 months of life and increased maternal childbearing age. Compared to their Chinese counterparts, Malay and Indian children experienced significantly delayed tooth eruption by 1.2 and 1.7 months, respectively. Infant weight gain from birth to 3 months, ethnicity and maternal childbearing age were significant determinants of first tooth eruption timing. Early life influences can affect primary tooth development, possibly via metabolic pathways. Timing of tooth eruption is linked to general growth and metabolic function. Therefore, it has potential in forecasting oral and systemic conditions such as caries and obesity.

  3. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Topic En español Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums Browse Sections The Basics Overview Take ... Brushing Tips 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Get regular checkups at the dentist. Visit ...

  4. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-05-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED's for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  5. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-09-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode Laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED"s for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  6. Molar distalization with pendulum appliances in the mixed dentition: effects on the position of unerupted canines and premolars.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Gross, Ulrich; Diedrich, Peter R

    2006-03-01

    The pendulum appliance allows for rapid molar distalization without the need for patient compliance. Its efficiency has been confirmed in a number of clinical studies. However, the potential interactions and positional changes between the deciduous molars used for dental anchorage and the erupted and unerupted permanent teeth have yet to be clarified when this appliance is used for molar distalization in the mixed dentition. Twenty-nine patients in the mixed dentition each received a modified pendulum appliance with a distal screw and a preactivated pendulum spring for bilateral distalization of the maxillary molars. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on dentition stages: patient group 1 (PG 1, n = 10) was in the early mixed dentition; patients had resorption of the distal root areas of the deciduous molars being used for dental anchorage, and the unerupted premolars were located at the distal margin of the deciduous molar root region. Based on radiographs taken before placement of the pendulum appliance, patient group 2 (PG 2, n = 10) was diagnosed as having a central location of the unerupted premolars. In the third group (PG 3, n = 4), the first premolars were already erupted and could be integrated into the dental anchorage, but the canines were not yet erupted. In the fourth group (PG 4, n = 5), the first premolars and both canines were fully erupted. Statistical analysis of the measured results showed significant differences in the side effects between PG 1 and PG 2. In patients being treated with pendulum appliances, the anchorage quality of the deciduous molars that were already partially resorbed in the distal root area was comparatively reduced. Consequently, the mesial drift of the deciduous molars and incisors was increased, without impairing the extent and quality of the molar distalization. Anchorage loss in the supporting area had no direct impact on the sagittal position of the unerupted premolars in the early mixed dentition. If

  7. Straight, white teeth as a social prerogative.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Abeer; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    A distinguishing feature of North American society is preoccupation with self-image, as seen in the ritualistic nature of bodily practices aimed at constantly improving the body. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the prevailing fixation with straight, white teeth. While there is an ever-expanding literature on the sociology of body, very little has been written on teeth in this context. Using literature from anthropology, biology, dentistry, sociology and social psychology, this study attempts to answer: (1) Why have straight, white teeth become a beauty ideal in North American society? (2) What is the basis for this ideal? (3) How is this ideal propagated? It demonstrates that dental aesthetic tendencies are biologically, culturally and socially patterned. Concepts from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault are used to illustrate how straight, white teeth contribute towards reinforcing class differences and how society exercises a disciplinary power on individuals through this ideal. It is concluded that modified teeth are linked to self and identity that are rooted in social structure. Moreover, teeth demonstrate the ways in which class differences are embodied and projected as symbols of social advantage or disadvantage. Implications on professional, public health, sociological and political levels are considered. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. The giant keyhole limpet radular teeth: A naturally-grown harvest machine

    PubMed Central

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Kapun, Gregor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The limpet radula is a feeding organ, which contains more than 100 rows of teeth. During their growth the teeth mature and advance in position along the radula. The simpler doccoglossan radulae operate by grinding rocky substrates, extracting the algae by rasping and scraping with the teeth functioning as shovels. Less is known about the rhipidoglossan radulae, used as rakes or brooms that brush and collect loose marine debris. This type of radula is found in the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata). The large size of this organism suggests that the rhipidoglossan radula entails a technological superiority for M. crenulata in its habitat. The structure and function of the radulae teeth have however not been reported in detail. Using a combination of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques coupled with amino acid analysis and X-ray scattering, we reveal the working components of M. crenulata’s radula. It is characterized by numerous marginal teeth surrounding a pair of major hook-like lateral teeth, two pairs of minor lateral teeth and a large central tooth. The mature major lateral teeth show pronounced signs of wear, which gradually increase towards the very front end of the radula and are evidence for scraping. An abrupt change in the amino acid composition in the major lateral teeth and the concurrent formation of a chitinous fiber-network mark the onset of tooth maturation. In comparison to the simpler rock-scraping doccoglossate limpets, the radula of M. crenulata forms an elaborate feeding apparatus, which can be seen as a natural harvest machine. PMID:26433029

  9. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2014-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. PMID:25098636

  10. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth.

    PubMed

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Microfilament-Eruption Mechanism for Solar Spicules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that solar coronal jets result from eruption of small-scale filaments, or "minifilaments" (Sterling et al. 2015, Nature, 523, 437; Panesar et al. ApJL, 832L, 7). In many aspects, these coronal jets appear to be small-scale versions of long-recognized large-scale solar eruptions that are often accompanied by eruption of a large-scale filament and that produce solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In coronal jets, a jet-base bright point (JBP) that is often observed to accompany the jet and that sits on the magnetic neutral line from which the minifilament erupts, corresponds to the solar flare of larger-scale eruptions that occurs at the neutral line from which the large-scale filament erupts. Large-scale eruptions are relatively uncommon (approximately 1 per day) and occur with relatively large-scale erupting filaments (approximately 10 (sup 5) kilometers long). Coronal jets are more common (approximately 100s per day), but occur from erupting minifilaments of smaller size (approximately 10 (sup 4) kilometers long). It is known that solar spicules are much more frequent (many millions per day) than coronal jets. Just as coronal jets are small-scale versions of large-scale eruptions, here we suggest that solar spicules might in turn be small-scale versions of coronal jets; we postulate that the spicules are produced by eruptions of "microfilaments" of length comparable to the width of observed spicules (approximately 300 kilometers). A plot of the estimated number of the three respective phenomena (flares/CMEs, coronal jets, and spicules) occurring on the Sun at a given time, against the average sizes of erupting filaments, minifilaments, and the putative microfilaments, results in a size distribution that can be fitted with a power-law within the estimated uncertainties. The counterparts of the flares of large-scale eruptions and the JBPs of jets might be weak, pervasive, transient brightenings observed in Hinode/CaII images, and

  12. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.

    2017-12-22

    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  13. El Cobreloa: A geyser with two distinct eruption styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Atsuko; Muñoz-Saez, Carolina; Manga, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We performed field measurements at a geyser nicknamed "El Cobreloa," located in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Northern Andes, Chile. The El Cobreloa geyser has two distinct eruption styles: minor eruptions and more energetic and long-lived major eruptions. Minor eruptions splash hot water intermittently over an approximately 4 min time period. Major eruptions begin with an eruption style similar to minor eruptions, but then transition to a voluminous liquid water-dominated eruption, and finally end with energetic steam discharge that continues for approximately 1 h. We calculated eruption intervals by visual observations, acoustic measurements, and ground temperature measurements and found that each eruption style has a regular interval: 4 h and 40 min for major eruptions and ˜14 min for minor eruptions. Eruptions of El Cobreloa and geochemical measurements suggest interaction of three water sources. The geyser reservoir, connected to the surface by a conduit, is recharged by a deep, hot aquifer. More deeply derived magmatic fluids heat the reservoir. Boiling in the reservoir releases steam and hot liquid water to the overlying conduit, causing minor eruptions, and heating the water in the conduit. Eventually the water in the conduit becomes warm enough to boil, leading to a steam-dominated eruption that empties the conduit. The conduit is then recharged by a shallow, colder aquifer, and the eruption cycle begins anew. We develop a model for minor eruptions which heat the water in the conduit. El Cobreloa provides insight into how small eruptions prepare the geyser system for large eruptions.

  14. Flux Cancellation Leading to Solar Filament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, R. M.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to 100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable by either magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions and find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two events in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field and are in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  15. Jupiter Eruptions Captured in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This infrared image shows two bright plume eruptions obtained by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on April 5, 2007.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vigorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  16. Palifermin-associated papular eruption.

    PubMed

    King, Brett; Knopp, Eleanor; Galan, Anjela; Nuovo, Gerard; Tigelaar, Robert; McNiff, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Palifermin is a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor that is used to reduce the duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myelotoxic therapy. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with keratinocyte growth factor are reported to be rash, pruritus, and erythema. After receiving palifermin following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and treatment with melphalan, a patient developed erythema and lichenoid papules that were distributed primarily in intertriginous areas. A biopsy specimen of the papules showed a striking resemblance to verrucae, but in situ hybridization studies were negative for human papillomavirus. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 showed increased keratinocyte proliferation in lesional skin. After treatment with palifermin, a papular eruption clinically resembling lichen planus or plane warts, with histologic features of verruca plana, and intertriginous erythema may occur. In this case, neither eruption required treatment, and spontaneous resolution was observed over days to weeks. Histopathologic staining patterns of Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 may be useful in identifying adverse reactions to palifermin therapy.

  17. Shaping of Rack Cutter Original Profile for Fine-module Ratchet Teeth Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    The design models and the process of shaping the cutting edges of the rack cutter for cutting fine-module ratchet teeth are considered in the article. The use of fine-module ratchet teeth can reduce the noise and impact loads during operation of the freewheel mechanisms. Mathematical dependencies for calculating the coordinates determining the geometric position of the points of the front and back edges of the cutting profile of the rack cutter, the workpiece angle of rotation during cutting the ratchet teeth were obtained. When applying the developed method, the initial data are: the radii of the workpiece circumferences passing through the dedendum of the external and internal cut teeth; gradient angles of the front and back edges of the rail.

  18. [Comparison of dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift in localizing the impacted teeth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sun; Fan, Lin-feng

    2005-04-01

    To compare the clinic value between dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs in localization of the impacted teeth. 43 impacted teeth were localized with both dentomaxillary pantomography technique and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift which is clinically widely used. And a comparison between the two methods was carried out using Chi square test. Both dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift can relatively precisely demonstrate the position of the impacted teeth. The percentage of the cases which the image and the result of surgery was consistent in the two methods was 93.02% and 95.35% (P>0.05) respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Dentomaxillary pantomography can precisely localize the impacted teeth.

  19. Materials for Paediatric Dentistry. Part 1: Background to the Treatment of Carious Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Dental caries is a disease that affects many people, including children, and presents numerous challenges to healthcare providers. As clinicians it is important that we consider the advantages and disadvantages of treating carious primary teeth, and make an informed decision about when it is appropriate or not. This paper describes the background to the treatment of carious primary teeth, looking at the differences between primary and permanent teeth, and the relevance of this. It also suggests points to consider when looking at restoration survival studies, as the ability to appraise the literature critically is important for us all in this 'evidence-based' age. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Our early life experiences have the ability to shape our future attitudes and behaviour. Children with carious teeth require careful management so that pain and suffering is minimized, and positive attitudes towards dentistry are fostered.

  20. Textural and geochemical constraints on eruptive style of the 79AD eruption at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Villemant, Benoît.

    2010-05-01

    The 79AD eruption of Vesuvius, also known as the "Pompeii eruption", is the reference for one of the explosive eruptive styles, the plinian-type eruption. The eruption involved H2O-rich phonolitic magmas and is commonly divided into three phases: an initial phreatomagmatic phase, followed by a plinian event which produced a thick pumice fallout deposit and a final phase that was dominated by numerous column-collapse events. During the plinian phase, a first white pumice fallout was produced from a high steady eruptive column, followed by a grey pumice fallout originated by an oscillatory eruptive column with several partial column collapse events. This study focuses on the pumice fallout deposits, sampled in a proximal thick section, at the Terzigno quarry, 6 km southeast of the present crater. In order to constrain the degassing processes and the eruptive dynamics, major element compositions, residual volatile contents (H2O, Cl) and textural characteristics (vesicularity and microcrystallinity) were studied. A previous study that we performed on the pre-eruptive Cl content has shown that Cl may be used as an indicator of magma saturation with Cl-rich fluids and of pre-eruptive pressures. Cl contents measured in melt inclusions show that only the white pumice and the upper part of the grey pumice magma were H2O saturated prior eruption. Large variations in residual volatile contents exist between the different eruptive units and textural features strongly differ between white and grey pumice clasts but also within the grey pumice clasts. The degassing processes were thus highly heterogeneous: the white pumice eruptive units represent a typical closed-system degassing evolution whereas the first grey pumice one, stored in the same pre-eruptive saturation conditions, follows a particular open-system degassing evolution. Here we propose a new model of the 79AD eruption where pre-eruptive conditions (H2O saturation, magma temperature and viscosity) are the critical

  1. Mechanism of Human Tooth Eruption: Review Article Including a New Theory for Future Studies on the Eruption Process

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute to insight into the aetiology behind eruption. A new theory on the eruption mechanism is presented. Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption keeps this new theory in mind. Understanding the aetiology of the eruption process is necessary for treating deviant eruption courses. PMID:24688798

  2. Fracture Mechanics Approach to Forecasting Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, C.; Sammonds, P.; Kilburn, C.; Woo, G.

    2008-12-01

    A medium to short-term increase in the rate of volcano-tectonic earthquake events provides one of the most useful and promising tools for eruption forecasting, particularly at subduction-zone volcanoes reawakening after a long repose interval. Two basic patterns of accelerating seismicity observed prior to eruptions are exponential and faster than exponential increases with time. While theoretical and empirical models exist that can explain these observed trends, less is known about seismic unrest at volcanoes that does not end in eruption. A comprehensive model of fracturing and failure within an edifice must also explain why volcanoes do not erupt. We have developed a numerical fracture mechanical model for simulating precursory seismic sequences, associated with the opening of a new magmatic pathway to the surface. The model reproduces the basic patterns of precursory seismicity and shows that the signals produced vary according to changes in the extent of damage and in the mechanical properties of the host rock. Local stress conditions and material property distributions exist under which the model is also able to produce seismic swarms that do not lead to failure and eruption. It can therefore provide insight into factors determining whether or not a seismic crisis leads to eruption. Critically, when combined with field data this may provide information on how often 'failed' eruptions can be expected, or suggest a step towards an observational method for distinguishing between a seismic swarm leading to quiescence and a pre-eruptive seismic sequence.

  3. Calbuco Volcano Erupts in Southern Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-24

    Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile has erupted for the first time since 1972, with the last major eruption occurring in 1961 that sent ash columns 12-15 kilometers high. This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument in a high resolution infrared channel around 0515Z on April 23, 2015. Credit: NOAA/NASA/NPP/VIIRS

  4. Chronology of Postglacial Eruptive Activity and Calculation of Eruption Probabilities for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2007-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano has had 4 eruptive episodes in its postglacial history (since 13,000 years ago) comprising 16 eruptions. Time intervals between events within the episodes are relatively short, whereas time intervals between the episodes are much longer. An updated radiocarbon chronology for these eruptions is presented that uses paleomagnetic data to constrain the choice of calibrated ages. This chronology is used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to model the data for time intervals between eruptions. The mixed exponential distribution is the best match to the data and provides estimates for the conditional probability of a future eruption given the time since the last eruption. The probability of an eruption at Medicine Lake volcano in the next year from today is 0.00028.

  5. Microbiology and cytokine levels around healthy dental implants and teeth.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique; DeGiacomo, Marina; Villacres, Maria C; Rich, Sandra K

    2008-09-01

    Elicitation of the relationship of periodontopathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines to bone resorption and formation is significant to a growing body of research known as osteoimmunology. It is essential that clinically healthy peri-implant and periodontal sites are studied to contribute comparison data for investigations that are addressing diseased sites. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in clinically healthy peri-implant and periodontal sites, and to examine whether cytokine levels may be related to specific bacterial/viral pathogens. Eleven subjects (mean age 56.2 +/- 10) participated in the study. Subgingival microbial samples were cultured for periodontopathic bacteria. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction for Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and were tested for the quantification of Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-12p70 using flow cytometry (FACS). Findings for microbiota composition and cytokine levels were compared between implants and teeth (chi square, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney; p < or = .05). Both the frequency (%) and levels (%) of periodontopathic bacteria were higher around teeth than implants. The concentration (picogram per milliliter) of cytokines was more prominent around implants than teeth, reaching nearly twofold differences in some instances. Cytokine levels were higher when the sites analyzed were positive for any bacteria tested. HCMV was not detected. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was unrelated to heavy bacterial challenge. Nevertheless, when periodontopathic bacteria were detected by culture, cytokine levels were increased around both implants and teeth. Studies are needed to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines (especially IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) produced in spite of minimal bacterial accumulation.

  6. [Recognizing and preventing disturbances in eruption].

    PubMed

    van der Linden, F P G M

    2014-04-01

    Disturbances in eruption and related problems are quite common in permanent dentition but rare in deciduous dentition. For the timely recognition of disturbances in eruption, knowledge of the normal development of dentition is essential. Disturbances in eruption comprise disturbances in which eruption does not occur at all, in which it is delayed or incomplete, or in which the normal direction of eruption is influenced. If identified early enough, many undesirable dental conditions can be avoided or their seriousness can be limited. A possible impacting of permanent cuspids, for example, can be avoided by extracting the deciduous cuspids at the right moment; in cases of a large overjet or the threat of a cover-bite, lip interference can be prevented.

