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Sample records for teeth whitening

  1. Whitening non vital teeth – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moraru, Iren; Ţuculină, Mihaela; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Gheorghiţă, Lelia; Diaconu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used in cosmetic dentistry teeth whitening can be used combined with other restorative techniques during dental treatment. Non-vital teeth whitening is necessary whenever we need an improvement of their aspect, as it’s a known fact that these teeth can have a grey or pink-grey coloration when they are not correctly endodontical treated. PMID:24778849

  2. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  3. Whitening of endodontically untreated calcified anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Pedorella, C A; Meyer, R D; Woollard, G W

    2000-01-01

    Definitive treatment for whitening endodontically untreated anterior teeth with dystrophic calcification is provided by removing the coronal sclerotic dentin and utilizing internal and external bleaching as necessary.

  4. Efficacy of whitening oral rinses and dentifrices on color stability of bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of whitening toothpastes and mouthrinses on the color stability of teeth bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) after immersion in coffee solution. Materials and methods: Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were bleached with 16% CP for 14 days. After bleaching, the specimens were stained in coffee solution for 24 h and randomly divided into eight groups according to the following products (n = 10): distilled water (control group, DW), Scope White mouthrinse (SW), Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWR), Crest 3D White toothpaste (CWT), Crest 3D White toothpaste and Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWT + CWR), Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWT), Listerine Whitening mouthrinse (LWR), and Listerine Whitening mouthrinse and Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWR + LWT). Color measurements were conducted using a spectrophotometer. The data were assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p < 0.05). Results: Immersion in coffee solution after bleaching caused perceptible staining on tooth specimens (ΔE > 3.46). The whitening effect of CWR on teeth stained after bleaching was significantly greater than that in the other groups (p < 0.001). Tooth whitening (ΔE) in each group showed no significant difference from 6 to 12 weeks (p > 0.05). The combination of mouthrinse and toothpaste did not increase the degree of tooth whitening. Conclusion: Whitening mouthrinse and toothpaste had similar effects on the control group in terms of whitening of teeth stained after bleaching. Nevertheless, Crest 3D White mouthrinse produced the greatest recovery whitening effect among all the products tested. PMID:28642898

  5. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  6. The current status of vital tooth whitening techniques.

    PubMed

    Blankenau, R; Goldstein, R E; Haywood, V B

    1999-08-01

    Tooth whitening of vital teeth continues to have a major impact on the practice of dentistry. The growing public interest in having whiter, brighter teeth is clearly evident in the advertisements from toothpaste manufacturers on "whitening" formulations of their products and by the number of individuals seeking whitening procedures from their dentists. In addition, new over-the-counter whitening products continue to emerge in a marketplace that cannot seem to get teeth white enough, bright enough, fast enough. What new products and procedures have evolved over the past decade to whiten teeth? Are they better, safer, faster, and more effective now? Are dentists meeting public demand for whiter teeth and is this quest having a positive or negative impact on the practice of dentistry or the patient's dental health? I posed these questions to a group of experts on whitening procedures to get their opinions and recommendations.

  7. [Comparison of the color difference between teeth underwent cold light whitening and two kinds of shade guides].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y X

    2018-06-18

    To investigate which shade guide, Vitapan Classical or Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster, is better matched with the color of teeth in judging whitening effect, by comparing the color difference between shade tabs and corresponding teeth underwent cold light tooth whitening. A total of 60 patients underwent Beyond cold light tooth whitening from May 2014 to April 2016. The patients were divided into two experimental groups according to the shade guide used. Vitapan Classical shade guide was used to judge whitening effect in one group, and Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster shade guide was used in another. Shade matching was carried out before and after whitening in both the two groups, and the results were recorded by digital photographs. Shade matching procedures were carried out by two doctors independently. If they chose the same tab, it would be seen as the shade matching result; While if they chose different tabs, another doctor would be invited to make a decision. Photographs were taken in preset conditions: intraoral photos of the full dentition in the front, and the proportion of shooting was 1:3; aperture was F22; shutter speed was 1/200; intensity of flash was M/8; ISO value was 200. The photographs were analyzed by Photoshop software. Chromatic values were measured, and color difference values were calculated. Measuring of chromatic values was carried out by three doctors independently, and all the photos were measured twice by each doctor. Six measure results of each photo were recorded, and the maximum and the minimum were excluded, then the mean was seen as the final result. The color difference values were compared by independent-sample t test. Besides, changes of shade tabs after whitening in the two groups were recorded. Color difference value was 5.06±1.71 in Vitapan Classical group, and 3.39±1.36 in Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master group. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups (t=4.68,P<0.001). Change of shade tabs was 3.63

  8. Study of the temporal evolution of Whitening Teeth immersed in Peroxide of hydrogen (H2O2) Using Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, L.; Morales, Y.; Torres, C.

    2015-01-01

    The esthetic dentistry reference in our society is determined by several factors, including one that produces more dissatisfaction is abnormal tooth color or that does not meet the patient's expectations. For this reason it has been designed and implemented an algorithm in MATLAB that captures, digitizes, pre-processing and analyzed dental imaging by allowing to evaluate the degree of bleaching caused by the use of peroxide of hidrogen. The samples analyzed were human teeth extracted, which were subjected to different concentrations of peroxide of hidrogen and see if they can teeth whitening when using these products, was used different concentrations and intervals of time to analysis or study of the whitening of the teeth with the hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Effectiveness of a new dentifrice with baking soda and peroxide in removing extrinsic stain and whitening teeth.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Hooper, W; Vorwerk, L; Domke, T; DeSciscio, P; Nathoo, S

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this randomized, controlled, six-week clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness and safety of a new whitening dentifrice in removing extrinsic tooth stain and whitening teeth. An additional two-week exploratory study was conducted to determine whether the whitening or stain-prevention activity of the dentifrice would persist following cessation of use. In the first study (Phase I), one-hundred and forty-six qualifying subjects were randomly assigned to either a sodium bicarbonate whitening dentifrice group (Arm & Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening Baking Soda and Peroxide Toothpaste) or a silica-based negative control dentifrice group, and brushed twice daily with their assigned dentifrice for six weeks. Tooth shade on the labial surfaces of the eight incisors was assessed using a Vita Classic shade guide, and extrinsic tooth stain was scored using a Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) at baseline, week 4, and week 6. In Phase II (after the week 6 examination), volunteers from the Arm & Hammer whitening dentifrice group were randomly assigned to continue using the whitening dentifrice or to use the negative control dentifrice twice daily for two weeks. The six-week shade and stain index scores served as the baseline for this exploratory phase and were rescored after two weeks. The whitening dentifrice group had statistically significant (p < 0.0001) mean shade score reductions of 1.82 and 2.57 from baseline to weeks 4 and 6, respectively. For the same periods, the negative control dentifrice group was virtually unchanged from baseline. For tooth stain, the MLSI total mean scores for the whitening dentifrice group showed statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decreases from baseline of 1.42 (41.6%) and 2.11 (61.6%) at weeks 4 and 6, respectively. In contrast, the negative control dentifrice group had a MLSI reduction of 0.07 at week 4 and a 0.06 increase at week 6. Between-group analyses using baseline-adjusted ANCOVA showed the

  10. Effect of whitening toothpastes on bonding of restorative materials to enamel of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Abdelmegid, F Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to measure shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin composite and a resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth after application of different whitening toothpastes (WTs). Eighty labial enamel surfaces of primary incisors were randomly distributed into 8 groups of 10 each according to the surface treatment and bonding material. G1 and G2, control (brushed with water without WT); G3 and G4, (brushed with Colgate Optic White WT [Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, NY, USA]), G5 and G6, (brushed with Crest Pro-Health Whitening WT [Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH, USA]) and G7 and G8, (brushed with Arm and Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening with Stain Defense WT [Church and Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ, USA]). SBS was measured at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and the type of bond failure was assessed using a stereomicroscope. There was significant difference between SBS of composite resin in groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 (P < 0.001), but no difference between resin-modified glass ionomer in groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 (P < 0.056). SBS of group 1 (control) was greater than groups 3, 5, and 7. There was a significant difference between group 1 and group 2 as well as group 7 and group 8 (P < 0.001). WTs affect SBS of resin composite, but not resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth. No difference of failure modes between different groups of tested materials.

  11. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-05-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED's for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  12. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-09-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode Laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED"s for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  13. Whitening Efficacy of Whitening Mouth Rinses Used Alone or in Conjunction With Carbamide Peroxide Home Whitening.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jbs; Sarlo, R S; Bresciani, E; Caneppele, Tmf

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses on teeth previously whitened or not, exposed to food dyes. One hundred twenty enamel-dentin specimens, 3 mm in diameter, were obtained from bovine incisors. The specimens were stained for 14 days in staining broth. After staining, the initial color reading was performed via a spectrophotometer CM-2600d (Konica Minolta). Half of specimens were submitted to whitening (10% carbamide peroxide [CP]) for 14 days. They were then divided into three groups and were submitted to cycles of staining (five minutes) and mouth rinses (two minutes) for 12 weeks, with the following: CP-LI, Listerine Whitening; CP-PL, Plax Whitening; CP-BP, bromelain + papain; CP-DW, deionized water. LI, PL, BP, and DW groups were submitted to the same cited cycles but with no prior bleaching. The color measurements were performed after four, eight, and 12 weeks of treatment with mouth rinses. Data were submitted to repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons, with significance level at 5%. The results showed that the CP-LI, CP-PL, LI, and PL groups had greater color change than did the others. The CP-BP and BP groups were similar to CP-DW and DW. We therefore conclude that Listerine Whitening mouth rinse presented the highest bleaching effect, followed by Plax Whitening mouth rinse. Both maintained CP bleaching effect after 12 weeks of dye-rinse cycles. However, none of these rinses were able to produce whitening similar to CP. Bromelain- and papain-containing mouth rinses did not show bleaching effect, being similar to the control groups.

  14. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  15. [Research on the designing method of a special shade guide for tooth whitening].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingxin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate a method of designing an accurate and scientific shade guide, especially used for judging the effect of tooth whitening, by analyzing the colorimetric values of discolored teeth statistically. One hundred thirty-six pictures of patients who had been receiving the Beyond cold light whitening treatment from February 2009 to July 2014 were analyzed, including 25 tetracycline teeth, 61 mottled-enamel teeth, and 50 yellow teeth. The colorimetric values of discolored teeth were measured. The L* values of shade tabs were calculated by hierarchical clustering of those of discolored teeth. The a* and b* values of shade tabs were the mean of those observed for discolored teeth. Accordingly, different shade guides were designed for each type of discolored teeth, and the effects were evaluated. A statistically significant difference in colorimetric values was found among the three types of discolored teeth. Compared with the Vitapan Classical shade guide, the shade guides designed through the present method were more scientific and accurate in judging the effect of tooth whitening. Moreover, the arrangement of shade tabs was more logical, and the color difference between shade tabs and discolored teeth was smaller. The proposed designing method is theoretically feasible, although its clinical effect has yet to be proven.

  16. The influence of tooth colour on the perceptions of personal characteristics among female dental patients: comparisons of unmodified, decayed and 'whitened' teeth.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, S; Newton, J T; Williams, D M

    2008-03-08

    Physical appearance plays a key role in human social interaction and the smile and teeth are important features in determining the attractiveness of a face. Furthermore, the mouth is thought to be important in social interactions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between tooth colour and social perceptions. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred and eighty female participants viewed one of six images, either a male or a female digitally altered to display one of three possible dental statuses (unmodified, decayed, or whitened). The images were rated on four personality traits: social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and relationship satisfaction (RS). Decayed dental appearance led to more negative judgements over the four personality categories. Whitened teeth led to more positive appraisals. The gender of the image and the demographic background of the participant did not have a significant effect on appraisals. Tooth colour exerts an influence on social perceptions. The results may be explained by negative beliefs about dental decay, such as its link with poor oral hygiene.

  17. Dielectrophoresis enhances the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide on enamel.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Riga, Alan T

    2011-10-01

    To compare the enamel whitening effect of a 20-minute dielectrophoresis enhanced electrochemical delivery to a 20-minute diffusion treatment. Forty freshly extracted human teeth without detectable caries or restoration were stored in distilled water at 4 degrees C and used within 1 month of extraction. Two different bleaching gels (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel and 35% Opalescence PF gel) were tested. The study had two parts: Part 1--Quantitative comparison of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, HP) absorption--following application of an over-the-counter 35% HP whitening gel (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel) to 30 (n = 30) extracted human teeth by conventional diffusion or dielectrophoresis. The amount of H2O2 that diffused from the dentin was measured by a colorimetric oxidation-reduction reaction kit. HP concentration was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. Part 2--HP diffusion in stained teeth--35% carbamide peroxide whitening gel (35% Opalescence PF gel) was applied to 10 extracted human teeth (n = 10) stained by immersion in a black tea solution for 48 hours. The teeth were randomly assigned to the 20-minute dielectrophoresis or diffusion treatment group; whitening was evaluated by a dental spectrophotometer and macro-photography. Part 1: The analysis found significant differences between both groups with relative percent errors of 3% or less (a single outlier had an RPE of 12%). The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 1 was 79% greater than the diffusion group. The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 2 was 130% greater than the diffusion group. A single-factor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis groups (P = 0.01). Part 2--The average change in Shade Guide Units (SGU) was 0.6 for the diffusion group, well under the error of measurement of 0.82 SGU. The average change in SGU for the dielectrophoresis group was 9, significantly above the

  18. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoommore » activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.« less

  19. Present and future technologies of tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Viscio, D; Gaffar, A; Fakhry-Smith, S; Xu, T

    2000-01-01

    Dental stains can be broadly classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic stains are a result of defects in tooth development, fluorosis, or acquired through the use of tetracycline. Extrinsic stains are localized mainly in the pellicle and are generated by the reaction between sugars and amino acids or acquired from the retention of exogenous chromophores in the pellicle. Three clinical methods are currently used for measuring stain removal and tooth whitening in the development of new whitening technologies: Lobene Stain Index, Shade Guide Color Change, and Minolta ChromaMeter. Professional tooth whitening products rely on proven technologies--35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office power bleaching or 10% to 15% carbamide peroxide for at-home bleaching--to reduce intrinsic stain and change the inherent tooth color. Over-the-counter tooth whitening products use a combination of surfactants, abrasives, anticalculus agents, and low levels of hydrogen peroxide to reduce extrinsic stain and help maintain tooth whiteness after professional treatment. Future technologies for whitening teeth could involve the use of activating agents to enhance the performance of hydrogen peroxide and natural enzymes.

  20. Use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-04-01

    The changing of tooth shade by whitening agents occurs gradually. Apart from being subjective and affected by the conditions of the surroundings, visual observation cannot detect a very slight change in tooth color. An electronic method, which can communicate the color change quantitatively, would be more reliable. Quantitative Light- induced Fluorescence (QLF) was developed to detect and assess dental caries based on the phenomenon of change of autofluorescence of a tooth by demineralization. However, stains on the tooth surface exhibit the same phenomenon, and therefore QLF can be used to measure the percentage fluorescence change of stained enamel with respect to surrounding unstained enamel. The present study described a technique of assessing the effect of a tooth-whitening agent using QLF. This was demonstrated in two experiments in which either wholly or partially stained teeth were whitened by intermittent immersion in sodium hypochlorite. Following each immersion, the integrated fluorescence change due to the stain was quantified using QLF. In either situation, the value of (Delta) Q decreased linearly as the tooth regained its natural shade. It was concluded that gradual changing of the shade of discolored teeth by a whitening agent could be quantified using QLF.

  1. The whitening effect of bleaching agents on tetracycline-stained rat teeth.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Summitt, J B

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the whitening effect of three bleaching agents on the teeth of rats and demonstrated differences in bleaching where dentin was exposed or enamel was thin. Thirty Albino rats were peritoneally injected with tetracycline solution daily for two weeks. Thirty-two disc-shaped specimens were cut from the crowns of incisors removed from sacrificed rats and were irradiated with UV light for 16 hours. Sections were stored in saline. Eight sections served as controls and were not bleached. Three bleaching agents (Opalescence, Rembrandt and Nite White) were applied to eight specimens each, five times a day for two weeks, and images of the sections were recorded at the following times: before bleaching (baseline), day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, day 9, day 11 and day 14. Mean colors to demonstrate any change (deltaE) from baseline for each time period were as follows: control-9.78 (baseline), 9.17, 9.36, 9.65, 9.40, 9.99, 10.57, 11.36; Opalescence-10.08, (baseline) 7.63, 6.72, 6.04, 5.10, 4.87, 4.89, 4.27; Rembrandt-9.83 (baseline), 11.27, 9.55, 8.36, 7.75, 6.94, 7.11, 7.04; Nite White-10.44 (baseline), 9.92, 7.58, 6.80, 5.45, 5.05, 4.73, 4.01. All bleached teeth were lightened (p<.01). Another 56 tetracycline-stained rat incisors were UV irradiated for three days. Three different penetration depths were tested: penetration through lingual dentin and labial enamel (DN group), penetration through labial enamel only (RE group) and penetration through labial enamel covered with 1.0 mm human enamel (HE group). Specimens were bleached with Opalescence for one hour five times a day for one week or four weeks. A control group of unbleached teeth was also examined. Results (deltaE) were as follows: control--11.67; 1-week DN--13.55; 1-week RE--12.80; 1-week HE--12.07; 4-week DN--7.48; 4-week RE--7.50; 4-week HE--11.69. The color change in the 4-week DN and the 4-week RE groups showed the greatest reduction (p<.01).

  2. Effects of a Novel Whitening Formulation on Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the enamel whitening effects of 2 new test formulations, one of which was a rinse, and the other a whitening strip. Materials and Methods Forty enamel chips were prepared from 20 healthy extracted teeth (2 from each tooth). After pre-staining and colorimetry to measure L* and b* values, 20 matched samples were immersed in either test or control rinses, and then colorimetry was performed again after 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hrs (Each hour equates to one month of clinical use at the recommended dosage of 1 minute exposure 2 times a day). The remaining 20 matched samples were exposed to the test or control whitening strips and colorimetry was performed every 30 minutes for a total of 10 treatments. Results Overall, the whitening performance of test and control strips was similar. The test and control rinses had a similar lightening effect over the first 3 hours (equivalent to 3 months of clinical use). Subsequently, the control rinse continued to lighten samples, whereas the test rinse had little further effect. Conclusion Test and control-whitening strips showed similar effects; over time whitening strips showed a greater lightening effect than whitening rinses. PMID:28706755

  3. Effects of a Novel Whitening Formulation on Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the enamel whitening effects of 2 new test formulations, one of which was a rinse, and the other a whitening strip. Forty enamel chips were prepared from 20 healthy extracted teeth (2 from each tooth). After pre-staining and colorimetry to measure L* and b* values, 20 matched samples were immersed in either test or control rinses, and then colorimetry was performed again after 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hrs (Each hour equates to one month of clinical use at the recommended dosage of 1 minute exposure 2 times a day). The remaining 20 matched samples were exposed to the test or control whitening strips and colorimetry was performed every 30 minutes for a total of 10 treatments. Overall, the whitening performance of test and control strips was similar. The test and control rinses had a similar lightening effect over the first 3 hours (equivalent to 3 months of clinical use). Subsequently, the control rinse continued to lighten samples, whereas the test rinse had little further effect. Test and control-whitening strips showed similar effects; over time whitening strips showed a greater lightening effect than whitening rinses.

  4. A clinical evaluation of bleaching using whitening wraps and strips.

    PubMed

    Matis, Bruce A; Cochran, Michael; Wang, Ge; Franco, Miguel; Eckert, George J; Carlotti, Ronald J; Bryan, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of color change of teeth and the sensitivities of teeth and gums in an in vivo study. Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW2) and Crest Whitestrips Premium (WP2) were used twice a day and Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW1) were used once a day. Color evaluations occurred at baseline, after five and seven-day use of bleaching agent and 14 days post-bleaching. Color change was evaluated objectively and subjectively. Sensitivity evaluations were also accomplished. Seventy-six of the 78 subjects enrolled completed the study. All three products significantly lightened teeth. WW2 lightened more than WP2 and WW1 in L*, a*, b*, E and shade guide value. WP2 lightened more than WW1 in a*, b*, E and shade guide value. There was no difference in tooth sensitivity, but WW1 and WP2 caused less gingival sensitivity than WW2. The mean age of smokers was seven years younger than nonsmokers who qualified.

  5. Influence of gel/LED-laser application on cervical microleakage of two barrier materials used for endodontically treated teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Barros, Felipe; Porto, Saulo; Zaitter, Suellen; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated ex vivo the influence of the number of gel/LED-laser applications/activations on cervical microleakage of two different barrier materials used for protection during whitening of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty-four canines were instrumented and obturated with epoxy resin sealer. The seal was removed 2 mm beyond the cemento-enamel junction for barrier placement and the teeth were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each: G1, zinc phosphate cement; G2, glass ionomer cement. The two groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10 each): I) no gel or LED-laser application; II) one gel application and two LED-laser activations; III) two gel applications and four LED-laser activations; IV) three gel applications and six LED-laser activations. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, decalcified and cleared. Cervical microleakage was quantified with a measurement microscope. Statistical analysis showed that zinc phosphate caused significantly lower microleakage than glass ionomer cement (presented microleakage in all subgroups). However, after two (p<0.01) and three (p<0.001) applications of gel, there was statistially significant microleakage in zinc phosphate barriers. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that cervical barriers with zinc phosphate cement show less cervical microleakage and that two or more applications/activations of gel/LED-laser significantly increase microleakage.

  6. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  7. Double-blind whitening Night-Guard study using ten percent carbamide peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, D; Los, S; Case, H; Healy, R

    1992-01-01

    The conservative technique of professionally dispensed and supervised, home-administered vital bleaching is now a routine treatment in the dental profession. This double-blind study evaluated the Rembrandt Lightening Gel and Whitening Toothpaste for shade change, colorimeter shade change. As well, it evaluated soft tissue health by periodontal probing, plaque index, and bleeding index. A patient questionnaire evaluated perception of whitening, perception of oral hygiene, average hours per day, and average days per week. Bleaching trays were worn over a 4-week period. The bleaching system showed definitive whitening effects as evaluated with the Vita shade guide and the colorimeter. The bleaching system had no deleterious effects on the soft tissue. The Rembrandt toothpaste alone demonstrated two-shade lightening. This vital bleaching system shows definitive whitening of the teeth in short periods of time with no adverse effects.

  8. Efficacy of different whitening modalities on bovine enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Vollmer, Doreen; Foitzik, Magdalena; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching treatment may be efficient in both enamel and dentin, but it is still unknown how much the subsurface dentin contributes to the color change of teeth. This in vitro study evaluated the whitening effect of different external bleaching agents on enamel-dentin slabs and subsurface dentin. Ninety bovine teeth were distributed among six groups (A, Opalescence 10%; B, Opalescence PF 15%; C, Opalescence Quick; D, Opalescence Extra Boost; E, Rapid White; F, Whitestrips). Two enamel-dentin specimens were prepared from the labial surface of each teeth. In one of the specimens enamel was removed, resulting in a dentin (CD) disc of 1 mm high. The labial and the pulpal sides of the second specimen were ground until the remaining enamel and dentin layers of the enamel-dentin sample (ED) were 1 mm each. Whitening treatment of the ED specimens was performed according to manufacturers' instructions. Pre- and posttreatment Lab values of ED samples were analyzed using CIE-Lab. Baseline Lab values of dentin were analyzed by evaluation of the CD specimen. Finally, enamel of the ED specimens was removed and color change of the exposed dentin (D) was recorded. For all treatment agents significant color changes (DeltaE) were observed for enamel-dentin samples and subsurface dentin specimens compared to controls. In groups A-D DeltaE was significantly higher in dentin than enamel-dentin. Furthermore, L and b values of bleached enamel-dentin and subsurface dentin samples differed significantly from baseline. Treatment with the tested external whitening bleaching agents resulted in color change of both enamel-dentin and subsurface dentin samples. The results indicate that color change of treated teeth might be highly influenced by color change of the subsurface dentin.

  9. The effect of bleaching gel and (940 nm and 980 nm) diode lasers photoactivation on intrapulpal temperature and teeth whitening efficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Karadaghi, Tamara S; Al-Saedi, Asmaa A; Al-Maliky, Mohammed A; Mahmood, Ali S

    2016-12-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the whitening efficacy of 940 nm and 980 nm diode laser photoactivation in tooth bleaching by analysing pulp chamber temperature, as well as the change in tooth colour. Root canals of thirty extracted human lower premolars were prepared. Laserwhite* 20 bleaching agent containing 38% of hydrogen peroxide was photoactivated with 7 W output power of 940 nm and 980 nm diode lasers for 120 s. Bleaching gel reduced 27-29% of the temperature from reaching the pulp chamber. For shade assessment, only the groups photoactivated using diode lasers showed statistically significant differences from control group P < 0.001. Within the studied parameters, both 940 nm and 980 nm diode lasers produced a safe pulp temperature increase. Diode laser photoactivation of bleaching gel resulted in more efficient teeth whitening. Photoactivation with 940 nm diode laser yielded the highest change in colour with only minor increase in pulp chamber temperature. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  10. The use of QLF to quantify in vitro whitening in a product testing model.

    PubMed

    Pretty, I A; Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    2001-11-24

    Professional and consumer interest in whitening products continues to increase against a background of both increased oral health awareness and demand for cosmetic procedures. In the current legal climate, few dentists are providing 'in-office' whitening treatments, and thus many patients turn to home-use products. The most common of these are the whitening toothpastes. Researchers are keen to quantify the effectiveness of such products through clinically relevant trials. Previous studies examining whitening products have employed a variety of stained substrates to monitor stain removal. This study aimed to quantify the removal of stain from human enamel using a new device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The experimental design follows that of a product-testing model. A total of 11 previously extracted molar teeth were coated with transparent nail varnish leaving an exposed window of enamel. The sound, exposed enamel was subject to a staining regime of human saliva, chlorhexidine and tea. Each of the eleven teeth was subjected to serial exposures of a positive control (Bocasan), a negative control (water) and a test product (Yotuel toothpaste). Following each two-minute exposure QLF images of the teeth were taken (a total of 5 applications). Following completion of one test solution, the teeth were cleaned, re-stained and the procedure repeated with the next solution. QLF images were stored on a PC and analysed by a blinded single examiner. The deltaQ value at 5% threshold was reported. ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse the data. The study confirmed the ability of QLF to longitudinally quantify stain reduction from human enamel. The reliability of the technique in relation to positive and negative test controls was proven. The positive control had a significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher stain removal efficacy than water (p = 0.023) and Yotuel (p = 0.046). Yotuel was more effective than water (p = 0.023). The research community, the

  11. Effect of Light-Activated Tooth Whitening on Color Change Relative to Color of Artificially Stained Teeth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to the efficacy of light activation used in tooth whitening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light activation on tooth color change relative to the artificial dye color. Extracted human third molars (160) were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 specimens each based on artificial staining and use of light activation. All groups received three 45-minute sessions of in-office whitening at 3-day intervals. Color measurements were performed with an intraoral spectrophotometer at baseline prior to staining (T0), after artificial staining (T1), 1-day--(T2), and 1-week--(T3) post-whitening. Color differences were calculated relative to after artificial staining color parameters (L*1, a*1, b*1) with the use of a software analysis program enabling synchronization of two images. Within the same staining groups, the light-activated samples exhibited a greater color change than their nonlight-activated counterparts. However, only in the case of the yellow-stained samples at 1-day post-whitening was there a significant difference between the nonlight-activated and light-activated groups (Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test for pairwise comparisons, p < 0.05). Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains. Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains.

  12. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  13. A clinical evaluation comparing two H2O2 concentrations used with a light-assisted chairside tooth whitening system.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marilyn; Felix, Heather

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of two different BriteSmile hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gels in a split-arch protocol for whitening teeth in a clinical setting when used in conjunction with a BriteSmile BS4000 lamp. Fifteen subjects were enrolled into a single-center clinical trial. The efficacy of the BriteSmile BS4000 lamp using both 15% H2O2 and 25% H2O2 gel formulations was tested. Study subjects were concurrently exposed to the whitening lamp with the 15% H2O2 gel placed on half of their anterior teeth and the 25% H2O2 gel on the other half for a total light and gel exposure of 60 minutes. The clinical data collected were shade score, gingival health, and dentinal hypersensitivity self-assessment. Changes in tooth shade were better for subjects exposed to the 25% gel and the dental whitening lamp (average 8.0 shade changes) compared to subjects exposed to the 15% gel and dental whitening lamp (average 7.6 shade changes) immediately after treatment. The same held true at the 7-day follow-up (25% gel average 7.4 shade changes versus 15% gel average 7.3 shade changes). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No reports of irritation of gingival soft tissues were documented. The relative changes in mean sensitivity scores were similar for both groups with no significant differences in mean sensitivity scores between the groups. Both concentrations of H2O2 gel and the whitening lamp combined gave study subjects an average of 8.0 (25% gel) and 7.6 (15% gel) shade changes immediately after treatment. The 7-day follow-up examination resulted in a regression of lightest to an average of 7.4 (25% gel) and 7.3 (15% gel). It was concluded that the use of the chairside whitening light and either 15% or 25% hydrogen peroxide gel is safe and effective for whitening teeth in 1 hour.

  14. [Effects of tooth whitening agents and acidic drinks on the surface properties of dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhiqun; Lin, Yao; Shao, Jinquan; Yin, Lu

    2013-10-01

    Using tooth whitening agents (bleaching clip) in vitro and acidic drinks, we conducted a comparative study of the changes in enamel surface morphology, Ca/P content, and hardness. Tooth whitening glue pieces, cola, and orange juice were used to soak teeth in artificial saliva in vitro. Physiological saline was used as a control treatment. The morphology of the four groups was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after the teeth were soaked for 7 and 14 d. The changes in Ca/P content and microhardness were analyzed. The enamel surfaces of the teeth in the three test groups were demineralized. The Ca/P ratio and the average microhardness were significantly lower than those of the control group immediately after the teeth were soaked (P < 0.05). The Ca/P ratio and microhardness gradually increased after 7 d. No significant difference was observed between the control group and the test groups after 14 d (P > 0.05). Bleaching agents caused transient demineralization of human enamel, but these agents could induce re-mineralization and repair of enamel over time. Demineralization caused by bleaching covered a relatively normal range compared with acidic drinks and daily drinking.

  15. Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Swetha; Janga, Ravi Kumar; Venugopal, L; Reddy, Indukuri Ravikishore; Babu, P Ravisekhar; Kumar, Sunil S

    2014-05-01

    The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent - its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties.

  16. The bleaching of teeth: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew

    2006-08-01

    To review current knowledge of tooth whitening with respect to external bleaching methods. The scope is the external bleaching of vital teeth and focuses on mechanisms; in vivo and in vitro measurement methods, and factors influencing the efficacy of the whitening process. "Medline" and "ISI Web of Science" databases from 1966 and 1974, respectively were searched electronically with key words tooth, teeth, colo*r, white*, bleach* and peroxide. The importance of tooth whitening for patients and consumers has seen a dramatic increase in the number of products and procedures over recent years, with a concomitant rise in publications on this topic. Literature suggests that the mechanisms of tooth whitening by peroxide occur by the diffusion of peroxide through enamel to cause oxidation and hence lightening of coloured species, particularly within the dentinal regions. A number of approaches are available for measuring changes in tooth colour. These include visual measurements by trained clinicians and instrumental measurements using spectrophotometry, chromameters and digital image analysis. The key factors that affect tooth whitening efficacy by peroxide containing products are concentration and time. In general, higher concentrations are faster than lower concentrations. However, lower concentrations can approach the efficacy of higher concentrations with extended treatment times. Alternative bleach systems to peroxide have received only minor attention. The efficacy of light activated systems versus non-light activated controls in clinical studies is limited and conflicting. Other factors which can influence tooth bleaching outcome include type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age.

  17. Effect of at-home whitening strips on the surface roughness and color of a composite and an ormocer restorative material.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Pelin; Yilmaz, Kerem; Yilmaz, Burak; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenating agents like carbamide peroxide or H(2) O(2) are commonly used whitening agents. They have varying influence on the color and surface roughness of resin-based restorative materials and teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an at-home peroxide whitening agent applied through a whitening strip on the color and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin and an ormocer-based resin. Disc-shaped (2 mm thick, 10 mm diameter) nanofilled resin composite (n = 10) and ormocer (n = 10) specimens were prepared. All specimens were treated with a whitening strip. Whitening procedures were performed applying a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strip (Crest White Strips Professional) for 30 minutes twice each day for a period of 21 consecutive days. During the test intervals, the specimens were rinsed under running distilled water for 1 minute to remove the whitening agents and immersed in 37°C distilled water until the next treatment. Surface roughness and color of the specimens were measured with a profilometer and a colorimeter, respectively, before and after whitening. Color changes were calculated (ΔE) using L*, a*, and b* coordinates. Repeated measures of variance analysis and Duncan test were used for statistical evaluation (α= 0.05). The average surface roughness of composite increased from 1.4 Ra to 2.0 Ra, and from 0.8 Ra to 0.9 Ra for the ormocer material; however, these changes in roughness after whitening were not significant (p > 0.05). Also, when two materials were compared, the surface roughness of restorative materials was not different before and after whitening (p > 0.05). L* and b* values for each material changed significantly after whitening (p < 0.05). ΔE values (before/after whitening) calculated for composite (11.9) and ormocer (16.1) were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). The tested whitening agent did not affect the surface roughness of either resin-based restorative material. Both materials

  18. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Influence of in-office whitening gel pH on hydrogen peroxide diffusion through enamel and color changes in bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Pignoly, Christian; Camps, Lila; Susini, Guy; About, Imad; Camps, Jean

    2012-04-01

    To assess the influence of in-office whitening gel pH on whitening efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion and color changes on bovine teeth were assessed. Three gels with close hydrogen peroxide concentrations but with various pH levels were tested: Zoom 2 (Discus Dental), Opalescence Endo and Opalescence Boost (Ultradent). The pH levels were respectively: 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0. Thirty enamel slices and tooth crowns were used for both studies (n = 10 per group per study). Hydrogen peroxide diffusion through the enamel slices and the tooth crowns was spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour to calculate the diffusion coefficients. Color changes were spectrophotometrically recorded every 10 minutes for 1 hour and quantified in term of CIE-Lab. The hydrogen peroxide diffusion coefficient through enamel ranged from 5.12 +/- 0.82 x 10(-9) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3 to 5.19 +/- 0.92 x 10(-9) cm2 S(-1) for pH 7. Through tooth crowns it ranged from 4.80 +/- 1.75 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 5 to 4.85 +/- 1.82 x 10(-10) cm2 s(-1) for pH 3. After 1 hour, the deltaE varied from 5.6 +/- 4.0 for pH 7 to 7.0 +/- 5.0 for pH 3 on enamel slices and from 3.9 +/- 2.5 for pH 5 to 4.9 +/- 3.5 for pH 7 on tooth crowns. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for both parameters.

  20. Effect of laser irradiation on crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Hyun; An, Ji-Hae; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Hwang, In-Nam; Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Ho-Jun

    2012-11-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of laser activation on the whitening and crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Bovine teeth were treated with whitening gel containing 35% hydrogen peroxide. A whitening gel was applied on the enamel surface for a period of 5 min, and then irradiated using a diode laser (740 nm) during whitening treatment for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180s for the GL0-W, GL30-W, GL60-W, GL120-W and GL180-W groups, respectively. The total whitening application time was 30 min for all groups. Laser-irradiated enamel groups showed a similar lightness compared to the GL0-W group. The thickness of porous layer observed on the enamel surface of GL0-W group was decreased by increasing the laser irradiation time. While the Ca and P contents of the GL0-W group were lower than those of the non-whitening treated group (GL0-C), the Ca and P contents of the GL180-W group were similar to those of the GL180-C group. The enamel crystallinity was dramatically decreased by whitening treatment without laser irradiation. However, the decrease of crystallinity was protected by laser irradiation during whitening treatment. Raman measurement verified that laser irradiation could prevent the loss of mineral compositions on enamel and maintain its crystalline structure. The professional whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide and diode laser activation improves not only the whitening effect but also protects the change of enamel structure compared to the treatment with only gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of different preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dustin; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effects of some clinically related preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding properties. Sixty-two extracted human teeth were cleaned and divided into four groups. Forty-two of the teeth were left with their natural surface intact while 20 teeth were polished to form a flat surface. Half of the tooth served as the experimental side and received one of the two whitening products: Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and Crest Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide), for 2 weeks. Post-bleaching intervals included: 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks. On these days, tooth (10 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) sections were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength tests. T-test, ANOVA test, and mixed model regression analysis were used to assess the differences. No significant difference existed between natural surface and polished surface teeth for all groups at both Day One and Week Two (P > 0.05). On Day One, both treated groups had significant lower bond strength than the control group (P = 0.002). After 2 weeks, no significant difference existed between any group (P = 0.381). SEM indicated that resin-enamel interfaces in bleached enamel exhibited more defects in granular formations when compared to the control. Raman results indicated a lower degree of polymerization (DP) of adhesive at the interface for treated teeth surfaces. In summary, pre-bleaching surface treatments such as polish or non-polish, had no effect on bond strength. Bleaching significantly decreased bond strength initially, but after 2 weeks, bleaching had no significant effect on bond strength. Storage time had significant effect on Opalescence treated enamel, but not on control and Whitestrip treated enamel. The decrease of bond strength may be related to interfacial defects and low DP due to oxygen release after bleaching.

  2. Comparison of bleaching efficacy of two bleaching agents on teeth discoloured by different antibiotic combinations used in revascularization.

    PubMed

    Yasa, Bilal; Arslan, Hakan; Akcay, Merve; Kavrik, Fevzi; Hatirli, Huseyin; Ozkan, Bulent

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the whitening effects of different bleaching agents on teeth discoloured by different antibiotic combinations of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole with minocycline, doxycycline, amoxicillin or cefaclor. Forty extracted bovine incisors were collected and discoloured with triple antibiotic pastes (TAP) with minocycline, doxycycline, amoxicillin and cefaclor throughout 30 days. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups and each group received different bleaching materials: 35% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate. Spectrophotometric measurements were obtained on the buccal surfaces of the crown, firstly in the beginning, then on the 4th, 8th and 12th days after the placement of the bleaching materials. The acceptability threshold was set to 3.5. The ∆E values were calculated and the data was analysed using the repeated measures analysis of variance (P = .05). All the test groups induced colour changes exceeding the acceptability threshold 30 days after the antibiotic pastes were placed. The 35% hydrogen peroxide was more effective than sodium perborate in the whitening of discoloured teeth by antibiotic pastes (P = .001). The whitening effect after the 8th and 12th days was significantly more than after 4 days of treatment (P <.001). The discolouration caused by the TAP with minocycline and cefaclor showed greater whitening compared to the TAP with doxycycline and amoxicillin groups (P <.05). The whitening treatment effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide on teeth discoloured by antibiotic pastes seems to have significantly outperformed the sodium perborate treatment. Both bleaching agents were allowed to bleach the teeth gradually each day and the effects on the 8th and 12th days were superior to the one on the 4th day. The use of 35% hydrogen peroxide could be advantageous to bleach the teeth discoloured with antibiotic pastes compared to sodium perborate.

  3. A clinical evaluation of 10 percent vs. 15 percent carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Kihn, P W; Barnes, D M; Romberg, E; Peterson, K

    2000-10-01

    Agents with carbamide peroxide, or CP, in various concentrations are widely prescribed for at-home tooth whitening. It is not clear, however, if the more concentrated gels will whitening teeth to a greater extent, as no controlled clinical trials have been reported. The authors conducted a double-blind study of human subjects to evaluate whether a 15 percent CP tooth-whitening system was more effective than a 10 percent CP system, and to determine if tooth sensitivity increased with use of the higher concentration. The authors recruited 57 subjects with maxillary anterior teeth of shade A3 or darker (as gauged against a value-oriented shade guide). The subjects were 18 to 65 years of age and in good general and dental health. After matching the subjects by sex and age, the authors randomly assigned them to either a control group, which used a 10 percent CP whitening agent, or an experimental group, which used a 15 percent CP agent. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in shade change between the groups after one week of treatment (t = 1.455, P = .05), but there was a significant difference at the end of the treatment period (t = 2.303, P < .05), as well as two weeks after treatment concluded (t = 2.248, P < .05). There was no significant difference in sensitivity (t = 1.399, P > .05). There was a significant difference in color change between the 10 percent CP and 15 percent CP groups at the end of the study period. There was no significant difference in level of tooth sensitivity between the two groups, and the incidence was equal; there was, however, a significant difference in variability of tooth sensitivity between the two groups. If performed under the careful guidance of a dentist, at-home whitening is an effective treatment, regardless of whether 10 percent CP or 15 percent CP is used. There may be added color change and varying sensitivity with the use of 15 percent CP.

  4. Effect of four over-the-counter tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Majeed, A; Grobler, S R; Moola, M H; Oberholzer, T G

    2011-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of four over-the-counter tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness. Fifty enamel blocks were prepared from extracted human molar teeth. The enamel surfaces were polished up to 1200 grit fineness and the specimens randomly divided into five groups. Enamel blocks were exposed to: Rapid White (n=10); Absolute White (n=10); Speed White (n=10) and White Glo (n=10) whitening products, according to the manufacturers' instructions. As control, ten enamel blocks were kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C without any treatment. Microhardness values were obtained before exposure (baseline) and after 1, 7 and 14-day treatment periods using a digital hardness tester with a Vickers diamond indenter. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test, one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test (p<0.05). Both Rapid White and Absolute White reduced enamel microhardness. Speed White increased the microhardness of enamel, while White Glo and artificial saliva had no effect on hardness. Over-the-counter tooth-whitening products might decrease enamel microhardness depending on the type of product.

  5. Clinical and Spectrophotometric Evaluation of LED and Laser Activated Teeth Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, R; Pantaleo, G; Lizio, A; Romeo, U; Castiello, G; Spagnuolo, G; Giudice, G Lo

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary power sources (LED and laser) are used in in-office teeth bleaching techniques to accelerate the redox reaction of the whitening gel to increase ease of use, to improve comfort and safety, and to decrease the procedure time. The aim this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the teeth whitening procedures performed with hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide, LED or Laser activated. 18 patients, affected by exogenous dyschromia, were treated with a bleaching agent composed by 35% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide. They were divided into two groups: in the first group the bleaching agent was activated by a LED lamp; in the second group it was activated by a Laser diode lamp. Both groups were subjected to 3 bleaching cycle of 15' each. The chromatic evaluations were performed before and after one week from the treatment, using a chromatic scale and a spectrophotometer. The mean value of pre, post bleaching and follow-up were analyzed using a T-test, with results statistically significant for P<0,05. Results showed that the variations in brightness, chroma and hue are significantly influenced by the interaction between the whitening agent and the original colour of the teeth. Laser-activation has marginally improved the bleaching effectiveness. All patients treated with laser activation complained an increase in dental sensitivity. The use of laser-activating systems did not improve the efficacy of bleaching.

  6. Dental whitening--revisiting the myths.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of dental bleaching has increased with the introduction of at-home whitening. Currently available whitening methods include those prescribed by a dental professional for use at home, those applied by the professional in the dental office, a combination of the two, or systems available over the counter. This article reviews the effect, efficacy, and safety of bleaching techniques and materials. Most whitening techniques are considered effective and safe when carried out under the supervision of a dental professional. This article also compares the efficacy and safety of some of the most popular bleaching techniques, including at-home whitening with carbamide peroxide, over-the-counter (OTC) systems, and in-office whitening. Some of these whitening techniques are illustrated in this article.

  7. Clinical and Spectrophotometric Evaluation of LED and Laser Activated Teeth Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giudice, R.; Pantaleo, G.; Lizio, A.; Romeo, U.; Castiello, G.; Spagnuolo, G.; Giudice, G. Lo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Auxiliary power sources (LED and laser) are used in in-office teeth bleaching techniques to accelerate the redox reaction of the whitening gel to increase ease of use, to improve comfort and safety, and to decrease the procedure time. Objective: The aim this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the teeth whitening procedures performed with hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide, LED or Laser activated. Method: 18 patients, affected by exogenous dyschromia, were treated with a bleaching agent composed by 35% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide. They were divided into two groups: in the first group the bleaching agent was activated by a LED lamp; in the second group it was activated by a Laser diode lamp. Both groups were subjected to 3 bleaching cycle of 15’ each. The chromatic evaluations were performed before and after one week from the treatment, using a chromatic scale and a spectrophotometer. The mean value of pre, post bleaching and follow-up were analyzed using a T-test, with results statistically significant for P<0,05. Results: Results showed that the variations in brightness, chroma and hue are significantly influenced by the interaction between the whitening agent and the original colour of the teeth. Laser-activation has marginally improved the bleaching effectiveness. All patients treated with laser activation complained an increase in dental sensitivity. Conclusion: The use of laser-activating systems did not improve the efficacy of bleaching. PMID:27386010

  8. Clinical evaluation of a new 10% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; Kihn, P W; Romberg, E; George, D; DePaola, L; Medina, E

    1998-10-01

    NUPRO Gold Tooth Whitening System was evaluated for efficacy according to the proposed ADA guidelines for acceptance. Sixty participants with discolored anterior teeth participated in a 14-day, double-blind, clinical trial. The participants were matched for age, gender, and oral health status and were given either a placebo gel without the active agent or the NUPRO Gold active gel, which they wore in a custom-fabricated mouth guard for home use. The shade of each participant's maxillary anterior teeth was evaluated using a value-oriented Vita Lumin Vacuum Shade Guide before the study. The same shade guide was used to determine shade changes. Time of use of the agent and potential side effects, such as tooth and gingival hypersensitivity and tissue irritation, were assessed at all recall examinations and were recorded by participants in daily diaries. The average shade change for the placebo users was less than one shade. The average shade change for the NUPRO Gold users was 6.96 shades. Tooth hypersensitivity varied from none to severe. Tissue irritation was minimal. The results of these evaluations indicate that NUPRO Gold is effective as a tooth-whitening system, when administered properly under the supervision of a dentist, with commonly reported side effects of transient tooth sensitivity and minimal gingival sensitivity. Little or no change in tissue health was noted. This study was supported by Dentsply Preventive Care (York, Pennsylvania).

  9. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Mirhashemi, AmirHossein; Jahangiri, Sahar; Kharrazifard, MohammadJavad

    2018-02-05

    Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  10. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Danying; Smith, Richard N; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo. Salivary pellicle coated human extracted teeth were brushed with either a slurry of a toothpaste containing blue covarine (BC), a formulation containing an increased level of blue covarine (BC+) or a negative control toothpaste containing no blue covarine. The colour of the specimens were measured in vitro using either a Minolta chromameter or a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer, before and after brushing and changes in CIELAB values and tooth Whiteness Index (WIO) values calculated. In a double-blind cross-over clinical study, subjects brushed with either BC or BC+ toothpaste and tooth colour changes were measured with a digital image analysis system. The in vitro studies demonstrated that toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a significantly (p<0.05) greater change in b* and WIO values than the negative control toothpaste; the BC+ toothpaste gave a significantly greater increase in b* and WIO values than the BC toothpaste, and BC+ gave a significant increase in shade change versus the negative control. Clinical results showed that BC and BC+ gave a significant reduction in b* (p<0.0001) and increase in WIO (p<0.0001) from baseline indicating significant tooth whitening had occurred. The parameter changes were significantly greater when brushing with the BC+ toothpaste than with the BC toothpaste (WIO p=0.006; b* p=0.013). Toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a statistically significant reduction in tooth yellowness and improvement in tooth whiteness immediately after brushing in both in vitro and clinical studies. In addition, the higher concentration blue covarine toothpaste gave statistically significant greater tooth whitening benefits than the lower concentration blue covarine toothpaste. The silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine evaluated in the current study gave tooth whitening benefits

  11. Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer’s protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Background Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Methods Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. Conclusions When manufacturer’s instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help asneeded. PMID:24929591

  12. Effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate combined with hydrogen peroxide and CPP-ACPF in whitening and microhardness of enamel.

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Rajabi, Omid; Forouzannejad, Zakiyeh

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) combined with 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on color and microhardness of enamel. Seventy-five bovine incisors were immersed in a tea solution for 7.5 days. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening agent applied: 1) 94% NaHCO3, 2) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and CPP-ACPF, 3) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and 1.5% H2O2, 4) a blend of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF, 5) control. The whitening procedure was performed for 10 times over 10 days. At each day, the buccal surfaces were covered with whitening agents for 5 minutes and then brushed for 30 seconds. After the 10 days, the teeth were again immersed in a tea solution for 10 minutes. Color assessment was performed at baseline (T1), after the first staining process (T2), after the whitening procedure (T3), and after the second staining process (T4). Finally, the specimens were subjected to microhardness test. There was a statistically significant difference in the color change between T2 and T3 stages among the study groups ( p <0.05), with the greatest improvement observed in group 4. Microhardness was significantly greater in groups 2 and 4, as compared to the other groups ( p <0.05). The combination of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF was effective in improving color and microhardness of teeth with extrinsic stains and could be recommended in the clinical situation.

  13. Effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate combined with hydrogen peroxide and CPP-ACPF in whitening and microhardness of enamel

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Rajabi, Omid; Forouzannejad, Zakiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) combined with 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on color and microhardness of enamel. Material and Methods Seventy-five bovine incisors were immersed in a tea solution for 7.5 days. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening agent applied: 1) 94% NaHCO3, 2) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and CPP-ACPF, 3) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and 1.5% H2O2, 4) a blend of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF, 5) control. The whitening procedure was performed for 10 times over 10 days. At each day, the buccal surfaces were covered with whitening agents for 5 minutes and then brushed for 30 seconds. After the 10 days, the teeth were again immersed in a tea solution for 10 minutes. Color assessment was performed at baseline (T1), after the first staining process (T2), after the whitening procedure (T3), and after the second staining process (T4). Finally, the specimens were subjected to microhardness test. Results There was a statistically significant difference in the color change between T2 and T3 stages among the study groups (p<0.05), with the greatest improvement observed in group 4. Microhardness was significantly greater in groups 2 and 4, as compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions The combination of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF was effective in improving color and microhardness of teeth with extrinsic stains and could be recommended in the clinical situation. PMID:28298972

  14. Effect of a New Bleaching Gel on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Barry, T N; Bailey, C W; Ashcraft-Olmscheid, D; Vandewalle, K S

    The purpose of this study was to compare the whitening efficacy of a novel bleaching agent containing a unique tribarrel hydremide-peroxide gel (KöR) with a traditional bleaching system of hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide (Opalescence). Bovine incisors were mounted into a custom resin, arch-shaped mounting device. Four groups of 10 teeth were created using mounting devices containing five teeth each. The in-office and home bleaching gels of KöR and Opalescence were applied to the teeth alone and in trays to simulate a combination of in-office and home bleaching or home bleaching only. Spectrophotometer readings of L* a* b* were performed at baseline, the end of active bleaching (immediate), and three and six months postbleaching. Immediately postbleaching, the use of Opalescence gel resulted in greater change in ΔE* and Δb* (less yellow) for combined and home bleaching techniques compared with KöR. After six months, Opalescence had significantly greater ΔE* and Δb* compared with KöR for home bleaching only. There was no significant difference in ΔL* between Opalescence and KöR at any time period with either technique.

  15. In vitro demineralization of tooth enamel subjected to two whitening regimens.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kayoko; Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hisamitsu, Hisashi

    2013-07-01

    The resistance of bleached enamel to demineralization has not been elucidated fully. In this study, the authors aimed to examine the level of in vitro demineralization of human tooth enamel after bleaching by using two common bleaching regimens: home bleaching (HB) and office bleaching (OB) with photoirradiation. The authors bleached teeth to equivalent levels by means of the two bleaching regimens. They used fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the reduction in enamel density and the release of calcium into solution after storing the treated teeth in a demineralizing solution for two weeks. They also visualized and quantified mineral distribution in demineralized bleached enamel over time by using a desktop microcomputed-tomographic analyzer. Enamel subjected to HB or to photoirradiation without bleaching showed increased demineralization. In contrast, enamel treated with OB was more resistant to demineralization. This resistance to demineralization in teeth treated with OB presumably is due to peroxide's permeating to deeper layers of enamel before being activated by photoirradiation, which enhances mineralization. The mineral distribution pattern of enamel after treatment plays a critical role in providing resistance to demineralization in whitened teeth. OB confers to enamel significant resistance to in vitro demineralization. Dentists should supervise the nightguard HB process.

