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Sample records for temperature gas nitriding

  1. Modification of Low-Alloy Steel Surface by High-Temperature Gas Nitriding Plus Tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Dongling; Li, Minsong; Ding, Hongzhen; Qiu, Wanqi; Luo, Chengping

    2018-02-01

    The low-alloy steel was nitrided in a pure NH3 gas atmosphere at 640 660 °C for 2 h, i.e., high-temperature gas nitriding (HTGN), followed by tempering at 225 °C, which can produce a high property surface coating without brittle compound (white) layer. The steel was also plasma nitriding for comparison. The composition, microstructure and microhardness of the nitrided and tempered specimens were examined, and their tribological behavior investigated. The results showed that the as-gas-nitrided layer consisted of a white layer composed of FeN0.095 phase (nitrided austenite) and a diffusional zone underneath the white layer. After tempering, the white layer was decomposed to a nano-sized (α-Fe + γ'-Fe4N + retained austenite) bainitic microstructure with a high hardness of 1150HV/25 g. Wear test results showed that the wear resistance and wear coefficient yielded by the complex HTGN plus tempering were considerably higher and lower, respectively, than those produced by the conventional plasma nitriding.

  2. Modeling the Gas Nitriding Process of Low Alloy Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Zimmerman, C.; Donahue, D.; Sisson, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    The effort to simulate the nitriding process has been ongoing for the last 20 years. Most of the work has been done to simulate the nitriding process of pure iron. In the present work a series of experiments have been done to understand the effects of the nitriding process parameters such as the nitriding potential, temperature, and time as well as surface condition on the gas nitriding process for the steels. The compound layer growth model has been developed to simulate the nitriding process of AISI 4140 steel. In this paper the fundamentals of the model are presented and discussed including the kinetics of compound layer growth and the determination of the nitrogen diffusivity in the diffusion zone. The excellent agreements have been achieved for both as-washed and pre-oxided nitrided AISI 4140 between the experimental data and simulation results. The nitrogen diffusivity in the diffusion zone is determined to be constant and only depends on the nitriding temperature, which is ~5 × 10-9 cm2/s at 548 °C. It proves the concept of utilizing the compound layer growth model in other steels. The nitriding process of various steels can thus be modeled and predicted in the future.

  3. Foreign Object Damage Behavior of Two Gas-turbine Grade Silicon Nitrides by Steel Ball Projectiles at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Pereira, J. Michael; Janosik, Lesley A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of two commercial gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides, AS800 and SN282, was determined at ambient temperature through strength testing of flexure test specimens impacted by steel-ball projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm in a velocity range from 220 to 440 m/s. AS800 silicon nitride exhibited a greater FOD resistance than SN282, primarily due to its greater value of fracture toughness (K(sub IC)). Additionally, the FOD response of an equiaxed, fine-grained silicon nitride (NC132) was also investigated to provide further insight. The NC132 silicon nitride exhibited the lowest fracture toughness of the three materials tested, providing further evidence that K(sub IC) is a key material parameter affecting FOD resistance. The observed damage generated by projectile impact was typically in the forms of well- or ill-developed ring or cone cracks with little presence of radial cracks.

  4. Inverse magnetostrictive characteristics of Fe-Co composite materials using gas-nitriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kenya; Yang, Zhenjun; Narita, Fumio

    2018-03-01

    The inverse magnetostrictive response, known as the Villari effect, of magnetostrictive materials is a change in magnetization due to an applied stress. It is commonly used for sensor applications. This work deals with the inverse magnetostrictive characteristics of Fe-Co bimetal plates that were subjected gas-nitriding process. Gas-nitriding was performed on bimetal plates for 30 min at 853 K as a surface heat treatment process. The specimens were cooled to room temperature after completing the nitriding treatment. Three-point bending tests were performed on the plates under a magnetic field. The changes on the magnetic induction of the plates due to the applied load are discussed. The effect of the nitriding treatment on the inverse magnetostrictive characteristics, magnetostrictive susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis loop was examined. Our work represents an important step forward in the development of magnetostrictive sensor materials.

  5. The elevated temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride/boron nitride fibrous monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Wayne

    A unique, all-ceramic material capable of non-brittle fracture via crack deflection has been characterized from 25sp°C through 1400sp°C. This material, called fibrous monoliths (FMs), was comprised of unidirectionally aligned 250 mum diameter cells of silicon nitride surrounded by 10 mum thick cell boundaries of boron nitride. Six weight percent yttria and two weight percent alumina were added to the silicon nitride to aid in densification. TEM experiments revealed that the sintering aids used to densify the silicon nitride cells were migrating into the boron nitride cell boundary during hot-pressing and that a fine network of micro-cracks existed between basal planes of boron nitride. Elevated temperature four point bending tests were performed on fibrous monolith ceramics from room temperature through 1400sp°C. Peak strengths of FMs averaged 510 MPa for specimens tested at room temperature through 176 MPa at 1400sp°C. Work of fractures ranged from 7300 J/msp2 to 3200 J/msp2 under the same temperature conditions. The interfacial fracture energy of boron nitride, GammasbBN, as a function of temperature has been determined using the Charalambides method. The fracture energy of boron nitride is approximately 40 J/msp2 and remained constant from 25sp°C through 950sp°C. A sharp increase in GammasbBN, to about 60 J/msp2, was observed at 1000sp°C-1050sp°C. This increase in GammasbBN was attributed to interactions of the crack tip with the cell boundary glassy phase. Subsequent measurements at 1075sp°C indicated a marked decrease in GammasbBN to near 40 J/msp2 before plateauing at 17-20 J/msp2 in the 1200sp°C-1300sp°C regime. The Mode I fracture toughness of silicon nitride was also determined using the single edge precracked beam method as a function of temperature. The He and Hutchinson model relating crack deflection at an interface to the Dundurs' parameter was applied to the current data set using the temperature dependent fracture energies of the boron

  6. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Yeamans, Charles; Hartmann, Thomas; Silva, G. W. Chinthaka; Cerefice, Gary; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.

  7. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  8. Substitution of ceramics for high temperature alloys. [advantages of using silicon carbides and silicon nitrides in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature capability of ceramics such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide can result in turbine engines of improved efficiency. Other advantages when compared to the nickel and cobalt alloys in current use are raw material availability, lower weight, erosion/corrosion resistance, and potentially lower cost. The use of ceramics in three different sizes of gas turbine is considered; these are the large utility turbines, advanced aircraft turbines, and small automotive turbines. Special consideration, unique to each of these applications, arise when one considers substituting ceramics for high temperature alloys. The effects of material substitutions are reviewed in terms of engine performance, operating economy, and secondary effects.

  9. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Pure Titanium by using Hollow Cathode RF-DC Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windajanti, J. M.; S, D. J. Djoko H.; Abdurrouf

    2017-05-01

    Pure titanium is widely used for the structures and mechanical parts due to its high strength, low density, and high corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, titanium products suffer from low hardness and low wear resistance. Titanium’s surface can be modified by nitriding process to overcome such problems, which is commonly conducted at high temperature. Here, we report the low-temperature plasma nitriding process, where pure titanium was utilized by high-density RF-DC plasma combined with hollow cathode device. To this end, a pure titanium plate was set inside a hollow tube placed on the cathode plate. After heating to 450 °C, a pre-sputtering process was conducted for 1 hour to remove the oxide layer and activate the surface for nitriding. Plasma nitriding using N2/H2 gasses was performed in 4 and 8 hours with the RF voltage of 250 V, DC bias of -500 to -600 V, and gas pressure of 75 to 30 Pa. To study the nitriding mechanism as well as the role of hollow cathode, the nitrided specimen was characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and micro-hardness equipment. The TiN compound was obtained with the diffusion zone of nitrogen until 5 μm thickness for 4 hours nitriding process, and 8 μm for 8 hours process. The average hardness also increased from 300 HV in the untreated specimen to 624 HV and 792 HV for 4 and 8 hours nitriding, respectively.

  10. Foreign Object Damage in Disks of Two Gas-turbine-grade Silicon Nitrides by Steel Ball Projectiles at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Pereira, J. Michael; Janosik, Lesley A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2003-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of two commercial gas-turbine-grade silicon nitrides, AS800 and SN282, was determined at ambient temperature through postimpact strength testing of disks impacted by steel ball projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm in a velocity range from 115 to 440 m/s. AS800 silicon nitride exhibited a greater FOD resistance than SN282, primarily due to its greater value of fracture toughness (k(sub Ic)). The critical impact velocity V(sub c) for which the corresponding postimpact strength was the lowest was V(sub c) approximately equal to 440 and 300 m/s AS800 and SN282, respectively. A unique lower strength regime was typified for both silicon nitrides depending on impact velocity and was attributed to significant radial cracking. The damage generated by projectile impact was typically in the form of ring, radial, and cone cracks with their severity and combination being dependent on impact velocity. Unlike the thick (4 millimeters) flexure bar specimens used in our previous studies, the thin (2 millimeter) disk target specimen exhibited a unique back-side radial cracking on the reverse side just beneath the impact sites at and above impact velocities of 160 meters per second for SN282 and 220 meters per second AS800.

  11. Uranium nitride behavior at thermionic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using uranium nitride for in-core thermionic applications was evaluated in electrically heated thermal gradient tests and in flat plate thermionic converters. These tests indicated that grain boundary penetration of uranium nitride into both tungsten and rhenium will occur under thermal gradient conditions. In the case of the tungsten thermionic converter, this led to grain boundary rupture of the emitter and almost total loss of electrical output from the converter. It appears that uranium nitride is unsuitable for thermionic applications at the 2000 K temperatures used in these tests.

  12. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of low temperature titanium nitride grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, D.; Kudryashov, D.; Mozharov, A.

    2017-11-01

    Titanium nitride is a promising material due to its low resistivity, high hardness and chemical inertness. Titanium nitride (TiN) can be applied as an ohmic contact for n-GaN and rectifying contact for p-GaN and also as a part of perovskite solar cell. A technology of TiN low temperature reactive rf-magnetron sputtering has been developed. Electrical and optical properties of titanium nitride were studied as a function of the rf-power and gas mixture composition. Reflectance and transmittance spectra were measured. Cross-section and surface SEM image were obtained. 250 nm thin films of TiN with a resistivity of 23.6 μOm cm were obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering at low temperature.

  13. Platinum Nanoparticle Loading of Boron Nitride Aerogel and Its Use as a Novel Material for Low-Power Catalytic Gas Sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Harley-Trochimczyk, Anna; Pham, Thang; Chang, Jiyoung; ...

    2015-12-09

    We report that a high-surface-area, highly crystalline boron nitride aerogel synthesized with nonhazardous reactants has been loaded with crystalline platinum nanoparticles to form a novel nanomaterial that exhibits many advantages for use in a catalytic gas sensing application. The platinum nanoparticle-loaded boron nitride aerogel integrated onto a microheater platform allows for calorimetric propane detection. The boron nitride aerogel exhibits thermal stability up to 900 °C and supports disperse platinum nanoparticles, with no sintering observed after 24 h of high-temperature testing. The high thermal conductivity and low density of the boron nitride aerogel result in an order of magnitude faster responsemore » and recovery times (<2 s) than reported on alumina support and allow for 10% duty cycling of the microheater with no loss in sensitivity. Lastly, the resulting 1.5 mW sensor power consumption is two orders of magnitude less than commercially available catalytic gas sensors and unlocks the potential for wireless, battery-powered catalytic gas sensing.« less

  14. Low temperature synthesis of silicon nitride thin films deposited by VHF/RF PECVD for gas barrier application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun S.; Shin, Kyung S.; Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates as barrier layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Utilizing a combination of very high-frequency (VHF 40.68 MHz) and radio-frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasmas it was possible to adopt PECVD deposition at low-temperature using the precursors: Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) and nitrogen. To investigate relationship between film properties and plasma properties, plasma diagnostic using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was performed along with the film analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). OES measurements show that there is dominance of the excited N2 and N2+ emissions with increase in N2 dilution, which has a significant impact on the film properties. It was seen that all the deposited films contains mainly silicon nitride with a small content of carbon and no signature of oxygen. Interestingly, upon air exposure, films have shown the formation of Si-O bonds in addition to the Si-N bonds. Measurements and analysis reveals that SiNx films deposited with high content of nitrogen with HMDSN plasma can have lower gas barrier properties as low as 7 . 3 ×10-3 g/m2/day. Also at Chiang Mai University.

  15. Method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, John A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride is disclosed. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article is packed in a packing mixture consisting of silicon nitride powder and a densification aid. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are sujected to a positive, low pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause any open porosity originally found in the reaction bonded silicon nitride article to be substantially closed. Thereafter, the reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are subjected to a positive high pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause a sintering of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article whereby the strength of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article is increased.

  16. The characteristics of high temperature Gas Nitriding heat treatment and tempering in 0.8Mo added 17Cr-1Ni-0.5C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, J. H.; Lee, D. J.; On, H. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of the High Temperature Gas Nitriding (HTGN) and tempering treatment of 17Cr-1Ni-0.5C-0.8Mo (CNMo) steel was experimentally investigated. The HTGN was carried out at 1050 °C for 1 h in a gaseous atmosphere containing 98.07 kPa of nitrogen. Chromium nitrides in the austenite and martensite phase appeared at the nitrogen-permeated surface layer after the HTGN treatment. The hardness of the outmost surface of the HTGN treated specimen measured 708 Hv. When it was tempered at 500 °C for 1 h, the hardness of the outmost surface was 763 Hv as a result of the precipitation of mostly micro Cr2N, which was densely packed with a small amount of Cr23C6 and the secondary hardening effect. In addition, an improvement in the corrosion resistance was observed in the tempered specimen.

  17. Tensile test of pressureless-sintered silicon nitride at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsusue, K.; Fujisawa, Y.; Takahara, K.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile strength tests of pressureless sintered silicon nitride were carried out in air at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 1600 C. Silicon nitrides containing Y2O3, Al2O3, Al2O3-MgO, or MgO-CeO2 additives were tested. The results show that the composition of the additive used influences the strength characteristics of the silicon nitride. The tensile strength rapidly decreased at temperatures above 1000 C for the materials containing MgO as the additive and above 1000 C for the material with Y2O3. When the temperature increased to as high as 1300 C, the strength decreased to about 10 percent of the room temperature strength in each case. Observations of the fracture origin and of the crack propagation on the fracture surfaces are discussed.

  18. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  19. Blueish green photoluminescence from nitrided GaAs(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Goro; Udagawa, Takashi

    1999-04-01

    Optical and structural studies were made on the Si-doped (100)GaAs surfaces nitrided at a temperature between 650° and 750°C for 15 min in the flowing NH 3 gas. The wavelength of photoluminescence (PL) spectra were observed to be shortened from 820 nm of the GaAs nitrided at 650°C with increasing nitridation temperature. Blueish green PL with wavelengths of approx. 490 nm and 470 nm were emitted from the nitrided surfaces at 700° and 750°C, respectively. Results of AES and SIMS indicated that the surfaces are nitrided as GaAs 1- xN x, (0< x≤1) alloy layer, and the nitrided region also tended to increase as the temperature raised. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed that films peeled off from the nitrided surfaces consisted mainly of hexagonal, wurtzite-type gallium nitride (GaN) with stacking faults and microtwins.

  20. Aspects of the practical application of titanium alloys after low temperature nitriding glow discharge in hydrogen- free -gas media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashovets, N. S.; Pastukh, I. M.; Voloshko, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Electron Auger-spectroscopy investigation of phase transformation on the surface of the VT8 titanium alloy after a low temperature hydrogen-free nitriding in a glow discharge. Operational characteristics of titanium alloys defined physical-mechanical characteristics of the surface and their phase composition, which depend on the process parameters of nitriding. Surface modification of titanium alloys were carried out by low-temperature nitriding in a glow discharge in hydrogen-free environment. The main advantage of this method lies in the absence of hydrogen embrittlement and complete environmental safety process. Application of the glow discharge can not only speed up the process by the order of the diffusion surface saturation with nitrogen, but also significantly alters the kinetics of the process and quality of the nitrided layer, in particular its physio-mechanical properties and phase composition. For research purposes, the standards from an α + β alloy Ti-Al6-Cr2-Mo2,5 (VT8) were used. Research into the phase composition was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Stratified analysis by AES was conducted by etching the surface of the samples' argon ion beam with diameters of 1.5 mm with an energy of 3000 eV and a current density of 400 mA/cm2. The above material shows the promise of the technology of low-temperature hydrogen-nitriding by glow discharge. This greatly expands the range of practical applications of titanium alloys. In addition, changing the technological mode allows you to manage a wide range of modified phase composition of the surface layer and as a result - to form the surface of titanium parts, taking into account the conditions of the subsequent operation.