  7. Forensic identification in teeth with caries.

    PubMed

    Alia-García, Esther; Parra-Pecharromán, David; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana; Mendez, Susy; Royuela, Ana; Gil-Alberdi, Laura; López-Palafox, Juan; Del Campo, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Human teeth are biological structures that resist extreme conditions thus becoming a useful source of DNA for human forensic identification purposes. When it is possible, forensic prefer only non-damaged teeth whereas those with cavities are usually rejected to avoid both external and internal bacterial contamination. Cavities are one of the most prevalent dental pathology and its incidence increases with ageing. The aim of this study was to validate the use of teeth with cavities for forensic identification. A total of 120 individual teeth from unrelated patients (60 healthy and 60 with cavities, respectively) extracted by a dentist as part of the normal process of treatment, were submitted for further analysis. Dental pulp was obtained after tooth fragmentation, complete DNA was extracted and the corresponding human identification profile was obtained by the AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ kit. Cariogenic microbiota was determined by PCR-DGGE with bacterial universal primers and bands were excised, re-amplified and sequenced. From the 120 dental pieces analyzed, a defined genetic profile was obtained in 81 (67.5%) of them, with no statistical differences between the healthy and the cavities-affected teeth. Statistical association between teeth status, DNA content and genetic profiles was not observed. Complex bacterial communities were only detected in the cavities group, being the Streptococcus/Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus genera the most represented. We conclude that teeth with cavities are as valid as healthy dental pieces for forensic human identification. Moreover, the severity of the cariogenic lesion as well as associated bacterial communities seems not to influence the establishment of human dental profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magma Chamber of the 26.5 ka Oruanui Eruption, Taupo Volcano, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Anderson, A. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Davis, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated melt inclusions and their host quartz crystals from the Bishop-Tuff-sized 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption at Taupo volcano, New Zealand. Compositions (major and trace elements, H2O and CO2) of melt inclusions and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of quartz were obtained for eight individual pumices from early, middle and late depositional units. All melt inclusions are high-silica weakly peraluminous rhyolites. Melt inclusions for different eruptive phases have similar ranges of H2O contents (3.8-5.2 wt %), but late-erupted samples have higher CO2 contents (mostly > 140 ppm). A positive correlation between CO2 and compatible trace elements such as Sr suggests that crystallization and melt entrapment occurred under gas-saturated conditions. Trace elements variations in melt inclusions are consistent with fractionation of 30-40 wt % crystals (plagioclase+quartz+pyroxene+amphibole). Crystal contents in pumices, trace-element contents in melt inclusions, and CL zoning patterns of quartz show no correlation with eruptive phases, suggesting that the Oruanui magma was well mixed before eruption. Some Oruanui quartz crystals contain distinctive CL zonings with a jagged ('restitic') core mantled by a black CL zone. Trace element variations in melt inclusions in the 'restitic' cores are consistent with fractionation of Ba-bearing minerals such as sanidine and/or biotite, both of which are rare or absent in rocks erupted from Taupo volcanic center. The above evidence suggests that Oruanui rhyolite is generated by assimilation of previous intruded rocks or country rocks, differentiated by crystal fractionation, and then mixed prior to eruption. Despite the differences in trace element and volatile contents, and crystal assemblages, both Bishop Tuff and Oruanui magmas involve crystal fractionation as one of the main differentiation mechanisms during their evolution. However, there are pronounced differences in the pre-eruptive stratification of the two chambers

  9. The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Scott E.; Peate, Ingrid Ukstins; Peate, David W.; Self, Stephen; Jerram, Dougal A.; Mawby, Michael R.; Marsh, J. S. (Goonie); Miller, Jodie A.

    2010-10-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are sites of the most frequently recurring, largest volume basaltic and silicic eruptions in Earth history. These large-volume (> 1000 km 3 dense rock equivalent) and large-magnitude (> M8) eruptions produce areally extensive (10 4-10 5 km 2) basaltic lava flow fields and silicic ignimbrites that are the main building blocks of LIPs. Available information on the largest eruptive units are primarily from the Columbia River and Deccan provinces for the dimensions of flood basalt eruptions, and the Paraná-Etendeka and Afro-Arabian provinces for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions. In addition, three large-volume (675-2000 km 3) silicic lava flows have also been mapped out in the Proterozoic Gawler Range province (Australia), an interpreted LIP remnant. Magma volumes of > 1000 km 3 have also been emplaced as high-level basaltic and rhyolitic sills in LIPs. The data sets indicate comparable eruption magnitudes between the basaltic and silicic eruptions, but due to considerable volumes residing as co-ignimbrite ash deposits, the current volume constraints for the silicic ignimbrite eruptions may be considerably underestimated. Magma composition thus appears to be no barrier to the volume of magma emitted during an individual eruption. Despite this general similarity in magnitude, flood basaltic and silicic eruptions are very different in terms of eruption style, duration, intensity, vent configuration, and emplacement style. Flood basaltic eruptions are dominantly effusive and Hawaiian-Strombolian in style, with magma discharge rates of ~ 10 6-10 8 kg s -1 and eruption durations estimated at years to tens of years that emplace dominantly compound pahoehoe lava flow fields. Effusive and fissural eruptions have also emplaced some large-volume silicic lavas, but discharge rates are unknown, and may be up to an order of magnitude greater than those of flood basalt lava eruptions for emplacement to be on realistic time scales (< 10 years). Most

  10. An interdisciplinary treatment approach combining orthodontic forced eruption with immediate implant placement to achieve a satisfactory treatment outcome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Du, Je-Kang; Chou, Szu-Ting; Hu, Kai-Fang; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wu, Yi-Min; Ho, Ya-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Periodontal disease often results in severely bony defects around the teeth and leads to eventual extraction. Remaining bone morphology often compromises ideally restoration-driven positions and deteriorates the success rates for dental implants. The present investigation illustrates the clinical outcome of immediately installing an implant following orthodontic forced eruption and atraumatic extraction. The subject of this study is a 40-year-old Asian female with a right mandibular first molar that had a deep probing depth on the mesial side and mobility. Via the aid of radiographic examination, the tooth that had an angular bony defect and apical lesion was diagnosed as having deep caries and chronic periodontitis with a poor prognosis. After consultation with the patient, we developed a treatment plan incorporating a forced eruption with immediate implantation, intended to augment the alveolar bone volume and increase the width of keratinized gingivae, in a nonsurgical manner. Following 12 months of orthodontic treatment, the tooth was successfully moved occlusally in conjunction with an 8 mm vertical interdental bone augmentation. Because of sufficient volume of bone and satisfactory gingival dimensions, the implant showed adequate initial stability in the correct position to facilitate physiological and aesthetic prerequisites. After 6 months of osteointegration, a customized impression coping was utilized to transfer the established emergence profile to a definitive cast for the fabrication of a customized abutment. The final prosthesis was made using a customized metal abutment and ceramometal crown. In the face of difficult clinical challenges, meticulous inspection and a comprehensive treatment plan were crucial. Interdisciplinary treatment through the careful integration of multiple specialists suggests the possibility of optimal results with high predictability. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Large, Moderate or Small? The Challenge of Measuring Mass Eruption Rates in Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Dürig, T.; Hognadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Bjornsson, H.; Barsotti, S.; Petersen, G. N.; Thordarson, T.; Pedersen, G. B.; Riishuus, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of a volcanic eruption is highly dependent on its eruption rate. In explosive eruptions ash may pose an aviation hazard that can extend several thousand kilometers away from the volcano. Models of ash dispersion depend on estimates of the volcanic source, but such estimates are prone to high error margins. Recent explosive eruptions, including the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, have provided a wealth of data that can help in narrowing these error margins. Within the EU-funded FUTUREVOLC project, a multi-parameter system is currently under development, based on an array of ground and satellite-based sensors and models to estimate mass eruption rates in explosive eruptions in near-real time. Effusive eruptions are usually considered less of a hazard as lava flows travel slower than eruption clouds and affect smaller areas. However, major effusive eruptions can release large amounts of SO2 into the atmosphere, causing regional pollution. In very large effusive eruptions, hemispheric cooling and continent-scale pollution can occur, as happened in the Laki eruption in 1783 AD. The Bárdarbunga-Holuhraun eruption in 2014-15 was the largest effusive event in Iceland since Laki and at times caused high concentrations of SO2. As a result civil protection authorities had to issue warnings to the public. Harmful gas concentrations repeatedly persisted for many hours at a time in towns and villages at distances out to 100-150 km from the vents. As gas fluxes scale with lava fluxes, monitoring of eruption rates is therefore of major importance to constrain not only lava but also volcanic gas emissions. This requires repeated measurements of lava area and thickness. However, most mapping methods are problematic once lava flows become very large. Satellite data on thermal emissions from eruptions have been used with success to estimate eruption rate. SAR satellite data holds potential in delivering lava volume and eruption rate estimates

  12. The longevity of lava dome eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, Robert L.; Ogburn, Sarah E.; Calder, Eliza S.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the duration of past, ongoing, and future volcanic eruptions is an important scientific goal and a key societal need. We present a new methodology for forecasting the duration of ongoing and future lava dome eruptions based on a database (DomeHaz) recently compiled by the authors. The database includes duration and composition for 177 such eruptions, with "eruption" defined as the period encompassing individual episodes of dome growth along with associated quiescent periods during which extrusion pauses but unrest continues. In a key finding, we show that probability distributions for dome eruption durations are both heavy tailed and composition dependent. We construct objective Bayesian statistical models featuring heavy-tailed Generalized Pareto distributions with composition-specific parameters to make forecasts about the durations of new and ongoing eruptions that depend on both eruption duration to date and composition. Our Bayesian predictive distributions reflect both uncertainty about model parameter values (epistemic uncertainty) and the natural variability of the geologic processes (aleatoric uncertainty). The results are illustrated by presenting likely trajectories for 14 dome-building eruptions ongoing in 2015. Full representation of the uncertainty is presented for two key eruptions, Soufriére Hills Volcano in Montserrat (10-139 years, median 35 years) and Sinabung, Indonesia (1-17 years, median 4 years). Uncertainties are high but, importantly, quantifiable. This work provides for the first time a quantitative and transferable method and rationale on which to base long-term planning decisions for lava dome-forming volcanoes, with wide potential use and transferability to forecasts of other types of eruptions and other adverse events across the geohazard spectrum.

  13. Flux Cancelation: The Key to Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Chakrapani, Prithi; Innes, Davina; Schmit, Don; Tiwari, Sanjiv

    2017-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are magnetically channeled eruptions that occur in all types of solar environments (e.g. active regions, quiet-Sun regions and coronal holes). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of small-scare filaments (minifilaments). Once the eruption is underway magnetic reconnection evidently makes the jet spire and the bright emission in the jet base. However, the triggering mechanism of these eruptions and the formation mechanism of the pre-jet minifilaments are still open questions. In this talk, mainly using SDOAIA and SDOHIM data, first I will address the question: what triggers the jet-driving minifilament eruptions in different solar environments (coronal holes, quiet regions, active regions)? Then I will talk about the magnetic field evolution that produces the pre-jet minifilaments. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in line-of-sight HMI magnetograms while examining concurrent EUV images of coronal and transition-region emission, we find clear evidence that flux cancelation is the main process that builds pre-jet minifilaments, and is also the main process that triggers the eruptions. I will also present results from our ongoing work indicating that jet-driving minifilament eruptions are analogous to larger-scare filament eruptions that make flares and CMEs. We find that persistent flux cancellation at the neutral line of large-scale filaments often triggers their eruptions. From our observations we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process from the buildup and triggering of solar eruptions of all sizes.

  14. Flux Cancelation: The Key to Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Chakrapani, Prithi; Innes, Davina; Schmit, Don; Tiwari, Sanjiv

    2017-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are magnetically channeled eruptions that occur in all types of solar environments (e.g. active regions, quiet-Sun regions and coronal holes). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). Once the eruption is underway magnetic reconnection evidently makes the jet spire and the bright emission in the jet base. However, the triggering mechanism of these eruptions and the formation mechanism of the pre-jet minifilaments are still open questions. In this talk, mainly using SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI data, first I will address the question: what triggers the jet-driving minifilament eruptions in different solar environments (coronal holes, quiet regions, active regions)? Then I will talk about the magnetic field evolution that produces the pre-jet minifilaments. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in line-of-sight HMI magnetograms while examining concurrent EUV images of coronal and transition-region emission, we find clear evidence that flux cancellation is the main process that builds pre-jet minifilaments, and is also the main process that triggers the eruptions. I will also present results from our ongoing work indicating that jet-driving minifilament eruptions are analogous to larger-scale filament eruptions that make flares and CMEs. We find that persistent flux cancellation at the neutral line of large-scale filaments often triggers their eruptions. From our observations we infer that flux cancellation is the fundamental process for the buildup and triggering of solar eruptions of all sizes.

  15. Flux Cancelation: The Key to Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Chakrapani, Prithi; Innes, Davina; Schmit, Don; Tiwari, Sanjiv

    2017-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are magnetically channeled eruptions that occur in all types of solar environments (e.g. active regions, quiet-Sun regions and coronal holes). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of small-scare filaments (minifilaments). Once the eruption is underway magnetic reconnection evidently makes the jet spire and the bright emission in the jet base. However, the triggering mechanism of these eruptions and the formation mechanism of the pre-jet minifilaments are still open questions. In this talk, mainly using SDO/AIA (Solar Dynamics Observatory / Atmospheric Imaging Assembly) and SDO/HIM (Solar Dynamics Observatory / Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) data, first I will address the question: what triggers the jet-driving minifilament eruptions in different solar environments (coronal holes, quiet regions, active regions)? Then I will talk about the magnetic field evolution that produces the pre-jet minifilaments. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in line-of-sight HMI magnetograms while examining concurrent EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) images of coronal and transition-region emission, we find clear evidence that flux cancelation is the main process that builds pre-jet minifilaments, and is also the main process that triggers the eruptions. I will also present results from our ongoing work indicating that jet-driving minifilament eruptions are analogous to larger-scare filament eruptions that make flares and CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections). We find that persistent flux cancellation at the neutral line of large-scale filaments often triggers their eruptions. From our observations we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process from the buildup and triggering of solar eruptions of all sizes.

  16. Reconciling the Observed and Modeled Southern Hemisphere Circulation Response to Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, M. C.; Barnes, E. A.; Deser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Confusion exists regarding the tropospheric circulation response to volcanic eruptions, with models and observations seeming to disagree on the sign of the response. The forced Southern Hemisphere circulation response to the eruptions of Pinatubo and El Chichon is shown to be a robust positive annular mode, using over 200 ensemble members from 38 climate models. It is demonstrated that the models and observations are not at odds, but rather, internal climate variability is large and can overwhelm the forced response. It is further argued that the state of ENSO can at least partially explain the sign of the observed anomalies, and may account for the perceived discrepancy between model and observational studies. The eruptions of both El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred during El Nino events, and it is demonstrated that the SAM anomalies following volcanic eruptions are weaker during El Nino events compared to La Nina events.

  17. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-03-10

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  18. Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; McNutt, S.R.; Tytgat, Guy; Clark, E.

    2007-01-01

    By using a combination of radio frequency time-of-arrival and interferometer measurements, we observed a sequence of lightning and electrical activity during one of Mount St. Augustine's eruptions. The observations indicate that the electrical activity had two modes or phases. First, there was an explosive phase in which the ejecta from the explosion appeared to be highly charged upon exiting the volcano, resulting in numerous apparently disorganized discharges and some simple lightning. The net charge exiting the volcano appears to have been positive. The second phase, which followed the most energetic explosion, produced conventional-type discharges that occurred within plume. Although the plume cloud was undoubtedly charged as a result of the explosion itself, the fact that the lightning onset was delayed and continued after and well downwind of the eruption indicates that in situ charging of some kind was occurring, presumably similar in some respects to that which occurs in normal thunderstorms.

  19. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures. PMID:24614612

  20. Stratospheric ozone levels and their role for the dynamic response to volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthers, Stefan; Anet, Julien G.; Raible, Christoph C.; Brönnimann, Stefan; Arfeuille, Florian; Peter, Tom; Rozanov, Eugene; Shapiro, Alexander; Beer, Juerg; Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Brugnara, Yuri; Schmutz, Werner

    2013-04-01

    The role of different background ozone climatologies for the dynamic response to tropical volcanic eruptions is analyzed using an ensemble of simulation with the atmospheric-chemistry-ocean model SOCOL/MPIOM. In this sensitivity study a single tropical eruption of Tambora-size is applied to an ensemble with either pre-industrial ozone concentrations or present day concentrations respectively. The analysis focuses on the characteristic of the Northern Europe winter warming pattern following the eruption, that has been identified after several eruptions in observations and in proxy data. The sensitivity study reveals a higher probability for a large and significant winter warming pattern with pre-industrial ozone levels, when the dynamic response of the chemistry to the eruption is disabled in the model. The positive temperature anomaly is driven by a positive NAO-like pressure pattern that lead to the advection of warm Atlantic air towards Northern Europe. With present day concentrations winter warmings are also found in some ensemble members, but overall the probability is strongly reduced. It is shown, that with pre-industial day ozone concentrations the coupling between positive anomalies of the polar vortex and the zonal wind in the troposphere is more effective, which could explain the higher likelihood of positive NAO-like pressure patterns and positive temperature anomalies in Northern Europe.

  1. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  2. Occlusal changes following posterior tooth loss in adults. Part 1: a study of clinical parameters associated with the extent and type of supraeruption in unopposed posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Helen L; Youngson, Callum C; Manogue, Michael; Blance, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    One of the barriers to restoring an edentulous space may be the supraeruption of an unopposed tooth to occupy some or all of the space needed for prosthetic replacement. The aim of this study was to determine the extent and type of supraeruption associated with unopposed posterior teeth and to investigate the relationship between these and oral and patient factors. Diagnostic casts of 100 patients with an unopposed posterior tooth and of 100 control patients were scanned and analyzed to record the extent of supraeruption, together with other clinical parameters. The type of eruption present was defined for each subject as Periodontal Growth, Active Eruption, or Relative Wear. Generalized Linear Models were developed to examine associations between the extent and type of supraeruption and patient or dental factors. The extent of supraeruption for an individual was modeled to show association between the degree of supraeruption and clinical parameters. Three models were produced to show associations between each type of supraeruption and clinical parameters. The mean supraeruption for subjects was 1.68 mm (SD 0.79, range 0 to 3.99 mm) and for controls, 0.24 mm (SD 0.39, range 0 to 1.46 mm). The extent of supraeruption was statistically greater in maxillary unopposed teeth than in mandibular unopposed teeth. Supraeruption was found in 92% of subjects' unopposed teeth. A Generalized Linear Model could be produced to demonstrate that the clinical parameters associated with supraeruption are periodontal growth, attachment loss, and the lingual movement of the tooth distal to the extraction site. Three types of supraeruption, which may be present singly, or in combination, can be identified. Active eruption has an association with attachment loss. Periodontal growth has an inverse association with attachment loss, is more prevalent in younger patients, in the maxilla, in premolars, and in females. Relative wear has an association with increasing age and is more prevalent

  3. Multiple coincident eruptive seismic tremor sources during the 2014-2015 eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Bean, Christopher J.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Höskuldsson, Armann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Coppola, Diego; Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2017-04-01

    We analyze eruptive tremor during one of the largest effusive eruptions in historical times in Iceland (2014/2015 Holuhraun eruption). Seismic array recordings are compared with effusion rates deduced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer recordings and ground video monitoring data and lead to the identification of three coexisting eruptive tremor sources. This contrasts other tremor studies that generally link eruptive tremor to only one source usually associated with the vent. The three sources are (i) a source that is stable in back azimuth and shows bursts with ramp-like decrease in amplitude at the beginning of the eruption: we link it to a process below the open vents where the bursts correlate with the opening of new vents and temporary increases in the lava fountaining height; (ii) a source moving by a few degrees per month while the tremor amplitude suddenly increases and decreases: back azimuth and slowness correlate with the growing margins of the lava flow field, whilst new contact with a river led to fast increases of the tremor amplitude; and (iii) a source moving by up to 25° southward in 4 days that cannot be related to any observed surface activity and might be linked to intrusions. We therefore suggest that eruptive tremor amplitudes/energies are used with caution when estimating eruptive volumes, effusion rates, or the eruption explosivity as multiple sources can coexist during the eruption phase. Our results suggest that arrays can monitor both the growth of a lava flow field and the activity in the vents.