  16. Efficacy of do-it-yourself whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Meharry, M; Oyoyo, U; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

  17. Age estimation using level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcı, Feride Aylin; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Bilgi, Sefer

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether eyebrow and eyelash whitening is an effective parameter in age estimation. Material/Methods We evaluated 1545 patients. Age groups were 1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, 71–80, and 81–90 years. Level of whitening was categorized as level 0: no whitening, level 1: 1–3 strands, level 2: 3–10 strands, level 3: 10 strands–2/3 whitening, level 4: >3/4 whitening. Results Mean age was 42.39±20.01. While there was no eyebrow whitening in 87% of the subjects, level 4 whitening of eyebrows was observed in 0,8% of the subjects. There was no eyelash whitening in 97,7% of the subjects and no level 4 eyelash whitening was detected in any subject. Men had significantly more level 1, 2, 3, and 4 eyebrow whitening compared with women. There was no gender difference in terms of eyelash whitening level. There was no eyebrow and eyelash whitening in subjects age 1–40 years; whitening began in the 41–50 years age group and increased with age in other groups. Mean age was 39.59±19.63 years in subjects with no eyebrow whitening; 59 years in level 1, 61 years in level 2, 63 years in level 3, and 69 years in level 4 eyebrow whitening. Mean age was 41.85±19.87 in subjects with no eyelash whitening; and 63.57±10.75 in those with whitening. Conclusions Particularly after 41–50 years of age, level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening may be among a useful age estimation parameter. PMID:24448310

  18. Evaluating the Whitening and Microstructural Effects of a Novel Whitening Strip on Porcelain and Composite Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Lee, Matthew; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of 2 different whitening strips on color, microstructure and roughness of tea stained porcelain and composite surfaces. Methods 54 porcelain and 72 composite chips served as samples for timed application of over-the-counter (OTC) test or control dental whitening strips. Chips were divided randomly into three groups of 18 porcelain and 24 composite chips each. Of these groups, 1 porcelain and 1 composite set served as controls. The remaining 2 groups were randomized to treatment with either Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips or Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™. Sample surface structure was examined by light microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, a reflectance spectrophotometer was used to assess color changes in the porcelain and composite samples over 24 hours of whitening. Data points were analyzed at each time point using ANOVA. Results In the light microscopy and SEM images, no discrete physical defects were observed in any of the samples at any time points. However, high-resolution SEM images showed an appearance of increased surface roughness in all composite samples. Using profilometry, significantly increased post-whitening roughness was documented in the composite samples exposed to the control bleaching strips. Composite samples underwent a significant and equivalent shift in color following exposure to Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™ and Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips. Conclusions A novel commercial tooth whitening strip demonstrated a comparable beaching effect to a widely used OTC whitening strip. Neither whitening strip caused physical defects in the sample surfaces. However, the control strip caused roughening of the composite samples whereas the test strip did not. PMID:29226023

  19. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  20. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-02-01

    Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks.

  1. Effect of Bleaching Gel Viscosity on Tooth Whitening Efficacy and Pulp Chamber Penetration: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Pallavi, Fnu; Shi, Y; Oyoyo, U; Mohraz, A; Li, Y

    Whitening efficacy has been related to hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffusion into tooth structure. However, little information is available relating rheological properties to whitening efficacy. The purpose was to evaluate the whitening efficacy and HP penetration level of a 10% HP gel at three different viscosities and to compare them to a strip delivery system. Extracted molars (n=120) were randomly assigned into five groups (n=24/ group): NC_MED (negative control; median): medium viscosity gel without HP; LOW: 10% HP gel (low viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent Products Inc); MED: 10% HP gel (medium viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent); HIGH: 10% HP gel (high viscosity gel, Ultradent); and CWS: Crest 3D Whitestrips 1-Hour Express (Procter & Gamble). All teeth were subjected to five 60-minute whitening sessions. Instrumental color measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), and 1-day after each application (T 1 -T 5 ), and 1-month after whitening (T 6 ). HP penetration was estimated with leucocrystal violet and horseradish peroxidase. A Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Bonferroni test were performed to assess the difference in tooth color change and HP penetration among the groups (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide penetration levels and overall color changes at T 6 were 0.24 μg/mL / 2.80; 0.48 μg/mL / 8.48; 0.44 μg/mL / 7.72; 0.35 μg/mL / 8.49; 0.36 μg/mL / 7.30 for groups NC, LOW, MED, HIGH, and CWS, respectively. There was a significant difference for HP penetration, while there was no significant difference among the four experimental groups for tooth color change. Rheological properties should be considered when developing new whitening formulations.

  2. Determination of demineralization depth in tooth enamel exposed to abusive use of whitening gel using micro-Energy Dispersive X ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Coutinho, Sara; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Silveira, João Miguel; Mata, António

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a methodology for the determination of the depth of demineralization in dental enamel caused by extended use of an Over-The-Counter (OTC) whitening product. Teeth whitening is a very common practice in Dentistry, but concerns have been raised regarding the invasiveness of the treatment, especially regarding OTC products, that can be used without medical supervision and sometimes with concentrations of active agent that exceed the allowed regulations. In this work, we studied tooth enamel samples, treated with a whitening product during an extended period of time, both directly on the enamel surface and in the cross-section. Specimens were analyzed using microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-XRF) using polycapillary optics to obtain a spot down to 25 μm. Due to the relatively large spot size of our setup point analysis of the cross-sections would be inadequate. This way, line scans were performed instead, before and after whitening, and using appropriate data treatment the depth of demineralization was inferred. The used methodology indicated an average demineralization depth of 25 μm, the same order of magnitude as the aprismatic enamel layer.

  3. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. Objective To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Material and Methods Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). Results The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. Conclusions The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks. PMID:29412362

  4. Erosion Potential of Tooth Whitening Regimens as Evaluated with Polarized Light Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brambert, Patrick; Qian, Fang; Kwon, So Ran

    2015-11-01

    Tooth whitening is a widely utilized esthetic treatment in dentistry. With increased access to over-the-counter (OTC) systems concerns have been raised as to potential adverse effects associated with overuse of whitening materials. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate enamel erosion due to different whitening regimens when used in excess of recommended guidelines. Extracted human teeth (n = 66) were randomly divided into 11 groups (n = 6/group). Specimens were exposed to OTC products: Crest Whitestrips and 5-minute natural white and a do-it-yourself (DIY) strawberry whitening recipe. Within each regimen, groups were further divided per exposure time: specimens receiving the recommended product dosage; 5 times the recommended dosage; and 10 times the recommended dosage. Negative and positive controls were treated with grade 3 water and 1.0% citric acid, respectively. Specimens were nail-varnished to limit application to a 1 × 4 mm window. Following treatment, specimens were sectioned and erosion (drop in μm) measured using polarized light microscopy. Two-sample t-test was used to detect difference in amount of enamel erosion between negative and positive groups, while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was used to detect difference between set of treatment groups and negative control groups or among all experimental groups. There was significant difference in mean amount of enamel erosion (p < 0.0001). Mean enamel erosion for positive control group was significantly greater than that for negative control group (23.50 vs 2.65 μm). There was significant effect for type of treatments on enamel erosion [F(9,50) = 25.19; p < 0.0001]. There was no significant difference between the negative control and each of treatment groups (p > 0.05 for all instances), except for Natural White_10 times treatment group (p < 0.0001) that was significantly greater than the negative control group (14.82 vs 2.65 μm). Caution is advised when

  5. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize.

  6. Complications of cosmetic eye whitening.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ann Q; Hoppener, Catherine; Venkateswaran, Nandini; Choi, Daniel S; Lee, Wendy W

    2017-09-01

    Introduced in 2008 and subsequently popularized in South Korea, cosmetic eye whitening has been offered as a treatment of chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Patients undergo conjunctivectomy with topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% application to achieve a whitened appearance from bleaching of avascular sclera. Much speculation has arisen from this procedure given the limited available evidence on its efficacy and safety. A literature search was performed to review common complications of cosmetic eye whitening, including chronic conjunctival epithelial defects, scleral thinning, avascular zones in the sclera, dry eye syndrome, and diplopia requiring strabismus surgery. Informing the general public of the risks of this procedure is of great importance for dermatologists and other cosmetic surgeons.

  7. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.

  8. A comparative clinical study evaluating stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity whitening dentifrice compared to commercially available whitening dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nathan; Maggio, Brenda; Sufi, Farzana; Mason, Stephen; Kleber, Carl J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity dentifrice containing sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) to marketed whitening toothpastes after six weeks of product use. This was a single-center, double-blind, stratified, six-week clinical study comparing the reduction in stain area and intensity of Sensodyne Extra Whitening to Crest Maximum Strength Sensitivity Protection Whitening plus Scope and Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Mint dentifrice, as measured by MacPherson's Modification of the Lobene Stain Index (MMLSI) in a forced stain model. Two-hundred and ninety-five subjects completed the study. Tooth stain MMSLI scores showed significant differences between Sensodyne and Crest dentifrices in favor of Sensodyne for all surface sites (p = 0.014), and individually for facial (p = 0.023), lingual (p = 0.027), and interproximal (p = 0.014) surfaces. No significant statistical differences between Sensodyne and Colgate dentifrices were observed for any of the surfaces. Results from this stain removal clinical study demonstrate significant extrinsic stain removal efficacy for all dentifrices relative to baseline. Significant differences between the two marketed sensitivity whitening dentifrices were demonstrated in favor of the new Sensodyne Sensitivity Whitening dentifrice.

  9. Analysis of the Chemical Modification of Dental Enamel Submitted to 35% Hydrogen Peroxide “In-Office” Whitening, with or without Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fábio Pinheiro; Santos, Estevão Antero; dos Santos, Ramon Silva; dos Anjos, Marcelino José; de Miranda, Mauro Sayão

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in calcium and phosphorus content in dental enamel when subjected to “in-office” whitening for an extended time by using a 35% hydrogen peroxide solution, with and without calcium. Materials and Methods 10 human teeth, from which the roots had been removed, were embedded in epoxy resin, and their surfaces were smoothed. The specimens were divided into two groups; in group 1, a whitening solution without calcium was used, while in group 2, the solution included calcium. Each specimen was evaluated at 6 different points before the bleaching treatment, and these points were reassessed after each session. A total of five sessions were carried out. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were measured by using the technique of X-ray fluorescence. Results After performing a statistical analysis, it was found that there was no statistically significant loss of calcium and phosphorus during the whitening treatment, and the groups showed no statistical differences. Conclusion Excessive use of hydrogen peroxide, with or without calcium, causes no loss of calcium and phosphorus. PMID:28932242

  10. Masking of Enamel Fluorosis Discolorations and Tooth Misalignment With a Combination of At-Home Whitening, Resin Infiltration, and Direct Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, J; Lam, V Q; Burseth, B G; Real, C

    This clinical report illustrates a conservative technique to mask enamel discolorations in maxillary anterior teeth caused by hypomineralization associated with enamel fluorosis and subsequent direct resin composite to improve the anterior esthetics. The treatment consisted of at-home whitening with 10% carbamide peroxide gel with potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride in a custom-fitted tray to mask the brown-stained areas, followed by resin infiltration to mask the white spot areas. An existing resin composite restoration in the maxillary right central incisor was subsequently replaced after completion of the whitening and resin infiltration procedures, whereas the two misaligned and rotated maxillary lateral incisors were built up with direct resin composite restorations to provide the illusion of adequate arch alignment, as the patient was unable to use orthodontic therapy.

  11. Carbamide peroxide whitening of nonvital single discolored teeth: case reports.

    PubMed

    Caughman, W F; Frazier, K B; Haywood, V B

    1999-03-01

    Patients who present with a single discolored tooth represent a significant restorative challenge. These case reports describe an economic and conservative treatment option for these patients. The situations presented demonstrate techniques for bleaching with carbamide peroxide in a traditional nightguard or with an inside-outside technique to achieve acceptable esthetic results on isolated nonvital discolored teeth. Although these techniques may not be effective in all cases, they do not compromise or eliminate any future treatment options.

  12. Whitening effect of Sophora flavescens extract.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Joe, Gi Jung; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

    2013-11-01

    Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) has been proposed as a new whitening agent for cosmetics, because it has a strong ability to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the formation of melanin. We conducted a study to determine whether ethanol extract of the roots of S. flavescens has the potential for use as a whitening cosmetic agent by investigating its underlying mechanisms of action. To elucidate the mechanism of action of S. flavescens extract, we used DNA microarray technology. We investigated the changes in the mRNA levels of genes associated with the formation and transport of melanosomes. We also identified the formation and transport of melanosomes with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Finally, the skin-whitening effect in vivo of S. flavescens extract was analyzed on human skin. We found that S. flavescens extract strongly inhibited tyrosinase activity (IC50, 10.4 μg/mL). Results also showed that key proteins involved in the formation and transport of melanosomes were dramatically downregulated at both mRNA and protein level in keratinocytes exposed to S. flavescens extract. In addition, a clinical trial of a cream containing 0.05% S. flavescens extract on human skin showed it had a significant effect on skin whitening by mechanical and visual evaluation (1.14-fold). This study provides important clues toward understanding the effects of S. flavescens extract on the formation and transport of melanosomes. From these results, we suggest that naturally occurring S. flavescens extract might be useful as a new whitening agent in cosmetics.

  13. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  14. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure.

    PubMed

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-02-22

    We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.

  15. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Conclusions Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C. PMID:23514228

  16. Measurement of stain on extracted teeth using spectrophotometry and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lath, D L; Smith, R N; Guan, Y H; Karmo, M; Brook, A H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validate a customized image analysis system, designed for use within clinical trials of general dental hygiene and whitening products, for the measurement of stain levels on extracted teeth and to compare it with reflectance spectrophotometry. Twenty non-carious extracted teeth were soaked in an artificial saliva, brushed for 1 min using an electric toothbrush and a standard toothpaste, bleached using a 5.3% hydrogen peroxide solution and cycled for 6 h daily through a tea solution. CIE L* values were obtained after each treatment step using the customized image analysis system and a reflectance spectrophotometer. A statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS. Fleiss' coefficient of reliability for intra-operator repeatability of the image analysis system and spectrophotometry was 0.996 and 0.946 respectively. CIE L* values were consistently higher using the image analysis compared with spectrophotometry, and t-tests for each treatment step showed significant differences (P < 0.05) for the two methods. Limits of agreement between the methods were -27.95 to +2.07, with a 95% confidence of the difference calculated as -14.26 to -11.84. The combined results for all treatment steps showed a significant difference between the methods for the CIE L* values (P < 0.05). The image analysis system has proven to be a reliable method for assessment of changes in stain level on extracted teeth. The method has been validated against reflectance spectrophotometry. This method may be used for pilot in vitro studies/trials of oral hygiene and whitening products, before expensive in vivo tests are carried out.

  17. Automated detection of retinal whitening in malarial retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V.; Agurto, C.; Barriga, S.; Nemeth, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Lewallen, S.; Harding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication associated with malarial infection. Malaria affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and claims 600,000 lives annually, 75% of whom are African children under five years of age. Because most of these mortalities are caused by the high incidence of CM misdiagnosis, there is a need for an accurate diagnostic to confirm the presence of CM. The retinal lesions associated with malarial retinopathy (MR) such as retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and hemorrhages, are highly specific to CM, and their detection can improve the accuracy of CM diagnosis. This paper will focus on development of an automated method for the detection of retinal whitening which is a unique sign of MR that manifests due to retinal ischemia resulting from CM. We propose to detect the whitening region in retinal color images based on multiple color and textural features. First, we preprocess the image using color and textural features of the CMYK and CIE-XYZ color spaces to minimize camera reflex. Next, we utilize color features of the HSL, CMYK, and CIE-XYZ channels, along with the structural features of difference of Gaussians. A watershed segmentation algorithm is used to assign each image region a probability of being inside the whitening, based on extracted features. The algorithm was applied to a dataset of 54 images (40 with whitening and 14 controls) that resulted in an image-based (binary) classification with an AUC of 0.80. This provides 88% sensitivity at a specificity of 65%. For a clinical application that requires a high specificity setting, the algorithm can be tuned to a specificity of 89% at a sensitivity of 82%. This is the first published method for retinal whitening detection and combining it with the detection methods for vessel discoloration and hemorrhages can further improve the detection accuracy for malarial retinopathy.

  18. Complications related to a cosmetic eye-whitening procedure.

    PubMed

    Vo, Rosalind C; Stafeeva, Ksenia; Aldave, Anthony J; Stulting, R Doyle; Moore, Quianta; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Chungfat, Neil C; Holsclaw, Douglas S; Margolis, Todd P; Deng, Sophie X

    2014-11-01

    To report sight-threatening complications following extensive bulbar conjunctival resection and postoperative mitomycin C therapy for cosmetic eye-whitening in the United States. Retrospective noncomparative case series. Multicenter report of 9 patients referred for evaluation and management of complications following bilateral cosmetic eye whitening. Seventeen eyes of 9 patients underwent cosmetic eye-whitening performed between 2 and 48 months prior to referral to one of the centers. Sixteen of the 17 eyes had persistent conjunctival epithelial defects, with 10 eyes requiring amniotic membrane grafting to facilitate re-epithelialization. Four eyes of 2 patients developed limbal stem cell compromise confirmed with in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. One patient developed infectious scleritis and diplopia resulting from Tenon capsule scarring. Another patient developed scleral necrosis, secondary infectious scleritis, and infectious endophthalmitis. This patient subsequently developed noninfectious scleritis that required 3-drug-regimen immunosuppression. Severe adverse effects can occur after extensive cosmetic conjunctival resection followed by topical mitomycin C application. Patients and physicians should be aware of the potential sight-threatening complications associated with this eye-whitening procedure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate Extrinsic Stain Removal of a Whitening Dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Terézhalmy, Géza; He, Tao; Anastasia, Mary Kay; Eusebio, Rachelle

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new whitening dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) over a two-week period. This study used a controlled and randomized, examiner-blind, single-center, two-treatment, parallel group design. Subjects with visible extrinsic dental stain on facial surfaces of their anterior teeth, and meeting all study criteria, were entered into the trial. The test group received the whitening dentifrice with sodium fluoride and SHMP and an ADA reference soft manual toothbrush. Subjects in the control group received a dental prophylaxis after the initial examination at Baseline and were instructed to use their usual oral hygiene products at home. Subjects returned at Day 3 and Week 2 for re-evaluation of extrinsic dental stain. Extrinsic stain was measured using the Interproximal Modified Lobene (IML) Stain Index; safety was assessed based on clinical examination. Fifty subjects (mean age 32.0 years) completed the study, with 25 in each group. Statistically significant reductions in composite stain for whole tooth, as well as interproximal, gingival, and body surfaces were observed for both groups at Day 3 and Week 2 (p < 0.0001) with no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.3). At Day 3, median percent reductions in composite IML stain from Baseline were 98% for the prophylaxis group and 100% for the test dentifrice group. At Week 2, median percent reductions in composite IML stain were 100% compared to Baseline for both groups. No adverse events were reported for either group. The whitening dentifrice demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in IML stain after three days and two weeks of use relative to baseline. Stain reduction with the toothpaste was comparable to a dental prophylaxis.

  20. Skin whitening effect of linoleic acid is enhanced by liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Ando, Hideya; Ryu, Atsuko; Oku, Naoto; Baba, Naomichi; Makino, Taketoshi

    2004-04-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to have a whitening effect on hyperpigmented skin, and is encapsulated in liposomes for topical application because of its low solubility in aqueous solution, although the effect of liposomalization of LA on the whitening activity has not been evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of liposomalization on the whitening activity of LA by using LA in ethanol, hydrogel containing LA, and hydrogel containing liposomal LA towards the UV-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs. The whitening effect was far greater for hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% w/w as a final concentration of LA) than for free LA in ethanol or hydrogel containing LA. Next, the whitening effect of LA was examined with UV-stimulated hyperpigmented human upper arm skin by using a hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% LA) and non-liposomal LA (3.0, 10.0% LA). Liposomal LA (0.1%) showed a whitening effect comparable to 10.0% non-liposomal LA and was far more effective than 3.0% non-liposomal LA. These results indicate that liposomal formulations are favorable for the transdermal application of LA.

  1. DOMAIN MISMATCH COMPENSATION FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING A LIBRARY OF WHITENERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-29

    DOMAIN MISMATCH COMPENSATION FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING A LIBRARY OF WHITENERS Elliot Singer and Douglas Reynolds Massachusetts Institute of...development data is assumed to be unavailable. The method is based on a generalization of data whitening used in association with i-vector length...normalization and utilizes a library of whitening transforms trained at system development time using strictly out-of-domain data. The approach is

  2. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of commercial composites.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Guilherme Machado; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Our study aimed to test the null hypothesis that whitening and non-whitening dentifrices affect similarly the surface roughness of commercial microhybrid composites, independent of the brushing time. One hundred and ninety-two disc-shaped specimens of Filtek Z250 (3 M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Rok (SDI, Australia) were built up and randomly assigned to 24 groups, based on the dentifrices used (two whitening dentifrices: Colgate Max White-Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil and Close Up Extra Whitening-Unilever, Brasil Higiene Pessoal e Limpeza Ltda, Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil; and one non-whitening dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint-Colgate-Palmolive), and on the simulated brushing times (24 hours, 6, 12 and 24 months). The specimens were submitted to the toothbrushing regimens after which the surface roughness (Ra) was measured. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The composite's surface roughness was significantly affected by the composites (p=0.0007), the dentifrices (p=0.0001), and the simulated brushing time (p=0.0001). Higher roughness was observed when the whitening dentifrices were used and when the brushing time increased. Filtek Z250 was more affected than Rok, especially after 24 months of simulated brushing. Whitening dentifrices produced higher surface roughness in the composites tested. The degree of surface compromising increased with brushing time and depends on the composite's microstructure and composition. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Conventional and whitening toothpastes: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effect on the enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Santana-Melo, Gabriela Fátima; Ferreira, Lara Tolentino; El Achkar, Vivian Narana Ribeiro; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of whitening and common toothpastes, and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with both toothpastes. Samples of whitening toothpastes [Colgate Whitening (CW) and Oral-B Whitening (OBW)] and regular (non-whitening) toothpastes (Colgate and Oral-B) were extracted in culture medium. Gingival human fibroblasts (FMM-1) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to such materials, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus formation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79). The cell survival rate and micronuclei number were assessed before and after exposure to the toothpaste extracts. For the surface roughness evaluation, 20 bovine tooth specimens, divided into four groups according to toothpastes, were submitted to 10,000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and two-way ANOVA tests (P < 0.05). MTT assay showed that Colgate was significantly less cytotoxic than CW, Oral-B and OBW at all dilutions (P < 0.01). CW was the most cytotoxic toothpaste (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes showed the highest numbers of micronuclei compared to the untreated control (UC) (P < 0.01). Colgate and Oral-B toothpastes were not genotoxic compared to UC (P = 0.326). The OBW toothpaste was statistically significantly abrasive to the enamel surface (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes and Oral-B were cytotoxic to the cells. The whitening toothpastes were more genotoxic to cells in vitro than the common toothpastes, and genotoxicity was more pronounced in the OBW toothpaste.

  4. Comparison of two low sensitivity whiteners.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Browning, William D; Downey, Mary C; Brackett, Martha G

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate two commercially available doctor-supplied, patient-applied, bleaching systems for their ability to whiten the maxillary anterior teeth while at the same time not causing sensitivity. 46 participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: One group received Rembrandt Xtra-Comfort and the other group Nite White Excel 2Z. Bleaching stents were fabricated and the bleaching systems were used following manufacturers' instructions. Participants recorded tray use and any sensitivity on a daily basis. Participants bleached for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of no bleaching. Color was evaluated at the first, second and fourth week following the initial delivery of bleaching trays. Color change was measured using the Vita Classic Shade Guide arranged by value. As a group, participants in the NW2Z group bleached for 302 days with a total of 48 days (16%) of sensitivity recorded. The Rembrandt Xtra Comfort group bleached for 313 total days with 97 days (31%) of sensitivity recorded. The difference in sensitivity between the two products proved to be statistically significant (Chi-square analysis, P < or = 0.0001). The median shade change for both products following 2 weeks of active treatment was six tabs. At the 4-week evaluation, the median shade change was 5.5 and 6.0 tabs respectively for Rembrandt and Nite White. There was no statistical difference between the products in respect to shade change.

  5. Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced tooth whitening: the next-generation technology.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, D; McCombs, G; Lemaster, M; Akman, M A; Laroussi, M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the plasma pencil (PP) device in conjunction with H2 O2 gel. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LTAPP delivered using the PP would enhance the tooth-whitening process while causing no thermal threat. The study consisted of thirty extracted human teeth that were randomized into two groups: Group I received LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel at 10, 15 and 20 min and Group II received 36% H2 O2 gel only at the same time intervals. Tooth surface temperature was measured periodically throughout the experiment using a non-contact thermometer. Digital photographs were taken pre- and post-treatment and transferred to Adobe Photoshop for comparison, using the CIELAB Color Value System. Only L* (lightness) values were evaluated in this study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and t-test at the 0.05 level. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in mean CIE L* values after exposure to LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel, compared with 36% H2 O2 only, in the 10- and 20-min groups (P = 0.0003 and 0.0103, respectively). The temperature in both treatment groups remained under 80°F throughout the study, which is below the thermal threat for vital tooth bleaching. Utilizing PP device in conjunction with 36% H2 O2 safely accelerates and enhances the tooth-whitening process. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Incidence of tooth sensitivity after home whitening treatment.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Carroll, William B

    2002-08-01

    A potential side effect of dentist-dispensed home tooth-whitening systems is tooth sensitivity. The authors conducted a randomized prospective double-blind study to determine the incidence of tooth sensitivity after home whitening treatment. Fifty adult subjects used a gel containing 15 percent carbamide peroxide and 0.11 percent fluoride ion; an additional 50 adult subjects used a placebo gel daily for four weeks. Each subject's plaque index score, gingival recession status, caries status, current dentifrice and smoking history were recorded at baseline. The researchers evaluated sensitivity weekly by interview for four weeks. Fifty-four percent of subjects in both test and control groups reported mild sensitivity; 10 percent of test subjects and 2 percent of control subjects reported moderate sensitivity; 4 percent of test subjects and no control subjects reported severe sensitivity. Sensitivity decreased with time; by the second week, no severe sensitivity was reported, and by the fourth week, no moderate sensitivity was reported. The authors found a statistically significant positive correlation between reported sensitivity and gingival recession. They found no statistically significant correlations between sensitivity and any of the other recorded parameters. Mild tooth sensitivity can be expected in approximately one-half of patients who undergo home whitening treatment using the gel studied. Approximately 10 percent of patients may experience moderate sensitivity, and 4 percent of patients may experience severe sensitivity for one to two weeks. Patients with gingival recession appear more likely to experience tooth sensitivity during home whitening treatment. Patients considering home whitening treatment should be advised that mild tooth sensitivity is a common side effect and that severe tooth sensitivity occasionally occurs. If gingival recession is present, the probability of tooth sensitivity increases, and tooth sensitivity tends to decrease as

  7. Randomized clinical study of alterations in the color and surface roughness of dental enamel brushed with whitening toothpaste.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Rego Roselino, Lourenço; Tirapelli, Camila; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2018-03-30

    This clinical study evaluated the influence of whitening toothpaste on color and surface roughness of dental enamel. Initially, the abrasiveness of the toothpastes used (Sorriso Dentes Brancos [SDB]; Colgate Luminous White and Close up White Now) was tested on 30 (n = 10) plexiglass acrylic plates that were submitted to mechanical tooth brushing totalizing 29,200 cycles. Subsequently, 30 participants were selected, and received a toothbrush and nonwhitening toothpaste (SDB). The participants used these products for 7 days and initial color readouts (Spectrophotometer) and surface roughness of one maxillary central incisors was performed after this period of time. For surface roughness readouts, one replica of the maxillary central incisor was obtained by a polyvinyl siloxane impression material (Express) and polyurethane resin. After baseline measurements, participants were separated into three groups (n = 10), according to the toothpaste used. The participants returned after 7, 30, and 90 days when new color readouts and surface roughness were recorded. The measured values were statistically analyzed (2-way-ANOVA, repeated measures, Tukey, P < .05). Whitening toothpastes did not promote significant (P > .05) color alteration and nor increased the surface roughness of the dental enamel in brushing time of the study. The abrasiveness of whitening toothpaste and the brushing trial period did not affect the surface roughness of dental enamel. However, color changes observed on enamel were above the perceptibility and acceptability thresholds reported in the literature. The over-the-counter toothpastes tested had an effect on dental enamel color above the perceptibility and acceptability thresholds but did not change the surface roughness of the teeth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Electromyogram whitening for improved classification accuracy in upper limb prosthesis control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lukai; Liu, Pu; Clancy, Edward A; Scheme, Erik; Englehart

    2013-09-01

    Time and frequency domain features of the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal acquired from multiple channels have frequently been investigated for use in controlling upper-limb prostheses. A common control method is EMG-based motion classification. We propose the use of EMG signal whitening as a preprocessing step in EMG-based motion classification. Whitening decorrelates the EMG signal and has been shown to be advantageous in other EMG applications including EMG amplitude estimation and EMG-force processing. In a study of ten intact subjects and five amputees with up to 11 motion classes and ten electrode channels, we found that the coefficient of variation of time domain features (mean absolute value, average signal length and normalized zero crossing rate) was significantly reduced due to whitening. When using these features along with autoregressive power spectrum coefficients, whitening added approximately five percentage points to classification accuracy when small window lengths were considered.

  9. [Retinal whitening following vitrectomy for epiretinal macular membrane].

    PubMed

    Uemura, A

    1993-09-01

    To investigate the clinical pictures of retinal whitening following epiretinal membrane dissection. I studied retrospectively the records of 18 eyes which had undergone vitrectomy. Two types of retinal whitening were observed: cotton wool-like spots within the superficial retinal layers and a linear or dendritic pattern within the deep retinal layers. The spots were mainly noted in idiopathic cases and resolved completely in a few weeks, and the pattern was observed in macular pucker cases after retinal detachment surgery and persisted for a long time after vitrectomy.

  10. Influence of whitening and regular dentifrices on orthodontic clear ligature color stability.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê S; Kaizer, Marina R; Salgado, Vinícius E; Soldati, Dener C; Silva, Roberta C; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brushing orthodontic clear ligatures with a whitening dentifrice containing a blue pigment (Close Up White Now, Unilever, London, UK) on their color stability, when exposed to a staining agent. Ligatures from 3M Unitek (Monrovia, CA, USA) and Morelli (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil) were tested. Baseline color measurements were performed and nonstained groups (control) were stored in distilled water whereas test groups were exposed for 1 hour daily to red wine. Specimens were brushed daily using regular or whitening dentifrice. Color measurements were repeated after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days using a spectrophotometer based on the CIE L*a*b* system. Decreased luminosity (CIE L*), increased red discoloration (CIE a* axis), and increased yellow discoloration (CIE b* axis) were generally observed for ligatures exposed to the staining agent. Color variation was generally lower in specimens brushed with regular dentifrice, but ligatures brushed with whitening dentifrice were generally less red and less yellow than regular dentifrice. The whitening dentifrice led to blue discoloration trend, with visually detectable differences particularly apparent according to storage condition and ligature brand. The whitening dentifrice containing blue pigment did not improve the ligature color stability, but it decreased yellow discoloration and increased a blue coloration. The use of a whitening dentifrice containing blue pigment during orthodontic treatment might decrease the yellow discoloration of elastic ligatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P < 0.01) with the addition of 0.2 % potassium chloride, but heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got reduced substantially (i.e. 19 min). With subsequent heat treatment to 85 °C for 5 min, heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got improved to reasonable level of 27 min. Whitening ability in terms of L* value of medium fat liquid dairy whitener in both tea and coffee was significantly (P < 0.01) better when homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2) vis-à-vis 140.61 kg/cm(2). Standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener had significantly (P < 0.01) greater protein content (i.e. approximately 2.43 times) compared to market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P < 0.01) better sensory attributes and instrumental whitening ability compared to market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  12. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  13. The clinical anticalculus efficacy of a tartar control whitening dentifrice for the prevention of supragingival calculus in a three-month study.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J; Petrone, D M; Battista, G; Petrone, M E; Crawford, R; Patel, S; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the effect of a new dentifrice (Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Fluoride Toothpaste) for the prevention of supragingival calculus, with that of a commercially available calculus-inhibiting dentifrice (Crest Tartar Control Toothpaste). The study involved adult male and female subjects who had pre-qualified for participation by developing sufficient supragingival calculus (greater than 7.0 on the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index) during an eight-week screening period. Subjects received a full oral prophylaxis, and were stratified into two treatment groups balanced for age, sex and qualifying calculus score. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for dental calculus were performed after twelve weeks' use of the study dentifrices, using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index, Fifty-eight (58) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. The Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening group exhibited a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 34.6% reduction in mean calculus score compared to the Crest Tartar Control group.

  14. Evaluating the bonding of two adhesive systems to enamel submitted to whitening dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Toseto, Roberta Mariano; de Arruda, Alex Mendes; Tolentino, Patricia Ramos; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Sversut; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by micro-shear bond strength test, the bond strength of composite resin restoration to enamel submitted to whitening dentifrices. Forty bovine teeth were embedded in polystyrene resin and polished. The specimens were randomly divided into eight groups (n=5), according to the dentifrice (carbamide peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and conventional dentifrice) and the adhesive system (Prime & Bond 2.1 and Adper Single Bond 2). Dentifrice was applied for 15 minutes a day, for 21 days. Thirty minutes after the last exposure to dentifrice, the samples were submitted to a bonding procedure with the respective adhesive system. After that, four buttons of resin were bonded in each sample using transparent cylindrical molds. After 24 hours, the teeth were submitted to the micro-shear bond strength test and subsequent analysis of the fracture mode. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test (alpha = 0.05). The micro-shear bond strength showed no difference between adhesives systems but a significant reduction was found between the control and carbamide groups (p = 0.0145) and the control and hydrogen groups (p = 0.0370). The evaluation of the failures modes showed that adhesive failures were predominant. Cohesive failures were predominant in group IV The use of dentifrice with peroxides can decrease bonding strength in enamel.

  15. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of pH on whitening efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide and enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Jurema, Ana Luiza Barbosa; de Souza, Mauricio Yugo; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide at different pH values and the degree of tooth staining on whitening efficacy and enamel microhardness. 90 enamel-dentin specimens were obtained from bovine incisors. They were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 45), 1 group was immersed in a staining broth for 14 days, and another group was not stained and kept in distilled water at 37°C. Twenty-four hours after the staining procedure, each group was distributed into 3 subgroups that were whitened by 35% hydrogen peroxide with different pH values (5, 7, and 8.4) for 30 minutes. The color was measured at baseline and 7 days after whitening. Microhardness was measured at baseline, immediate, 24 hours, and 1 month after the whitening procedure. Data were submitted to 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons for color analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to analyze microhardness data. The color change of the stained groups (ΔE 00  = 4.6) was significantly higher than that of the nonstained groups (ΔE 00  = 3.7). Microhardness value decreased significantly immediately after whitening for all subgroups and did not return to initial values. For each measurement time, microhardness was not significantly different among subgroups with different pH values. Despite the effectiveness of 35% hydrogen peroxide, changes on gel pH did not affect the whitening efficacy, and the enamel was superficially demineralized, regardless of pH values. Independently of the pH value of whitening gel, enamel undergoes superficial demineralization and with a reduction in superficial microhardness that does not return to the initial values. However, using hydrogen peroxide with different pH values does not alter the whitening effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes on Dentin Abrasion: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinario; Nogueira, Marcia Bessa; Gaio, Eduardo Jose; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Santiago, Sergio Lima; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio

    To compare the effect of toothbrushing abrasion with hydrated silica-based whitening and regular toothpastes on root dentin using contact profilometry. Ninety dentin specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 18) according to the toothpaste: three whitening (W1, W2 and W3) and two regular toothpastes (R1 and R2) produced by two different manufacturers. Using a brushing machine, each specimen was brushed with a constant load of 300 g for 2500 cycles (4.5 cycles/s). The toothpastes were diluted at a ratio of 1:3 w/w (dentifrice:distilled water). The brush diamond tip of the profilometer moved at a constant speed of 0.05 mm/s with a force of 0.7 mN. The average value of brushing abrasion in μm (mean ± SD) was obtained from five consecutive measurements of each specimen: W1 = 8.86 ± 1.58, W2 = 7.59 ± 1.04, W3 = 8.27 ± 2.39, R1 = 2.89 ± 1.05 and R2= 2.94 ± 1.29. There was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). Post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons showed differences between all the whitening and regular toothpastes, but not among the whitening nor among the regular toothpastes. The whitening toothpastes tested can cause more dentin abrasion than the regular ones.

  18. The influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on enamel surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using Er,Cr:YSGG laser radiation on bovine enamel. Forty-eight enamel specimens were prepared from bovine canines and divided into four groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no whitening treatment; Group 2 received whitening treatment with an at-home whitening agent (22% carbamide peroxide) for 7 days; Group 3 received whitening treatment with a novel in-office whitening agent (35% H(2)O(2)); Group 4 received the same in-office whitening therapy with Group 3 using Er,Cr:YSGG laser in order to accelerate the whitening procedure. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the whitening treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester and surface roughness was evaluated using a VSI microscope. Three specimens of each experimental group were examined under SEM and the mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The surface microhardness of the enamel was reduced after the in-office whitening treatments (P< 0.05), but not influenced after the at-home whitening treatment (P> 0.05). Moreover, the surface roughness was not significantly changed after tooth whitening. EDS analysis did not show alterations in the enamel mineral composition, while SEM observations indicated changes in the surface morphology, especially after in-office tooth whitening (P< 0.05). The laser-assisted whitening treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not affect the alterations in enamel surface compared with the conventional in-office whitening technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effectiveness and mode of action of whitening dentifrices on enamel extrinsic stains.

    PubMed

    Alshara, Salem; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the mode of action and the whitening effect of whitening dentifrices. Two hundred fifty-six bovine enamel specimens (10 × 10 mm(2)) were prepared, partially stained, and assigned into eight groups (n = 32): six whitening dentifrices, one nonwhitening and deionized water (negative control), and further divided in two subgroups (n = 16), according to the test model: chemical (dentifrice slurry treatment only) or chemo-mechanical (slurry + toothbrushing). Specimens were treated with dentifrice slurries 2 ×/day for 1 min and toothbrushed or not, according to each model. In between dentifrice treatments, specimens were artificially stained for 5 h. This protocol was repeated for 5 days and enamel color changes (∆E) were measured after each day (days 1-5). The abrasive level of the dentifrices was determined following the ISO11609 guidelines. In the chemo-mechanical model, the whitening action of all dentifrices was observed after day 1, being higher than the negative control group (p < 0.05). In days 2-5, nonsignificant changes in color were observed for all groups (p > 0.05). Differences on ∆E among dentifrices were observed, and they seemed to correlate well with their abrasive level (r(2) = 0.80). In the chemical model, no significant differences were observed among groups (p > 0.05), with ∆E remaining constant throughout the study. Higher ∆E values were observed in the chemo-mechanical model compared to the chemical (p < 0.05). All tested dentifrices were effective in whitening stained enamel and their mode of action showed to be mainly mechanical (toothbrushing abrasion). The abrasive level of dentifrices seems to determine its whitening effectiveness.

  20. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  1. Alteration of Dentin-Enamel Mechanical Properties Due to Dental Whitening Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B.; Datko, L.; Cupelli, M.; Alapati, S.; Dean, D.; Kennedy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin and enamel affect the reliability and wear properties of a tooth. This study investigated the influence of clinical dental treatments and procedures, such as whitening treatments or etching prior to restorative procedures. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved teeth were studied in order to allow for both comparison with published values and improved clinical relevance. Nanoindentation analysis with the Oliver-Pharr model provided elastic modulus and hardness across the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). Large increases were observed in the elastic modulus of enamel in teeth that had been autoclaved (52.0GPa versus 113.4GPa), while smaller increases were observed in the dentin (17.9GPa versus 27.9GPa). Likewise, there was an increase in the hardness of enamel (2.0GPa versus 4.3GPa) and dentin (0.5GPa versus 0.7GPa) with autoclaving. These changes suggested that the range of elastic modulus and hardness values previously reported in literature may be partially due to the sterilization procedures. Treatment of the exterior of non-autoclaved teeth with Crest Whitestrips™, Opalescence™ or UltraEtch™ caused changes in the mechanical properties of both the enamel and dentin. Those treated with Crest Whitestrips™ showed a reduction in the elastic modulus of enamel (55.3GPa to 32.7GPa) and increase in the elastic modulus of dentin (17.2GPa to 24.3GPa). Opalescence™ treatments did not significantly affect the enamel properties, but did result in a decrease in modulus of dentin (18.5GPa to 15.1GPa). Additionally, as expected, UltraEtch™ treatment decreased the modulus and hardness of enamel (48.7GPa to 38.0GPa and 1.9GPa to 1.5GPa, respectively) and dentin (21.4GPa to 15.0GPa and 1.9GPa to 1.5GPa, respectively). Changes in the mechanical properties were linked to altered protein concentration within the tooth, as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:20346902

  2. Alteration of dentin-enamel mechanical properties due to dental whitening treatments.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B; Datko, L; Cupelli, M; Alapati, S; Dean, D; Kennedy, M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin and enamel affect the reliability and wear properties of a tooth. This study investigated the influence of clinical dental treatments and procedures, such as whitening treatments or etching prior to restorative procedures. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved teeth were studied in order to allow for both comparison with published values and improved clinical relevance. Nanoindentation analysis with the Oliver-Pharr model provided elastic modulus and hardness across the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). Large increases were observed in the elastic modulus of enamel in teeth that had been autoclaved (52.0 GPa versus 113.4 GPa), while smaller increases were observed in the dentin (17.9 GPa versus 27.9 GPa). Likewise, there was an increase in the hardness of enamel (2.0 GPa versus 4.3 GPa) and dentin (0.5 GPa versus 0.7 GPa) with autoclaving. These changes suggested that the range of elastic modulus and hardness values previously reported in the literature may be partially due to the sterilization procedures. Treatment of the exterior of non-autoclaved teeth with Crest Whitestrips, Opalescence or UltraEtch caused changes in the mechanical properties of both the enamel and dentin. Those treated with Crest Whitestrips showed a reduction in the elastic modulus of enamel (55.3 GPa to 32.7 GPa) and increase in the elastic modulus of dentin (17.2 GPa to 24.3 GPa). Opalescence treatments did not significantly affect the enamel properties, but did result in a decrease in the modulus of dentin (18.5 GPa to 15.1 GPa). Additionally, as expected, UltraEtch treatment decreased the modulus and hardness of enamel (48.7 GPa to 38.0 GPa and 1.9 GPa to 1.5 GPa, respectively) and dentin (21.4 GPa to 15.0 GPa and 1.9 GPa to 1.5 GPa, respectively). Changes in the mechanical properties were linked to altered protein concentration within the tooth, as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A whitened face woman with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soo, Yannie Oi-Yan; Chow, Kai-Ming; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chan, Michael Ho-Ming; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2003-01-01

    Skin whitening cream from developing countries is a recognized source of chronic mercury poisoning. The authors report on a 34-year-old Indonesian domestic helper who presented with nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy. It was subsequently found that she used a skin whitening cream regularly that was found to contain a mercury level of almost 2,000 times above the allowable limit. Her blood and urinary mercury levels were both grossly elevated. Her symptoms improved after she stopped using the cream. However, she returned to her home country before chelating therapy could be arranged. Because mercury-containing skin products are still widely available in developing countries, the use of these products should be considered a possible cause of membranous nephropathy in immigrants from those countries. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  4. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  5. Effect of a whitening agent application on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Sato, Tomomi; Moore, B Keith; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2004-06-01

    Though reduction in bond strength after tooth whitening has been reported, little is known about it's effect on enamel bond strength of two-step bonding systems that exclude phosphoric acid etching prior to bonding agent application. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whitening procedure using an in-office whitening agent on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems. Three self-etching primer systems, Imperva Fluoro Bond, Mac Bond II, Clearfil SE Bond, and a one-bottle adhesive system Single Bond as a control material, were used. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and the facial enamel or dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. An in-office whitening agent, Hi-Lite was applied on the tooth surface according to the manufacturer's instruction. Bonding procedures were done soon after rinsing off the whitening agent or after 24 hours storage in distilled water. Specimens without whitening procedure were prepared as controls. Fifteen specimens per test group were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. One-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test were used for statistical analysis of the results. For the specimens made soon after rinsing off the whitening agent, a significant decrease in enamel bond strength was observed for all the bonding systems used. For the specimens made after 24 hours storage in water, a small decrease in enamel bond strength was observed and no significant differences were found compared to those of controls (without whitening). From the results of this study, enamel bond strengths of the self-etching primer systems might be affected to a lesser degree after rinsing with water followed by 24 hours storage in water.

  6. [Pandalao and skin whitening in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Levang, J; Eygonnet, F; Humbert, P

    2009-10-01

    Skin whitening (SW) is very common in dark-skinned populations and the practice is often named after a popular local brand of product and such is the case in Mayotte where this practice is called "pandalao". We carried out a descriptive epidemiological study in a sample of black Mahoran women aged 15 and over. The survey comprised a questionnaire completed by 163 women between 12 November 2007 and 24 January 2008. The aim of our study was to investigate the practice of SW in Mayotte and to determine its prevalence. Hundred percent of the subjects were aware of SW and 95% knew people practicing this procedure. The prevalence of users of whitening products was 33%, although 74% of these subjects did not use such products on a regular basis and 89% of the women limited application to exposed areas (visible to others). Sixty-three percent simultaneously applied Diproson (betamethasone dipropionate) and Pandalao, the main component of which is salicylic acid. Fifty-four percent of users had presented one or more adverse effects after application of these products and 28% had stopped this practice due to such adverse effects (chiefly acne and dyschromia). Although illegal, the trade in skin whitening products continues to grow because it is profitable and takes full advantage of the success of ethnic cosmetics. In Mayotte, as in metropolitan France and Africa, the existence of SW is acknowledged but is still taboo. However, a number of specific characteristics are seen in Mayotte: SW is rarely performed on the whole body, salicylic acid is added to a topical corticosteroid, and the traditional Mahoran mask, the "mzindzano", is still worn for photoprotection.

  7. The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Amina

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the interlocking strategies of scientific entrepreneurialism and academic capitalism in cutting-edge innovations in molecular biology, biomedicine, and other life sciences deployed in research and the development of high-end skin whitening and anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Skin whitening products and anti-aging cosmeceuticals are…

  8. On estimating attenuation from the amplitude of the spectrally whitened ambient seismic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weemstra, Cornelis; Westra, Willem; Snieder, Roel; Boschi, Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Measuring attenuation on the basis of interferometric, receiver-receiver surface waves is a non-trivial task: the amplitude, more than the phase, of ensemble-averaged cross-correlations is strongly affected by non-uniformities in the ambient wavefield. In addition, ambient noise data are typically pre-processed in ways that affect the amplitude itself. Some authors have recently attempted to measure attenuation in receiver-receiver cross-correlations obtained after the usual pre-processing of seismic ambient-noise records, including, most notably, spectral whitening. Spectral whitening replaces the cross-spectrum with a unit amplitude spectrum. It is generally assumed that cross-terms have cancelled each other prior to spectral whitening. Cross-terms are peaks in the cross-correlation due to simultaneously acting noise sources, that is, spurious traveltime delays due to constructive interference of signal coming from different sources. Cancellation of these cross-terms is a requirement for the successful retrieval of interferometric receiver-receiver signal and results from ensemble averaging. In practice, ensemble averaging is replaced by integrating over sufficiently long time or averaging over several cross-correlation windows. Contrary to the general assumption, we show in this study that cross-terms are not required to cancel each other prior to spectral whitening, but may also cancel each other after the whitening procedure. Specifically, we derive an analytic approximation for the amplitude difference associated with the reversed order of cancellation and normalization. Our approximation shows that an amplitude decrease results from the reversed order. This decrease is predominantly non-linear at small receiver-receiver distances: at distances smaller than approximately two wavelengths, whitening prior to ensemble averaging causes a significantly stronger decay of the cross-spectrum.

  9. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  10. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet accumulation, and decreased expression of Vegfa. Targeted deletion of Vegfa in adipose tissue of nonobese mice resulted in BAT whitening, supporting a role for decreased vascularity in obesity-associated BAT. Conversely, introduction of VEGF-A specifically into BAT of obese mice restored vascularity, ameliorated brown adipocyte dysfunction, and improved insulin sensitivity. The capillary rarefaction in BAT that was brought about by obesity or Vegfa ablation diminished β-adrenergic signaling, increased mitochondrial ROS production, and promoted mitophagy. These data indicate that overnutrition leads to the development of a hypoxic state in BAT, causing it to whiten through mitochondrial dysfunction and loss. Furthermore, these results link obesity-associated BAT whitening to impaired systemic glucose metabolism. PMID:24713652

  11. Tooth color: effects on judgments of attractiveness and age.

    PubMed

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Adkins, Sarah; Bastholm, Robert; Meyer, Leif; Krueger, Lisa; Meyer, Joshua; Torma, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Tooth whitening has become a very popular procedure. Advertisements for whitening products imply that whiter teeth are more attractive than yellower teeth. We tested this idea empirically by manipulating the tooth color of pictures of male and female targets. Participants' ratings of attractiveness were not influenced by tooth color. Exp. 2 yielded a negative correlation between attractiveness and age ratings: targets judged to be older were rated as less attractive. Unless whiter teeth help in some other way, e.g., improved self-esteem or confidence, it seems that tooth whitening procedures or products are not associated with increased attractiveness to others.

  12. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    PubMed

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  13. Premature hair whitening is an independent predictor of carotid intima-media thickness in young and middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Turan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Çetin, Mustafa; Durakoğlugil, Murtaza Emre; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Şahin, İsmail; Çanga, Aytun

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying or whitening of the hair may possibly represent premature atherosclerotic changes as a surrogate marker of different host responses to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). This study was undertaken to test whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a validated surrogate marker of the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is higher in subjects with prominent signs of hair whitening, independent of chronological age and other CVRFs. The current study was conducted in young and middle-aged patients (<55 years age) without a history of cardiovascular disease. Two hundred and two eligible patients consecutively admitted to our outpatient clinic for CVRF management were included. A gray/white-hair scale was used to determine the percentage of hair whitening. In the groups determined according to the degree of hair whitening, age (p<0.001), waist circumference (p=0.011), the presence of hypertension (p=0.003), the uric acid levels (p=0.008), the C - reactive protein levels (p=0.002) and CIMT (p<0.001) were significantly different. When we performed multivariate analyses to determine the independent predictors of CIMT and hair whitening, CIMT was found to be related to age, waist circumference, the levels of uric acid, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, the presence of a family history of CAD and hair whitening, while hair whitening was found to be related to age, hypertension, the bilirubin level and CIMT. Our findings suggest that premature hair whitening intensity is independently related to CIMT. In cumulative assessments of CVRFs on the human body, the presence of premature hair whitening may be useful in identifying individuals with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Immunofluorescence findings in rapid whitening of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Kumar, V; Petersen, B H

    1981-09-01

    Rapid whitening of scalp hair developed during a three-month period along with a diffuse, subtotal alopecia in a patient. Immunofluorescence microscopy of biopsy material showed prominent deposits of IgG and IgM in a granular pattern in the epithelium of the lower portions of hair follicles. Some return of the color and amount of scalp hair occurred within a year, but occasional bouts of hair loss continued to occur. It is theorized that the rapid graying was caused by a selective loss of pigmented hair, which was perhaps caused by an immunologic mechanism. Some of the findings suggest that the cause of this patient's loss of hair color may be different from those of patients who have been previously described as having rapid whitening of scalp hair because of alopecia areata or vitiligo.

  15. Whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Il-hwan

    2006-03-01

    Patients with skin of color demand treatment modality suitable for their skin. Salicylic acid peel has effectiveness for both of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that are common in patients with skin of color. To assess the whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients with acne objectively by the colorimetric method. Twenty-four healthy adult patients with acne participated voluntarily in the study. Any other systemic and topical acne treatments were prohibited. They had undergone full-face peels with 30% salicylic acid in absolute ethanol bi-weekly for 3 months. Colorimetric changes of the face were recorded with reflectance spectrophotometer. Paired comparisons with pretreatment CIE L*a*b* showed abrupt descent of L* value after first peel (p=.0286). Then there was continued increase of mean L* value, even though the final L* value did not reach a statistically significant level. The mean a* value decreased continually, and the a* values recorded after the second, third, fourth, fifth, and final peel showed significantly lowered levels (p=.0027, .0005, <.0001, <.0001, <.0001). Salicylic acid peels are beneficial in whitening the face of Asian patients with acne. The whitening effect would be an important factor in choosing the superficial peeling agent for them.