  1. Discontinuous Inter-Granular Separations (DIGS) in the Gas Nitride Layer of ISS Race Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figert, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Martinez, James

    2010-01-01

    The starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) race ring on the International space station (ISS) failed due to severe spalling of the outer diameter, 45 degree (outer canted) nitrided surface. Subsequent analysis at NASA-KSC revealed that almost all of the debris generated due to the failure was nitrided 15-5 stainless steel. Subsequent analysis of the nitride control coupons (NCC) at NASA-JSC revealed the presence of discontinuous inter-granular separations (DIGS) in the gas nitride layer. These DIGS were present in the inter-granular networking located in the top 2 mils of the nitride layer. The manufacturer's specification requires the maximum white structure to be 0.0003 inches and intergranular networking below the allowable white structure depth to be cause for rejection; a requirement that the NCCs did not meet. Subsequent testing and analysis revealed that lower DIGS content significantly lowered the probability of nitride spalling in simulated, dry condition runs. One batch of nitride samples with DIGS content similar to the port SARJ (did not fail on orbit) which exhibited almost no nitride spalling after being run on one test rig. Another batch of nitride samples with DIGS content levels similar to the starboard SARJ exhibited significant nitride spalling on the same test rig with the same load under dry conditions. Although DIGS were not the root cause of starboard race ring failure, testing indicates that increased DIGS reduced the robustness of the gas nitride layer under dry operating conditions.

  2. Local Dynamics of Chemical Kinetics at Different Phases of Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat

    2015-08-01

    The local dynamics of chemical kinetics at different phases of the nitriding process have been studied. The calculations are performed under the conditions where the temperature and composition data are provided experimentally from an in-service furnace. Results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It is shown that if it is available in the furnace, the adsorption of the N2 gas can seemingly start at temperatures as low as 200 °C. However, at such low temperatures, as the diffusion into the material is very unlikely, this results in the surface poisoning. It becomes clear that, contrary to common knowledge, the nitriding heat treatment with ammonia as a nitrogen-providing medium is possible at temperatures like 400 °C. Under these conditions, however, the presence of excess amounts of product gas N2 in the furnace atmosphere suppresses the forward kinetics in the nitriding process. It seems that the best operating point in the nitriding heat treatment is achieved with a mixture of 6% N2. When the major nitriding species NH3 is substituted by N2 and the N2 fraction increases above 30%, the rate of the forward reaction decreases drastically, so that there is no point to continue the furnace operation any further. Hence, during the initial heating phase, the N2 gas must be purged from the furnace to keep its fraction less than 30% before the furnace reaches the temperature where the reaction starts.

  3. Erosion-corrosion resistance properties of 316L austenitic stainless steels after low-temperature liquid nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Jun; Fan, Hongyuan; Pan, Dong

    2018-05-01

    The low-temperature liquid nitriding of stainless steels can result in the formation of a surface zone of so-called expanded austenite (S-phase) by the dissolution of large amounts of nitrogen in the solid solution and formation of a precipitate-free layer supersaturated with high hardness. Erosion-corrosion measurements were performed on low-temperature nitrided and non-nitrided 316L stainless steels. The total erosion-corrosion, erosion-only, and corrosion-only wastages were measured directly. As expected, it was shown that low-temperature nitriding dramatically reduces the degree of erosion-corrosion in stainless steels, caused by the impingement of particles in a corrosive medium. The nitrided 316L stainless steels exhibited an improvement of almost 84% in the erosion-corrosion resistance compared to their non-nitrided counterparts. The erosion-only rates and synergistic levels showed a general decline after low-temperature nitriding. Low-temperature liquid nitriding can not only reduce the weight loss due to erosion but also significantly reduce the weight loss rate of interactions, so that the total loss of material decreased evidently. Therefore, 316L stainless steels displayed excellent erosion-corrosion behaviors as a consequence of their highly favorable corrosion resistances and superior wear properties.

  4. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Young, Albert C.

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  5. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  6. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  7. Low-temperature nitridation of manganese and iron oxides using NaNH2 molten salt.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    2013-10-21

    Manganese and iron nitrides are important functional materials, but their synthesis processes from oxides often require high temperatures. Herein, we show a novel meta-synthesis method for manganese and iron nitrides by low-temperature nitridation of their oxides using NaNH2 molten salt as the nitrogen source in an autoclave at 240 °C. With this method, nitridation of micrometer-sized oxide particles kept their initial morphologies, but the size of the primary particles decreased. The thermodynamic driving force is considered to be the conversion of oxides to sodium hydroxide, and the kinetic of nitridation is improved by the decrease of particle size and the low melting point of NaNH2. This technique as developed here has the advantages of low reaction temperature, reduced consumption of ammonia, employing nonspecialized equipment, and providing facile control of the reactions for producing nitrides from oxides.

  8. Low Working-Temperature Acetone Vapor Sensor Based on Zinc Nitride and Oxide Hybrid Composites.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fengdong; Yuan, Yao; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; Yang, Minghui

    2016-06-01

    Transition-metal nitride and oxide composites are a significant class of emerging materials that have attracted great interest for their potential in combining the advantages of nitrides and oxides. Here, a novel class of gas sensing materials based on hybrid Zn3 N2 and ZnO composites is presented. The Zn3 N2 /ZnO (ZnNO) composites-based sensor exhibits selectivity and high sensitivity toward acetone vapor, and the sensitivity is dependent on the nitrogen content of the composites. The ZnNO-11.7 described herein possesses a low working temperature of 200 °C. The detection limit (0.07 ppm) is below the diabetes diagnosis threshold (1.8 ppm). In addition, the sensor shows high reproducibility and long-term stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-04-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  10. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxidemore » and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.« less

  11. Synthesis of Aluminum-Aluminum Nitride Nanocomposites by a Gas-Liquid Reaction II. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonovo, Cecilia; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2016-04-01

    In situ fabrication of the reinforcing particles in the metal matrix is an answer to many of the challenges encountered in manufacturing aluminum matrix nanocomposites. In this method, the nanoparticles are formed directly within the melt by means of a chemical reaction between a specially designed aluminum alloy and a gas. In this publication, we describe a process for synthesizing aluminum-aluminum nitride nanocomposites by reacting a nitrogen-containing gas with a molten aluminum-lithium alloy. We quantify the effect of the process parameters on the average particle size and particle distribution, as well as on the tendency of the particles to cluster in the alloy matrix, is quantified. Also in this publication, we present the measured room temperature and elevated temperature tensile properties of the nanocomposite material as well as its measured room temperature impact toughness.

  12. Low-temperature direct synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hae-Min; Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Chang-Koo

    2017-04-01

    Mesoporous vanadium nitrides are directly synthesized by a one-step chemical precipitation method at a low temperature (70 °C). Structural and morphological analyses reveal that vanadium nitride consist of long and slender nanowhiskers, and mesopores with diameters of 2-5 nm. Compositional analysis confirms the presence of vanadium in the VN structure, along with oxidized vanadium. The cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests indicate that the obtained material stores charges via a combination of electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance mechanisms. The vanadium nitride electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 598 F/g at a current density of 4 A/g. After 5000 charge-discharge cycles, the electrode has an equivalent series resistance of 1.42 Ω and retains 83% of its initial specific capacitance. This direct low-temperature synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides is a simple and promising method to achieve high specific capacitance and low equivalent series resistance for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  13. High temperature gas nitriding and tempering in 17Cr-1Ni-0.5C-0.4V steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, J. H.; Lee, D. J.; On, H. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, S. K.; Kang, C. Y.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    High temperature gas nitriding (HTGN) at 1050 °C and tempering of a 17Cr-1Ni-0.5C-0.4V (CNV) steel were experimentally investigated. The phases appearing in the surface layer of the HTGN-treated steel were martensite and austenite with mostly Cr2N precipitates that were formed by permeated nitrogen, and a small amount of Cr23C6 and VN precipitates. The reverse migration of carbon hindered the diffusion of nitrogen when nitrogen permeated from the surface to the interior, which resulted in the accumulation of nitrogen on the outermost surface. The strong affinity between nitrogen and chromium atoms induced the diffusion of chromium from the interior to the surface, leading to the substitution of Cr23C6 for Cr2N. After tempering the HTGN-treated steel at 500 °C, the dense precipitates of Cr2N and the increased martensite phase in the surface layer led to secondary hardening, which increased the hardness value up to 901 Hv.

  14. Syntheses, Characterization and Kinetics of Nickel-Tungsten Nitride Catalysts for Hydrotreating of Gas Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botchwey, Christian

    This thesis summarizes the methods and major findings of Ni-W(P)/gamma-Al 2O3 nitride catalyst synthesis, characterization, hydrotreating activity, kinetic analysis and correlation of the catalysts' activities to their synthesis parameters and properties. The range of parameters for catalyst synthesis were W (15-40 wt%), Ni (0-8 wt%), P (0-5 wt%) and nitriding temperature (TN) (500-900 °C). Characterization techniques used included: N2 sorption studies, chemisorption, elemental analysis, temperature programmed studies, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) were performed at: temperature (340-380 °C), pressure (6.2-9.0 MPa), liquid hourly space velocity (1-3 h-1) and hydrogen to oil ratio (600 ml/ml, STP). The predominant species on the catalyst surface were Ni3N, W2N and bimetallic Ni2W3N. The bimetallic Ni-W nitride species was more active than the individual activities of the Ni3N and W2N. P increased weak acid sites while nitriding temperature decreased amount of strong acid sites. Low nitriding temperature enhanced dispersion of metal particles. P interacted with Al 2O3 which increased the dispersion of metal nitrides on the catalyst surface. HDN activity increased with Ni and P loading but decreased with increase in nitriding temperature (optimum conversion; 60 wt%). HDS and HDA activities went through a maximum with increase in the synthesis parameters (optimum conversions; 88. wt% for HDS and 47 wt% for HDA). Increase in W loading led to increase in catalyst activity. The catalysts were stable to deactivation and had the nitride structure conserved during hydrotreating in the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The results showed good correlation between hydrotreating activities (HDS and HDN) and the catalyst nitrogen content, number of exposed

  15. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  16. Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

    2014-03-18

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  17. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  18. Reduction of Defects on Microstructure Aluminium Nitride Using High Temperature Annealing Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasta, Z.; Muhamad, P.; Kuwano, N.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Unuh, M. H.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminium Nitride (AlN) is a ceramic 111-nitride material that is used widely as components in functional devices. Besides good thermal conductivity, it also has a high band gap in emitting light which is 6 eV. AlN thin film is grown on the sapphire substrate (0001). However, lattice mismatch between both materials has caused defects to exist along the microstructure of AlN thin films. The defects have affected the properties of Aluminium Nitride. Annealing heat treatment has been proved by the previous researcher to be the best method to improve the microstructure of Aluminium Nitride thin films. Hence, this method is applied at four different temperatures for two hour. The changes of Aluminium Nitride microstructures before and after annealing is observed using Transmission Electron Microscope. It is observed that inversion domains start to occur at temperature of 1500 °C. Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction pattern simulation has confirmed the defects as inversion domain. Therefore, this paper is about to extract the matters occurred during the process of producing high quality Aluminium Nitride thin films and the ways to overcome this problem.

  19. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, P.E.D.; Pugar, E.A.

    1985-11-12

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of whiskers'' or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900 C to about 1,200 C to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900 C. 6 figs.

  20. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Peter E. D.; Pugar, Eloise A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

  1. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  2. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  3. High Temperature Oxidation of Boron Nitride. Part 1; Monolithic Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Farmer, Serene; Moore, Arthur; Sayir, Haluk

    1997-01-01

    High temperature oxidation of monolithic boron nitride (BN) is examined. Hot pressed BN and both low and high density CVD BN were studied. It is shown that oxidation rates are quite sensitive to microstructural factors such as orientation, porosity, and degree of crystallinity. In addition small amounts of water vapor lead to volatilization of the B2O3 oxide as H(x)B(y)O(z). For these reasons, very different oxidation kinetics were observed for each type of BN.

  4. Foreign Object Damage of Two Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitrides in a Thin Disk Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Pereira, J. Michael; Janosik, Lesley A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2003-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of two commercial gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides, AS800 and SN282, was determined at ambient temperature through post-impact strength testing for thin disks impacted by steel-ball projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm in a velocity range from 115 to 440 m/s. AS800 silicon nitride exhibited a greater FOD resistance than SN282, primarily due to its greater value of fracture toughness (K(sub IC)). The critical impact velocity in which the corresponding post-impact strength yielded the lowest value was V(sub c) approx. 440 and 300 m/s for AS800 and SN282, respectively. A unique lower-strength regime was typified for both silicon nitrides depending on impact velocity, attributed to significant radial cracking. The damages generated by projectile impact were typically in the forms of ring, radial, and cone cracks with their severity and combination being dependent on impact velocity. Unlike thick (3 mm) flexure bar specimens used in the previous studies, thin (2 mm) disk target specimens exhibited a unique backside radial cracking occurring on the reverse side just beneath the impact sites at and above impact velocity of 160 and 220 m/s for SN282 and AS800, respectively.

  5. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  6. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  7. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    DOE PAGES

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; ...

    2016-12-19

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  8. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 hmore » in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.« less

  9. Resistance of Silicon Nitride Turbine Components to Erosion and Hot Corrosion/oxidation Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangmen, Thomas E.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride turbine components are under intensive development by AlliedSignal to enable a new generation of higher power density auxiliary power systems. In order to be viable in the intended applications, silicon nitride turbine airfoils must be designed for survival in aggressive oxidizing combustion gas environments. Erosive and corrosive damage to ceramic airfoils from ingested sand and sea salt must be avoided. Recent engine test experience demonstrated that NT154 silicon nitride turbine vanes have exceptional resistance to sand erosion, relative to superalloys used in production engines. Similarly, NT154 silicon nitride has excellent resistance to oxidation in the temperature range of interest - up to 1400 C. Hot corrosion attack of superalloy gas turbine components is well documented. While hot corrosion from ingested sea salt will attack silicon nitride substantially less than the superalloys being replaced in initial engine applications, this degradation has the potential to limit component lives in advanced engine applications. Hot corrosion adversely affects the strength of silicon nitride in the 850 to 1300 C range. Since unacceptable reductions in strength must be rapidly identified and avoided, AlliedSignal and the NASA Lewis Research Center have pioneered the development of an environmental life prediction model for silicon nitride turbine components. Strength retention in flexure specimens following 1 to 3300 hour exposures to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion has been measured and used to calibrate the life prediction model. Predicted component life is dependent upon engine design (stress, temperature, pressure, fuel/air ratio, gas velocity, and inlet air filtration), mission usage (fuel sulfur content, location (salt in air), and times at duty cycle power points), and material parameters. Preliminary analyses indicate that the hot corrosion resistance of NT154 silicon nitride is adequate for AlliedSignal's initial engine

  10. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and highmore » efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.« less

  11. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    DOEpatents

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  12. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    PubMed Central

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature. PMID:27991593

  13. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  14. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W [Newport News, VA; Jordan, Kevin [Newport News, VA; Park, Cheol [Yorktown, VA

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  15. Elevated temperature mechanical behavior of monolithic and SiC whisker-reinforced silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Choi, Sung R.; Sanders, William A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a 30 volume percent SiC whisker reinforced silicon nitride and a similar monolithic silicon nitride were measured at several temperatures. Measurements included strength, fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, dynamic fatigue susceptibility, post oxidation strength, and creep rate. Strength controlling defects were determined with fractographic analysis. The addition of SiC whiskers to silicon nitride did not substantially improve the strength, fracture toughness, or crack growth resistance. However, the fatigue resistance, post oxidation strength, and creep resistance were diminished by the whisker addition.

  16. Spherical boron nitride particles and method for preparing them

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2003-11-25

    Spherical and polyhedral particles of boron nitride and method of preparing them. Spherical and polyhedral particles of boron nitride are produced from precursor particles of hexagonal phase boron nitride suspended in an aerosol gas. The aerosol is directed to a microwave plasma torch. The torch generates plasma at atmospheric pressure that includes nitrogen atoms. The presence of nitrogen atoms is critical in allowing boron nitride to melt at atmospheric pressure while avoiding or at least minimizing decomposition. The plasma includes a plasma hot zone, which is a portion of the plasma that has a temperature sufficiently high to melt hexagonal phase boron nitride. In the hot zone, the precursor particles melt to form molten particles that acquire spherical and polyhedral shapes. These molten particles exit the hot zone, cool, and solidify to form solid particles of boron nitride with spherical and polyhedral shapes. The molten particles can also collide and join to form larger molten particles that lead to larger spherical and polyhedral particles.

  17. Investigation of isochronal annealing on the optical properties of HWCVD amorphous silicon nitride deposited at low temperatures and low gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T. F. G.; Jacobs, S.; Cummings, F. R.; Oliphant, C. J.; Malgas, G. F.; Arendse, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) is used as anti-reflection coatings in commercial solar cells. A final firing step in the production of micro-crystalline silicon solar cells allows hydrogen effusion from the a-SiNx:H into the solar cell, and contributes to bulk passivation of the grain boundaries. In this study a-SiNx:H deposited in a hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) chamber with reduced gas flow rates and filament temperature compared to traditional deposition regimes, were annealed isochronally. The UV-visible reflection spectra of the annealed material were subjected to the Bruggeman Effective Medium Approximation (BEMA) treatment, in which a theoretical amorphous semiconductor was combined with particle inclusions due to the structural complexities of the material. The extraction of the optical functions and ensuing Wemple-DeDomenici analysis of the wavelength-dependent refractive index allowed for the correlation of the macroscopic optical properties with the changes in the local atomic bonding configuration, involving silicon, nitrogen and hydrogen.