  4. Early headgear effect on the eruption pattern of maxillary second molars.

    PubMed

    Abed, Yossi; Brin, Ilana

    2010-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that the use of a combination headgear (HG) during the first phase of orthodontic treatment has no effect on the eruption pattern of the maxillary second permanent molars. The records of the patients in a two-phase randomized clinical trial of early Class II treatment were utilized. The HG group comprised 47 patients, and the control (CON) group comprised 52 patients. The mean age of both groups was 9.4 years at the beginning of the clinical trial (T1). Cephalograms and panoramic views obtained at T1 and at the end of 15 months of phase I treatment or observation (T2) were utilized. The vertical and horizontal movements of the first and second upper molars (U6 and U7, respectively) were measured. The beginning of phase II (T3) and the end of phase II (T4) records were visually reviewed for follow-up of the eruption of the U7. The pattern of movement for the distal and vertical displacement of the U6 and U7 was significantly different in the HG and CON groups (P < .001). At the end of phase I, none of the U7 in either group were diagnosed as malposed or suspected for impaction. At the end of phase II, all but one U7 with a possible cystic lesion had erupted. The hypothesis is rejected. Forces exerted by combination headgear to the U6 in phase I have a distalizing effect and a transitory slowing down effect on the eruption of the U7 buds. These latter teeth always erupted except when pathology occurred.

  5. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún

    2018-04-01

    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show that magma/water interaction is important in the ash generation process, but to a variable extent. By investigating the large explosive basaltic eruptions from 1755 and 1625, we document that eruptions of similar size and magma geochemistry can have very different fragmentation dynamics. Our models show that fragmentation in the 1755 eruption was a combination of magmatic degassing and magma/water-interaction with the most magma/water-interaction at the beginning of the eruption. The fragmentation of the 1625 eruption was initially also a combination of both magmatic and phreatomagmatic processes, but magma/water-interaction diminished progressively during the later stages of the eruption. However, intense magma/water interaction was reintroduced during the final stages of the eruption dominating the fine fragmentation at the end. This detailed study of fragmentation changes documents that subglacial eruptions have highly variable interaction with the melt water showing that the amount and access to melt water changes significantly during eruptions. While it is often difficult to reconstruct the progression of eruptions that have no quantitative observational record, this study shows that integrating field observations and granulometry with the new regularity index can form a coherent model of eruption evolution.

  6. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth - A review.

    PubMed

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti S; John, Sheen A; Harris, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the "gold-standard" over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel-titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of EIT Dimmings in Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi; Sterling, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Intensity "dimmings" in coronal images are a key feature of solar eruptions. Such dimmings are likely the source locations for much of the material expelled in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Characteristics such as the timing of the dimmings with respect to the onset of other eruption signatures, and the location of the dimmings in the context of the magnetic field environment of the erupting region, are indicative of the mechanism leading to the eruption. We examine dimmings of six eruptions in images from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO, along with supplementary soft X-ray (SXR) data from GOES and the SXR Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. We examine the timing of the dimming onset and compare with the time of EUV and SXR brightening and determine the timescale for the recovery from dimming for each event. With line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms from the MDI instrument on SOHO, we determine the magnetic structure of the erupting regions and the locations of the dimmings in those regions. From our analysis we consider which mechanism likely triggered each eruption: internal tether cutting, external tether cutting ("breakout"), loss of equilibrium, or some other mechanism.

  8. Plasma Evolution within an Erupting Coronal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David M.; Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah A.; Warren, Harry P.; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Doschek, George A.; Hara, Hirohisa; Jenkins, Jack M.

    2018-03-01

    Coronal cavities have previously been observed to be associated with long-lived quiescent filaments and are thought to correspond to the associated magnetic flux rope. Although the standard flare model predicts a coronal cavity corresponding to the erupting flux rope, these have only been observed using broadband imaging data, restricting an analysis to the plane-of-sky. We present a unique set of spectroscopic observations of an active region filament seen erupting at the solar limb in the extreme ultraviolet. The cavity erupted and expanded rapidly, with the change in rise phase contemporaneous with an increase in nonthermal electron energy flux of the associated flare. Hot and cool filamentary material was observed to rise with the erupting flux rope, disappearing suddenly as the cavity appeared. Although strongly blueshifted plasma continued to be observed flowing from the apex of the erupting flux rope, this outflow soon ceased. These results indicate that the sudden injection of energy from the flare beneath forced the rapid eruption and expansion of the flux rope, driving strong plasma flows, which resulted in the eruption of an under-dense filamentary flux rope.

  9. [Satisfaction about physical appearance and teeth. Results of a nationwide study].

    PubMed

    Gresnigt-Bekker, C O V M; de Jongh, A; Vo, G; Lie, F; Oosterink-Wubbe, F M D; van Rood, Y

    2008-07-01

    In a study involving a group of 907 randomly selected Dutch individuals, satisfaction about one's physical appearance and satisfaction about the appearance of one's teeth were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between body esteem and happiness was explored. Three quarters of the respondents were satisfied about their physical appearance, while 70% was satisfied about the appearance of their teeth. Women and people with a non-Dutch background were significantly less likely to be satisfied about their physical appearance than men and those with a Dutch background. Individuals 30 years old and younger were more likely to be satisfied about their teeth than those who were older. Almost two third of the respondents (64%) reported that the appearance of their teeth contributed positively to their happiness. Women and people with a non-Dutch background were most likely to indicate that the appearance of their teeth contributed to their happiness. Satisfaction about general physical appearance and appearance of the teeth were significantly associated with happiness. Prospective studies are needed to examine to what extent esthetically motivated dental treatments make people happy and enhance their general well-being.

  10. Analysis of factors associated with cracked teeth.

    PubMed

    Seo, Deog-Gyu; Yi, Young-Ah; Shin, Su-Jung; Park, Jeong-Won

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics, distribution, and associated factors of longitudinal fractured teeth according to the well-defined criteria of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE). One hundred seven teeth with longitudinal fracture from 103 patients were diagnosed and analyzed. The patients' signs, symptoms, age, and sex were noted as well as the tooth number, dental arch, filling materials, size/classification of restoration, crack direction, pulp vitality, whether the patient had undergone endodontic treatment, bite test results, percussion test results, wear facet, and periodontal pocket depth. Eighty-seven teeth were diagnosed with a cracked tooth (81.3%), 14 were diagnosed with vertical root fracture (VRF, 13.1%), 4 had a split tooth (3.7%), and 2 had a fractured cusp (1.9%); 82.2% showed a sensitive reaction on the bite test. Longitudinal tooth fractures were observed most frequently in patient in their 40s. The upper first molar (28.0%) was most frequently cracked, followed by the lower first molar (25.2%), the lower second molar (20.6%), and the upper second molar (16.8%). Most longitudinal tooth fractures (72.0%) occurred mainly in restored teeth, whereas only 28.0% were found in intact teeth. Compared with resin (4.7%) or porcelain (0.9%), the use of nonbonded inlay restoration materials such as gold (20.5%) or amalgam (18.7%) increased the occurrence of longitudinal tooth fractures. Out of 107 of longitudinal fractured teeth, 33 (30.8%) were treated endodontically and 74 (69.2%) were not. VRF was associated with endodontic treatment. The bite test is most reliable for reproducing symptoms. The combined use of various examination methods is recommended for detecting cracks and minutely inspecting all directions of a tooth. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multivariate Analyses of Small Theropod Dinosaur Teeth and Implications for Paleoecological Turnover through Time

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Derek W.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated small theropod teeth are abundant in vertebrate microfossil assemblages, and are frequently used in studies of species diversity in ancient ecosystems. However, determining the taxonomic affinities of these teeth is problematic due to an absence of associated diagnostic skeletal material. Species such as Dromaeosaurus albertensis, Richardoestesia gilmorei, and Saurornitholestes langstoni are known from skeletal remains that have been recovered exclusively from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian). It is therefore likely that teeth from different formations widely disparate in age or geographic position are not referable to these species. Tooth taxa without any associated skeletal material, such as Paronychodon lacustris and Richardoestesia isosceles, have also been identified from multiple localities of disparate ages throughout the Late Cretaceous. To address this problem, a dataset of measurements of 1183 small theropod teeth (the most specimen-rich theropod tooth dataset ever constructed) from North America ranging in age from Santonian through Maastrichtian were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods: canonical variate analysis, pairwise discriminant function analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicate that teeth referred to the same taxon from different formations are often quantitatively distinct. In contrast, isolated teeth found in time equivalent formations are not quantitatively distinguishable from each other. These results support the hypothesis that small theropod taxa, like other dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous, tend to be exclusive to discrete host formations. The methods outlined have great potential for future studies of isolated teeth worldwide, and may be the most useful non-destructive technique known of extracting the most data possible from isolated and fragmentary specimens. The ability to accurately assess species diversity and turnover through time based on isolated teeth will help illuminate

  12. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

    PubMed

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  13. Growth and development of permanent teeth germ of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shoujen; Yen, Yeayin; Ko, Yingchin

    This paper is intended to present a study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. The focus of the study is to demonstrate how a contaminated food source can affect the growth and development of permanent teeth germ in children. A sporadic outbreak of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Japan in October of 1968. An epidemiological study revealed the outbreak of this disease was caused by contaminated Kanemi rice oil. This episode of rice oil poisoned with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was the first reported outbreak of PCB poisoning in the world. A second episode occurred in central Taiwan elevenmore » years after the Japanese episode. Registered data from the Taiwan Provincial Government Health Department reported 1,843 cases in 1980. Of this group, more than 800 women were child-bearing age and most of these women would or soon would be married and pregnant. The offsprings of these women were in danger, because it has been proven that PCB intoxication could affect the fetus. These babies, only contaminated through the placenta, are called PCB transplacental Yusho babies in Japan and PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Babies with PCB poisoning could have Fetal PCB syndrome (FPS) and may have retarded eruption of permanent teeth and other anomalies such as reduced numbers of teeth and abnormal shaped roots. The study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies is an important public health issue for Taiwan. Although there may be other issues, this study focuses only on the growth and development of permanent teeth of those babies affected by PCB transplacental contamination.« less

  14. Characteristics of Teeth: A Review of Size, Shape, Composition, and Appearance of Maxillary Anterior Teeth.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Although digital technologies play an increasingly integral role in dentistry, there remains a need for dental professionals to understand the fundamentals of tooth anatomy, form, occlusion, and color science. In this article, the size, shape, composition, and appearance of maxillary anterior teeth will be discussed from esthetic and functional perspectives. A total of 600 extracted maxillary incisors were studied: 200 each of central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids. The purpose of the article is to exhibit and discuss factors that make teeth unique and diverse. Understanding these aspects of teeth aids dental professionals in more effectively creating realistic and highly esthetic restorations for patients.

  15. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.

    The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the

  16. Morphology and mechanics of the teeth and jaws of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jason B; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2007-08-01

    The teeth of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) are used to clutch soft-bodied prey and crush hard prey; however, the dual function is not evident from tooth morphology alone. Teeth exhibit characteristics that are in agreement with a clutching-type tooth morphology that is well suited for grasping and holding soft-bodied prey, but not for crushing hard prey. The dual role of this single tooth morphology is facilitated by features of the dental ligament and jaw joint. Tooth attachment is flexible and elastic, allowing movement in both sagittal and frontal planes. During prey capture spike-like tooth cusps pierce the flesh of soft prey, thereby preventing escape. When processing prey harder than the teeth can pierce the teeth passively depress, rotating inward towards the oral cavity such that the broader labial faces of the teeth are nearly parallel to the surface of the jaws and form a crushing surface. Movement into the depressed position increases the tooth surface area contacting prey and decreases the total stress applied to the tooth, thereby decreasing the risk of structural failure. This action is aided by a jaw joint that is ventrally offset from the occlusal planes of the jaws. The offset joint position allows many teeth to contact prey simultaneously and orients force vectors at contact points between the jaws and prey in a manner that shears or rolls prey between the jaws during a bite, thus, aiding in processing while reducing forward slip of hard prey from the mouth. Together the teeth, dental ligament, and jaws form an integrated system that may be beneficial to the feeding ecology of C. plagiosum, allowing for a diet that includes prey of varying hardness and elusiveness. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian

  18. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; ,; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  19. Solar Eruptions: Coronal Mass Ejections and Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    This lecture introduces the topic of Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, collectively known as solar eruptions. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. Flares can be eruptive or confined. Eruptive flares accompany CMEs, while confined flares hav only electromagnetic signature. CMEs can drive MHD shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. CMEs heading in the direction of Earth arrive in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currnts that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines

  20. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  1. NASA Satellite Captures New Russian Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    NASA Terra spacecraft reveals the still-active lava flows in the snowy winter landscape of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, which erupted for the first time in 35 years on Nov. 27, 2012, in Russia far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula.

  2. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature.

  3. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  4. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  5. NASA Spacecraft Images Mexican Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows Mexico active Popocatepetl volcano, located about 40 miles southeast of Mexico City, spewing water vapor, gas, ashes and glowing rocks since its most recent eruption period began in April 2012.

  6. Eruptive keratoacanthomas following carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Meirson, D H; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-08-01

    Skin resurfacing with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is currently a popular means of improving rhytides and scars. Scarring, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and infection are among the complications that have been known to occur in some patients treated with the CO2 laser. We wish to communicate a previously unreported complication of CO2 laser resurfacing-multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas. We describe a 61-year-old woman who presented with multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas subsequent to CO2 laser resurfacing. Her lesions were cultured for fungus and bacteria. Biopsy specimens of two lesions were taken. Cultures were negative for pathogens. Biopsy specimens revealed atypical squamous epithelial proliferation and changes consistent with eruptive keratoacanthomas. Multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas should be considered as a rare complication of CO2 laser resurfacing.

  7. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  8. NASA Spacecraft Eyes Iceland Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-03

    On the night of Sept. 1, 2014, NASA Earth Observing 1 EO-1 spacecraft observed the ongoing eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland. This false-color image that emphasizes the hottest areas of the vent and resulting lava flows.

  9. Seeking a paleontological signature for mass extinctions caused by flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Bush, A. M.; Chang, E. T.; Heim, N. A.; Knope, M. L.; Pruss, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions coincide with numerous extinction events in the fossil record. Increasingly precise absolute age determinations for both the timing of eruption and of species extinctions have strengthened the case for flood basalt eruptions as the single most important trigger for major mass extinction events in the fossil record. However, the extent to which flood basalt eruptions cause a pattern of biotic loss distinctive from extinctions triggered by other geological or biological processes remains an open question. In the absence of diagnostic mapping between geological triggers and biological losses, establishing the identities of causal agents for mass extinctions will continue to depend primarily on evidence for temporal coincidence. Here we use a synoptic database of marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic, including times of first and last occurrence, body size, motility, life position, feeding mode, and respiratory physiology to assess whether extinction events temporally associated with flood basalt eruptions exhibit a diagnostic pattern of extinction selectivity. We further ask whether any events not associated with known large igneous provinces nevertheless display extinction patterns suggestive of such a cause. Finally, we ask whether extinction events associated with other primary causes, such as glaciation or bolide impact, are distinguishable from events apparently triggered by flood basalt eruptions on the basis of extinction selectivity patterns

  10. Teeth: Among Nature's Most Durable Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawn, Brian R.; Lee, James J.-W.; Chai, Herzl

    2010-08-01

    This paper addresses the durability of natural teeth from a materials perspective. Teeth are depicted as smart biocomposites, highly resistant to cumulative deformation and fracture. Favorable morphological features of teeth at both macroscopic and microscopic levels contribute to an innate damage tolerance. Damage modes are activated readily within the brittle enamel coat but are contained from spreading catastrophically into the vulnerable tooth interior in sustained occlusal loading. Although tooth enamel contains a multitude of microstructural defects that can act as sources of fracture, substantial overloads are required to drive any developing cracks to ultimate failure—nature's strategy is to contain damage rather than avoid it. Tests on model glass-shell systems simulating the basic elements of the tooth enamel/dentin layer structure help to identify important damage modes. Fracture and deformation mechanics provide a basis for analyzing critical conditions for each mode, in terms of characteristic tooth dimensions and materials properties. Comparative tests on extracted human and animal teeth confirm the validity of the model test approach and point to new research directions. Implications in biomechanics, especially as they relate to dentistry and anthropology, are outlined.

  11. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, F.C.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  12. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xue-Qing; Gong, Yu; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhong-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper.

  13. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in teeth? Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Hopfenmüller, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Many morphometric studies show a sexual dimorphism in human teeth. We wanted to know whether it is possible to determine the sex of an individual if only the anterior teeth are visible. Fifty intraoral photographs showing the front tooth region of female and male individuals (age: from 7 to 75 years) were randomly arranged in actual size on a questionnaire. The lip region was covered in each case. Besides "female" and "male", one was also able to check "?" if undecided. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 expert test persons (dentists, dental technicians, dental assistants, and students of dental medicine) and to 50 laymen and were all returned for evaluation. Although the correct sex was recognized on single photographs to a maximum of 76%, it was incorrect in 69% on other photographs. Altogether, the statistical evaluation showed that in most cases, the sex was only recognized correctly by one half, and incorrect by the other half. It can be concluded that a sexual dimorphism of human teeth-although measurable morphometrically-could not be recognized visually on the basis of photographs of the front tooth region. Neither experts in the field of dentistry nor laymen were able to properly distinguish between male and female teeth.

  15. Late Holocene Andesitic Eruptions at Mount Rainier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Vallance, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene Mt. Rainier erupted much more frequently than is recorded by its 11 pumiceous tephras. In the 2.6-2.2 ka Summerland eruptive period, 6 groups of thin (1-5 mm) Sparsely Vesicular Glassy (SVG) ashes were deposited (S1-S6), followed by the 0.3 km3 C-tephra. Two groups of andesitic lava flows and one andesitic block-and-ash flow (2.45 ka) also erupted in the Summerland period (ice conceals any other products). Based on glass composition the pyroclastic flow correlates with S4 ashes that also contain pumiceous grains and rare pumice lapilli. The first of the lava groups, exposed in windows through the Emmons and Winthrop glaciers, is Sr-rich for Mt. Rainier eruptives and correlates with S5 & S6 ashes based on similar high-Sr plagioclase. The ensuing C-tephra formed by plinian eruption of mixed and mingled magma comprising 4 juvenile components: mixed porphyritic andesite pumice, crystal-poor andesite scoria, vesicular high-Sr dacite blebs in pumice and scoria, and poorly inflated crystal-rich high-Sr dacite. High-Sr components were probably entrained conduit linings and segregations from the preceding high-Sr eruptions. The youngest lava group, exposed at the summit, is normal-Sr andesite lacking mixing textures of the C-tephra, and represents eruption of another small batch of andesitic magma perhaps just after the C event. SVG ash grains have blocky-to-fluidal shapes, are rich in plagioclase microlites, and their glasses are high-SiO2 (66-78%) and low-Al2O3 (15-11%). Melting experiments yield apparent equilibration pressures <50MPa for SVG liquids. SVG ashes likely result from shallow hydromagmatic explosions as largely degassed magmas transited the upper-edifice hydrothermal system during effusive eruptions. Rare pumice lapilli codeposited with S1, S2, and S4 ashes have microlite-free dacitic glasses, one with nonreacted hbl phenocrysts. These pumice formed from magmas that ascended rapidly from reservoir depths, synchronous with or closely between effusive

  16. Mt. Pinatubo Volcano - Post Eruption, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    Mt. Pinatubo on the island of Luzon (15.0N, 120.0E) erupted catastrophically in June 1991 after over 600 years of inactivity. In this vertical view, the full extent of the eruption is obvious. Thick layers of ash completely surrounds the crater and the effect of mudflows in this previously heavily forested and agricultural region can be traced as ribbons flowing downhill. Clark AFB, once the crossroads of the SW Pacific can only partially be seen.