  16. Crossover clinical investigation of a whitening chewing gum for inhibiting dental stain formation in conjunction with tooth brushing.

    PubMed

    Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Kleber, Carl J; Proskin, Howard M; Dodds, Michael; Kelley, Michael; Ramirez, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a marketed whitening chewing gum compared to a no-gum control in preventing the formation of extrinsic stains on the teeth of stain-forming subjects when chewed over a 12-week period of regular unsupervised use in conjunction with daily tooth brushing. This was a single-center, examiner-blind, randomized, 12-week crossover clinical trial. Stain-forming (after smoking or drinking coffee or tea) adults, starting with a stain-free baseline, either chewed the test gum (Orbit White) unsupervised four times per day, 15 minutes/chew, or used no gum along with daily brushing with a commercially available toothbrush and dentifrice for 12 weeks. At the crossover, all procedures were repeated with subjects assigned the opposite treatment. Extrinsic stain was measured at six and 12 weeks by both the Lobene Stain Index (LSI) and the Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) using separate experienced examiners. After 12 weeks, LSI stain scores showed a significant 25% reduction (p = 0.0008) in new stain formation for subjects using the test chewing gum along with tooth brushing versus tooth brushing alone (no-gum control). The corresponding MLSI stain scores demonstrated a 36% reduction (p < 0.0001) in the formation of extrinsic stain on the teeth. The overall findings of this clinical study demonstrated that regular use of Orbit White chewing gum, soon after smoking or drinking coffee or tea, will supplement daily tooth brushing in preventing unsightly stains from forming on the anterior teeth compared to brushing alone.

  17. Can Whitening Strips interfere with the Bond Strength of Composite Resins?

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Reis, Washington Luís Machado dos; Vieira, Mercêdes Aroucha; Nunes, Adriana Gomes; Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bramante, Fausto Silva; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Roma, Regina Vieira de Oliveira; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the bond strength of composite resins on enamel previously treated with whitening strips. A total of 48 bovine incisors were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 12 each): G1 (WSC)- treated with 9.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (3D White Whitestrips® Advanced Vivid/CREST); G2 (WSO)-treated with 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (3D WhiteTM/Oral B); G3 (WG)-treated with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide gel with fluorine, calcium and potassium nitrate (White Class®/FGM); and G4 (C)-control not subjected to bleaching treatment. The specimens were subjected to bleaching over 2 weeks following the manufacturers' instructions. Following the elaboration of the composite resin test specimens, the samples were stored in artificial saliva and subsequently subjected to the micro-shear test using the universal testing machine (EMIC®). The bond strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's statistical test (5%). Significant differences were observed among the investigated groups (p < 0.05). The G3-WG exhibited greater values compared with the control group and the groups treated with strips, G1-WSC and G2-WSO. Analysis of the bond interface revealed that a large fraction of the failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. The bond strength decreased following 14 days of treatment with bleaching strips, whereas the whitening gel with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide, calcium and fluorine increased the bond strength.

  18. Effects of regular and whitening dentifrices on remineralization of bovine enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, Andrej M; Tschoppe, Peter; Hellwig, Elmar; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas

    2009-02-01

    To compare in vitro the remineralizing effects of different regular dentifrices and whitening dentifrices (containing pyrophosphates) on predemineralized enamel. Specimens from 84 bovine incisors were embedded in epoxy resin, partly covered with nail varnish, and demineralized in a lactic acid solution (37 degrees C, pH 5.0, 8 days). Parts of the demineralized areas were covered with nail varnish, and specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. Subsequently, specimens were exposed to a remineralizing solution (37 degrees C, pH 7.0, 60 days) and brushed 3 times a day (1:3 slurry with remineralizing solution) with 1 of 3 regular dentifrices designed for anticaries (group 1, amine; group 2, sodium fluoride) or periodontal (group 3, amine/stannous fluoride) purposes or whitening dentifrice containing pyrophosphates (group 4, sodium fluoride). An experimental dentifrice (group 5, without pyrophosphates/fluorides) and a whitening dentifrice (group 6, monofluorophosphate) served as controls. Mineral loss and lesion depths were evaluated from contact microradiographs, and intergroup comparisons were performed using the closed-test procedure (alpha =.05). Compared to baseline, specimens brushed with the dentifrices containing stannous/amine fluorides revealed significant mineral gains and lesion depth reductions (P < .05). Concerning the reacquired mineral, the whitening dentifrice performed worse than the regular dentifrices (P > .05), while mineral gain, as well as lesion depth, reduction was negligible with the control groups. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphates perform worse than regular dentifrices but do not necessarily affect remineralization. Unless remineralizing efficacy is proven, whitening dentifrices should be recommended only after deliberate consideration in caries-prone patients.

  19. In vitro study on tooth enamel lesions related to whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; Campos, Elisângela de Jesus; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The tooth whitening substances for extrinsic use that are available in Brazil contain hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. Several studies have attributed the appearance of lesions in the enamel morphology, including hypersensitivity, to these substances. Such lesions justify fluoride therapy and application of infrared lasers, among other procedures. However, there is no consensus among researchers regarding the relevance of the severity of lesions detected on the tooth surface. The present study was carried out with an aim of evaluating in vitro the effects of the hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and sodium bicarbonate contained in dentifrice formulations, on human tooth enamel. After darkening process in laboratory, human premolars were brushed using dentifrice containing the two whitening substances (Rembrandt - carbamide peroxide and Mentadent - hydrogen peroxide) and the abrasive product (Colgate - sodium bicarbonate). The degree of specimen staining before and after this procedure was determined using spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain images, which were analyzed to show the nature of the lesions that appeared on the enamel surface. The effectiveness of the whitening caused by hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide and the abrasion caused by bicarbonate were confirmed, given that the treated test pieces returned to their original coloration. Based on SEM, evaluation of the enamel surfaces subjected to the test products showed that different types of morphologic lesions of varying severity appeared. Whitening dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide produced lesions on the enamel surface such that the greatest sequelae were associated with exposure to hydrogen peroxide.

  20. In vitro cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes in human dental enamel-microhardness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Melina Mayumi; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes. Ninety-five dental fragments were obtained from nonerupted third molars. The fragments were embedded in polystyrene resin and sequentially polished with abrasive papers (400-, 600-, and 1,000-grit) and diamond pastes of 6, 3, and 1 microm. The fragments were assigned in five groups according to toothpaste treatment: G1 = Rembrandt Plus with Peroxide; G2 = Crest Dual Action Whitening; G3 = Aquafresh Whitening Triple Protection; and the control groups: G4 = Sensodyne Original (without fluoride); G5 = Sensodyne Sodium Bicarbonated (with fluoride). The initial enamel microhardness evaluations were done. For 2 weeks the fragments were submitted daily to a de-remineralization cycle followed by a 10-minute toothpaste slurry. After that, the final microhardness tests were done. The percentage of mineral loss of enamel was determined for statistical analysis. Analysis of variance and the Tukey test were applied. The results did not show statistically significant differences in mineral loss among groups G1, G2, G3, and G5, which statistically differ from G4 (toothpaste without fluoride). G4 showed the highest mineral loss (P < or = .05). The whitening toothpastes evaluated showed a cariostatic effect similar to regular, nonwhitening toothpaste.

  1. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  2. Whitening the single discolored tooth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the possible methods available for whitening of a single discolored tooth. Treatment options can vary from restorative procedures such as crowns, veneers, or bonding to more conservative bleaching treatments. The long-term success of the treatment is dictated by proper diagnosis and treatment planning. The cause and severity of the discoloration has to be carefully evaluated when planning for bleaching options. The vitality of the pulp, presence and absence of symptoms, and periapical pathoses usually determine whether an external or internal bleaching approach will be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  4. Application of a zero-latency whitening filter to compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Leo; Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Meacher, Duncan; Messick, Cody

    2018-05-01

    Joint electromagnetic and gravitational-wave (GW) observation is a major goal of both the GW astronomy and electromagnetic astronomy communities for the coming decade. One way to accomplish this goal is to direct follow-up of GW candidates. Prompt electromagnetic emission may fade quickly, therefore it is desirable to have GW detection happen as quickly as possible. A leading source of latency in GW detection is the whitening of the data. We examine the performance of a zero-latency whitening filter in a detection pipeline for compact binary coalescence (CBC) GW signals. We find that the filter reproduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficiently consistent with the results of the original high-latency and phase-preserving filter for both noise and artificial GW signals (called "injections"). Additionally, we demonstrate that these two whitening filters show excellent agreement in χ2 value, a discriminator for GW signals.

  5. Wisdom teeth: mankind's future third vice-teeth?

    PubMed

    Zou, DuoHong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, WangHui; Xia, LunGuo; Jang, XinQuan; Huang, YuanLiang

    2010-01-01

    The third molar teeth (wisdom teeth) represent the last eruption of the teeth in the human dentition. Throughout evolution, the mandible has had a tendency to decrease in size; the third molar teeth are often impacted, resulting in incomplete tooth eruption that often causes clinical pericoronitis, dental caries, and pericemental abscess. Therefore, the wisdom teeth are often extracted. Moreover, wisdom teeth are often removed for clinical orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, tooth loss due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma, or a variety of genetic disorders continues to affect people's lives. Autologous tissues for dental tissue regeneration that could replace lost teeth could provide a vital alternative to currently available clinical treatments. To pursue this goal, we hypothesize that human third molar tooth buds can be obtained during development. Human wisdom tooth germination tissue could then be placed into an embryonic stem cell bank for storage. When the donor's other teeth are missing, embryonic stem cell and tissue engineering technologies, will permit the restoration of the missing teeth. Therefore wisdom teeth will be mankind's future third vice-teeth.

  6. Impact of gaps in the asteroseismic characterization of pulsating stars. I. The efficiency of pre-whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Granado, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Garrido, R.; Moya, A.; Hernández, A. García; Rodón, J. R.; Lares-Martiz, M.

    2018-06-01

    Context. It is known that the observed distribution of frequencies in CoRoT and Kepler δ Scuti stars has no parallelism with any theoretical model. Pre-whitening is a widespread technique in the analysis of time series with gaps from pulsating stars located in the classical instability strip, such as δ Scuti stars. However, some studies have pointed out that this technique might introduce biases in the results of the frequency analysis. Aims: This work aims at studying the biases that can result from pre-whitening in asteroseismology. The results will depend on the intrinsic range and distribution of frequencies of the stars. The periodic nature of the gaps in CoRoT observations, only in the range of the pulsational frequency content of the δ Scuti stars, is shown to be crucial to determining their oscillation frequencies, the first step in performing asteroseismology of these objects. Hence, here we focus on the impact of pre-whitening on the asteroseismic characterization of δ Scuti stars. Methods: We select a sample of 15 δ Scuti stars observed by the CoRoT satellite, for which ultra-high-quality photometric data have been obtained by its seismic channel. In order to study the impact on the asteroseismic characterization of δ Scuti stars we perform the pre-whitening procedure on three datasets: gapped data, linearly interpolated data, and data with gaps interpolated using Autoregressive and Moving Average models (ARMA). Results: The different results obtained show that at least in some cases pre-whitening is not an efficient procedure for the deconvolution of the spectral window. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of the spectral window to a minimum, in addition to performing a pre-whitening of the data, it is necessary to interpolate with an algorithm that is aimed to preserve the original frequency content. Tables 5-49 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http

  7. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Teething

    MedlinePlus

    Eruption of primary teeth; Well child care - teething ... 6 and 8 months old. All 20 baby teeth should be in place by the time a ... months old. Some children do not show any teeth until much later than 8 months, but this ...

  9. The Whitening of Brown Fat and Its Implications for Weight Management in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Systemic inflammation resulting from dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT) accelerates the pathologies of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is abundant in mitochondria that produce heat by uncoupling respiratory chain process of ATP synthesis. Besides BAT's role in thermogenesis, accumulating evidence has shown that it is involved in regulating systemic metabolism. Studies have analyzed the "browning" processes of WAT as a means to combat obesity, whereas few studies have focused on the impact and molecular mechanisms that contribute to obesity-linked BAT dysfunction--a process that is associated with the "whitening" of this tissue. Compared to WAT, a dense vascular network is required to support the high energy consumption of BAT. Recently, vascular rarefaction was shown to be a significant causal factor in the whitening of BAT in mouse models. Vascular insufficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and loss in BAT and contributes to systemic insulin resistance. These data suggest that BAT "whitening," resulting from vascular dysfunction, can impact obesity and obesity-linked diseases. Conversely, agents that promote BAT function could have utility in the treatment of these conditions.

  10. Comparative clinical evaluation of two professional tooth-whitening products.

    PubMed

    Kowitz, G M; Nathoo, S A; Wong, R

    1994-01-01

    A 2-week study was conducted to compare the tooth-whitening efficacy of two 10% carbamide peroxide products: Colgate Platinum Professional Toothwhitening System and Rembrandt Lighten Bleaching Gel. Fifty subjects were divided into two groups and assigned a product to use for 2 weeks. Change in tooth color was measured by reflectance spectroscopy at the initiation of study, at 1 week, and at 2 weeks into the study. Color change was calculated using the color-difference equation established by the Commission International de L'Eclairage. Results showed that Colgate Platinum was 62% more effective at tooth whitening after 1 week and 83% more effective after 2 weeks of treatment vs Rembrandt. At the termination of the study, the mean color difference (deltaE) for Colgate Platinum was 4.29 and 2.34 for Rembrandt. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the Colgate product is significantly superior at increasing tooth whiteness, increasing tooth lightness, reducing redness, and reducing yellowness. In this study, no adverse reactions were noted on clinical examination and none were reported by panelists with normal healthy dentition.

  11. Shade changing effectiveness of plasdone and blue covarine-based whitening toothpaste on teeth stained with chlorhexidine and black tea.

    PubMed

    Bergesch, Vania; Baggio Aguiar, Flávio Henrique; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Gomes França, Fabiana Mantovani; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Botelho Amaral, Flávia Lucisano

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of toothbrushing with whitening toothpaste in altering the shade of stained human enamel. Thirty fragments of human enamel, stained with chlorhexidine/black tea underwent 1000 and 5000 brushing cycles (BC) with ( n = 10): PLS (Gel Dental Day, Bitufo), Close Up White Now, Unilever (COVB) and regular (Gel Dental Night, Bitufo) toothpaste. Images were taken before staining (baseline), after staining (STN) and following 1000 and 5000 BC and were analyzed using the CIELAB parameters (ΔE, Δb and ΔL). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). ΔE was higher from STN to baseline; 1000 BC to STN and 5000 BC to STN ( P < 0.001). Significant differences in Δb values were found from 1000 BC to STN and 5000 BC to STN. For COVB, greater ΔL was observed from 1000 BC to STN, what differed statistically from the regular toothpaste ( P < 0.05). There was no difference between toothpaste when ΔL was calculated from 5000 CB to STN. Toothpaste containing COVB or PLS in association with 5000 BCs showed similar effectiveness in changing enamel shade; but after the first 1000 toothbrushing cycles, the use of COVB toothpaste promoted higher lightness in stained enamel.

  12. An in situ investigation into the abrasion of eroded dental hard tissues by a whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Turssi, C P; Faraoni, J J; Rodrigues, A L; Serra, M C

    2004-01-01

    This crossover study aimed to investigate abrasion of previously eroded hard dental tissues by a whitening dentifrice compared to a regular dentifrice. After a 3-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of the toothpastes while wearing a removable appliance, containing 3 enamel and 3 root dentine slabs on each side. On the first day salivary pellicle was allowed to form. Twice daily for the following 3 days, one side of each appliance was immersed in an acidic carbonated drink ex vivo while the other side remained unexposed. Specimens were then brushed with the allocated dentifrice. After a 3-day washout period, new sets of enamel and dentine slabs were mounted in the appliances and the participants commenced period 2 using the alternative toothpaste. Acid-treated specimens always showed more wear than untreated specimens. The whitening dentifrice did not significantly increase the wear of softened enamel compared with the regular dentifrice. Brushing with the whitening toothpaste led to significantly greater wear of sound enamel and of both eroded and sound dentine than the regular dentifrice. The results suggest that whitening dentifrices may not increase the wear of acid-softened enamel but may have a more deleterious effect on dentine than regular toothpastes.

  13. Determinants of inhalant (whitener) use among street children in a South Indian city.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K; Raghavendra, Bellara; Khan, Maseer; Guggilla, Rama K; Bhatia, Prakash

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2008 among 174 children in observation homes in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the distribution of inhalant (whitener) use among this population. Data were collected using an instrument developed for this purpose. About 61% of the children were boys and their mean age was 12.2 years (range 5-18 years). Whitener use was found in 35% of the children along with concurrent use of other substances. Peer pressure was the commonest cause reported for initiating substance use. The high prevalence is an important concern for the Indian policymakers given the large number of street children in Indian cities.

  14. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-07-01

    Newspaper clippings tend to brown quickly with aging as the result of chromophores that form during the degradation of one or more components of paper. Newsprint that consists of approximately 40% lignin is particularly susceptible to browning due to the relative ease of the oxidation of lignin. For readers who wish to experiment with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings, a simple recipe requiring few materials is presented.

  15. Effect of acidity of in-office bleaching gels on tooth sensitivity and whitening: a two-center double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, A D; Servat, F; Stanislawczuk, R; Mena-Serrano, A; Rezende, M; Prieto, M V; Cereño, V; Rojas, M F; Ortega, K; Fernandez, E; Reis, A

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to compare the tooth sensitivity (TS) and bleaching efficacy of two hydrogen peroxide gels with different pHs (acid pH [Pola Office, SDI] and the neutral pH [Pola Office+, SDI]) used for in-office bleaching. Fifty-four patients from Brazil and Chile, with right superior incisor darker than A2, were selected for this double-blind, split-mouth randomized trial. Teeth were bleached in two sessions, with 1-week interval. Each session had three applications of 8 min each, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The color changes were evaluated by subjective (Vita Classical and Vita Bleachedguide) and objective (Easy shade spectrophotometer) methods. Participants recorded TS with 0-10 visual analog scale. Color change in shade guide units (SGU) and ΔE was analyzed by Student's t test (α = 0.05). The absolute risk and intensity of TS were evaluated by McNemar's test and Wilcoxon-paired test, respectively (α = 0.05). All groups achieved the same level of whitening after 30 days of clinical evaluation. The use of a neutral in-office bleaching gel significantly decreases the absolute risk of TS (28%, 95% CI 18-41) and intensity of TS when compared to the acid bleaching gel (absolute risk of 50%, 95% CI 37-63). The use of a neutral in-office bleaching agent gel produced the same whitening degree than an acid bleaching gel but with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity. Clinicians should opt to use in-office bleaching with a neutral gel than an acid product because the former causes a significant lower risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity.

  16. Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Teeth What's in this ... help you talk. So let's talk teeth! Tiny Teeth Unlike your heart or brain, your teeth weren' ...

  17. [The experience with spectrophotometric method for determination of teeth colour changes in the process of tooth whitening by different systems].

    PubMed

    Porkhun, T V; Iakoviuk, I A

    2006-01-01

    The use of spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade is described as an objective method of definition of color of a teeth alongside with a standard scale VITA. Results of assessment of efficiency, safety, a comparative estimation of domestic bleaching Aquafresh and LumaArch systems are given.

  18. Effect of tooth whitening strips on fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; De Souza, Grace M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of whitening strips on bovine dentin fatigue resistance and flexural strength in vitro. Materials and methods A total of eighty bovine dentin specimens (2x2x17mm) were treated with either: control glycerine gel on plastic film wrap or whitening strips containing 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes, twice a day, for 1- or 4-weeks. After the last treatment, ten specimens per group were randomly selected to undergo fatigue testing (106 cycles, 3Hz, 20N) while the other ten were subjected to flexural strength testing after ten days of storage in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test, Wilcoxon test and Cox regression were used to assess fatigue test results (p<0.05). One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests were used to compare the flexural strength results (p<0.05). Results There were significant differences in survival during the fatigue test among the groups (p<0.001). Treatment (control or bleach) was a significant factor for specimen survival (p<0.001, Exp(B) = 33.45). There were significant differences in mean flexural strength (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between “1-wk control” and “4-wk control”. The mean flexural strength and fatigue resistance of the “4-wk bleach” were significantly lower than all the other groups. Conclusions The use of whitening strips reduced the fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro. Until the effect of whitening strips on mechanical properties of human dentin is fully elucidated, it remains prudent to advise patients to avoid excessive direct use of whitening strips on dentin. PMID:28278191

  19. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  20. About Kids' Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links About Kids’ Teeth We have two sets of teeth during life: ... usually appeared. Learn about Nutrition Baby Teething Baby Teeth and Teething Baby teeth usually appear when your ...

  1. A study of the human skin-whitening effects of resveratryl triacetate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seok, Jin Kyung; An, Sang Mi; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol has a variety of bioactivities that include its anti-melanogenic effects, but its use in cosmetics has been challenging partly because of its chemical instability. Resveratryl triacetate (RTA) is a prodrug that can enhance stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin safety and whitening effects of RTA in human subjects. The primary skin irritation potentials of RTA and resveratrol were tested at 0.1 and 0.5 % on human subjects. Resveratrol at a concentration of 0.5 % induced weak skin irritation, whereas RTA did not induce any skin responses. The skin-whitening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing 0.4 % RTA was evaluated in two different test models. In the artificial tanning model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the skin of the forearms of 22 human subjects after pigmentation induction by ultraviolet irradiation. Applying the test and the control products to the artificial tanning model for 8 weeks increased the individual topology angles (ITA°) by 17.06 and 13.81 %, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the hyperpigmentation model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the faces of 21 human subjects. The averaged intensity of the hyperpigmented spots decreased by 2.67 % in the test group and 1.46 % in the control group, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, RTA incorporated into cosmetic formulations can whiten human skin without inducing skin irritation.

  2. A study of hydrogen peroxide chemistry and photochemistry in tea stain solution with relevance to clinical tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Young, Nigel; Fairley, Peter; Mohan, Veena; Jumeaux, Coline

    2012-12-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide is a complex process, and there is still some controversy about the roles of pH, temperature, chemical activators, and the use of light irradiation. In this work the basic interactions between whitening agents and stain molecules are studied in simple solutions, thus avoiding the physics of diffusion and light penetration in the tooth to give clarity on the basic chemistry which is occurring. The absorbance of tea stain solution at 450 nm was measured over a period of 40 min, with various compositions of whitening agent added (including hydrogen peroxide, ferrous gluconate and potassium hydroxide) and at the same time the samples were subjected to blue light (465 nm) or infra-red light (850 nm) irradiation, or alternatively they were heated to 37°C. It is shown that the reaction rates between chromogens in the tea solution and hydrogen peroxide can be accelerated significantly using ferrous gluconate activator and blue light irradiation. Infra red irradiation does not increase the reaction rate through photochemistry, it serves only to increase the temperature. Raising the temperature leads to inefficiency through the acceleration of exothermic decomposition reactions which produce only water and oxygen. By carrying out work in simple solution it was possible to show that ferrous activators and blue light irradiation significantly enhance the whitening process, whereas infra red irradiation has no significant effect over heating. The importance of controlling the pH within the tooth structure during whitening is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper food packaging materials by UPLC-FLD/PDA with series double-detector].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianjiao; Wu, Pinggu; Hu, Zhengyan; Wang, Liyuan; Tang, Jun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-01

    To establish a new qualitative and quantitative ultraperformance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector / photodiode array detector with series double-detector method for the determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper food packaging materials. The sample was extracted with 40%acetonitrile water solution, separated by Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18)column( 1. 7μm, 2. 1 mm × 100 mm) and eluted gradient. The excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of fluorescence detector( FLD) were 350 nm and 430 nm, and the wavelength of photodiode array detector( PDA) was 350 nm. The detectors were used in series to achieve qualitative and quantitative detection. In the substrates of paper cups, paper bowls, paper trays and paper boxes, those eleven fluorescent whitening agents were separated properly. For both detectors, in the linear range of 25- 1000 ng / m L, the correlation coefficient was greater than 0. 99, and the recoveries of spiked recoveries were between 82. 2%- 104. 1% with the RSD less than 10%( n = 6). The detection limits ofthose eleven fluorescent whitening agents were 0. 20- 0. 28 mg / kg for FLD and 1. 4- 2. 5mg / kg for PDA. The eleven fluorescent whitening agents could be separated properly with complete separation, good shapes and high recovery rate. This method is easy to operate also. Thus it's an effective method to detect the fluorescent whitening agents in paper food packaging materials.

  4. Malocclusion of teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Crowded teeth; Misaligned teeth; Crossbite; Overbite; Underbite; Open bite ... Occlusion refers to the alignment of teeth and the way that the upper and lower teeth fit together (bite). The upper teeth should fit slightly over the lower teeth. ...

  5. An in vivo study of the effect of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent on enamel.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nucci, Cesare; Matis, Bruce A; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2010-04-01

    In an in vivo study, the authors tested the hypothesis that no difference in enamel surface roughness is detectable either during or after bleaching with a high-concentration in-office whitening agent. The authors performed profilometric and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses of epoxy resin replicas of the upper right incisors of 20 participants at baseline (control) and after each bleaching treatment with a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide whitening agent, applied four times, at one-week intervals. The authors used analysis of variance for repeated measures to analyze the data statistically. The profilometric analysis of the enamel surface replicas after the in vivo bleaching protocol showed no significant difference in surface roughness parameters (P > .05) compared with those at baseline, irrespective of the time interval. Results of the correlated SEM analysis showed no relevant alteration on the enamel surface. Results of this in vivo study support the tested hypothesis that the application of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent does not alter enamel surface roughness, even after multiple applications. The use of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent induced no roughness alterations of the enamel surface, even after prolonged and repeated applications.

  6. Prevention of lingual calculus formation with daily use of 6% H2O2/2% pyrophosphate whitening strips.

    PubMed

    Farrell, S; Barker, M L; Gerlach, R W; Putt, M S; Milleman, J L

    2009-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate whether daily use of a hydrogen peroxide/ pyrophosphate-containing antitartar whitening strip might safely yield clinical reductions in post-prophylaxis calculus accumulation. A three-month, randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare calculus accumulation with a daily 6% hydrogen peroxide/pyrophosphate strip versus regular brushing. After an eight-week run-in phase to identify calculus formers, a prophylaxis was administered, and 77 subjects were randomly assigned to daily strip or brushing only groups. All subjects received an anticavity dentifrice (Crest Cavity Protection) and manual brush for use throughout the three-month study; for subjects assigned to the experimental group, strip application was once daily for five minutes on the facial and lingual surfaces of the mandibular teeth. Efficacy was measured as mm calculus (VMI) before prophylaxis and after six and 12 weeks of treatment, while safety was assessed from examination and interview. Subjects ranged in age from 21-87 years, with groups balanced (p > 0.26) on pertinent demographic and behavioral parameters, and pre-prophylaxis calculus baseline mean scores (16.0 mm). At Week 6, calculus accumulation was lower in the strip group, with adjusted mean (SE) lingual VMI of 12.0 (0.87) for the strip group and 17.0 (0.88) for the brushing control. At Week 12, calculus accumulation was lower in the strip group, with adjusted mean (SE) lingual VMI of 14.3 (0.85) for the strip group and 17.2 (0.86) for the brushing control. Treatments differed significantly (p < 0.02) on calculus accumulation at both time points. A total of three subjects (8%) in the strip group and two subjects (5%) in the brushing control had mild oral irritation or tooth sensitivity during treatment; no one discontinued early due to an adverse event. Daily use of hydrogen peroxide whitening strips with pyrophosphate reduced calculus formation by up to 29% versus

  7. Teething troubles?

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T; McIntyre, G M

    2002-03-09

    The relationship between the eruption of the deciduous teeth and the general health of infants has been documented for over 5,000 years. A variety of physical disturbances (anything from minor upsets to potentially fatal illnesses) have historically been attributed to teething, however a number of recent publications have alluded to a clarification of some of the disputed features of teething. It is now accepted that the localised symptoms of teething vary between individuals, however, 'teething' continues to be an inappropriate diagnosis proffered by both healthcare professionals and lay people. Severe systemic upsets are unrelated to teething and, if present, the infant should be promptly referred to a physician for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The treatment modalities used in teething have been diverse throughout the ages, frequently depending on the tenets of the medical profession and lay people, but now principally involve pain relief. This article examines the signs and symptoms frequently attributed to teething and their possible alternative causes. The contemporary principles of the management of teething are discussed, including supportive measures, the diverse range of available topical and systemic pharmacological preparations and the 'alternative' holistic therapies.

  8. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Teeth Oral/dental health is a critical part of maintaining overall health in TSC. The teeth and gums in TSC individuals are slightly different ...

  11. [Perivenular whitening in central retinal vein occlusion demonstrated by "en-face" OCT].

    PubMed

    Marc, C; Gire, J; Boulicot, C; Guigou, S

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with a central vein occlusion associated with perivenular whitening. The "en-face" spectral domain OCT precisely demonstrated the ischemic area. This case underscores the utility of the "en-face" mode in the follow-up CRVO. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. An Innovations-Based Noise Cancelling Technique on Inverse Kepstrum Whitening Filter and Adaptive FIR Filter in Beamforming Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jinsoo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure. PMID:22163987

  13. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and “Δ Final − Initial” comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). Results: The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. Conclusions: These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials. PMID:27095891

  14. Placebo-controlled clinical trial of use of 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips for medication-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Papas, Athena S; Kugel, Gerard; Singh, Mabi; Barker, Matthew L; Gerlach, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of peroxide-containing strip-based tooth whitening among subjects with medication-induced hyposalivation. Eligibility for this tooth whitening study was limited to dentate adults taking xerogenic medications with an unstimulated salivary flow < or = 0.2 ml/min. After giving informed consent, 42 subjects were randomized using a 2:1 ratio to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (Crest Whitestrips Premium) or placebo strips without peroxide. Strips were used for 30 min twice daily for a 14-day period. Usage was unsupervised, and only the maxillary arch was treated. On days 8 and 15, efficacy was assessed from standard digital images of the anterior dentition and quantified using the Cielab color system, while safety was assessed from interviews and clinical examinations. At day 8, the peroxide group experienced significant (p < 0.001) color improvement relative to baseline and placebo. Adjusted means +/- standard errors for yellowness reduction were -1.65 +/- 0.115 units for the peroxide group and -0.32 +/- 0.170 units for the placebo group. For the increase in lightness, adjusted means +/- standard errors on day 8 were 1.53 +/- 0.130 units for the peroxide group and 0.37 +/- 0.191 units for the controls. Continued strip use through day 15 yielded incremental color improvement for the peroxide group. Mild and transient tooth sensitivity represented the most common adverse events. No subject discontinued treatment due to a product-related adverse event. Twice daily use of 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips by adults with medication-induced xerostomia was well tolerated, with significant tooth color improvement evident within 7 days. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth whitening products using an in situ model.

    PubMed

    Joiner, A; Collins, L Z; Cox, T F; Pickles, M J; Weader, E; Liscombe, C; Holt, J S

    2005-01-01

    To determine the enamel and dentine wear of two whitening toothpastes using an in situ model with ex vivo brushing. Human enamel/dentine (approximately 50:50) blocks (approximately 4 x 4mm) were placed in the upper buccal aspects of full or partial dentures of a group of 25 subjects. Subjects brushed the specimens ex vivo with either a calcium carbonate/perlite or silica containing whitening toothpaste under exaggerated conditions as compared to normal for 30 s, twice per day. Specimens were removed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the wear to the enamel and dentine was determined. Enamel wear was determined by change in Knoop indent length and dentine wear was determined from the enamel-dentine step height, measured using optical profilometry. The mean wear after 12 weeks was for enamel 0.27 and 0.19 microns, and for dentine 34.3 and 61.1 microns, for the calcium carbonate/perlite and silica toothpastes respectively. There were no significant differences between products after 12 weeks. The rate of wear was found to decrease throughout the duration of the study. There were no significant differences between the two whitening toothpastes in terms of enamel and dentine wear after 12 weeks brushing.

  16. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and <50 kDa) were extracted via a series of steps involving: boiling, filtering, desalting and freeze drying. Cytotoxicity, skin whitening and wrinkle-removing effects of boiled liquid were determined. Our MTT data showed that neither glycoprotein fraction of boiled liquid induces cellular cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/mL treatment of the mouse melanoma cell line, B16F10, with 10 mg/mL >50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Two Whitening Toothpastes on Microhardness of the Enamel and a Microhybride Composite Resin: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Z.; Kasraie, Sh.; Rezaei-Soufi, L.; Jebeli, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Whitening toothpastes which have been accepted in populations may affect properties of enamel and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of human enamel and Z250 microhybrid composite resin after brushing with two whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study of enamel specimens, forty five freshly extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into three groups of control enamel (ClE), Crest enamel (CtE) and Aquafresh enamel (AfE). For composite resin specimens, forty five cylindrical-shaped specimens of light-cured Z250 composite were prepared and divided into three groups of control composite (ClC), Crest composite (CtC) and Aquafresh composite (AfC). The control groups were brushed without toothpaste. Crest and Aquafresh group specimens were brushed with Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes, respectively. Vickers microhardness test was performed for all groups. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Microhardness values of ClE, CtE, AfE, ClC, CtC and AfC groups were 332.99 ± 26.59, 313.99 ± 20.56, 323.57 ± 27.96, 137.1 ± 3.16, 122.95 ± 3.27 and 130.36 ± 4.8, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among three enamel groups but there was significant difference among composite groups (p<0.01). Conclusion: Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes did not affect enamel hardness but reduced the microhardness value of Z-250 composite resin. However, Crest whitening toothpaste decreased the microhardness more than Aquafresh. PMID:21998788

  18. Effects of tooth whitening and orange juice on surface properties of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan-Fang; Amin, Azadeh; Malmstrom, Hans

    2009-06-01

    To study the effects of 6% H2O2 activated with LED light on surface enamel as compared to orange juice challenges in vitro. A total of 40 human enamel discs were incubated in saliva overnight to allow pellicle formation and then divided into three groups: 15 for whitening treatments, 15 for orange juice immersions and 10 for normal saline controls. Baseline microhardness was measured with a microhardness Knoop indenter (50g, 10s) and surface topography was evaluated with a focus-variation 3D scanning microscopy. Enamel discs were treated with H2O2 or orange juice for 20 min each cycle for five cycles to simulate daily treatment with the products for 5 days. The discs were stored in saliva between treatment cycles. Microhardness and surface topography were evaluated again after treatments. Changes in microhardness and in surface area roughness (Sa), mean maximum peak-to-valley distance (Sz) and the developed surface area ratio (Sdr) were compared before and after treatments (t-test) and among groups (ANOVA). Enamel surface hardness decreased by 84% after orange juice immersion but no statistically significant changes were observed in the whitening and control groups. Surface topography changed significantly only in the orange juice group as shown by increased Sa (1.2 microm vs. 2.0 microm), Sz (7.7 microm vs. 10.2 microm) and Sdr (2.8% vs. 6.0%). No such changes were observed in the whitening and control groups. In comparison to orange juice challenges, the effects of 6% H2O2 on surface enamel are insignificant. Orange juice erosion markedly decreased hardness and increased roughness of enamel.

  19. Power and Socioscientific Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire's Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2012-01-01

    In her article, "The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University- Linked Corporate Scientific Officer," published in this issue, Amina Mire (2012) deconstructs the tacit investments implicit in such discourses of beauty, in particular those linked to cosmetic products that purport to fight the "war on aging" through the…

  20. Impacted Wisdom Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Impacted wisdom teeth Overview Impacted wisdom teeth are third molars at the back of the mouth that don' ... with an impacted wisdom tooth. Causes Wisdom teeth (third molars) become impacted because they don't have enough ...

  1. Wisdom Teeth Management

    MedlinePlus

    Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom teeth, or third molars, are the last teeth to develop and appear in your mouth. They come ... of third molars, disease status, and to suggest management options ranging from removal to a monitored retention ...

  2. Effect of tray-based and trayless tooth whitening systems on microhardness of enamel surface and subsurface.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Erica C N; Ritter, André V; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Leonard, Ralph H; Swift, Edward J

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tray-based and trayless tooth whitening systems on surface and subsurface microhardness of human enamel. Enamel slabs were obtained from recently extracted human third molars. Specimens were randomly assigned to six groups according to tooth whitening treatment (n = 10): 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Crest Whitestrips), 6.5% HP (Crest Professional Whitestrips), 7.5% HP (Day White Excel 3), 9.5% HP (Day White Excel 3), 10% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence), and a control group (untreated). Specimens were treated for 14 days following manufacturers' recommended protocols, and were immersed in artificial saliva between treatments. Enamel surface Knoop microhardness (KHN) was measured immediately before treatment, and at days 1, 7, and 14 of treatment. After treatment, subsurface microhardness was measured at depths of 50-500 microm. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using analysis of variance. Differences in microhardness for treated vs. untreated enamel surface were not statistically significant at any time interval. For 6.5% and 9.5% HP, there was a decrease in surface microhardness values during treatment, but at the end of treatment the microhardness values were not statistically different from the baseline values. For the enamel subsurface values, no differences were observed between treated vs. untreated specimens at each depth. Trayless and tray-based tooth whitening treatments do not significantly affect surface or subsurface enamel microhardness.

  3. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess. PMID:26167407

  4. Study on digital teeth selection and virtual teeth arrangement for complete denture.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoling; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Chen, Hu; Yu, Changjiang; Sun, Yuchun

    2018-03-01

    In dentistry, the complete denture is a conventional treatment for edentulous patients. The computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been applied on the digital complete denture which is developed rapidly. Tooth selection and arrangement is one of the most important parts in digital complete denture. In this paper, we propose a new method of personalized teeth arrangement. This paper presents a method of arranging teeth virtually for a complete denture. First, scan and extract the feature points of the 3D triangular mesh data of artificial teeth (PLY format), then establish a tooth selection system. Second, scan and mark the anatomic characteristics of the maxillary and mandibular cast surfaces, such as facial midline, the curve of the arches. With the enter information, the study calculates the common arrangement lines of artificial teeth. Third, select the preferred artificial teeth and automatically arrange them virtually in the correct position by using our own software. After that, design the gingival part of the dentures on the basic of the arranged teeth on the screen and then fabricated it by using Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology, Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology or 3D printer technology. Finally, select artificial teeth were embedded in wax rims. This system can choose artificial teeth reasonably and the teeth placement can meet the dentist's request to a certain extent, whereas all the operations are based on the medical principles. The study performed here involves computer sciences, medicine, and dentistry, a teeth selection system was proposed and virtual teeth arrangement was described. This study has the capacity of helping operators to select teeth, which improved the accuracy of tooth arrangement, and customized complete denture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Teething Tots

    MedlinePlus

    ... with liquid inside because they may break or leak. If you use a teething ring, chill it ... could cause the plastic to get damaged and leak chemicals. Teething biscuits and frozen or cold food ...

  6. Whitening and anti-wrinkle activities of ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides in B16F10 melanoma and CCD-986sk fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin; Cho, Jun-Hyo; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Kim, Dong-Hee; Jung, Hee-Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Cho, Young-Je

    2018-01-01

    Ferulic acid isolated from Tetragonia tetragonioides was tested for its whitening effect on the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and its anti-wrinkle activity on the CCD-986sk human dermal fibroblast cell line. Ferulic acid, one of the primary phenolic compounds that can be isolated from T. tetragonioides, has been reported to show potential as a functional food, for its whitening effect and anti-wrinkle activity. To measure its whitening and anti-wrinkle activities, cells were treated with ferulic acid isolated from T. tetragonioides at concentrations between 5 and 20 μM. Ferulic acid showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 20 μM. Ferulic acid inhibited melanin synthesis, tyrosinase expression, and microphthalmia transcription factor expression in B16F10 cells stimulated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Ferulic acid induced procollagen synthesis, hyaluronic acid synthesis, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase synthesis, and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 expression in CCD-986sk cells stimulated with UV-B. On the basis of these results, we conclude that ferulic acid isolated from T. tetragonioides shows potential for use as a functional food, with whitening and anti-wrinkle activities.

  7. [Cryopreservation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Melanie; Filippi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    After tooth loss dental implants or fixed prosthetic restorations are not indicated in children and adolescents due to incomplete maxillary and mandibular development. Cryopreservation is a method for long-term storage of healthy teeth which were removed for orthodontic reasons or due to traumatic origin. These preserved teeth can be used as autogenous replants or transplants after tooth loss. During transport to and from the freezing facilities prior to freezing the teeth are stored in a cell culture medium. The tooth is transferred into a freezing tube containing cell culture medium and cryoprotectant DMSO. Teeth autotransplanted after cryopreservation show vitality of the PDL cells. Usually no enamel and/or dentinal cracks can be observed. After tooth loss transplantation of cryopreserved teeth could be an effective and biological therapy for tooth replacement.

  8. Influence of five home whitening gels and a remineralizing gel on the enamel and dentin ultrastructure and hardness.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Helena Burlamaqui; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the influence of calcium phosphate enhanced home whitening agents on human enamel and dentin surface microhardness and ultramorphology. Five intact molars crowns were used for ultrastructural analysis and five for microhardness test. Each resulting coronal structure was cut in slices. After measuring baseline Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) of the enamel and dentin, the slices were divided into six experimental groups and one control (n= 5). G1= 15% carbamide peroxide (CP); G2= 16% CP; G3= Ca and PO4 (remineralizing agent); G4= 16% CP with Ca and PO4; G5= 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) with Ca and PO4; G6=7.5% HP with Ca. After each daily session of treatment, specimens were stored in distilled water (37 degrees C) until the next session. Products were applied for 2 weeks, according to manufacturers' instructions. Additional KHN weredetermined. Conventional whitening agents (G1; G2) and the gel with Ca (G6), caused KHN decrease (P< 0.05).The remineralizing and whitening agents with Ca and PO4 (G3; G4; G5) did not change KHN. A change of morphology was observed on enamel and dentin surfaces in G1; G2; G5.

  9. Effects of whitening dentifrice on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surfaces after simulating brushing.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Gimenes Olbera, Amanda Caroline; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Miotto, Larissa Natiele; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi

    2017-01-01

    The changes that occur after brushing yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) are unknown. These changes may favor the retention of microorganisms and chemisorption of water, impairing its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a whitening dentifrice on Y-TZP surfaces after simulating 10 years of brushing. Seventy-two bar-shaped specimens (20×4×1.2 mm) were divided into 4 groups: storage in distilled water (SW, control), brushing with distilled water (BW), brushing with dentifrice (BD), and brushing with whitening dentifrice (BWD). Brushing was conducted using a linear brushing machine (878400 cycles, 0.98 N, soft toothbrush). The mean roughness (Ra) was analyzed with a profilometer and the superficial topography with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at baseline and after treatment. Crystalline phases were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Baseline and posttreatment Ra were analyzed using the 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparison test; the paired t test was used for intragroup comparison (all α=.05). The Ra (μm) means (before/after treatment) were SW 0.28/0.28; BW 0.32/0.31; BD 0.28/0.36; BWD 0.30/0.20. No statistically significant difference was found for Ra at baseline (P=.108) than for posttreatment results (P<.001); the BD group had higher Ra values when compared with baseline (P=.019); the BWD group had the lowest values (P<.001). The BD surfaces showed pronounced scratches and detachment of the surface, while BWD showed smoother surfaces; similar crystallographic results among groups were observed. Brushing Y-TZP with conventional dentifrice increased roughness, while brushing with whitening dentifrice reduced roughness. Neither dentifrice changed the crystallographic phases after brushing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of effectiveness of abrasive and enzymatic action of whitening toothpastes in removal of extrinsic stains - a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Patil, P A; Ankola, A V; Hebbal, M I; Patil, A C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of abrasive component (perlite/calcium carbonate) and enzymatic component (papain and bromelain) of whitening toothpaste in removal of extrinsic stains. This study is a randomized, triple blind and parallel group study in which 90 subjects aged 18-40 years were included. At baseline, stains scores were assessed by Macpherson's modification of Lobene Stain Index and subjects were randomly assigned to two groups with 45 subjects in each. Group 1 used whitening toothpaste with enzymatic action and group 2 with abrasive action. After 1 month, stain scores were assessed for the effectiveness of the two toothpastes and 2 months later to check the stain prevention efficacy. Wilcoxson's test was used to compare between baseline 1 and 2 months stain scores, and Mann-Witney U-test was applied for intragroup comparison. The mean baseline total stain score for the subjects allocated to the enzymatic toothpaste was 37.24 ± 2.11 which reduced to 30.77 ± 2.48 in 1 month, and for the abrasive paste, total stain reduced from 35.08 ± 2.96 to 32.89 ± 1.95. The reductions in total stain scores with both the pastes were significant compared with baseline stain scores (at 1 month Group 1, P = 0.0233 and Group 2, P = 0.0324; at 2 months, Group 1 P = 0.0356). Both the toothpastes proved to be equally good in removal of extrinsic stains; however, the enzymatic paste showed better results as compared to abrasive toothpaste. Whitening toothpaste with abrasive action and enzymatic action are equally effective in removal of extrinsic stains; however, whitening toothpaste with abrasive action needs to be used with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  12. Graph-based normalization and whitening for non-linear data analysis.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we construct a graph-based normalization algorithm for non-linear data analysis. The principle of this algorithm is to get a spherical average neighborhood with unit radius. First we present a class of global dispersion measures used for "global normalization"; we then adapt these measures using a weighted graph to build a local normalization called "graph-based" normalization. Then we give details of the graph-based normalization algorithm and illustrate some results. In the second part we present a graph-based whitening algorithm built by analogy between the "global" and the "local" problem.

  13. Effects of Bleaching Agents Combined with Regular and Whitening Toothpastes on Surface Roughness and Mineral Content of Enamel.

    PubMed

    Attia, Mariana Lerner; Cavalli, Vanessa; do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Martin, Airton Abrahão; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; do Rego, Marcos Augusto; Cavalcanti, Andréa Nóbrega; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface roughness and changes in the composition of enamel submitted to different bleaching protocols and toothbrushing with regular and whitening toothpastes. Bleaching treatment could promote morphological and chemical changes in enamel surface. Enamel blocks were randomized into nine groups (n=10) according to the bleaching treatment (no bleaching, control group; 6% hydrogen peroxide, HP; or 10% carbamide peroxide, CP) and toothpaste used (placebo, PL; regular, R; or whitening dentifrice, W). Bleaching was performed according to manufacturers' instructions and all groups were submitted to 30,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing with toothpaste (PL, R, or W). Mineral content evaluation and enamel roughness were evaluated initially (T1), after bleaching (T2), and after toothbrushing (T3), using an energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and profilometry, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed with two way ANOVA, Tukey, and Dunnett tests (5%). Enamel surface roughness was influenced by bleaching and toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased for the groups that brushed with the placebo dentifrice (CP+PL, HP+PL, C+PL) and for the control group that brushed with whitening dentifrice (C+W). Enamel Ca/P ratio decreased after bleaching, but toothbrushing, regardless of the dentifrice used, did not reduce the enamel mineral content. The bleaching treatment resulted in a decrease of enamel mineral content, but the studied dentifrices did not contribute to surface mineral loss.

  14. [Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanna; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Fu, Shanliang; Gong, Qiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Libing

    2013-01-01

    A method for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector was developed. The samples were extracted with trichloromethane by sonication for 30 min at 40 degrees C. The HPLC method was performed on a column of Eclipse XDB-C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as the mobile phases, and detected by the fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 430 nm. The experimental results indicated that the four fluorescent whitening agents were separated well. The limits of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) were 0.3, 0.1, 0.05, 0.14 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N = 10) were 1.0, 0.4, 0.2, 0.5 mg/L for 1,4-bis (4-cyanostyryl) benzene (C. I. 199), 1,4-bis (2-benzoxazolyl) naphthalene (C. I. 367), 4,4'-bis(2-methoxystyryl) biphenyl (C. I. 378) and 2,5-thiophenediylbis (5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazole) (C. I. 184), respectively. Good linearities with correlation coefficients (r2) not less than 0.991 were obtained. The proposed method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can meet the requirements of the routine determination of fluorescent whitening agents in entry-exit products.

  15. HPLC-UV Method for the Identification and Screening of Hydroquinone, Ethers of Hydroquinone and Corticosteroids Possibly Used as Skin-Whitening Agents in Illicit Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bancilhon, Marjorie; Lassu, Nelly; Gornes, Hervé; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and its ethers are regulated in cosmetics by the Regulation 1223/2009. As corticosteroids are forbidden to be used in cosmetics and cannot be present as contaminants or impurities, an identification of one of these illicit compounds deliberately introduced in these types of cosmetics is enough for market survey control. In order to quickly identify skin-whitening agents present in illegal cosmetics, this article proposes an HPLC-UV method for the identification and screening of hydroquinone, 3 ethers of hydroquinone and 39 corticosteroids that may be found in skin-whitening products. Two elution gradients were developed to separate all compounds. The main solvent gradient (A) allows the separation of 39 compounds among the 43 compounds considered in 50 min. Limits of detection on skin-whitening cosmetics are given. For compounds not separated, a complementary gradient elution (B) using the same solvents is proposed. Between 2004 and 2009, a market survey on "skin-whitening cosmetic" was performed on 150 samples and highlights that more than half of the products tested do not comply with the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 (amending the Council Directive 76/768/EEC). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Xianbo; Qiu, Bin; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Juan; Luo, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, 11 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents with different numbers of sulfonic acid groups were separated by using an ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The effects of ionic liquid concentration, pH of mobile phase B, and composition of mobile phase A on the separation of fluorescent whitening agents were systematically investigated. The ionic liquid tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate is superior to tetrabutylammomnium bromide for the separation of the fluorescent whitening agents. The optimal separation conditions were an ionic liquid concentration at 8 mM and the pH of mobile phase B at 8.5 with methanol as mobile phase A. The established method exhibited low limits of detection (0.04-0.07 ng/mL) and wide linearity ranges (0.30-20 ng/mL) with high linear correlation coefficients from 0.9994 to 0.9998. The optimized procedure was applied to analyze target analytes in paper samples with satisfactory results. Eleven target analytes were quantified, and the recoveries of spiked paper samples were in the range of 85-105% with the relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.1%. The obtained results indicated that the method was efficient for detection of 11 fluorescent whitening agents. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Impact Strength of Fragment Bonded Teeth and Intact Teeth: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, L; Lakshmi, M Narasimha; Babu, Devatha Ashok; Kiran, V Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: To test and compare the impact strength of fragment bonded teeth with that of intact teeth by using impact testing machine (pendulum type) as a mode of load. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted, maxillary, central incisors selected for this study (20 control group and 20 experimental group). In experimental group, teeth crowns were fractured with a microtome at 2.5 mm from mesioincisal angle cervically, fractured portion is attached to original crown portion with 3 M single bond dentin bonding agent and 3 M Z ‘100’, composite resin. Impact strength of fragment bonded teeth and intact teeth tested with impact testing machine and compared. Results: Mean impact strength of fragment bonded teeth (30.76 KJ/M2 ) is not statistically significant deferent from mean impact strength of intact teeth (31.11 KJ/M2 ). Conclusion: Mean impact strength of fragment bonded teeth is not statistically different with that of intact teeth. Hence, after fracture of teeth if it is restored with fragment reattachment by using 3 M single bond dentin bonding agent and 3 M Z ‘100’ composite resin is having impact strength like that of intact teeth. How to cite the article: Venugopal L, Lakshmi MN, Babu DA, Kiran VR. Comparative evaluation of impact strength of fragment bonded teeth and intact teeth: An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):73-6. PMID:25083037

  18. Molecularly imprinted covalent organic polymers for the selective extraction of benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents from food samples.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Wang, Rongyu; Wang, Xiao; Ji, Wenhua

    2018-06-21

    Molecularly imprinted covalent organic polymers were constructed by an imine-linking reaction between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,6-diaminopyridine and used for the selective solid-phase extraction of benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents from food samples. Binding experiments showed that imprinting sites on molecularly imprinted polymers had higher selectivity for targets compared with those of the corresponding non-imprinted polymers. Parameters affecting the solid-phase extraction procedure were examined. Under optimal conditions, actual samples were treated and the eluent was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. The results showed that the established method owned the wide linearity, satisfactory detection limits and quantification limits, and acceptable recoveries. Thus, this developed method possesses the practical potential to the selectively determine benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents in complex food samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The study of barium concentration in deciduous teeth, impacted teeth, and facial bones of Polish residents.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Malara, Piotr; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-10-01

    The study determines the concentration of Ba in mineralized tissues of deciduous teeth, permanent impacted teeth, and facial bones. The study covers the population of children and adults (aged 6-78) living in an industrial area of Poland. Teeth were analyzed in whole, with no division into dentine and enamel. Facial bones and teeth were subjected to the following preparation: washing, drying, grinding in a porcelain mortar, sample weighing (about 0.2 g), and microwave mineralization with spectrally pure nitric acid. The aim of the study was to determinate the concentration of Ba in deciduous teeth, impacted permanent teeth, and facial bones. The concentration of barium in samples was determined over the ICP OES method. The Ba concentration in the tested bone tissues amounted to 2.2-15.5 μg/g (6.6 μg/g ± 3.9). The highest concentration of Ba was present in deciduous teeth (10.5 μg/g), followed by facial bones (5.2 μg/g), and impacted teeth (4.3 μg/g) (ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis rank test, p = 0.0002). In bone tissue and impacted teeth, Ba concentration increased with age. In deciduous teeth, the level of Ba decreased with children's age.