  18. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphologymore » of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).« less

  19. Adhesion, friction, and wear of plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films at temperatures to 700 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Pantic, D. M.; Johnson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of silicon nitride films deposited by low- and high-frequency plasmas (30 kHz and 13.56 MHz) at various temperatures to 700 C in vacuum were examined. The results of the investigation indicated that the Si/N ratios were much greater for the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than for those deposited at 30 kHz. Amorphous silicon was present in both low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited silicon nitride films. However, more amorphous silicon occurred in the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than in those deposited at 30 kHz. Temperature significantly influenced adhesion, friction, and wear of the silicon nitride films. Wear occurred in the contact area at high temperature. The wear correlated with the increase in adhesion and friction for the low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited films above 600 and 500 C, respectively. The low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films exhibited a capability for lubrication (low adhesion and friction) in vacuum at temperatures to 500 and 400 C, respectively.

  20. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT.

  1. Homogeneous and heterogeneous micro-structuring of austenitic stainless steels by the low temperature plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, T.; Yoshihara, S.-I.

    2018-06-01

    The austenitic stainless steels have been widely utilized as a structural component and member as well as a die and mold substrate for stamping. AISI316 dies and molds require for the surface treatment to accommodate the sufficient hardness and wear resistance to them. In addition, the candidate treatment methods must be free from toxicity, energy consumption and inefficiency. The low temperature plasma nitriding process has become one of the most promising methods to make solid-solution hardening by the nitrogen super-saturation. In the present paper, the high density RF/DC plasma nitriding process was applied to form the uniform nitrided layer in the AISI316 matrix and to describe the essential mechanism of inner nitriding in this low temperature nitriding process. In case of the nitrided AISI316 at 673 K for 14.4ks, the nitrided layer thickness became 60 μm with the surface hardness of 1700 HV and the surface nitrogen content of 7 mass %. This inner nitriding process is governed by the synergetic interrelation among the nitrogen super-saturation, the lattice expansion, the phase transformation, the plastic straining, the microstructure refinement and the acceleration of nitrogen diffusion. As far as this interrelation is sustained during the nitriding process, the original austenitic microstructure is homogeneously nitrided to have fine grains with the average size of 0.1 μm and the high crystallographic misorientation angles and to have two phase (γ + α’) structures with the plateau of nitrogen content by 5 mass%. Once this interrelation does not work anymore, the homogeneous microstructure changed itself to the heterogeneous one. The plastic straining took place in the selected coarse grains; they were partially refined into subgrains. This plastic localization accompanied the localized phase transformation.

  2. Controlled Gas Exfoliation of Boron Nitride into Few-Layered Nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Gao, Xiang; Li, Qian; ...

    2016-07-22

    The controlled exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into single- or few-layered nanosheets remains a grand challenge and becomes the bottleneck to essential studies and applications of h-BN. Here, we present an efficient strategy for the scalable synthesis of few-layered h-BN nanosheets (BNNS) via a novel gas exfoliation of bulk h-BN in liquid N 2 (L-N 2). The essence of this strategy lies in the combination of a high temperature triggered expansion of bulk h-BN and the cryogenic L-N 2 gasification to exfoliate the h-BN. The produced BNNS after ten cycles (BNNS-10) consisted primarily of fewer than five atomic layersmore » with high a mass yield of 16~20%. N 2 sorption and desorption isotherms show that the BNNS-10 exhibited a much higher specific surface area of 278 m 2/g –1 than that of bulk BN (10 m 2/g –1). Through the investigation of the exfoliated intermediates combined with a theoretical calculation, we found that the huge temperature variation initiates the expansion and curling of the bulk h-BN. Subseqently, the L-N 2 penetrates into the interlayers of h-BN along the curling edge, followed by an immediate drastic gasification of L-N 2, further peeling off h-BN. In conclusion, this novel gas exfoliation of high surface area BNNS not only opens up potential opportunities for wide applications, but also can be extended to produce other layered materials with high yeilds.« less

  3. Effect of substrate nitridation temperature on the persistent photoconductivity of unintentionally-doped GaN layer grown by PAMBE

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Nisha, E-mail: prakasnisha@gmail.com; Barvat, Arun; Anand, Kritika

    2016-05-23

    The surface roughness and defect density of GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire substrate are investigated and found to be dependent on nitridation temperature. GaN epitaxial layers grown after nitridation of sapphire at 200°C have a higher defect density and higher surface roughness compared to the GaN layers grown at 646°C nitridation as confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) was observed in both samples and it was found to be decreasing with decreasing temperature in the range 150-300°C due to long carrier lifetime and high electron mobility at low temperature. The photoresponse of the GaNmore » films grown in this study exhibit improved PPC due to their better surface morphology at 646°C nitrided sample. The point defects or extended microstructure defects limits the photocarrier lifetime and electron mobility at 200°C nitrided sample.« less

  4. Effects of Temperature on Microstructure and Wear of Salt Bath Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Peng, Qian; Shen, Baoluo

    2012-08-01

    Salt bath nitriding of 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels was conducted at 610, 630, and 650 °C for 2 h using a complex salt bath heat-treatment, and the properties of the nitrided surface were systematically evaluated. Experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite (α'), expanded austenite (γN), CrN, Fe4N, and (Fe,Cr) x O y . In the sample nitrided above 610 °C, the expanded martensite transformed into expanded austenite. But in the sample nitrided at 650 °C, the expanded austenite decomposed into αN and CrN. The decomposed αN then disassembled into CrN and alpha again. The nitrided layer depth thickened intensively with the increasing nitriding temperature. The activation energy of nitriding in this salt bath was 125 ± 5 kJ/mol.

  5. Foreign Object Damage in a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride by Spherical Projectiles of Various Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Assessments of foreign object damage (FOD) of a commercial, gas-turbine grade, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramic (AS800, Honeywell Ceramics Components) were made using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. AS800 flexure target specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers in a velocity range from 50 to 450 m/s by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different projectile materials were used including hardened steel, annealed steel, silicon nitride ceramic, and brass. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to appraise the severity of local impact damage. For a given impact velocity, the degree of strength degradation was greatest for ceramic balls, least for brass balls, and intermediate for annealed and hardened steel balls. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles. Impact load as a function of impact velocity was quasi-statically estimated based on both impact and static indentation associated data.

  6. The effect of surface nanocrystallization on plasma nitriding behaviour of AISI 4140 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Dandan; Shen, Lie

    2010-11-01

    A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 4140 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Plasma nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 4140 steel was carried out by a low-frequency pulse excited plasma unit. A series of nitriding experiments has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 380 to 500 °C for 8 h in an NH 3 gas. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The results showed that a much thicker compound layer with higher hardness was obtained for the SMAT samples when compared with un-SMAT samples after nitriding at the low temperature. In particular, plasma nitriding SMAT AISI 4140 steel at 380 °C for 8 h can produced a compound layer of 2.5 μm thickness with very high hardness on the surface, which is similar to un-SMAT samples were plasma nitrided at approximately 430 °C within the same time.

  7. Investigation of Influence of Gas Ratio on the Electron Temperature in TiN Magnetron Sputtering Deposition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada , Spain Investigation of Influence of Gas Ratio on the Electron Temperature in TiN Magnetron Sputtering...ICPIG) Held in Granada , Spain on 14-19 July 2013 14. ABSTRACT In this work, a nanolayer of titanium nitride which produced by the magnetron

  8. Preparation of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles with Oxygen Doping and a Study of Their Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Zhao, Qi; Yang, Tianye; Zhai, Chengbo; Wang, Dongxue; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2018-04-18

    In this work, oxygen-doped boron nitride nanoparticles with room-temperature ferromagnetism have been synthesized by a new, facile, and efficient method. There are no metal magnetic impurities in the nanoparticles analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The boron nitride nanoparticles exhibit a parabolic shape with increase in the reaction time. The saturation magnetization value reaches a maximum of 0.2975 emu g -1 at 300 K when the reaction time is 12 h, indicating that the Curie temperature ( T C ) is higher than 300 K. Combined with first-principles calculation, the coupling between B 2p orbital, N 2p orbital, and O 2p orbital in the conduction bands is the main origin of room-temperature ferromagnetism and also proves that the magnetic moment changes according the oxygen-doping content change. Compared with other room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors, boron nitride nanoparticles have widely potential applications in spintronic devices because of high temperature oxidation resistance and excellent chemical stability.

  9. Effects of gaseous nitriding AISI4140 alloy steel on corrosion and hardness properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamil Moli, L.; Wahab, N.; Gopinathan, M.; Karmegam, K.; Maniyarasi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in the industry especially on machinery since it weakens the structure of the machinery part and causes the mechanical failure. This will stop the production and increase the maintenance cost. In this study, the corrosion behaviour of gas nitriding on a screw press machine shaft made from AISI 4140 steel was investigated. Pitting corrosion was identified as a major cause of the shaft failure and this study was conducted to improve the corrosion resistance on the AISI 4140 alloy steel shaft by gas nitriding as a surface hardening treatment. Gas nitriding was performed with composition of 15% ammonia and 85% nitrogen at temperatures of 525 °C, 550 °C and 575 °C and with the soaking time of 30, 45 and 60 minutes, respectively. The samples were prepared as rectangular sized of 30mm x 12mm x 3mm for immersion testing. The results showed that corrosion rate of untreated samples was 77% higher compared to the nitrided samples. It was also found that hardness of the nitrided samples was higher than untreated sample. All in all, it can be concluded that gaseous nitriding can significantly improve the surface hardness and the corrosion resistance of the shaft made of AISI 4140 alloy steel, hence reduces the pitting that is the root cause of failure.

  10. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  11. Soliton microdynamics and thermal conductivity of uranium nitride at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, O. A.; Orlov, A. V.; Semenov, V. A.

    2011-09-01

    The microdynamics of soliton waves and localized modes of nonlinear vibrations of the acoustic and optical types in uranium nitride has been investigated. It has been shown that, with an increase in the excitation energy in the spectral gap between the bands of optical and acoustic phonons, the energies of solitons increase, whereas the energies of local modes decrease. The previously experimentally observed unidentified quasi-resonant features, which shift in the gap with variations in the temperature, can represent the revealed soliton waves and local modes. The microdynamics of heat conduction of uranium nitride has been studied for the stochastic generation of soliton waves and local modes in the case of spatially distant energy absorption. The thermal conductivity coefficient determined from the temperature gradient and the absorbed energy flux insignificantly exceeds the experimentally observed values, which are decreased because of the presence of structural defects of different types in the material.

  12. Method to synthesize bulk iron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, Todd; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Zheng, Baolong

    Bulk iron nitride can be synthesized from iron nitride powder by spark plasma sintering. The iron nitride can be spark plasma sintered at a temperature of less than 600°C. and a pressure of less than 600 MPa, with 400 MPa or less most often being sufficient. High pressure SPS can consolidate dense iron nitrides at a lower temperature to avoid decomposition. The higher pressure and lower temperature of spark discharge sintering avoids decomposition and limits grain growth, enabling enhanced magnetic properties. The method can further comprise synthesis of nanocrystalline iron nitride powders using two-step reactive milling prior to high-pressure sparkmore » discharge sintering.« less

  13. Dry Lubrication of High Temperature Silicon Nitride Rolling Contacts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    comparable to M50 bearing steel [2]. Quality control measures were implemented in the areas of raw material inspection as well as non-destructive evaluation...to oil lubricated bearing steels . Due to the apparent success of graphite at high tem- perature, three vendors were selected that manufacture graph...hybrid bearings ( steel rings and silicon nitride balls) to establish solid lubricant/cage design practices. High temperature bearing tests with silicon

  14. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yarar, E.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.

    2016-07-15

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/Vmore » up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ε{sub r}) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e{sub 31,f}|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m{sup 2} was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.« less

  15. Synthesis of boron nitride powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissig, Dirk Horst

    2002-09-01

    In the materials science community there is much interest in the development of new, efficient approaches for preparing ceramic powders having properties or performance characteristics not found with powders produced by traditional metallurgical synthesis methods. In this regard, aerosol-based syntheses are finding general acceptance for the preparation of non-metal and metal oxide powders. In contrast, much less effort has been given to aerosol-type syntheses for non-oxide powders despite potentially useful benefits. This dissertation describes the application of two chemical systems in aerosol assisted vapor phase synthesis (AAVS) for the preparation of spherical morphology boron oxynitride, BNxOy, powders that are subsequently converted to spherical morphology boron nitride in a second nitridation step. Chapter 1 describes the AAVS synthesis of BNxOy powders using a reaction of an aqueous boric acid containing aerosol with ammonia at 1000°C. The effect of reactor tube material, total gas flow rate, ammonia concentration, boric acid concentration, and urea addition to the boric acid aerosol on the percent oxygen composition is described. The resulting BNxOy powders contain significant amounts of oxygen that require replacement in a second stage nitridation reaction at elevated temperature under ammonia. The influences of the reaction temperature profile, crucible geometry and transformation additive on final oxygen composition and powder crystallinity are described. Chapter 2 outlines the formation of BNxOy powders from an AAVS reaction between the boron precursor (MeO)3B and ammonia. The formation of the powders is studied as a function of total gas flow rate and ammonia concentration. In all cases the resulting powders contain lower levels of oxygen compared to powders produced from aqueous boric acid aerosols. The conversion of the BNxOy powders in the second stage nitridation reaction with ammonia is examined as a function of crucible geometry, temperature

  16. Feasibility of Actively Cooled Silicon Nitride Airfoil for Turbine Applications Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2001-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys currently limit gas turbine engine performance. Active cooling has extended the temperature range of service of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Therefore, significant advancements in materials technology are needed to raise turbine inlet temperatures above 2400 F to increase engine specific thrust and operating efficiency. Because of their low density and high-temperature strength and thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, the high processing costs and low impact resistance of silicon nitride ceramics have proven to be major obstacles for widespread applications. Advanced rapid prototyping technology in combination with conventional gel casting and sintering can reduce high processing costs and may offer an affordable manufacturing approach. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with a local university and an aerospace company, are developing actively cooled and functionally graded ceramic structures. The objective of this program is to develop cost-effective manufacturing technology and experimental and analytical capabilities for environmentally stable, aerodynamically efficient, foreign-object-damage-resistant, in situ toughened silicon nitride turbine nozzle vanes, and to test these vanes under simulated engine conditions. Starting with computer aided design (CAD) files of an airfoil and a flat plate with internal cooling passages, the permanent and removable mold components for gel casting ceramic slips were made by stereolithography and Sanders machines, respectively. The gel-cast part was dried and sintered to final shape. Several in situ toughened silicon nitride generic airfoils with internal cooling passages have been fabricated. The uncoated and thermal barrier coated airfoils and flat plates were burner rig tested for 30 min without

  17. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boronmore » nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.« less

  18. Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Amanuel M; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Bodrog, Zoltán; Fiedler, Saskia; Schröder, Tim; Triviño, Noelia Vico; Palacios, Tomás; Gali, Adam; Toth, Milos; Englund, Dirk; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Room-temperature quantum emitters in gallium nitride (GaN) are reported. The emitters originate from cubic inclusions in hexagonal lattice and exhibit narrowband luminescence in the red spectral range. The sources are found in different GaN substrates, and therefore are promising for scalable quantum technologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chlorination Kinetics of Titanium Nitride for Production of Titanium Tetrachloride from Nitrided Ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Eltefat; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul; Baharun, Norlia; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Fauzi, Ahmad; Zhang, Guangqing

    2017-10-01

    The kinetics of chlorination of titanium nitride (TiN) was investigated in the temperature range of 523 K to 673 K (250 °C to 400 °C). The results showed that the extent of chlorination slightly increased with increasing temperature and decreasing particle size of titanium nitride at constant flow rate of N2-Cl2 gas mixture. At 523 K (250 °C), the extent of chlorination was 85.6 pct in 60 minutes whereas at 673 K (400 °C), it was 97.7 pct investigated by weight loss measurement and confirmed by ICP analyses. The experimental results indicated that a shrinking unreacted core model with mixed-control mechanism governed the chlorination rate. It was observed that the surface chemical reaction of chlorine gas on the surface of TiN particles was rate controlling in the initial stage and, during later stage, internal (pore) diffusion through the intermediate product layer was rate controlling step. Overall the process follows the mixed-control model incorporating both chemical reaction and internal diffusion control. The activation energy for the chlorination of TiN was found to be about 10.97 kJ mol-1. In processing TiCl4 from TiN and TiO0.02C0.13N0.85, the solids involved in the chlorination process were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). The SEM/EDX results demonstrated the consumption of TiN particles with extent of chlorination that showed shrinking core behavior.

  20. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  1. Room-temperature low-voltage electroluminescence in amorphous carbon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, R.; Legnani, C.; Ribeiro Pinto, P. M.; Cremona, M.; de Araújo, P. J. G.; Achete, C. A.