  17. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.

  18. Are flood basalt eruptions monogenetic or polygenetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental classification of volcanoes divides them into "monogenetic" and "polygenetic." We discuss whether flood basalt fields, the largest volcanic provinces, are monogenetic or polygenetic. A polygenetic volcano, whether a shield volcano or a stratovolcano, erupts from the same dominant conduit for millions of years (excepting volumetrically small flank eruptions). A flood basalt province, built from different eruptive fissures dispersed over wide areas, can be considered a polygenetic volcano without any dominant vent. However, in the same characteristic, a flood basalt province resembles a monogenetic volcanic field, with only the difference that individual eruptions in the latter are much smaller. This leads to the question how a flood basalt province can be two very different phenomena at the same time. Individual flood basalt eruptions have previously been considered monogenetic, contrasted by only their high magma output (and lava fluidity) with typical "small-volume monogenetic" volcanoes. Field data from Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Iceland, and the Deccan Traps show that whereas many feeder dykes were single magma injections, and the eruptions can be considered "large monogenetic" eruptions, multiple dykes are equally abundant. They indicate that the same dyke fissure repeatedly transported separate magma batches, feeding an eruption which was thus polygenetic by even the restricted definition (the same magma conduit). This recognition helps in understanding the volcanological, stratigraphic, and geochemical complexity of flood basalts. The need for clear concepts and terminology is, however, strong. We give reasons for replacing "monogenetic volcanic fields" with "diffuse volcanic fields" and for dropping the term "polygenetic" and describing such volcanoes simply and specifically as "shield volcanoes," "stratovolcanoes," and "flood basalt fields."

  19. Tephra from the 1979 soufriere explosive eruption.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, H

    1982-06-04

    The explosive phase of the 1979 Soufriere eruption produced 37.5 x 10(6) cubic meters (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra, consisting of about 40 percent juvenile basaltic andesite and 60 percent of a nonjuvenile component derived from the fragmentation of the 1971-1972 lava island during phreatomagmatic explosions. The unusually fine grain size, poor sorting, and bimodality of the land deposit are attributed to particle aggregation and the formation of accretionary lapilli in a wet eruption column.

  20. A Nanolite Record of Eruption Style Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujin, M.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-12-01

    Microlites in pyroclasts have been intensively studied to understand magma ascent processes. However, microlites do not record the explosive-effusive transitions in sub-Plinian eruptions when such transitions are governed by the shallow level degassing rather than by the magma ascent rate. To overcome this limitation, we studied the "nanolites" in the quenched products of the 2011 Shinmoedake, Kirishima Volcanic Group, Kyusyu Japan1. Nanolites are the nanometer-scale components of the groundmass minerals and exhibit a steeper slope of crystal size distribution than that of the microlites2. In the 2011 Shinmoedake eruption, the style of activity had undergone transformations from sub-Plinian eruption to Vulcanian explosion and intermittent effusion of lava3. We found that, although the products formed by different eruptive activities have similar microlite characteristics, such products can be distinguished clearly by their mineral assemblage of nanolites. The samples of pumices of sub-Plinian eruptions and Vulcanian explosions and the dense juvenile fragments of lava (in descending order of explosivity) contained, respectively, nanolites of low-Ca pyroxene, low-Ca pyroxene + plagioclase, and low-Ca pyroxene + plagioclase + Fe-Ti oxides. Nanolites are assumed to crystallize when undercooling of the magma due primarily to dehydration increases rapidly near the surface. The water contents of the interstitial glass indicate that the quenched depths did not differ greatly between eruption styles. Hence, the different nanolite assemblages of each eruption style are assumed to have resulted from differences in magma residence time near the surface. Thus, we propose that nanolites in pyroclasts have the potential to indicate the physicochemical conditions of magma at the transition points of eruption styles. References 1) Mujin and Nakamura, 2014, Geology, v.42, p.611-614 2) Sharp et al., 1996, Bull. Volcanol, v.57, p.631-640 3) Miyabuchi et al, 2013, J. Volcanol

  1. The ten-year eruption of Kilauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Heliker, C.

    1992-01-01

    About 1 km3 of lava erupted during the first 0 years of the eruption. Lava flows have destroyed 181 houses and severed the coastal highway along the volcano's south flank, severely restricting transportation on this part of the island of Hawaii. the eruption consisted of many distinct episodes characterized by activity at different vents and by different eruptive styles. the following summarizes the first 10 years of the eruption, starting with the initial outbreak in 1983.

  2. Eruptive Trio Seen by STEREO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired May 1, 2010. As an active region rotated into view, it blew out three relatively small eruptions over about two days (Apr. 30 - May 2) as STEREO (Ahead) observed in extreme UV light. The first one was the largest and exhibited a pronounced twisting motion (shown in the still from May 1, 2010). The plasma, not far above the Sun's surface in these images, is ionized Helium heated to about 60,000 degrees. Note, too, the movement of plasma flowing along magnetic field lines that extend out beyond and loop back into the Sun's surface. Such activity occurs every day and is part of the dynamism of the changing Sun. Credit: NASA/GSFC/STEREO To learn more about STEREO go to: soho.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  3. Volcanic eruptions; energy and size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz-Reyna, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is a dynamic planet. Many different processes are continuously developing, creating a delicate balance between the energy stored and generated in its interior and the heat lost into space. The heat in continuously transferred through complex self-regulating convection mechanisms on a planetary scale. The distribution of terrestrial heat flow reveals some of the fine structure of the energy transport mechanisms in the outer layers of the Earth. Of these mechanisms in the outer layers of the Earth. Of these mechanisms, volcanism is indeed the most remarkable, for it allows energy to be transported in rapid bursts to the surface. In order to maintain the subtle balance of the terrestrial heat machine, one may expect that some law or principle restricts the ways in which these volcanic bursts affect the overall energy transfer of the Earth. For instance, we know that the geothermal flux of the planet amounts to 1028 erg/year. On the other hand, a single large event like the Lava Creek Tuff eruption that formed Yellowstone caldera over half a million years ago may release the same amount of energy in a very small area, over a short period of time. 

  4. Identifying recycled ash in basaltic eruptions

    PubMed Central

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Deposits of mid-intensity basaltic explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These ‘recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected basaltic eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions. PMID:25069064

  5. Reduced cooling following future volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kandlbauer, Jessy; Valdes, Paul J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    2017-11-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an important influence on decadal to centennial climate variability. Large eruptions lead to the formation of a stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer which can cause short-term global cooling. This response is modulated by feedback processes in the earth system, but the influence from future warming has not been assessed before. Using earth system model simulations we find that the eruption-induced cooling is significantly weaker in the future state. This is predominantly due to an increase in planetary albedo caused by increased tropospheric aerosol loading with a contribution from associated changes in cloud properties. The increased albedo of the troposphere reduces the effective volcanic aerosol radiative forcing. Reduced sea-ice coverage and hence feedbacks also contribute over high-latitudes, and an enhanced winter warming signal emerges in the future eruption ensemble. These findings show that the eruption response is a complex function of the environmental conditions, which has implications for the role of eruptions in climate variability in the future and potentially in the past.

  6. Establishing the diagnostic criteria for eruption disorders based on genetic and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Stephanie Golubic; Hendricks, Heather M; Frazier-Bowers, Sylvia A

    2013-08-01

    Proper diagnosis and management of eruption disturbances remains challenging but is critical to a functional occlusion. The objective of this study was to establish definitive criteria to differentiate and diagnose eruption disorders, specifically primary failure of eruption (PFE) and ankylosis. Sixty-four affected persons were placed into 3 cohorts: PFE diagnosed through confirmed PTH1R mutation (n = 11), PFE diagnosed based on clinical criteria (n = 47), and ankylosis diagnosed based on clinical criteria (n = 6). These groups were assessed to identify clinical features that differentiate PFE and ankylosis. Ninety-three percent of the subjects in the genetic and clinical PFE cohorts combined (n = 58) and 100% in the genetic PFE cohort had at least 1 infraoccluded first permanent molar. Additionally, a novel functional PTH1R mutation, 1092delG, was identified and linked to PFE in the deciduous dentition. An infraoccluded, supracrestal first molar is a hallmark of PFE, often involving both arches in the permanent or deciduous dentition, and with unilateral or bilateral affection, infraoccluded second premolar or second molar, and multiple affected adjacent teeth. Our results further suggest that PFE and ankylosis might be clinically indistinguishable without knowledge of prior trauma, treatment history, genetic information, or obliteration of the periodontal ligament space. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Changing Trend In Eruption Age and Pattern of First Deciduous Tooth: Correlation to Feeding Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Monika V; Patil, Gururaj B.; Kulkarni, Narayan B.; Bagalkot, Kishore; Purohit, Zarana; Dave, Nilixa; Sagari, Shitalkumar G; Malaghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Feeding mode during infancy and its effect on deciduous tooth appearance in oral cavity in two generations and among genders. Aim and Objective: Study aimed to compare and correlate times and patterns of deciduous tooth eruption in breastfeeding (OBF), partial breastfeeding (PBF) and spoon feeding (SF) infants and initiation of semisolid food feeding (SSF) in infants. It also aimed to address the variations in the time of eruption of first deciduous tooth and its pattern in two generations who had more than a decade of difference in ages. Materials and methods: An open-ended questionnaire study was conducted on mothers of 265 patients from two groups, generation 1 (G1)- adults who were aged 20-35 years and second group, generation 2 (G2) - children who were below 5 years of age . Results: A statistical significance was observed with respect to age, gender, generations, and frequency of breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding and time of initiation of semisolid food. Conclusion: There is a delayed eruption of teeth in present generation. For girls, it occurs at age of 7.88 months and for boys, it occurs at the age of 8.08 months. PMID:24783136

  8. Premature primary tooth eruption in cognitive/motor-delayed ADNP-mutated children

    PubMed Central

    Gozes, I; Van Dijck, A; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Grigg, I; Karmon, G; Giladi, E; Eger, M; Gabet, Y; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Cappuyns, E; Elpeleg, O; Kooy, R F; Bedrosian-Sermone, S

    2017-01-01

    A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways. Here, collaborating with parents/caregivers globally, we discovered premature tooth eruption as a potential early diagnostic biomarker for ADNP mutation. The parents of 44/54 ADNP-mutated children reported an almost full erupted dentition by 1 year of age, including molars and only 10 of the children had teeth within the normal developmental time range. Looking at Adnp-deficient mice, by computed tomography, showed significantly smaller dental sacs and tooth buds at 5 days of age in the deficient mice compared to littermate controls. There was only trending at 2 days, implicating age-dependent dysregulation of teething in Adnp-deficient mice. Allen Atlas analysis showed Adnp expression in the jaw area. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene array analysis of human ADNP-mutated lymphoblastoids, whole-mouse embryos and mouse brains identified dysregulation of bone/nervous system-controlling genes resulting from ADNP mutation/deficiency (for example, BMP1 and BMP4). AKAP6, discovered here as a major gene regulated by ADNP, also links cognition and bone maintenance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that early primary (deciduous) teething is related to the ADNP syndrome, providing for early/simple diagnosis and paving the path to early intervention/specialized treatment plan. PMID:28221363

  9. Pre-, Syn- and Post Eruptive Seismicity of the 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kendall, Michael; Nowacky, Andy; Keir, Derek; Oppenheimer, Clive; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Ayele, Atalay; Ibrahim, Said; Jacques, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Nabro volcano, located in south-east Eritrea, East Africa, lies at the eastern margin of the Afar Rift and the Danakil Depression. Its tectonic behaviour is controlled by the divergence of the Arabian, Nubian and Somali plates. Nabro volcano was thought to be seismically quiet until it erupted in June 2011 with limited warning. The volcano erupted on June 12, 2011 around 20:32 UTC, following a series of earthquakes on that day that reached a maximum magnitude of 5.8. It is the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano and only the second in Eritrea, following the Dubbi eruption in 1861. A lava flow emerged from the caldera and travelled about 20 km from the vent and buried settlements in the area. At the time of this eruption there was no seismic network in Eritrea, and hence the volcano was not monitored. In this study we use ten Ethiopian, one Yemeni and one Djibouti stations to investigate the seismicity of the area before, during and after the eruption. Four Eritrean seismic stations deployed in June 2011, four days after the eruption, are also included in the dataset. Travel time picks supplied by colleagues from Djibouti were also incorporated into the dataset. Our analysis covers roughly three months before and after the eruption and shows that Nabro was seismically quiet before the eruption (nine events), with the exception of one major earthquake (4.8 magnitude) that occurred on March 31, 2011. In contrast, the region shows continued seismic activity after the eruption (92 events). During the eruption seismicity levels are high (123 events), with two days particularly active, June 12 and June 17 with 85 and 28 discrete events, respectively. Maximum magnitudes of 5.8 and 5.9 were recorded on these two days. The two days of increased seismicity are consistent with satellite observations of the eruption which show two distinct phases of the eruption. The period between these two phases was dominated by volcanic tremor. The tremor signal lasted for almost one

  10. Relationship between eruption plume heights and seismic source amplitudes of eruption tremors and explosion events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, A.; Kumagai, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is crucial to analyze and interpret eruption tremors and explosion events for estimating eruption size and understanding eruption phenomena. Kumagai et al. (EPS, 2015) estimated the seismic source amplitudes (As) and cumulative source amplitudes (Is) for eruption tremors and explosion events at Tungurahua, Ecuador, by the amplitude source location (ASL) method based on the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation in a high-frequency band (5-10 Hz). They found scaling relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events. However, the universality of these relations is yet to be verified, and the physical meanings of As and Is are not clear. In this study, we analyzed the relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events at active volcanoes in Japan, and estimated As and Is by the ASL method. We obtained power-law relations between As and Is, in which the powers were different between eruption tremors and explosion events. These relations were consistent with the scaling relations at Tungurahua volcano. Then, we compared As with maximum eruption plume heights (H) during eruption tremors analyzed in this study, and found that H was proportional to 0.21 power of As. This relation is similar to the plume height model based on the physical process of plume rise, which indicates that H is proportional to 0.25 power of volumetric flow rate for plinian eruptions. This suggests that As may correspond to volumetric flow rate. If we assume a seismic source with volume changes and far-field S-wave, As is proportional to the source volume rate. This proportional relation and the plume height model give rise to the relation that H is proportional to 0.25 power of As. These results suggest that we may be able to estimate plume heights in realtime by estimating As during eruptions from seismic observations.

  11. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  12. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of one- and two-visit endodontic treatment of asymptomatic necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Molander, Anders; Warfvinge, Johan; Reit, Claes; Kvist, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    The present investigation recorded the 2-year clinical and radiographic outcome of one- and two visit endodontic treatment and studied the significance of the bacteriologic sampling results on the outcome. A randomization procedure allocated 53 teeth to one-visit treatment and 48 teeth to two-visit treatment. At the end of the study period, 32 teeth (65%) in the one-visit group and 30 teeth (75%) in the two-visit group were classified as healed. The statistical analysis of the healing results did not show any significant difference between the groups (p = 0.75). Forty-nine (80%) of the 61 teeth that were obturated after a negative micobiologic sample were classified as healed. Teeth sealed after positive samples healed in 44%. The present study gave evidence that similar healing results might be obtained through one- and two-visit antimicrobial treatment.

  13. Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: Volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, T.; Larsen, G.

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale volcanic lineaments in Iceland are an axial zone, which is delineated by the Reykjanes, West and North Volcanic Zones (RVZ, WVZ, NVZ) and the East Volcanic Zone (EVZ), which is growing in length by propagation to the southwest through pre-existing crust. These zones are connected across central Iceland by the Mid-Iceland Belt (MIB). Other volcanically active areas are the two intraplate belts of Öræfajökull (ÖVB) and Snæfellsnes (SVB). The principal structure of the volcanic zones are the 30 volcanic systems, where 12 are comprised of a fissure swarm and a central volcano, 7 of a central volcano, 9 of a fissure swarm and a central domain, and 2 are typified by a central domain alone. Volcanism in Iceland is unusually diverse for an oceanic island because of special geological and climatological circumstances. It features nearly all volcano types and eruption styles known on Earth. The first order grouping of volcanoes is in accordance with recurrence of eruptions on the same vent system and is divided into central volcanoes (polygenetic) and basalt volcanoes (monogenetic). The basalt volcanoes are categorized further in accordance with vent geometry (circular or linear), type of vent accumulation, characteristic style of eruption and volcanic environment (i.e. subaerial, subglacial, submarine). Eruptions are broadly grouped into effusive eruptions where >95% of the erupted magma is lava, explosive eruptions if >95% of the erupted magma is tephra (volume calculated as dense rock equivalent, DRE), and mixed eruptions if the ratio of lava to tephra occupy the range in between these two end-members. Although basaltic volcanism dominates, the activity in historical time (i.e. last 11 centuries) features expulsion of basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite magmas that have produced effusive eruptions of Hawaiian and flood lava magnitudes, mixed eruptions featuring phases of Strombolian to Plinian intensities, and explosive phreatomagmatic and magmatic

  14. Study New Pregress on Volcanic Phreatomagmatic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Fan, Q.; Li, N.

    2007-12-01

    As an essential and important type of volcanic eruption on earth, phreatomagmatic eruption is characterized by groundwater-related explosive eruption and subsequent base surge deposit and maar lakes. Base surge deposit and maar lakes are widely distributed all over the world, and also in the Northeast China and the southern China. Study of phreatomagmatic eruption maybe dated back to 1921, and in the following over 80 years, many works have been done on phreatomagmatic eruption, using various of methods of volcanic geology, petrology, sedimentology, physical volcanology and digital modeling, to discuss its origin and mechanism. In this paper, we focus on the geological feature of the base surge deposit and dynamic mechanism of the phreatomagmatic eruption. When ascending basaltic magma meets with ground ( surface ) water, violent explosion would occur, this action was called phreatomagmatic eruption. The main product of this kind of eruption are maars and base surge. As to the base surge, it has long been treated as sedimentary tuff by mistake. Usually, base surge is distributed around maar, different from the distribution of sedimentary tuff. Typical phenomena of base surge caused by phreatomagmatic eruption can be observed through the detail field work, such as large-scale and low-angle cross-bedding, slaty-bedding, current-bedding and distal facies accretionary lapilli. In order to explain the dynamic mechanism of phreatomagmatic eruption thoroughly, we propose a simple model in this paper in light of the elasticity theory. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: the larger the radius of maar, the larger the explosive wallop needed for the formation of maar is; provided that the radius of maar and depth of explosive point are limited, then the larger the area of contact surface between magma and groundwater, the stronger the explosive energy will be; if the explosive energy and area of explosive point are restricted, the larger the radius of maar, the greater

  15. An overlay partial denture to restore worn mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Samant, Asha; DeSciscio, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Restoring worn anterior mandibular teeth is a challenge, especially when teeth are small, esthetics are a concern, the long-term prognosis is questionable, and/or patient finances are an issue. This article describes an alternate treatment for a patient with a collapsed bite, missing posterior mandibular teeth, an ill-fitting complete maxillary denture with poor esthetics, and irregular, worn mandibular anterior teeth.