  20. Glossary of Dental Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... More print this article enlarge text Glossary of Dental Terms Oral Health Defined Amalgam silver/mercury alloy ... to fill cavities | More Bleaching cosmetic whitening of teeth using peroxide | More Caries cavities, tooth decay | More ...

  1. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Teeth ... they help you look your best. Why Healthy Teeth Are Important How does taking care of your ...

  2. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Mouth and Teeth KidsHealth / For Parents / Mouth and Teeth What's in ... daily lives. Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth ...

  3. Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy KidsHealth / For Parents / Keeping Your Child's Teeth ... and guidelines. When Should Kids Start Brushing Their Teeth? Good dental care begins before a baby's first ...

  4. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical study of the safety and effectiveness of a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system

    PubMed Central

    Ghalili, K Michael; Khawaled, Kamal; Rozen, Doran; Afsahi, Veda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated color change, gingival irritation, and tooth sensitivity in patients undergoing at-home vital tooth bleaching with a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system. Tooth color shade in anterior teeth, supragingival plaque and gingivitis in Ramfjord teeth, as well as visual assessment of teeth gingival tissues and mucosa were evaluated in-office prior to treatment, after two consecutive applications of the 9% hydrogen peroxide bleaching product, after eight applications (10 minutes/day for 3 days at home), and after ten applications (50 minutes exposure over 5 days). Color stability was evaluated at 3 months after completing the treatment regimen. Over-the-counter bleaching products can be used by the patient at home without dentist supervision, but are frequently associated with gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity despite low concentrations of peroxide agents. Our investigations showed that the treatment is tolerable and safe with a low incidence of adverse effects. Any adverse effects associated with use of the whitening gel and tray are temporary, easily controlled, and often disappear within minutes of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in teeth whitening following treatment (mean color change of seven shades) and at three months after treatment. PMID:24591847

  6. Raman spectroscopy analysis of dental enamel treated with whitening product - Influence of saliva in the remineralization.

    PubMed

    Silveira, J; Coutinho, S; Marques, D; Castro, J; Mata, A; Carvalho, M L; Pessanha, S

    2018-06-05

    In this work we present the analysis of dental enamel treated with an over-the-counter whitening product, bought in e-commerce at a very low cost, used without medical supervision in an abusive manner, in order to evaluate its demineralization action. Moreover, we studied the influence of renewal or non-renewal of saliva solution in which the specimens were stored throughout the study. The Degree of Demineralization was determined through the evaluation of the PO 4 3- symmetric stretching band (~959cm -1 ) in Raman spectra of the specimens in different days during the course of the study. Results showed that a maximum of demineralization occurred between days 27 and 34 of application. Titration of the whitening product revealed a content of hydrogen peroxide 170-fold higher than what is allowed in Europe, according with legislation. Despite this extreme concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the demineralization was not as great as could be expected suggesting an important role of the pH of the solution in this demineralization mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Raman spectroscopy analysis of dental enamel treated with whitening product - Influence of saliva in the remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, J.; Coutinho, S.; Marques, D.; Castro, J.; Mata, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Pessanha, S.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present the analysis of dental enamel treated with an over-the-counter whitening product, bought in e-commerce at a very low cost, used without medical supervision in an abusive manner, in order to evaluate its demineralization action. Moreover, we studied the influence of renewal or non-renewal of saliva solution in which the specimens were stored throughout the study. The Degree of Demineralization was determined through the evaluation of the PO43- symmetric stretching band ( 959 cm-1) in Raman spectra of the specimens in different days during the course of the study. Results showed that a maximum of demineralization occurred between days 27 and 34 of application. Titration of the whitening product revealed a content of hydrogen peroxide 170-fold higher than what is allowed in Europe, according with legislation. Despite this extreme concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the demineralization was not as great as could be expected suggesting an important role of the pH of the solution in this demineralization mechanism.

  8. Effect of various tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Majeed, A; Moola, M H

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various tooth-whitening products containing carbamide peroxide (CP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), on enamel microhardness. Enamel blocks were exposed to: Nite White ACP 10% CP (Group 2, n=10); Yotuel Patient 10% CP (Group 3, n=10); Opalescence PF 10% CP (Group 4, n=10); Opalescence PF 20% CP (Group 5, n=10); Opalescence Treswhite Supreme 10% HP (Group 6, n=10); Yotuel 10 Minutes 30% CP (Group 7, n=10); Opalescence Quick 45% CP (Group 8, n=10), Yotuel Special 35% HP (Group 9, n=10), Opalescence Boost 38% HP (Group 10, n=10) according to the instructions of the manufacturers. The control (Group 1, n=10) was enamel blocks kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C without any treatment. The microhardness values were obtained before exposure and after a 14-day treatment period. Specimens were kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C between treatments. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Indent marks on the enamel blocks were also examined under the Scanning Electron Microscope. All whitening products decreased enamel microhardness except group 10 but only Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed significant decrease in enamel microhardness as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Groups 2, 3 and 7 differed significantly from all the other groups (p < 0.05). The highest damage was recorded for Group 2 (Nite White ACP 10% CP), which differed significantly from Groups 3 and 7. SEM images also showed damage to enamel. All products tested in this study decreased enamel microhardness except Opalescence Boost 38% HP. The products containing carbamide peroxide were more damaging to enamel because of the longer application times. Nite White ACP 10% CP showed the highest reduction in enamel microhardness as compared to other products tested.

  9. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000769.htm Brushing Your Child's Teeth To use the sharing features on this page, ... age. Taking care of your child's gums and teeth every day helps prevent tooth decay and gum ...

  10. Malocclusion of teeth (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Occlusion refers to the alignment of teeth and the way that the upper and lower teeth fit together (bite). Malocclusion is the most common reason for referral to an orthodontist. Most malocclusion is mild enough not to ...

  11. In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Bart; Ates, Gamze; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O; Rogiers, Vera; Hendrickx, Benoit; Deconinck, Eric; De Paepe, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin. The results obtained were comparable to those from a multicentre validation study. The protocol was applied to hydroquinone and the dermal absorption ranged between 31 and 44%, which is within the range of published in vivo human values. This shows that a well-validated in vitro dermal absorption study using human skin provides relevant human data. The validated protocol was used to determine the dermal absorption of illegal skin-whitening cosmetics containing hydroquinone. All samples gave high dermal absorption values, rendering them all unsafe for human health. These results add to our knowledge of illegal cosmetics on the EU market, namely that they exhibit a negative toxicological profile and are likely to induce health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Study of influence of endoopalescence on the solid tissue by means of raster microscope].

    PubMed

    Kobakhidze, G D; Vadachkoriia, N R

    2006-05-01

    During the process of endowhitening as a result of penetration of peroxide into dentine tubules the adhesion of tooth tissues sharply decreases, it requires the delay of restoration by filling for several days. Surely it is not comfortable for the patient. The best way out is the application of antioxidants after whitening. Under their influence the sedimentary layer on the hard tissues of the teeth neutralizes much quicker. The urgency of this issue is preconditioned by the fact that under the influence of antioxidant the restored adhesiveness enables the immediate restoration of tooth. Our previous experiment is the good proof of that. In the experiment we studied the level of micro leakage and origination of microfissures by effecting with antioxidant, precisely with 10% sodium ascorbate on the hard tissues of tooth after using the whitening agent. As a result of this experiment we have not obtained any microfissure in the teeth covered with antioxidant unlike those teeth where we had not used the antioxidant. According to the reference data it is known that after acide angraving there occurs the removing of adhesive layer from the enamel and dentin of tooth. As a result of this the prisms of enamel and the dentine tubules are widened and this creates condition for the further penetration of the primer of the adhesive system. This process is followed by the origination of transitional i.e. hybrid layer. The latter one is the best link for the adhesive tar and tooth tissues. Modern investigations in the esthetic stomatology prove that the whitening agents produce the peroxide molecules during the process of whitening. These molecules cause the widening of the tooth enamel prisms. We also studied the results of post endo-whitening influence of peroxidation processes on the enamel and dentine of tooth by means of the raster microscope. Studies by electron microscope showed that the antioxidant - 10% sodium ascorbate was characterized by high penetration and was

  13. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic En español Take Care of Your Child’s Teeth Browse Sections The Basics Overview Tooth Decay Take ... the toothpaste instead of swallowing it Make brushing teeth fun. Getting kids to brush their teeth can ...

  14. The degree of color change, rebound effect and sensitivity of bleached teeth associated with at-home and power bleaching techniques: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fatemeh Velayati; Majidinia, Sara; Chasteen, Joseph; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the color change, rebound effect and sensitivity of at-home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide and power bleaching using 38% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: For bleaching techniques, 20 subjects were randomized in a split mouth design (at-home and power bleaching): In maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth (n = 20). Color was recorded before bleaching, immediately after bleaching, at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 month intervals. Tooth sensitivity was recorded using the visual analog scale. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare both groups regarding bleaching effectiveness (ΔE1), rebound effect (ΔE2) and color difference between the rebounded tooth color and unbleached teeth (ΔE3) while the Wilcoxon compared ΔE within each group. Distribution of sensitivity was evaluated using the Chi-square test (α =0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between groups regarding ΔE1 and ΔE3 (P > 0.05). Even though, ΔE2 showed no significant difference between groups after bleaching as well as at 2 week, 1 month and 3 month follow-up periods (P > 0.05). Although, significant difference was found in ΔE2 (P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney) between two methods after 6 months and a high degree of rebound effect was obtained with power bleaching. Within each group, there was no significant difference between ΔE1 and ΔE3 (P < 0.05 Wilcoxon). The distribution of sensitivity was identical with both techniques (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Bleaching techniques resulted in identical tooth whitening and post-operative sensitivity using both techniques, but faster color regression was found with power bleaching even though color regression to the baseline of the teeth in both groups was the same after 6 months. PMID:24932113

  15. Shark teeth as edged weapons: serrated teeth of three species of selachians.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Joshua K; Bemis, William E

    2017-02-01

    Prior to European contact, South Pacific islanders used serrated shark teeth as components of tools and weapons. They did this because serrated shark teeth are remarkably effective at slicing through soft tissues. To understand more about the forms and functions of serrated shark teeth, we examined the morphology and histology of tooth serrations in three species: the Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), Blue Shark (Prionace glauca), and White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We show that there are two basic types of serrations. A primary serration consists of three layers of enameloid with underlying dentine filling the serration's base. All three species studied have primary serrations, although the dentine component differs (orthodentine in Tiger and Blue Sharks; osteodentine in the White Shark). Smaller secondary serrations are found in the Tiger Shark, formed solely by enameloid with no contribution from underlying dentine. Secondary serrations are effectively "serrations within serrations" that allow teeth to cut at different scales. We propose that the cutting edges of Tiger Shark teeth, equipped with serrations at different scales, are linked to a diet that includes large, hard-shelled prey (e.g., sea turtles) as well as smaller, softer prey such as fishes. We discuss other aspects of serration form and function by making analogies to man-made cutting implements, such as knives and saws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.

  17. Long-chain ionic liquid based mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersed solid-phase extraction for the extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xianbo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    A novel mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method based on long-chain ionic liquids for the extraction of five fluorescent whitening agents was established. The factors influenced on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, namely, the pH of sample solution at 8.0, the concentration of long chain ionic liquid at 0.5 mmol/L, the amount of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle at 12 mg, extraction time at 10 min, pH 6.0 of methanol as eluent, and the desorption time at 1 min, satisfactory results were obtained. Wide linear ranges (0.02-10 ng/mL) and good linearity were attained (0.9997-0.9999). The intraday and interday RSDs were 2.1-8.3%. Limits of detection were 0.004-0.01 ng/mL, which were decreased by almost an order of magnitude compared to direct detection without extraction. The present method was applied to extract the fluorescent whitening agents in two kinds of paper samples, obtaining satisfactory results. All showed results illustrated that the detection sensitivity was improved and the proposed method was a good choice for the enriching and monitoring of trace fluorescent whitening agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    PubMed

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (P< 0.05). G1 promoted the highest enamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  19. Something to sink your teeth into: The presence of teeth augments ERPs to mouth expressions.

    PubMed

    daSilva, Elizabeth B; Crager, Kirsten; Geisler, Danika; Newbern, Powell; Orem, Benjamin; Puce, Aina

    2016-02-15

    If the whites of the sclera can impact neural processing of eye expressions (Hardee, Thompson, & Puce, 2008; Whalen et al., 1998), do seen teeth affect neural responses to mouth expressions? Twenty participants (10 females; ages 22-31) viewed avatar mouth images depicting grimaces, smiles and open mouth expressions that were presented with and without teeth. A continuous 256 channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects completed two tasks: an implicit task evaluating stimulus color and an explicit task evaluating mouth expression valence. Event related potential (ERP) peak amplitudes and latencies and area under the curve (AUC) were measured in individual subject averaged ERPs. Statistical testing revealed a main effect of the presence of Teeth for P100, N170, and vertex positive potential (VPP) amplitudes and for slow positive wave (SPW) AUC. Task by teeth interactions occurred for P250 amplitude, underscoring how explicit task demands can influence neural processing. Arousal ratings co-varied with teeth presence, suggesting that low-level visual features such as teeth may drive the saliency of emotional expressions, and lie at the core of differences in neural processing to different emotional expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    PubMed

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  1. Electro therapy facial and laser skin whitening: Clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, D; Manimaran, S; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-01-01

    There are so many beauty salons in Metropolis who provide services to women exclusively [1]. These beauty salons depend mostly on electricity for their services to customers, without it there is no effective means of operation [2]. These beauty salons are definitely leading to women empowerment. The beauty salons are run by the women for women. Since they fall under the category of micro and small enterprises, these salons may avail so many financial and non- financial advantages from the Government of India. They also provide employment opportunities to the women employees. The development of such beauty salons rests on the clients' satisfaction on the provision of their services. Hence it is essential to measure the clients attitude towards the services offered by the beauty salons, especially electro therapy facial, laser skin whitening and laser hair removal treatments, which are coming under micro current treatment as a cosmetic tool.

  2. Whitening Effect of Black Tea Water Extract on Brown Guinea Pig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm2 of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  3. Two Body Wear of Newly Introduced Nanocomposite Teeth and Cross Linked Four Layered Acrylic Teeth: a Comparitive In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ilangkumaran, R; Srinivasan, J; Baburajan, K; Balaji, N

    2014-12-01

    Wear of complete denture teeth results in compromise in denture esthetics and functions. To counteract this problem, artificial teeth with increased wear resistance had been introduced in the market such as nanocomposite teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of wear between nanocomposite teeth and acrylic teeth. Fifteen specimens were chosen from each group namely the nanocomposite teeth (SR_-PHONARES) and the acrylic teeth (ACRY PLUS). Maxillary premolar was only chosen for testing and the samples were customized according to the specifications of the pin on disc machine. Pin on disc machine is a two body tribometer which quantifies the amount of wear under a specific load and time. Test samples were mounted on to the receptacle of the pin on disc machine and tested under a load of 0.3 kg for 1,000 cycles of rotation against a 600 grit emery paper. The amount of wear is displayed from the digital reading obtained from the pin on disc machine. After statistical analysis, it was found that, the amount of wear is more in four layered acrylic teeth. The p value obtained is 0.002 (<0.005) thus implies that the difference in wear between nanocomposite teeth and acrylic teeth is statistically significant. Though the nanocomposite teeth has less amount of wear than the four layered acrylic teeth, the difference is very less and adds only to a little clinical significance but the cost of the nanocomposite is four times that of the acrylic teeth. Further clinical studies must be performed to confirm our results.

  4. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Curado, J. F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.; Mori, M.

    2006-08-01

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a 35Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy.

  5. Classical music and the teeth.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth.

  6. 21 CFR 872.5550 - Teething ring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Teething ring. 872.5550 Section 872.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5550 Teething ring. (a) Identification. A teething ring is a...

  7. Teething myths among community health officers.

    PubMed

    Denloye, O; Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A

    2005-03-01

    Many symptoms are attributed to teething in infants as a result of myths and opinions of people in the community. These myths have given false security with the belief that these symptoms are part of the teething process. The purpose of the study was to investigate the beliefs and practices of Community health Officers about teething. 60% of the respondents whose responses were analyzed believed that children have systemic problems during teething periods. Fever and diarrhea were the most frequent symptoms associated with teething. As health care providers at the community level, there is a need for this cadre of health care providers to separate cultural beliefs from scientific and proven medical practices. This can be achieved by their attendance at regular refresher courses organized for them after their graduation.

  8. Facile synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo, E-mail: baibochina@163.com

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: In thismore » work, novel α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs) were synthesized through a combination of hydrothermal method and calcinations route and achieved excellent removal efficiency for fluorescent whitening Agent-VBL. - Highlights: • The hybrid α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow microspheres (PHCMs) were firstly fabricated. • The formation mechanism of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs microspheres was proposed and verified. • Dithizone played a key role in the synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs composites. • A favorable removal for the fluorescent whitening agent-VBL were achieved.« less

  9. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  10. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Teeth KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Teeth ... may need braces or have other issues. More Dental Problems Dental caries (tooth decay) can attack the ...

  11. Delayed manifestation of bilateral scleral thinning after I-BRITE(®) procedure and review of literature for cosmetic eye-whitening procedures.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Fenzl, Carlton R; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Kramer, Gregory D; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of delayed-onset bilateral scleral thinning and calcium deposition following a cosmetic ocular-whitening procedure (I-BRITE(®)). A 33-year-old male patient with a history of right-sided ptosis repair and left-sided anterior uveitis had previously undergone bilateral I-BRITE treatment for chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Four years after the procedure, the patient was referred to our institution with bilateral scleral thinning and overlying calcific depositions. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1980 through 2014 using the search terms 'cosmetic', 'ocular', 'conjunctivectomy', 'regional conjunctivectomy', 'I-BRITE', 'eye-whitening', 'scleritis', 'necrotizing scleritis', 'anterior uveitis', 'mitomycin C', '5-fluorouracil', and 'bevacizumab', along with associated cross-referencing from relevant articles. Examination of the patient revealed bilateral necrotizing scleritis within the nasal region of both eyes. Calcified plaques were also present within the areas of scleromalacia, along with epithelial defects demonstrated with fluorescein staining. Although evidence of previous intraocular inflammation was apparent within the left eye, there were no active signs of inflammation evident within either eye on initial presentation. Complication rates reported in the literature include: scleral thinning (1.8%), calcific plaque formation (2.9%), fibrovascular proliferation (13%), diplopia (1.2%), elevation of intraocular pressure (4.2%), and recurrence of conjunctival hyperemia (2.1%). Cosmetic ocular whitening procedures have an attendant high complication rate, and have been associated with several adverse postoperative complications, which have in turn generated several reservations regarding the veritable benefit of the procedure. Many postsurgical complications may demonstrate delayed apparition, varying from several months to several years after primary surgical intervention as in the case reported here.

  12. 90Sr specific activity of teeth of abandoned cattle after the Fukushima accident - teeth as an indicator of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    90 Sr specific activity in the teeth of young cattle that were abandoned in Kawauchi village and Okuma town located in the former evacuation areas of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident were measured. Additionally, specific activity in contaminated surface soils sampled from the same area was measured. (1) All cattle teeth examined were contaminated with 90 Sr. The specific activity, however, varied depending on the developmental stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident; teeth that had started development before the accident exhibited comparatively lower values, while teeth developed mainly after the accident showed higher values. (2) Values of 90 Sr-specific activity in teeth formed after the FNPP accident were higher than those of the bulk soil but similar to those in the exchangeable fraction (water and CH 3 COONH 4 soluble fractions) of the soil. The findings suggest that 90 Sr was incorporated into the teeth during the process of development, and that 90 Sr in the soluble and/or leachable fractions of the soil might migrate into teeth and contribute to the amount of 90 Sr in the teeth. Thus, the concentration of 90 Sr in teeth formed after the FNPP accident might reflect the extent of 90 Sr pollution in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of the effect of vital teeth bleaching on the mechanical properties of tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Elfallah, Hunida M; Swain, Michael V

    2013-09-01

    Tooth whitening is considered the easiest and most cost-effective procedure for treating tooth discoloration. Contemporary bleaching agents contain hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient. It is either applied directly or produced from its precursor, carbamide peroxide. A review of the published literature was undertaken to investigate the potential adverse effects of whitening products on dental enamel, with a focus on its mechanical properties and the influence of various parameters on study outcomes. There appear to be considerable differences in opinion as to whether changes in mechanical properties occur as a result of tooth whitening. However, the mechanical property findings of those studies appear to be related to the load applied during the indentation tests. Most studies which used loads higher than 500mN to determine enamel hardness showed no effect of bleaching, whereas those using lower loads were able to detect hardness reduction in the surface layer of enamel. In conclusion, bleaching reduces the hardness of the enamel surface of enamel, and that is more readily detected with instrumented low load testing systems. This hardness reduction may arise due to degradation or denaturation of enamel matrix proteins by the peroxide oxidation.

  14. Effects of toothbrushing with fluoride abrasive and whitening dentifrices on both unbleached and bleached human enamel surface in terms of roughness and hardness: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bolay, Sukran; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Gurgan, Sevil

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness and hardness of both unbleached and bleached (opalescence; 10% carbamide peroxide) human enamel brushed with water (without dentifrice), fluoride abrasive dentifrice (Colgate Total) and whitening dentifrice (Natural White). Human enamel samples were obtained from third molars and randomly divided into five groups (n = 8): G1 - Control (brushed with water without dentifrice), G2 - Colgate Total (fluoride abrasive dentifrice), G3 - Natural White (whitening dentifrice), G4 - Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and then brushed with Colgate Total, G5 - Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and then brushed with Natural White. Bleaching regimen was applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The brushing process was performed with a modified Nyffenegger's brushing machine. Surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Microhardness testing was performed with a Brinell hardness tester. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, one-way ANOVA analysis and Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks tests. There were significant differences in surface roughness values for all groups, which showed an increase in roughness (p < 0.05). When the bleaching treatment combined with brushing with whitening dentifrice was performed (G5), there was a significant decrease in hardness values (p < 0.05). The other groups (G1, G2, G3, G4) showed no significant hardness differences (p > 0.05). It was concluded that toothbrushing procedures increased the enamel surface roughness, and that bleaching regimen performed with cleaning treatment, through brushing with whitening dentifrice decreased hardness values. When applied together, bleaching and cleaning treatments may alter the enamel surface roughness and hardness values.

  15. Study of teeth phosphorescence detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, De-Fang; Wang, Shui-ping; Yang, Zhen-jiang; An, Yuying; Huang, Li-Zi; Liang, Yan

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of research and analysis into optical properties of teeth, this paper introduces the techniques to transform teeth phosphorescence excited by ultraviolet light into electric signals and following steps for data collection, analysis and processing. Also presented are the methods to diagnose pulp-vitality, decayed teeth, and, especially, infant caries and pre-caries diseases. By measurement of a tooth's temperature, other stomatic illnesses can be diagnosed.

  16. Development of cyclic shedding teeth from semi-shedding teeth: the inner dental arcade of the stem osteichthyan Lophosteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Donglei; Blom, Henning; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Märss, Tiiu; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2017-05-01

    The numerous cushion-shaped tooth-bearing plates attributed to the stem group osteichthyan Lophosteus superbus, which are argued here to represent an early form of the osteichthyan inner dental arcade, display a previously unknown and presumably primitive mode of tooth shedding by basal hard tissue resorption. They carry regularly spaced, recumbent, gently recurved teeth arranged in transverse tooth files that diverge towards the lingual margin of the cushion. Three-dimensional reconstruction from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT) reveals remnants of the first-generation teeth embedded in the basal plate, a feature never previously observed in any taxon. These teeth were shed by semi-basal resorption with the periphery of their bases retained as dentine rings. The rings are highly overlapped, which evidences tooth shedding prior to adding the next first-generation tooth at the growing edge of the plate. The first generation of teeth is thus diachronous. Successor teeth at the same sites underwent cyclical replacing and shedding through basal resorption, producing stacks of buried resorption surfaces separated by bone of attachment. The number and spatial arrangement of resorption surfaces elucidates that basal resorption of replacement teeth had taken place at the older tooth sites before the addition of the youngest first-generation teeth at the lingual margin. Thus, the replacement tooth buds cannot have been generated by a single permanent dental lamina at the lingual edge of the tooth cushion, but must have arisen either from successional dental laminae associated with the individual predecessor teeth, or directly from the dental epithelium of these teeth. The virtual histological dissection of these Late Silurian microfossils broadens our understanding of the development of the gnathostome dental systems and the acquisition of the osteichthyan-type of tooth replacement.

  17. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Abutment Teeth with Gingival Discoloration.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana

    2017-04-06

    The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be

  19. Bleachorexia-an addictive behavior to tooth bleaching: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Denzel Kun-Tsung; Kastl, Cameron; Chan, Daniel C N

    2018-05-01

    Bleachorexia, addiction to tooth bleaching, is a behavioral disorder similar to anorexia. The patient feels that their teeth are always not white enough and continues to use whiteners to obtain a "perfect" smile. Such behavior falls under the category of a body dysmorphic disorder and may need medical counseling.

  20. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  1. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and PolaOffice) according to the manufacturer´s instructions. The concentration of carbonate molecules in enamel was measured prior to and during the treatment by means of Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance ( p ≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. At home bleaching agents depicted a decrease in the carbonate molecule. This decrease was statistically significant for the bleaching gel with the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration ( p ≤0,05). In-office whitening agents caused an increase in carbonate, which was significant for all three groups ( p ≤0,05). In-office bleaching gels seem to cause a gain in carbonate of the enamel structure, whilst at-home whitening gels caused a loss in carbonate. Key words: Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, carbonate.

  2. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Background There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Material and Methods Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and PolaOffice) according to the manufacturer´s instructions. The concentration of carbonate molecules in enamel was measured prior to and during the treatment by means of Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance (p≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. Results At home bleaching agents depicted a decrease in the carbonate molecule. This decrease was statistically significant for the bleaching gel with the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration (p≤0,05). In-office whitening agents caused an increase in carbonate, which was significant for all three groups (p≤0,05). Conclusions In-office bleaching gels seem to cause a gain in carbonate of the enamel structure, whilst at-home whitening gels caused a loss in carbonate. Key words:Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, carbonate. PMID:28149472

  3. Characteristics of Teeth: A Review of Size, Shape, Composition, and Appearance of Maxillary Anterior Teeth.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Although digital technologies play an increasingly integral role in dentistry, there remains a need for dental professionals to understand the fundamentals of tooth anatomy, form, occlusion, and color science. In this article, the size, shape, composition, and appearance of maxillary anterior teeth will be discussed from esthetic and functional perspectives. A total of 600 extracted maxillary incisors were studied: 200 each of central incisors, lateral incisors, and cuspids. The purpose of the article is to exhibit and discuss factors that make teeth unique and diverse. Understanding these aspects of teeth aids dental professionals in more effectively creating realistic and highly esthetic restorations for patients.

  4. Forensic identification in teeth with caries.

    PubMed

    Alia-García, Esther; Parra-Pecharromán, David; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana; Mendez, Susy; Royuela, Ana; Gil-Alberdi, Laura; López-Palafox, Juan; Del Campo, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Human teeth are biological structures that resist extreme conditions thus becoming a useful source of DNA for human forensic identification purposes. When it is possible, forensic prefer only non-damaged teeth whereas those with cavities are usually rejected to avoid both external and internal bacterial contamination. Cavities are one of the most prevalent dental pathology and its incidence increases with ageing. The aim of this study was to validate the use of teeth with cavities for forensic identification. A total of 120 individual teeth from unrelated patients (60 healthy and 60 with cavities, respectively) extracted by a dentist as part of the normal process of treatment, were submitted for further analysis. Dental pulp was obtained after tooth fragmentation, complete DNA was extracted and the corresponding human identification profile was obtained by the AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ kit. Cariogenic microbiota was determined by PCR-DGGE with bacterial universal primers and bands were excised, re-amplified and sequenced. From the 120 dental pieces analyzed, a defined genetic profile was obtained in 81 (67.5%) of them, with no statistical differences between the healthy and the cavities-affected teeth. Statistical association between teeth status, DNA content and genetic profiles was not observed. Complex bacterial communities were only detected in the cavities group, being the Streptococcus/Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus genera the most represented. We conclude that teeth with cavities are as valid as healthy dental pieces for forensic human identification. Moreover, the severity of the cariogenic lesion as well as associated bacterial communities seems not to influence the establishment of human dental profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endodontic treatment of developmental anomalies in posterior teeth: treatment of geminated/fused teeth--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tsesis, I; Steinbock, N; Rosenberg, E; Kaufman, A Y

    2003-05-01

    Gemination or fusion is a rare occurrence in the mandibular posterior teeth. Endodontic treatment of these teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. The aim of this article is to describe the problems encountered and the strategy in treating such cases. Two cases of complex endodontic treatment of fused/geminated teeth are presented. The first is an 11-year-old girl with an anomalous 'double' first mandibular molar and premolar diagnosed as having necrotic pulp with chronic apical abscess of endodontic origin; the second is a 16-year-old boy with 'double' second and supernumerary mandibular molars, who was diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Both cases were treated successfully in multiple appointments. The common features and treatment modalities are discussed. Failure to diagnose fused/geminated teeth leads to misdiagnosis and a treatment plan that could cause permanent damage and tooth loss. Generally, there is communication between root canal systems of fused/geminated teeth which should be treated as one entity. Use of magnification is an important aid during treatment.

  6. Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Boushell, Lee W; Ritter, André V; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Smith, Lynn R; Broome, Angela; Leonard, Ralph H

    2012-06-01

      The long-term patient satisfaction and safety of nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) requires further evaluation.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction and identify side effects of NGVB up to 17 years post-treatment.   Thirty-one participants who had completed previous NGVB studies using 10% carbamide peroxide were contacted at least 10 years post-treatment (range 10-17 years, average 12.3 years). Participants reported shade satisfaction (very satisfied [VS], partially satisfied [PS], or not satisfied [NS]) as well as potential complications. Participants had teeth # 6 to 11 examined for tooth vitality, gingival inflammation (Löe's Gingival Index [GI]), and radiographically for external cervical resorption (ECR).   All of the participants had successful lightening of their teeth. Sixty-one percent (19) had not retreated their teeth. Of those who had not retreated their teeth and who responded to the question of whitening satisfaction, 31% (4/13) were VS, 54% (7/13) were PS, and 15% (2/13) were NS with their current shade. Of those who had retreated their teeth, all were VS or PS. Ninety-one percent of the examined teeth had GI = 0 (normal), 7% had GI = 1 (mild inflammation), and 2% had GI = 2 (moderate inflammation). Sixty-nine percent of teeth tested responded to a cold stimulus. Radiographs did not detect ECR or apical lesions. No participant reported having a gingival biopsy post-treatment, and 87% would whiten again.   Patient satisfaction with NGVB may last as long as 12.3 years in average (range 10-17 years) post-treatment. GI and ECR findings were considered within the normal expectations for the sample studied, suggesting minimal clinical post-NGVB side effects up to 17 years. Nightguard vital bleaching provides patient satisfaction with minimal side effects up to 17 years post-treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Satisfaction with Dental Appearance and Attitude toward improving Dental Esthetics among Patients attending a Dental Teaching Center.

    PubMed

    Maghaireh, Ghada A; Alzraikat, Hanan; Taha, Nessrin A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the satisfaction of dental appearance and attitude toward treatments to improve dental esthetics among patients attending a dental teaching center. A questionnaire was used to collect data of four background variables among 450 patients attended a dental teaching center in the city of Irbid in Jordan. The questionnaire enclosed self-reported questions about the appearance of anterior teeth, received esthetic treatment and desired treatment for improving esthetics. Descriptive, multiple logistic regression and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis (p ≤ 0.05). The 450 participants consisted of (66.2%) male and (33.8%) female. Of these, 69.3% were satisfied with their dental appearance and 58.0% with the color of their teeth. Esthetic restorations were the most received treatment (39.8%) and whitening of teeth was the most desired treatment (55.3%). The patients' satisfaction with dental appearance was influenced by teeth color, crowding and receiving whitening (p < 0.05. r = 0.561, r(2) = 0.315). The most desired esthetic treatments influenced by the satisfaction with dental appearance were esthetic restorations and orthodontics (p < 0.05. r = 0.223, r(2) = 0.05). Significantly more female reported having esthetic restorations and orthodontics (p = 0.008, 0.000) and desired to have orthodontic, crowns or veneers and esthetic restorations (p = 0.000, 0.015, 0.028). Satisfaction with dental appearance was affected by teeth color, feeling teeth are crowded, desire for esthetic restorations and orthodontic treatment. A high percentage of patients were not satisfied with the color of their teeth. Recognizing the factors that affect patients' satisfaction with their present dental appearance and attitude toward treatments to improve dental esthetic can guide clinicians to strategies to improve esthetics.

  8. Does erosion progress differently on teeth already presenting clinical signs of erosive tooth wear than on sound teeth? An in vitro pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-07-07

    Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is clinically characterized by a loss of tooth surface, and different enamel depths may have different susceptibility to demineralization. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro pilot study was to assess if the progression of erosive demineralization is faster on teeth already presenting signs of ETW when compared to originally sound teeth. We selected 23 central incisors: 14 were clinically sound (Sound) and 9 presented clinical signs of early erosive tooth wear (ETW-teeth). The teeth were embedded in resin, leaving an uncovered window of native enamel (6.69 ± 2.30 mm(2)) on the incisal half of the labial surface. We measured enamel surface reflection intensity (SRI) initially and after each consecutive erosive challenge (1 % citric acid, total of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 min). Calcium released to the citric acid was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. We observed higher initial SRI values in ETW-teeth than in Sound teeth (p = 0.007). During in vitro erosive demineralization, we observed that erosion on originally Sound teeth progressed significantly slower (p = 0.033) than on ETW-teeth: SRI decreased by 75 % (from 100 to 25 %) on Sound teeth, and by 89 % (from 100 to 11 %) on ETW-teeth. Calcium release increased during erosion, but presented no significant differences (p = 0.643) between originally Sound (0.031 μmol/mm(2)) and ETW-teeth (0.032 μmol/mm(2)). There was satisfactory correlation between calcium release and rSRI values (r s  = -0.66). The optical reflectometer distinguished originally sound teeth from those with signs of ETW, and the results suggest that acid demineralization progresses differently on teeth already presenting clinical signs of ETW than on sound teeth.

  9. Non-syndrome multiple supernumerary teeth in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Umweni, A A; Osunbor, G E N

    2002-09-01

    The present study was carried out to ascertain frequency of multiple supernumerary teeth not associated with syndrome in Nigerians. A total of 13 patients comprising of 10 males (76.92%) and 3 female (23.07%) representing 0.098% of the study population had multiple supernumerary teeth. Multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated systemic diseases or syndrome are rare as reported by BLUMENTHAL (3) RUHLMAN and NEELY (17), KANTOR et al. (10) is not the case in this study. The maxillary region has the highest frequency of occurrence with 12 times (66.67%) followed by the mandibular premolar region with 4 times (22.22%) while maxillary premolar and mandibular anterior region shared (5.55%) respectively. The conical and tuberculate types of supernumerary teeth were found in the midline region, while the supplemental supernumerary teeth were more in the mandibular premolar region with 12 (70.58%) follow by maxillary midline 4 (23.52%) and the lower incisor region 1 (5.88%) which is in consonant with WINTER and BROOK (2), STAFNE (19) NAZIF, FUTALO ZULLO (15). The role of genetics in the aetiology of multiple supernumerary teeth as found in this study, the occurrence of supernumerary teeth on two brothers and a daughter to one of the affected brothers, tends, to suggest an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the challenges to management by the orthodontists are discussed.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of six fluorescent whitening agents in plastic and paper packaging materials by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juzhou; Ji, Shuilin; Cai, Huimei; Li, Jing; Wang, Yongxin; Wang, Jingqiu

    2017-11-08

    A novel analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs:FWA 135, FWA 184, FWA 185, FWA 199, FWA 378 and FWA 393) in paper and plastic food packaging materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The sample was extracted with mixed solution of chloroform and acetonitrile (3:7, v/v), then cleaned up by HLB solid phase extraction column. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by HPLC. The sample was separated on a Phenomenex C18 column using acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution as mobile phases. The results indicated that the linear range of FWA393 was 15-1500 μg/L and the linear ranges of the other five FWAs were 5-500 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The recoveries in spiked samples were between 80.4% and 125.0% with RSDs ( n =6) of 1%-13%. Furthermore, this method was applied to analyze 12 samples in the market to verify the practicality of the method. The method showed the advantages of simplicity, high recovery and good precision, and is suitable for the detection of the six fluorescent whitening agents in food packaging materials.

  11. Amyloidosis presented with whitening and loss of hair which improved after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S D; Yamamoto, R; Saito, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kuzuya, T; Ohba, S; Kobori, S; Saito, K

    1987-08-01

    A 67-year-old male patient presented with rapid progression of whitening and loss of hair in past 2 months was consulted due to the suspicion of hypothyroidism. He had been told to have cardiomegaly for 3 years. Thyroid function was within normal limit. Prostate biopsy was performed because of prostatic hypertrophy and mild elevation of serum acid phosphatase. Amyloid accumulation was observed in the biopsy specimen. Subsequent skin biopsies revealed the same result. The scalp hair and beard grew and turned to black gradually several months after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. These findings suggest that some of the manifestation of amyloidosis may respond to DMSO treatment.

  12. Mouth and Teeth: How To Keep Them Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Share Print Taking good care of your mouth and teeth throughout your whole life can help prevent problems ...

  13. Structure, attachment, replacement and growth of teeth in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1776), a teleost with deeply socketed teeth.

    PubMed

    Bemis, William E; Giuliano, Anne; McGuire, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Tooth replacement poses many questions about development, pattern formation, tooth attachment mechanisms, functional morphology and the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Although most vertebrate species have polyphyodont dentitions, detailed knowledge of tooth structure and replacement is poor for most groups, particularly actinopterygians. We examined the oral dentition of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a pelagic and coastal marine predator, using a sample of 50 individuals. The oral teeth are located on the dentary and premaxillary bones, and we scored each tooth locus in the dentary and premaxillary bones using a four-part functional classification: absent (A), incoming (I), functional (F=fully ankylosed) or eroding (E). The homodont oral teeth of Pomatomus are sharp, deeply socketed and firmly ankylosed to the bone of attachment. Replacement is intraosseus and occurs in alternate tooth loci with long waves of replacement passing from rear to front. The much higher percentage of functional as opposed to eroding teeth suggests that replacement rates are low but that individual teeth are quickly lost once erosion begins. Tooth number increases ontogenetically, ranging from 15-31 dentary teeth and 15-39 premaxillary teeth in the sample studied. Teeth increase in size with every replacement cycle. Remodeling of the attachment bone occurs continuously to accommodate growth. New tooth germs originate from a discontinuous dental lamina and migrate from the lingual (dentary) or labial (premaxillary) epithelium through pores in the bone of attachment into the resorption spaces beneath the existing teeth. Pomatomus shares unique aspects of tooth replacement with barracudas and other scombroids and this supports the interpretation that Pomatomus is more closely related to scombroids than to carangoids.

  14. A Study for Tooth Bleaching via Carbamide Peroxide-Loaded Hollow Calcium Phosphate Spheres.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tao; Mellgren, Torbjörn; Jefferies, Steven; Xia, Wei; Engqvist, Håkan

    2016-12-26

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a prolonged bleaching effect of carbamide peroxide-loaded hollow calcium phosphate spheres (HCPS) can be achieved. HCPS was synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction method. Carbamide peroxide (CP) was-loaded into HCPS by mixing with distilled water as solvent. We developed two bleaching gels containing CP-loaded HCPS: one gel with low HP concentration as at-home bleaching gel, and one with high HP concentration as in-office gel. Their bleaching effects on stained human permanent posterior teeth were investigated by measuring the color difference before and after bleaching. The effect of gels on rhodamine B degradation was also studied. To investigate the potential effect of remineralization of using HCPS, bleached teeth were soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) containing calcium and magnesium ions. Both bleaching gels had a prolonged whitening effect, and showed a strong ability to degrade rhodamine B. After soaking in PBS for 3 days, remineralization was observed at the sites where HCPS attached to the teeth surface. CP-loaded HCPS could prolong the HP release behavior and improve the bleaching effect. HCPS was effective in increasing the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide and improving remineralization after bleaching process.

  15. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  16. A Curriculum Vitae of Teeth: Evolution, Generation, Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koussoulakou, Despina S.; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Koussoulakos, Stauros L.

    2009-01-01

    The ancestor of recent vertebrate teeth was a tooth-like structure on the outer body surface of jawless fishes. Over the course of 500,000,000 years of evolution, many of those structures migrated into the mouth cavity. In addition, the total number of teeth per dentition generally decreased and teeth morphological complexity increased. Teeth form mainly on the jaws within the mouth cavity through mutual, delicate interactions between dental epithelium and oral ectomesenchyme. These interactions involve spatially restricted expression of several, teeth-related genes and the secretion of various transcription and signaling factors. Congenital disturbances in tooth formation, acquired dental diseases and odontogenic tumors affect millions of people and rank human oral pathology as the second most frequent clinical problem. On the basis of substantial experimental evidence and advances in bioengineering, many scientists strongly believe that a deep knowledge of the evolutionary relationships and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of a given tooth in its natural position, in vivo, will be useful in the near future to prevent and treat teeth pathologies and malformations and for in vitro and in vivo teeth tissue regeneration. PMID:19266065

  17. Straight, white teeth as a social prerogative.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Abeer; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    A distinguishing feature of North American society is preoccupation with self-image, as seen in the ritualistic nature of bodily practices aimed at constantly improving the body. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the prevailing fixation with straight, white teeth. While there is an ever-expanding literature on the sociology of body, very little has been written on teeth in this context. Using literature from anthropology, biology, dentistry, sociology and social psychology, this study attempts to answer: (1) Why have straight, white teeth become a beauty ideal in North American society? (2) What is the basis for this ideal? (3) How is this ideal propagated? It demonstrates that dental aesthetic tendencies are biologically, culturally and socially patterned. Concepts from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault are used to illustrate how straight, white teeth contribute towards reinforcing class differences and how society exercises a disciplinary power on individuals through this ideal. It is concluded that modified teeth are linked to self and identity that are rooted in social structure. Moreover, teeth demonstrate the ways in which class differences are embodied and projected as symbols of social advantage or disadvantage. Implications on professional, public health, sociological and political levels are considered. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  18. External root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth and contralateral teeth with vital pulp: A clinical study of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Ju; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research to support the belief that root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing external apical root resorption (EARR). There is conflicting evidence as to whether root-filled teeth are more or less likely to experience EARR after orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of EARR of root-filled teeth with that of contralateral teeth with vital pulp after fixed orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 35 patients aged 25.23 ± 4.92 years who had at least 1 root-filled tooth before orthodontic treatment. Digital panoramic radiographs of each patient taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to measure the EARR. The Student t test for matched pairs and the Pearson correlation analysis were applied. The mean EARR values were 0.22 (0.14, 0.35) for root-filled teeth and 0.87 (0.59, 1.31) for contralateral teeth with vital pulp, indicating significantly less EARR for root-filled teeth compared with the contralateral teeth with vital pulp after orthodontic treatment. EARR was influenced by the patient's age, treatment duration, treatment type, and periapical pathosis, but not by tooth type and sex. Root-filled teeth appear to be associated with significantly less EARR than are contralateral teeth with vital pulp. This study suggests that the possible complication of EARR in root-filled teeth may not be an important consideration in orthodontic treatment planning, and root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing EARR when severe EARR occurs during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Saving Single-rooted Teeth with Combined Endodontic-periodontal Lesions.

    PubMed

    Pico-Blanco, Alexandre; Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Caneiro-Queija, Leticia; Liñares-González, Antonio; Martin-Lancharro, Pablo; Blanco-Carrión, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Teeth affected by combined endodontic-periodontal lesions are usually considered by all prognosis classifications as hopeless teeth. The development of new biomaterials combined with modern endodontic and periodontal regeneration techniques may improve dental prognosis and maintain the affected teeth. Moreover, 1 of the replacement options for those teeth, dental implants, has shown an increasing number of biological and technical complications. Five patients were included in this case series study. Full periodontal and radiographic examination revealed generalized chronic periodontitis. Moreover, endodontic-periodontal lesions affecting single-rooted teeth were detected in those patients with tissue destruction beyond the apex. After splinting those teeth, conventional endodontic and nonsurgical periodontal treatment was performed. Three months later, periodontal regeneration was applied at those teeth in order to reconstruct supporting tissues and to improve dental prognosis. After a follow-up period ranging from 14 months to 17 years, it was observed that all teeth remain asymptomatic and in normal function. No signs of apical pathosis were observed, and the periodontium was stable. All patients were included in a strict maintenance program to check the periodontal and apical status. This case series shows that it is possible to change the prognosis of teeth affected by combined endodontic-periodontal lesions, even if the periodontal support is destroyed beyond the apex. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstratingmore » a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.« less

  2. Targeted traction of impacted teeth with C-tube miniplates.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Lee, Dongjoo; Yang, Dong-Min; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic traction of impacted teeth has typically been performed using full fixed appliance as anchorage against the traction force. This conventional approach can be difficult to apply in the mixed dentition if the partial fixed appliance offers an insufficient anchor unit. In addition, full fixed appliance can induce unwanted movement of adjacent teeth. This clinical report presents 3 cases where impacted teeth were recovered in the mixed or transitional dentition with skeletal anchorage on the opposite arch without full fixed appliance. Instead, intermaxillary traction was used to bring the impacted teeth into position. With this approach, side effects on teeth and periodontal tissues adjacent to the impaction were minimized.

  3. Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases where the grinding and clenching make a child's face and jaw sore or damage the teeth, dentists may prescribe a special night guard. Molded to a child's teeth, the night guard is similar to the ...

  4. Intentional replantation of adhesively reattached vertically fractured maxillary single-rooted teeth.

    PubMed

    Nizam, N; Kaval, M E; Gürlek, Ö; Atila, A; Çalışkan, M K

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of intentionally replanted maxillary single-rooted teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) after being repaired extraorally using 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB) resin cement. Twenty-one root filled maxillary single-rooted teeth with VRFs were evaluated. After atraumatic extraction, fractured fragments were adhesively cemented. The teeth were then replanted and splinted to the neighbouring teeth for 2 weeks. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months, and radiographic evaluations were made using PAI scores at baseline and 12 months. Mobility was evaluated using periotest values (PTV) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Replanted teeth, contralateral teeth (control teeth) and adjacent teeth were analysed statistically using repeated measures one-way anova, unpaired t-tests and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. Two teeth were extracted in the first month after surgery. PI, GI, CAL and PD scores of the replanted teeth were significantly lower at 6 month (P < 0.0001 for all) and 12 month (P < 0.0001 for all) postoperatively when compared to baseline, but the values were not significantly different from those of the control and adjacent teeth. PTV of the test teeth increased significantly (P < 0.0001) after the intervention and decreased to baseline levels by month 12. PTVs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months in the test teeth when compared with the control teeth, but were not significantly different at month 12. PAI scores of teeth with VRF were significantly lower (P < 0.05) at 12 months compared with baseline. Adhesive cementation and intentional replantation were an effective treatment modality for this group of vertically fractured maxillary single-rooted teeth. The clinical periodontal parameters decrease by month 6, and the mobility

  5. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  6. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  7. The epidemiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated molecular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Yu, Fang; Liu, Junjun; Cai, Wenping; Zhao, Yumei; Zhao, Shouliang; Liu, Shangfeng

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Supernumerary teeth are common clinical dental anomalies. Although various studies have provided abundant information regarding genes and signaling pathways involved in tooth morphogenesis, which include Wnt, FGF, BMP, and Shh, the molecular mechanism of tooth formation, especially for supernumerary teeth, is still unclear. In the population, some cases of supernumerary teeth are sporadic, while others are syndrome-related with familial hereditary. The prompt and accurate diagnosis of syndrome related supernumerary teeth is quite important for some distinctive disorders. Mice are the most commonly used model system for investigating supernumerary teeth. The upregulation of Wnt and Shh signaling in the dental epithelium results in the formation of multiple supernumerary teeth in mice. Understanding the molecular mechanism of supernumerary teeth is also a component of understanding tooth formation in general and provides clinical guidance for early diagnosis and treatment in the future. PMID:28598258

  8. Application of solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes of some heavy metal ions to analysis of skin whitening cosmetics using ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Alqadami, Ayoub A; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; AlOthman, Zeid A; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-14

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6-104.4%.

  9. Application of Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes of Some Heavy Metal Ions to Analysis of Skin Whitening Cosmetics Using ICP-AES

    PubMed Central

    ALqadami, Ayoub A.; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; ALOthman, Zeid A.; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6–104.4%. PMID:23343988

  10. Dental Anomalies in Permanent Teeth after Trauma in Primary Dentition.

    PubMed

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Pasini, Stefania; Majorana, Alessandra

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in permanent teeth as a result of a trauma concerning the predecessor primary teeth. A total of 241 records of children (118 males and 123 females, mean age 3.62 ± 1.40) affected by trauma on primary teeth were analyzed. All patients were recalled to evaluate the status of the permanent successor teeth by clinical and radiographic investigations. Out of 241 patients, 106 patients (for a total of 179 traumatized primary teeth) presented at the recall. Dental anomalies on successor permanent teeth were detected in 21 patients (19.8%), for a total of 26 teeth (14.5%) and 28 anomalies. Anomalies of the eruptive process were the most observed disturbances (60.7%), followed by enamel hypoplasia (25%) and white spots (14.3%). A higher percentage of anomalies on permanent teeth was observed when trauma occurred at an age less than 36 months (38.5% of cases). Intrusive and extrusive luxation were related with the most cases of clinical disturbances in the successor permanent teeth. The results of this study highlight the risk of dental anomalies after a trauma in primary dentition, especially in early-aged children and in case of intrusive luxation.