    2003-06-01

    White-blue electroluminescent emission with a voltage bias less than 10 V was achieved in rf sputter-deposited amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN) and amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiCN) thin-film-based devices. The heterojunction structures of these devices consist of: Indium tin oxide (ITO), used as a transparent anode; amorphous carbon film as an emission layer, and aluminum as a cathode. The thickness of the carbon films was about 250 Å. In all of the produced diodes, a stable visible emission peaked around 475 nm is observed at room temperature and the emission intensity increases with the current density. For an applied voltage of 14 V, the luminance was about 3 mCd/m2. The electroluminescent properties of the two devices are discussed and compared.

  2. Improved performance of silicon nitride-based high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the production of Si3N4 based ceramics is reviewed: (1) high temperature strength and toughness of hot pressed Si3N4 were improved by using high purity powder and a stabilized ZrO2 additive, (2) impact resistance of hot pressed Si3N4 was increased by the use of a crushable energy absorbing layer, (3) the oxidation resistance and strength of reaction sintered Si3N4 were increased by impregnating reaction sintered silicon nitride with solutions that oxidize to Al2O3 or ZrO2, (4) beta prime SiA1ON compositions and sintering aids were developed for improved oxidation resistance or improved high temperature strength.

  3. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  4. Hall effect of copper nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. H.; Liu, J. Z.; Li, M.; Yuan, X. M.; Yan, P. X.; Liu, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The Hall effect of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films was investigated in our work. Cu3N films were deposited on glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at different temperatures using pure copper as the sputtering target. The Hall coefficients of the films are demonstrated to be dependent on the deposition gas flow rate and the measuring temperature. Both the Hall coefficient and resistance of the Cu3N films increase with the nitrogen gas flow rate at room temperature, while the Hall mobility and the carrier density of the films decrease. As the temperature changed from 100 K to 300 K, the Hall coefficient and the resistivity of the films decreased, while the carrier density increased and Hall mobility shows no great change. The energy band gap of the Cu3N films deduced from the curve of the common logarithm of the Hall coefficient against 1/T is 1.17-1.31 eV.

  5. Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-25

    identify by block number) FIELW GROUP SUB-GROUP 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and Identify by block number) Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN...AND TASK OBJECTIVES Aluminum gallium nitride (AIGaN) has long been recognized as a promising radiation hard optoelectronic material. AIGaN has a wide...Efficient, pure, low temperature sources for the gas source molecular beam epitaxial (GSMBE) growth of aluminum gallium nitride will essentially

  6. Study of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface nitridation by post-oxidation annealing in pure nitrogen gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthaphan, Atthawut, E-mail: chanthaphan@asf.mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail: hosoi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimura, Takayoshi

    An alternative and effective method to perform interface nitridation for 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was developed. We found that the high-temperature post-oxidation annealing (POA) in N{sub 2} ambient was beneficial to incorporate a sufficient amount of nitrogen atoms directly into thermal SiO{sub 2}/SiC interfaces. Although N{sub 2}-POA was ineffective for samples with thick thermal oxide layers, interface nitridation using N{sub 2}-POA was achieved under certain conditions, i.e., thin SiO{sub 2} layers (< 15 nm) and high annealing temperatures (>1350°C). Electrical characterizations of SiC-MOS capacitors treated with high-temperature N{sub 2}-POA revealed the same evidence of slow trap passivation and fast trapmore » generation that occurred in NO-treated devices fabricated with the optimized nitridation conditions.« less

  7. Extraction of titanium from low-iron nitrided Malaysian ilmenite by chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Najwa; Ahmadi, Eltefat; Rahman, Shaik Abdul; Fauzi, M. N. Ahmad; Rezan, Sheikh Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, production of TiCl4 from low-iron nitrided ilmenite samples at relatively low temperature using chlorine gas generated from the reaction between KMnO4 and HCl has been investigated. The effects of chlorination soaking time, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to hydrochloric acid (HCl) molar ratio and aluminium powder catalyst in chlorine gas generation on titanium extraction from nitrided Malaysian ilmenite were examined. The low-iron nitrided Malaysian ilmenite contained titanium oxycarbonitride (TiOxCyNz) after carbothermal reduction and nitridation with subsequent leaching. Chlorination process was performed at 500°C for 30 - 60 minutes. Statistical analysis of the data was done by Design of Experiment (DOE) to identify the significant variables and their interactions. The results achieved in this study showed that the highest extent of chlorination was about 98.34% at 500°C for 60 minutes. The lowest extent of chlorination was about 68.51% obtained in KMnO4 to HCl molar ratio of 2.0 and 0.35 g of aluminium powder. The chlorinated titanium oxycarbonitride powders and TiCl4 solutions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the processing parameters on extracting titanium via pyrometallurgical technique.

  8. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  9. Analysis of Aluminum-Nitride SOI for High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Osman, Mohamed A.; Yu, Zhiping

    2000-01-01

    We use numerical simulation to investigate the high-temperature (up to 500K) operation of SOI MOSFETs with Aluminum-Nitride (AIN) buried insulators, rather than the conventional silicon-dioxide (SiO2). Because the thermal conductivity of AIN is about 100 times that of SiO2, AIN SOI should greatly reduce the often severe self-heating problem of conventional SOI, making SOI potentially suitable for high-temperature applications. A detailed electrothermal transport model is used in the simulations, and solved with a PDE solver called PROPHET In this work, we compare the performance of AIN-based SOI with that of SiO2-based SOI and conventional MOSFETs. We find that AIN SOI does indeed remove the self-heating penalty of SOL However, several device design trade-offs remain, which our simulations highlight.

  10. High Temperature Corrosion of Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are proposed for applications in high temperature combustion environments containing water vapor. Both SiC and Si3N4 react with water vapor to form a silica (SiO2) scale. It is therefore important to understand the durability of SiC, Si3N4 and SiO2 in water vapor. Thermogravimetric analyses, furnace exposures and burner rig results were obtained for these materials in water vapor at temperatures between 1100 and 1450 C and water vapor partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 3.1 atm. First, the oxidation of SiC and Si3N4 in water vapor is considered. The parabolic kinetic rate law, rate dependence on water vapor partial pressure, and oxidation mechanism are discussed. Second, the volatilization of silica to form Si(OH)4(g) is examined. Mass spectrometric results, the linear kinetic rate law and a volatilization model based on diffusion through a gas boundary layer are discussed. Finally, the combined oxidation and volatilization reactions, which occur when SiC or Si3N4 are exposed in a water vapor-containing environment, are presented. Both experimental evidence and a model for the paralinear kinetic rate law are shown for these simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions.

  11. The Influence of Hot-Rolled Temperature on Plasma Nitriding Behavior of Iron-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hossary, F. M.; Khalil, S. M.; Lotfy, Kh.; Kassem, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Experiments were performed with an aim of studying the effect of hot-rolled temperature (600 and 900°C) on radio frequency (rf) plasma nitriding of Fe93Ni4Zr3 alloy. Nitriding was carried out for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at a base pressure of 10-2 mbarr. Different continuous plasma processing powers of 300-550 W in steps 50 W or less were applied. Nitrided hot-rolled specimens were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness measurements. The results reveal that the surface of hot-rolled rf plasma nitrided specimens at 600°C is characterized with a fine microstructure as a result of the high nitrogen solubility and diffusivity. Moreover, the hot-rolled treated samples at 600°C exhibit higher microhardness value than the associated values of hot-rolled treated samples at 900°C. The enhancement of microhardness is due to precipitation and predominance of new phases ( γ and ɛ phases). Mainly, this conclusion has been attributed to the high defect densities and small grain sizes of the samples hot-rolled at 600°C. Generally, the refinement of grain size plays a dramatic role in improvement of mechanical properties of tested samples.

  12. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOEpatents

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  13. Synthesis micro-scale boron nitride nanotubes at low substrate temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Muhammad, E-mail: msajjadd@gmail.com; Makarov, Vladimir; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-07-15

    High temperature synthesis methods produce defects in 1D nanomaterials, which ultimately limit their applications. We report here the synthesis of micro-scale boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) at low substrate temperature (300 {sup o}C) using a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser deposition technique in the presence of catalyst. The electron microscopic analyses have shown the nanotubes distributed randomly on the surface of the substrate. The average diameter (∼0.25 μm) of a nanotube, which is the highest reported value to date, is estimated by SEM data and confirmed by TEM measurements. These nanotubes are promising for high response deep-UV photo-luminescent devices. A detailed synthesismore » mechanism is presented and correlated with the experimental results.« less

  14. Correction: Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control' by Sujoy Sarkar et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 6407-6410.

  15. Experimental and numerical study on plasma nitriding of AISI P20 mold steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayebpashaee, N.; Vafaeenezhad, H.; Kheirandish, Sh.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, plasma nitriding was used to fabricate a hard protective layer on AISI P20 steel, at three process temperatures (450°C, 500°C, and 550°C) and over a range of time periods (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 h), and at a fixed gas N2:H2 ratio of 75vol%:25vol%. The morphology of samples was studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the formed phase of each sample was determined by X-ray diffraction. The elemental depth profile was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and glow dispersive spectroscopy. The hardness profile of the samples was identified, and the microhardness profile from the surface to the sample center was recorded. The results show that ɛ-nitride is the dominant species after carrying out plasma nitriding in all strategies and that the plasma nitriding process improves the hardness up to more than three times. It is found that as the time and temperature of the process increase, the hardness and hardness depth of the diffusion zone considerably increase. Furthermore, artificial neural networks were used to predict the effects of operational parameters on the mechanical properties of plastic mold steel. The plasma temperature, running time of imposition, and target distance to the sample surface were all used as network inputs; Vickers hardness measurements were given as the output of the model. The model accurately reproduced the experimental outcomes under different operational conditions; therefore, it can be used in the effective simulation of the plasma nitriding process in AISI P20 steel.

  16. Strength evaluation test of pressureless-sintered silicon nitride at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsusue, K.; Takahara, K.; Hashimoto, R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study strength characteristics at room temperature and the strength evaluating method of ceramic materials, the following tests were conducted on pressureless sintered silicon nitride specimens: bending tests, the three tensile tests of rectangular plates, holed plates, and notched plates, and spin tests of centrally holed disks. The relationship between the mean strength of specimens and the effective volume of specimens are examined using Weibull's theory. The effect of surface grinding on the strength of specimens is discussed.

  17. Effects of deposition temperature and ammonia flow on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Anthony; Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Beechem, Thomas; Ohta, Taisuke; Spataru, Catalin; Figiel, Jeffrey; Smith, Michael

    2018-03-01

    The use of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at high temperature is investigated as a means to produce epitaxial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) at the wafer scale. Several categories of hBN films were found to exist based upon precursor flows and deposition temperature. Low, intermediate, and high NH3 flow regimes were found to lead to fundamentally different deposition behaviors. The low NH3 flow regimes yielded discolored films of boron sub-nitride. The intermediate NH3 flow regime yielded stoichiometric films that could be deposited as thick films. The high NH3 flow regime yielded self-limited deposition with thicknesses limited to a few mono-layers. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism is proposed to explain the onset of self-limited behavior for the high NH3 flow regime. Photoluminescence characterization determined that the intermediate and high NH3 flow regimes could be further divided into low and high temperature behaviors with a boundary at 1500 °C. Films deposited with both high NH3 flow and high temperature exhibited room temperature free exciton emission at 210 nm and 215.9 nm.

  18. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  19. Friction and Wear of Unlubricated NiTiHf with Nitriding Surface Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2018-01-01

    The unlubricated friction and wear properties of the superelastic materials NiTi and NiTiHf, treated by either gas nitriding or plasma nitriding, have been investigated. Pin on disk testing of the studied materials was performed at sliding speeds from 0.01 to 1m/s at normal loads of 1, 5 or 10N. For all of the studied friction pairs (NiTiHf pins vs. NiTi and NiTiHf disks) over the given parameters, the steady-state coefficients of friction varied from 0.22 to 1.6. Pin wear factors ranged from approximately 1E-6 against the NiTiHf and plasma nitrided disks to approximately 1E-4 for the gas nitrided disks. The plasma nitrided disks provided wear protection in several cases and tended to wear by adhesion. The gas nitrided treatment generated the most pin wear but had essentially no disk wear except at the most severe of the studied conditions (1N load and 1m/s sliding speed). The results of this study are expected to provide guidance for design of components such as gears and fasteners.

  20. Structure refinement for tantalum nitrides nanocrystals with various morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lianyun; School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shang Yuan Cun, Haidian District, Beijing 100044; Huang, Kai

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Tantalum nitrides nanocrystals with various phases and morphologies for the first time have been synthesized through homogenous sodium reduction under low temperature with the subsequent annealing process under high vacuum. Highlights: ► The spherical TaN, cuboidal TaN{sub 0.83} and TaN{sub 0.5} nanocrystals have been synthesized through homogenous sodium reduction under low temperature with the subsequent annealing process under high vacuum. ► The crystal structures of different tantalum nitrides were determined by Rietveld refinement on the X-ray diffraction data and the examinations of electron microcopies. ► The specific surface area of the tantalum nitrides powders was around 10 m{supmore » 2} g{sup −1}. ► Tantalum nitrides powders could be suitable for capacitor with high specific capacitance. -- Abstract: Tantalum nitrides (TaN{sub x}) nanocrystals with different phase and morphology have been synthesized through homogenous sodium reduction under low temperature with the subsequent annealing process under high vacuum. The crystal structures of tantalum nitrides were determined by Rietveld refinement based on the X-ray diffraction data. The morphologies of various tantalum nitrides nanocrystals in high quality were analyzed through the electron microcopies examinations. The spherical TaN nanoparticles, cuboidal TaN{sub 0.83} and TaN{sub 0.5} nanocrystals have been selectively prepared at different annealing temperatures. In addition, the specific surface areas of the tantalum nitrides nanocrystals measured by BET method were around 9.87–11.64 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, indicating that such nano-sized tantalum nitrides could be suitable for capacitor with high specific capacitance.« less

  1. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstratemore » such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.« less

  2. Demonstration of the Feasibility of High Temperature Bearing Lubrication From Carbonaceous Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchet, Thierry A.; Sawyer, W. Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Research has been conducted on silicon nitride pin-on-disk sliding contacts at temperatures of up to 520 C, and four-ball rolling contacts with silicon nitride balls and 52100 steel or silicon nitride races at 590 C. These tests were conducted in a variety of gaseous environments in order to determine the effects of simulated engine exhaust gas on the carbonaceous gas decomposition lubrication scheme. In rolling tests with steel races and exhaust gas the wear track depth was roughly half that of tests run in nitrogen gas alone. The deposition of lubricous microcrystalline graphitic carbon on the rolling surfaces, generated from the carbon monoxide within the exhaust gas mixture, was verified by microfocused Raman spectroscopy. Ten-fold reductions in rolling wear could be achieved by the exhaust gas atmosphere in cases where water vapor was removed or not present. The exhaust gas mixture alone was not found to provide any lubricating effect on silicon nitride sliding contacts, where the rate of wear greatly exceeds the rate of carbon deposition. Directed admixture of acetylene (as low as 5% of the exhaust gas flow rates), has provided reductions in both wear volume and coefficient of friction by factors of 60X and 20X respectively for sliding contacts during the initial 80 m of sliding distance. Exhaust gas atmosphere with the acetylene admixture provided 65OX reductions in steady state wear rate compared to that measured for sliding contacts in dry N2. Such acetylene admixture also augments the ability of the exhaust gas atmosphere to lubricate high-temperature rolling contacts, with up to 25-fold reductions in wear track depth compared to those measured in the presence of N2 alone. In addition to providing some lubricating benefit itself, an important potential role of the exhaust gas from rich mixtures would be to shield bearings from 02. Such shielding enables surface deposition of lubricous pyrolytic carbon from the acetylene admixture, instead of combustion

  3. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  4. Tribological and corrosion properties of plasma nitrided and nitrocarburized 42CrMo4 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmic, D.; Van Thanh, D.

    2017-02-01

    This article deals with tribological and corrosion resistance comparison of plasma nitrided and nitrocarburized 42CrMo4 steel used for breech mechanism in the armament production. Increasing of materials demands (like wear resistance, surface hardness, running-in properties and corrosion resistance) used for armament production and in other industrial application leads in the field of surface treatment. Experimental steel samples were plasma nitrided under different nitriding gas ratio at 500 °C for 15h and nitrocarburized for 45 min at temperature 590°C and consequently post-oxidized for 10 min at 430°C. Individual 42CrMo4 steel samples were subsequently metallographically evaluated and characterized by hardness and microhardness measuring. The wear test “ball on disc” was realized for measuring of adhesive wear and coefficient of friction during unlubricated sliding. NSS corrosion tests were realized for corrosion resistance evaluation and expressed by corroded area and calculated corrosion rate. The corrosion resistance evaluation is by the surface corrosion-free surfaces evaluation supplemented using the laser confocal microscopy. Due to different surface treatment and plasma nitriding conditions, there are wear resistance and corrosion resistance differences evident between the plasma nitrided steel samples as well.

  5. Feasibility study of silicon nitride regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rao, V. D. N.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride as a regenerator matrix material for applications requiring inlet temperatures above 1000 C is examined. The present generation oxide ceramics are used as a reference to examine silicon nitride from a material characteristics, manufacturing, thermal stress and aerothermodynamic viewpoint.