  16. Incorporating the eruptive history in a stochastic model for volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We show how a stochastic version of a general load-and-discharge model for volcanic eruptions can be implemented. The model tracks the history of the volcano through a quantity proportional to stored magma volume. Thus large eruptions can influence the activity rate for a considerable time following, rather than only the next repose as in the time-predictable model. The model can be fitted to data using point-process methods. Applied to flank eruptions of Mount Etna, it exhibits possible long-term quasi-cyclic behavior, and to Mauna Loa, a long-term decrease in activity. An extension to multiple interacting sources is outlined, which may be different eruption styles or locations, or different volcanoes. This can be used to identify an 'average interaction' between the sources. We find significant evidence that summit eruptions of Mount Etna are dependent on preceding flank eruptions, with both flank and summit eruptions being triggered by the other type. Fitted to Mauna Loa and Kilauea, the model had a marginally significant relationship between eruptions of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, consistent with the invasion of the latter's plumbing system by magma from the former.

  17. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  2. Whitening non vital teeth – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moraru, Iren; Ţuculină, Mihaela; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Gheorghiţă, Lelia; Diaconu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used in cosmetic dentistry teeth whitening can be used combined with other restorative techniques during dental treatment. Non-vital teeth whitening is necessary whenever we need an improvement of their aspect, as it’s a known fact that these teeth can have a grey or pink-grey coloration when they are not correctly endodontical treated. PMID:24778849

  3. Loss of teeth and enamel in tetrapods: fossil record, genetic data and morphological adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Tucker, Abigail S; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Since their recruitment in the oral cavity, approximately 450 million years ago, teeth have been subjected to strong selective constraints due to the crucial role that they play in species survival. It is therefore quite surprising that the ability to develop functional teeth has subsequently been lost several times, independently, in various lineages. In this review, we concentrate our attention on tetrapods, the only vertebrate lineage in which several clades lack functional teeth from birth to adulthood. Indeed, in other lineages, teeth can be absent in adults but be functionally present in larvae and juveniles, can be absent in the oral cavity but exist in the pharyngeal region, or can develop on the upper jaw but be absent on the lower jaw. Here, we analyse the current data on toothless (edentate) tetrapod taxa, including information available on enamel-less species. Firstly, we provide an analysis of the dispersed and fragmentary morphological data published on the various living taxa concerned (and their extinct relatives) with the aim of tracing the origin of tooth or enamel loss, i.e. toads in Lissamphibia, turtles and birds in Sauropsida, and baleen whales, pangolins, anteaters, sloths, armadillos and aardvark in Mammalia. Secondly, we present current hypotheses on the genetic basis of tooth loss in the chicken and thirdly, we try to answer the question of how these taxa have survived tooth loss given the crucial importance of this tool. The loss of teeth (or only enamel) in all of these taxa was not lethal because it was always preceded in evolution by the pre-adaptation of a secondary tool (beak, baleens, elongated adhesive tongues or hypselodonty) useful for improving efficiency in food uptake. The positive selection of such secondary tools would have led to relaxed functional constraints on teeth and would have later compensated for the loss of teeth. These hypotheses raise numerous questions that will hopefully be answered in the near future. PMID

  4. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Withinmore » the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain shapes.« less

  5. Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in stratospheric volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Mélanie; Thiemens, Mark H; Delmas, Robert J; Savarino, Joël

    2007-01-05

    The observed mass-independent sulfur isotopic composition (Delta33S) of volcanic sulfate from the Agung (March 1963) and Pinatubo (June 1991) eruptions recorded in the Antarctic snow provides a mechanism for documenting stratospheric events. The sign of Delta33S changes over time from an initial positive component to a negative value. Delta33S is created during photochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid on a monthly time scale, which indicates a fast process. The reproducibility of the results reveals that Delta33S is a reliable tracer to chemically identify atmospheric processes involved during stratospheric volcanism.

  6. Eruption and degassing dynamics of the major August 2015 Piton de la Fournaise eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Muro, Andrea; Arellano, Santiago; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bachelery, Patrick; Boudoire, Guillaume; Coppola, Diego; Ferrazzini, Valerie; Galle, Bo; Giudice, Gaetano; Gurioli, Lucia; Harris, Andy; Liuzzo, Marco; Metrich, Nicole; Moune, Severine; Peltier, Aline; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Vlastelic, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) shield volcano is one of the most active basaltic volcanoes in the World with one eruption every nine months, on average. This frequent volcanic activity is broadly bimodal, with frequent small volume, short lived eruptions (< 30 Mm3, most being < 10 Mm3) and less frequent relatively large (50-210 Mm3) and long lasting (months) eruptions. After the major caldera forming event of 2007, the volcano produced several short lived small volume summit to proximal eruptions of relatively evolved cotectic magmas and relatively long repose periods (up to 3.5 years between 2010 and 2014). The August 2015 eruption was the first large (45±15 Mm3) and long lasting (2 months) eruption since 2007 and the only event to be fully monitored by the new gas geochemical network of Piton de la Fournaise volcanological observatory (DOAS, MultiGaS, diffuse CO2 soil emissions). Regular lava and tephra sampling was also performed for geochemical and petrological analysis. The eruption was preceded by a significant increase in CO2 soil emissions at distal soil stations (ca. 15 km from the summit), with CO2 enrichment also being recorded at summit low temperature fumaroles. Eruptive products were spectacularly zoned, with plagioclase and pyroxene being abundant in the early erupted products and olivine being the main phase in the late-erupted lavas. Total gas emissions at the eruptive vent underwent a decrease during the first half of the eruption and then an increase, mirroring the time evolution of magma discharge rate (from 5-10 m3/s in September to 15-30 m3/s in late-October) and the progressive change in magma composition. In spite of significant evolution in magma and gas output, CO2/SO2 ratios in high temperature gases remained quite low (< 0.3) and with little temporal change. Geochemical data indicated that this relatively long-lived eruption corresponded to the progressive drainage of most of the shallow part of PdF plumbing system, triggered by a new

  7. Longitudinal eruptive and posteruptive tooth movements, studied on oblique and lateral cephalograms with implants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Baumrind, Sheldon; Chen, Gui; Chen, Huizhong; Liang, Yi; Xu, Tianmin

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the eruptive and posteruptive tooth displacements of untreated growing subjects longitudinally and the potential connections between posteruptive displacement of the maxillary and mandibular first molars and skeletal facial growth. The sample comprised 11 series of right 45° oblique cephalograms and lateral cephalograms of untreated children with metallic implants of the Björk type obtained from the archives of a growth study. Cephalograms generated at approximately 2-year intervals between the ages of 8.5 and 16 years were selected and traced. Superimpositions of serial tracings of oblique cephalograms on stable intraosseous implants were made to determine the displacements of buccal segment teeth in both arches, and superimpositions of serial tracings of lateral cephalograms were used to evaluate growth of the jaws. Continuous mesial tipping of the maxillary molars was observed from 8.5 to 16 years of age, averaging 8.2° ± 5.5° for the first molars and 18.3°± 8.5° for the second molars. Compared with the maxillary molars, the mandibular first molars showed less change in angulation except in the later mixed dentition when more than half of the subjects had accelerated forward tipping of the first molar in the late mixed dentition associated with migration into the leeway space. Average amounts of cumulative eruption from 8.5 to 16 years of age were 12.1 ± 2.1 mm downward and 3.8 ± 1.7 mm forward for the maxillary first molar. The mandibular first molar showed 8.6 ± 2.3 mm of eruption and 4.4 ± 1.9 mm of mesial migration. Peak velocity of vertical eruption of the maxillary and mandibular first molars corresponded to the skeletal vertical growth spurt. The maxillary canines and first premolars showed remarkable and continuous uprighting migration during eruption, averaging 9.5° ± 5.0° and 10.5° ± 6.7°, respectively. However, when they erupted into the occlusion, their changes in

  8. An Ancient Gene Network Is Co-opted for Teeth on Old and New Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gareth J; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Bloomquist, Ryan F; Uyesugi, Kristine; Manley, Nancy R; Streelman, J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate dentitions originated in the posterior pharynx of jawless fishes more than half a billion years ago. As gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) evolved, teeth developed on oral jaws and helped to establish the dominance of this lineage on land and in the sea. The advent of oral jaws was facilitated, in part, by absence of hox gene expression in the first, most anterior, pharyngeal arch. Much later in evolutionary time, teleost fishes evolved a novel toothed jaw in the pharynx, the location of the first vertebrate teeth. To examine the evolutionary modularity of dentitions, we asked whether oral and pharyngeal teeth develop using common or independent gene regulatory pathways. First, we showed that tooth number is correlated on oral and pharyngeal jaws across species of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi (East Africa), suggestive of common regulatory mechanisms for tooth initiation. Surprisingly, we found that cichlid pharyngeal dentitions develop in a region of dense hox gene expression. Thus, regulation of tooth number is conserved, despite distinct developmental environments of oral and pharyngeal jaws; pharyngeal jaws occupy hox-positive, endodermal sites, and oral jaws develop in hox-negative regions with ectodermal cell contributions. Next, we studied the expression of a dental gene network for tooth initiation, most genes of which are similarly deployed across the two disparate jaw sites. This collection of genes includes members of the ectodysplasin pathway, eda and edar, expressed identically during the patterning of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Taken together, these data suggest that pharyngeal teeth of jawless vertebrates utilized an ancient gene network before the origin of oral jaws, oral teeth, and ectodermal appendages. The first vertebrate dentition likely appeared in a hox-positive, endodermal environment and expressed a genetic program including ectodysplasin pathway genes. This ancient regulatory circuit was co-opted and modified for teeth in oral

  9. Mount Cameroon Eruptions, Related Hazards and Effects on the Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloatem Tazifor, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Mount Cameroon (MC) is the highest peak in West and Central Africa. It is the only active volcano along the 1600km, Cameroon volcanic line with NE-SW orientation. It has a height of about 4100m above sea level, is a typical example of a hazardous volcano in a densely populated area, often causing damage by lava flows. It shows layered mafic volcanic sequence thought to be related to near-continuous eruptions within the last century during which period it has erupted 8 times in 1909, 1922, 1925, 1954, 1959, 1982, 1999 and 2000. These volcanic activities are suggested to be contributing factor to the many small-scale shallow landslides within the last 20 years which have resulted in the loss of about 30 lives and significant damage to farmland and property. The relatively high carbon dioxide (CO2) content in MC Glass inclusions support the interpretation that the CO2 gas responsible for the 1984 Lakes Monoun and 1986 Nyos disasters is magmatic in origin, which killed 37 and over 1800 people respectively. Months before the latest 2000 eruption, MC was characterized by a seismic swarm recorded in 03/2000 by analogue seismic stations. The co-eruptive period from May 28th to June 19th, 2000 was characterized by sequences of earth quakes, swarms and volcanic tremor. The main shock had a magnitude 3.2 event and a modified Mercalli intensity of 3 to 4. The largest seismic event recorded had a magnitude of 4. An explosion on 5th June, 2000, injured many members of a surveillance team, and a helicopter crash on 10th June, 2000 killed both pilots. It also led to lava flow across the Limbe-Idenau highway, damage of forest and palm plantations in Bakingili, and the evacuation of the 600 inhabitants of Bakingili. Never the less MC has positive impacts on the environment such as increased soil fertility where agro-industrial plantations have taken advantage, and more touristic sites have developed. After the last eruption of 2000, a number of seismographs have been placed along

  10. Aesthetic treatment of discoloration of nonvital teeth.

    PubMed

    Miara, P

    1995-09-01

    Attempts to treat discoloration in nonvital teeth were first reported a century ago. This article discusses two potential causes of nonvital tooth discoloration-trauma and endodontic treatment-along with a step-by-step clinical procedure for treatment of the discoloration. In trauma, hemoglobin is released into the tissues; iron oxides, formed by oxygen and iron in hemoglobin, cause discoloration and swelling that infringes on pulp space, forcing the pulp to recede with a potential loss of tooth vitality. After endodontic treatment, either hemorrhaging, materials used, or incomplete removal and breakdown of necrotic tissue may cause staining. The learning objective of this article is to review the causes and the prevention/treatment of discoloration in nonvital teeth.

  11. Overdentures on natural teeth: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Previgliano, V; Barone Monfrin, S; Santià, G; Preti, G

    2004-01-01

    The study presents a new type of copings for overdentures on natural teeth. A new type of custom-made copings was prepared on 10 extracted teeth and their marginal fit was observed microscopically by means of a mechanical device, and software was employed to measure the gap. The marginal fit evaluation gave satisfactory values with mean values of the gap measurements below the clinically accepted limits (mean gap: 25.3 microm; minimum 7.3 microm, maximum 56.5 microm). The advantages of these new copings are: the rapidity of their preparation; the protection of the root canal treatment, because the coping with this chair-side method is prepared and cemented in one session; the low costs.

  12. Teaching parents to look after children's teeth.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S

    1994-03-01

    Children's toothpastes with fluoride help to prevent decay, but parents should ask their dentist before giving fluoride supplements to children. Overdosage is harmful. Sugars eaten as part of a meal do less harm to teeth than those eaten frequently as snacks. Sugar-free infant drinks and children's confectionery are now on the market and are more "tooth friendly". Look out for the "happy tooth" symbol. Babies can be registered with NHS dentists as soon as the first teeth start to come through, and should be taken regularly to the dentist throughout childhood. Under the NHS scheme, dentists are paid a capitation fee to provide continuing preventive care and treatment for children free of charge.

  13. Thermal signature, eruption style, and eruption evolution at Pele and Pillan on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, A.G.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Williams, D.A.; Phillips, C.B.; McEwen, A.S.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Smythe, W.D.; Kamp, L.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Carlson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft has been periodically monitoring volcanic activity on Io since June 1996, making it possible to chart the evolution of individual eruptions. We present results of coanalysis of Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and solid-state imaging (SSI) data of eruptions at Pele and Pillan, especially from a particularly illuminating data set consisting of mutually constraining, near-simultaneous NIMS and SSI observations obtained during orbit C9 in June 1997. The observed thermal signature from each hot spot, and the way in which the thermal signature changes with time, tightly constrains the possible styles of eruption. Pele and Pillan have very different eruption styles. From September 1996 through May 1999, Pele demonstrates an almost constant total thermal output, with thermal emission spectra indicative of a long-lived, active lava lake. The NIMS Pillan data exhibit the thermal signature of a "Pillanian" eruption style, a large, vigorous eruption with associated open channel, or sheet flows, producing an extensive flow field by orbit C10 in September 1997. The high mass eruption rate, high liquidus temperature (at least 1870 K) eruption at Pillan is the best candidate so far for an active ultramafic (magnesium-rich, "komatiitic") flow on Io, a style of eruption never before witnessed. The thermal output per unit area from Pillan is, however, consistent with the emplacement of large, open-channel flows. Magma temperature at Pele is ~1600 K. If the magma temperature is 1600 K, it suggests a komatiitic-basalt composition. The power output from Pele is indicative of a magma volumetric eruption rate of ~250 to 340 m3 s-1. Although the Pele lava lake is considerably larger than its terrestrial counterparts, the power and mass fluxes per unit area are similar to active terrestrial lava lakes. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Homologous prominence non-radial eruptions: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchlev, P.; Koleva, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Dechev, M.

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides important details on homologous eruptions of a solar prominence that occurred in active region NOAA 10904 on 2006 August 22. We report on the pre-eruptive phase of the homologous feature as well as the kinematics and the morphology of a forth from a series of prominence eruptions that is critical in defining the nature of the previous consecutive eruptions. The evolution of the overlying coronal field during homologous eruptions is discussed and a new observational criterion for homologous eruptions is provided. We find a distinctive sequence of three activation periods each of them containing pre-eruptive precursors such as a brightening and enlarging of the prominence body followed by small surge-like ejections from its southern end observed in the radio 17 GHz. We analyse a fourth eruption that clearly indicates a full reformation of the prominence after the third eruption. The fourth eruption although occurring 11 h later has an identical morphology, the same angle of propagation with respect to the radial direction, as well as similar kinematic evolution as the previous three eruptions. We find an important feature of the homologous eruptive prominence sequence that is the maximum height increase of each consecutive eruption. The present analysis establishes that all four eruptions observed in Hα are of confined type with the third eruption undergoing a thermal disappearance during its eruptive phase. We suggest that the observation of the same direction of the magnetic flux rope (MFR) ejections can be consider as an additional observational criterion for MFR homology. This observational indication for homologous eruptions is important, especially in the case of events of typical or poorly distinguishable morphology of eruptive solar phenomena.