  11. Further Treatments of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population: A Comparison of Teeth Restored with Direct and Indirect Coronal Restorations.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Victoria S; Isberg, Per-Erik; Kvist, Thomas; Fransson, Helena

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of nonsurgical retreatment, root-end surgery, extraction, and further restoration of root-filled teeth in Sweden in 2009 during a follow-up period of 5 years and to compare the outcomes in teeth restored with direct or indirect restorations. Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed, and the frequencies of nonsurgical retreatment, root-end surgery, extractions, and further restoration were calculated for all teeth registered as root filled during 2009. Chi-square tests were applied to detect any significant differences in the frequency of further treatment in teeth registered as restored with either a direct or an indirect restoration within 6 months of root filling. Of the 248,299 teeth reported root filled in Sweden in 2009, nonsurgical retreatment was registered in 2.2%, root-end surgery in 1.0%, and extractions in 9.2% during the follow-up period. Of the teeth restored with a direct restoration within 6 months after the root filling, 30.3% were registered as having undergone at least 1 further direct restoration; the corresponding percentage of teeth with indirect restorations was 6.4%. A statistically significant difference in the frequency of nonsurgical retreatment, extraction, and further restoration was found; teeth restored with an indirect restoration within 6 months of root filling had fewer of these treatments than those restored by direct restoration. Low frequencies of nonsurgical retreatment and root-end surgery were reported 5 years after root filling, whereas extraction was more common. Fewer additional treatment procedures were registered for teeth with indirect restorations than for those with direct restorations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Idiopathic multiple impacted unerupted teeth: Case report and discussion

    PubMed Central

    Sujatha, G; Sivapathasundharam, B; Sivakumar, G; Nalinkumar, S; Ramasamy, M; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple impacted permanent teeth are usually related to syndromes, metabolic and hormonal disorders. However, in some cases, impaction of multiple teeth is not associated with any syndrome. In this report, we present a case of 17-year-old male patient with missing teeth. Radiographs revealed multiple impacted permanent teeth, though medical and family history along with physical examination was not suggestive of any syndromes. If other investigations are negative, an idiopathic case of multiple impacted teeth is suggested to be the possible diagnosis. The objective of this report is to increase awareness of such cases especially in the absence of hereditary/genetic/metabolic factors usually inherent in such scenarios. The patient management in such cases needs to be planned specifically from a multidisciplinary standpoint. PMID:22438652

  13. Dentin hypersensitivity after teeth bleaching with in-office systems. Randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martin, Javier; Fernandez, Eduardo; Bahamondes, Valeria; Werner, Andrea; Elphick, Klaus; Oliveira, Osmir Batista; Moncada, Gustavo

    2013-02-01

    To comparatively and prospectively compare in a randomized clinical trial, dentin hypersensitivity after treatment with three in-office bleaching systems, based on hydrogen peroxide at different concentrations, with and without light source activation. 88 individuals were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were randomly divided into the following three treatment groups: Group 1 was treated with three 15-minute applications of hydrogen peroxide at 15% with titanium dioxide (Lase Peroxide Lite) that was light-activated (Light Plus Whitening Lase) with five cycles of 1 minute and 30 seconds each cycle, giving a total treatment time of 45 minutes; Group 2 was treated with three 10-minute applications of hydrogen peroxide at 35% (Lase Peroxide Sensy), activated by light (LPWL) same activation cycles than Group 1, with a total treatment time of 30 minutes; Group 3 was treated with only one application for 45 minutes of hydrogen peroxide at 35% (Whitegold Office) without light activation. Each subject underwent one session of bleaching on the anterior teeth according to the manufacturers' instructions. Dentin sensitivity was recorded with a visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, immediately after, and at 7 and 30 days after treatment using a stimulus of an evaporative blowing triple syringe for 3 seconds on the upper central incisors from a distance of 1 cm. A Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test was performed for statistical analysis. All groups showed increased sensitivity immediately after treatment. Group 1 displayed less changes relative to baseline with no significant differences (P = 0.104). At 7 and 30 days after treatment, a comparison of VAS values indicated no significant differences between all groups (P = 0.598 and 0.489, respectively).

  14. An overlay partial denture to restore worn mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Samant, Asha; DeSciscio, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Restoring worn anterior mandibular teeth is a challenge, especially when teeth are small, esthetics are a concern, the long-term prognosis is questionable, and/or patient finances are an issue. This article describes an alternate treatment for a patient with a collapsed bite, missing posterior mandibular teeth, an ill-fitting complete maxillary denture with poor esthetics, and irregular, worn mandibular anterior teeth.

  15. Automatic quantification framework to detect cracks in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hina; Hernandez, Pablo; Budin, Francois; Chittajallu, Deepak; Vimort, Jean-Baptiste; Walters, Rick; Mol, André; Khan, Asma; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Studies show that cracked teeth are the third most common cause for tooth loss in industrialized countries. If detected early and accurately, patients can retain their teeth for a longer time. Most cracks are not detected early because of the discontinuous symptoms and lack of good diagnostic tools. Currently used imaging modalities like Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and intraoral radiography often have low sensitivity and do not show cracks clearly. This paper introduces a novel method that can detect, quantify, and localize cracks automatically in high resolution CBCT (hr-CBCT) scans of teeth using steerable wavelets and learning methods. These initial results were created using hr-CBCT scans of a set of healthy teeth and of teeth with simulated longitudinal cracks. The cracks were simulated using multiple orientations. The crack detection was trained on the most significant wavelet coefficients at each scale using a bagged classifier of Support Vector Machines. Our results show high discriminative specificity and sensitivity of this method. The framework aims to be automatic, reproducible, and open-source. Future work will focus on the clinical validation of the proposed techniques on different types of cracks ex-vivo. We believe that this work will ultimately lead to improved tracking and detection of cracks allowing for longer lasting healthy teeth. PMID:29769755

  16. Teeth: Among Nature's Most Durable Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawn, Brian R.; Lee, James J.-W.; Chai, Herzl

    2010-08-01

    This paper addresses the durability of natural teeth from a materials perspective. Teeth are depicted as smart biocomposites, highly resistant to cumulative deformation and fracture. Favorable morphological features of teeth at both macroscopic and microscopic levels contribute to an innate damage tolerance. Damage modes are activated readily within the brittle enamel coat but are contained from spreading catastrophically into the vulnerable tooth interior in sustained occlusal loading. Although tooth enamel contains a multitude of microstructural defects that can act as sources of fracture, substantial overloads are required to drive any developing cracks to ultimate failure—nature's strategy is to contain damage rather than avoid it. Tests on model glass-shell systems simulating the basic elements of the tooth enamel/dentin layer structure help to identify important damage modes. Fracture and deformation mechanics provide a basis for analyzing critical conditions for each mode, in terms of characteristic tooth dimensions and materials properties. Comparative tests on extracted human and animal teeth confirm the validity of the model test approach and point to new research directions. Implications in biomechanics, especially as they relate to dentistry and anthropology, are outlined.

  17. Riga-Fede disease and neonatal teeth.

    PubMed

    Costacurta, M; Maturo, P; Docimo, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns. A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth. The extraction of neonatal teeth was selected as treatment of choice, over more conservative treatments, for the rapid resolution of the lesion and for the limited risk of inadequate nutrients intake. The extracted teeth underwent a macroscopic/microscopic examination. The complete healing of the lesion took 4 weeks; subsequently, the infant, revised at the 1-year follow-up visit. Early detection of RFD is recommended because such lesions properly may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant and growth retardation.

  18. Three-body wear of resin denture teeth with and without nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Stober, Thomas; Henninger, Moritz; Schmitter, Marc; Pritsch, Maria; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The wear behavior of newly developed denture teeth with nanofillers may be different from teeth with other chemical formulations. The purpose of this study was to examine the 3-body wear resistance of 11 different commercially available resin denture teeth. The materials tested were conventional (SR Orthotyp PE, Orthognath) and cross-linked acrylic resin teeth without inorganic fillers (Premium 8, SR Postaris DCL, Trubyte Portrait, Artiplus), composite resin teeth with inorganic fillers (SR Orthosit PE, Vitapan), and composite resin teeth (experimental materials) with inorganic nanofillers (NC Veracia Posterior, e-Ha, Mondial). Human enamel and a ceramic denture tooth (Lumin Vacuum) were used as reference materials. The 3-body wear test was performed in a wear machine developed by the Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), with millet suspension acting as an abrasive medium (n=10, test load: 15 N, slip rate: 20%, number of cycles: 100,000). Wear was determined with the aid of a profilometer. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test using the closed testing approach (significance level for familywise error rate, alpha=.05). None of the acrylic and composite resin materials tested in this study demonstrated the 3-body wear resistance of ceramic teeth or human enamel. Teeth with inorganic fillers demonstrated significantly lower wear values than conventional or cross-linked acrylic resin teeth without fillers. Composite resin teeth with traditional fillers showed significantly lower wear than composite resin teeth with nanofillers. Denture teeth with and without inorganic fillers differed significantly with regard to the degree of wear generated in the ACTA wear simulator. The incorporation of nanofillers did not improve the wear resistance compared to teeth with traditional fillers.

  19. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  4. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  5. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH FOR ENDODONTIC TEACHING

    PubMed Central

    Nassri, Maria Renata Giazzi; Carlik, Jaime; da Silva, Camila Roberta Nepomuceno; Okagawa, Renata Elisa; Lin, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching. A questionnaire was prepared and submitted to 18 professors of Endodontics from different Brazilian universities to evaluate the following features of five cloudy resin artificial teeth: internal and external anatomy; coronal chambers regarding their size, shape and canal path; root canal regarding their size, shape and position; fulfillment of the pulp chamber and root canals by considering the texture, quantity, color, and ease of handling; resin hardness and visualization of the radiographic image. The results presented favorable opinions, in terms of internal and external anatomy, coronal pulp chambers and root canal and handling and radiographic imaging. The contents of the pulp space and hardness of the teeth were considered satisfactory. The average grade assigned to the artificial tooth quality was 8.4, in a 0-10 scale. In conclusion, the artificial teeth have potential to replace the natural teeth in endodontic teaching; however, improvements are still necessary to reach a better quality model. PMID:19089288

  6. Critical analysis of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching.

    PubMed

    Nassri, Maria Renata Giazzi; Carlik, Jaime; da Silva, Camila Roberta Nepomuceno; Okagawa, Renata Elisa; Lin, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of artificial teeth for endodontic teaching. A questionnaire was prepared and submitted to 18 professors of Endodontics from different Brazilian universities to evaluate the following features of five cloudy resin artificial teeth: internal and external anatomy; coronal chambers regarding their size, shape and canal path; root canal regarding their size, shape and position; fulfillment of the pulp chamber and root canals by considering the texture, quantity, color, and ease of handling; resin hardness and visualization of the radiographic image. The results presented favorable opinions, in terms of internal and external anatomy, coronal pulp chambers and root canal and handling and radiographic imaging. The contents of the pulp space and hardness of the teeth were considered satisfactory. The average grade assigned to the artificial tooth quality was 8.4, in a 0-10 scale. In conclusion, the artificial teeth have potential to replace the natural teeth in endodontic teaching; however, improvements are still necessary to reach a better quality model.

  7. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Carreras, J M; Amarilla, A; Solano, E; Velasco-Ortega, E; Rodríguez-Varo, L; Segura-Egea, J J

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 77 patients, with a mean age of 32.7 +/- 10.7 years, who had one root filled tooth before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the root filled tooth and that in its contralateral tooth with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, anova and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. The mean PRR was 1.00 +/- 0.13, indicating that, in the total sample, there were no significant differences in root resorption in the root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that PRR was significantly greater in incisors (P = 0.0014; odds ratio = 6.2885, C.I. 95% = 2.0-19.4), compared to other teeth, and in women (P = 0.0255; odds ratio = 4.2, C.I. 95% = 1.2-14.6), compared to men. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  8. Rugometric and microtopographic inspection of teeth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Pereira, Pedro B.

    2013-06-01

    The roughness of teeth' enamel is an important parameter in orthodontics. One example is the application in the process of decreasing tooth-size by reducing the interproximal enamel surfaces (stripping) of teeth. In order to achieve smooth surfaces clinicians have been testing various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic technique. The evaluation the surface roughness following teeth interproximal reduction is fundamental in the process. In general tooth' surface is not flat presenting a variety of complex geometries. In this communication we will report on the metrological procedure employed on the rugometric and microtopographic inspection by optical active triangulation of raw and processed (interproximal stripping) tooth surfaces.

  9. Demineralization-remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone.

    PubMed

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Aljabo, Anas; Strange, Adam; Ibrahim, Salwa; Coathup, Melanie; Young, Anne M; Bozec, Laurent; Mudera, Vivek

    Biomineralization is a dynamic, complex, lifelong process by which living organisms control precipitations of inorganic nanocrystals within organic matrices to form unique hybrid biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Understanding the process of mineral deposition is important for the development of treatments for mineralization-related diseases and also for the innovation and development of scaffolds. This review provides a thorough overview of the up-to-date information on the theories describing the possible mechanisms and the factors implicated as agonists and antagonists of mineralization. Then, the role of calcium and phosphate ions in the maintenance of teeth and bone health is described. Throughout the life, teeth and bone are at risk of demineralization, with particular emphasis on teeth, due to their anatomical arrangement and location. Teeth are exposed to food, drink, and the microbiota of the mouth; therefore, they have developed a high resistance to localized demineralization that is unmatched by bone. The mechanisms by which demineralization-remineralization process occurs in both teeth and bone and the new therapies/technologies that reverse demineralization or boost remineralization are also scrupulously discussed. Technologies discussed include composites with nano- and micron-sized inorganic minerals that can mimic mechanical properties of the tooth and bone in addition to promoting more natural repair of surrounding tissues. Turning these new technologies to products and practices would improve health care worldwide.

  10. Demineralization–remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone

    PubMed Central

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Aljabo, Anas; Strange, Adam; Ibrahim, Salwa; Coathup, Melanie; Young, Anne M; Bozec, Laurent; Mudera, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralization is a dynamic, complex, lifelong process by which living organisms control precipitations of inorganic nanocrystals within organic matrices to form unique hybrid biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Understanding the process of mineral deposition is important for the development of treatments for mineralization-related diseases and also for the innovation and development of scaffolds. This review provides a thorough overview of the up-to-date information on the theories describing the possible mechanisms and the factors implicated as agonists and antagonists of mineralization. Then, the role of calcium and phosphate ions in the maintenance of teeth and bone health is described. Throughout the life, teeth and bone are at risk of demineralization, with particular emphasis on teeth, due to their anatomical arrangement and location. Teeth are exposed to food, drink, and the microbiota of the mouth; therefore, they have developed a high resistance to localized demineralization that is unmatched by bone. The mechanisms by which demineralization–remineralization process occurs in both teeth and bone and the new therapies/technologies that reverse demineralization or boost remineralization are also scrupulously discussed. Technologies discussed include composites with nano- and micron-sized inorganic minerals that can mimic mechanical properties of the tooth and bone in addition to promoting more natural repair of surrounding tissues. Turning these new technologies to products and practices would improve health care worldwide. PMID:27695330

  11. Sexual dimorphism in teeth? Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Hopfenmüller, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Many morphometric studies show a sexual dimorphism in human teeth. We wanted to know whether it is possible to determine the sex of an individual if only the anterior teeth are visible. Fifty intraoral photographs showing the front tooth region of female and male individuals (age: from 7 to 75 years) were randomly arranged in actual size on a questionnaire. The lip region was covered in each case. Besides "female" and "male", one was also able to check "?" if undecided. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 expert test persons (dentists, dental technicians, dental assistants, and students of dental medicine) and to 50 laymen and were all returned for evaluation. Although the correct sex was recognized on single photographs to a maximum of 76%, it was incorrect in 69% on other photographs. Altogether, the statistical evaluation showed that in most cases, the sex was only recognized correctly by one half, and incorrect by the other half. It can be concluded that a sexual dimorphism of human teeth-although measurable morphometrically-could not be recognized visually on the basis of photographs of the front tooth region. Neither experts in the field of dentistry nor laymen were able to properly distinguish between male and female teeth.

  12. Analysis of factors associated with cracked teeth.

    PubMed

    Seo, Deog-Gyu; Yi, Young-Ah; Shin, Su-Jung; Park, Jeong-Won

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics, distribution, and associated factors of longitudinal fractured teeth according to the well-defined criteria of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE). One hundred seven teeth with longitudinal fracture from 103 patients were diagnosed and analyzed. The patients' signs, symptoms, age, and sex were noted as well as the tooth number, dental arch, filling materials, size/classification of restoration, crack direction, pulp vitality, whether the patient had undergone endodontic treatment, bite test results, percussion test results, wear facet, and periodontal pocket depth. Eighty-seven teeth were diagnosed with a cracked tooth (81.3%), 14 were diagnosed with vertical root fracture (VRF, 13.1%), 4 had a split tooth (3.7%), and 2 had a fractured cusp (1.9%); 82.2% showed a sensitive reaction on the bite test. Longitudinal tooth fractures were observed most frequently in patient in their 40s. The upper first molar (28.0%) was most frequently cracked, followed by the lower first molar (25.2%), the lower second molar (20.6%), and the upper second molar (16.8%). Most longitudinal tooth fractures (72.0%) occurred mainly in restored teeth, whereas only 28.0% were found in intact teeth. Compared with resin (4.7%) or porcelain (0.9%), the use of nonbonded inlay restoration materials such as gold (20.5%) or amalgam (18.7%) increased the occurrence of longitudinal tooth fractures. Out of 107 of longitudinal fractured teeth, 33 (30.8%) were treated endodontically and 74 (69.2%) were not. VRF was associated with endodontic treatment. The bite test is most reliable for reproducing symptoms. The combined use of various examination methods is recommended for detecting cracks and minutely inspecting all directions of a tooth. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xue-Qing; Gong, Yu; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhong-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper.

  14. Pulp calcification in traumatized primary teeth: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Mello-Moura, A C V; Bonini, G A V C; Zardetto, C G D C; Rodrigues, C R M D; Wanderley, M T

    2011-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of pulp calcifications in 946 patients at the Research and Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth. The clinical and radiographic records of l675 traumatized primary teeth were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and univariate logistic regression. 197 (20.8%) patients showed pulp calcification (PC). A total of 250 (14.9%) calcified teeth were observed In most teeth, PC appeared within the first 12 months following trauma. PC prevalence was higher in cases of repeated trauma (29.6%) than in single trauma (16.4%), p < 0.05, with a 2.14 chance of showing pulp calcification when a child suffered recurrent trauma. Most teeth showing calcified pulp, suffered trauma to the supportive tissue (67.4%), being statistically significant in relation to the trauma to dental tissue (p < 0.05). PC is a sequelae in cases of trauma to the primary dentition; teeth that suffered recurrent traumatic injuries show higher risk of presenting.

  15. In Vitro Wear Resistance of Nano-Hybrid Composite Denture Teeth.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Nabeel; Rosenblum, Marc; Jiang, Shuying; Flinton, Robert

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the wear resistance of nano-hybrid composite denture teeth as compared to two commonly used denture teeth: interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) and double crosslinking polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture teeth. 18 styli and 18 disk specimens were prepared from the three denture tooth materials: nano-hybrid composite, IPN, and double crosslinking PMMA. The specimens were mounted in a two-body wear testing machine to simulate chewing in the complete denture. The amount of wear from the styli specimens were measured before and after using a digital micrometer, and the depth of the wear track from the disk specimens was measured using a noncontact 3D optical profilometer. The total wear from each denture tooth group was compared using one-way ANOVA with a 0.05 significance level. A Tukey post hoc test was used to determine differences between the three groups. The mean total wear in the nano-hybrid composite teeth group was 1.16 mm, SD = 0.5 mm, statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001) than the IPN (mean = 0.13 mm, SD = 0.05) and double crosslinking PMMA tooth groups (mean = 0.31 mm, SD = 0.19). There was no statistically significant difference between IPN denture teeth and double crosslinking PMMA denture teeth in the amount of wear. Nano-hybrid composite denture teeth exhibited statistically significantly more wear than the IPN and double crosslinking PMMA denture teeth. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  17. Initiation of teeth from the dental lamina in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Maria; Crespo Yanez, Xenia; Thesleff, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is characterized by formation of primary teeth that belong to different tooth classes and are later replaced by a single set of permanent teeth. The first primary teeth are initiated from the primary dental lamina, and the replacement teeth from the successional dental lamina at the lingual side of the primary teeth. An interdental lamina connects the primary tooth germs together. Most mammalian tooth development research is done on mouse, which does not have teeth in all tooth classes, does not replace its teeth, and does not develop an interdental lamina. We have used the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) as a model animal to elucidate the morphological changes and gene expression during the development of the interdental lamina and the initiation of primary teeth. In addition we have analyzed cell-cell signaling taking place in the interdental lamina as well as in the successional lamina during tooth replacement. By 3D reconstructions of serial histological sections we observed that the morphogenesis of the interdental lamina and the primary teeth are intimately linked. Expression of Pitx2 and Foxi3 in the interdental lamina indicates that it has odontogenic identity, and there is active signaling taking place in the interdental lamina. Bmp4 is coexpressed with the stem cell factor Sox2 at its lingual aspect suggesting that the interdental lamina may retain competence for tooth initiation. We show that when tooth replacement is initiated there is Wnt pathway activity in the budding successional lamina and adjacent mesenchyme but no active Fgf or Eda signaling. Genes associated with human tooth replacement phenotypes, including Runx2 and Il11rα, are mostly expressed in the mesenchyme around the successional lamina in the ferret. Our results highlight the importance of the dental lamina in the mammalian tooth development during the initiation of both primary and replacement teeth. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Differentiation

  18. The history of Latin teeth names.

    PubMed

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  19. Shaping Cutter Original Profile for Fine-module Ratchet Teeth Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2018-03-01

    The methods for determining geometric characteristics of a theoretical original profile of the cutter for cutting ratchet teeth with a module of 0.3–1.0 mm are considered in the article. Design models describing the shaping process of cutting edges of cutter teeth are developed. Systems of expressions for determining coordinates of the points of front and back edges of cutter teeth; the workpiece angles of rotation during the cutting process; the minimum cutter radius are received. The basic data when using the proposed technique are: radii of circumferences passing through cavities of cutter teeth and external cut teeth; the gradient angle and length of straight section of the front edge of a cut tooth; angles of rotation of the cutter and the workpiece at the moment of shaping.

  20. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01 ). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01 ). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*,b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  1. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*, b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  2. Estimation of age from teeth by amino acid racemization: influence of fixative.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, S; Ohhira, H; Watanabe, A; Ogasawara, A; Sugimoto, H

    1997-01-01

    To determine the age of a subject from teeth accurately utilizing the racemization rates of amino acids, standard samples of the same tooth species from the same jaw are necessary as controls, as well as data for identification. However, standard teeth are generally stored in fixatives such as ethanol and formalin. We investigated and compared the degree of progression of racemization of dentinal aspartic acid in teeth stored in 95% ethanol, 10% formalin, or 10% neutral formalin fixatives. The racemization rate of dentinal aspartic acid in teeth stored in 10% neutral formalin was the highest, followed by that for teeth stored in 10% formalin then that for teeth stored in 95% ethanol. Teeth stored in these fixatives at 15 degrees C showed almost no progression of racemization. The racemization ratio (D/L ratio) in teeth extracted 10 years previously was almost unchanged from that at the time of extraction, and allowed an accurate evaluation of the subjects age at tooth extraction.

  3. Replantation of 45 avulsed permanent teeth: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, Vivianne; von Arx, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    Thirty-four patients with 45 avulsed and replanted permanent teeth were followed for 1 year. All teeth were soaked in tetracycline before replantation. In addition, enamel matrix derivative was used in teeth with dry storage times exceeding 30 min. Splinting was carried out with a non-rigid titanium splint and was limited to 7-10 days. Within that period, root canal treatment was begun in all teeth with a closed apex, whereas teeth with an open apex and ideal post-traumatic storage were not instrumented. All patients were given tetracycline systematically for 10 days. The survival rate of replanted avulsed permanent teeth was 95.6% at the 1-year follow-up. In 82.2%, root canal treatment was performed. Pulp survival was never observed, but three teeth had pulp canal obliteration. Normal periodontal healing was observed in 57.7% of teeth; 42.3% of teeth showed external root resorption (28.9% replacement resorption, 6.7% infection-related resorption, 6.7% surface resorption). The occurrence of replacement resorption correlated with the period of extraoral dry storage. Compared with other clinical studies on avulsed and replanted teeth, the present study reports a higher percentage of periodontal healing. The favorable treatment outcome may be associated with a strict protocol to enforce endodontic treatment, the use of topical and systemic tetracycline, and the relatively high number of ideally stored teeth following avulsion. In contrast, the present study has a follow-up period limited to 1 year.

  4. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth - A review.

    PubMed

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti S; John, Sheen A; Harris, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the "gold-standard" over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel-titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  5. The giant keyhole limpet radular teeth: A naturally-grown harvest machine

    PubMed Central

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Kapun, Gregor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The limpet radula is a feeding organ, which contains more than 100 rows of teeth. During their growth the teeth mature and advance in position along the radula. The simpler doccoglossan radulae operate by grinding rocky substrates, extracting the algae by rasping and scraping with the teeth functioning as shovels. Less is known about the rhipidoglossan radulae, used as rakes or brooms that brush and collect loose marine debris. This type of radula is found in the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata). The large size of this organism suggests that the rhipidoglossan radula entails a technological superiority for M. crenulata in its habitat. The structure and function of the radulae teeth have however not been reported in detail. Using a combination of 2D and 3D microscopy techniques coupled with amino acid analysis and X-ray scattering, we reveal the working components of M. crenulata’s radula. It is characterized by numerous marginal teeth surrounding a pair of major hook-like lateral teeth, two pairs of minor lateral teeth and a large central tooth. The mature major lateral teeth show pronounced signs of wear, which gradually increase towards the very front end of the radula and are evidence for scraping. An abrupt change in the amino acid composition in the major lateral teeth and the concurrent formation of a chitinous fiber-network mark the onset of tooth maturation. In comparison to the simpler rock-scraping doccoglossate limpets, the radula of M. crenulata forms an elaborate feeding apparatus, which can be seen as a natural harvest machine. PMID:26433029

  6. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  7. Titanium dioxide in dental enamel as a trace element and its variation with bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Sedó, Randall; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Background Titanium is a less studied trace element in dental enamel. Literature relates an increased Titanium concentration with a decreased enamel crystal domain size, which in turn is related to a higher color value. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of tooth bleaching agents on its concentration in dental enamel by means of confocal Raman spectroscopy. Material and Methods Human teeth were randomly distributed in six experimental groups (n=10) and submitted to different bleaching protocols according to the manufacturer´s instructions. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was carried out in order to identify and quantify the presence of titanium dioxide molecules in enamel prior to and during whitening. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance (p≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. Results Titanium dioxide concentration was negatively affected by the longer bleaching protocols (at-home bleaching gels). All in-office whitening products increased significantly the studied molecule (p≤0,05). Conclusions All dental specimens depicted the presence of titanium dioxide as a trace element in dental enamel. Bleaching gels that have to be applied at higher concentrations but for shorter periods of time increase the concentration of titanium dioxide, whilst at-home whitening gels used for longer periods of time despite the lower concentration caused a loss in titanium. Key words:Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, titanium dioxide. PMID:29930771

  8. Titanium dioxide in dental enamel as a trace element and its variation with bleaching.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Durán-Sedó, Randall; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2018-06-01

    Titanium is a less studied trace element in dental enamel. Literature relates an increased Titanium concentration with a decreased enamel crystal domain size, which in turn is related to a higher color value. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of tooth bleaching agents on its concentration in dental enamel by means of confocal Raman spectroscopy. Human teeth were randomly distributed in six experimental groups (n=10) and submitted to different bleaching protocols according to the manufacturer´s instructions. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was carried out in order to identify and quantify the presence of titanium dioxide molecules in enamel prior to and during whitening. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance ( p ≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. Titanium dioxide concentration was negatively affected by the longer bleaching protocols (at-home bleaching gels). All in-office whitening products increased significantly the studied molecule ( p ≤0,05). All dental specimens depicted the presence of titanium dioxide as a trace element in dental enamel. Bleaching gels that have to be applied at higher concentrations but for shorter periods of time increase the concentration of titanium dioxide, whilst at-home whitening gels used for longer periods of time despite the lower concentration caused a loss in titanium. Key words: Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, titanium dioxide.

  9. [The statistical analysis for the use of the 55,787 finished resin teeth].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-hong; Yu, Hai-yang; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ling; Xiao, Zhi-li

    2010-08-01

    To analyze the use situation of finished resin teeth for the different location, and to provide reference for manufacturers of finished resin teeth and all the buyers. To analyze the use situation of finished resin teeth in the Dental Laboratory of the Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology of Chongqing Medical University from January 2006 to December 2008 by using statistic methods. During the use of 55,787 finished resin teeth, the study found some rules. (1) The top use of finished resin teeth was D6 with the percentage of 5.31%, and the lowest use of finished resin teeth was D3 with the percentage of 1.94%. (2) Except the maxillary canines and the mandibular lateral incisors, there was no significant difference between the usage of other same name finished resin teeth (P > 0.05). (3) Among all finished resin teeth, the usage of section B exceeded section A, and the usage of maxillary finished resin teeth exceeded mandibular finished resin teeth (P < 0.05). (4) The use of the complete denture and single complete denture was about 1/3 of the total usage of finished resin teeth. (5) Except the use situation of complete denture and single complete denture, the frequency of simultaneously using mandibular left and right central incisors was the most with the percentage of 81.46%, for the frequency of simultaneously using maxillary left and right canines was 43.26% of the total, which was the lowest. There is significant difference in the use frequency of finished resin teeth for different location. For such reason, the manufacturers should produce finished resin teeth pro rata as well as the buyers for their purchase.

  10. Kinetic release of hydrogen peroxide from different whitening products.

    PubMed

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; Silveira, Joao Miguel; Marques, Joana Rita; Amaral, Joao Almeida; Guilherme, Nuno Marques; da Mata, António Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (HP) release from five different bleaching products: VivaStyle® 10% fitted tray gel, VivaStyle® 30% in-office bleaching gel, VivaStyle® Paint-On Plus paint-on bleaching varnish, Opalescence PF® 10% carbamide peroxide gel and Trèswhite Supreme™ 10% HP gel. Each product was firstly titrated for its HP content by a described method. HP release kinetics was assessed by a modified spectrophotometric technique. One sample t test was performed to test for differences between the manufacturers' claimed HP concentrations and the titrated HP content in the whitening products. Analysis of variance plus Tamhane's post hoc tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used as appropriate. Values of P < 0.05 were taken as significant. Titrated HP revealed an increased content when compared to the manufacturer's specifications for all the products tested (P < 0.05), although only products from one manufacturer produced significantly higher results. All products presented a significant (P < 0.05) and sustained release of HP. However, the product with paint-on cellulose-based matrix resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) faster kinetics when compared to other products tested. These results are consistent with manufacturers' reduced recommended application times. The results of this study suggest that modifying the matrix composition may be a viable alternative to HP concentration increase, since this may result in faster release kinetics without exposure to high HP concentrations.

  11. Demystifying the Mysteries: Sexual Dimorphism in Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akshara; Bhatia, Hind Pal; Sood, Shveta; Sharma, Naresh

    2017-04-01

    One of the critical steps in the process of identification is the sex determination of an unknown individual. Many studies have shown that sex can be determined using the human skeleton, especially by examining the pelvis and skull. Odontometric analysis of the human sexual variation has been less investigated, especially of primary dentition. To verify the presence of sexual dimorphism in primary teeth of local population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. The research was performed on dental casts of 500 children (250 boys and 250 girls, age range 3-5 years). Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of maxillary and mandibular primary teeth were measured with a digital Vernier's caliper and were analysed for sexual dimorphism. Mann-Whitney-U test was used to check the statistical significance of difference in tooth dimensions among boys and girls. Differences were found in the mean values of mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of primary teeth, in which boys generally had larger crown diameters than girls. Primary teeth may be used as an additional tool for sex identification of juvenile skeletons where other dimorphic features are not much developed.

  12. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Parente, S A; Anderson, R W; Herman, W W; Kimbrough, W F; Weller, R N

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection (IOI) of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine using the Stabident device, after conventional anesthetic methods had failed. Patients who experienced pain during endodontic access and required a supplemental IOI using 0.45 to 0.90 ml of the local anesthetic were identified. All 37 of the patients treated had teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty-four of the teeth were mandibular posterior teeth, 2 were maxillary posterior teeth, and 1 was a maxillary anterior tooth. Patients with maxillary teeth had received infiltration anesthesia, and those with mandibular teeth had received an inferior alveolar nerve block in conjunction with long buccal infiltration. A minimum of 3.6 ml of local anesthetic was used with the conventional techniques. Modified visual analogue scales, coupled with operator evaluations, were used to measure success. The Stabident IOI was an effective supplemental anesthetic technique in 89% (+/- 5.1) or 33/37 patients evaluated. The 95% confidence interval was 74 to 97%. The IOI was successful in 91% (+/- 4.9) of the mandibular posterior teeth (31/34), and 67% of the maxillary teeth (2/3).

  13. Color stability of different denture teeth materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Sagesen, L; Ergün, G; Ozkan, Y; Bek, B

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the color stability of commercially available porcelain, reinforced acrylic, and conventional acrylic denture teeth materials used in removable prostheses. Two brands of porcelain (Unilux-Enta Lactona-Holland and Vivoperl-Ivoclar-Liechtenstein), 2 brands of reinforced acrylic (Optodent-Bayer-Germany and Ivolek-Ivoclar-Liechtenstein), and 2 brands of conventional acrylic (Isodent-Güney Diş Deposu-Turkey and Samed-Turkey), were made, for a total of 6 different denture teeth groups. Denture teeth were subjected to 3 staining solutions (filtered coffee, tea, and cola) and distilled water. From each group of denture teeth, 4 sets of maxillary anterior denture teeth were immersed in each of the 4 solutions. The color values of denture teeth were measured colorimetrically with the Gardner XL 20 Tristimulus Colorimeter (Gardner Lab. Inc., Bethesda, Maryland, USA). Color changes were characterized in the CIEL*a*b* color space. Color change values were determined after 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. The color difference values were calculated and then evaluated by two-way ANOVA statistically. The filtered coffee solution was found to be more chromogenic than the other 2 staining solutions, while porcelain denture teeth materials were more color stable. Assuming the color change of deltaE* < 1.0 as a discernible limit and deltaE* = 3.3 as an acceptable value, the filtered coffee, tea, and cola had slight staining effects on all 6 groups of denture teeth.

  14. In vitro investigation of heat transfer phenomenon in human immature teeth.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  15. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Rao, Jitendra; Yadav, Lakhya; Hasija, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth in the absence of associated systemic condition or syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth need to have periodical radiographic observation. In the case of asymptomatic condition, as they impacted in the jaw, a careful examination is necessary because they may develop into pathological status such as dentigerous cysts. Surgical removal of such teeth is indicated if evidence of any pathologies, such as cystic lesion, resorption, delayed eruption, altered eruption and displacement of adjacent teeth, is evident or have occurred. PMID:23704431

  16. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  17. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  18. New method of control of tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Gisbrecht, A.; Valkanov, S.; Uzunov, Tz.

    2010-10-01

    New methods of control of tooth bleaching stages through simultaneous measurements of a reflected light and a fluorescence signal are proposed. It is shown that the bleaching process leads to significant changes in the intensity of a scattered signal and also in the shape and intensity of the fluorescence spectra. Experimental data illustrate that the bleaching process causes essential changes in the teeth discoloration in short time as 8-10 min from the beginning of the application procedure. The continuation of the treatment is not necessary moreover the probability of the enamel destroy increases considerably. The proposed optical back control of tooth surface is a base for development of a practical set up to control the duration of the bleaching procedure.

  19. Quantitative analysis of trace metal accumulation in teeth using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Morris, G. W.; Liska, M.; Kaiser, J.

    The technique of laser ablation is receiving increasing attention for applications in dentistry, specifically for the treatment of teeth (e.g. drilling of micro-holes and plaque removal). In the process of ablation a luminous micro-plasma is normally generated which may be exploited for elemental analysis. Here we report on quantitative Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis to study the presence of trace minerals in teeth. A selection of teeth of different age groups has been investigated, ranging from the first teeth of infants, through the second teeth of children, to adults to trace the influence of environmental factors on the accumulation of a number of elements in teeth. We found a close link between elements detected in tooth fillings and toothpastes with those present in teeth.

  20. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  1. Removable partial denture on osseointegrated implants and natural teeth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Ching; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tasi, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Implants have been designed to provide edentulous patients with fixed prostheses or overdentures. Recently, implant-supported fixed partial prostheses and single crowns have become successful treatment alternatives to removable and fixed partial dentures. However, few researchers have examined "removable partial dentures on implants and natural teeth". In this article, we report two patients fitted with "removable partial dentures on implants and natural teeth". The patients were satisfied with their dentures in terms of function and aesthetics. Regular follow-up visits revealed that the periodontal and peri-implant conditions were stable. There was no evidence of excessive intrusion or mobility of the teeth, nor were any visible changes in the bone levels of the natural teeth or implants noted on radiographs. Since the average duration of observation was about 38 months, further follow-up examinations are necessary to determine whether these dentures remain stable long-term.

  2. Histologic Outcomes of Uninfected Human Immature Teeth Treated with Regenerative Endodontics: 2 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Ali; Kolahdouzan, Alireza; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mehrizi, Ehsan A; Verma, Prashant; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    A growing body of evidence exists showing the possibility of growing vital tissues in the root canal spaces of teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. However, there is very limited histologic information regarding characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space of human teeth after regenerative endodontics. The aim of this study was to examine clinically and histologically the outcomes of human immature teeth treated with regenerative endodontics. Two healthy birooted human maxillary first premolar teeth scheduled for extraction were included. Preoperative radiographs confirmed that these teeth had immature apices. Vitality tests showed the presence of vital pulps in these teeth. After receiving consent forms, the teeth were isolated with a rubber dam, and the pulps were completely removed. After the formation of blood clots in the canals, the teeth were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate. Four months later, the teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated, extracted, and examined histologically. Both patients remained asymptomatic after treatment. Radiographic examination of the teeth showed signs of root development after treatment. Histologic examination of tissues growing into the root canal space of these teeth shows the presence of connective tissue, bone and cementum formation, and thickening of roots. Based on our findings, it appears that when canals of teeth with open apices are treated with regenerative endodontics, tissues of the periodontium grow into the root canals of these teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The retrieval of unerupted teeth in pedodontics is always significant to preserve the trophism of adjacent tissues, establish the correct space, provide adequate function and maintain good esthetics for the patient. The treatment plan is based on radiographic examinations and measurements, and on an accurate clinical evaluation; it aims to achieve the best treatment possible depending on the complexity of the specific case. In the most difficult clinical cases it is very important to have an early diagnosis, which is essential to plan the treatment and achieve success. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. Case presentation This article presents two different difficult clinical cases of impacted teeth diagnosed during pediatric age, with a radiological analysis, and successfully treated with orthodontic devices designed for these specific cases. Clinical case 1 describes a 13-year-old Italian girl; clinical case 2 describes a 9-year-old Italian girl. The use of these devices achieved the desired treatment goals. The problems associated with impacted teeth and the biomechanical interventions used for these patients are discussed. Conclusions An early and careful diagnosis followed by an accurate treatment plan for the individual cases can lead to retrieval of the impacted teeth without affecting other anatomic structures and adjacent teeth. In these cases, the pediatrician is in a strategic position to give an early diagnosis through a child’s medical history and by counting the child’s teeth. PMID:25301242

  4. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth with Different Access Cavity Designs.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Isufi, Almira; Ioppolo, Pietro; Pedullà, Eugenio; Bedini, Rossella; Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the fracture strength of root-filled and restored teeth with traditional endodontic cavity (TEC), conservative endodontic cavity (CEC), or ultraconservative "ninja" endodontic cavity (NEC) access. Extracted human intact maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars were selected and assigned to control (intact teeth), TEC, CEC, or NEC groups (n = 10/group/type). Teeth in the TEC group were prepared following the principles of traditional endodontic cavities. Minimal CECs and NECs were plotted on cone-beam computed tomographic images. Then, teeth were endodontically treated and restored. The 160 specimens were then loaded to fracture in a mechanical material testing machine (LR30 K; Lloyd Instruments Ltd, Fareham, UK). The maximum load at fracture and fracture pattern (restorable or unrestorable) were recorded. Fracture loads were compared statistically, and the data were examined with analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. The mean load at fracture for TEC was significantly lower than the one for the CEC, NEC, and control groups for all types of teeth (P < .05), whereas no difference was observed among CEC, NEC, and intact teeth (P > .05). Unrestorable fractures were significantly more frequent in the TEC, CEC, and NEC groups than in the control group in each tooth type (P < .05). Teeth with TEC access showed lower fracture strength than the ones prepared with CEC or NEC. Ultraconservative "ninja" endodontic cavity access did not increase the fracture strength of teeth compared with the ones prepared with CEC. Intact teeth showed more restorable fractures than all the prepared ones. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histogenesis and disappearance of the teeth of the Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Yoshiko; Meenakarn, Wanpen

    2003-12-01

    Juveniles of the Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas (Teleostei), have 3 sorts of tooth-upper and lower jaw teeth, palatal teeth, and pharyngeal teeth--but adults are toothless. To investigate the histogenesis and disappearance of the teeth, we made serial sections of the mouth and teeth of juvenile fish at 10 developmental stages (from ca. 8.5 to ca. 30 cm in total length) and examined them under scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Observations of teeth and surrounding tissues in the serial sections revealed the process of tooth resorption by active odontoclast-like cells. Numbers of jaw and palatal teeth decreased with age. When the fish reached ca. 14 cm in total length, the numbers of functional upper jaw teeth and successional tooth germs decreased rapidly, and the developmental rate of successional tooth germs slowed. When the fish reached ca. 24 cm, no teeth existed in the upper jaw. It is clear that tooth disappearance results from the shedding of functional teeth and the lack of replacement tooth germs.

  6. Plaque and tartar on teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily, and the toothpaste should not be abrasive. Electric toothbrushes clean teeth better than manual ones. Brush for at least 2 minutes with an electric toothbrush each time. Floss gently at least once ...

  7. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  8. Ancient whales did not filter feed with their teeth.

    PubMed

    Hocking, David P; Marx, Felix G; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2017-08-01

    The origin of baleen whales (Mysticeti), the largest animals on Earth, is closely tied to their signature filter-feeding strategy. Unlike their modern relatives, archaic whales possessed a well-developed, heterodont adult dentition. How these teeth were used, and what role their function and subsequent loss played in the emergence of filter feeding, is an enduring mystery. In particular, it has been suggested that elaborate tooth crowns may have enabled stem mysticetes to filter with their postcanine teeth in a manner analogous to living crabeater and leopard seals, thereby facilitating the transition to baleen-assisted filtering. Here we show that the teeth of archaic mysticetes are as sharp as those of terrestrial carnivorans, raptorial pinnipeds and archaeocetes, and thus were capable of capturing and processing prey. By contrast, the postcanine teeth of leopard and crabeater seals are markedly blunter, and clearly unsuited to raptorial feeding. Our results suggest that mysticetes never passed through a tooth-based filtration phase, and that the use of teeth and baleen in early whales was not functionally connected. Continued selection for tooth sharpness in archaic mysticetes is best explained by a feeding strategy that included both biting and suction, similar to that of most living pinnipeds and, probably, early toothed whales (Odontoceti). © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

    PubMed

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  10. Histological evaluation of the pulp in teeth from dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ana; Pavlica, Zlatko; Stiblar-Martincic, Draga; Petelin, Milan; Erzen, Damjan; Crossley, David

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the pulp of dog teeth affected by advanced periodontal disease. Histological examination was done on demineralized teeth extracted during clinical treatment of mature, client owned small and medium-size breed dogs with either good periodontal health or with advanced naturally occurring periodontal disease. Routinely stained sections from 5 clinically normal teeth and 22 teeth with advanced periodontitis from dogs between 5 and 12-years of age were examined using light microscopy. The pulp cavities of most teeth were narrow with low cellularity and some fibrosis of the pulp. Findings specific to periodontally affected teeth included acute and chronic pulpitis, vascular congestion, and pulp necrosis. A glomus body was identified in the pulp of one tooth and areas of poorly mineralized cementum were seen in both normal and diseased teeth. Age related changes in dog teeth appear similar to those reported for man and the rat. In addition to age related changes, the pulp of dog teeth with advanced periodontal disease were frequently inflamed or necrotic. This may reflect the advanced periodontitis affecting these teeth or a mechanical effect related to excessive tooth mobility. Further study is required to determine the etiology and significance of these findings and to investigate pulp status in less severely diseased teeth.

  11. Stereomicroscopic study on unsectioned extracted teeth

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, V. Keerthi; Varsha, V. K.; Girish, H. C.; Murgod, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Age has been considered as a reliable marker for establishing the identity of a person in the field of forensic medicine. Teeth are useful skeletal indicators of age at death since it can survive for decades. Nondestructive methods ensure the evident preservation of dental hard tissues that reflect age changes from the cradle to the grave. Therefore, an attempt was made for estimating the age using the nondestructive method. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study to assess whether physiological changes of the teeth allow possible correlation for accurate age estimation and to establish a graduation standard by microscopic observation for a better age correlation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 209 teeth samples extracted for orthodontic treatment or periodontal diseases comprised both maxillary and mandibular teeth across different age groups. The assessment of these changes was carried out by well-established standard methods with some proposed modifications. Results: Pearson correlation analyses revealed root dentin translucency with the highest correlation (r = 0.97) followed by periodontal ligament attachment (r = 0.95), root dentin color (r = 0.95), and attrition being the least correlated (r = 0.90). All the parameters taken for the study contributed to stepwise linear regression analysis (R = 0.98; P < 0.01) indicating a strongly positive relationship between age and the changes observed. A regression formula was obtained with mean error age difference ±1.0 years. Conclusion: The present study showed that extracted tooth is highly significant in identifying the age without being sectioned or further processed and also signifies the use of microscope for observation of these changes, thus reducing the errors of calibrating the age. PMID:29657494

  12. [Nutrition, diet and dental health--de- and remineralisation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Imfeld, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    There is little if any evidence that nutrition during the time of tooth formation has any clinically significant effect on caries susceptibility of erupted teeth in man. Caries, erosion and demastication are not nutritional diseases. They are, however, diet-related diseases because erupted teeth are subject to local chemical and mechanical effects of the diet contacting the teeth. Caries is the result of a chronic undermining demineralisation of the teeth by organic acids that are produced by the bacteria of the dental biofilm while fermenting carbohydrates from the human diet. Dental erosion is the result of a chronic localised loss of dental hard tissue etched away from the surface by acids derived from the diet or from gastric reflux. The physicochemical grounds of de- and remineralisation of teeth are explained using detailed diagrams. Initial caries lesions without cavitation of the surface can remineralise (heal) under conditions of low cariogenic diet and good oral hygiene. However, once the surface has broken and cavitation occurred, there is no alternative to restorative dental therapy because remineralisation is no more possible.

  13. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  14. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed.

  15. Demystifying the Mysteries: Sexual Dimorphism in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Hind Pal; Sood, Shveta; Sharma, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the critical steps in the process of identification is the sex determination of an unknown individual. Many studies have shown that sex can be determined using the human skeleton, especially by examining the pelvis and skull. Odontometric analysis of the human sexual variation has been less investigated, especially of primary dentition. Aim To verify the presence of sexual dimorphism in primary teeth of local population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods The research was performed on dental casts of 500 children (250 boys and 250 girls, age range 3-5 years). Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of maxillary and mandibular primary teeth were measured with a digital Vernier’s caliper and were analysed for sexual dimorphism. Mann-Whitney-U test was used to check the statistical significance of difference in tooth dimensions among boys and girls. Results Differences were found in the mean values of mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of primary teeth, in which boys generally had larger crown diameters than girls. Conclusion Primary teeth may be used as an additional tool for sex identification of juvenile skeletons where other dimorphic features are not much developed. PMID:28571276

  16. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    al-Mahroos, F; al-Saleh, F S

    1997-06-01

    To determine lead exposure among children in Bahrain, a total of 280 shed deciduous whole teeth were collected from 269 children. Teeth were analyzed for lead concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization. Children were between 5 and 15 years old. The study period extended from July 1993 to April 1994. The study showed that the overall mean tooth-lead level was 4.3 micrograms/g dry weight with a range of 0.1-60.8 micrograms/g dry weight. The cumulative frequency distribution revealed that 35% of the teeth had a lead concentration of more than 4 micrograms/g dry weight. The tooth-lead concentrations differed according to the tooth type age. The child's sex, nationality, area of residence and socio-economic status had no impact on tooth-lead level. In conclusion, lead is present in toxic concentrations in 35% of the teeth of the children studied. Urgent measures are needed to eliminate lead from gasoline, paint and other sources in the environment.

  17. IN VITRO WEAR RESISTANCE OF THREE TYPES OF POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE DENTURE TEETH

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Katia Rodrigues; Bonfante, Gerson; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; Conti, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Pedro Cesar Garcia; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2008-01-01

    The wear resistance of denture teeth is important to the longevity of removable prostheses of edentulous patients. The ability of denture teeth to maintain a stable occlusal relationship over time may be influenced by this property. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wear resistance of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture teeth based on their chemical composition when opposed by a ceramic antagonist. The maxillary canines (n=10) of 3 PMMA denture teeth (Trubyte Biotone, cross-linked PMMA; Trilux, highly cross-linked IPN (interpenetrating polymer network)-PMMA; and Vivodent, highly cross-linked PMMA) were secured in an in vitro 2-body wear-testing apparatus that produced sliding contact of the specimens (4.5 cycles/s, sliding distance of 20 mm, under 37°C running water) against glazed or airborne particle abraded ceramic. Wear resistance was measured as height loss (mm) under 300 g (sliding force) after 100,000 cycles, using a digital measuring microscope. Mean values were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The wear of Trubyte Biotone (0.93 ± 0.14 mm) was significantly higher than that of both other types of teeth tested against abraded ceramic (p<0.05). The Vivodent tooth (0.64 ± 0.17 mm) exhibited the best wear resistance among the denture teeth tested against airborne particle abraded ceramic. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in wear among the 3 denture teeth evaluated against glazed ceramic. Trilux and Vivodent teeth tested against either glazed or airborne particle abraded ceramic did not differ significantly from each other (p<0.05). All teeth showed significantly more wear against airborne particle abraded ceramic than against glazed ceramic (p<0.05). In conclusion, the three types of PMMA denture teeth presented significantly different wear resistance against the abraded ceramic. The high-strength PMMA denture teeth were more wear-resistant than the conventional PMMA denture tooth. PMID

  18. Spatial and functional modeling of carnivore and insectivore molariform teeth.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Sanson, Gordon D

    2006-06-01

    The interaction between the two main competing geometric determinants of teeth (the geometry of function and the geometry of occlusion) were investigated through the construction of three-dimensional spatial models of several mammalian tooth forms (carnassial, insectivore premolar, zalambdodont, dilambdodont, and tribosphenic). These models aim to emulate the shape and function of mammalian teeth. The geometric principles of occlusion relating to single- and double-crested teeth are reviewed. Function was considered using engineering principles that relate tooth shape to function. Substantial similarity between the models and mammalian teeth were achieved. Differences between the two indicate the influence of tooth strength, geometric relations between upper and lower teeth (including the presence of the protocone), and wear on tooth morphology. The concept of "autocclusion" is expanded to include any morphological features that ensure proper alignment of cusps on the same tooth and other teeth in the tooth row. It is concluded that the tooth forms examined are auto-aligning, and do not require additional morphological guides for correct alignment. The model of therian molars constructed by Crompton and Sita-Lumsden ([1970] Nature 227:197-199) is reconstructed in 3D space to show that their hypothesis of crest geometry is erroneous, and that their model is a special case of a more general class of models. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Effect of four different opalescence tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Majeed, A; Grobler, S R; Moola, M H; Rossouw, R J; van Kotze, T J W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of various Opalescence tooth-whitening products on enamel. Enamel blocks were exposed to Opalescence PF 10% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10), Opalescence PF 20% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10), Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme 10% Hydrogen Peroxide (n = 10) and Opalescence Quick PF 45% Carbamide Peroxide (n = 10) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The control group was enamel blocks (n = 10) kept in artificial saliva. The values were obtained before exposure and after the 14-days treatment period. Enamel blocks were kept in saliva between treatments. Indent marks on enamel blocks were examined using the scanning electron microscope for treatment effects. All four different Opalescence products damaged enamel. The most damage was done when treated for a long period (112 hours). SEM images also showed damage to enamel by all 4 products. Opalescence with 10% and with 20% Carbamide Peroxide showed the highest damage, which also differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the saliva control group (p < 0.05; Tukey-Kramer Multiple comparison test). All 4 Opalescence products damaged enamel. Higher damage was done by the 10% carbamide peroxide and 20% carbamide peroxide products because of the much longer exposure period (112 hours in comparison to 7 hours).

  20. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  1. Take Care of Your Teeth | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Fighting Gum Disease Take Care of Your Teeth Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Ever ... never show him smiling? He suffered from poor dental health, lost his teeth at an early age, ...