  6. Fission-gas-release rates from irradiated uranium nitride specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Tambling, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    Fission-gas-release rates from two 93 percent dense UN specimens were measured using a sweep gas facility. Specimen burnup rates averaged .0045 and .0032 percent/hr, and the specimen temperatures ranged from 425 to 1323 K and from 552 to 1502 K, respectively. Burnups up to 7.8 percent were achieved. Fission-gas-release rates first decreased then increased with burnup. Extensive interconnected intergranular porosity formed in the specimen operated at over 1500 K. Release rate variation with both burnup and temperature agreed with previous irradiation test results.

  7. Cubic nitride templates

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Mueller, Alexander H; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-04-30

    A polymer-assisted deposition process for deposition of epitaxial cubic metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be used as templates for the development of high quality cubic GaN based electronic devices.

  8. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  9. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  10. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-12

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ∼98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  11. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  12. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  13. Native gallium adatoms discovered on atomically-smooth gallium nitride surfaces at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Smith, Arthur R

    2015-03-11

    In advanced compound semiconductor devices, such as in quantum dot and quantum well systems, detailed atomic configurations at the growth surfaces are vital in determining the structural and electronic properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the surface reconstructions in order to make further technological advancements. Usually, conventional semiconductor surfaces (e.g., arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides) are highly reactive due to the existence of a high density of group V (anion) surface dangling bonds. However, in the case of nitrides, group III rich growth conditions in molecular beam epitaxy are usually preferred leading to group III (Ga)-rich surfaces. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal a uniform distribution of native gallium adatoms with a density of 0.3%-0.5% of a monolayer on the clean, as-grown surface of nitrogen polar GaN(0001̅) having the centered 6 × 12 reconstruction. Unseen at room temperature, these Ga adatoms are strongly bound to the surface but move with an extremely low surface diffusion barrier and a high density saturation coverage in thermodynamic equilibrium with Ga droplets. Furthermore, the Ga adatoms reveal an intrinsic surface chirality and an asymmetric site occupation. These observations can have important impacts in the understanding of gallium nitride surfaces.

  14. Sulfide Stress Cracking and Electrochemical Corrosion of Precipitation Hardening Steel After Plasma Oxy-Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granda-Gutiérrez, E. E.; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Díaz-Guillén, J. A.; González, M. A.; García-Vázquez, F.; Muñóz, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a duplex plasma nitriding followed by an oxidizing stage process (which is also referred as oxy-nitriding) on the corrosion behavior of a 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel. The formation of both, expanded martensite (b.c.t. α'N-phase) and chromium oxide (type Cr2O3) in the subsurface of oxy-nitrided samples at specific controlled conditions, leads in a noticeable increasing in the time-to-rupture during the sulfide stress cracking test, in comparison with an untreated reference sample. Oxy-nitriding improves the corrosion performance of the alloy when it is immersed in solutions saturated by sour gas, which extends the application potential of this type of steel in the oil and gas extraction and processing industry. The presence of the oxy-nitrided layer inhibits the corrosion process that occurs in the near-surface region, where hydrogen is liberated after the formation of iron sulfides, which finally produces a fragile fracture by micro-crack propagation; the obtained results suggest that oxy-nitriding slows this process, thus delaying the rupture of the specimen. Moreover, oxy-nitriding produces a hard, sour gas-resistant surface, but do not significantly affect the original chloride ion solution resistance of the material.

  15. Engineering of III-Nitride Semiconductors on Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Mánuel, J M; Jiménez, J J; Morales, F M; Lacroix, B; Santos, A J; García, R; Blanco, E; Domínguez, M; Ramírez, M; Beltrán, A M; Alexandrov, D; Tot, J; Dubreuil, R; Videkov, V; Andreev, S; Tzaneva, B; Bartsch, H; Breiling, J; Pezoldt, J; Fischer, M; Müller, J

    2018-05-02

    This work presents results in the field of advanced substrate solutions in order to achieve high crystalline quality group-III nitrides based heterostructures for high frequency and power devices or for sensor applications. With that objective, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics has been used, as a non-crystalline substrate. Structures like these have never been developed before, and for economic reasons will represent a groundbreaking material in these fields of Electronic. In this sense, the report presents the characterization through various techniques of three series of specimens where GaN was deposited on this ceramic composite, using different buffer layers, and a singular metal-organic chemical vapor deposition related technique for low temperature deposition. Other single crystalline ceramic-based templates were also utilized as substrate materials, for comparison purposes.

  16. Thermal conversion of an iron nitride-silicon nitride precursor into a ferromagnetic nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maya, L.; Thompson, J. R.; Song, K. J.; Warmack, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Iron nitride films, FeN, in a pure form and in the form of a nanocomposite in silicon nitride were prepared by reactive sputtering using iron or iron disilicide, respectively, as targets in a nitrogen plasma. Iron nitride decomposes into the elements by heating in vacuum to 800 °C. Intermediate phases such as Fe2N or Fe4N form at lower temperatures. The nanocomposites contain the iron phases as particles with an average size of ˜5 nm dispersed in the amorphous silicon nitride matrix. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were established. The precursor FeN-Si3N4 film is paramagnetic, while the Fe-Si3N4, obtained by heating in vacuum, is ferromagnetic and shows typical superparamagnetic behavior. These films are of interest as recording media with superior chemical and mechanical stability and may be encoded by localized heating.

  17. High-Temperature Dielectric Properties of Aluminum Nitride Ceramic for Wireless Passive Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Yuan, Yukun; Ren, Zhong; Tan, Qiulin; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The accurate characterization of the temperature-dependent permittivity of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic is quite critical to the application of wireless passive sensors for harsh environments. Since the change of the temperature-dependent permittivity will vary the ceramic-based capacitance, which can be converted into the change of the resonant frequency, an LC resonator, based on AlN ceramic, is prepared by the thick film technology. The dielectric properties of AlN ceramic are measured by the wireless coupling method, and discussed within the temperature range of 12 °C (room temperature) to 600 °C. The results show that the extracted relative permittivity of ceramic at room temperature is 2.3% higher than the nominal value of 9, and increases from 9.21 to 10.79, and the quality factor Q is decreased from 29.77 at room temperature to 3.61 at 600 °C within the temperature range. PMID:26370999

  18. Method for producing refractory nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1989-01-24

    A process for making fine, uniform metal nitride powders that can be hot pressed or sintered. A metal salt is placed in a solvent with Melamine and warmed until a metal-Melamine compound forms. The solution is cooled and the metal-Melamine precipitate is calcined at a temperature below 700.degree. C. to form the metal nitrides and to avoid formation of the metal oxide.

  19. Sorption J-T refrigeration utilizing manganese nitride chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Lund, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures and compositions have been measured for a system of finely powdered manganese nitride and nitrogen gas at 650, 700, 800, and 850 C for various nitrogen loadings. Pressures ranged from less than 0.02 MPa at 650 C to 6.38 MPa at 850 C. Analysis of the test results has shown that under certain conditions Mn(x)N(y) could potentially be used in a triple regenerative sorption compressor refrigeration system, but the potential power savings are small compared to the increased complexity and reliability problems associated with very high temperature (above 950 C) pressurized systems.

  20. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  1. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  2. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Iron Nitrides on Zinc-Blende Gallium Nitride(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Jeongihm; Lin, Wenzhi; Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang, Kangkang; Smith, Arthur R.

    2008-03-01

    Iron nitrides are attractive materials for their high magnetic moments, corrosion, and oxidation resistance. We present the successful epitaxial growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride (c-GaN) in order to develop a novel magnetic transition metal nitride/semiconductor system. First, GaN is grown on magnesium oxide (MgO) substrates having (001) orientation using rf N2-plasma molecular beam epitaxy. Then we grow FeN at substrate temperature of ˜ 210 ^oC up to a thickness of ˜ 10.5 nm. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to monitor the surface during growth. Initial results suggest that the epitaxial relationship is FeN[001] || GaN[001] and FeN[100] || GaN[100]. Work in progress is to investigate the surface using in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to reveal the surface structure at atomic scale, as well as to explore more Fe-rich magnetic phases.

  3. Crack healing behavior of hot pressed silicon nitride due to oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Tikare, V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that limited oxidation of an MgO-containing, hot-pressed silicon nitride ceramic at 800 deg C and above results in increased strength due to crack healing. Slight oxidation of the surface produces enstatite and cristobalite which fills in cracks. More extensive oxidation leads to strength degradation due to the formation of new flaws by the evolution of N2 gas at the surface. The apparent fracture toughness also increased at 800 deg C and above due to oxidation. Bonds formed between the two surfaces of the crack during oxidation leads to a reduction in stress intensity at the crack tip, suggesting that valid high-temperature toughness values cannot be obtained in an air environment. The increase in strength due to crack healing by oxidation can be achieved without compromising the fatigue properties of the silicon nitride ceramic.

  4. Low pressure growth of cubic boron nitride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming thin films of cubic boron nitride on substrates at low pressures and temperatures. A substrate is first coated with polycrystalline diamond to provide a uniform surface upon which cubic boron nitride can be deposited by chemical vapor deposition. The cubic boron nitride film is useful as a substitute for diamond coatings for a variety of applications in which diamond is not suitable. any tetragonal or hexagonal boron nitride. The cubic boron nitride produced in accordance with the preceding example is particularly well-suited for use as a coating for ultra hard tool bits and abrasives, especially those intended to use in cutting or otherwise fabricating iron.

  5. Crystal growth in supercritical ammonia using high surface area silicon nitride feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskel, Stefan; Khanna, Meikh; Zibrowius, Bodo; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Ullner, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The use of amorphous high surface area silicon nitride is proposed as a raw material for crystallization experiments in supercritical ammonia. Compared with earlier studies, the use of highly dispersed solids results in the crystallization of inorganic nitrides under relatively mild conditions (673 K). Mineralizers such as amides (LiNH 2, NaNH 2, KNH 2) are found to be effective crystallization aids. The crystalline products, detected using powder X-ray diffraction, are either MSi 2N 3 (M=Li, Na) or Si 2N 2NH. Si 2N 2NH is also characterized using 29Si MAS NMR. The spectrum shows a narrow line located at -44.7 ppm, whereas for amorphous silicon nitride-based materials the line is broad. The ammonothermal reaction of NaAl(NH 2) 4 and high surface area silicon nitride at 673 K affords a new orthorhombic phase, isostructural with NaSi 2N 3, but with extended lattice constants ( a=9.634, b=5.643, c=5.011 Å). Effective crystallization is also achieved using fluoride mineralizers (KF, CsF) at 673 K. A new small scale autoclave, suitable for laboratory syntheses at temperatures up to 873 K, is presented that can be loaded under inert gas.

  6. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  7. Nitrogen-related effects on low-temperature electronic properties of two-dimensional electron gas in very dilute nitride GaNxAs1-x/AlGaAs (x = 0 and 0.08%) modulation-doped heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mootabian, Mahnaz; Eshghi, Hosein

    2013-07-01

    The low-temperature (4 K) two-dimensional (2D) electron gas mobility data versus carrier concentration in the modulation-doped dilute nitride GaAs1-xNx/Al0.3Ga0.7As (x = 0 and 0.08%) heterostructures are analyzed. Theoretical analysis is based on Fermi-Dirac statistics for the occupation of the quantum confined electronic states in the triangular quantum wells and the width of the quantum well versus 2D concentration. In addition, the mobility analysis is based on Matthiessen's rule for various scattering mechanisms. We found that the N-related neutral cluster alloy scattering together with crystal dislocations created at the interface strongly affects the electrons' mobility in the N-contained channel sample. We also found that as the electron concentration in the well increases from ˜1 × 1011 to 3.5 × 1011 cm-2 the carriers mainly occupy the first subband, tending to remain closer and closer to the hetero-interface.

  8. High temperature thermal management with boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Xu, Lisha; Yang, Zhi; Xie, Hua; Jiang, Puqing; Dai, Jiaqi; Luo, Wei; Yao, Yonggang; Hitz, Emily; Yang, Ronggui; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-12-21

    The rapid development of high power density devices requires more efficient heat dissipation. Recently, two-dimensional layered materials have attracted significant interest due to their superior thermal conductivity, ease of production and chemical stability. Among them, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is electrically insulating, making it a promising thermal management material for next-generation electronics. In this work, we demonstrated that an h-BN thin film composed of layer-by-layer laminated h-BN nanosheets can effectively enhance the lateral heat dissipation on the substrate. We found that by using the BN-coated glass instead of bare glass as the substrate, the highest operating temperature of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based device could increase from 700 °C to 1000 °C, and at the same input power, the operating temperature of the RGO device is effectively decreased. The remarkable performance improvement using the BN coating originates from its anisotropic thermal conductivity: a high in-plane thermal conductivity of 14 W m -1 K -1 for spreading and a low cross-plane thermal conductivity of 0.4 W m -1 K -1 to avoid a hot spot right underneath the device. Our results provide an effective approach to improve the heat dissipation in integrated circuits and high power devices.

  9. Cellulose nanobiocomposites with reinforcement of boron nitride: study of thermal, oxygen barrier and chemical resistant properties.

    PubMed

    Swain, Sarat K; Dash, Satyabrata; Behera, Chandini; Kisku, Sudhir K; Behera, Lingaraj

    2013-06-20

    A series of cellulose based nanobiocomposites (cellulose/BN) were prepared with incorporation of various percentage of nano boron nitride (BN). The interaction between cellulose and boron nitride was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of cellulose/BN nanobiocomposites was investigated by XRD, FESEM, and HRTEM. It was observed that the boron nitride nanoparticles were dispersed within cellulose matrix due to intercalation and partial exfoliation. The quantitative identification of nanobiocomposites was investigated by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Thermal stabilities of the prepared nanobiocomposites were measured by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and it was found that thermal stability of the nanobiocomposites was higher than the virgin cellulose. The oxygen barrier property of cellulose/BN nanobiocomposites was measured using a gas permeameter and a substantial reduction in oxygen permeability due to increase in boron nitride loading was observed. Further it was noticed that the chemical resistance of the nanobiocomposites was more than the virgin cellulose. Hence, the prepared nanobiocomposite may be widely used for insulating and temperature resistant packaging materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth of gallium nitride and indium nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Ling, Yichuan; Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-03-07

    We report a general strategy for synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates. GaN and InN nanowires were prepared via a nanocluster-mediated growth method using a home built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system with Ga and In metals as group III precursors and ammonia as a group V precursor. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the group III-nitride nanowires are single crystalline wurtzite structures. The morphology, density and growth mechanism of these nanowires are determined by the growth temperature. Importantly, a photoelectrode fabricated by contacting the GaN nanowires through a carbon cloth substrate shows pronounced photoactivity for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The ability to synthesize group III-nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible substrates should open up new opportunities for nanoscale photonic, electronic and electrochemical devices.

  11. Manufacture of sintered silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sintered silicon nitrides are manufactured by sintering Si3N powder containing 2 to 15% in wt of a powder mixture composed of nitride powder of lanthanide or Y 100 parts and AIN powder less than 100 parts at 1500 to 1900 deg. temperature under a pressure of less than 200 Kg/sq. cm. The sintered Si3N has high mechanical strength in high temperature. Thus, Si3N4 93.0, Y 5.0 and AlN 2.0% in weight were wet mixed in acetone in N atom, molded and sintered at 1750 deg. and 1000 Kg/sq. cm. to give a sintered body having high hardness.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of several nondestructive-evaluation techniques for silicon nitride gas-turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D. S.; Sciammarella, C.; Lapinski, N. P.

    1978-01-01

    Several nondestructive-evaluation (NDE) techniques have been examined to establish their effectiveness for detecting critically sized flaws in silicon nitride gas-turbine rotors. Preliminary results have been obtained for holographic interferometry, acoustic microscopy, dye-enhanced radiography, acoustic emission, and acoustic-impact testing techniques. This report discusses the relative effectiveness of these techniques in terms of their applicability to the rotor geometry and ability to detect critically sized flaws. Where feasible, flaw indications were verified by alternative NDE techniques or destructive examination. This study has indicated that, since the various techniques have different advantages, ultimately a reliable interrogation of ceramic rotors may require the applicationmore » of several NDE methods.« less

  13. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  14. Impurity-induced disorder in III-nitride materials and devices

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J; Allerman, Andrew A

    2014-11-25

    A method for impurity-induced disordering in III-nitride materials comprises growing a III-nitride heterostructure at a growth temperature and doping the heterostructure layers with a dopant during or after the growth of the heterostructure and post-growth annealing of the heterostructure. The post-growth annealing temperature can be sufficiently high to induce disorder of the heterostructure layer interfaces.

  15. 2D molybdenum and vanadium nitrides synthesized by ammoniation of 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes)

    DOE PAGES

    Urbankowski, Patrick; Anasori, Babak; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit; ...