  15. Understanding External Cervical Resorption in Vital Teeth.

    PubMed

    Mavridou, Athina M; Hauben, Esther; Wevers, Martine; Schepers, Evert; Bergmans, Lars; Lambrechts, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) structure and the cellular and tissue characteristics of external cervical resorption (ECR) in vital teeth and to understand the phenomenon of ECR by combining histomorphological and radiographic findings. Twenty-seven cases of vital permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The extracted teeth were further analyzed by using nanofocus computed tomographic imaging, hard tissue histology, and scanning electron microscopy. All examined teeth showed some common characteristics. Based on the clinical and experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism of ECR was proposed. At the first stage (ie, the initiation stage), ECR was initiated at the cementum below the gingival epithelial attachment. At the second stage (ie, the resorption stage), the resorption invaded the tooth structure 3-dimensionally toward the pulp space. However, it did not penetrate the pulp space because of the presence of a pericanalar resorption-resistant sheet. This layer was observed to consist of predentin, dentin, and occasionally reparative mineralized (bonelike) tissue, having a fluctuating thickness averaging 210 μm. At the last advanced stage (ie, the repair stage), repair took place by an ingrowth and apposition of bonelike tissue into the resorption cavity. During the reparative stage, repair and remodeling phenomena evolve simultaneously, whereas both resorption and reparative stages progress in parallel at different areas of the tooth. ECR is a dynamic and complex condition that involves periodontal and endodontic tissues. Using clinical, histologic, radiographic, and scanning microscopic analysis, a better understanding of the evolution of ECR is possible. Based on the experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism for the initiation and growth of ECR is proposed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  16. Eruption precursors: Manifestations and strategies for detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael; Pritchard, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    The past several decades have seen a rapid increase in volcano monitoring and modeling capabilities. Diverse arrays of instrument networks can detect a variety of pre-, co-, and post-eruptive phenomena, and remote sensing observations are available across a range of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. A growing class of models, based on the physics of magmatic systems, are making use of these expanding datastreams, providing probabilistic assessments of such parameters as magma supply, volatile content, and eruption duration. To what extent, however, do these developments heighten our ability to identify eruption precursors? The advent of better data and new models provides an opportunity to reexamine our understanding of pre-eruption unrest, as well as our ability to detect and recognize it as such. An idealized model of the buildup to a volcanic eruption might include magma ascent from a deep source region and accumulation in the mid- to upper crust in the preceding months to years. The process might be manifested by surface inflation and deep long-period earthquakes, and accompanied by an increase in CO2 emissions. As magma continues to accumulate, distal volcano-tectonic earthquakes may result as stress builds on nearby faults, H2S emissions may increase as sulfur in a shallow reservoir is hydrolyzed by groundwater, and fumarole and spring temperatures may increase and show changes in chemistry. In the days to hours before an eruption, sudden changes in the rate and style of earthquakes (including repeating earthquakes and tremor) and deformation may occur as the magma reservoir ruptures and magma moves laterally or vertically. Phreatic eruptions might result as ascending magma comes into contact with groundwater, and SO2 emissions might increase as the path between the magma and surface dries out. How often does such a sequence actually occur? Relatively few volcanoes are comprehensively monitored prior to obvious expressions of unrest, so this is not

  17. The 1977 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Helz, R.T.; Dzurisin, D.; Eaton, G.P.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Puniwai, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Kilauea volcano began to erupt on September 13, 1977, after a 21.5-month period of quiescence. Harmonic tremor in the upper and central east rift zone and rapid deflation of the summit area occurred for 22 hours before the outbreak of surface activity. On the first night, spatter ramparts formed along a discontinuous, en-echelon, 5.5-km-long fissure system that trends N70??E between two prehistoric cones, Kalalua and Puu Kauka. Activity soon became concentrated at a central vent that erupted sporadically until September 23 and extruded flows that moved a maximum distance of 2.5 km to the east. On September 18, new spatter ramparts began forming west of Kalalua, extending to 7 km the length of the new vent system. A vent near the center of this latest fissure became the locus of sustained fountaining and continued to extrude spatter and short flows intermittently until September 20. The most voluminous phase of the eruption began late on September 25. A discontinuous spatter rampart formed along a 700-m segment near the center of the new, 7-km-long fissure system; within 24 hours activity became concentrated at the east end of this segment. One flow from the 35-m-high cone that formed at this site moved rapidly southeast and eventually reached an area 10 km from the vent and 700 m from the nearest house in the evacuated village of Kalapana. We estimate the total volume of material produced during this 18-day eruption to be 35 ?? 106 m3. Samples from active vents and flows are differentiated quartz-normative tholeiitic basalt, similar in composition to lavas erupted from Kilauea in 1955 and 1962. Plagioclase is the only significant phenocryst; augite, minor olivine, and rare orthopyroxene and opaque oxides accompany it as microphenocrysts. Sulfide globules occur in fresh glass and as inclusions in phenocrysts in early 1977 lavas; their absence in chemically-similar basalt from the later phases of the eruption suggests that more extensive intratelluric degassing

  18. The history of Latin teeth names.

    PubMed

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  19. Coronal Bright Points Associated with Minifilament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 109 cm-3. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  20. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellationmore » of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.« less

  1. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  2. On the evolutionary advantage of multi-cusped teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Mark B.; Barani, Amir; Lawn, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of mammalian evolution is a progressive complexity in postcanine tooth morphology. However, the driving force for this complexity remains unclear: whether to expand the versatility in diet source, or to bolster tooth structural integrity. In this study, we take a quantitative approach to this question by examining the roles of number, position and height of multiple cusps in determining sustainable bite forces. Our approach is to use an extended finite-element methodology with due provision for step-by-step growth of an embedded crack to determine how fracture progresses with increasing occlusal load. We argue that multi-cusp postcanine teeth are well configured to withstand high bite forces provided that multiple cusps are contacted simultaneously to share the load. However, contact on a single near-wall cusp diminishes the strength. Location of the load points and cusp height, rather than cusp number or radius, are principal governing factors. Given these findings, we conclude that while complex tooth structures can enhance durability, increases in cusp number are more likely to be driven by the demands of food manipulation. Structural integrity of complex teeth is maintained when individual cusps remain sufficiently distant from the side walls and do not become excessively tall relative to tooth width. PMID:27558851

  3. Stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by volatile sulfur compounds in endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Johann; von Baehr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Persistent microorganisms in endodontically treated teeth produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) such as methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, and thioether. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the ex vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulfur compounds in 354 patients with systemic diseases. These systemic findings are correlated with semiquantitative values of a VSC indicator applied directly on endodontically treated teeth. Data elucidate the role of VSC in patients with immunologic diseases and the role of a semiquantitative chairside test, like the VSC indicator presented here, in correlation to IFNg and IL-10 sensitization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The association between ex vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulfur components is supported by the fact that the number of interferon gamma- and/or interleukin-10-positive sensitized patients declined significantly 3-8 months after extraction of the corresponding teeth.

  4. Stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by volatile sulfur compounds in endodontically treated teeth

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Johann; von Baehr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Persistent microorganisms in endodontically treated teeth produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) such as methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, and thioether. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the ex vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulfur compounds in 354 patients with systemic diseases. These systemic findings are correlated with semiquantitative values of a VSC indicator applied directly on endodontically treated teeth. Data elucidate the role of VSC in patients with immunologic diseases and the role of a semiquantitative chairside test, like the VSC indicator presented here, in correlation to IFNg and IL-10 sensitization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The association between ex vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulfur components is supported by the fact that the number of interferon gamma- and/or interleukin-10-positive sensitized patients declined significantly 3–8 months after extraction of the corresponding teeth. PMID:25792853

  5. A revision of hominin fossil teeth from Fontana Ranuccio (Middle Pleistocene, Anagni, Frosinone, Italy).

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Cerroni, Vittorio; Festa, Giulia; Sardella, Raffaele; Zaio, Paola

    2014-12-01

    The Fontana Ranuccio hominin teeth (FR, Latium, Italy) are dated to the Middle Pleistocene. In previous studies these teeth were classified as two lower (left and right) second molars, one lower left central incisor and a badly worn incisor crown, the exact position of which could not be determined. In 2012 these remains were acquired by the Anthropological Service of S.B.A.L. (Italian Ministry of Culture) and for this reason re-analysed. In a thorough revision we have reassessed them both morphologically and dimensionally as two lower (left and right) first molars, one lower left lateral incisor and a possible upper left canine. The comparison with penecontemporaneous and diachronic samples shows that the Fontana Ranuccio teeth are morphologically similar to Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos, Arago XIII and Neanderthal samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulp revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui Yu; Cheung, Gary Shun-pan; Chen, Jie; Yin, Xing Zhe; Wang, Qian Qian; Zhang, Cheng Fei

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure for immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twelve patients, each with an immature permanent tooth with chronic or acute apical periodontitis, were recruited. A triantibiotic mix (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline) was used to disinfect the pulp for 1 week. Then a blood clot was created in the canal, over which grey mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. Patients were recalled periodically. Six patients dropped from the study (as a result of pain or failure to induce bleeding after canal disinfection) and instead received a standard apexification procedure. Another 3 patients did not attend any recall appointments. The remaining teeth (n = 3) were found to exhibit complete root development, with a positive response to pulp testing. Revascularization could be effective for managing immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis with appropriate case selection.

  7. Are Avellino (4365 cal BP) and Pompeii twin plinian eruptions? Pre-eruptive constraints and degassing history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît.; Ucciani, Guillaume; Cioni, Raffaello

    2010-05-01

    Somma-Vesuvius activity started 35 ky ago and is characterized by numerous eruptions of variable composition and eruptive style, sometimes interrupted by long periods of unrest. The main explosive eruptions are represented by four plinian eruptions: Pomici di Base eruption (22 cal ky), Mercato (~8900 cal BP), Avellino (4365 cal BP) and Pompeii (79 AD). The 79 AD eruption embodies the most famous eruption since it's responsible of the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum and it's the first described eruption. The Avellino eruption represents the last plinian event that preceded the Pompeii eruption. The eruptive sequence is similar to the 79 AD plinian eruption, with an opening phase preceding a main plinian fallout activity which ended by a phreatomagmatic phase. The fallout deposit displays a sharp colour contrast from white to grey pumice, corresponding to a magma composition evolution. We focus our study on the main fallout deposit that we sampled in detail in the Traianello quarry, 9 km North-North East of the crater, to investigate the degassing processes during the eruption, using volatile content and textural observations. Density and vesicularity measurements were obtained on a minimum of 100 pumice clasts sampled in 10 stratigraphic levels in the fallout deposit. On the basis of the density distribution, bulk geochemical data, point analytical measurements on glasses (melt inclusions and residual glass) and textural observations were obtained simultaneously on a minimum of 5 pumice clasts per eruptive unit. The glass composition, in particular the Na/K ratio, evolves from Na-rich phonolite for white pumices to a more K-rich phonolite for grey pumices. The pre-eruptive conditions are constrained by systematic Cl measurements in melt inclusions and matrix glass of pumice clasts. The entire magma was saturated relative to sub-critical fluids (a Cl-rich H2O vapour phase and a brine), with a Cl melt content buffered at ~6000 ppm, and a mean pre-eruptive H2O

  8. Post-eruptive Submarine Terrace Development of Capelinhos, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhongwei Zhao, Will; Mitchell, Neil; Quartau, Rui; Tempera, Fernando; Bricheno, Lucy

    2017-04-01

    Erosion of the coasts of volcanic islands by waves creates shallow banks, but how erosion proceeds with time to create them and how it relates to wave climate is unclear. In this study, historical and recent marine geophysical data collected around the Capelinhos promontory (western Faial Island, Azores) offer an unusual opportunity to characterize how a submarine terrace developed after the eruption. The promontory was formed in 1957/58 during a Surtseyan eruption that terminated with extensive lava forming new rocky coastal cliffs. Historical measurements of coastline position are supplemented here with coastlines measured from 2004 and 2014 Google Earth images in order to characterize coastline retreat rate and distance for lava- and tephra-dominated cliffs. Swath mapping sonars were used to characterize the submarine geometry of the resulting terrace (terrace edge position, gradient and morphology). Limited photographs are available from a SCUBA dive and drop-down camera deployments to ground truth the submarine geomorphology. The results reveal that coastal retreat rates have decreased rapidly with the time after the eruption, possibly explained by the evolving resistance to erosion of cliff base materials. Surprisingly, coastline retreat rate decreases with terrace width in a simple inverse power law with terrace width. We suspect this is only a fortuitous result as wave attenuation over the terrace will not obviously produce the variation, but nevertheless it shows how rapidly the retreat rate declines. Understanding the relationship between terrace widening shelf and coastal cliff retreat rate may be more widely interesting if they can be used to understand how islands evolve over time into abrasional banks and guyots.

  9. Arizona-sized Io Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These images of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, show the results of a dramatic event that occurred on the fiery satellite during a five-month period. The changes, captured by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft, occurred between the time Galileo acquired the left frame, during its seventh orbit of Jupiter, and the right frame, during its tenth orbit. A new dark spot, 400 kilometers (249 miles) in diameter, which is roughly the size of Arizona, surrounds a volcanic center named Pillan Patera. Galileo imaged a 120 kilometer (75 mile) high plume erupting from this location during its ninth orbit. Pele, which produced the larger plume deposit southwest of Pillan, also appears different than it did during the seventh orbit, perhaps due to interaction between the two large plumes. Pillan's plume deposits appear dark at all wavelengths. This color differs from the very red color associated with Pele, but is similar to the deposits of Babbar Patera, the dark feature southwest of Pele. Some apparent differences between the images are not caused by changes on Io's surface, but rather are due to differences in illumination, emission and phase angles. This is particularly apparent at Babbar Patera.

    North is to the top of the images. The left frame was acquired on April 4th, 1997, while the right frame was taken on Sept. 19th, 1997. The images were obtained at ranges of 563,000 kilometers (350,000 miles) for the left image, and 505,600 kilometers (314,165 miles) for the right.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  10. Shark teeth as edged weapons: serrated teeth of three species of selachians.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Joshua K; Bemis, William E

    2017-02-01

    Prior to European contact, South Pacific islanders used serrated shark teeth as components of tools and weapons. They did this because serrated shark teeth are remarkably effective at slicing through soft tissues. To understand more about the forms and functions of serrated shark teeth, we examined the morphology and histology of tooth serrations in three species: the Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), Blue Shark (Prionace glauca), and White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We show that there are two basic types of serrations. A primary serration consists of three layers of enameloid with underlying dentine filling the serration's base. All three species studied have primary serrations, although the dentine component differs (orthodentine in Tiger and Blue Sharks; osteodentine in the White Shark). Smaller secondary serrations are found in the Tiger Shark, formed solely by enameloid with no contribution from underlying dentine. Secondary serrations are effectively "serrations within serrations" that allow teeth to cut at different scales. We propose that the cutting edges of Tiger Shark teeth, equipped with serrations at different scales, are linked to a diet that includes large, hard-shelled prey (e.g., sea turtles) as well as smaller, softer prey such as fishes. We discuss other aspects of serration form and function by making analogies to man-made cutting implements, such as knives and saws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the effectiveness of propolis extract as a storage medium for avulsed teeth.

    PubMed

    Casaroto, Ana Regina; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Sell, Ana Maria; Franco, Selma Lucy; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Moreschi, Eduardo; Victorino, Fausto Rodrigo; Steffens, Vânia Antunes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and to radiographically analyze tooth replantation and the adjacent periodontium in dogs after storage in this extract. Human PDL cells were incubated with the experimental media propolis, milk, saliva, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM, positive controls), and distilled water (negative control). Cell viability was determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later by colorimetric MTT assay. Thirty incisors from dogs were divided into two storage time blocks (1 and 3 h) and were maintained in the experimental media. HBSS served as a positive control, and dry teeth (on gauze) as a negative control. The replanted teeth were radiographed once per month for 6 months. The radiographic images were standardized by the shortening/lengthening factor, and were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The in vitro results showed that the efficacy of propolis in maintaining functional viability of PDL cells was similar to that of milk. Propolis and milk were significantly better than controls from the 6-h time period. The in vivo results showed that teeth maintained in propolis medium exhibited replacement resorption with significant reduction in tooth length, similar to teeth maintained in saliva and dried teeth. This resorption was less intense with the 3-h storage time than the 1-h storage time. Conditions close to normal were found in teeth maintained in milk, similar to the HBSS control. Therefore, although propolis was effective in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells, resorption of the tooth replantation in dogs occurred under these experimental conditions.

  12. The epidemiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated molecular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Yu, Fang; Liu, Junjun; Cai, Wenping; Zhao, Yumei; Zhao, Shouliang; Liu, Shangfeng

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Supernumerary teeth are common clinical dental anomalies. Although various studies have provided abundant information regarding genes and signaling pathways involved in tooth morphogenesis, which include Wnt, FGF, BMP, and Shh, the molecular mechanism of tooth formation, especially for supernumerary teeth, is still unclear. In the population, some cases of supernumerary teeth are sporadic, while others are syndrome-related with familial hereditary. The prompt and accurate diagnosis of syndrome related supernumerary teeth is quite important for some distinctive disorders. Mice are the most commonly used model system for investigating supernumerary teeth. The upregulation of Wnt and Shh signaling in the dental epithelium results in the formation of multiple supernumerary teeth in mice. Understanding the molecular mechanism of supernumerary teeth is also a component of understanding tooth formation in general and provides clinical guidance for early diagnosis and treatment in the future. PMID:28598258

  13. Three-dimensional analysis using finite element method of anterior teeth inclination and center of resistance location.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Sodagar, Ahmad; Hassanpour, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    To locate the centre of resistance of consolidated units of four and six anterior teeth during retraction. Twelve three-dimensional (3D) models were designed in SolidWorks of the anterior segment with four and six teeth and their supporting structure. A proper force system was applied in each model to retract the teeth bodily. The exact location of the centre of resistances (CRes) was determined. It was found that the path of CRes change in four-tooth and six-tooth units according to the anterior teeth torque. A posterior shift of the CRes by increasing the inclination of teeth was shown. However, vertical position has a fluctuant behaviour. First it moves apically, then it moves incisally. Furthermore, results suggest that in en masse retraction, translation can be achieved with a smaller amount of moment-to-force ratio than in four-incisor retraction. In other words, for bodily retraction of anterior incisor segments, we should apply force in a more apical position. Different anterior torques between 7 and 35 degrees, cannot affect the CRes position dramatically. The area of CRes shifting is 0.92 mm (anterioposteriorly) x 0.74 mm (superior-inferiorly) in the six-tooth unit in the teeth model and 0.85 mm (anterioposteriorly) x 0.82 mm (superior-inferiorly) in the teeth and bone model. In the four-tooth model, the area of CRes shifting is 0.97 mm (anterioposteriorly) x 0.93 mm (superior-inferiorly) in tooth model and 0.77 mm (anterioposteriorly) x 0.87 mm (superior-inferiorly) in the teeth and bone model.

  14. The Effect of Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) on Dental Development: Can We Use the Teeth as an Early Diagnostic Tool?

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Uri; Bibi, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to reduced catalytic activity of the different sulfatase. Affected individuals show neurologic deterioration with mental retardation, skeletal anomalies, organomegaly, and skin changes as in X-linked ichthyosis. The only organ that was not examined in MSD patients is the dentition. To evaluate the effect of the metabolic error on dental development in a patient with the intermediate severe late-infantile form of MSD (S155P). Histological and chemical study were performed on three deciduous and five permanent teeth from MSD patient and pair-matched normal patients. Tooth germ size and enamel thickness were reduced in both deciduous and permanent MSD teeth, and the scalloping feature of the DEJ was missing in MSD teeth causing enamel to break off from the dentin. The mineral components in the enamel and dentin were different. The metabolic error insults the teeth in the stage of organogenesis in both the deciduous and permanent dentition. The end result is teeth with very sharp cusp tips, thin hypomineralized enamel, and exposed dentin due to the break off of enamel. These findings are different from all other types of MPS syndromes.Clinically the phenotype of intermediate severe late-infantile form of MSD appeared during the third year of life. In children of parents that are carriers, we can diagnose the disease as early as birth using X-ray radiograph of the anterior upper region or as early as 6-8 months when the first deciduous tooth erupt and consider very early treatment to ameliorate the symptoms.