  2. In vitro study of heat production during power reduction of equine mandibular teeth.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin L; Baker, Gordon J; Freeman, David E; Holmes, Kenneth R; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; Scoggins, R Dean; Constable, Peter

    2004-04-01

    To measure the amount of heat generated during 3 methods of equine dental reduction with power instruments. In vitro study. 30 premolar and molar teeth removed from mandibles of 8 equine heads collected at an abbatoir. 38-gauge copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the lingual side of each tooth 15 mm (proximal) and 25 mm (distal) from the occlusal surface, at a depth of 5 mm, which placed the tip close to the pulp chamber. Group-NC1 (n = 10) teeth were ground for 1 minute without coolant, group-NC2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes without coolant, and group-C2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes with water for coolant. Mean temperature increase was 1.2 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and 6.6 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC1 teeth, 4.1 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and 24.3 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC2 teeth, and 0.8 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and -0.1 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-C2 teeth. In general, an increase of 5 degrees C in human teeth is considered the maximum increase before there is permanent damage to tooth pulp. In group-NC2 teeth, temperature increased above this limit by several degrees, whereas in group-C2 teeth, there was little or no temperature increase. Our results suggest that major reduction of equine teeth by use of power instruments causes thermal changes that may cause irreversible pulp damage unless water cooling is used.

  3. The effect of light-activation sources on tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Hassan, Nadia Aly

    2014-01-01

    Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system). Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching. PMID:25298598

  4. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of Discoloured Nonvital Anterior tooth with Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Badole, Gautam P; Warhadpande, Manjusha M; Bahadure, Rakesh N; Badole, Shital G

    2013-01-01

    Discolouration of teeth, especially the anteriores, can result in considerably cosmetic impairment in person. Combine effects of intrinsic and extrinsic colour determines the appearance of teeth. Whitening of teeth with bleaching is a more conservative therapeutic method than full crowns, veneers or composite restorations which is more invasive and expensive. Among bleaching techniques, in office bleaching with carbamide peroxide provide superior aesthetic result in short period of time with no adverse effects. This paper presents case series of tooth discolouration in non-vital tooth which was successfully bleached using 35 % carbamide peroxide. After 1 year follow up the prognosis was good with no reversal of tooth discolouration. This case report allows the better understanding of the concept of nonvital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide which gives a non-invasive alternative for aesthetic purpose in preserving the natural tooth structure. PMID:24551731

  5. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  6. Overlay removable denture for treatment of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Tamari, Israel; Buller Sharon, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of partially edentulous patients with excessively worn dentitions can be challenging. Factors including medical history as well as the cost of the treatment and patient wishes for simpler approaches must be considered. This manuscript describes the use of an overlay partial denture to treat patients with excessive wear of the maxillary teeth. We describe a technique to restore severely worn teeth using heat-cured acrylic as part of a partial or full denture. Minimal preparations of the teeth are required, and the restoration provides protection from further wear, and stabilizes the occlusion. This solution was functionally and esthetically suitable to the patients. The technique can be used in medically complex patients where extractions are contraindicated, such as post radiation therapy or bisphosphonate treatment. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Satisfaction about physical appearance and teeth. Results of a nationwide study].

    PubMed

    Gresnigt-Bekker, C O V M; de Jongh, A; Vo, G; Lie, F; Oosterink-Wubbe, F M D; van Rood, Y

    2008-07-01

    In a study involving a group of 907 randomly selected Dutch individuals, satisfaction about one's physical appearance and satisfaction about the appearance of one's teeth were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between body esteem and happiness was explored. Three quarters of the respondents were satisfied about their physical appearance, while 70% was satisfied about the appearance of their teeth. Women and people with a non-Dutch background were significantly less likely to be satisfied about their physical appearance than men and those with a Dutch background. Individuals 30 years old and younger were more likely to be satisfied about their teeth than those who were older. Almost two third of the respondents (64%) reported that the appearance of their teeth contributed positively to their happiness. Women and people with a non-Dutch background were most likely to indicate that the appearance of their teeth contributed to their happiness. Satisfaction about general physical appearance and appearance of the teeth were significantly associated with happiness. Prospective studies are needed to examine to what extent esthetically motivated dental treatments make people happy and enhance their general well-being.

  8. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  9. Comparison between rotary and manual instrumentation in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Crespo, S; Cortes, O; Garcia, C; Perez, L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency in both, preparation time and root canal shape, when using the Nickel Titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary and K-Files hand instrumentation on root canal preparation of single rooted primary teeth. Sixty single rooted primary teeth were selected and divided into two equal groups: Group (I) 30 teeth instrumented with manual K-files and group (II) 30 teeth instrumented with Ni-Ti rotary files (ProFile 0.04). Instrumentation times were calculated and root canal impressions were taken with light bodied silicone in order to evaluate the shape. The data was analyzed with SPSS program using the t-test and the Chi-square test to compare their means. The preparation time with group (I) K-files was significantly higher than in group (II) rotary files (ProFile 0.04), with a p= .005. The ProFile system showed a significantly more favorable canal taper when compared to the K-files system (P= .002). The use of rotary files in primary teeth has several advantages when compared with manual K files: the efficiency in both, preparation time and root canal shape. 1. A decreased working time, that helps maintain patient cooperation by diminishing the potential for tiredness. 2. The shape of the root canal is more conical, favoring a higher quality of the root canal filling, and increasing clinical success.

  10. Characterization of transparent dentin in attrited teeth using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Mandurah, Mona M; Sadr, Alireza; Bakhsh, Turki A; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Attrition and wear of tooth surface occur with aging and result in loss of enamel, with exposure and histological changes in dentin. Dealing with attrited teeth and restoration of the lost tissue are clinically challenging. The main objective of this study is to characterize the exposed transparent dentin in the occlusal surface of attrited teeth by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Naturally attrited, extracted human teeth with occlusal-transparent dentin were investigated in comparison to sound and carious teeth. The teeth were subjected to OCT imaging and then cross-sectioned and polished. OCT B-scans were compared to light microscopy images of the same cross section. In OCT images, some changes were evident at the transparent dentin in attrited teeth. An OCT attenuation coefficient parameter (μ t) was derived based on the Beer-Lambert law as a function of backscatter signal slope. The mean values of μ t were 1.05 ± 0.3, 2.23 ± 0.4, and 0.61 ± 0.27 mm(-1) for sound, carious, and transparent dentins, respectively. One-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc showed a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Physiological changes in transparent dentin that involve deposition of mineral casts in the dentinal tubules lead to lower attenuation of OCT signal. OCT has a potential role to detect transparent dentin on the surface of attrited teeth and can be used in the future as a clinical adjunct tool.

  11. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Considerations for Altering Preparation Designs of Porcelain Inlay/Onlay Restorations for Nonvital Teeth.

    PubMed

    Homsy, Foudda; Eid, Rita; El Ghoul, Wiam; Chidiac, Jose Johann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare all ceramic inlay/onlay survival rates in vital and nonvital teeth having the same cavity design. Filling the pulp chamber with ceramic materials or not was also discussed. Ceramic class II inlays/onlays were made on 11 premolars and 30 molars: 14 vital, 27 endodontically treated. The same tooth preparation design was performed on vital and nonvital teeth: In nonvital teeth the pulp chambers were covered by a glass ionomer cement until the pulpal floor depths were between 2 and 2.5 mm, more likely similar to the vital teeth preparations. In vital teeth, glass ionomer was used as a liner to achieve pulpal floor depths between 2 and 2.5 mm when needed. The restorations were assessed (at baseline, 6 months, 1 and 2 years) according to three criteria: marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, and fracture of teeth/restorations, consistent with United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Eight teeth (19%) showed minor marginal discolorations, while three molars (7%) had loss of marginal integrity. These margins were adjusted using rubber polishing cups and were then judged clinically acceptable. From these three molars, one was vital and two were endodontically treated. No fracture of teeth or restorations was observed. Chi square and exact probability tests were used. There was no statistical difference between vital and nonvital teeth (p = 0.719 chi-squared and Fisher) or between premolars and molars (p = 0.564 chi-squared; 1.000, Fisher). Within the limitations of this study there was no difference for the same inlay/onlay cavity design between vital and nonvital teeth. In nonvital teeth, it seems that filling the pulp chamber with a ceramic core material is not important. Long-term observation periods are needed to reinforce the clinical behavior outcome. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth].

    PubMed

    Osada, Tomoko

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p<0.01). Greater strengths were found for specimens with frameworks than those without frameworks (p<0.01). The breaking strength of the wrought palatal bar embedded near the occlusal surface was higher than that on the basal surface (p>0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (p<0.01) than those of the conventional frameworks. The breaking strengths of overdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  14. Microstructure and mineral composition of dental enamel of permanent and deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    De Menezes Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb; Torres, Carolina Paes; Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; De Menezes, Fernando Carlos Hueb; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the microstructure and mineral composition of permanent and deciduous teeth's dental enamel. Sound third molars (n = 12) and second primary molars (n = 12) were selected and randomly assigned to the following groups, according to the analysis method performed (n = 4): Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the dental enamel were done. The microscopic findings were analyzed statistically by a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis). The measurements of the prisms number and thickness were done in SEM photomicrographs. The relative amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were determined by EDS investigation. Chemical phases present in both types of teeth were observed by the XRD analysis. The mean thickness measurements observed in the deciduous teeth enamel was 1.14 mm and in the permanent teeth enamel was 2.58 mm. The mean rod head diameter in deciduous teeth was statistically similar to that of permanent teeth enamel, and a slightly decrease from the outer enamel surface to the region next to the enamel-dentine junction was assessed. The numerical density of enamel rods was higher in the deciduous teeth, mainly near EDJ, that showed statistically significant difference. The percentage of Ca and P was higher in the permanent teeth enamel. The primary enamel structure showed a lower level of Ca and P, thinner thickness and higher numerical density of rods. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Bond Strength and Interfacial Morphology of Different Dentin Adhesives in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results: Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). Conclusion: The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems PMID:24910694

  16. Clinical Assessment of Various Obturating Techniques for Primary Teeth: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Sandeep; Vijay, Akshat; Kalia, Garima; Rathore, Khushboo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lifelong preservation of tooth in a healthy state is the ultimate goal of dentistry. Premature loss of primary teeth is common due to caries, dental trauma or other causes. As the primary teeth are the best space maintainers, teeth with infected pulps should be retained until exfoliation, whenever possible. Aim The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different obturating methods used in primary teeth. Materials and Methods Forty one patients aged four to nine years with a total of 60 teeth were selected. Out of the 60 teeth, 32 were primary mandibular first molars and 28 were primary mandibular second molars, the sample was randomly divided into three groups. Disposable syringe, lentulo spiral and past inject were used for obturation. Postoperative evaluation was done for; quality of canal obturation, presence of voids using postoperative radiographs following obturation of teeth. The data were analysed to assess the success rate of the three methods used for obturation using Chi-square test. Results Among the three groups of the study, past inject exhibited the maximum number of optimally filled canals. Maximum number of underfilled canals was found with lentulospiral, and the maximum number of overfilled canals was seen with disposable syringe. Least number of voids was observed in canals filled with the past inject technique and disposable syringe. Conclusion The results suggest that the most successful technique for obturation of primary teeth was past inject. PMID:28893042

  17. Fracture Resistance of Teeth Restored with Direct and Indirect Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ghasemi, Amir; Dabestani, Atoosa; Razmavar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tooth fracture is a common dental problem. By extension of cavity dimensions, the remaining tooth structure weakens and occlusal forces may cause tooth fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of teeth restored with direct and indirect composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five sound maxillary premolar teeth were chosen and randomly divided into five groups each comprising thirteen. Fifty-two teeth received mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities with 4.5mm bucco-lingual width, 4mm pulpal depth and 3mm gingival depth and were divided into the following four groups. G-1: restored with direct composite (Z-250, 3M/ESPE) with cusp coverage, G-2: restored with direct composite (Z-250) without cusp coverage, G-3: restored with direct composite (Gradia, GC-international) with cusp coverage, G-4: restored with indirect composite (Gradia, GC-International) with cusp coverage. Intact teeth were used in G-5 as control. The teeth were subjected to a compressive axial loading using a 4 mm diameter rod in a universal testing machine with 1 mm/min speed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The mean fracture strength recorded was: G-1: 1148.46N±262, G-2: 791.54N±235, G-3: 880.00N±123, G-4: 800.00N±187, G-5: 1051.54N±345. ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Tukey test showed significant difference between group 1 and the other groups. There was no significant difference among other groups. Conclusion: Direct composite (Z-250) with cusp coverage is a desirable treatment for weakened teeth. Treatment with Z-250 without cusp coverage, direct and indirect Gradia with cusp coverage restored the strength of the teeth to the level of intact teeth. PMID:24910649

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of a Probiotic Storage Media for Avulsed Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential of a storage medium, probiotic yogurt (Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010) in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), saline and milk in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Materials and methods Thirty-six freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with closed apices were divided into six experimental groups (N=6). The teeth were extracted as atraumatically as possible and washed in sterile saline solution to eliminate residual blood. Following extractions, the coronal 3 mm of PDL tissues were scraped with a #15 scalpel to remove cells that may have been damaged. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 minutes and an 8-hour dry time, respectively. After extraction, the positive control teeth were immediately treated with dispase and collagenase. The negative control teeth were bench-dried for 8 h, with no follow-up storage solution time, and then placed in the dispase and collagenase. The number of viable protective least significant difference PDL cells were counted under a light microscope with a hemocytometer at 20× magnification and analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using Nonparametric ANOVA complemented by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparisons Test. Results Positive control was found to be significantly better than the others, there were statistically significant differences between positive control and other test groups (p=0.000). The teeth stored in positive control demonstrated the highest number of viable PDL cells followed in order by probiotic yogurt, HBSS, saline and milk. Conclusion Bifidibacterium animalis DN 173010 seems to be an alternative for the temporary storage of avulsed teeth, due to high number of viable PDL cells. Probiotics may be suitable transport media for avulsed teeth, but further research is warranted using the commercially available products. PMID

  19. Middle Pleistocene Hominin Teeth from Longtan Cave, Hexian, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Song; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Zhang, Yingqi; Fan, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Longting; Huang, Wanbo; Liu, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Excavations at the Longtan Cave, Hexian, Anhui Province of Eastern China, have yielded several hominin fossils including crania, mandibular fragments, and teeth currently dated to 412±25 ka. While previous studies have focused on the cranial remains, there are no detailed analyses of the dental evidence. In this study, we provide metric and morphological descriptions and comparisons of ten teeth recovered from Hexian, including microcomputed tomography analyses. Our results indicate that the Hexian teeth are metrically and morphologically primitive and overlap with H. ergaster and East Asian Early and mid-Middle Pleistocene hominins in their large dimensions and occlusal complexities. However, the Hexian teeth differ from H. ergaster in features such as conspicuous vertical grooves on the labial/buccal surfaces of the central incisor and the upper premolar, the crown outline shapes of upper and lower molars and the numbers, shapes, and divergences of the roots. Despite their close geological ages, the Hexian teeth are also more primitive than Zhoukoudian specimens, and resemble Sangiran Early Pleistocene teeth. In addition, no typical Neanderthal features have been identified in the Hexian sample. Our study highlights the metrical and morphological primitive status of the Hexian sample in comparison to contemporaneous or even earlier populations of Asia. Based on this finding, we suggest that the primitive-derived gradients of the Asian hominins cannot be satisfactorily fitted along a chronological sequence, suggesting complex evolutionary scenarios with the coexistence and/or survival of different lineages in Eurasia. Hexian could represent the persistence in time of a H. erectus group that would have retained primitive features that were lost in other Asian populations such as Zhoukoudian or Panxian Dadong. Our study expands the metrical and morphological variations known for the East Asian hominins before the mid-Middle Pleistocene and warns about the

  20. Polycarbonate crowns for primary teeth revisited: restorative options, technique and case reports.

    PubMed

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Chan, John; Karthik, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Esthetics by definition is the science of beauty - that particular detail of an animate or inanimate object that makes it appealing to the eye. In the modern, civilized, and cosmetically conscious world, well-contoured and well-aligned white teeth set the standard for beauty. Such teeth are not only considered attractive but are also indicative of nutritional health, self esteem, hygienic pride, and economic status. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed to address the esthetics and retention of restorations in primary teeth. Even though researchers have claimed that certain restorations are better than the others, particularly owing to the issues mentioned above, the search for the ideal esthetic restoration for the primary teeth continues. This paper revisits and attempts to reintroduce the full coverage restoration, namely, polycarbonate crown, for use in primary anterior teeth.

  1. [Significance of proper oral hygiene for health condition of mouth and teeth].

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Matijević, Snezana; Terzić, Natasa; Andjelić, Jasmina; Mugosa, Boban

    2012-01-01

    Proper mouth and teeth hygiene has influence on the prevention of a great number of diseases and very often some of them are not related only to oral cavity. Most frequent diseases of mouth and teeth such as caries and periodontal diseases are caused, among other factors, by poor oral hygiene. They are also more frequent in young population. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics and hygienic habit on oral health in children aged 11-15 years. This cross-sectional study was conducted by the dental teams in dentist surgeries in Tivat Health Center between May and September 2009. The sample consisted of patients 11 to 15 years of age. A questionnaire and dental examination of mouth and teeth were used as research instruments. The examinations were conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology and criteria. The data obtained from the interviews were correlated with those obtained from the clinical examinations. The results show that the majority of respondents brush their teeth twice a day and visit the dentist once in every six months. The research also shows that 57% respondents have caries of deciduous teeth and over 63% respondents of permanent teeth. Gingivitis was found in 14% and orthodontic anomalies in 44.7% respondents. A half of respondents who brush their teeth rarely have problems with gingivitis. There is a highly statistically significant difference between the occurrence of gingivitis and the frequency of teeth brushing. There is a significant difference between mouth and oral hygiene and sex as well as other sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. The study showed the correlation between occurrence of caries and the gingivitis and frequency of teeth brushing and dental visits.

  2. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S.; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed. PMID:22888456

  3. Bacteria in the apical root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Wan; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Lin, Hung-Pin

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the tooth root canal may cause apical periodontitis. This study examined the bacterial species present in the apical root canal of teeth with apical periodontitis. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate whether these identified bacterial species were susceptible to specific kinds of antibiotics. Selective media plating and biochemical tests were used first to detect the bacterial species in samples taken from the apical portion of root canals of 62 teeth with apical periodontitis. The isolated bacterial species were further confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. We found concomitant presence of two (32 teeth) or three species (18 teeth) of bacteria in 50 (80.6%) out of 62 tested teeth. However, only 34 bacterial species were identified. Of a total of 118 bacterial isolates (83 anaerobes and 35 aerobes), Prophyromonas endodontalis was detected in 10; Bacteroides, Dialister invisus or Fusobacterium nucleatum in 9; Treponema denticola or Enterococcus faecalis in 8; Peptostreptococcus or Olsenella uli in 6; and Veillonella in 5 teeth. The other 25 bacterial species were detected in fewer than five teeth. Approximately 80-95% of bacterial isolates of anaerobes were sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam (Unasyn), amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin), cefoxitin, and clindamycin. For E. faecalis, 85-90% of bacterial isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and linezolid. Root canal infections are usually caused by a mixture of two or three species of bacteria. Specific kinds of antibiotic can be selected to control these bacterial infections after antibiotic sensitivity testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Autotransplantation of teeth in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the currently available evidence concerning the complications and risk factors influencing the outcome of autotransplantation of teeth in humans. Electronic searches were conducted to identify randomized controlled and prospective clinical trials. Risk of bias within studies was assessed with the Downs and Black tool. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to pool the adverse event rates and relative risks with their 95% confidence intervals. Risk of bias across studies was assessed with the GRADE framework followed by sensitivity analyses. Thirty-eight studies were included in the analysis. Reported complications included the need for extraction, failure, hypermobility, pulp necrosis, pulp obliteration, and root resorption. Pooled complication event rates varied considerably, with small studies (<100 teeth) reporting greater complication rates. The analysis of risk factors was associated with both the primary outcome (extraction need) and secondary outcomes (failure, hypermobility, pulp necrosis, pulp obliteration, root resorption). The stage of root development seems to influence both the future survival, as well as the success of the transplanted teeth. Teeth with open apex were less likely to be extracted in comparison to teeth with closed apex (3 studies; 413 teeth; relative risk 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6). Due to the small number of the contributing studies, their methodological limitations, and the heterogeneous results reported, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Root development of the donor teeth has been established as one the most important factor related to the success of tooth autotransplantation.

  5. Fracture resistance of pulpless teeth restored with post-cores and crowns.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Takahashi, Yutaka; Imazato, Satoshi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2006-05-01

    The present study was designed to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the fracture resistance of pulpless teeth restored with different types of post-core systems and full coverage crowns. Extracted human upper premolars were restored with a fiber post, prefabricated metallic post or cast metallic post-core. Teeth with full crown preparations without post-core restorations served as a control. All teeth were restored with full coverage crowns. A 90-degree vertical or 45-degree oblique load was applied to the restored teeth with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the fracture loads and mode of fracture were recorded. Under the condition of vertical loading, the fracture load of teeth restored with the cast metallic post-cores was greatest among the groups (two-factor factorial ANOVA and Scheffe's F test, P<0.05). All fractures in teeth restored with all types of post-core systems propagated in the middle portions of roots, including the apices of the posts. Under the condition of oblique loading, the fracture load of teeth restored with pre-fabricated metallic posts was significantly smaller than that in other groups. Two-thirds of fractures in the fiber post group propagated within the cervical area, while most fractures in other groups extended beyond the middle of the roots. From the results of the present investigations, it was concluded that under the conditions of vertical and oblique loadings, the combination of a fiber post and composite resin core with a full cast crown is most protective of the remaining tooth structure.

  6. Forensic DNA typing from teeth using demineralized root tips.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Heitor Simões Dutra; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Pereira, Thiago Machado; Siebert Filho, Gilberto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Teeth are widely used samples in forensic human genetic identification due to their persistence and practical sampling and processing. Their processing, however, has changed very little in the last 20 years, usually including powdering or pulverization of the tooth. The objective of this study was to present demineralized root tips as DNA sources while, at the same time, not involving powdering the samples or expensive equipment for teeth processing. One to five teeth from each of 20 unidentified human bodies recovered from midwest Brazil were analyzed. Whole teeth were demineralized in EDTA solution with daily solution change. After a maximum of approximately seven days, the final millimeters of the root tip was excised. This portion of the sample was used for DNA extraction through a conventional organic protocol. DNA quantification and STR amplification were performed using commercial kits followed by capillary electrophoresis on 3130 or 3500 genetic analyzers. For 60% of the unidentified bodies (12 of 20), a full genetic profile was obtained from the extraction of the first root tip. By the end of the analyses, full genetic profiles were obtained for 85% of the individuals studied, of which 80% were positively identified. This alternative low-tech approach for postmortem teeth processing is capable of extracting DNA in sufficient quantity and quality for forensic casework, showing that root tips are viable nuclear DNA sources even after demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  8. Supernumerary impacted teeth in a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Katsushima, Yuriko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome characteristically presents as anophthalmia or microphthalmia, with various extraocular symptoms, such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, brain anomaly, and esophageal abnormalities. In this report, we describe a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome complicated with a dental anomaly, multiple supernumerary impacted teeth, and persistence of deciduous teeth. Multiple supernumerary teeth are usually not solitary symptoms, but indicate systemic syndrome such as cleidocranial dysplasia. In odontogenesis, many transcriptional factors, such as BMPs, FGFs, and Wnts, play significant roles and SOX2 is known to interact with some of them. The role of SOX2 in dental development remains unknown, however, multiple supernumerary teeth can be considered as extraocular symptoms of SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, rather than the coincidence of two rare diseases.

  9. Delayed manifestation of bilateral scleral thinning after I-BRITE® procedure and review of literature for cosmetic eye-whitening procedures

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Fenzl, Carlton R; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Kramer, Gregory D; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of delayed-onset bilateral scleral thinning and calcium deposition following a cosmetic ocular-whitening procedure (I-BRITE®). Methods A 33-year-old male patient with a history of right-sided ptosis repair and left-sided anterior uveitis had previously undergone bilateral I-BRITE treatment for chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Four years after the procedure, the patient was referred to our institution with bilateral scleral thinning and overlying calcific depositions. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1980 through 2014 using the search terms ‘cosmetic’, ‘ocular’, ‘conjunctivectomy’, ‘regional conjunctivectomy’, ‘I-BRITE’, ‘eye-whitening’, ‘scleritis’, ‘necrotizing scleritis’, ‘anterior uveitis’, ‘mitomycin C’, ‘5-fluorouracil’, and ‘bevacizumab’, along with associated cross-referencing from relevant articles. Results Examination of the patient revealed bilateral necrotizing scleritis within the nasal region of both eyes. Calcified plaques were also present within the areas of scleromalacia, along with epithelial defects demonstrated with fluorescein staining. Although evidence of previous intraocular inflammation was apparent within the left eye, there were no active signs of inflammation evident within either eye on initial presentation. Complication rates reported in the literature include: scleral thinning (1.8%), calcific plaque formation (2.9%), fibrovascular proliferation (13%), diplopia (1.2%), elevation of intraocular pressure (4.2%), and recurrence of conjunctival hyperemia (2.1%). Conclusion Cosmetic ocular whitening procedures have an attendant high complication rate, and have been associated with several adverse postoperative complications, which have in turn generated several reservations regarding the veritable benefit of the procedure. Many postsurgical complications may demonstrate delayed apparition, varying from several months to several years after primary

  10. The trouble with teething--misdiagnosis and misuse of a topical medicament.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P H R; Mason, C

    2002-05-01

    For many clinicians and parents "teething" remains a convenient diagnosis to explain all manner of local and systemic upset in the young child. Many therapies are on the market to help alleviate the symptoms of primary tooth eruption. In this article we highlight the problems of "teething" as a diagnosis by presenting a case where an initial misdiagnosis of teething compromised a patient's life. The same patient then suffered from topical analgesic misuse during the recovery period.

  11. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    PubMed Central

    Pucinelli, Carolina Maschietto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Cohenca, Nestor; Romualdo, Priscilla Coutinho; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Consolaro, Alberto; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Nelson, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP) with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15); conventional irrigation (n=17); healthy teeth (control) (n = 10); and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control) (n=10). After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation) or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p<0.05). The ANP group showed a predominance of low magnitude inflammatory infiltrate, a smaller periodontal ligament, and lower mineralized tissue resorption. There were no differences in the periapical lesion extensions between the ANP and conventional groups (p>0.05). However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis. PMID:29211282

  12. Late Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Panxian Dadong, South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Schepartz, Lynne A; Xing, Song; Miller-Antonio, Sari; Wu, Xiujie; Trinkaus, Erik; Martinón-Torres, María

    2013-05-01

    The hominin teeth and evidence of hominin activities recovered from 1991 to 2005 at the Panxian Dadong site in South China are dated to the late Middle Pleistocene (MIS 8-6 or ca. 130-300 ka), a period for which very little is known about the morphology of Asian populations. The present study provides the first detailed morphometric description and comparisons of four hominin teeth (I(1), C1, P(3) and P3) from this site. Our study shows that the Panxian Dadong teeth combine archaic and derived features that align them with Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils from East and West Asia and Europe. These teeth do not display any typical Neanderthal features and they are generally more derived than other contemporaneous populations from Asia and Africa. However, the derived traits are not diagnostic enough to specifically link the Panxian Dadong teeth to Homo sapiens, a common problem when analyzing the Middle Pleistocene dental record from Africa and Asia. These findings are contextualized in the discussion of the evolutionary course of Asian Middle Pleistocene hominins, and they highlight the necessity of incorporating the Asian fossil record in the still open debate about the origin of H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histopathologic changes in dental pulp of teeth with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Telma R; Tristao, Gilson C; Mandarino, Denize; Zarranz, Laila; Ferreira, Vinicius F; Barboza, Eliane P

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic changes in dental pulp of teeth with chronic advanced periodontitis. In 22 patients, 30 teeth were selected for inclusion. Patients had received no periodontal treatment. No teeth had caries, abrasion, attrition, erosion, trauma, or restoration. Radiographically, all teeth showed bone-support destruction to the apex. Thermal and cavity tests were used to evaluate pulp vitality. After tooth extractions, crowns were separated from roots at the cementoenamel junction. Both the crowns and the roots were prepared for histopathologic analyses. Radicular pulp was analyzed considering both coronal and apical halves. In 100 percent of the cases, coronal pulp exhibited soft connective tissue. In the coronal half of radicular pulp, soft connective tissue was present in 60 percent of the cases, fibrosis in 30 percent, and fibrosis associated with dystrophic calcification in 10 percent. In the apical half of radicular pulp, 6.6 percent of the cases demonstrated fibrosis; 23 percent exhibited fibrosis associated with pulp atrophy and secondary dentin; and 63.3 percent showed fibrosis, pulp atrophy, secondary dentin, and diffuse calcification. Radicular pulp of teeth with chronic periodontitis presents characteristics compatible with pulp changes resulting from pulp aging. In such cases, endodontic treatment is not indicated to enhance periodontal treatment results.

  14. Muscles advance the teeth in sand dollars and other sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    Ellers, O.; Telford, M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate the action of the dental promoter muscles in advancing the continuously growing teeth of sand dollars and sea urchins. Teeth wear at the occlusal end, while new calcite is added to the opposite end. Dental ligaments rigidly hold teeth during chewing, but soften and reform during advancement. The source of forces that advance the teeth was unknown until our discovery of the dental promoter muscles. The muscles, which underly the tooth, attach centrally to the stereom of the pyramid of the Aristotle's lantern (jaw) and peripherally to a membrane that covers the distal end of the tooth. The muscles shorten along an axis nearly parallel to the long axis of the tooth. We stimulated contraction by addition of acetylcholine, with increasing concentrations of acetylcholine generating higher forces. Forces exerted by this muscle are appropriate for its size and are 1000 times lower than forces exerted by interpyramidal muscles that generate chewing forces. In sand dollars, a single muscle contraction of the dental promoter muscle can account for half the mean daily advancement of the teeth.

  15. Cultural significance of primary teeth for caregivers in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Martin, Michele N; Dias, Hilma Fontenele

    2008-04-01

    This anthropological study critically evaluates Brazilian caregivers' symbolic production and significance of their malnourished offspring's primary teeth, as well as their own, and describes popular dental practices. From January to June 2004, ethnographic interviews of 27 poor, low-literacy mothers were conducted at a public Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State. Participant observation of clinical pathways and home environments supplemented the data. Content analysis was performed. Results confirm that primary teeth are imbued with cultural significance in Northeast Brazil. Mothers examine mouths, perceive signs of decay, associate primary with permanent tooth healthiness, identify ethnodental illnesses, seek assistance, and perform rituals with exfoliated teeth. The mother's motivation to care for primary teeth is sparked by her memories of past toothache and attempts to avoid stigma and discrimination. Social determinants, not mothers' beliefs or behaviors, are the most critical obstacles to effective dental care. Legitimizing lay knowledge and empowering caregivers and children can improve oral health in Northeast Brazil.

  16. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative scintigraphic analysis of pulp revascularization in autotransplanted teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Abrantes, Margarida; Oliveiros, Barbara; Carrilho, Eunice Virgínia

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulpal changes associated with autogenous single-rooted immature tooth transplantation in dogs, using either one, or two-stage surgical techniques. Teeth from 3 beagle dogs, 5 months old, were extracted and transplanted to mechanically prepared recipient sockets. Group (A), where the teeth were transplanted using a one-stage method to recipient beds prepared immediately before transplantation. Group (B), where the teeth were transplanted using a two-stage method in which the recipient beds were prepared and left to heal for 7 days before transplantation. Clinical examinations were done every week during 9 weeks. After 9 weeks, the animals were injected with ⁹⁹(m)Technetium hydroxylmethylene diphosphonate (⁹⁹(m)Tc-HMDP) and 3h after injection, a whole body scintigraphic acquisition was performed. After scintigraphic acquisition the animals were euthanized and the teeth extracted and its radioactivity counted in a well counter calibrated to ⁹⁹(m)Tc. With the data obtained, the percentage of activity injected was calculated for each tooth. The data for each group of teeth were evaluated and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). All the transplanted teeth in both groups survived. No statistically significant difference was found in the absorption of the ⁹⁹(m)Tc-HMDP, between the treatment groups (p=0.464) and between them and the control group (Group A vs. control p=0.713 and Group B vs. control p=0.157). This study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two surgical techniques in terms of the pulp revascularization in transplanted teeth. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Two-stage damage diagnosis based on the distance between ARMA models and pre-whitening filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Mita, A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a two-stage damage diagnosis strategy for damage detection and localization. Auto-regressive moving-average (ARMA) models are fitted to time series of vibration signals recorded by sensors. In the first stage, a novel damage indicator, which is defined as the distance between ARMA models, is applied to damage detection. This stage can determine the existence of damage in the structure. Such an algorithm uses output only and does not require operator intervention. Therefore it can be embedded in the sensor board of a monitoring network. In the second stage, a pre-whitening filter is used to minimize the cross-correlation of multiple excitations. With this technique, the damage indicator can further identify the damage location and severity when the damage has been detected in the first stage. The proposed methodology is tested using simulation and experimental data. The analysis results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed two-stage damage diagnosis methodology.

  19. An analysis of maxillary anterior teeth: facial and dental proportions.

    PubMed

    Hasanreisoglu, Ufuk; Berksun, Semih; Aras, Kerem; Arslan, Ilker

    2005-12-01

    The size and form of the maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental and facial esthetics. However, little scientific data have been defined as criteria for evaluating these morphological features. This study analyzed the clinical crown dimensions of maxillary anterior teeth to determine whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and several facial measurements in a subset of the Turkish population. Full-face and anterior tooth images of 100 Turkish dental students viewed from the front and engaged in maximum smiling were recorded with digital photography under standardized conditions. Gypsum casts of the maxillary arches of the subjects were also made. The dimensions of the anterior teeth, the occurrence of the golden ratio, the difference between the actual and perceived sizes, and the relationship between the anterior teeth and several facial measurements by gender were analyzed using the information obtained from both the computer images and the casts. One-sample, 2-sample, and paired t tests, and repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan multiple-range tests were performed to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The dimensions of the central incisors (P<.05) and canines (P<.01) varied by gender. The existence of the so-called "golden proportion" for the maxillary anterior teeth as a whole was not found. Significant differences emerged when the mean ratios between various perceived widths were compared with their ideal golden ratios (P<.01). Proportional relationships between the bizygomatic width and the width of the central incisor, and the intercanine distance and the interalar width in women were observed. The maxillary central incisor and canine dimensions of men were greater than those of women in the Turkish population studied, with the canines showing the greatest gender variation. Neither a golden proportion nor any other recurrent proportion for all anterior teeth was determined. Bizygomatic width and interalar

  20. Teeth grinding, oral motor performance and maximal bite force in cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Botti Rodrigues Santos, Maria Teresa; Duarte Ferreira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Guimarães, Antonio Sergio; Lira Ortega, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Identify whether the degree of oral motor performance is related to the presence of teeth grinding and maximal bite force values in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Ninety-five spastic cerebral palsy children with and without teeth grinding, according to caregivers' reports, were submitted to a comprehensive oral motor performance evaluation during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Maximal bite force was measured using an electronic gnathodynamometer. The teeth grinding group (n = 42) was younger, used anticonvulsant drugs, and was more frequently classified within the subfunctional oral motor performance category. Teeth grinding subfunctional spastic cerebral palsy children presented lower values of maximal bite force. The functional groups showing the presence or absence of teeth grinding presented higher values of maximal bite force compared with the subfunctional groups. In spastic cerebral palsy children, teeth grinding is associated with the worse oral motor performance. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interdisciplinary treatment of a patient with multiple missing teeth and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Chan; Lee, Jae-Hong; Yoon, Joon-Ho; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    A 49-year-old woman with several missing and periodontically compromised teeth was referred to the orthodontic department of National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital by the periodontic department for interdisciplinary treatment. Multiple posterior teeth had been extracted 10 days earlier. Her chief complaint was crowding of the anterior teeth, and she wanted to improve both esthetics and function. Orthodontic, periodontic, and prosthodontic treatments were undertaken in the proper timing and sequence with an interdisciplinary approach. As a result, improved periodontal health and a stable occlusion and vertical dimension were achieved. Although there were limited teeth and alveolar bone for anchorage, good esthetic and functional treatment results were obtained through the application of temporary anchorage devices and proper biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between anticonvulsant drugs and teeth-grinding in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A O L; Dos Santos, M T B R; Mendes, F M; Ciamponi, A L

    2014-09-01

    The relation between teeth-grinding and the use of drugs acting on the central nervous system of cerebral palsy (CP) patients has not yet been described. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence or absence of teeth-grinding (sleep and/or awake periods) in normal and in CP children and adolescents, as well as the association of teeth-grinding and use of anticonvulsant drugs. The sample consisted of 207 children and adolescents, divided into three groups: G1, individuals with CP who did not take anticonvulsant drugs; G2, individuals with CP administered medications on a regular basis; and CG, normal individuals. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of teeth-grinding with some variables. No significant statistical differences were observed regarding the presence or absence of teeth-grinding when G1 and G2 were compared. However, compared with the CG, a statistically significant difference was determined, with the CG showing fewer children presenting teeth-grinding (P < 0·001). Among those children/adolescents prescribed drug therapy, the barbiturate group showed a greater frequency of teeth-grinding. CP children and adolescents show a greater and significant presence of grinding of the teeth compared with normal individuals. Subjects taking barbiturate drugs showed greater presence of teeth-grinding, than those who were taking medications from the other groups of anticonvulsant drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fracture modes in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Chai, H; Lucas, P W; Thompson, V P; Lawn, B R

    2009-03-01

    The structural integrity of teeth under stress is vital to functional longevity. We tested the hypothesis that this integrity is limited by fracture of the enamel. Experiments were conducted on molar teeth, with a metal rod loaded onto individual cusps. Fracture during testing was tracked with a video camera. Two longitudinal modes of cracking were observed: median cracking from the contact zone, and margin cracking along side walls. Median cracks initiated from plastic damage at the contact site, at first growing slowly and then accelerating to the tooth margin. Margin cracks appeared to originate from the cemento-enamel junction, and traversed the tooth wall adjacent to the loaded cusp from the gingival to the occlusal surface. All cracks remained confined within the enamel shell up to about 550 N. At higher loads, additional crack modes--such as enamel chipping and delamination--began to manifest themselves, leading to more comprehensive failure of the tooth structure.

  4. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of long-term disinfection procedures on hardness property of resin denture teeth.

    PubMed

    Campanha, Nara Hellen; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of long-term disinfection procedures on the Vickers hardness (VHN) of acrylic resin denture teeth. Five acrylic resin denture teeth (Vipi Dent Plus-V, Trilux-T, Biolux-B, Postaris-P and Artiplus-A) and one composite resin denture teeth (SR-Orthosit-O) were embedded in heat-polymerised acrylic resin within polyvinylchloride tubes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48 h. Measurements of hardness were taken after the following disinfection procedures: immersion for 7 days in 4% chlorhexidine gluconate or in 1% sodium hypochlorite (CIm and HIm group, respectively) and seven daily cycles of microwave sterilisation at 650 W for 6 min (MwS group). In the WIm group, specimens were maintained in water during the time used to perform the disinfection procedures (7 days). Data were analysed with anova followed by the Bonferroni procedure (α = 0.01). Microwave disinfection decreased the hardness of all acrylic resin denture teeth (p < 0.001). Immersion for 7 days in 4% chlorhexidine gluconate or distilled water had significant effect on the hardness of the acrylic resin denture teeth A (p < 0.01), and 1% sodium hypochlorite on teeth T (p < 0.01). All disinfection procedures decrease the hardness of the composite resin denture teeth (p < 0.01). Teeth O exhibited the highest and teeth V the lowest hardness values in the control group (p < 0.01). Disinfection procedures changed the hardness of resin denture teeth. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  7. Pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Day, Peter; Duggal, Monty; Morgan, Claire; Rodd, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to determine whether any changes occur in the pulpal structure of human primary teeth in association with physiological root resorption. The experimental material comprised 64 sound primary molars, obtained from children requiring routine dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence using combinations of: (i) protein gene product 9.5 (a general neuronal marker); (ii) leucocyte common antigen CD45 (a general immune cell marker); and (iii) Ulex europaeus I lectin (a marker of vascular endothelium). Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of staining for each label within both the pulp horn and mid-coronal region. Following measurement of the greatest degree of root resorption in each sample, teeth were subdivided into three groups: those with physiological resorption involving less than one-third, one-third to two-thirds, and more than two-thirds of their root length. Wide variation was evident between different tooth samples with some resorbed teeth showing marked changes in pulpal histology. Decreased innervation density, increased immune cell accumulation, and increased vascularity were evident in some teeth with advanced root resorption. Analysis of pooled data, however, did not reveal any significant differences in mean percentage area of staining for any of these variables according to the three root resorption subgroups (P > 0.05, analysis of variance on transformed data). This investigation has revealed some changes in pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption. These were not, however, as profound as one may have anticipated. It is therefore speculated that teeth could retain the potential for sensation, healing, and repair until advanced stages of root resorption.

  8. Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Michael; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Internal spur gear teeth are normally stronger than pinion teeth of the same pitch and face width since external teeth are smaller at the base. However, ring gears which are narrower have an unequal addendum or are made of a material with a lower strength than that of the meshing pinion may be loaded more critically in bending. In this study, a model for the bending strength of an internal gear tooth as a function of the applied load pressure angle is presented which is based on the inscribed Lewis constant strength parabolic beam. The bending model includes a stress concentration factor and an axial compression term which are extensions of the model for an external gear tooth. The geometry of the Lewis factor determination is presented, the iteration to determine the factor is described, and the bending strength J factor is compared to that of an external gear tooth. This strength model will assist optimal design efforts for unequal addendum gears and gears of mixed materials.

  9. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble whitening ingredients and adenosine in different cosmetic formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J-S; Kim, H-T; Kim, M-G; Oh, M-S; Hong, S-R; Yoon, M-H; Cho, S-M; Shin, H-C; Shim, J-H; Ramadan, A; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2016-06-01

    The Korean Cosmetic Act regulates the use of functional cosmetics) by the law. Four functional cosmetic groups, whitening, anti-wrinkle, UV protection and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle, were categorized according to the Korean Cosmetic Act and Functional Cosmetics Codex. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) was employed for the simultaneous detection of arbutin (and its decomposition product, hydroquinone), niacinamide, ascorbyl glucoside, ethyl ascorbyl ether and adenosine in functional cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions and lotions. Separation by HPLC-DAD was conducted using a C18 column with a gradient elution of 5 mm KH2PO4 buffer (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and methanol (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid). The wavelengths for the detection of arbutin, hydroquinone, niacinamide, adenosine, ascorbyl glucoside and ethyl ascorbyl ether were 283, 289, 261, 257, 238 and 245 nm, respectively. This method exhibited good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2%) and mean recoveries (89.42-104.89%). The results obtained by monitoring 100 market samples showed that the detected levels of the tested materials are within the acceptable authorized concentration. The method developed herein is simple and can be used for market survey and quality control of functional cosmetics. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  11. Colour stability of denture teeth submitted to different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Freire, T S; Aguilar, F G; Garcia, L da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, F de Carvalho Panzeri

    2014-03-01

    Acrylic resin is widely used for artificial teeth manufacturing due to several important characteristics; however, this material do not present acceptable colour stability over the course of time. This study evaluated the effect of different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging on colour stability of denture teeth made of acrylic resin. Sixty denture teeth in dark and light shades were used, and separated according to the treatment to which they were submitted. Results demonstrated that colour stability of artificial teeth is influenced by the cleaning solution and artificial aging, being dark teeth more susceptible to colour alteration than lighter ones.

  12. Root resorption of endodontically treated teeth following orthodontic treatment: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ioulia; Zafeiriadis, Anastasios A; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on root resorption of endodontically treated teeth compared to vital teeth. A literature search was conducted in 18 electronic databases. Review articles and relevant articles were searched for cross-references. Two independent reviewers screened all articles according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted the corresponding data. The pooled estimate of mean difference of root resorption weighted by the fixed-effect model and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to construct a forest plot by implementing the "RevMan 5.1" software. Quality and heterogeneity assessments as well as publication bias evaluation and sensitivity analyses were performed. Inter-reviewer agreement for data selection, data extraction and quality analysis was evaluated by Cohen's kappa. Six out of 1,942 original papers met the inclusion criteria. Four out of six studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Root resorption was less in endodontically treated teeth than in vital teeth (MD = -0.48 mm; 95 % CI = -0.81 to -0.14 mm). The funnel plot indicated no evidence of publication bias, while no data heterogeneity was present (I(2) = 0 %). However, the overall quality of the included studies was considered as "low." Following orthodontic treatment, endodontically treated teeth exhibit relatively less root resorption than teeth with vital pulps. Clinicians should consider orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth as a relatively safe clinical procedure.

  13. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Primary Anterior Teeth using Temporization Material: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, IK; Gupta, Monika; Nagpal, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric dentists should always aim for esthetic and functional rehabilitation of decayed/traumatized primary teeth. The most common method for restoring such teeth involves the use of “strip crowns” with composites, while the recent trend is toward using other extracoronal restorations including preve-neered stainless steel crowns and zirconia crowns. All these restorative options have shown good success rates, but also have some limitations. This case series depicts novel clinical technique of using a temporization material for full-coronal restoration(s) in primary anterior teeth. This included the chair-side custom fabrication of full-coronal restoration using temporization material, which has resulted in good immediate esthetics and might be a cost-effective alternative for restoring primary anterior teeth in future. How to cite this article Gugnani N, Pandit IK, Gupta M, Nagpal J. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Primary Anterior Teeth using Temporization Material: A Novel Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):111-114. PMID:28377667

  14. Enamel remineralization on teeth adjacent to Class II glass ionomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Segura, A; Donly, K J; Stratmann, R G

    1997-10-01

    To examine the in vitro remineralization of incipient carious lesions on teeth adjacent interproximally to teeth with Class II glass ionomer cement restorations. Artificial carious lesions were created at the contact area of 30 teeth. Ten teeth had Class II glass ionomer cement/resin composite restorations placed, 10 teeth had Class II glass ionomer silver cermet restorations placed and 10 teeth had Class II amalgam restorations placed. Sections 100 microns thick were obtained longitudinally through the caries sites and polarized photomicrographs were taken in imbibition media of water and Thoulet's (R.I. 1.41 and 1.47) solutions, representing 5%, 10% and 25% pore volume respectively. Varnish was placed on the section, leaving only the external section site exposed, then sections were situated back into the original tooth. The restored teeth were abutted to the carious tooth so that the restorations came into contact with the adjacent restoration. The specimens were placed into closed environments of artificial saliva for 14 days, then were photographed again under polarized light and areas of the carious lesions were quantitated. An ANOVA indicated significant variance in adjacent tooth remineralization, when comparing the experimental groups, in imbibition media of water (P < 0.05), Thoulet's 1.41 solution (P < 0.008) and Thoulet's 1.47 solution (P < 0.006). Duncan's multiple range test demonstrated the glass ionomer cement/resin composite group to have significantly greater decrease in pore volume (P < 0.05) than the amalgam control group in water imbibition media and Thoulet's 1.47 media. There was no statistically significant difference between the glass ionomer cement/resin composite and glass ionomer silver cermet groups in these two imbibition media. The glass ionomer cement/resin composite group demonstrated significantly more (P < 0.05) decrease in pore volume than both the glass ionomer silver cermet group and amalgam control group in Thoulet's 1

  15. Aberrant growth of maxillary canine teeth in male babirusa (genus Babyrousa).

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alastair A

    2018-04-01

    A worldwide survey of babirusa skulls curated in museum and private collections located 431 that were from adult males and had retained at least one maxillary canine tooth. Eighty-three of these skulls were identified as exhibiting aberrant maxillary canine tooth growth. Twenty-four of the skulls represented babirusa from Buru and the Sula Islands, and forty-five skulls represented babirusa from Sulawesi and the Togian Islands. The remaining series of fourteen babirusa skulls originally came from zoo animals. Fifteen skulls showed anomalous alveolar and tooth rotation in a median plane. Twenty-nine skulls had maxillary canine teeth that did not grow symmetrically towards the median plane of the cranium. Fourteen skulls showed evidence that the tips of one or both maxillary canine teeth had eroded the nasal bones. Twenty-one skulls had maxillary canine teeth that had eroded the frontal bones. The teeth of two skulls had eroded a parietal bone. One skull had two maxillary canines arising from an adjacent pair of alveoli on the left side of the cranium. Three skulls exhibited alveoli with no formed maxillary canine teeth in them. Analysis suggested that approximately 12% of the adult male babirusa in the wild experience erosion of the cranial bony tissues as a result of maxillary canine tooth growth. There was no skeletal evidence that maxillary canine teeth penetrate the eye. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Strontium-90 in deciduous teeth in Finland. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, L; Rytömaa, I

    1975-01-01

    Deciduous teeth of Finnish children born in 1958-1967 were analysed for strontium-90 by means of Cerenkov radiation. The strontium-90 content was about 9 pCi/gCa in children born in 1963--1964; the values decreased strongly in the subsequent cohorts of children. The strontium-90 content of the deciduous teeth varied in perfect unison with that of cow's milk (r=+0.99). The results confirm that deciduous teeth provide a practical and accurate indicator of the total body burden of bone-seeking environmental pollutants.

  17. [DNA extraction from bones and teeth using AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Xu, Nian-Lai; Xie, Wei; Ding, Shao-Cheng; Wang, Dong-Jing; Ma, Li-Qin; Li, You-Ying

    2013-04-01

    To explore a new method in order to extract DNA from bones and teeth automatically. Samples of 33 bones and 15 teeth were acquired by freeze-mill method and manual method, respectively. DNA materials were extracted and quantified from the triturated samples by AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. DNA extraction from bones and teeth were completed in 3 hours using the AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. There was no statistical difference between the two methods in the DNA concentration of bones. Both bones and teeth got the good STR typing by freeze-mill method, and the DNA concentration of teeth was higher than those by manual method. AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system is a new method to extract DNA from bones and teeth, which can be applied in forensic practice.

  18. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Madu Ghana Shyam; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Babu, Duvvi Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth. PMID:28748053

  20. Mineral-related proteins of sea urchin teeth: Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Veis, Arthur; Barss, Joseph; Dahl, Thomas; Rahima, Mohammed; Stock, Stuart

    2002-12-01

    Sea urchins have a set of five continuously growing teeth, each of which has a very complex structure. The mineral phase is calcite of varying Mg content, depending on the location within a tooth. The calcium carbonate is present in amorphous, plate-like and rod-like forms. It has been hypothesized that the mineral deposition is a matrix-mediated process, similar to that in vertebrate bone and tooth, wherein certain macromolecules within the organic matrix of the mineralized tissue play an important role in nucleating and controlling the growth habit of the mineral crystals. It has also been hypothesized that the mineral-related macromolecules involved in urchin teeth might bear a direct evolutionary relationship to those of the vertebrate tooth. These hypotheses are explored here by examining the pattern and nature of the mineral distribution, using microCT of intact teeth, and the nature of the mineral-related matrix proteins. The mineral-related proteins were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography. The relationship of certain fractions to vertebrate matrix proteins was established by immunoblots using antibodies to vertebrate tooth proteins. The antibodies were then used to localize the proteins within the teeth, by immunocytochemistry and histology with specific staining. The microCT data on mineral density has been correlated with the patterns of cellular migration and mineral deposition within the tooth as it grows. It appears that the mineralization within the different tooth compartments might take place under the influence of different matrix proteins. Further studies are in progress to more completely describe the vertebrate-invertebrate immunologically cross-reactive proteins of the urchin teeth. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Microleakage of different temporary filling materials in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Odabas, Mesut Enes; Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Ozalp, Serife Ozdemir; Bodur, Haluk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sealing properties of IRM, Coltosol, Cavit G, Adhesor and Clip, which used as temporary filling material in coronal access openings in extracted human primary teeth. Standardized access cavities of 2 x 2 mm were prepared in the eighty-four, caries-free human primary anterior teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 16 teeth each. Temporary restorative materials Group A: IRM (Dentsply), Group B: Coltosol (Coltone), Group C: Cavit G (3M), Group D: Adhesor (Spofa Dental) and Group E: Clip (Voco) were applied according to the manufacturer's directions. The specimens were immersed silver nitrate and placed in film developer under fluorescent for 24 hours. The sectioned specimens were evaluated under a digital microscope at x 20 magnifications and blindly scored for microleakage. Clip presented the least microleakage value whereas; Adhesor and IRM presented the higher microleakage values. There were statistically significant differences between Clip and the others groups, while there were no statistically significant differences in microleakage between IRM, Adhesor, Coltosol and Cavit G. However the leakage scores of Clip and Cavit G were congruent (p = 0.454). Amongst the five materials, Clip exhibited a better sealing ability.