    2017-11-08

    MXenes are a rapidly growing class of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, finding applications in fields ranging from energy storage to electromagnetic interference shielding and transparent conductive coatings. However, while more than 20 carbide MXenes have already been synthesized, Ti 4N 3 and Ti 2N are the only nitride MXenes reported so far. Here by ammoniation of Mo 2CT x and V 2CT x MXenes at 600 °C, we report on their transformation to 2D metal nitrides. Carbon atoms in the precursor MXenes are replaced with N atoms, resulting from the decomposition of ammonia molecules. The crystal structures ofmore » the resulting Mo 2N and V 2N were determined with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. Our results indicate that Mo 2N retains the MXene structure and V 2C transforms to a mixed layered structure of trigonal V 2N and cubic VN. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the nitrides reveal that they exhibit metallic conductivity, as opposed to semiconductor-like behavior of their parent carbides. As important, room-temperature electrical conductivity values of Mo2N and V2N are three and one order of magnitude larger than those of the Mo 2CT x and V 2CT x precursors, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows how gas treatment synthesis such as ammoniation can transform carbide MXenes into 2D nitrides with higher electrical conductivities and metallic behavior, opening a new avenue in 2D materials synthesis.« less

  16. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  18. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddaf, M.; Hullavarad, S. S.; Ganesan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2006-02-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 °C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 °C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  19. Surface passivation of p-type Ge substrate with high-quality GeNx layer formed by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Otani, Yohei; Ono, Toshiro

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of the formation temperature and postmetallization annealing (PMA) on the interface properties of GeNx/p-Ge fabricated by the plasma nitridation of Ge substrates using an electron-cyclotron-resonance-generated nitrogen plasma. The nitridation temperature is found to be a critical parameter in improving the finally obtained GeNx/Ge interface properties. The GeNx/Ge formed at room temperature and treated by PMA at 400 °C exhibits the best interface properties with an interface trap density of 1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The GeNx/Ge interface is unpinned and the Fermi level at the Ge surface can move from the valence band edge to the conduction band edge.

  20. Waste conversion into high-value ceramics: Carbothermal nitridation synthesis of titanium nitride nanoparticles using automotive shredder waste.

    PubMed

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Maroufi, Samane; Liu, Zhao; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-01

    Environmental concern about automotive shredder residue (ASR) has increased in recent years due to its harmful content of heavy metals. Although several approaches of ASR management have been suggested, these approaches remain commercially unproven. This study presents an alternative approach for ASR management where advanced materials can be generated as a by-product. In this approach, titanium nitride (TiN) has been thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Interactions between TiO 2 and ASR at non-isothermal conditions were primarily investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that TiO 2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR, and the temperature, at which reduction starts, was determined around 980 °C. The interaction between TiO 2 and ASR at isothermal conditions in the temperature range between 1200 and 1550 °C was also studied. The pressed mixture of both materials resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic at all given temperatures. Formation kinetics were extracted using several models for product layer diffusion-controlled solid-solid and solid-fluid reactions. The effect of reactants ratio and temperature on the degree of conversion and morphology was investigated. The effect of reactants ratio was found to have considerable effect on the morphology of the resulting material, while temperature had a lesser impact. Several unique structures of TiN (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) were obtained by simply tuning the ratio of TiO 2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm(2) using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si.

  2. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si. PMID:25593562

  3. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOEpatents

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  4. Xenon migration behaviour in titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavarini, S.; Toulhoat, N.; Peaucelle, C.; Martin, P.; Mende, J.; Pipon, Y.; Jaffrezic, H.

    2007-05-01

    Titanium nitride is one of the inert matrixes proposed to surround the fuel in gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) systems. These reactors operate at high temperature and necessitate refractory materials presenting a high chemical stability and good mechanical properties. A total retention of the most volatile fission products, such as Xe, I or Cs, by the inert matrix is needed during the in pile process. The thermal migration of xenon in TiN was studied by implanting 800 keV Xe++ ions in sintered samples at an ion fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2. Annealing was performed at temperatures ranging from 1673 to 1923 K for 1 and 3 h. Xenon concentration profiles were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 2.5 MeV α-particles. The migration behaviour of xenon corresponds to a gas migration model. It is dominated by a surface directed transport with a slight diffusion component. The mean activation energy corresponding to the diffusion component was found to be 2.2 ± 0.3 eV and corresponds to the Brownian motion of xenon bubbles. The directed Xe migration can be interpreted in term of bubble transport using Evans model. This last process is mostly responsible for xenon release from TiN.

  5. Low-temperature formation of c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride thin films by plasma-assisted reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Satake, Yoshikatsu; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    The low-temperature formation of c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride thin films was demonstrated by plasma-assisted reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of the duty cycle at the pulsed-DC voltage applied to the Al target on the properties of AlN films formed via inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-enhanced pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering deposition were investigated. With decreasing duty cycle at the target voltage, the peak intensity of AlN(0002) increased linearly. The surface roughness of AlN films decreased since there was an increase in film density owing to the impact of energetic ions on the films together with the enhancement of nitriding associated with the relative increase in N radical flux. The improvement of both the crystallinity and surface morphology of AlN films at low temperatures is considered to be caused by the difference between the relative flux values of ions and sputtered atoms.

  6. Temperature of gas delivered from ventilators.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Although heated humidifiers (HHs) are the most efficient humidifying device for mechanical ventilation, some HHs do not provide sufficient humidification when the inlet temperature to the water chamber is high. Because portable and home-care ventilators use turbines, blowers, pistons, or compressors to inhale in ambient air, they may have higher gas temperature than ventilators with piping systems. We carried out a bench study to investigate the temperature of gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilators, including the effects of distance from ventilator outlet, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2), and minute volume (MV). We evaluated five ventilators equipped with turbine, blower, piston, or compressor system. Ambient air temperature was adjusted to 24°C ± 0.5°C, and ventilation was set at FIO2 0.21, 0.6, and 1.0, at MV 5 and 10 L/min. We analyzed gas temperature at 0, 40, 80, and 120 cm from ventilator outlet and altered ventilator settings. While temperature varied according to ventilators, the outlet gas temperature of ventilators became stable after, at the most, 5 h. Gas temperature was 34.3°C ± 3.9°C at the ventilator outlet, 29.5°C ± 2.2°C after 40 cm, 25.4°C ± 1.2°C after 80 cm and 25.1°C ± 1.2°C after 120 cm (P < 0.01). FIO2 and MV did not affect gas temperature. Gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilator was not too hot to induce heated humidifier malfunctioning. Gas soon declined when passing through the limb.

  7. The passivation of uranium metal surfaces by nitrogen bombardment — the formation of uranium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Geoffrey C.; Holmes, Nigel R.

    1988-05-01

    As part of a detailed investigation of the behaviour of metallic uranium in various atmospheres, we have examined the reaction between nitrogen gas and uranium metal. At room temperature there was no evidence of reaction between nitrogen gas and a clean metal surface; the only changes observed could be attributed to reaction between the metal and traces of oxygen (less than 0.1 ppm) in the nitrogen gas. Reaction between the metal and nitrogen was induced, however, by accelerating nitrogen towards the surface using a fast atom gun. The resulting nitrided surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its oxidation behaviour was monitored over an extended period in UHV and in air.

  8. Titanium Nitride: An Oxidizable Coating for the High-Temperature Protection of Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.

    1961-01-01

    A titanium nitride coating for graphite, prepared by deposition process, protected test specimens for 60 seconds the vapors in a supersonic ceramic-heated air jet with a stagnation temperature of approximately 2,250 K. For the same test conditions, coated specimens showed no damage to the graphite body for the 60-second test, whereas uncoated specimens were very severely damaged after 20 seconds and were destroyed toward the end of the test. A discussion of the coating of these graphite specimens and of some of the conditions necessary for the utilization of oxidizable substances as oxidation-protective coatings for bodies facing high convective heat transfer in the atmosphere is presented.

  9. Crystallization of the glassy grain boundary phase in silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The role was studied of the intergranular glassy phase in silicon nitride as-processed with yttria as a sintering aid. The microstructure, crystallization, and viscosity of the glassy phase were areas studied. Crystallization of the intergranular glassy phase to more refractory crystalline phases should improve the high temperature mechanical properties of the silicon nitride. The addition of a nucleating agent will increase the rate of crystallization. The measurement of the viscosity of the glassy phase will permit the estimation of the high temperature deformation of the silicon nitride.

  10. Zinc nitride thin films: basic properties and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gómez-Castaño, M.; García Núñez, C.; Domínguez, M.; Vázquez, L.; Pau, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    Zinc nitride films can be deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a Zn target at substrate temperatures lower than 250°C. This low deposition temperature makes the material compatible with flexible substrates. The asgrown layers present a black color, polycrystalline structures, large conductivities, and large visible light absorption. Different studies have reported about the severe oxidation of the layers in ambient conditions. Different compositional, structural and optical characterization techniques have shown that the films turn into ZnO polycrystalline layers, showing visible transparency and semi-insulating properties after total transformation. The oxidation rate is fairly constant as a function of time and depends on environmental parameters such as relative humidity or temperature. Taking advantage of those properties, potential applications of zinc nitride films in environmental sensing have been studied in the recent years. This work reviews the state-of-the-art of the zinc nitride technology and the development of several devices such as humidity indicators, thin film (photo)transistors and sweat monitoring sensors.

  11. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  12. Feasibility study of silicon nitride protection of plastic encapsulated semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, J. W.; Hall, T. C.; Erickson, J. J.; Gebhart, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of low temperature silicon nitride protective layers on wire bonded integrated circuits mounted on lead frame assemblies is reported. An evaluation of the mechanical and electrical compatibility of both plasma nitride and photochemical silicon nitride (photonitride) passivations (parallel evaluations) of integrated circuits which were then encapsulated in plastic is described. Photonitride passivation is compatible with all wire bonded lead frame assemblies, with or without initial chip passivation. Plasma nitride passivation of lead frame assemblies is possible only if the chip is passivated before lead frame assembly. The survival rate after the environmental test sequence of devices with a coating of plasma nitride on the chip and a coating of either plasma nitride or photonitride over the assembled device is significantly greater than that of devices assembled with no nitride protective coating over either chip or lead frame.

  13. Nitridation of silicon by nitrogen neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso

    2016-02-01

    Silicon nitridation was investigated at room temperature using a nitrogen neutral beam (NB) extracted at acceleration voltages of less than 100 V. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of a Si3N4 layer on a Si (1 0 0) substrate when the acceleration voltage was higher than 20 V. The XPS depth profile indicated that nitrogen diffused to a depth of 36 nm for acceleration voltages of 60 V and higher. The thickness of the silicon nitrided layer increased with the acceleration voltages from 20 V to 60 V. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated a Si3N4 layer thickness of 3.1 nm was obtained at an acceleration voltage of 100 V. Moreover, it was proved that the nitrided silicon layer formed by the nitrogen NB at room temperature was effective as the passivation film in the wet etching process.

  14. A Two-Dimensional Manganese Gallium Nitride Surface Structure Showing Ferromagnetism at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingqiao; Chinchore, Abhijit V; Smith, Arthur R; Barral, María Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2018-01-10

    Practical applications of semiconductor spintronic devices necessitate ferromagnetic behavior at or above room temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate a two-dimensional manganese gallium nitride surface structure (MnGaN-2D) which is atomically thin and shows ferromagnetic domain structure at room temperature as measured by spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Application of small magnetic fields proves that the observed magnetic domains follow a hysteretic behavior. Two initially oppositely oriented MnGaN-2D domains are rotated into alignment with only 120 mT and remain mostly in alignment at remanence. The measurements are further supported by first-principles theoretical calculations which reveal highly spin-polarized and spin-split surface states with spin polarization of up to 95% for manganese local density of states.

  15. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  16. Magnetoresistance measurements of superconducting molybdenum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R., E-mail: baskaran@igcar.gov.in; Arasu, A. V. Thanikai; Amaladass, E. P.

    2016-05-23

    Molybdenum nitride thin films have been deposited on aluminum nitride buffered glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering. GIXRD measurements indicate formation of nano-crystalline molybdenum nitride thin films. The transition temperature of MoN thin film is 7.52 K. The transition width is less than 0.1 K. The upper critical field Bc{sub 2}(0), calculated using GLAG theory is 12.52 T. The transition width for 400 µA current increased initially upto 3 T and then decreased, while that for 100 µA current transition width did not decrease.

  17. Durability characterization of ceramic materials for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, W. D.; Lindberg, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The strength retention of ceramic materials during extended high-temperature cyclic exposure is critical to their widespread application in gas turbine engines. During a continuing NASA funded program initated in 1979, reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN), sintered silicon carbide (SSC), reaction sintered silicon carbide (RSSC), and sintered silicon nitride (SSN) materials were evaluated following simulated gas turbine engine exposures. Exposures were performed by cycling specimens five times per hour between a high velocity burner discharge and a rapid air quench. The retained flexural strengths were determined following up to 3500 hours of exposure at temperatures up to 1370 C. Post-exposure strengths have been correlated with fractography and surface examination using SEM. Results illustrate excellent strength retention of SSC materials after 3500 hours of exposure to 1370 C. At 1200 C, RBSN and RSSC also demonstrate significant strength retention. Although SSN materials typically suffer significant strength losses during exposures at 1200 C, a new composition, which has improved high-temperature strength, also shows improved durability. In the majority of the materials, strength loss is typically associated with flaw formation in the protective SiO2 layer.

  18. Plasmonic efficiencies of nanoparticles made of metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN) compared with gold

    PubMed Central

    Lalisse, Adrien; Tessier, Gilles; Plain, Jérome; Baffou, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Metal nitrides have been proposed to replace noble metals in plasmonics for some specific applications. In particular, while titanium nitride (TiN) and zirconium nitride (ZrN) possess localized plasmon resonances very similar to gold in magnitude and wavelength, they benefit from a much higher sustainability to temperature. For this reason, they are foreseen as ideal candidates for applications in nanoplasmonics that require high material temperature under operation, such as heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) or thermophotovoltaics. This article presents a detailed investigation of the plasmonic properties of TiN and ZrN nanoparticles in comparison with gold nanoparticles, as a function of the nanoparticle morphology. As a main result, metal nitrides are shown to be poor near-field enhancers compared to gold, no matter the nanoparticle morphology and wavelength. The best efficiencies of metal nitrides as compared to gold in term of near-field enhancement are obtained for small and spherical nanoparticles, and they do not exceed 60%. Nanoparticle enlargements or asymmetries are detrimental. These results mitigate the utility of metal nitrides for high-temperature applications such as HAMR, despite their high temperature sustainability. Nevertheless, at resonance, metal nitrides behave as efficient nanosources of heat and could be relevant for applications in thermoplasmonics, where heat generation is not detrimental but desired. PMID:27934890

  19. Plasmonic efficiencies of nanoparticles made of metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN) compared with gold.

    PubMed

    Lalisse, Adrien; Tessier, Gilles; Plain, Jérome; Baffou, Guillaume

    2016-12-09

    Metal nitrides have been proposed to replace noble metals in plasmonics for some specific applications. In particular, while titanium nitride (TiN) and zirconium nitride (ZrN) possess localized plasmon resonances very similar to gold in magnitude and wavelength, they benefit from a much higher sustainability to temperature. For this reason, they are foreseen as ideal candidates for applications in nanoplasmonics that require high material temperature under operation, such as heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) or thermophotovoltaics. This article presents a detailed investigation of the plasmonic properties of TiN and ZrN nanoparticles in comparison with gold nanoparticles, as a function of the nanoparticle morphology. As a main result, metal nitrides are shown to be poor near-field enhancers compared to gold, no matter the nanoparticle morphology and wavelength. The best efficiencies of metal nitrides as compared to gold in term of near-field enhancement are obtained for small and spherical nanoparticles, and they do not exceed 60%. Nanoparticle enlargements or asymmetries are detrimental. These results mitigate the utility of metal nitrides for high-temperature applications such as HAMR, despite their high temperature sustainability. Nevertheless, at resonance, metal nitrides behave as efficient nanosources of heat and could be relevant for applications in thermoplasmonics, where heat generation is not detrimental but desired.

  20. Simulations of the synthesis of boron-nitride nanostructures in a hot, high pressure gas volume† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c8sc00667a

    PubMed Central

    Han, Longtao; Irle, Stephan; Nakai, Hiromi

    2018-01-01

    We performed nanosecond timescale computer simulations of clusterization and agglomeration processes of boron nitride (BN) nanostructures in hot, high pressure gas, starting from eleven different atomic and molecular precursor systems containing boron, nitrogen and hydrogen at various temperatures from 1500 to 6000 K. The synthesized BN nanostructures self-assemble in the form of cages, flakes, and tubes as well as amorphous structures. The simulations facilitate the analysis of chemical dynamics and we are able to predict the optimal conditions concerning temperature and chemical precursor composition for controlling the synthesis process in a high temperature gas volume, at high pressure. We identify the optimal precursor/temperature choices that lead to the nanostructures of highest quality with the highest rate of synthesis, using a novel parameter of the quality of the synthesis (PQS). Two distinct mechanisms of BN nanotube growth were found, neither of them based on the root-growth process. The simulations were performed using quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) quantum mechanics in conjunction with a divide-and-conquer (DC) linear scaling algorithm, as implemented in the DC-DFTB-K code, enabling the study of systems as large as 1300 atoms in canonical NVT ensembles for 1 ns time. PMID:29780513

  1. Laser Beam Welding of Nitride Steel Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Yin, Guobin; Shulkin, Boris

    Laser beam welding is a joining technique that has many advantages over conventional GMAW welding, such as low heat input, short cycle time as well as good cosmetic welds. Laser beam welding has been widely used for welding powertrain components in automotive industry. When welding nitride steel components, however, laser beam welding faces a great challenge. The difficulty lies in the fact that the nitride layer in the joint releases the nitrogen into the weld pool, resulting in a porous weld. This research presents an industrial ready solution to prevent the nitrogen from forming gas bubbles in the weld.