  15. Extracellular Matrix-mediated Tissue Remodeling Following Axial Movement of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xianghong; Ito, Yoshihiro; Holliday, Sean; Walker, Cameron; Daniel, Jon; Galang, Therese M.; Fukui, Tadayoshi; Yamane, Akira; Begole, Ellen; Evans, Carla; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Tooth eruption is a multifactorial process involving movement of existing tissues and formation of new tissues coordinated by a complex set of genetic events. We have used the model of the unopposed rodent molar to study morphological and genetic mechanisms involved in axial movement of teeth. Following extraction of opposing upper molars, lower molars supererupted by 0.13 mm. Labeled tissue sections revealed significant amounts of new bone and cementum apposition at the root apex of the unopposed side following supereruption for 12 days. Newly apposited cementum and alveolar bone layers were approximately 3-fold thicker in the experimental vs the control group, whereas periodontal ligament width was maintained. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining indicated bone resorption at the mesial alveolar walls of unopposed molars and provided in tandem with new bone formation at the distal alveolar walls an explanation for the distal drift of molars in this model. Microarray analysis and semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a significant increase in collagen I, integrin β5, and SPARC gene expression as revealed by comparison between the unopposed molar group and the control group. Immunohistochemical verification revealed increased levels of integrin β5 and SPARC labeling in the periodontal ligament of the unopposed molar. Together our findings suggest that posteruptive axial movement of teeth was accomplished by significant formation of new root cementum and alveolar bone at the root apex in tandem with upregulation of collagen I, integrin β5, and SPARC gene expression. PMID:17015623

  16. NASA Spacecraft Views Erupting Chilean Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-13

    On March 3, 2015, Chile's Villarrica volcano erupted, forcing the evacuation of thousands of people. The eruption deposited a layer of ash over the volcano's eastern slope, blanketing and darkening the normal winter snow cover. The eruption and its effects were captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft on March 9. Black flows on the other flanks are mud and ash flows. Vegetation is displayed in red colors. The thermal infrared image shows hot spots (white colored) at the summit crater, indicating continuing volcanic activity. The ash blanket is warmer (brighter) than the cold snow (black). The image covers an area of 13.5 by 16.5 kilometers, and is located at 39.4 degrees south, 71.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19241

  17. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  18. Eruption of Alaska Volcano Breaks Historic Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick

    2009-05-01

    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (˜2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud “thunder,” lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  19. El Cobreloa: A geyser with two distinct eruption styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Munoz, C.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, S.; King, E.; Negri, A.; Ortega, P.; Patel, A.; Rudolph, M.

    2013-12-01

    El Cobreloa geyser has two distinct eruption styles: vigorous major eruptions, and less energetic minor eruptions. Minor eruptions splash hot water intermittently over an approximately 4 minute time period. Major eruptions begin with an eruption style similar to minor eruptions, but then transition to a voluminous and water-dominated eruption, and finally end with energetic steam discharge. The steam discharge continues for approximately 1 hour. We calculated the eruption intervals by visual observations, acoustic measurements, and ground temperature measurements. All of measurements consistently show that each eruption style has a regular interval: 4 hours and 40 minutes for major eruptions, and ~13 minutes for minor eruptions. From these observations, we infer that there are two boiling loci that source each type of eruption, one at the bottom and the other at the top of the conduit. If the bottom of the conduit is hot enough, boiling begins at the bottom of the conduit to make a steam slug. As this slug ascends in the conduit, it heats the surrounding water. If the slug rises fast enough it splashes water when it reaches the surface, creating minor eruptions. Each successive steam slug continues to heat water in the conduit until it eventually reaches the boiling temperature everywhere. Once the top of the conduit begins boiling, the energetic steam discharge begins and the boiling propagates downward. Such a process causes major eruption. Geysers are often studied as an analogue to magmatic volcanoes because it is easier to document how mass and energy transfer lead to eruptions. El Cobreloa provides insight into how the system becomes primed for large eruptions.

  20. The 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska: Monitoring a distant eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nye, C.J.; Keith, T.E.C.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Miller, T.P.; McNutt, S.R.; Moran, S.; Schneider, D.J.; Dehn, J.; Schaefer, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Shishaldin Volcano, in the central Aleutian volcanic arc, became seismically restless during the summer of 1998. Increasing unrest was monitored using a newly installed seismic network, weather satellites, and rare local visual observations. The unrest culminated in large eruptions on 19 April and 22-23 April 1999. The opening phase of the 19 April eruption produced a sub-Plinian column that rose to 16 km before rapidly dissipating. About 80 min into the 19 April event we infer that the eruption style transitioned to vigorous Strombolian fountaining. Exceptionally vigorous seismic tremor heralded the 23 April eruption, which produced a large thermal anomaly observable by satellite, but only a modest, 6-km-high plume. There are no ground-based visual observations of this eruption; however we infer that there was renewed, vigorous Strombolian fountaining. Smaller low-level ash-rich plumes were produced through the end of May 1999. The lava that erupted was evolved basalt with about 49% SiO2. Subsequent field investigations have been unable to find a distinction between deposits from each of the two major eruptive episodes.

  1. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  2. Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

  3. Nyiragongo Volcano Erupts in the Congo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo's border with Rwanda. According to news reports, one river of lava is headed straight toward Goma, where international aid teams are evacuating residents. Already, the lava flows have burned through large swaths of the surrounding jungle and have destroyed dozens of homes. This false-color image was acquired today (January 17) by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) roughly 5 hours after the eruption began. Notice Mount Nyiragongo's large plume (bright white) can be seen streaming westward in this scene. The plume appears to be higher than the immediately adjacent clouds and so it is colder in temperature, making it easy for MODIS to distinguish the volcanic plume from the clouds by using image bands sensitive to thermal radiation. Images of the eruption using other band combinations are located on the MODIS Rapid Response System. Nyiragongo eruptions are extremely hazardous because the lava tends to be very fluid and travels down the slopes of the volcano quickly. Eruptions can be large and spectacular, and flows can reach up to 10s of kilometers from the volcano very quickly. Also, biomass burned from Nyriagongo, and nearby Mount Nyamuragira, eruptions tends to create clouds of smoke that adversely affect the Mountain Gorillas living in the adjacent mountain chain. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. CHAIN RECONNECTIONS OBSERVED IN SYMPATHETIC ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    The nature of various plausible causal links between sympathetic events is still a controversial issue. In this work, we present multiwavelength observations of sympathetic eruptions, associated flares, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occurring on 2013 November 17 in two close active regions. Two filaments, i.e., F1 and F2, are observed in between the active regions. Successive magnetic reconnections, caused for different reasons (flux cancellation, shear, and expansion) have been identified during the whole event. The first reconnection occurred during the first eruption via flux cancellation between the sheared arcades overlying filament F2, creating a flux rope and leading to themore » first double-ribbon solar flare. During this phase, we observed the eruption of overlying arcades and coronal loops, which leads to the first CME. The second reconnection is believed to occur between the expanding flux rope of F2 and the overlying arcades of filament F1. We suggest that this reconnection destabilized the equilibrium of filament F1, which further facilitated its eruption. The third stage of reconnection occurred in the wake of the erupting filament F1 between the legs of the overlying arcades. This may create a flux rope and the second double-ribbon flare and a second CME. The fourth reconnection was between the expanding arcades of the erupting filament F1 and the nearby ambient field, which produced the bi-directional plasma flows both upward and downward. Observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation confirm the possibility of reconnection and the causal link between the magnetic systems.« less

  5. A Study of a Compound Solar Eruption with Two Consecutive Erupting Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Suman K.; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    We report a study of a compound solar eruption that was associated with two consecutively erupting magnetic structures and correspondingly two distinct peaks, during impulsive phase, of an M-class flare (M8.5). Simultaneous multi-viewpoint observations from SDO, GOES and STEREO-A show that this compound eruption originated from two pre-existing sigmoidal magnetic structures lying along the same polarity inversion line. Observations of the associated pre-existing filaments further show that these magnetic structures are lying one on top of the other, separated by 12 Mm in height, in a so-called “double-decker” configuration. The high-lying magnetic structure became unstable and erupted first, appearing as an expanding hot channel seen at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. About 12 minutes later, the low-lying structure also started to erupt and moved at an even faster speed compared to the high-lying one. As a result, the two erupting structures interacted and merged with each other, appearing as a single coronal mass ejection in the outer corona. We find that the double-decker configuration is likely caused by the persistent shearing motion and flux cancellation along the source active region’s strong-gradient polarity inversion line. The successive destabilization of these two separate but closely spaced magnetic structures, possibly in the form of magnetic flux ropes, led to a compound solar eruption. The study of the compound eruption provides a unique opportunity to reveal the formation process, initiation, and evolution of complex eruptive structures in solar active regions.

  6. The Variable Climate Impact of Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H.

    2011-12-01

    The main effect of big volcanic eruptions in the climate system is due to their efficient transport of condensable gases and their precursors into the stratosphere. There the formation of aerosols leads to effects on atmospheric radiation transfer inducing a reduction of incoming solar radiation by reflection (i.e. cooling of the Earth surface) and absorption of near infrared radiation (i.e. heating) in the aerosol laden layers. In the talk processes determining the climate effect of an eruption will be illustrated by examples, mainly from numerical modelling. The amount of gases released from a magma during an eruption and the efficiency of their transport into very high altitudes depends on the geological setting (magma type) and eruption style. While mid-sized eruption plumes of Plinian style quickly can develop buoyancy by entrainment of ambient air, very large eruptions with high magma flux rates often tend to collapsing plumes and co-ignimbrite style. These cover much bigger areas and are less efficient in entraining ambient air. Vertical transport in these plumes is chaotic and less efficient, leading to lower neutral buoyancy height and less gas and particles reaching high stratospheric altitudes. Explosive energy and amount of released condensable gases are not the only determinants for the climatic effect of an eruption. The effect on shortwave radiation is not linear with the amount of aerosols formed since according to the Lambert-Beer Law atmospheric optical depth reaches a saturation limit with increased absorber concentration. In addition, if more condensable gas is available for aerosol growth, particles become larger and this affects their optical properties to less reflection and more absorption. Larger particles settle out faster, thus reducing the life time of the aerosol disturbance. Especially for big tropical eruptions the strong heating of the stratosphere in low latitudes leads to changes in atmospheric wave propagation by strengthened

  7. Terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiyan; Lai, Wei; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-03-01

    Drug-induced lichen planus has been induced by antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antitubercular drugs, antihypertensives, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretic, heavy metals, NSAIDs, etc. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent, is widely used for dermatophyte infections and onychomycosis. Cutaneous adverse effects of terbinafine are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 22-year-old who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption 2 weeks after terbinafine initiation of. The body and lip cleared completely after 8 weeks of drug withdrawal; nail change cleared after 12 weeks.

  8. Global science: the eruption of Krakatau.

    PubMed

    Dörries, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The eruption of the volcano Krakatau in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) in 1883 had worldwide impact. This was perceived in the three quite different types of global propagation that occurred after the eruption: a rapid pressure wave, noticeable only to measuring instruments, followed a few hours later by the spread of the news of the event, succeeded by a slowly expanding optical phenomenon that lasted for a couple of years. Krakatau was the first natural catastrophe of global magnitude that was almost immediately recognized as such throughout the world, largely thanks to the recently installed worldwide telegraphic network.

  9. Comparative geothermometry of recent Hawaiian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill; Banks, Norman G.; Heliker, Christina; Neal, Christina A.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we compare lava temperatures measured using Cr-Al thermocouples or infrared spectrometry with estimated quenching temperatures based on the glass geothermometry calibration of Helz and Thornber (1987). Comparative data are available for the April 1982 and September 1982 summit eruptions, the Pu'u O'o east rift eruption (1983-1986), all three eruptions at Kilauea, and the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The results show that quenching temperatures, based on the MgO contents of Kilauean glasses (TMgO), lie within ±10°C of field measurements using the infrared spectrometer for 85% of the samples. Where a Cr-Al thermocouple was used, 90% of the field measurements lie within +1° to -11°C of TMgO for samples with Tfield > 1130°C. Samples where Tfield < 1130°C show larger divergence. The uncertainty in TMgO by itself is ±10°C, so the level of agreement between field measurements and TMgO is very good for Kilauean lavas. Systematic comparison of field measurements of temperature with glass geothermometry for the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption suggests that, although the field and glass temperatures lie within ±10°C of each other, the Kilauean TMgO calibration is nevertheless not appropriate for Mauna Loa glasses and that actual quenching temperatures for Mauna Loa samples will lie 10°-20°C higher than would be predicted from the Kilauea calibration curve. Consideration of possible effects of variable volatile content suggest that in most cases these are small. Samples erupted early in an eruption may reflect preeruptive water contents different enough to affect TMgO significantly, but later spatter samples and all flow samples appear to have equilibrated at low enough water contents for the calibration to be applicable. We conclude that the MgO-based geothermometer can be applied to glassy Kilauean samples to give temperatures that generally will lie within ±10°C of a field measurement. Plots of glass MgO content versus time, if a suitable sample base is

  10. [Three-dimensional analysis of the early correction of anterior crossbite using eruption guidance appliance].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zhang, J J; Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Li, C H; Varrela, J E; Yue, J; Ge, L H

    2018-06-18

    To investigate the clinical effect of eruption guidance appliance in the treatment of anterior cross bite in mixed-dentition children. In the study,10 mixed-dentition children with anterior cross bite, totally 12 incisors, were selected. Alginate was used to take upper and lower dentition impression and make a hard plaster model,which served as the eruption guidance appliance for treatment. The pre- and post-operative dental casts were digitized with SmartOptics Activity 880 scanner,and the three-dimensional overlapping models were obtained by reverse engineering software,Geomagic Studio 2012,then the three-dimensional movements of the upper and lower incisors were analyzed using Imageware 13.2 software. The overbite and overjet were analyzed using the same methods. Measurement with copper wire was used to analyze the upper and lower arch length. Space analysis was the result by the sum of crown width minus the arch length. The crown width of unerupted permanent teeth was according to X-ray method to predict. The SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the pre- and post-operative measurements of the same child. The normality test of the measured data showed that it conformed to the normal distribution. Therefore,the t test and double side test were used,and the significance level was 0.05. The course of treatment was (5.6±2.7) months. During orthodontic treatment, the upper incisors moved mainly labially (P<0.001) in three-dimensional displacement, and the lower incisors moved mainly the same direction (P=0.025). During the treatment of eruption guidance appliance,the average overbite decreased (1.01±0.9) mm (t=-3.531, P=0.006), and the difference was statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-operative average overjet (t=0.771, P=0.460). The severity of crowding in upper arch decreased (1.9±0.99) mm (t=-6.042, P<0.001),and that in lower arch decreased (1.9±0.74) mm (t=-8.143, P<0.001), both of the

  11. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  12. Rapid laccolith intrusion driven by explosive volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Jonathan M.; Cordonnier, Benoit; Schipper, C. Ian; Tuffen, Hugh; Baumann, Tobias S.; Feisel, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month. Digital terrain models resolve a laccolith-shaped body ~0.8 km3. Deformation and conduit flow models indicate laccolith depths of only ~20-200 m and overpressures (~1-10 MPa) that likely stemmed from conduit blockage. Our results show that explosive eruptions may rapidly force significant quantities of magma in the crust to build laccoliths. These iconic intrusions can thus be interpreted as eruptive features that pose unique and previously unrecognized volcanic hazards.

  13. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  14. Holocene eruption history in Iceland - Eruption frequency vs. Tephra layer frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladottir, B. A.; Larsen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic deposits of all kinds are used to reconstruct eruption history of volcanoes and volcanic zones. In Iceland tephra is the ideal volcanic deposit to study eruption history as two out of every three eruptions taking place there during the last 11 centuries have been explosive, leaving tephra as their only product. If eruptions producing both lava and tephra are included three out of every four eruptions have produced tephra. Tephra dispersal and deposition depends on factors such as eruption magnitude, eruption cloud height, duration of eruption and prevailing wind directions at the time of eruption. Several outcrops around a particular volcano must therefore be measured to obtain optimal information of its eruption history. Vegetation in the area of deposition is also of great importance for its preservation. Tephra deposited on un-vegetated land is rapidly eroded by wind and water, and deposits up to few tens of cm thickness may be lost from the record. Such tephra deposited on grassy or forested land is at least partly sheltered from the wind after deposition. Soon after tephra deposition (how soon depends on tephra thickness) the root system of the vegetation creates an even better shelter for the tephra and when this stage is reached the tephra is preserved in the soil for millennia, given that no soil erosion takes place. Vegetation is often boosted in the first years after tephra deposition which in turn helps tephra preservation. A setback of using soil sections for reconstructing Holocene eruption history is the lack of soil at the beginning of the era but for that time period tephra records in lake and marine sediments can be used. When tephra stratigraphy in soil sections is measured to study eruption history and eruption frequency of a volcano it must be kept in mind that what is seen is in fact the tephra layer frequency. One section only shows tephra layers deposited in that location and more importantly only the layers preserved there. The

  15. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    vent position, volume, eruption rate, wind directions and topography. Therefore, numerical simulations with controlled parameters are needed for more precise volcanic eruption predictions. The use of the next-generation system should enable the visualization of past volcanic eruptions datasets such as distributions, eruption volumes and eruption rates, on maps and diagrams using timeline and GIS technology. Similar volcanic eruptions scenarios should be easily searchable from the eruption database. Using the volcano hazard assessment system, prediction of the time and area that would be affected by volcanic eruptions at any locations near the volcano should be possible, using numerical simulations. The system should estimate volcanic hazard risks by overlaying the distributions of volcanic deposits on major roads, houses and evacuation areas using a GIS enabled systems. Probabilistic volcanic hazards maps in active volcano sites should be made based on numerous numerical simulations. The next-generation real-time hazard assessment system would be implemented with user-friendly interface, making the risk assessment system easily usable and accessible online.

  16. Filament Eruptions, Jets, and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Robe, Nick; Falconer, David; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Previously, from chromospheric H alpha and coronal X-ray movies of the Sun's polar coronal holes, it was found that nearly all coronal jets (greater than 90%) are one or the other of two roughly equally common different kinds, different in how they erupt: standard jets and blowout jets (Yamauchi et al 2004, Apl, 605, 5ll: Moore et all 2010, Apj, 720, 757). Here, from inspection of SDO/AIA He II 304 A movies of 54 polar x-ray jets observed in Hinode/XRT movies, we report, as Moore et al (2010) anticipated, that (1) most standard x-ray jets (greater than 80%) show no ejected plasma that is cool enough (T is less than or approximately 10(exp 5K) to be seen in the He II 304 A movies; (2) nearly all blownout X-ray jets (greater than 90%) show obvious ejection of such cool plasma; (3) whereas when cool plasma is ejected in standard X-ray jets, it shows no lateral expansion, the cool plasma ejected in blowout X-ray jets shows strong lateral expansion; and (4) in many blowout X-ray jets, the cool plasma ejection displays the erupting-magnetic-rope form of clasic filament eruptions and is thereby seen to be a miniature filament eruption. The XRT movies also showed most blowout X-ray jets to be larger and brighter, and hence to apparently have more energy, than most standard X-ray jets. These observations (1) confirm the dichotomy of coronal jets, (2) agree with the Shibata model for standard jets, and (3) support the conclusion of Moore et al (2010) that in blowout jets the magnetic-arch base of the jet erupts in the manner of the much larger magnetic arcades in which the core field, the field rooted along the arcade's polarity inversion line, is sheared and twisted (sigmoid), often carries a cool-plasma filament, and erupts to blowout the arcade, producing a CME. From Hinode/SOT Ca II movies of the polar limb, Sterling et al (2010, ApJ, 714, L1) found that chromospheric Type-II spicules show a dichotomy of eruption dynamics similar to that found here for the cool

  17. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  18. Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage.