  2. Periodontal healing by periodontal ligament cell sheets in a teeth replantation model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yefang; Li, Yusheng; Mao, Ling; Peng, Hao

    2012-02-01

    Successful transplantation of avulsed teeth is to restore the attachment and regenerate the periodontal support. Different strategies have been applied in treatment from modification of teeth storage, antibiotic usage to peridontium tissue replacement. We developed a novel periodontal ligament cell-sheet delivery system to apply on delayed replanted teeth in promoting periodontal healing in a canine model. Autologous periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were isolated from extracted premolars of beagle dog. The cell-sheets were fabricated using normal culture dish after stimulation of extracellular matrix formation. Teeth were surgically extracted and attached soft tissues were removed. After root canal treatment, the root of teeth were wrapped by the PDL cell-sheets and replanted back to prior socket accordingly whilst teeth without cell sheets as a control. Eight weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified specimens were prepared. Regeneration of periodontal tissue was evaluated through histology assay. Multi-layered PDL cell-sheet could be attached on tooth root and most cells on sheet-tooth constructs were viable before replantation. Minimum clinical signs of inflammation were observed in experiment. PDL cell-sheets group show significant higher occurrence of favourable healing (88.4%) than control group with low healing (5.3%). Periodontal ligament and cememtum tissue regeneration was observed in the experimental group, and the regenerated tissues showed high collagen type III, type I and fibronectin expression. The periodontal ligament cell-sheets fabricated through normal cell culture dish has a potential for regeneration of periodontal ligament and may become a novel therapy for avulsed teeth replantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fault Analysis on Bevel Gear Teeth Surface Damage of Aeroengine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li; Chen, Lishun; Li, Silu; Liang, Tao

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the trouble phenomenon for bevel gear teeth surface damage of Aero-engine, Fault Tree of bevel gear teeth surface damage was drawing by logical relations, the possible cause of trouble was analyzed, scanning electron-microscope, energy spectrum analysis, Metallographic examination, hardness measurement and other analysis means were adopted to investigate the spall gear tooth. The results showed that Material composition, Metallographic structure, Micro-hardness, Carburization depth of the fault bevel gear accord with technical requirements. Contact fatigue spall defect caused bevel gear teeth surface damage. The small magnitude of Interference of accessory gearbox install hole and driving bevel gear bearing seat was mainly caused. Improved measures were proposed, after proof, Thermoelement measures are effective.

  4. Teeth eruption in children with normal occlusion and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Legović, Mario; Legović, Asja; Slaj, Martina; Mestrović, Senka; Lapter-Varga, Marina; Slaj, Mladen

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the differences in eruption of permanent teeth (C, P1, P2 and M2) in a group of children with and without malocclusion. A sample of 1758 children (921 boys and 837 girls), aged 8-13 was randomly selected. The subjects were grouped by chronological age (11 groups) and by presence of malocclusion. Statistically significant differences were found for both, upper and lower canines in the age group 11 (p<0.01). Statistically significant difference was found in the age group 8.5 for upper first (p<0.05), upper second premolars (p<0.01) in the age group 10, and the lower second premolars in the age group 11 (p<0.05). Premature loss of deciduous teeth caused early eruption of succedaneus permanent teeth, possibly leading to development of a malocclusion.

  5. Relationship of Number of Missing Teeth to Hip Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Cohort Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Jennifer; Wermers, Robert A; Sems, Stephen A; Viozzi, Christopher F; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-09-15

    To determine the relationship between the number of missing natural teeth or remaining natural teeth and osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly patients and to determine the relationship between the number of missing teeth or remaining teeth and osteoporotic fracture risk assessment (FRAX) probability. Number of missing teeth was determined by clinical oral exam on a total of 100 subjects, 50 with hip fractures and 50 without. Ten-year fracture risk and hip fracture risk probabilities were calculated using the FRAX tool. Statistical analyses were performed to determine strength of associations between number of missing natural teeth and likelihood of experiencing a fracture. Degree of correlation between number of missing natural teeth and FRAX probabilities were calculated. There appears to be an association between the number of missing natural teeth and hip fractures. For every 5-tooth increase in the number of missing teeth, the likelihood of being a subject in the hip fracture group increased by 26%. Number of missing natural teeth was positively correlated with FRAX overall fracture and hip fracture probability. Number of missing natural teeth may be a valuable tool to assist members of medical and dental teams in identifying patients with higher FRAX scores and higher likelihood of experiencing a hip fracture. Additional research is necessary to validate these findings. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Separate whitening effects on enamel and dentin after fourteen days.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Petkevis, Jason; Gurgan, Sevil; Doherty, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a bleaching agent, as it relates to enamel and dentin. Twenty-six extracted human molar teeth were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction and were randomly assigned to two groups. L*a*b* readings were taken with a spectrophotometer: on buccal surfaces of the crown, at enamel and dentin. The teeth were exposed to carbamide peroxide or placebo gel and L*a*b* scores were again recorded to determine color changes. Treatments were compared using ancova test with baseline color as the covariate. Relative to placebo, buccal surfaces exhibited the greatest Deltab* and DeltaL* color change. On buccal surfaces, the adjusted mean (SE) treatment differences were -7.8 (1.00) for Deltab* and 5.7 (0.97) for DeltaL, with groups differing significantly (p < 0.0001). On enamel surfaces, treatment differences were -3.6 (0.61) for Deltab* and 4.6 (0.80) for DeltaL* (p < 0.0001). Dentin exhibited the least color improvement. Adjusted mean (SE) treatment differences were -1.9 (0.87) for Deltab* and 2.4 (1.10) for DeltaL*, with groups differing significantly (p < 0.02) on dentin color change. The majority of color change seen on the buccal surface of tooth crowns exposed to carbamide peroxide 15% was because of the color change in enamel. As compared to enamel, dentin was less affected after 14 days.

  7. Understanding External Cervical Resorption in Vital Teeth.

    PubMed

    Mavridou, Athina M; Hauben, Esther; Wevers, Martine; Schepers, Evert; Bergmans, Lars; Lambrechts, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) structure and the cellular and tissue characteristics of external cervical resorption (ECR) in vital teeth and to understand the phenomenon of ECR by combining histomorphological and radiographic findings. Twenty-seven cases of vital permanent teeth displaying ECR were investigated. ECR diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic examination with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The extracted teeth were further analyzed by using nanofocus computed tomographic imaging, hard tissue histology, and scanning electron microscopy. All examined teeth showed some common characteristics. Based on the clinical and experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism of ECR was proposed. At the first stage (ie, the initiation stage), ECR was initiated at the cementum below the gingival epithelial attachment. At the second stage (ie, the resorption stage), the resorption invaded the tooth structure 3-dimensionally toward the pulp space. However, it did not penetrate the pulp space because of the presence of a pericanalar resorption-resistant sheet. This layer was observed to consist of predentin, dentin, and occasionally reparative mineralized (bonelike) tissue, having a fluctuating thickness averaging 210 μm. At the last advanced stage (ie, the repair stage), repair took place by an ingrowth and apposition of bonelike tissue into the resorption cavity. During the reparative stage, repair and remodeling phenomena evolve simultaneously, whereas both resorption and reparative stages progress in parallel at different areas of the tooth. ECR is a dynamic and complex condition that involves periodontal and endodontic tissues. Using clinical, histologic, radiographic, and scanning microscopic analysis, a better understanding of the evolution of ECR is possible. Based on the experimental findings, a 3-stage mechanism for the initiation and growth of ECR is proposed. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  8. Oral Hygiene Practices and Teeth Cleaning Techniques Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Syeda H; Ghazanfar, Haider; Haq, Sana; Khan, Najeeb A; Mehmood, Moeez; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Oral health is essential for general health and quality of life. It is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infections and sores, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity to bite, chew, smile, and speak; it affects psychosocial well-being too. The objective of our study was to assess teeth cleaning techniques and oral hygiene practices among medical students. Methods The data of the study were collected in two stages. The first stage involved the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire among medical students. In the second step, the students were asked to demonstrate their teeth cleaning techniques on a model. A standard teeth cleaning checklist was used to evaluate the students. The students were then given the checklist and a video on teeth cleaning techniques was shown to them. The data obtained was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.  Results Out of a total of 444 students, 256 (57.7 percent) were males while 188 (42.3 percent) were females. About 254 (57.2 percent) participants were preclinical medical students while 190 (42.8 percent) were clinical year medical students. A majority of medical students used medium consistency toothbrushes (177; 39.9 percent) and soft consistency toothbrushes (137; 30.9 percent). Most medical students (248; 55.9 percent) brushed two times a day while 163 (36.7 percent) brushed only one time. About 212 (47.7 percent) of the medical students used mouthwash along with a toothbrush while only 36 (8.1 percent) used floss along with a toothbrush. About 157 participants (35.4 percent) changed their toothbrush once in two months while 132 (26.7 percent) changed their toothbrush once in three months. The mean duration that participants brushed their teeth was 134.99 ± 69.01 seconds. Conclusion Medical students were found to have a faulty teeth

  9. Shaping of Rack Cutter Original Profile for Fine-module Ratchet Teeth Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    The design models and the process of shaping the cutting edges of the rack cutter for cutting fine-module ratchet teeth are considered in the article. The use of fine-module ratchet teeth can reduce the noise and impact loads during operation of the freewheel mechanisms. Mathematical dependencies for calculating the coordinates determining the geometric position of the points of the front and back edges of the cutting profile of the rack cutter, the workpiece angle of rotation during cutting the ratchet teeth were obtained. When applying the developed method, the initial data are: the radii of the workpiece circumferences passing through the dedendum of the external and internal cut teeth; gradient angles of the front and back edges of the rail.

  10. Emergence of Primary Teeth in Children of Sunsari District of Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anita; Hiremath, SS; Singh, SK; Poudyal, S; Niraula, SR; Baral, DD; Singh, RK

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the timing and eruption sequence of primary teeth in children of Sunsari district of Eastern Nepal and compared the eruption pattern of males & females between various, ethnic groups. Method This cross-sectional study, included 501 subjects, aged 3 months to 60 months selected by simple random sampling method. The determinant variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, and eruption of teeth were recorded. Results This study provides a model data on emergence of primary teeth and number of deciduous teeth in these children. This is a first study of its kind in Nepal. The findings of this study will help as a reference data for optimal use in clinical, academic, and research activities, especially for children of Eastern Nepal. PMID:18523631

  11. Tunable band-stop plasmonic waveguide filter with symmetrical multiple-teeth-shaped structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqing; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Wu, Wenjun; Chen, Dingbo; Xiao, Gongli

    2016-03-15

    A nanometeric plasmonic filter with a symmetrical multiple-teeth-shaped structure is investigated theoretically and numerically. A tunable wide bandgap is achievable by adjusting the depth and number of teeth. This phenomenon can be attributed to the interference superposition of the reflected and transmitted waves from each tooth. Moreover, the effects of varying the number of identical teeth are also discussed. It is found that the bandgap width increases continuously with the increasing number of teeth. The finite difference time domain method is used to simulate and compute the coupling of surface plasmon polariton waves with different structures in this Letter. The plasmonic waveguide filter that we propose here may have meaningful applications in ultra-fine spectrum analysis and high-density nanoplasmonic integration circuits.

  12. Aesthetic treatment of discoloration of nonvital teeth.

    PubMed

    Miara, P

    1995-09-01

    Attempts to treat discoloration in nonvital teeth were first reported a century ago. This article discusses two potential causes of nonvital tooth discoloration-trauma and endodontic treatment-along with a step-by-step clinical procedure for treatment of the discoloration. In trauma, hemoglobin is released into the tissues; iron oxides, formed by oxygen and iron in hemoglobin, cause discoloration and swelling that infringes on pulp space, forcing the pulp to recede with a potential loss of tooth vitality. After endodontic treatment, either hemorrhaging, materials used, or incomplete removal and breakdown of necrotic tissue may cause staining. The learning objective of this article is to review the causes and the prevention/treatment of discoloration in nonvital teeth.

  13. Teaching parents to look after children's teeth.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S

    1994-03-01

    Children's toothpastes with fluoride help to prevent decay, but parents should ask their dentist before giving fluoride supplements to children. Overdosage is harmful. Sugars eaten as part of a meal do less harm to teeth than those eaten frequently as snacks. Sugar-free infant drinks and children's confectionery are now on the market and are more "tooth friendly". Look out for the "happy tooth" symbol. Babies can be registered with NHS dentists as soon as the first teeth start to come through, and should be taken regularly to the dentist throughout childhood. Under the NHS scheme, dentists are paid a capitation fee to provide continuing preventive care and treatment for children free of charge.

  14. Overdentures on natural teeth: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Previgliano, V; Barone Monfrin, S; Santià, G; Preti, G

    2004-01-01

    The study presents a new type of copings for overdentures on natural teeth. A new type of custom-made copings was prepared on 10 extracted teeth and their marginal fit was observed microscopically by means of a mechanical device, and software was employed to measure the gap. The marginal fit evaluation gave satisfactory values with mean values of the gap measurements below the clinically accepted limits (mean gap: 25.3 microm; minimum 7.3 microm, maximum 56.5 microm). The advantages of these new copings are: the rapidity of their preparation; the protection of the root canal treatment, because the coping with this chair-side method is prepared and cemented in one session; the low costs.

  15. A novel mutation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene results in the formation of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Cai, Wenping; Jiang, Beizhan; Xu, Laijun; Liu, Shangfeng; Zhao, Shouliang

    2018-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are teeth that are present in addition to normal teeth. Although several hypotheses and some molecular signalling pathways explain the formation of supernumerary teeth, but their exact disease pathogenesis is unknown. To study the molecular mechanisms of supernumerary tooth-related syndrome (Gardner syndrome), a deeper understanding of the aetiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated syndrome is needed, with the goal of inhibiting disease inheritance via prenatal diagnosis. We recruited a Chinese family with Gardner syndrome. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of supernumerary teeth and colonic polyp lesion biopsies revealed that these patients exhibited significant pathological characteristics. APC gene mutations were detected by PCR and direct sequencing. We revealed the pathological pathway involved in human supernumerary tooth development and the mouse tooth germ development expression profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Sequencing analysis revealed that an APC gene mutation in exon 15, namely 4292-4293-Del GA, caused Gardner syndrome in this family. This mutation not only initiated the various manifestations typical of Gardner syndrome but also resulted in odontoma and supernumerary teeth in this case. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of human supernumerary teeth suggests that the APC gene is the key gene involved in the development of supernumerary teeth in humans. The mouse tooth germ development expression profile shows that the APC gene plays an important role in tooth germ development. We identified a new mutation in the APC gene that results in supernumerary teeth in association with Gardner syndrome. This information may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of supernumerary teeth. Gene-based diagnosis and gene therapy for supernumerary teeth may become available in the future, and our study provides a high-resolution reference for treating other syndromes associated with supernumerary teeth. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of

  16. Distribution of bacterial morphotypes around natural teeth and titanium implants ad modum Brånemark.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, M; Listgarten, M A

    1990-12-01

    The subgingival plaque around both teeth and implants was analysed by means of differential phase-contrast microscopy. It was noted that, in comparison to natural teeth, the subgingival samples from implants were more frequently too small to provide adequate bacterial counts. In 24 partially edentulous patients (with implants and teeth in the same jaw), no significant differences in the distribution of bacterial morphotypes could be found between implants and natural teeth. The %s of coccoid cells, motile rods, spirochetes and other bacteria were 65.8, 2.3, 2.1, and 29.8 for implants and 55.6, 4.9, 3.6, and 34.9 for teeth, respectively. However, when the plaque composition on the implants of fully edentulous patients was compared with those of teeth or implants of partially edentulous patients (with teeth and implants in the same and/or opposite jaw), significant differences appeared. In fully edentulous patients, more coccoid cells (71.3%) and significant fewer motile rods (0.4%) and spirochetes (0.0) were found around the implants. The results suggest that teeth may serve as a reservoir for the bacterial colonisation of titanium implants in the same mouth.

  17. Characteristic Examination of New Synchronous Motor that Composes Craw Teeth of Soft Magnetic Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Yuji; Ito, Motoya; Masaki, Ryozo; Asaka, Kazuo

    We examined the claw type teeth motor as one application of the soft magnetic composite to a motor core. In order to understand quantitatively the characteristics of the claw type teeth motor, we used the 3-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis to predict its characteristics in advance and manufactured a trial motor to estimate it. And we examined the advantages of the claw type teeth motor comparing with a conventional slot type motor. The results are: 1. By using the 3-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis, it is able to estimate with high accuracy the characteristics of the 3-phase permanent magnet synchronous claw type teeth motor having a core composed of the soft magnetic composite. 2. The claw type teeth motor is able to achieve about 20% higher output than a conventional slot type motor having an electromagnetic steel core, while both volumes are equal. 3. The motor efficiency of the claw type teeth motor is about 3.5% higher than the conventional motor.

  18. Improvement of age estimation using amino acid racemization in a case of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, I

    1998-03-01

    Age was estimated from pink teeth using racemization of dentinal aspartic acid. Materials for identification were two lower second premolars. The body was determined to be that of a 40-year-old man; however, the age of the decedent had been estimated to be 29 and 30 years by the conventional method and 30 years from findings in the oral cavity. To clarify the cause of this difference, the powdered teeth were further washed in 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The racemization ratio (D/L ratio) of ordinary white teeth from persons of known age was slightly lower than that before washing, whereas that of the teeth used for identification was higher than before washing. The calculated age of the decedent using the racemization ratio of his teeth was between 36 and 37 years. These results suggest that age estimated from pink teeth is probably underestimated, but a more accurate age estimate can be obtained after adequate washing.

  19. X-linked hypophosphatemia: the mutant gene is expressed in teeth as well as in kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, E D; Scriver, C R; Reade, T; Fujiwara, T M; Morgan, K; Ciampi, A; Schwartz, S

    1990-01-01

    Mutation at a locus (HPDR) on the X chromosome (McKusick 30780 [HPDR1]; 30781 [HPDR2]) causes impaired renal phosphate transport, hypophosphatemia, and an associated impairment in the process of mineralization in bone and teeth (X-linked hypophosphatemia [XLH]). We measured the dental pulp profile area (PRATIO [= pulp area/tooth area]) and serum phosphorus (Pi) values in uniformly treated XLH patients (six males, 81 teeth, 1,457 Pi values; 11 females, 129 teeth, 1,439 Pi values). Serum Pi values, reflecting the metabolic environment of tooth development, were obtained by repeated measurement between 1 mo and 26 years of age during treatment. PRATIO values calculated from standardized Rinn radiographs were used as outcome measurements of tooth development in XLH patients and in age-matched controls (12 males, 100 teeth; 27 females, 275 teeth). Age-dependent serum Pi values were not different in the treated XLH males and females. In teeth forming primary dentin there was no gene dosage effect on PRATIO values apparent in subjects below 15 years of age. However, in teeth forming secondary dentin a gene dosage was found in the subjects aged 15 to 25 years: XLH male teeth (n = 65) mean +/- SD = 0.163 +/- 0.046; XLH female teeth (n = 75) mean +/- SD = 0.137 +/- 0.039; control teeth (n = 209) mean +/- SD = 0.116 +/- 0.023; (higher PRATIO values mean less development or mineralization of secondary dentin); differences in these PRATIO values (males vs. female and XLH vs. control) were significant by mixed-model analysis of variance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2155529

  20. Grey-Markov prediction model based on background value optimization and central-point triangular whitenization weight function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun

    2018-01-01

    Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.

  1. Disinfection/sterilization of extracted teeth for dental student use.

    PubMed

    Dominici, J T; Eleazer, P D; Clark, S J; Staat, R H; Scheetz, J P

    2001-11-01

    Extracted human teeth are used in many preclinical courses. While there has been no report of disease transmission with extracted teeth, sterilization of teeth used in the teaching laboratory should be a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth using Bacillus stearothermophilus, a bacteria resistant to heat and frequently used to test sterilizers. In this study, 110 extracted molars with no carious lesions were collected and stored in buffered saline. An endodontic occlusal access preparation was cut into the pulp chamber of each tooth. Pulp tissue in the chamber was removed with a broach. Approximately 1 x 10(5) B. stearothermophilus endospores in culture medium were injected into the pulp chamber, sealed with Cavit G, and then placed in sterile saline for twelve hours. Ten teeth were placed into each of eleven groups. Seven groups were immersed for one week in one of the following solutions: a) sterile saline (control group), b) 5.25% NaOCl, c) 2.6% NaOCl, d) 1% NaOCl, e) 10% buffered formalin, f) 2% gluteraldehyde, g) 0.28% quaternary ammonium. Four additional groups were treated by h) 10% formalin for two days, i) 10% formalin for four days, j) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and 20 psi for twenty minutes, and k) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and twenty psi for forty minutes. Each tooth was then aseptically split and placed in an individual test tube with growth medium. Samples were examined for evidence of growth (turbidity) at forty-eight hours. Only autoclaving for forty minutes at 240 degrees F and 20 psi or soaking in 10 percent formalin for one week were 100 percent effective in preventing growth. A chi-square analysis of the data indicates these two methods were significantly better than all other methods (p<0.001).

  2. Near-Infrared Imaging for Detecting Caries and Structural Deformities in Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Angelino, Keith; Edlund, David A.

    2017-01-01

    2-D radiographs, while commonly used for evaluating sub-surface hard structures of teeth, have low sensitivity for early caries lesions, particularly those on tooth occlusal surfaces. Radiographs are also frequently refused by patients over safety concerns. Translucency of teeth in the near-infrared (NIR) range offers a non-ionizing and safe approach to detect dental caries. We report the construction of an NIR (850 nm) LED imaging system, comprised of an NIR source and an intraoral camera for rapid dental evaluations. The NIR system was used to image teeth of ten consenting human subjects and successfully detected secondary, amalgam–occluded and early caries lesions without supplementary image processing. The camera-wand system was also capable of revealing demineralized areas, deep and superficial cracks, and other clinical features of teeth usually visualized by X-rays. The NIR system’s clinical utility, simplistic design, low cost, and user friendliness make it an effective dental caries screening technology in conjunction or in place of radiographs. PMID:28507826

  3. Near-Infrared Imaging for Detecting Caries and Structural Deformities in Teeth.

    PubMed

    Angelino, Keith; Edlund, David A; Shah, Pratik

    2017-01-01

    2-D radiographs, while commonly used for evaluating sub-surface hard structures of teeth, have low sensitivity for early caries lesions, particularly those on tooth occlusal surfaces. Radiographs are also frequently refused by patients over safety concerns. Translucency of teeth in the near-infrared (NIR) range offers a non-ionizing and safe approach to detect dental caries. We report the construction of an NIR (850 nm) LED imaging system, comprised of an NIR source and an intraoral camera for rapid dental evaluations. The NIR system was used to image teeth of ten consenting human subjects and successfully detected secondary, amalgam-occluded and early caries lesions without supplementary image processing. The camera-wand system was also capable of revealing demineralized areas, deep and superficial cracks, and other clinical features of teeth usually visualized by X-rays. The NIR system's clinical utility, simplistic design, low cost, and user friendliness make it an effective dental caries screening technology in conjunction or in place of radiographs.

  4. Observation of Children's Teeth as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Wm. M.; Conchie, John M.

    1964-01-01

    Current interest in tetracycline staining of teeth and other enamel defects led to this review. In the handicapped child structural defects that were seen in the dental enamel may provide a most accurate etiological clue. The method of determining the time of insult is described. Comments are made on seven states in which enamel dysplasia may be frequently observed. A simple means of identifying tetracycline pigment incorporated in dental enamel is outlined. Bilirubin staining of teeth is also shown and warnings are given about the indelible nature of these pigments. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14118684

  5. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    PubMed

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  6. Changes in the chemical composition of mineralised teeth in children after antineoplastic treatment.

    PubMed

    Krasuska-Sławińska, Ewa; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bożenna; Brożyna, Agnieszka; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Sowińska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Chemotherapy, neoplasms, and their complications linked to malabsorption, malnutrition, and metabolic disorders may lead to improper tooth development and frequent severe caries in patients during/after antineoplastic treatment and to a more frequent improper tooth development in patients undergoing chemotherapy during odontogenesis. However, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown; there are no studies on the impact of antineoplastic treatment and its complications on the chemical composition of mineralised teeth. To compare the chemical composition of mineralised teeth extracted due to complicated caries in children after chemotherapy, and of teeth extracted due to orthodontic treatment in generally healthy children. The treatment group included five teeth extracted due to complicated caries in children after antineoplastic treatment. The control group included five teeth extracted due to orthodontic treatment in generally healthy children. The chemical composition of enamel, dentine, cementum, interior of the canal, and enamel abnormalities in teeth extracted from patients after chemotherapy and in generally healthy patients were assessed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results were analysed statistically. The magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) mass contents in the enamel of patients after chemotherapy increased and so did the calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio when compared to controls. Areas with abnormal enamel in patients after chemotherapy had lower concentrations of Ca and P, and higher concentrations of trace elements (Mg, Cl, and Na). The levels of the assessed elements in dentine, cementum, and inside the canal were similar in both groups of teeth.

  7. Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted maxillary central incisor: Surgical and orthodontic management

    PubMed Central

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Hegde, Manjunath; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2012-01-01

    Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management. PMID:22919229

  8. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam.

    PubMed

    Vangala, Manogna Rl; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, R V

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P < 0.0205), enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin - transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin - polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections.

  9. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Manogna RL; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, RV

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Materials and Methods: Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P < 0.0205), enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin – transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin – polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). Conclusions: This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections. PMID:27194857

  10. Infant teething information on the world wide web: taking a byte out of the search.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Mary; Peacock, Erica; D'Auria, Jennifer P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the quality of infant teething information on selected popular parenting Web sites. Two checklists were used to evaluate the quality of the 16 parenting sites and infant teething-specific content included on each site. Three of the 16 parenting sites did not contain teething-specific articles. Teething-specific content found on 13 of the 16 sites supported a connection between the process of teething and nonspecific symptoms with a perception that management is required. Popular management strategies included chewing on chilled objects, gingival massage, and the use of over-the-counter medications. Information about possible adverse effects of administering medications for infant teething was not found on the majority of sites. Eleven of the 16 sites advised parents to contact their primary care provider if they were uncertain about management for infant teething or whether the symptoms were related to illness. Although infant teething has an evidence base from which parents and professionals can make safe decisions about symptoms and treatment, translating the evidence into professional practice and health-related information on the Internet remains a challenge. Parents and pediatric health providers would benefit greatly from the development of clinical practice guidelines summarizing our present-day understanding of teething symptoms and the limited evidence supporting the use of over-the-counter medications. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal metal exposure in the Middle East: imprint of war in deciduous teeth of children.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Ali, S Sadik; Bacho, R; Savabi, O; Alsabbak, M

    2016-09-01

    In war zones, the explosion of bombs, bullets, and other ammunition releases multiple neurotoxicants into the environment. The Middle East is currently the site of heavy environmental disruption by massive bombardments. A very large number of US military bases, which release highly toxic environmental contaminants, have also been erected since 2003. Current knowledge supports the hypothesis that war-created pollution is a major cause of rising birth defects and cancers in Iraq. We created elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in deciduous teeth of children with birth defects from Iraq. Healthy and naturally shed teeth from Lebanon and Iran were also analyzed for trace elements. Lead (Pb) was highest in teeth from children with birth defects who donated their teeth from Basra, Iraq (mean 0.73-16.74 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm, n = 3). Pb in healthy Lebanese and Iranian teeth were 0.038-0.382 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 4) and 0.041-0.31 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 2), respectively. Our hypothesis that increased war activity coincides with increased metal levels in deciduous teeth is confirmed by this research. Lead levels were similar in Lebanese and Iranian deciduous teeth. Deciduous teeth from Iraqi children with birth defects had remarkably higher levels of Pb. Two Iraqi teeth had four times more Pb, and one tooth had as much as 50 times more Pb than samples from Lebanon and Iran.

  12. Biologically based treatment of immature permanent teeth with pulpal necrosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il-Young; Lee, Seung-Jong; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2012-06-01

    This case series reports the outcomes of 8 patients (ages 9-4 years) who presented with 9 immature permanent teeth with pulpal necrosis and apical periodontitis. During treatment, 5 of the teeth were found to have at least some residual vital tissue remaining in the root canal systems. After NaOCI irrigation and medication with ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline, these teeth were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and restored. The other group of 4 teeth had no evidence of any residual vital pulp tissue. This second group of teeth was treated with NaOCl irrigation and medicated with ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline followed by a revascularization procedure adopted from the trauma literature (bleeding evoked to form an intracanal blood clot). In both groups of patients, there was evidence of satisfactory postoperative clinical outcomes (1-5 years); the patients were asymptomatic, no sinus tracts were evident, apical periodontitis was resolved, and there was radiographic evidence of continuing thickness of dentinal walls, apical closure, or increased root length.

  13. Non-masticatory uses of anterior teeth of Sima de los Huesos individuals (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lozano, Marina; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine the labial and occlusal surfaces of incisors and canines of hominins recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH), middle Pleistocene site, in order to establish the possible extra-masticatory use of anterior teeth. We have compared the microwear of these fossils with microwear from the anterior teeth of Australian Aborigines, a population characterized by ethnographic evidence of the use of their teeth as a third hand. These two samples of teeth were microscopically analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our results support the "cultural" origin of microwear observed on fossil teeth: we conclude that the SH hominins used their anterior teeth as a "third hand" for para- or extra-masticatory activities.

  14. [Overdenture supported by natural teeth: analysis of clinical advantages].

    PubMed

    Scotti, R; Melilli, D; Pizzo, G

    2003-05-01

    Hybrid prosthesis supported by natural teeth (overdenture) is widely used in clinical practice and should be executed whenever the clinical conditions suggest it. Through a critical review of the literature, the anatomical, functional, psychological and clinical advantages are emphasized. Among the first ones, the prophylaxis of residual anatomical components, due to the limitation of bone resorption, and the preservation of sensorial proprioception are relevant. Important advantages are also represented by a better crown-root ratio of residual teeth supporting overdenture, with the consequent improvement of the longitudinal prognosis of such teeth. The greater retention and stability of overdenture in comparison with complete denture greatly improve the masticatory efficacy. The psychological advantages resulting from the dental anchorage, which allows the patient to be more confident in social life, are also relevant. Finally, when the dental support is lost, converting overdenture into complete denture is simple and quick, and makes easier the longitudinal clinical maintenance of the denture.

  15. Colour Stability of Various Types of Acrylic Teeth Exposed to Coffee, Tea and Cola.

    PubMed

    S, Mousavi; S, Narimani; S, Hekmatfar; K, Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic teeth of dentures are prone to discoloration due to frequent exposure to different colouring solutions in the oral environment. Thus, in order to maintain their aesthetic appearance, they must possess high colour stability while exposed to colorant solutions. To compare the colour stability of three different brands of acrylic teeth following immersion in coffee, tea and cola. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 90 acrylic teeth in three groups (n = 30) of Ivoclar (Italy), PolyDent (Slovenia) and Apple (Iran). The teeth were immersed in coffee, cola and tea for one, three and six weeks (the teeth were not in contact with each other). Colour parameters were assessed before and after immersion using a spectrophotometer, and overall change in colour parameters was calculated. The overall colour change (ΔE) of the three groups at different time points was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test. Coffee caused the greatest colour change in Apple acrylic teeth after six weeks (mean ΔE of 4.6 for coffee and 3.4 for tea and cola). Tea caused an almost equal colour change in the three groups. The greatest colour change in the Ivoclar teeth occurred in cola after six weeks (mean ΔE of 3.3, 3.4 and 2.8 for cola, tea and coffee, respectively). The greatest ΔE occurred at six weeks and was the highest in Apple, followed by PolyDent and then Ivoclar teeth in coffee (mean ΔE of 4.6, 3.4 and 3.3, respectively p < 0.001). Despite the significant colour change in the three groups, ΔE in Ivoclar group was within the clinically acceptable range of ≤ 3.3. A slight colour change was expected regarding the Apple and PolyDent acrylic teeth clinically.

  16. Early-life factors affect risk of pain and fever in infants during teething periods.

    PubMed

    Un Lam, Carolina; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Yee, Robert; Koh, David; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Cai, Meijin; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-11-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of teething-related pain and fever and the early-life factors that may affect the risk of experiencing these disturbances within the first 1.5 years of life. Participants were recruited (n = 1033) through the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort (n = 1237). Interviews were performed tri-monthly regarding the prevalence of teething pain and fever in children from 6 to 18 months of age. Crude and multivariable analyses were conducted using Poisson-log regression models. Prevalence rates for teething pain and fever were 35.5 and 49.9 % respectively. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed maternal second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure to increase the risk of both pain (mean ratio = 1.35; p = 0.006) and fever (mean ratio = 1.22; p = 0.025), whereas SHS exposure plus active smoking further increased risk of teething pain in the children (mean ratio = 1.89; p = 0.029). Delivery via Caesarean section increased risk of teething pain (mean ratio = 1.27; p = 0.033), while prenatal plasma vitamin D insufficiency lowered such a risk (mean ratio = 0.62; p = 0.012). Compared to Chinese infants, Indian babies exhibited lower risk of teething pain and fever (both p ≤ 0.001). Early-life factors such as tobacco smoke exposure and vitamin insufficiency during pregnancy, ethnicity and childbirth via Caesarean section may significantly affect the child's susceptibility to teething-related pain and fever. Knowledge of prevalence and risk factors of teething disturbances may better equip primary caregivers and healthcare professionals to accurately detect teething-related local and/or systemic signs/symptoms and effectively facilitate tobacco cessation among pregnant women.

  17. Evaluation of thermal cooling mechanisms for laser application to teeth.

    PubMed

    Miserendino, L J; Abt, E; Wigdor, H; Miserendino, C A

    1993-01-01

    Experimental cooling methods for the prevention of thermal damage to dental pulp during laser application to teeth were compared to conventional treatment in vitro. Pulp temperature measurements were made via electrical thermistors implanted within the pulp chambers of extracted human third molar teeth. Experimental treatments consisted of lasing without cooling, lasing with cooling, laser pulsing, and high-speed dental rotary drilling. Comparisons of pulp temperature elevation measurements for each group demonstrated that cooling by an air and water spray during lasing significantly reduced heat transfer to dental pulp. Laser exposures followed by an air and water spray resulted in pulp temperature changes comparable to conventional treatment by drilling. Cooling by an air water spray with evacuation appears to be an effective method for the prevention of thermal damage to vital teeth following laser exposure.

  18. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  19. Do Autotransplanted Teeth Require Elective Root Canal Therapy? A Long-Term Follow-Up Case Series.

    PubMed

    Murtadha, Linda; Kwok, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    To determine the long-term survival and outcomes of 252 autotransplanted teeth with a novel root canal therapy (RCT) and follow-up protocol and to establish whether elective RCT after autotransplantation is routinely required for teeth with complete root formation. A retrospective analysis of 209 patients 10 to 58 years old, with a total of 252 autotransplants was carried out with a minimum observational period of 1 year and a maximum period of 29 years. Patients were reviewed at specified intervals. Only the teeth showing any radiographic or clinical signs of internal resorption (IR), external resorption (ER), or pulpal necrosis underwent RCT. A failure was considered the loss or extraction of the autotransplanted tooth. Ten of the 252 autotransplants constituted failures, with 249, 190, 155, 97, 70, and 35 teeth surviving at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively; the remainder were lost to follow-up. Eighteen percent of teeth (n = 46) showed radiographic signs of IR, ER, and apical pathology (AP). Most cases of ER were observed by 3 years (18 of 28 teeth) and then at 5 to -8 years. Only 3 teeth showed signs of IR, which were observed within 5 years. Most cases of AP were observed within the first year (8 of 15 teeth) and then at 3 to 6 years. Five teeth showed signs of pulp obliteration or sclerosis and did not require RCT, with a maximum period of 16 years after identification of sclerosis. Retrospective analysis of the data showed that 184 autotransplanted teeth had complete root formation and 68 had incomplete root formation at the time of autotransplantation. Of the teeth that were followed for at least 5 years, 59.3% had complete root formation with no signs of pathology and required no RCT. Despite the limitation of this long-term study of patients lost to follow-up, the results suggest that, with close monitoring, some autotransplanted teeth with complete root formation that do not undergo RCT could have the potential for revascularization

  20. A Technique for Staining Extracted Teeth: A Research and Teaching Aid for Bleaching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    teeth, the pulps extirpated, and the root canals instrumented with #10 to #20 files. The teeth were then placed in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for...patient and the dentist.4 Hence, the bleaching of these discolored non-vital teeth becomes an extremely important phase of endodontic therapy. 1-6...dentists at the Edward C. Penick Endodontic Study Club stated they never bleached a tooth as an undergraduate. Six chairmen of dental school

  1. Management of a rare case of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in an adult female patient

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Karunakar; Kumar, Mahesh; Amanna, Susan; Sridharan, Srirangarajan; Reddy, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the multi-disciplinary approach in the management of an unusual presentation of idiopathic multiple unerupted impacted permanent teeth in a 20-year-old female patient. The case was unique in that, not only were there multiple missing permanent teeth, but also over retained deciduous teeth and attrited existing permanent teeth with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. Since the patient was young, it was decided to retain all the erupted permanent teeth and extract the infected deciduous teeth with the objective of fabricating overlay complete dentures. This is a simple, reversible and an economical treatment modality, which satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated and, in addition, provides a stable occlusion. PMID:27621553

  2. Design Models for Shaping of a Tooth Profile of External Fine-Module Ratchet Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, O. V.; Koryagin, S. I.; Velikanov, N. L.

    2016-04-01

    Simulation of the shaping for the fine-module external ratchet teeth at which the contacting surfaces are formed by the straight segments is considered in this paper. The design schemes for shaping of the proposed ratchet teeth by a shaper cutter and a rack are obtained. It is defined that the maximum length of the straight segment of the front edge ratchet teeth will be formed at shaping by a rack cutter. The effect of a module, a gradient angle and a radius of blank circles on the length of the straight segment of the front edge ratchet teeth is investigated.

  3. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique.

    PubMed

    Ramnarayan, Bk; Manjunath, M; Joshi, Anagha Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.

  4. A comparison of the erosive potential of different beverages in primary and permanent teeth using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lussi, A; Kohler, N; Zero, D; Schaffner, M; Megert, B

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the erosive potential of different beverages and foodstuffs in primary and permanent teeth. Sixty primary and 60 permanent human teeth were immersed for 3 min in the solution under study (5 teeth per treatment group). Surface microhardness was measured before and after exposure. Initial (baseline) surface microhardness was lower for primary teeth than for permanent teeth. In both primary and permanent teeth, Sprite showed the highest decrease in surface microhardness, whereas yogurt showed an increase in surface microhardness in the primary teeth. Overall decrease was 27.2 +/- 17.5 KHN (mean +/- SD) for primary and 25.9 +/- 15.6 KHN for permanent teeth. The comparison of the erosive susceptibility in this in vitro model showed that primary teeth were not more susceptible to erosion compared to permanent teeth.

  5. Comparison of the microhardness of primary and permanent teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Haghgou, Hamid R; Haghgoo, Roza; Asdollah, Fatemah Molla

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of carbonated beverages is one of the etiological factors that cause dental erosion. The purpose of this research was to compare changes in the microhardness of permanent and primary teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages. This investigation was done on 30 healthy permanent molars and 30 healthy primary canines. Each group of primary and permanent teeth was subdivided into three groups of 10 teeth. The teeth was immersed in 40 ml of each of the three beverages for 5 min. One subgroup was immersed in water (as a control). The next was immersed in Lemon Delster and the last subgroup was immersed in Coca-Cola. The microhardness of enamel was measured using the Vickers method before and after immersion. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and t-test. Microhardness reduction in the primary teeth was significant in both the Lemon Delster and Coca-Cola groups (P < 0.05). This reduction was also statistically significant in the permanent teeth (P < 0.05). A comparison of the enamel changes in the primary teeth with permanent teeth after immersion in both beverages showed a greater microhardness reduction in the primary teeth in both the experimental groups. Coca-Cola and Lemon Delster caused a significant reduction of microhardness in tooth enamel. This reduction was greater in primary teeth than in permanent teeth, and was also greater after immersion in Coca-Cola than after immersion in Lemon Delster.

  6. Dental anomalies in primary dentition and their corresponding permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R R; Fonseca, J A C; Paula, L M; Acevedo, A C; Mestrinho, H D

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this paper are to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition in a sample of 2- to 5-year-old Brazilian preschool children, determine their distribution, and investigate their occurrence in the succedaneous teeth of the sample compared with a control group of children with no dental anomalies in the primary dentition. The one-stage sample comprised 1,718 two to five-year-old children with fully erupted primary dentition clinically examined for dental anomalies. All children presenting dental anomalies underwent panoramic radiographs. Descriptive statistics were performed for the studied variables. A control group matched by sex and age was studied to compare the prevalence ratio for dental anomalies in the permanent dentition. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition was 1.8 %, with no significant statistical difference between sexes. Double teeth were the most frequently observed. Dental anomalies on the succedaneous permanent teeth were diagnosed in 54.8 % of the children with affected primary dentition. The prevalence ratio (PR) for dental anomalies in the succedaneous permanent teeth was 17.1 (confidence interval (CI) 5.33-54.12) higher compared with the control group, higher in children with bilateral anomalies (PR = 31.2, CI 10.18-94.36). An association between anomalies of the permanent dentition and the presence of dental anomalies in primary teeth was observed, especially when they occur bilaterally. The results in the present study have a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of children with dental anomalies in primary dentition. Early identification of these anomalies can aid the dentist in planning dental treatment at the appropriate time.

  7. Inferring chronological age from DNA methylation patterns of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Cristina; Cilli, Elisabetta; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Sazzini, Marco; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine chronological age from modern and ancient remains rely on both morphological and molecular approaches. However, low accuracy and the lack of standardized protocols make the development of alternative methods for the estimation of individual's age even more urgent for several research fields, such as biological anthropology, biodemography, forensics, evolutionary genetics, and ancient DNA studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify genomic regions whose DNA methylation level correlates with age in modern teeth. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to analyze DNA methylation levels of specific CpGs located in the ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes. We considered methylation data from cementum, dentin and pulp of 21 modern teeth (from 17 to 77 years old) to construct a mathematical model able to exploit DNA methylation values to predict age of the individuals. The median difference between the real age and that estimated using DNA methylation values is 1.20 years (SD = 1.9) if DNA is recovered from both cementum and pulp of the same modern teeth, 2.25 years (SD = 2.5) if DNA is recovered from dental pulp, 2.45 years (SD = 3.3) if DNA is extracted from cementum and 7.07 years (SD = 7.0) when DNA is recovered from dentin only. We propose for the first time the evaluation of DNA methylation at ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes as a powerful tool to predict age in modern teeth for anthropological applications. Future studies are needed to apply this method also to historical and relatively ancient human teeth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Novel Marker Based Method to Teeth Alignment in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukinen, Jean-Marc; Aalto, Daniel; Malinen, Jarmo; Niikuni, Naoko; Saunavaara, Jani; Jääsaari, Päivi; Ojalammi, Antti; Parkkola, Riitta; Soukka, Tero; Happonen, Risto-Pekka

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can precisely capture the anatomy of the vocal tract. However, the crowns of teeth are not visible in standard MRI scans. In this study, a marker-based teeth alignment method is presented and evaluated. Ten patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were enrolled. Supraglottal airways were imaged preoperatively using structural MRI. MRI visible markers were developed, and they were attached to maxillary teeth and corresponding locations on the dental casts. Repeated measurements of intermarker distances in MRI and in a replica model was compared using linear regression analysis. Dental cast MRI and corresponding caliper measurements did not differ significantly. In contrast, the marker locations in vivo differed somewhat from the dental cast measurements likely due to marker placement inaccuracies. The markers were clearly visible in MRI and allowed for dental models to be aligned to head and neck MRI scans.

  9. Teeth in the Line of Fracture: To Retain or Remove?

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Jimson; John, Reena; Jayakumar, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze mandibular fracture site, relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium, vitality of teeth, displacement of the fracture segments and their implications, and determine whether to retain or remove the teeth in the fracture line. Fifty patients with 62 fractures were involved in this study. An electric pulp tester was used to measure the pulpal response. The degree of fracture displacement and the relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium were evaluated using panoramic radiographs. Fractures of the parasymphysis region constituted a majority of 60.87% in the gross displacement category. Four of 50 patients showed no response presurgically and minimal response postoperatively on pulp vitality testing. Patients with teeth in the fracture line showing no response on pulp vitality testing should be advised extraction to avoid further complications. PMID:22132255

  10. Wear rates of artificial denture teeth opposed by natural dentition.

    PubMed

    Douglas, W H; Delong, R; Pintado, M R; Latta, M A

    1993-01-01

    The wear rate of polymeric or composite-based artificial denture teeth on fixed, removable and implant prostheses is important in the maintenance of cuspal form, masticatory efficiency and occlusal stability. A servo-hydraulic based artificial mouth in which an occlusion was established between artificial denture teeth, and the palatal cusp of a human maxillary third molar was established and used to assess the wear resistance of 5 artificial denture tooth materials. Volumetric wear was determined for Dentsply Trublend SLM, Dentsply IPN, Vita Vitapan, Ivoclar Orthotyp and Ivoclar Orthosit denture teeth. Scanning electron microscopy was also done to assess the textural character of the wear facets of each denture tooth sample. The lowest volume loss was observed for Trublend SLM followed by IPN, Orthotyp, Vitapan and Orthosit. Textural assessment of the materials was consistent with the objective wear data.

  11. Comorbid depression/anxiety and teeth removed: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2010.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Wiener, Michael A; McNeil, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between participants (i) who reported having had clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety with 6+ teeth removed and (ii) who reported having had clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety with edentulism. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey 2010 was used for the study. Analyses involved using SAS 9.3® to determine variable frequencies, Rao-Scott chi-square bivariate analyses, and Proc Surveylogistic for the logistic regressions on complex survey designs. Participants eligibility included being 18 years or older and having complete data on depression, anxiety, and number of teeth removed. There were 76 292 eligible participants; 13.4% reported an anxiety diagnosis, 16.7% reported a depression diagnosis, and 8.6% reported comorbid depression and anxiety. The adjusted logistic regression models were significant for anxiety and depression alone and in combination for 6+ teeth removed (AOR: anxiety 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.38; P = 0.0773; AOR: depression 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P = 0.0275; P < 0.0001; and AOR: comorbid depression and anxiety 1.30; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.49; P = 0.0001). However, the adjusted models with edentulism as the outcome failed to reach significance. Comorbid depression and anxiety are associated independently with 6+ teeth removed compared with 0-5 teeth removed in a national study conducted in United States. Comorbid depression and anxiety were not shown to be associated with edentulism as compared with any teeth present. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Isotopic composition of recent shark teeth as a proxy for environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennemann, T. W.; Hegner, E.; Cliff, G.; Benz, G. W.

    2001-05-01

    The O, C, and Sr isotope compositions of teeth from ten species, belonging to five families, and three orders of sharks were measured to determine the influence of habitat, diet, and possible species-specific fractionation effects on the isotopic composition of biogenic phosphate from fish. The sharks were recently caught in subtropical waters off the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coast of South Africa, as well as from cold waters in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and Victor Bay (VB), Nunavut, Canada. δ 18O values of tooth phosphate (δ 18O P) range from 20.9 to 23.5‰ for the KZN sharks. For most species the range in measured δ 18O P values is about 0.6‰, but it may be as high as 1.1‰ for different teeth from a single shark. Dentine and enameloid within individual teeth have no apparent differences in δ 18O P values. The δ 18O P values of the KZN shark teeth reflect the typical habitat of the studied species, primarily the thermal structure of the water column off KZN at depths between 20 and 280 m. The δ 18O P values of teeth from different Greenland sharks from VB and Pacific sleeper sharks from PWS are very homogeneous, averaging 25.8 and 24.7‰, respectively. These values appear to be in equilibrium with deep (>500 m) ocean waters in each case at temperatures of about -0.3°C or less. There is little discernable evidence for species-specific fractionation effects for the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate in the studied marine fish. The oxygen isotope composition of carbonate in apatite averages about 9.1‰ higher than corresponding δ 18O P values, in agreement with equilibrium fractionation between carbonate and phosphate, but with a large variance (1σ = ±1.5‰). δ 18O C values also vary by up to 1‰ between enameloid and dentine within single teeth, but in a non-systematic way. Differences in δ 13C values between carbonate in enameloid and dentine is also large (up to 8‰) but the δ 13C values vary systematically. Enameloid is always

  13. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  14. PULPAL BLOOD FLOW CHANGES IN ABUTMENT TEETH OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Göknil Ergün; Kökçü, Deniz; Ceylan, Gözlem; Yılmaz, Nergiz; Güler, Ahmet Umut

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tooth supported (TSD) and toothtissue supported (TTSD) removable partial denture wearing on pulpal blood flow (PBF) of the abutment teeth by using Laser Doppler Flowmeter (LDF). Measurements were carried out on 60 teeth of 28 patients (28 teeth and 12 patients of TTSD group, 32 teeth and 16 patients of TSD group) who had not worn any type of removable partial dentures before, had no systemic problems and were non smokers. PBF values were recorded by LDF before insertion (day 0) and after insertion of dentures at day 1, day 7 and day 30. Statistical analysis was performed by student t test and covariance analyses of repeated measurements. In the group TTSD, the mean values of PBF decreased statistically significantly at day 1 after insertion when compared with PBF values before insertion (p<0,01). There was no statistically significant difference among PBF mean values on 1st, 7th and 30th day. However, in the group TSD, there was no statistically significant difference among PBF mean values before insertion and on 1st, 7th and 30th day. In other words, PBF mean values in group TSD continued without changing statistically significant on 1st, 7th and 30th day. TTSD wearing may show negative effect on the abutment teeth due to decreasing basal PBF. PMID:20001995

  15. Enhanced regeneration potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells from immature teeth.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, H; Iohara, K; Hayashi, Y; Okuwa, Y; Kurita, K; Nakashima, M

    2017-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from mature teeth by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced mobilization method can enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and improve pulp regeneration when compared with colony-derived DPSCs. However, the efficacy of this method in immature teeth with root-formative stage has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stemness, biological characteristics, and regeneration potential in mobilized DPSCs compared with colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. Mobilized DPSCs isolated from immature teeth were compared to colony-derived DPSCs using methods including flow cytometry, migration assays, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factor, and induced differentiation assays. They were also compared in trophic effects of the secretome. Regeneration potential was further compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Mobilized DPSCs had higher migration ability and expressed more angiogenic/neurotrophic factors than DPSCs. The mobilized DPSC secretome produced a higher stimulatory effect on migration, immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, endothelial differentiation, and neurite extension. In addition, vascularization and pulp regeneration potential were higher in mobilized DPSCs than in DPSCs. G-CSF-induced mobilization method enhances regeneration potential of colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fracture simulation of restored teeth using a continuum damage mechanics failure model.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Jianying; Zou, Zhenmin; Fok, Alex Siu-Lun

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to validate the use of a finite-element (FE) based continuum damage mechanics (CDM) failure model to simulate the debonding and fracture of restored teeth. Fracture testing of plastic model teeth, with or without a standard Class-II MOD (mesial-occusal-distal) restoration, was carried out to investigate their fracture behavior. In parallel, 2D FE models of the teeth are constructed and analyzed using the commercial FE software ABAQUS. A CDM failure model, implemented into ABAQUS via the user element subroutine (UEL), is used to simulate the debonding and/or final fracture of the model teeth under a compressive load. The material parameters needed for the CDM model to simulate fracture are obtained through separate mechanical tests. The predicted results are then compared with the experimental data of the fracture tests to validate the failure model. The failure processes of the intact and restored model teeth are successfully reproduced by the simulation. However, the fracture parameters obtained from testing small specimens need to be adjusted to account for the size effect. The results indicate that the CDM model is a viable model for the prediction of debonding and fracture in dental restorations. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Topic En español Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums Browse Sections The Basics Overview Take ... Brushing Tips 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Dental Checkups Get regular checkups at the dentist. Visit ...