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    iii iv v xii 1. Introduction 1 2. Introduction and Summary-Vehicular Turbine Project 3 2.1 Vehicular Turbine Project Plan 5 2.2 Progress and...64.4% SiaNi» - 35.6% AI2O3 + 16.1% Y-O3 Sialon Figure 4.33 Longitudinal ( V ^ and Transverse (Vt) Sonic Velocity vs Density of Silicon Nitride...Peak Load Temperature) Page No. 99 101 102 104 106 109 110 111 118 119 120 120 121 122 122 123 V ? xl R*»" - ■■ ■— ^ .w<ui>wMu

  3. Nitriding of super alloys for enhancing physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, A.

    1984-06-25

    The invention teaches the improvement of certain super alloys by exposing the alloy to an atmosphere of elemental nitrogen at elevated temperatures in excess of 750/sup 0/C but less than 1150/sup 0/C for an extended duration, viz., by nitriding the surface of the alloy, to establish barrier nitrides of the order of 25 to 100 micrometers thickness. These barrier

  4. High-temperature performance of gallium-nitride-based pin alpha-particle detectors grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiu; Liang, Hongwei; Tang, Bin; Peng, Xincun; Liu, Jianxun; Yang, Chao; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Shen, Rensheng; Zou, Jijun; Du, Guotong

    2018-06-01

    The temperature-dependent radiation-detection performance of an alpha-particle detector that was based on a gallium-nitride (GaN)-based pin structure was studied from 290 K to 450 K. Current-voltage-temperature measurements (I-V-T) of the reverse bias show the exponential dependence of leakage currents on the voltage and temperature. The current transport mechanism of the GaN-based pin diode from the reverse bias I-V fitting was analyzed. The temperature-dependent pulse-height spectra of the detectors were studied using an 241 Am alpha-particle source at a reverse bias of 10 V, and the peak positions shifted from 534 keV at 290 K to 490 keV at 450 K. The variation of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 282 keV at 290 K to 292 keV at 450 K is almost negligible. The GaN-based pin detectors are highly promising for high-temperature environments up to 450 K.

  5. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  6. Nitriding of super alloys for enhancing physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur

    1986-01-01

    The invention teaches the improvement of certain super alloys by exposing the alloy to an atmosphere of elemental nitrogen at elevated temperatures in excess of 750.degree. C. but less than 1150.degree. C. for an extended duration, viz., by nitriding the surface of the alloy, to establish barrier nitrides of the order of 25-100 micrometers thickness. These barrier nitrides appear to shield the available oxidizing metallic species of the alloy for up to a sixfold improved resistance against oxidation and also appear to impede egress of surface dislocations for increased fatigue and creep strengths.

  7. On the photon annealing of silicon-implanted gallium-nitride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Seleznev, B. I., E-mail: Boris.Seleznev@novsu.ru; Moskalev, G. Ya.; Fedorov, D. G.

    2016-06-15

    The conditions for the formation of ion-doped layers in gallium nitride upon the incorporation of silicon ions followed by photon annealing in the presence of silicon dioxide and nitride coatings are analyzed. The conditions of the formation of ion-doped layers with a high degree of impurity activation are established. The temperature dependences of the surface concentration and mobility of charge carriers in ion-doped GaN layers annealed at different temperatures are studied.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Elliott, Amy M.

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to anmore » azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.« less

  9. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; More, Karren L.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Hirata, Takehiko; Yoshida, Makoto; Yuri, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Figure 26.1 illustrates the requirements for components of an aircraft engine and critical issues [1]. Currently, heat engines are constructed of metal alloys, which meet these requirements within strict temperature limits. In order to extend these temperature limits, ceramic materials have been considered as potential engine materials, due to their high melting points and stability at high temperatures. These materials include oxides, carbides, borides, and nitrides. Interest in using these materials in engines appears to have begun in the 1940s with BeO-based porcelains [2]. During the 1950s, the efforts shifted to cermets. These were carbide-based materials intended to exploit the best properties of metals and ceramics. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silicon-based ceramics silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were extensively developed. Although the desirable high-temperature properties of SiC and Si3N4 had long been known, consolidation of powders into component-sized bodies required the development of a series of specialized processing routes [3]. For SiC, the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding, hot-pressing, and sintering. The use of boron and carbon as additives which enable sintering was a particularly noteworthy advance [4]. For Si3N4 the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding and hot pressing [5]. Reaction-bonding involves nitridation of silicon powder. Hot pressing involves addition of various refractory oxides, such as magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al2O3), and yttria (y2O3). Variations on these processes include a number of routes including Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), gas-pressure sintering

  10. Group III-nitride thin films grown using MBE and bismuth

    DOEpatents

    Kisielowski, Christian K.; Rubin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises growing gallium nitride films in the presence of bismuth using MBE at temperatures of about 1000 K or less. The present invention further comprises the gallium nitride films fabricated using the inventive fabrication method. The inventive films may be doped with magnesium or other dopants. The gallium nitride films were grown on sapphire substrates using a hollow anode Constricted Glow Discharge nitrogen plasma source. When bismuth was used as a surfactant, two-dimensional gallium nitride crystal sizes ranging between 10 .mu.m and 20 .mu.m were observed. This is 20 to 40 times larger than crystal sizes observed when GaN films were grown under similar circumstances but without bismuth. It is thought that the observed increase in crystal size is due bismuth inducing an increased surface diffusion coefficient for gallium. The calculated value of 4.7.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2 /sec. reveals a virtual substrate temperature of 1258 K which is 260 degrees higher than the actual one.

  11. Group III-nitride thin films grown using MBE and bismuth

    DOEpatents

    Kisielowski, Christian K.; Rubin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises growing gallium nitride films in the presence of bismuth using MBE at temperatures of about 1000 K or less. The present invention further comprises the gallium nitride films fabricated using the inventive fabrication method. The inventive films may be doped with magnesium or other dopants. The gallium nitride films were grown on sapphire substrates using a hollow anode Constricted Glow Discharge nitrogen plasma source. When bismuth was used as a surfactant, two-dimensional gallium nitride crystal sizes ranging between 10 .mu.m and 20 .mu.m were observed. This is 20 to 40 times larger than crystal sizes observed when GaN films were grown under similar circumstances but without bismuth. It is thought that the observed increase in crystal size is due bismuth inducing an increased surface diffusion coefficient for gallium. The calculated value of 4.7.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2 /sec. reveals a virtual substrate temperature of 1258 K which is 260 degrees higher than the actual one.

  12. Supramolecular intermediates in the synthesis of polymeric carbon nitride from melamine cyanurate

    SciTech Connect

    Dante, Roberto C., E-mail: rcdante@yahoo.com; Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M.; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    The adduct of melamine and cyanuric acid (MCA) was used in past research to produce polymeric carbon nitride and precursors. The reaction yield was considerably incremented by the addition of sulfuric acid. The polymeric carbon nitride formation occurs around 450 °C at temperatures above the sublimation of the adduct components, which occurs around 400 °C. In this report the effect of sulfuric acid on MCA was investigated. It was found that the MCA rosette supramolecular channel structures behave as a solid solvent able to host small molecules, such as sulfuric acid, inside these channels and interact with them. Therefore, themore » sulfuric acid effect was found to be close to that of a solute that causes a temperature increment of the “solvent sublimation” enough to allowing the formation of polymeric carbon nitride to occur. Sulfate ions are presumably hosted in the rosette channels of MCA as shown by simulations. - Graphical abstract: The blend of melamine cyanurate and sulfuric acid behaves like a solution so that melamine cyanurate decomposition is shifted to temperatures high enough to react and form polymeric carbon nitride. - Highlights: • The adduct of melamine and cyanuric acid behaves as a solid solvent. • The blend of sulfuric acid and melamine cyanurate behaves like a solution. • Melamine cyanurate decomposition is shifted to higher temperatures by sulfuric acid. • The formation of polymeric carbon nitride occurs for these higher temperatures.« less

  13. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of '{alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}' containing residual {alpha}-Fe prepared by low-temperature ammonia nitridation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, S.; Masubuchi, Y.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2012-10-15

    Slight enhancement of saturation magnetization to 219 A m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} was observed from 199 A m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} for the original {alpha}-Fe on the intermediate nitrided mixture of '{alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}' with residual {alpha}-Fe among the low temperature ammonia nitridation products under 5 T magnetic field at room temperature. The value changed not linearly against the yield as had been expected. Crystal structure refinement indicated that the phase similar to {alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} had deviations on its lattice constants and positional parameters, compared to previously reported values for {alpha} Prime Primemore » -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}. Spin-polarized total energy calculations were performed using the projector-augmented wave method as implemented in the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) to calculate magnetic moment on the refined crystal structure of the intermediate '{alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}'. The calculations supported the observed magnetization enhancement in the intermediate nitridation product. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structural parameters slightly change in the intermediate nitrided '{alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}' from those in {alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} to show the magnetization maxima in the mixture of '{alpha} Prime Prime -Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}' and the residual {alpha}-F. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger magnetization was observed than the value of Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} on its intermediate nitrided mixture with residual {alpha}-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement was related to the crystal structural deviation from Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} on the intermediate nitride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was supported by spin-polarized total energy calculation using the deviated structure.« less

  14. Efficient removal of UDMH from dilute nitride MOCVD exhaust streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahle, Jörg; Czerniak, Mike; Seeley, Andy; Baker, Derek

    2004-12-01

    Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) (CH 3) 2N 2H 2 is often used in the deposition of dilute nitride semiconductors because it provides a source of nitrogen with a low thermal decomposition temperature (Temperature-dependent carrier lifetime in GaNAs using resonant-coupled photoconductive decay, NCPV Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, Colorado, 14-17 October, 2001). The problems with using this material, however, are its significant toxicity (0.01 ppm compared to ammonia's 25 ppm) and also the fact that it blocks the action of conventional dosed wet scrubbers sometimes used on nitride applications, resulting in diminished efficiency in removing arsine (the source of arsenic), and arsine being similarly toxic (TLV of 0.05 ppm). Efficient removal of UDMH, AsH 3 and hydrogen (which, though not toxic poses a potential safety hazard) by means of a combined thermal oxidation reaction and wet scrubber in series is described at input gas flow rates exceeding those typically encountered in practice. The detection technique employed was Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), and the calibration and resolution techniques will be described. For input UDMH flows of up to 445 sccm (i.e. 1.85×10 -2 mol/min), destructive reaction efficiencies (DREs) of >99.9% were demonstrated, corresponding to the background detection resolution of 0.4 ppm.

  15. Rolling-element fatigue life of silicon nitride balls: Preliminary test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Hot pressed silicon nitride was evaluated as a rolling element bearing material. The five-ball fatigue tester was used to test 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) diameter balls at a maximum Hertz stress of 800,000 psi at a race temperature of 130 F. The fatigue spalls in the silicon nitride resembled those in typical bearing steels. The ten-percent fatigue life of the silicon nitride balls was approximately one-eighth to one-fifth that of typical bearing steels (52100 and M-50). The load capacity of the silicon nitride was approximately one-third that of typical bearing steels. The load capacity of the silicon nitride was significantly higher than previously tested ceramic materials for rolling element bearings.

  16. Effects of radiation and temperature on gallium nitride (GaN) metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Angadi, Chetan; Suria, Ateeq; Shankar, Ashwin; Hou, Minmin; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of radiation-hardened, temperature-tolerant materials, sensors and electronics will enable lightweight space sub-systems (reduced packaging requirements) with increased operation lifetimes in extreme harsh environments such as those encountered during space exploration. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a ceramic, semiconductor material stable within high-radiation, high-temperature and chemically corrosive environments due to its wide bandgap (3.4 eV). These material properties can be leveraged for ultraviolet (UV) wavelength photodetection. In this paper, current results of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetectors behavior after irradiation up to 50 krad and temperatures of 15°C to 150°C is presented. These initial results indicate that GaN-based sensors can provide robust operation within extreme harsh environments. Future directions for GaN-based photodetector technology for down-hole, automotive and space exploration applications are also discussed.

  17. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  18. High-temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walzer, P.

    1978-01-01

    The employment of the high operational temperatures makes it necessary to use, for the construction of the turbines, ceramic materials such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. Investigations concerning the development of turbine components made of such materials are conducted by a German automobile manufacturer and the ceramics industry. The current status of these investigations is reviewed. Flame tubes and guide-vane rings have successfully passed tests lasting 20 hours. Prototype turbine wheels have withstood the effects of peripheral speeds of 450 m/s. They also showed resistance to thermal shocks which were as high as 6-0 K/s.

  19. Effect of Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing on HVOF-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gayoung; Bae, Gyuyeol; Moon, Kyungil; Lee, Changhee

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the effects of plasma nitriding (PN) and nitrocarburizing on HVOF-sprayed stainless steel nitride layers were investigated. 316 (austenitic), 17-4PH (precipitation hardening), and 410 (martensitic) stainless steels were plasma-nitrided and nitrocarburized using a N2 + H2 gas mixture and the gas mixture containing C2H2, respectively, at 550 °C. The results showed that the PN and nitrocarburizing produced a relatively thick nitrided layer consisting of a compound layer and an adjacent nitrogen diffusion layer depending on the crystal structures of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings. Also, the diffusion depth of nitrogen increased when a small amount of C2H2 (plasma nitrocarburizing process) was added. The PN and nitrocarburizing resulted in not only an increase of the surface hardness, but also improvement of the load bearing capacity of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings because of the formation of CrN, Fe3N, and Fe4N phases. Also, the plasma-nitrocarburized HVOF-sprayed 410 stainless steel had a superior surface microhardness and load bearing capacity due to the formation of Cr23C6 on the surface.

  20. Temperature dependent structural properties and bending rigidity of pristine and defective hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Siby; Ajith, K. M.; Chandra, Sharat; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    Structural and thermodynamical properties of monolayer pristine and defective boron nitride sheets (h-BN) have been investigated in a wide temperature range by carrying out atomistic simulations using a tuned Tersoff-type inter-atomic empirical potential. The temperature dependence of lattice parameter, radial distribution function, specific heat at constant volume, linear thermal expansion coefficient and the height correlation function of the thermally excited ripples on pristine as well as defective h-BN sheet have been investigated. Specific heat shows considerable increase beyond the Dulong-Petit limit at high temperatures, which is interpreted as a signature of strong anharmonicity present in h-BN. Analysis of the height fluctuations, < {{h}2}> , shows that the bending rigidity and variance of height fluctuations are strongly temperature dependent and this is explained using the continuum theory of membranes. A detailed study of the height-height correlation function shows deviation from the prediction of harmonic theory of membranes as a consequence of the strong anharmonicity in h-BN. It is also seen that the variance of the height fluctuations increases with defect concentration.

  1. Temperature Dependence of Wavelength Selectable Zero-Phonon Emission from Single Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Nicholas R; Calderon, Brian; Ji, Yanxin; Spencer, Michael G; Flatté, Michael E; Fuchs, Gregory D

    2016-10-12

    We investigate the distribution and temperature-dependent optical properties of sharp, zero-phonon emission from defect-based single photon sources in multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) flakes. We observe sharp emission lines from optically active defects distributed across an energy range that exceeds 500 meV. Spectrally resolved photon-correlation measurements verify single photon emission, even when multiple emission lines are simultaneously excited within the same h-BN flake. We also present a detailed study of the temperature-dependent line width, spectral energy shift, and intensity for two different zero-phonon lines centered at 575 and 682 nm, which reveals a nearly identical temperature dependence despite a large difference in transition energy. Our temperature-dependent results are well described by a lattice vibration model that considers piezoelectric coupling to in-plane phonons. Finally, polarization spectroscopy measurements suggest that whereas the 575 nm emission line is directly excited by 532 nm excitation, the 682 nm line is excited indirectly.

  2. Synthesis of Continuous Boron Nitride Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Wen, G.; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Long; Zhong, Bo; Fan, Shaoyu

    Continuous boron nitride nanofibers (BNNFs) have been gotten by electrospinning. The appropriate precursor of BNNFs was electrospinned to green born nitride nanofibers (GBNNFs) with temperatures from 80°C to 100°C in the protection of N2. By successive heat treatments in N2, the organics in GBNNFs disappeared and BN ceramics nanofibers came into being. The average diameters of BNNFs by electrospinning are less than 10 μm

  3. Low-temperature ({<=}200 Degree-Sign C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of dense titanium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, Nigamananda; Du Hui; Luberoff, Russell

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for themore » DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.« less

  4. Investigating Tribological Characteristics of HVOF Sprayed AISI 316 Stainless Steel Coating by Pulsed Plasma Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindivan, H.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, surface modification of aluminum alloy using High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray and pulsed plasma nitriding processes was investigated. AISI 316 stainless steel coating on 1050 aluminum alloy substrate by HVOF process was pulsed plasma nitrided at 793 K under 0.00025 MPa pressure for 43200 s in a gas mixture of 75 % N2 and 25 % H2. The results showed that the pulse plasma nitriding process produced a surface layer with CrN, iron nitrides (Fe3N, Fe4N) and expanded austenite (γN). The pulsed plasma nitrided HVOF-sprayed coating showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the untreated HVOF-sprayed one.