    PubMed

    Kinzinger, Gero S M; Fritz, Ulrike B; Sander, Franz-Günter; Diedrich, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    A modified pendulum appliance, including a distal screw and special preactivated pendulum springs (built-in straightening activation and toe-in bending), was used for bilateral maxillary molar distalization in 36 adolescent patients in various stages of the molar dentition. The patients were divided into 3 groups (PG 1-3) according to the stage of eruption of their second and third molars. In PG 1 (18 patients), eruption of the second molars had either not yet taken place or was not complete. In PG 2 (15 patients), the second molars had already developed as far as the occlusal plane, with the third molars at the budding stage. In PG 3 (3 patients), germectomy of the wisdom teeth had been carried out, and the first and second molars on both sides had completely erupted. Analysis of cephalograms to identify any changes in the sagittal plane showed that, in the direction of distalization, a tooth bud acts on the mesial neighboring tooth like a fulcrum, and that tipping of the first molars in patients in whom the second molar was still at the budding stage was thus greater. In patients whose second molars had erupted completely, the degree of tipping was greater again when a third molar bud was located in the direction of movement. After previously completed germectomy of the wisdom teeth, almost exclusively bodily distalization of both molars is possible, even without bands being applied to the second molars. However, if the first and second molars are distalized simultaneously with a pendulum appliance, the duration of therapy will be longer, greater forces will have to be applied, and more anchorage will be lost. Statistical analysis of the results of dental-angular measurements showed significant differences in the degree of molar tipping and reciprocal incisor protrusion. The degree of distal tipping of first molars was less in patients with erupted second molars (PG 2 and PG 3) than in those whose second molars were not yet erupted (PG 1). For instance, the

  19. Reduction of randomness in seismic noise as a short-term precursor to a volcanic eruption

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, C. C.; Konstantinou, K. I.

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is characterized by randomness incurred by the random position and strength of the noise sources as well as the heterogeneous properties of the medium through which it propagates. Here we use ambient noise data recorded prior to the 1996 Gjálp eruption in Iceland in order to show that a reduction of noise randomness can be a clear short-term precursor to volcanic activity. The eruption was preceded on 29 September 1996 by a Mw ~5.6 earthquake that occurred in the caldera rim of the Bárdarbunga volcano. A significant reduction of randomness started occurring 8 days before the earthquake and 10 days before the onset of the eruption. This reduction was observed even at stations more than 100 km away from the eruption site. Randomness increased to its previous levels 160 minutes after the Bárdarbunga earthquake, during which time aftershocks migrated from the Bárdarbunga caldera to a site near the Gjálp eruption fissure. We attribute this precursory reduction of randomness to the lack of higher frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wavefield caused by high absorption losses as hot magma ascended in the upper crust. PMID:27883050

  20. Reduction of randomness in seismic noise as a short-term precursor to a volcanic eruption.

    PubMed

    Glynn, C C; Konstantinou, K I

    2016-11-24

    Ambient seismic noise is characterized by randomness incurred by the random position and strength of the noise sources as well as the heterogeneous properties of the medium through which it propagates. Here we use ambient noise data recorded prior to the 1996 Gjálp eruption in Iceland in order to show that a reduction of noise randomness can be a clear short-term precursor to volcanic activity. The eruption was preceded on 29 September 1996 by a Mw ~5.6 earthquake that occurred in the caldera rim of the Bárdarbunga volcano. A significant reduction of randomness started occurring 8 days before the earthquake and 10 days before the onset of the eruption. This reduction was observed even at stations more than 100 km away from the eruption site. Randomness increased to its previous levels 160 minutes after the Bárdarbunga earthquake, during which time aftershocks migrated from the Bárdarbunga caldera to a site near the Gjálp eruption fissure. We attribute this precursory reduction of randomness to the lack of higher frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wavefield caused by high absorption losses as hot magma ascended in the upper crust.

  1. Relationship between Malnutrition and the Number of Permanent Teeth in Filipino 10- to 13-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined whether there is a delay in the eruption of permanent teeth (PT) among Filipino adolescents with stunting or thinness. Height, weight, and number of PT were recorded in 1554 Filipino 10- to 13-year-olds (711 boys; 843 girls). z-scores for height (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated according to the WHO growth reference, and their correlations to the number of PT were assessed. 54.9% of the children have at least one form of malnutrition. Significantly, more boys (22.9%) than girls (16.5%) were thin, while no sex difference in stunting was noted (boys 48.5%; girls 44.0%). The number of PT was significantly correlated to HAZ and BMI-z-score. Stunted and thin students had significantly fewer PT than their nonaffected peers. These differences tended to be the result of delay in tooth eruption in thin and stunted adolescents. In 13-year-old girls, all PT were erupted regardless of their nutritional status indicating a catch-up. Thin and stunted boys had one tooth less than normal boys at this age. Impaired physical growth and dental development seem to have common risk factors. Therefore, regular monitoring of growth and dental development might be helpful for targeting support programmes in developing countries. PMID:24069590

  2. The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across. The impacts of the eruption continue to this day.

  3. Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Self, S.

    1984-01-01

    Data from direct measurements of stratospheric optical depth, Greenland ice-core acidity, and volcanological studies are compared, and it is shown that relatively small but sulfur-rich volcanic eruptions can have atmospheric effects equal to or even greater than much larger sulfur-poor eruptions. These small eruptions are probably the most frequent cause of increased stratospheric aerosols. The possible sources of the excess sulfur released in these eruptions are discussed.

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Abutment Teeth with Gingival Discoloration.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana

    2017-04-06

    The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be

  5. Tidally modulated eruptions on Enceladus: Cassini ISS observations and models

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmo, Francis; Porco, Carolyn; Mitchell, Colin, E-mail: carolyn@ciclops.org

    2014-09-01

    We use images acquired by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) to investigate the temporal variation of the brightness and height of the south polar plume of Enceladus. The plume's brightness peaks around the moon's apoapse, but with no systematic variation in scale height with either plume brightness or Enceladus' orbital position. We compare our results, both alone and supplemented with Cassini near-infrared observations, with predictions obtained from models in which tidal stresses are the principal control of the eruptive behavior. There are three main ways of explaining the observations: (1) the activity is controlled by right-lateral strike slip motion;more » (2) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides with an apparent time delay of about 5 hr; (3) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides plus a 1:1 physical libration with an amplitude of about 0.°8 (3.5 km). The second hypothesis might imply either a delayed eruptive response, or a dissipative, viscoelastic interior. The third hypothesis requires a libration amplitude an order of magnitude larger than predicted for a solid Enceladus. While we cannot currently exclude any of these hypotheses, the third, which is plausible for an Enceladus with a subsurface ocean, is testable by using repeat imaging of the moon's surface. A dissipative interior suggests that a regional background heat source should be detectable. The lack of a systematic variation in plume scale height, despite the large variations in plume brightness, is plausibly the result of supersonic flow; the details of the eruption process are yet to be understood.« less

  6. Numerical Simulation Of Cutting Of Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios

    1994-01-01

    Shapes of gear teeth produced by gear cutters of specified shape simulated computationally, according to approach based on principles of differential geometry. Results of computer simulation displayed as computer graphics and/or used in analyses of design, manufacturing, and performance of gears. Applicable to both standard and non-standard gear-tooth forms. Accelerates and facilitates analysis of alternative designs of gears and cutters. Simulation extended to study generation of surfaces other than gears. Applied to cams, bearings, and surfaces of arbitrary rolling elements as well as to gears. Possible to develop analogous procedures for simulating manufacture of skin surfaces like automobile fenders, airfoils, and ship hulls.

  7. Soft Tissue Grafting Around Teeth and Implants.

    PubMed

    Deeb, George R; Deeb, Janina Golob

    2015-08-01

    The presence of healthy attached tissue at the tooth and implant soft tissue interface correlates with long-term success and stability in function and esthetics. There are several soft tissue grafting procedures that increase the volume of keratinized tissue and provide coverage on both teeth and implants. Many of these techniques can be used in conjunction with implant placement, or after placement as a means of salvage. This article describes the techniques for augmentation of keratinized tissue as well as root and implant coverage. These tools should be in the armamentarium of oral and maxillofacial surgeons providing implant services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. X-ray and EUV Observations of CME Eruption Onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Why Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) erupt is a major outstanding puzzle of solar physics. Signatures observable at the earliest stages of eruption onset may hold precious clues about the onset mechanism. We present observations from SOHO/EIT and from TRACE in EUV, and from Yohkoh/SXT in soft X-rays of the pre-eruption and eruption phases of CME expulsion, along with the eruption's magnetic setting found from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. Most of our events involve clearly-observable filament eruptions and multiple neutral lines, and we use the magnetic settings and motions of the filaments to help infer the geometry and behavior of the associated erupting magnetic fields. Pre-eruption and early-eruption signatures include a relatively slow filament rise prior to eruption, and intensity "dimmings" and brightenings, both in the immediate neighborhood of the "core" (location of greatest magnetic shear) of the erupting fields and at locations remote from the core. These signatures and their relative timings place observational constraints on eruption mechanisms; our recent work has focused on implications for the so-called "tether cutting" and "breakout" models, but the same observational constraints are applicable to any model.

  9. CME Eruption Onset Observations from EIT and SXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Why CMEs erupt is a major outstanding puzzle of solar physics. Signatures observable at the earliest stages of eruption onset may hold precious clues about the onset mechanism. We present observations in EUV from SOHO/EIT and in soft X-rays from Yohkoh/SXT of the re-eruption and eruption phases of CME expulsion, along with the eruption's magnetic setting found from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. Most of our events involve clearly-observable filament eruptions and multiple neutral lines, and we use the magnetic settings and motions of the filaments to help infer the geometry and behavior of the associated erupting magnetic fields. Pre-eruption and early-eruption signatures include a relatively slow filament rise prior to eruption, and intensity "dimmings" and brightenings, both in the immediate neighborhood of the "core" (location of greatest magnetic shear) of the erupting fields and at locations remote from the core. These signatures and their relative timings place observational constraints on eruption mechanisms; our recent work has focused on implications for the so-called "tether cutting" and "breakout" models, but the same observational constraints are applicable to any model.

  10. The variation of magma discharge during basaltic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.

    1981-01-01

    The rate at which basaltic magma is discharged during many eruptions varies substantially. An individual eruption has an eruption rate, which is the volumetric rate of discharge averaged over the whole or a major part of an eruption, and an effusion rate, which is the volumetric flux rate at any given time. In many cases, the effusion rate soon reaches a maximum after a short period of waxing flow (partly because of magmatic expansion); it then falls more slowly in the later parts of the eruption. The release of elastic strain energy from stored magma and the subvolcanic reservoir during eruption can give a waning flow of this type an exponential form. A comparison of the eruption rates of eruptions of Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Etna shows that for each volcano there is a trend of decreasing effusion rate with increasing duration of eruption. It is noted that this relationship is not predicted by a simple elastic model of magma release. Two other processes are invoked to explain the eruptive histories of these volcanoes: modification of the eruptive conduits and the continued supply of magma from depth during eruption.

  11. Understanding and forecasting phreatic eruptions driven by magmatic degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stix, John; de Moor, J. Maarten

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines phreatic eruptions which are driven by inputs of magma and magmatic gas. We synthesize data from several significant phreatic systems, including two in Costa Rica (Turrialba and Poás) which are currently highly active and hazardous. We define two endmember types of phreatic eruptions, the first (type 1) in which a deeper hydrothermal system fed by magmatic gases is sealed and produces overpressure sufficient to drive explosive eruptions, and the second (type 2) where magmatic gases are supplied via open-vent degassing to a near-surface hydrothermal system, vaporizing liquid water which drives the phreatic eruptions. The surficial source of type 2 eruptions is characteristic, while the source depth of type 1 eruptions is commonly greater. Hence, type 1 eruptions tend to be more energetic than type 2 eruptions. The first type of eruption we term "phreato-vulcanian", and the second we term "phreato-surtseyan". Some systems (e.g., Ruapehu, Poás) can produce both type 1 and type 2 eruptions, and all systems can undergo sealing at various timescales. We examine a number of precursory signals which appear to be important in understanding and forecasting phreatic eruptions; these include very long period events, banded tremor, and gas ratios, in particular H2S/SO2 and CO2/SO2. We propose that if these datasets are carefully integrated during a monitoring program, it may be possible to accurately forecast phreatic eruptions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. The Recurrent Nova T CrB Did Not Erupt In 1842

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2013-01-01

    The recurrent nova T CrB was one of the first well observed nova eruptions in 1866, and 80 years later it erupted again in 1946. Just after the 1866 eruption, Sir John Herschel reported to the Monthly Notices that he had seen the same star in his naked-eye charting of the sky on 1842 June 9, implying that there was a prior eruption 24 years earlier, with substantial implications for astrophysics. Unfortunately, the chart in the Monthly Notices was ambiguous and misleading, including whether the recorded position is or is not that of T CrB. So it has long been unclear whether T CrB did indeed have an eruption in 1842. To resolve this, I have made complete searches through the various archives with Herschel material, including the large collections at the Harry Ransom Center in Austin, the Royal Astronomical Society, the complete Herschel correspondence, and the Royal Society; plus three smaller archives as well as consulting with various Herschel experts. In one letter from 1866 to William Huggins, Herschel enclosed his own copy of his original observations, and with this all the ambiguities are resolved. It turns out that Herschel's indicated star was at the same position as a steady background star (BD+25 3020, V=7.06, G8V) and not that of T CrB, and Herschel regularly was seeing stars as faint as V=7.5 mag because he was using an opera glass. With this, there is no evidence for a T CrB eruption in 1842. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Holocene dacite erupted from Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browne, B.; Izbekov, P.; Eichelberger, J.; Churikova, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the pre-eruptive conditions (T, P and fO2) of dacite magma erupted during the KZI cycle (12,000-8400 years ago) of Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka, the earliest, most voluminous and most explosive eruption cycle in the Kizimen record. Hydrothermal, water-saturated experiments on KZI dacite pumice coupled with titanomagnetite-ilmenite geothermometry calculations require that the KZI dacite existed at a temperature of 823 ?? 20??C and pressures of 125-150 MPa immediately prior to eruption. This estimate corresponds to a lithologic contact between Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks located at a depth of 5-6 km beneath the Kizimen edifice, which may have facilitated the accumulation of atypically large volumes of gas-rich dacite during the KZI cycle.

  14. Imaging Prominence Eruptions out to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Howard, Russell A.; Linton, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1 AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed for describing the degree of self-similarity for the prominence's expansion away from the Sun. This analysis suggests only modest deviations from self-similar expansion, but close to the Sun the prominence expands radially somewhat more rapidly than self-similarity would predict.

  15. Gas Eruptions Taper Off in Northwestern Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Don

    1980-01-01

    Describes the eruption of inflammable natural gas from the ground surface in the Edith area near Camp Houston. Determining the source of the gas, the results established the Chester-Oswago interval as the most likely source. The surface venting has declined steadily; the likelihood of finding its cause is also described. (SK)

  16. Solar activity and erupting prominences [HD Video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Solar activity and erupting prominences. EIT 304A (Jan. 8-10, 2000) Credit: NASA/GSFC/SOHO/ESA To learn more go to the SOHO website: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  17. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Compositionally, products of Mount Katmai represent an ordinary medium-K arc array, both tholeiitic and calcalkaline, that extends from 51.6% to 72.3% SiO2. Values of 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70335 to 0.70372, correlating loosely with fractionation indices. The 5–6 km3 of continuously zoned andesite-dacite magma (58%–68% SiO2) that erupted at Novarupta in 1912 was withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai and bears close compositional affinity with products of that edifice, not with pre-1912 products of the adjacent Trident cluster. Evidence is presented that the 7–8 km3 of high-silica rhyolite (77% SiO2) released in 1912 is unlikely to have been stored under Novarupta or Trident. Pre-eruptive contiguity with the andesite-dacite reservoir is suggested by (1) eruption of ∼3 km3 of rhyolite magma first, followed by mutual mingling in fluctuating proportions; (2) thermal and redox continuity of the whole zoned sequence despite the wide compositional gap; (3) Nd, Sr, O isotopic, and rare earth element (REE) affinities of the whole array; (4) compositional continuity of the nearly aphyric rhyolite with the glass (melt) phase of the phenocryst-rich dacite; and (5) phase-equilibrium experiments that indicate similar shallow pre-eruptive storage depths (3–6 km) for rhyolite, dacite, and andesite.

  18. IMAGING PROMINENCE ERUPTIONS OUT TO 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Howard, Russell A.; Linton, Mark G., E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil

    2016-01-10

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1 AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to amore » poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed for describing the degree of self-similarity for the prominence's expansion away from the Sun. This analysis suggests only modest deviations from self-similar expansion, but close to the Sun the prominence expands radially somewhat more rapidly than self-similarity would predict.« less

  19. NASA Terra Spacecraft Images Russian Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Plosky Tolbachik volcano in Russia far eastern Kamchatka peninsula erupted on Nov. 27, 2012, for the first time in 35 years, sending clouds of ash to the height of more than 9,800 feet 3,000 meters in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  20. Microflora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis in Latvian patients.

    PubMed

    Mindere, Anda; Kundzina, Rita; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Eze, Daina; Petrina, Zaiga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial flora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis and to determine the prevalence of β-lactamase producing strains in isolated bacteria in Latvian patients. 33 root filled teeth with asymptomatic persisting periapical lesions were selected for the present study. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root filling material was removed and canals were sampled. Determination of microbial species was based on series of biochemical tests using identification kits. All strains of bacteria were tested for β-lactamase production by using chromogenic nitrocefin-impregnated slides. Bacteria were found in 32 (97%) of initial specimens from the teeth. The number of isolated microbial strains in the specimens ranged from one to six (mean 2.7). 79% of the isolated microbial species were Gram-positive bacteria. The most common isolates were Streptococcus (27%), Actinomyces (27%), Staphylococcus (18%), Enterococcus (18%) and Lactobacillus (18%) spp. Yeasts were found as four isolates in 3 cases (9%). β-lactamase-producing bacterial strains were detected in 12 specimens, 36% of the patients. The most common enzyme-producing bacteria belonged to Actinomyces and Staphylococcus spp. The microbial flora in previously treated root canals with apical periodontitis is limited to a small number of predominantly Gram-positive microbial species. The most common isolates are Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus spp. A moderately high prevalence of β-lactamase producing bacterial strains was detected in patients with root filled teeth with apical periodontitis.

  1. A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a model that calculates flow properties (pressure, vesicularity, and some 35 other parameters) as a function of vertical position within a volcanic conduit during a steady-state eruption. The model idealizes the magma-gas mixture as a single homogeneousfluid and calculates gas exsolution under the assumption of equilibrium conditions. These are the same assumptions on which classic conduit models (e.g. Wilson and Head, 1981) have been based. They are most appropriate when applied to eruptions of rapidly ascending magma (basaltic lava-fountain eruptions, and Plinian or sub-Plinian eruptions of intermediate or silicic magmas) that contains abundant nucleation sites (microlites, for example) for bubble growth.