  18. Treatment effects of microimplant-aided sliding mechanics on distal retraction of posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Hee; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to quantify the treatment effects of microimplant-aided mechanics on group distal retraction of the posterior teeth. The pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of 23 patients (mean age, 22.1 ± 5.17 years), treated with distalization of the posterior teeth against microimplant anchorage and without extraction of the premolars or other teeth except the third molars, were used. The soft-tissue, skeletal, and dental measurements in the vertical and anteroposterior dimensions were analyzed. The changes in interpremolar and intermolar widths and rotations of the molars were analyzed with dental casts. The upper and lower lips were repositioned distally. The Frankfort horizontal to mandibular plane angle was decreased in the adult group. The maxillary posterior teeth were distalized by 1.4 to 2.0 mm with approximately 3.5° of distal tipping, and the mandibular posterior teeth were also distalized by 1.6 to 2.5 mm with approximately 6.6° to 8.3° of distal tipping. The maxillary posterior teeth showed intrusion by 1 mm. There were increases in arch widths at the premolars and molars. The overall success of microimplants was 89.7%; a well-experienced clinician had a higher success rate (98%) than did novices in this sample. The mean treatment time was 20 ± 4.9 months. With microimplant-aided sliding mechanics, clinicians can distalize all posterior teeth together with less distal tipping. The technique seems effective and efficient to treat patients who have mild arch length discrepancy without extractions. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the microhardness of primary and permanent teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages

    PubMed Central

    Haghgou, Hamid R.; Haghgoo, Roza; Asdollah, Fatemah Molla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The consumption of carbonated beverages is one of the etiological factors that cause dental erosion. The purpose of this research was to compare changes in the microhardness of permanent and primary teeth after immersion in two types of carbonated beverages. Materials and Methods: This investigation was done on 30 healthy permanent molars and 30 healthy primary canines. Each group of primary and permanent teeth was subdivided into three groups of 10 teeth. The teeth was immersed in 40 ml of each of the three beverages for 5 min. One subgroup was immersed in water (as a control). The next was immersed in Lemon Delster and the last subgroup was immersed in Coca-Cola. The microhardness of enamel was measured using the Vickers method before and after immersion. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and t-test. Results: Microhardness reduction in the primary teeth was significant in both the Lemon Delster and Coca-Cola groups (P < 0.05). This reduction was also statistically significant in the permanent teeth (P < 0.05). A comparison of the enamel changes in the primary teeth with permanent teeth after immersion in both beverages showed a greater microhardness reduction in the primary teeth in both the experimental groups. Conclusions: Coca-Cola and Lemon Delster caused a significant reduction of microhardness in tooth enamel. This reduction was greater in primary teeth than in permanent teeth, and was also greater after immersion in Coca-Cola than after immersion in Lemon Delster. PMID:27583223

  20. Colour Stability of Various Types of Acrylic Teeth Exposed to Coffee, Tea and Cola

    PubMed Central

    S, Mousavi; S, Narimani; S, Hekmatfar; K, Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Acrylic teeth of dentures are prone to discoloration due to frequent exposure to different colouring solutions in the oral environment. Thus, in order to maintain their aesthetic appearance, they must possess high colour stability while exposed to colorant solutions. Objectives: To compare the colour stability of three different brands of acrylic teeth following immersion in coffee, tea and cola. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 90 acrylic teeth in three groups (n = 30) of Ivoclar (Italy), PolyDent (Slovenia) and Apple (Iran). The teeth were immersed in coffee, cola and tea for one, three and six weeks (the teeth were not in contact with each other). Colour parameters were assessed before and after immersion using a spectrophotometer, and overall change in colour parameters was calculated. The overall colour change (ΔE) of the three groups at different time points was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey’s test. Results: Coffee caused the greatest colour change in Apple acrylic teeth after six weeks (mean ΔE of 4.6 for coffee and 3.4 for tea and cola). Tea caused an almost equal colour change in the three groups. The greatest colour change in the Ivoclar teeth occurred in cola after six weeks (mean ΔE of 3.3, 3.4 and 2.8 for cola, tea and coffee, respectively). The greatest ΔE occurred at six weeks and was the highest in Apple, followed by PolyDent and then Ivoclar teeth in coffee (mean ΔE of 4.6, 3.4 and 3.3, respectively p < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the significant colour change in the three groups, ΔE in Ivoclar group was within the clinically acceptable range of ≤ 3.3. A slight colour change was expected regarding the Apple and PolyDent acrylic teeth clinically. PMID:28959762

  1. Influence of the remaining coronal structure on the resistance of teeth with intraradicular retainer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Neto, Tatiany de Mendonça; Porto, Vinícius de Carvalho; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; do Valle, Accácio Lins

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the resistance of endodontically treated teeth with intraradicular retainer different amounts of remaining coronal structure. Fifty freshly extracted maxillary canines were endodontically treated and randomly assigned to five groups (n=10), as follows: group 1 (control) = teeth with custom cast post and core; group 2 = teeth without remaining coronal structure; group 3, 4 and 5 = teeth with 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm of remaining coronal structure, respectively. All specimens in groups 2 to 5 were restored with prefabricated post and resin core. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and the fracture strength was measured on a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth until failure. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test. There was no significant differences (p>0.05) between the control group and group 2, and between groups 3, 4 and 5 (p>0.05). Control group and group 2 had significantly higher resistance strength than groups 3, 4 and 5 (p<0.00001). The findings of this study showed that teeth without remaining coronal structure had significantly higher fracture strength than those with remaining coronal structure (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm). When the dental crown was not completely removed, the amount of remaining coronal dentin did not significantly affect the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth with intraradicular retainer.

  2. Histobacteriologic Conditions of the Apical Root Canal System and Periapical Tissues in Teeth Associated with Sinus Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-03-01

    This histobacteriologic study described the pattern of intraradicular and extraradicular infections in teeth with sinus tracts and chronic apical abscesses. The material comprised biopsy specimens from 24 (8 untreated and 16 treated) roots of teeth associated with apical periodontitis and a sinus tract. Specimens were obtained by periradicular surgery or extraction and were processed for histobacteriologic and histopathologic methods. Bacteria were found in the apical root canal system of all specimens, in the main root canal (22 teeth) and within ramifications (17 teeth). Four cases showed no extraradicular infection. Extraradicular bacteria occurred as a biofilm attached to the outer root surface in 17 teeth (5 untreated and 12 treated teeth), as actinomycotic colonies in 2 lesions, and as planktonic cells in 2 lesions. Extraradicular calculus formation (mineralized biofilm) was evident in 10 teeth. Teeth with chronic apical abscesses and sinus tracts showed a very complex infectious pattern in the apical root canal system and periapical lesion, with a predominance of biofilms. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of different transitional restorations on the fracture resistance of premolar teeth.

    PubMed

    Qualtrough, A J; Cawte, S G; Wilson, N H

    2001-01-01

    Controversy exists over the most favorable material and type of restoration to be used to transitionally restore teeth destined to be crowned. This in vitro study uses fracture resistance testing to compare eight different transitional restorations in maxillary premolars. Ninety sound maxillary premolars were randomly selected and allocated to nine groups, each comprising 10 teeth. One group remained unrestored and was used as the control. Teeth in the remaining groups were prepared to a standard cavity form using: a copy milling process removing the palatal cusp. Restorations were placed using amalgam with dentin pins and cavity varnish; amalgam with an amalgam bonding agent; resin composite with dentin pins and a dentin bonding agent; resin composite with a dentin bonding agent only; resin-modified glass ionomer with dentin pins; resin-modified glass ionomer cement alone and cermet with dentin pins and cermet alone. Each restored tooth was then subjected to axial loading via a bar contacting the buccal and restored palatal cusps until failure of the restored tooth occurred. The mean load-to-fracture values were statistically compared and the modes of failure recorded. It was found that the choice of restorative material and type of restoration had little effect on the fracture resistance of the restored tooth with the exception of those teeth restored with reinforced glass ionomer cement alone, which exhibited a significantly lower resistance to fracture than the other restored teeth. However, the choice of restorative material/technique did influence the mode of failure. Failure in teeth restored with resin-modified glass ionomer cement alone produced the least damage to the remaining tooth tissue when failure occurred. Consequently, this material may offer the most favorable range of properties for the transitional restoration of extensively broken-down maxillary premolar teeth destined to be crowned. Furthermore, the findings of this study fail to support the

  4. [Endodontically treated teeth. Success--failure. Endorestorative treatment plan].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B

    1990-01-01

    More and more often the general dentist is finding the presence of endodontically treated teeth during his treatment planning procedure. He has to ask himself if the endo-treated tooth functions and will continue to function function successfully, when deciding which final endo-restorative procedure to apply. For this reason the dentist or the endodontist with whom he works should clinically evaluate these teeth, establish a diagnostic criteria of their success or failure and a treatment plan according to the prognosis. The purpose of this article is to offer an organized clinical view of the steps to follow when evaluating an endodontically treated tooth and how to establish a final endo-restorative plan.

  5. Clinical and radiological evaluation of inverse impaction of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Elif-Bahar; Kurklu, Esma; Gencay, Koray; Ak, Gulsum

    2013-07-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological features of children with inverted supernumerary teeth. Thirty eight patients with inverted supernumerary teeth (ST) were enrolled in this descriptive and restrospective study. Data from patient records including age, gender, status of dentition, number of ST, number of ST in inverted position, coexistence of ST in inverted and normal direction of eruption, location, orientation, morphology, clinical complications, management and radiography were assessed during 3-years period. Thirty eight patients with a mean age of 9.10 ± 1.97 years (range:6-13) and a strong male preponderance of 3.7:1 (male:30, female:8) had a total of 69 ST, of which 41 were in inverted position. Thirty five patients had one (92.1%) inverted tooth, whereas 3 patients had two inverted teeth per case (7.9%). All cases were located in the maxilla. Midline was the most frequent site for the single inverted supernumerary tooth in 18 (47.4%) patients, followed equally by the right and left premaxillary region in 10 patients each (26.3%). Regarding morphology, 30 patients had conical (78.9%) and 8 (21.1%) had incisiform ST. No tuberculate shaped ST was detected. There was no statistically significant difference between number of inverted teeth and delayed tooth eruption, diastema, local malocclusion, palatinal swelling (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between complications and age (p>0.05). Surgical removal at the time of diagnosis with subsequent follow-up during completion of permanent dentition was the treatment approach in all cases. Thorough clinical examination followed by a comprehensive radiographic screening is the crucial determinant of an accurate diagnosis of an impacted ST. Early diagnosis and timely management are key factors to prevent or minimize the complications, which may influence function and esthetics of the teeth and even psychological condition of the growing child.

  6. Perceptual distortion of face deletion by local anaesthesia of the human lips and teeth.

    PubMed

    Türker, Kemal S; Yeo, Purdee L M; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-08-01

    As visual guidance of facial movements is impossible, accurate movements for speech and mastication require an established body image that is formed via the information from mechanoreceptors in the skin, mucosa, periodontium, and proprioceptors in the facial and masticatory muscles and in the jaw joints. In this study we aimed to investigate how the acute deafferentation of lips and teeth alters the established image of lips, teeth and the thumb. We used a psychophysical method to determine whether the perceived sizes of the upper lip and front teeth change when the sensory input from the lips and front teeth is fully blocked. We also examined the perceived size of the thumb to test for acute interactions between the thumb and facial structures. Local anaesthetic blocking of upper lip and upper front teeth significantly increased the perceived size of the upper lip by as much as 100% (range 21-100%) in ten out of eleven subjects tested (overall mean 52%; p=0.001). The perceived size of the upper teeth also significantly increased by as much as 155% (range 30-155%) in eight of the eleven subjects during anaesthesia (overall mean 41%; p=0.035). When the region of anaesthesia was increased and both upper and lower teeth and lips were anaesthetised, the perceived size of the upper lip again increased, by 53% (p=0.040), but the change in perceived size of the upper front teeth (18%) was not significant (p=0.206). In both studies there was no change in perceived size of the thumb. The results illustrate the labile central interaction between sensory inputs and the importance of feedback from peripheral afferents in generating the subjective facial image. The timing, level, and area of anaesthesia may be important modifiers of these interactions.

  7. Multivariate Analyses of Small Theropod Dinosaur Teeth and Implications for Paleoecological Turnover through Time

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Derek W.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated small theropod teeth are abundant in vertebrate microfossil assemblages, and are frequently used in studies of species diversity in ancient ecosystems. However, determining the taxonomic affinities of these teeth is problematic due to an absence of associated diagnostic skeletal material. Species such as Dromaeosaurus albertensis, Richardoestesia gilmorei, and Saurornitholestes langstoni are known from skeletal remains that have been recovered exclusively from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian). It is therefore likely that teeth from different formations widely disparate in age or geographic position are not referable to these species. Tooth taxa without any associated skeletal material, such as Paronychodon lacustris and Richardoestesia isosceles, have also been identified from multiple localities of disparate ages throughout the Late Cretaceous. To address this problem, a dataset of measurements of 1183 small theropod teeth (the most specimen-rich theropod tooth dataset ever constructed) from North America ranging in age from Santonian through Maastrichtian were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods: canonical variate analysis, pairwise discriminant function analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicate that teeth referred to the same taxon from different formations are often quantitatively distinct. In contrast, isolated teeth found in time equivalent formations are not quantitatively distinguishable from each other. These results support the hypothesis that small theropod taxa, like other dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous, tend to be exclusive to discrete host formations. The methods outlined have great potential for future studies of isolated teeth worldwide, and may be the most useful non-destructive technique known of extracting the most data possible from isolated and fragmentary specimens. The ability to accurately assess species diversity and turnover through time based on isolated teeth will help illuminate

  8. Enhanced effect of fluorescent whitening agent on peroral infection for recombinant baculovirus in the host Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shang, Jinyan; Liu, Xunli; Cui, Weizheng; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Na

    2007-01-01

    The low efficiency of the oral infectivity of recombinant polyhedrin-negative baculovirus is a major bottleneck in the application of the baculovirus expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori L). In this study, the effects of a fluorescent whitening agent on improving the oral infection for the recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus in silkworm larva and their possible mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the peroral infection can be remarkably enhanced by adding VBL into the larval artificial diet. The maximum infection rate reached as high as 90% with the concentration of VBL (1%), which was then considered as optimal. The total protease activity and pH value of the larval intestinal juice were found to be lower when compared to the control, indicating an abnormal physiological change of the larval digestive system by VBL, which, in turn, resulted in improved peroral infection of recombinant virus.

  9. Dentinogenic responses after direct pulp capping of miniature swine teeth with Biodentine.

    PubMed

    Tziafa, Christina; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Papadimitriou, Serafim; Tziafas, Dimitrios

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulpal responses after experimental direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth with a new calcium silicate-based dentin replacement material. Thirty-four anterior and posterior teeth of 3 miniature swine were used. Class V or I cavities were prepared on the buccal or occlusal surfaces, respectively. Pulpal exposures were further performed using a round carbide bur 0.8 mm in diameter. Exposures were treated with white MTA Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) or Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France), and the cavities were further restored with Biodentine. The pulpal tissue responses were histologically assessed at postoperative periods of 3 and 8 weeks. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests. Inflammatory infiltration or pulp tissue necrosis was not found in any of the specimens. All teeth showed mineralized matrix formation in the form of a complete hard tissue bridge composed of osteodentin or osteodentin followed by a discontinuous or continuous reparative dentin zone. A significantly higher thickness of the hard tissue bridge was found in the group of teeth treated with Biodentine at both 3 and 8 weeks. A number of teeth, which were under root development at the onset of the experimental procedures, exhibited ectopic pulp calcification. The application of both calcium silicate-based materials in direct contact with the mechanically exposed pulp of healthy miniature swine teeth led to pulp repair with complete hard tissue bridge formation. The thickness of hard tissue bridges was significantly higher after pulp capping with Biodentine. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of coronal cementum in hypsodont horse cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki

    2014-04-01

    The horse is a grazing herbivore whose cheek teeth are hypsodon; that is, they possess long crowns that are completely covered by coronal cement at eruption. For elucidation of the sequential events in the formation of this coronal cementum in the mandibular horse cheek teeth, in the present study the lower 3rd permanent premolar teeth (PM4 ) from 3.5-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses were compared by using radiography, microcomputed tomography (Miro-CT), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study clearly showed that prior to coronal cementogenesis tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive odontoclasts resorbed on the enamel surface of the reserve crown in horse cheek tooth. Enamel resorption areas were relatively narrow, and started from the cuspal tips, and moved in the apical direction during tooth development. A primary cementum was initially deposited on the irregularly pitted enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) of the infolding and peripheral enamel. The infolding cementum filled grooves completely by the time of tooth eruption. On the other hand, in the peripheral cementum, the secondary and tertiary cementum layers were sequentially deposited on the primary cementum. These two cementum layers were sites for the insertion of the periodontal ligaments, and were continually laid down on the primary cementum coronally rather than apically throughout the life. The results of the present study suggest that the coronal cementum of horse cheek teeth is a multistructural and multifunctional tissue, meeting the requirements of its many different functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Management of Teeth with Persistent Apical Periodontitis after Root Canal Treatment Using Regenerative Endodontic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Huang, George T-J; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Lin, Louis M

    2015-10-01

    Regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) is currently used to treat immature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, recently RET has been used to treat mature teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis and resulted in regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and resolution of apical periodontitis. The purpose of this case report was to describe the potential of using RET to treat 2 mature teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy using RET. Two male patients, one 26-year old and another 12-year old, presented for retreatment of persistent apical periodontitis after root canal treatment of 2 mature teeth (#9 and #19). The gutta-percha fillings in the canals of teeth #9 and #19 were removed with Carvene gutta-percha solvent (Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India) and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The canals of both teeth were further chemomechanically debrided with rotary retreatment files and copious amounts of sodium hypochlorite irrigation and dressed with Metapaste (Meta Biomed, Chungbuk, Korea). RET was performed on teeth #9 and #19. Periapical bleeding was provoked into the disinfected root canals. The blood clots were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate plugs, and the access cavities were restored with intermediate restorative material. Teeth #9 and #19 showed regression of clinical signs and/or symptoms and healing of apical periodontitis after 13-month and 14-month follow-ups, respectively. Tooth #9 revealed narrowing of the canal space and apical closure by deposition of hard tissue. RET has the potential to be used to retreat teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Autogenous transplantation of teeth with complete root formation: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C S; Pasternak, B; Vansan, L P; Sousa-Neto, M D

    2006-12-01

    Autotransplantation is an alternative treatment for replacing lost teeth when suitable donor teeth are available. This paper presents two cases of successful autogenous tooth transplantation. Two third molars with complete root development were autogenously transplanted from their original sockets into new recipient sites on the same side of the mouth, one in the maxilla and one in the mandible. In both cases, the third molars were transplanted immediately after the first molar extractions. To provide better adaptation of the donor teeth, the recipient alveolar sites were remodelled using surgical burs. Semi-rigid splints were maintained for 45 and 15 days, respectively. Root canal treatment commenced one a week after transplantation and the canals were medicated with a calcium hydroxide paste before they were filled. Clinical and radiographic findings after 5 and 3 years of follow-up, respectively, are discussed in relation to the literature. Autogenous transplantation of teeth with complete root formation may be considered as a viable treatment option to conventional prosthetic and implant rehabilitation for both therapeutic and economic reasons. Careful surgical and endodontic procedure, together with careful case selection may lead to satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of age-related changes with cross-sectional CT imaging of teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Tatsumasa; Kita, Kanade; Kamemoto, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Wataru; Yoshida, Hiroyasu; Iida, Yukihiro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Tooth pulp atrophy occurs with increasing age. An age estimation procedure using dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was developed. Clinical dental CBCT images of 60 patients (aged from 20 to 80 years) were evaluated. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the pulp cavity to the cross-sectional area of the tooth (pulp cavity ratio) was calculated. The pulp cavity ratio in the labio-lingual plane of the mandibular anterior teeth and the mesio-distal plane of the maxillary anterior teeth was strongly correlated with the patients' age. The pulp cavity ratio of anterior teeth may be a useful parameter for estimating age.

  14. Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima; Nasser, Mona; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick

    2012-05-16

    Endodontic treatment, involves removal of the dental pulp and its replacement by a root canal filling. Restoration of root filled teeth can be challenging due to structural differences between vital and non-vital root filled teeth. Direct restoration involves placement of a restorative material e.g. amalgam or composite directly into the tooth. Indirect restorations consist of cast metal or ceramic (porcelain) crowns. The choice of restoration depends on the amount of remaining tooth which may influence long term survival and cost. The comparative in service clinical performance of crowns or conventional fillings used to restore root filled teeth is unclear. To assess the effects of restoration of endodontically treated teeth (with or without post and core) by crowns versus conventional filling materials. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS via BIREME and the reference lists of articles as well as ongoing trials registries.There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Date of last search was 13 February 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials in participants with permanent teeth which have undergone endodontic treatment. Single full coverage crowns compared with any type of filling materials for direct restoration, as well as indirect partial restorations (e.g. inlays and onlays). Comparisons considered the type of post and core used (cast or prefabricated post), if any. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. One trial judged to be at high risk of bias due to missing outcome data, was included. 117 participants with a root filled premolar tooth restored with a carbon fibre post, were randomised to either a full coverage metal-ceramic crown or direct adhesive composite restoration. At 3 years there was no reported difference between the non

  15. [Heat-induced symptomatology in human teeth. An in-vitro study].

    PubMed

    Baldissara, P; Bortolini, S; Papale, G; Scotti, R

    1998-09-01

    Various dental procedures can generate thermal increase in the dental pulp, in particular if they are incorrectly conducted. In literature the pulp cells are considered very heat sensitive. In this study the symptomatological response of patients during and after thermal administration to the dental crown has been recorded. The analysis of the symptomatology was used as an indication for the definition of the threshold of thermal damage. Twelve healthy teeth of four patients programmed for extraction were subdivided into six couples of homologous teeth. One tooth out of each couple was used for the immediate in vivo recording of the symptoms; the other, once extracted, was used to determine the thermal increase applied through the insertion of a thermocouple sensor. In each couple of teeth the thermal stimulus was equal. The average thermal increase was 11.2 degrees C. Pain starts at temperatures ranging from 39.5 to 50.4 degrees C with an average of 44.6 degrees C. This agrees with classical physiological data which reports the threshold of pain at 45 degrees C. The threshold of pain registered suggests that at temperatures below 44.6 degrees C damage to the dental pulp is improbable, at least in healthy teeth. The limit of 45 degrees C appears, therefore, to be a probable safe threshold, contrary to what is reported in literature.

  16. Teeth as biomonitors of selenium concentrations in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, April; Humphries, Murray M; Outridge, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2008-08-25

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element which has been shown to play an important role in protecting marine mammals against the toxic effects of mercury (Hg) and other metals. It has been suggested that metal concentration in marine mammal teeth can potentially be used as bioindicators for body burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Se concentrations in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) teeth and those previously measured in soft tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk). Tooth Hg concentrations are also measured, and the relationships between Se and Hg in teeth and soft tissues are examined. Se in the teeth of beluga was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Hg in beluga teeth was measured by cold-vapour atomic absorption. Tooth Se concentrations ranged from 108 ng/g to 245 ng/g dry weight, and tooth Hg concentrations ranged from 10 to 189 ng/g dry weight. In the soft tissues, Se concentrations were highest in the liver, followed by kidney, muktuk, and muscle. There were significant correlations between tooth Se concentrations and animal age, tooth Se and liver and muscle Se, and between liver Se and animal age. The molar ratio of Hg:Se in the liver was found to be 0.70. This study is the first to measure Se in the teeth of a marine mammal species, and HG-AFS is found to be an effective technique for determining Se in beluga teeth. Tooth Se can be used as predictor for liver and muscle Se, although these relationships may be strongly influenced by the association of Se with Hg in marine mammal tissues. This study contributes to an increased understanding of the storage and metabolism of Se in marine mammals.

  17. Relevance of the Implementation of Teeth in Three-Dimensional Vocal Tract Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traser, Louisa; Birkholz, Peter; Flügge, Tabea Viktoria; Kamberger, Robert; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Korvink, Jan Gerrit; Echternach, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of…

  18. Bone structure regeneration after low induction magnetic field treatment in teeth chosen for extraction.

    PubMed

    Opalko, K; Dojs, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to use and to evaluate the usefulness of the slow variable magnetic fields to aid the treatment of the teeth chosen for extraction. The marginal paradontium of periapical bone of teeth was in a state of extensive destruction. The teeth were chosen for extraction. 13 patients were chosen. 10 of them had with endo-perio changes and 3 suffered from full tooth luxation and had the teeth replanted. Those people were to have an extraction procedure or were declared as impossible to treat in other dental offices. Patients underwent non-aggressive skaling, endodontic treatment and were exposed to slow variable magnetic fields generated by Viofor JPS, accordingly to methods and parameters suggested by Department of Propaedeutics in Dentistry of Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. The process of healing of changes was evaluated radiologically. RTG done after 2 weeks and after 2 months were evaluated in respect of bone regeneration. They show the bone structure concentration. A RTG evaluation after half a year, two and three years show a preservation of the bone structure concentration. The use of slow variable magnetic fields contributed to bone structure regeneration and to preserve teeth with recorded endo-perio syndrome. Endodontic treatment of replanted teeth, aided with magnetostimulation has stopped the osteolisis process.

  19. Aspects on dental hard tissues in primary teeth from patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Hagberg, Catharina; Norén, Jörgen G; Nietzsche, Sandor

    2009-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare hereditary condition affecting connective tissues and dental hard tissues. Primary enamel and dentine from EDS patients were expected to differ from those of healthy subjects regarding morphology and chemical composition. Forty-seven exfoliated primary teeth from 25 patients with EDS were investigated. Morphology was studied using a polarized light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray microanalysis. Comparisons were made with 36 primary teeth from 36 healthy patients. Morphological analysis of enamel in EDS teeth showed a high frequency of postnatally hypomineralized enamel and postnatally located incremental lines, whereas dentine was normal in all patients. Chemical analysis could not reveal any differences between EDS and control patients except for lower content of C and a higher Ca/P ratio in the enamel in the EDS teeth, indicating porous enamel. Regarding dentine, EDS teeth had a lower content of C, and a higher content of Ca, P, and O. Ratios for Ca/C and Ca/O were also higher compared with controls. There are several aberrations of booth enamel and dentine in primary teeth from patients with EDS. These could explain the occurrence of both more dental caries and tooth fractures in patients with EDS.

  20. Recommendations for using regenerative endodontic procedures in permanent immature traumatized teeth.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter E

    2012-02-01

    The regeneration of immature permanent teeth following trauma could be beneficial to reduce the risk of fracture and loss of millions of teeth each year. Regenerative endodontic procedures include revascularization, partial pulpotomy, and apexogenesis. Several case reports give these procedures a good prognosis as an alternative to apexification. Care is needed to deliver regenerative endodontic procedures that maintain or restore the vitality of teeth, but which also disinfect and remove necrotic tissues. Regeneration can be accomplished through the activity of the cells from the pulp, periodontium, vascular, and immune system. Most therapies use the host's own pulp or vascular cells for regeneration, but other types of dental stem cell therapies are under development. There are no standardized treatment protocols for endodontic regeneration. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature and suggest guidelines for using regenerative endodontic procedures for the treatment of permanent immature traumatized teeth. Recommendations for the selection of regenerative and conventional procedures based on the type of tooth injury, fracture type, presence of necrosis or infection, periodontal status, presence of periapical lesions, stage of tooth development, vitality status, patient age, and patient health status will be reviewed. Because of the lack of long-term evidence to support the use of regenerative endodontic procedures in traumatized teeth with open apices, revascularization regeneration procedures should only be attempted if the tooth is not suitable for root canal obturation, and after apexogenesis, apexification, or partial pulpotomy treatments have already been attempted and have a poor prognosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Factors influencing treatment decision-making for maintaining or extracting compromised teeth.

    PubMed

    Lang-Hua, Bich Hue; McGrath, Colman P J; Lo, Edward C M; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate treatment decision-making with respect to maintaining periodontally compromised teeth among dentists with or without postgraduate qualifications in implant dentistry. A series of patient scenarios with varying degrees of periodontal disease levels was presented to dental practitioners. Practitioners' decision-making outcome was determined, and intention to retain the compromised teeth was analyzed in bivariate and regression analyses (accounting for postgraduate implant training, gender, years in dental practice, and implant placement experience). This study involved 30 dental practitioners with postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPP), 33 dental practitioners without postgraduate implant qualifications (GDP), and 27 practitioners undergoing training for postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPT). Variations in treatment decision-making were evident between the three groups. Differences in treatment approaches to retaining compromised teeth were apparent. Furthermore, variations in rehabilitation of extracted scenarios existed in terms of use of implant and number of implants need for rehabilitation. Accounting for dentist and practice factors in regression analyses, GDPP/GDPT were three times as likely to retain periodontally compromised upper molar, with or without pain, compared to GDP (without pain OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.04, 10.62 P = 0.04; with pain OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.09, 8.14 P = 0.03). Variations in treatment decision-making with respect to retaining periodontally compromised teeth exist between dental practitioners with and those without postgraduate training in implant dentistry. Furthermore differences in management approaches in how they would retain the teeth or rehabilitate the dental arch were apparent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Strontium-90 concentration measurements in human bones and teeth in Greece.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, K C; Assimakopoulos, P A; Ioannides, K G; Johnson, E; Soucacos, P N

    1999-05-19

    Strontium-90 concentration was measured in human bones and teeth collected in Greece during the period 1992-1996. One hundred and five bone samples, mainly cancellous bone, and 108 samples, taken from a total of 896 individual teeth were processed. Samples were classified according to the age and sex of the donors. Samples were chemically pre-treated according to a specially devised method to enable extraction of 90Y, at equilibrium with 90Sr in the original sample. Subsequently, 90Y beta activity was measured with a gas proportional counter. Radiostrontium concentration in bone samples showed small variations with respect to age or sex, with an average value of 30 mBq 90Sr/g Ca. However, 90Sr concentration measurements in teeth demonstrated a pronounced structure, which clearly reflects contamination from the 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the more recent Chernobyl accident. This difference is attributed to the different histological structure of skeletal bones and teeth, the later consisting mainly of compact bone. An age-dependent model for radiostrontium concentration in human bones and teeth is developed which is able to successfully reproduce the experimental data. Through a fitting process, the model also yielded calcium turnover rates for compact bone, as a function of age, as well as an estimate of radiostrontium contamination of foodstuffs in Greece for the past four decades. The results obtained in this study indicate that radiostrontium environmental contamination which resulted from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s, exceed by far that caused by the Chernobyl accident.

  3. Clinical outcomes for teeth treated with electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber meshes/mineral trioxide aggregate direct pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Wan; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Hung, Wei-Chiang; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Po-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-05-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible material for direct pulp capping. This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of pulp-exposed teeth treated with either poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber mesh (PCL-FM) as a barrier for MTA (so-called PCL-FM/MTA) or MTA direct pulp capping. Sixty human vital teeth were evenly divided into 4 groups (n = 15 in each group). Teeth in groups 1 and 3 had pulp exposure <1 mm in diameter, whereas teeth in groups 2 and 4 had pulp exposure of 1-1.5 mm in diameter. Teeth in groups 1 and 2 were treated with PCL-FM/MTA direct pulp capping, and those in groups 3 and 4 were treated with MTA direct pulp capping. Teeth treated with PCL-FM/MTA direct pulp capping needed a significantly shorter mean duration for dentin bridge formation than teeth treated with MTA direct pulp capping. Moreover, teeth with pulp exposure <1.0 mm in diameter needed a significantly shorter mean duration for dentin bridge formation than teeth with pulp exposure of 1-1.5 mm in diameter after either PCL-FM/MTA or MTA direct pulp capping treatment. In addition, teeth treated with PCL-FM/MTA direct pulp capping formed an approximately 3-fold thicker dentin bridge than teeth treated with MTA direct pulp capping 8 weeks or 3 months later. Furthermore, none of the teeth treated with PCL-FM/MTA direct pulp capping showed tooth discoloration after treatment for 3 months. PCL-FM/MTA is a better combination material than MTA alone for direct pulp capping of human permanent teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sox2 marks epithelial competence to generate teeth in mammals and reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Juuri, Emma; Jussila, Maria; Seidel, Kerstin; Holmes, Scott; Wu, Ping; Richman, Joy; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Arnold, Katrin; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Klein, Ophir; Michon, Frederic; Thesleff, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Tooth renewal is initiated from epithelium associated with existing teeth. The development of new teeth requires dental epithelial cells that have competence for tooth formation, but specific marker genes for these cells have not been identified. Here, we analyzed expression patterns of the transcription factor Sox2 in two different modes of successional tooth formation: tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth. We observed specific Sox2 expression in the dental lamina that gives rise to successional teeth in mammals with one round of tooth replacement as well as in reptiles with continuous tooth replacement. Sox2 was also expressed in the dental lamina during serial addition of mammalian molars, and genetic lineage tracing indicated that Sox2+ cells of the first molar give rise to the epithelial cell lineages of the second and third molars. Moreover, conditional deletion of Sox2 resulted in hyperplastic epithelium in the forming posterior molars. Our results indicate that the Sox2+ dental epithelium has competence for successional tooth formation and that Sox2 regulates the progenitor state of dental epithelial cells. The findings imply that the function of Sox2 has been conserved during evolution and that tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth represent variations of the same developmental process. The expression patterns of Sox2 support the hypothesis that dormant capacity for continuous tooth renewal exists in mammals. PMID:23462476

  5. Improved pathologic teeth migration following gingivectomy in a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Seki, Keisuke; Sato, Shuichi; Asano, Yukhiro; Akutagawa, Hideyasu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A case is reported of a 20-year-old woman with generalized severe gingival overgrowth covering almost all of the teeth with diastemata, diagnosed as idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After initial therapy, the patient underwent surgery consisting of a full-mouth internal beveled gingivectomy. Postoperatively, the maxillary anterior teeth spontaneously moved to almost optimal positions. Removing the cause by gingivectomy can lead to spontaneous correction of the pathologic tooth migration. With supportive periodontal treatment, the patient showed no recurrence of gingival enlargement or repositioning of the teeth at the 5-year follow-up.

  6. Transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide applied to cracked or microabrasioned enamel.

    PubMed

    Briso, A L F; Lima, A P B; Gonçalves, R S; Gallinari, M O; dos Santos, P H

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide during tooth whitening recognized in altered enamel by the presence of cracks or microabrasion. We used 72 experimental units (n=20) obtained from bovine incisors: GI-sound enamel; GII-teeth showing visible enamel cracks (4 mm to 5.7 mm in length); and GIII-microabrasioned enamel. The 12 remaining specimens were used to analyze the enamel surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were cylindrical and 5.7 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm thick. A product based on 35% hydrogen peroxide was used for bleaching, following the manufacturer's recommendations for use. To quantify the H2O2 penetration, the specimens were placed in artificial pulp chambers containing an acetate buffer solution. After bleaching, the solution was collected and adequately proportioned with leucocrystal violet, peroxidase enzyme, and deionized water. The resulting solution was evaluated using ultraviolet visible reflectance spectrophotometer equipment. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's PLSD at a significance level of 0.05, and significant differences in the penetration of peroxide in different substrate conditions were observed (p<0.0001). The penetration of hydrogen peroxide was more intense in cracked teeth. The group in which the enamel was microabraded showed intermediate values when compared to the control group. Microabrasion and the presence of cracks in the enamel make this substrate more susceptible to penetration of hydrogen peroxide during in-office whitening.

  7. [Three-dimensional finite element analysis of maxillary anterior teeth retraction force system in light wire technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chao; Xia, Xi; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of a maxillary anterior teeth retraction force system in light wire technique and to investigate the difference of hydrostatic pressure and initial displacement of upper anterior teeth under different torque values of tip back bend. A geometric three-dimensional model of the maxillary bone, including all the upper teeth, was achieved via CT scan. To construct the force model system, lingual brackets and wire were constructed by using the Solidworks. Brackets software, and wire were assembled to the teeth. ANASYS was used to calculate the hydrostatic pressure and the initial displacement of maxillary anterior teeth under different tip-back bend moments of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 Nmm when the class II elastic force was 0.556 N. Hydrostatic pressure was concentrated in the root apices and cervical margin of upper anterior teeth. Distal tipping and relative intrusive displacement were observed. The hydrostatic pressure and initial displacement of upper canine were greater than in the central and lateral incisors. This hydrostatic pressure and initial intrusive displacement increased with an increase in tip-back bend moment. Lingual retraction force system of maxillary anterior teeth in light wire technique can be applied safely and controllably. The type and quantity of teeth movement can be controlled by the alteration of tip-back bend moment.

  8. Does the presence of antagonist remaining teeth affect implant overdenture success? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, C; Baek, K W

    2010-04-01

    Many patients who need implant overdentures are not completely edentulous; they still have antagonist natural teeth or implant fixed prostheses. In such cases, however, little is known about whether existing natural teeth affect the success of implant overdentures positively or act as a complicating factor. This systematic review attempts to clarify the correlation between existing remaining teeth and the survival/success rate of maxillary and mandibular implant overdentures. An assessment of available relevant articles published in English from 1990 to 2009 was performed using an online database and a manual search in libraries. Although the opposing natural dentition was not sufficiently described in the literature, 10 articles about the mandible and 10 articles about the maxilla were selected. As there was no controlled study on the natural teeth opposing implant overdentures, this review could not reach a clear conclusion. The review did reveal a remarkably high success/survival rate for mandibular implant overdentures; maxillary implant overdentures showed a lower rate. The presence of antagonist teeth hardly seems to be a risk factor for success for mandibular implant overdentures. For maxillary implant overdentures, the existence of antagonist teeth might act negatively for implant survival, but they are certainly not a contraindication. Although a few articles stated this relationship, we could not find an apparent correlation between the remaining antagonist teeth and the success of the implant overdentures. A detailed description of the opposing dentate status and results of randomized controlled clinical trials would be required to characterize this evidence-based implant overdenture treatment.

  9. [A clinical study of gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong-hai; Lu, Chang-shou

    2008-10-01

    To study the clinical effect of Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction. 672 teeth were divided into experimental group and control group semi-randomly. All teeth were extracted after local anesthesia and sockets were cleaned. Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into socket in experimental group and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in control group. The complication of teeth extraction was observed on 0.5 h, 2 d and 7 d after extraction. The incidence rate of complication was calculated. The incidence rate of complication of teeth extraction in experimental group was 7.72%, which was lower than that of control group (24.43%). There was significant difference in the incidence rates of complication between experimental group and control group (P < 0.05). The incidence rate of bleeding, infection, pain, swelling and dry socket after teeth extraction in experimental group was lower than those of control group, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of complication of teeth extraction, this can be used in clinic.

  10. Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Horacek, Ivan; Tucker, Abigail S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. Here we document the dental pattern and development of non-functional (null generation) and functional generations of teeth during embryonic development. Tooth development is followed from initiation to cytodifferentiation and ankylosis, as the tooth germs develop from bud, through cap to bell stages. The fate of the single generation of non-functional (null generation) teeth is shown to be variable, with some teeth being expelled from the oral cavity, while others are incorporated into the functional bone and teeth, or are absorbed. Fate appears to depend on the initiation site within the oral cavity, with the first null generation teeth forming before formation of the dental lamina. We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals. PMID:22780101

  11. Micro-CT evaluation of apical delta morphologies in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianhua; Tay, Franklin R; Gutmann, James L; Fan, Wei; Xu, Ting; Fan, Bing

    2016-11-07

    The apical delta is an intricate system within the root canal and incompletely debridement may affect the long-term prognosis of root canal therapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic features of apical deltas in human teeth with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) using a centreline-fitting algorithm. One hundred and thirty-six apical deltas were detected in 1400 teeth. Molars had more apical deltas (15.8%) than anterior teeth (6.3%). In maxillary molars, the mesiobuccal root had a significantly higher prevalence of apical delta than the palatal root or the distobuccal root. The median vertical distance of the apical delta was 1.87 mm with 13% more than 3 mm. The median diameter and length of the apical delta branches were 132.3 and 934.5 μm. Apical delta branches were not straight with cross-sectional shapes being non-circular. These morphological features of apical delta may complicate debridement of the infected root canal system.

  12. Blocking VEGF signaling delays development of replacement teeth in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Crucke, J; Huysseune, A

    2015-01-01

    The dentition in zebrafish is extremely and richly vascularized, but the function of the vasculature, in view of the continuous replacement of the teeth, remains elusive. Through application of SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, we studied the role of the blood vessels in the dentition of the zebrafish. We were unable to show an effect on the development of first-generation teeth as well as first tooth replacement. However, in juvenile fish, a delay was observed in the developmental state of the replacement tooth compared with what was expected based on the maturation state of the functional tooth. Furthermore, we observed a difference between treated and nontreated fish in the distance between blood vessels and developing replacement teeth. In conclusion, our results provide support for a nutritive, rather than an inductive, function of the vasculature in the process of tooth development and replacement. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  13. Modular turbine airfoil and platform assembly with independent root teeth

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Davies, Daniel O; Eng, Darryl

    2013-07-30

    A turbine airfoil (22E-H) extends from a shank (23E-H). A platform (30E-H) brackets or surrounds a first portion of the shank (23E-H). Opposed teeth (33, 35) extend laterally from the platform (30E-H) to engage respective slots (50) in a disk. Opposed teeth (25, 27) extend laterally from a second portion of the shank (29) that extends below the platform (30E-H) to engage other slots (52) in the disk. Thus the platform (30E-H) and the shank (23E-H) independently support their own centrifugal loads via their respective teeth. The platform may be formed in two portions (32E-H, 34E-H), that are bonded to each other at matching end-walls (37) and/or via pins (36G) passing through the shank (23E-H). Coolant channels (41, 43) may pass through the shank beside the pins (36G).

  14. Effectiveness of a new non-hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent after single use - a double-blind placebo-controlled short-term study.

    PubMed

    Bizhang, Mozhgan; Domin, Julia; Danesh, Gholamreza; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Tooth whitening represents perhaps the most common aesthetic procedure in dentistry worldwide. The efficacy of bleaching depends on three aspects: bleaching agent, bleaching method, and tooth color. This in vivo study aimed to examine whitening effects on frontal teeth of the upper and lower jaws using an over-the-counter (OTC) non-hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent in comparison to a placebo after one single use. Forty subjects (25 female; 15 male) participated in this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups (n=20). The test group received the OTC product (iWhite Instant) and the placebo group received an identically composed product except for the active agents. Each subject was treated with a prefilled tray containing iWhite Instant or the placebo for 20 minutes. The tooth shade of the front teeth (upper and lower jaws) was assessed before (E_0), immediately after (E_1) and 24 h after treatment (E_2), using a shade guide (VITA classical). Statistical testing was accomplished using the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.001). The dropout rate was 0%. There were no significant differences at E_0 between placebo and test groups regarding the tooth color. Differences in tooth color changes immediately after (ΔE1_0) and 24 h after treatment (ΔE2_0) were calculated for both groups. The mean values (standard deviations) of tooth color changes for ΔE1_0 were 2.26 (0.92) in the test group and 0.01 (0.21) in the placebo group. The color changes for ΔE2_0 showed mean values of 2.15 (1.10) in the test group and 0.07 (0.35) in the placebo group. For ΔE1_0 and ΔE2_0 significant differences were found between the groups. In this short-term study, the results showed that a non-hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent has significant whitening effects immediately and 24 h after a single-use treatment.

  15. Dental esthetic satisfaction, received and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics.

    PubMed

    Akarslan, Zühre Zafersoy; Sadik, Burak; Erten, Hüya; Karabulut, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to investigate factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their present dental esthetic, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and basic treatments that they wanted to undergo to improve their dental appearance. A total of 1014 patients who attended a dental school in a major city in Turkey participated in the study. The participants were surveyed with a questionnaire containing questions about gender, age, education level, self-reported tooth appearance, received previous dental treatments on anterior teeth and desired basic esthetic dental treatments. Statistical analysis of the verifying data was made with descriptive statistics, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression analyses. According to the analyses of the verifying data, 55.1% of the patients were dissatisfied with the color of their teeth, 42.7% with dental appearance, 29.9% with crowding of anterior teeth, 23.3% were hiding teeth while smiling, 16.1% had non-esthetic restorations and 11.9% thought that their anterior teeth were protruding. Esthetic restoration was found to be the most-performed treatment recently (29.0%) and whitening of teeth was the most-desired dental treatment (49.0%). Gender, age and education level had an effect on satisfaction and received previous and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics. Many of the Turkish patients surveyed in the study were dissatisfied and desired the improvement of dental esthetics. Therefore, dentists should consider this as an important dimension in their practice.

  16. An Ancient Gene Network Is Co-opted for Teeth on Old and New Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gareth J; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Bloomquist, Ryan F; Uyesugi, Kristine; Manley, Nancy R; Streelman, J. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate dentitions originated in the posterior pharynx of jawless fishes more than half a billion years ago. As gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) evolved, teeth developed on oral jaws and helped to establish the dominance of this lineage on land and in the sea. The advent of oral jaws was facilitated, in part, by absence of hox gene expression in the first, most anterior, pharyngeal arch. Much later in evolutionary time, teleost fishes evolved a novel toothed jaw in the pharynx, the location of the first vertebrate teeth. To examine the evolutionary modularity of dentitions, we asked whether oral and pharyngeal teeth develop using common or independent gene regulatory pathways. First, we showed that tooth number is correlated on oral and pharyngeal jaws across species of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi (East Africa), suggestive of common regulatory mechanisms for tooth initiation. Surprisingly, we found that cichlid pharyngeal dentitions develop in a region of dense hox gene expression. Thus, regulation of tooth number is conserved, despite distinct developmental environments of oral and pharyngeal jaws; pharyngeal jaws occupy hox-positive, endodermal sites, and oral jaws develop in hox-negative regions with ectodermal cell contributions. Next, we studied the expression of a dental gene network for tooth initiation, most genes of which are similarly deployed across the two disparate jaw sites. This collection of genes includes members of the ectodysplasin pathway, eda and edar, expressed identically during the patterning of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Taken together, these data suggest that pharyngeal teeth of jawless vertebrates utilized an ancient gene network before the origin of oral jaws, oral teeth, and ectodermal appendages. The first vertebrate dentition likely appeared in a hox-positive, endodermal environment and expressed a genetic program including ectodysplasin pathway genes. This ancient regulatory circuit was co-opted and modified for teeth in oral

  17. Investigation of water-soluble elastin as a multifunctional cosmetic material: Moisturizing and whitening effects.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Asako; Hikima, Tomohiro; Taniguchi, Suguru; Nose, Takeru; Maeda, Iori

    Elastin and collagen are extracellular matrix proteins that are widely distributed in the body. Although elastin essentially functions as a skin moisturizer, there have been few reports on its other fundamental chemical and biological functions. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and whitening (tyrosinase inhibition) effects of elastin to examine its usefulness as a cosmetic material. Water-soluble hot alkali pig aorta (HAPA)-elastin was prepared from pig aorta using the hot alkali method. HAPA-elastin showed a widely distributed molecular weight and had a coacervation property that mediated reversible self-assembly of its molecules with increasing temperature. Amino acid analysis of HAPA-elastin showed a high content (81.5%) of hydrophobic amino acids such as Gly, Ala, Val, and Pro. Des (desmosine) and Ide (isodesmosine), which are characteristic amino acids of elastin, accounted for more than 0.4% of the total amino acid content. HAPA-elastin showed a moisture-retaining property. The water content of skin samples treated with and without HAPA-elastin was 77.2% ± 7.8% and 49.4% ± 10.1%, respectively. HAPA-elastin also inhibited tyrosinase activity by 11.3% ± 3.9%. The results obtained indicate that elastin has a useful function as a cosmetic material.

  18. Oxygen saturation in the dental pulp of permanent teeth: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Kely Firmino; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Gonçalves de Alencar, Ana Helena; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for assessing vascular health based on oxygen saturation level. The method has recently also been used to assess dental pulp vitality, but a median oxygen saturation level suggestive of normal pulp physiology has not been determined. The objective of this study was to make a critical analysis of the published research to establish the median oxygen saturation for the diagnosis of normal dental pulps in maxillary anterior permanent teeth using pulse oximetry. Studies reporting on the use of pulse oximeters to determine oxygen saturation in dental pulps were retrieved using the MEDLINE, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases plus a manual search of relevant references cited by selected articles. Different combinations of the terms "oximetry," "oximeter," "pulp," "dental," and "dentistry" were used in the search. Statistical analysis was performed for each group of teeth (central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) using R statistical software (US EPA ORD NHEERL, Corvallis, OR) and a random effects model (P < .0001) with an I(2) of 99%. Of the 295 articles found, only 6 met the inclusion criteria (472 teeth). Of these, the number of articles included in each analysis (according to tooth group) was as follows: all 6 studies (288 teeth) for central incisors at a median oxygen saturation of 87.73%, 3 studies (90 teeth) for lateral incisors at a median oxygen saturation of 87.24%, and 4 studies (94 teeth) for canines at a median oxygen saturation of 87.26%. The median oxygen saturation in normal dental pulps of permanent central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines was higher than 87%. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Miniature Pulpotomy of Symptomatic Mature Permanent Teeth: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Nourzadeh, Mahdieh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp inflammation can progress to periapical lesion formation and conventional root canal treatment (RCT) has been the traditional method for disease management. This observational study presents two cases of vital pulp therapy in mature molars diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated with apical periodontitis. In these two clinical cases, the involved teeth had deep carious lesions with a history of spontaneous/lingering pain and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of apical radiolucencies. A conservative miniature pulpotomy (MP) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) was performed and the teeth were permanently restored with amalgam. Clinical evaluations indicated resolution of pain 24 hours after treatment; the teeth showed normal vitality, remained asymptomatic and maintained normal function after recall examinations. Furthermore, the 18-month radiographic evaluation showed healing of the apical lesions. Vital pulp therapy using the MP technique with CEM appeared successful in avoiding RCT intervention. These two reports of case outcome suggest that simple MP using a CEM bioregenerative technique may provide a favorable outcome for permanent teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated with apical periodontitis.

  20. Evaluation of Related Factors in the Failure of Endodontically Treated Teeth: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Olcay, Keziban; Ataoglu, Hanife; Belli, Sema

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the factors related to the failure and extraction of unsuccessful endodontically treated teeth. A total of 1000 teeth treated with nonsurgical root canal therapy were analyzed, and the following information was recorded for each patient: reasons for failure and extraction, type of tooth, presence and type of coronal restoration, smoking status, age, gender, and level of education. One main reason was recorded for each failed tooth. The associations between reasons for failure, patient, and tooth were tested by using χ 2 analysis. Of the 1000 endodontically failed teeth analyzed in this study, 28.1% (n = 281) were extracted, 66% (n = 660) were re-treated, and 5.9% (n = 59) were treated with apical surgery. Among the reasons for failure, restorative and endodontic reasons were seen most frequently (43.9%, n = 439), whereas orthodontic reasons were seldom seen (0.1%, n = 1). The most common reason for extraction was for prosthetic reasons (40.8%), and perforation/stripping was the least common (2.9%). The mandibular first molars were the most frequently extracted teeth (27.4%, n = 77). The most common reason for the extraction of endodontically treated teeth was for prosthetic reasons. Among the reasons for failure, restorative and endodontic reasons were the most frequently seen, and orthodontic reasons were the most seldom. The teeth that failed most frequently were mandibular first molars, and the teeth that failed least frequently were maxillary third molars. The most common reason for the extraction of failed endodontically treated teeth was for prosthetic reasons. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk in older nursing home residents: a cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Y; Takeuchi, K; Izumi, M; Furuta, M; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Kageyama, S; Ganaha, S; Yamashita, Y

    2017-02-01

    The total number of natural teeth was related to swallowing function among older adults; however, limited information is available regarding the impact of occluding pairs of teeth on swallowing function. This study aimed to examine the association between posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk in older nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study included 238 residents aged ≥60 years from eight nursing homes in Aso City, Japan. Swallowing function was evaluated using the modified water swallowing test (MWST); the primary outcome was dysphagia risk (MWST score ≤3). Posterior teeth occlusion was assessed using number of functional tooth units (FTUs), determined based on number and location of the remaining natural and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed or removable prostheses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between posterior teeth occlusion and dysphagia risk, adjusted for the covariates of number of natural teeth, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, physical function, body mass index and cognitive function. Of the 238 subjects, 44 (18·5%) were determined to be at risk of dysphagia based on the MWST scores. The odds ratio (OR) of dysphagia risk decreased in subjects with higher total FTUs [OR = 0·92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·87-0·98]. After adjusting for covariates, this association remained significant (OR = 0·90, 95% CI 0·84-0·97). Loss of posterior teeth occlusion was independently associated with dysp