  5. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Huffsmith, Sarah A.

    1981-01-01

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi.sub.2 indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi.sub.2 with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400.degree. C.; and, simultaneously with the heating, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  6. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.; Huffsmith, S.A.

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite are described. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi/sub 2/ indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi/sub 2/ with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400/sup 0/C; and, simultaneously, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  7. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of Nitride Reinforced Titanium Alloy Composites (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0177 REACTIVE SPARK PLASMA SINTERING (SPS) OF NITRIDE REINFORCED TITANIUM ALLOY COMPOSITES (POSTPRINT) Jaimie S...titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and...lcomReactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy compositeshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.08.049 0925-8388

  8. The thermal power of aluminum nitride at temperatures between 1350 and 1650 deg C in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhine-Westphalia High School at Aachen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, W. A.; Schuh, B.

    1978-01-01

    The test apparatus for measuring the thermal voltage of aluminum nitride for temperature differences of up to + or - 60 C between 1350 and 1650 C is described. The thermal power and its homogeneous proportion are determined and the heat transfer of the migration ions resulting from the homogeneous thermal power is calculated. The conduction mechanism in aluminum nitride is discussed.

  9. Temperature Controller System for Gas Gun Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholtz, Scott; Sheffield, Stephen

    2005-07-01

    A temperature controller system capable of heating and cooling gas gun targets over the range -75 C to +200 C was designed and tested. The system uses cold nitrogen gas from a liquid nitrogen Dewar for cooling and compressed air for heating. Two gas flow heaters control the gas temperature for both heating and cooling. One heater controls the temperature of the target mounting plate and the other the temperature of a copper tubing coil surrounding the target. Each heater is separately adjustable, so the target material will achieve a uniform temperature throughout its volume. A magnetic gauge with integrated thermocouples was developed to measure the internal temperature of the target. Using this system shock experiments, including equation-of-state measurements and shock initiation of high explosives, can be performed over a range of initial temperatures. Successful tests were completed on Teflon samples. This work was supported by the NNSA Enhanced Surveillance Campaign through contract DE-ACO4-01AL66850.

  10. Temperature Controller System for Gas Gun Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholtz, S. M.; Gehr, R. J.; Rupp, T. D.; Sheffield, S. A.; Robbins, D. L.

    2006-07-01

    A temperature controller system capable of heating and cooling gas gun targets over the range -75°C to +120°C was designed and tested. The system uses cold nitrogen gas from a liquid nitrogen Dewar for cooling and compressed air for heating. Two gas flow heaters control the gas temperature for both heating and cooling. One heater controls the temperature of the target mounting plate and the other the temperature of a copper tubing coil surrounding the target. Each heater is separately adjustable, so the target material will achieve a uniform temperature throughout its volume. A magnetic gauge membrane with integrated thermocouples was developed to measure the internal temperature of the target. Using this system, multiple magnetic gauge shock experiments, including equation-of-state measurements and shock initiation of high explosives, can be performed over a range of initial temperatures. Successful heating and cooling tests were completed on Teflon samples.

  11. Temperature sensitivity of silicon nitride nanocoated long-period gratings working in various surrounding media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietana, M.; Bock, W. J.; Mikulic, P.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the temperature sensing properties of a silicon nitride (SiNx) nanocoated long-period grating (LPG). A high-temperature, radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited SiNx nanocoating was applied to tune the external refractive index (RI) sensitivity of LPGs written with UV and electric arc techniques in boron co-doped and standard germanium doped fibers, respectively. The technique allows for deposition of good quality, hard and wear-resistant nanofilms as are required for optical sensors. Thanks to the high-RI SiNx nanocoating, which is less than 90 nm thick, it is possible to reduce RI sensitivity over a wide range (from nD = 1.333 to 1.479), simultaneously decreasing its cross-sensitivity to temperature. For the presented nanocoated LPGs, the temperature effect on resonance wavelength is linear and slightly dependent on the thermo-optic coefficient of the surrounding liquid. The other advantage of the nanocoating is that it makes the resonance clearly visible in the whole investigated external RI range. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents for the first time a nanocoating able to simultaneously tune the RI sensitivity and enable temperature measurements in high-RI liquids applied to LPGs.

  12. The Hardest Superconducting Metal Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanmin; Antonio, Daniel; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cornelius, Andrew L.; He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-09-01

    Transition-metal (TM) nitrides are a class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications. Hard superconducting nitrides are of particular interest for electronic applications under working conditions such as coating and high stress (e.g., electromechanical systems). However, most of the known TM nitrides crystallize in the rock-salt structure, a structure that is unfavorable to resist shear strain, and they exhibit relatively low indentation hardness, typically in the range of 10-20 GPa. Here, we report high-pressure synthesis of hexagonal δ-MoN and cubic γ-MoN through an ion-exchange reaction at 3.5 GPa. The final products are in the bulk form with crystallite sizes of 50 - 80 μm. Based on indentation testing on single crystals, hexagonal δ-MoN exhibits excellent hardness of ~30 GPa, which is 30% higher than cubic γ-MoN (~23 GPa) and is so far the hardest among the known metal nitrides. The hardness enhancement in hexagonal phase is attributed to extended covalently bonded Mo-N network than that in cubic phase. The measured superconducting transition temperatures for δ-MoN and cubic γ-MoN are 13.8 and 5.5 K, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements.

  13. Improved growth of GaN layers on ultra thin silicon nitride/Si (1 1 1) by RF-MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mahesh; Roul, Basanta; Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013

    High-quality GaN epilayers were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a new growth process sequence which involved a substrate nitridation at low temperatures, annealing at high temperatures, followed by nitridation at high temperatures, deposition of a low-temperature buffer layer, and a high-temperature overgrowth. The material quality of the GaN films was also investigated as a function of nitridation time and temperature. Crystallinity and surface roughness of GaN was found to improve when the Si substrate was treated under the new growth process sequence. Micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) measurement results indicate that the GaN filmmore » grown by the new process sequence has less tensile stress and optically good. The surface and interface structures of an ultra thin silicon nitride film grown on the Si surface are investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and it clearly indicates that the quality of silicon nitride notably affects the properties of GaN growth.« less

  14. A kinetic model for the thermal nitridation of SiO2/Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Madhukar, A.

    1986-01-01

    To explain the observed nitrogen distributions in thermally nitridated SiO2 films, a kinetic model is proposed in which the nitridation process is simulated, using the first-order chemical kinetics and Arrhenius dependence of the diffusion and reaction rates on temperature. The calculations show that initially, as the substrate reacts with diffusing nitrogen, a nitrogen-rich oxynitride forms at the SiO2-Si interface, while at nitridation temperatures above 1000 C, an oxygen-rich oxynitride subsequently forms at the interface, due to reaction of the substrate with an increasingly concentrated oxygen displaced by the slower nitridation of the SiO2. This sequence of events results in a nitrogen distribution in which the peak of the interfacial nitrogen concentration occurs away from the interface. The results are compared with the observed nitrogen distribution. The calculated results have correctly predicted the positions of the interfacial nitrogen peaks at the temperatures of 800, 1000, and 1150 C. To account for the observed width of the interfacial nitrogen distribution, it was found necessary to include in the simulations the effect of interfacial strain.

  15. Thin film phase diagram of iron nitrides grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gölden, D.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.

    2017-01-01

    A low-temperature thin film phase diagram of the iron nitride system is established for the case of thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and nitrided by a nitrogen radical source. A fine-tuning of the nitridation conditions allows for growth of α ‧ -Fe8Nx with increasing c / a -ratio and magnetic anisotropy with increasing x until almost phase pure α ‧ -Fe8N1 thin films are obtained. A further increase of nitrogen content below the phase decomposition temperature of α ‧ -Fe8N (180 °C) leads to a mixture of several phases that is also affected by the choice of substrate material and symmetry. At higher temperatures (350 °C), phase pure γ ‧ -Fe4N is the most stable phase.

  16. High temperature desulfurization of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Robin, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The hot process gas stream from the partial oxidation of sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 +CO, sulfur-containing gases, entrained particulate carbon, and molten slag is passed through the unobstructed central passage of a radiant cooler where the temperature is reduced to a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 1200.degree. F. From about 0 to 95 wt. % of the molten slag and/or entrained material may be removed from the hot process gas stream prior to the radiant cooler with substantially no reduction in temperature of the process gas stream. In the radiant cooler, after substantially all of the molten slag has solidified, the sulfur-containing gases are contacted with a calcium-containing material to produce calcium sulfide. A partially cooled stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas containing entrained calcium sulfide particulate matter, particulate carbon, and solidified slag leaves the radiant cooler containing a greatly reduced amount of sulfur-containing gases.

  17. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  18. Surface passivation of p-type Ge substrate with high-quality GeN{sub x} layer formed by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Yukio; Otani, Yohei; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2011-09-26

    We have investigated the effects of the formation temperature and postmetallization annealing (PMA) on the interface properties of GeN{sub x}/p-Ge fabricated by the plasma nitridation of Ge substrates using an electron-cyclotron-resonance-generated nitrogen plasma. The nitridation temperature is found to be a critical parameter in improving the finally obtained GeN{sub x}/Ge interface properties. The GeN{sub x}/Ge formed at room temperature and treated by PMA at 400 deg. C exhibits the best interface properties with an interface trap density of 1 x 10{sup 11 }cm{sup -2 }eV{sup -1}. The GeN{sub x}/Ge interface is unpinned and the Fermi level at the Ge surfacemore » can move from the valence band edge to the conduction band edge.« less

  19. Development of a statistically proven injection molding method for reaction bonded silicon nitride, sintering reaction bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias

    A statistically proven, series injection molding technique for ceramic components was developed for the construction of engines and gas turbines. The flow behavior of silicon injection-molding materials was characterized and improved. Hot-isostatic-pressing reaction bonded silicon nitride (HIPRBSN) was developed. A nondestructive component evaluation method was developed. An injection molding line for HIPRBSN engine components precombustion chamber, flame spreader, and valve guide was developed. This line allows the production of small series for engine tests.

  20. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time.

    PubMed

    Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel M

    2009-11-09

    Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300 degrees below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100 degrees C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1) to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5), the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

  1. Formation of boron nitride coatings on silicon carbide fibers using trimethylborate vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengjiao; Zhou, Tong; He, Jing; Chen, Lifu

    2016-09-01

    High quality boron nitride (BN) coatings have been grown on silicon carbide (SiC) fibers by carbothermal nitridation and at atmospheric pressure. SiC fibers were first treated in chlorine gas to form CDC (carbide-derived carbon) film on the fiber surface. The CDC-coated SiC fibers were then reacted with trimethylborate vapor and ammonia vapor at high temperature, forming BN coatings by carbothermal reduction. The FT-IR, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM and AES were used to investigate the formation of the obtained coatings. It has been found that the obtained coatings are composed of phase mixture of h-BN and amorphous carbon, very uniform in thickness, have smooth surface and adhere well with the SiC fiber substrates. The BN-coated SiC fibers retain ∼80% strength of the as-received SiC fibers and show an obvious interfacial debonding and fiber pullout in the SiCf/SiOC composites. This method may be useful for the large scale production of high quality BN coating on silicon carbide fiber.

  2. Effect of MoO3 on the synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes over Fe and Ni catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Jeghan Shrine Maria; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2012-05-01

    Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes at reduced temperature is important for industrial manufactures. In this study boron nitride nanotubes were synthesized by thermal evaporation method using B/Fe2O3/MoO3 and B/Ni2O3/MoO3 mixtures separately with ammonia as the nitrogen source. The growth of boron nitride nanotubes occurred at 1100 degrees C, which was relatively lower than other metal oxides assisted growth processes requiring higher than 1200 degrees C. MoO3 promoted formation of B2O2 and aided boron nitride nanotubes growth at a reduced temperature. The boron nitride nanotubes with bamboo shaped, nested cone structured and straight tubes like forms were evident from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Metallic Fe and Ni, formed during the process, were the catalysts for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes. Their formation was established by X-ray diffraction. FT Raman showed a peak due to B-N vibration of BNNTs close to 1370 cm(-1). Hence MoO3 assisted growth of boron nitride nanotubes is advantageous, as it significantly reduced the synthesis temperature.

  3. Microstructure and antibacterial properties of microwave plasma nitrided layers on biomedical stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Chung; Wu, Ching-Zong; Hung, Jing-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-06-01

    Nitriding of AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel using microwave plasma system at various temperatures was conducted in the present study. The nitrided layers were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The antibacterial properties of this nitrided layer were evaluated. During nitriding treatment between 350 °C and 550 °C, the phase transformation sequence on the nitrided layers of the alloys was found to be γ → (γ + γ N) → (γ + α + CrN). The analytical results revealed that the surface hardness of AISI 303 stainless steel could be enhanced with the formation of γ N phase in nitriding process. Antibacterial test also demonstrated the nitrided layer processed the excellent antibacterial properties. The enhanced surface hardness and antibacterial properties make the nitrided AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel to be one of the essential materials in the biomedical applications.

  4. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  5. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  6. Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Nanorods Superlattice (SL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-29

    Final Report (Technical) 3. DATES COVERED 29-03-2005 to 29-05-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indium Gallium Nitride/ Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN...Institution: Quantum functional Semiconductor Research Center (QSRC), Dongguk University - Title of project: Indium Gallium Nitride/ Gallium Nitride...Accepted with minor revision Indium Gallium Nitride / Gallium Nitride (InGaN/ GaN) Nanorods Superlattice (SL) Abstract The growth condition, electrical

  7. Titanium-nitride-oxide-coated coronary stents: insights from the available evidence.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Pasi P; Nammas, Wail

    2017-06-01

    Coating of stent surface with a biocompatible material is suggested to improve stent safety profile. A proprietary process was developed to coat titanium-nitride-oxide on the stent surface, based on plasma technology that uses the nano-synthesis of gas and metal. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo investigation confirmed blood compatibility of titanium (nitride-) oxide films. Titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents demonstrated a better angiographic outcome, compared with bare-metal stents at mid-term follow-up; however, they failed to achieve non-inferiority for angiographic outcome versus second-generation drug-eluting stents. Observational studies showed adequate clinical outcome at mid-term follow-up. Non-randomized studies showed an outcome of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents comparable to - or better than - first-generation drug-eluting stents at long-term follow-up. Two randomized controlled trials demonstrated comparable efficacy outcome, and a better safety outcome of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents versus drug-eluting stents at long-term follow-up. Evaluation by optical coherence tomography at mid-term follow-up revealed better neointimal strut coverage associated with titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents versus drug-eluting stents; yet, neointimal hyperplasia thickness was greater. Key messages Stents coated with titanium-nitride-oxide demonstrated biocompatibility in preclinical studies: they inhibit platelet and fibrin deposition, and reduce neointimal growth. In observational and non-randomized studies, titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents were associated with adequate safety and efficacy outcome. In randomized trials of patients with acute coronary syndrome, titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents were associated with a better safety outcome, compared with drug-eluting stents; efficacy outcome was comparable.

  8. Deposition of silicon oxynitride films by low energy ion beam assisted nitridation at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youroukov, S.; Kitova, S.; Danev, G.

    2008-05-01

    The possibility is studied of growing thin silicon oxynitride films by e-gun evaporation of SiO and SiO2 together with concurrent bombardment with low energy N2+ ions from a cyclotron resonance (ECR) source at room temperature of substrates. The degree of nitridation and oxidation of the films is investigated by means of X-ray spectroscopy. The optical characteristics of the films, their environmental stability and adhesion to different substrates are examined. The results obtained show than the films deposited are transparent. It is found that in the case of SiO evaporation with concurrent N2+ ion bombardment, reactive implantation of nitrogen within the films takes place at room temperature of the substrate with the formation of a new silicon oxynitride compound even at low ion energy (150-200 eV).

  9. High Temperature Oxidation and Mechanical properties of Silicon Nitride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    The results of thermogravimentric studies on the rate of oxidation of chemically vapor-deposited Si3 N, at various temperatures are reported. Up to...only be such ceramics as Si3N4 -. In addition to the potential for increased engine efficiency through higher gas-inlet temperatures, the use of Si3 N...to replace cur- rently used Ni -or Co-based superalloys offers a significant weight reduction that can increase the performance of the propulsion system

  10. Temporally and Spatially Resolved Plasma Spectroscopy in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0196 TEMPORALLY AND SPATIALLY RESOLVED PLASMA SPECTROSCOPY IN PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF ULTRA-THIN BORON NITRIDE...AND SPATIALLY RESOLVED PLASMA SPECTROSCOPY IN PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF ULTRA-THIN BORON NITRIDE FILMS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650...distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated from a boron nitride (BN) target by a KrF laser at different pressures of nitrogen gas were investigated

  11. Nanoparticles of wurtzite aluminum nitride from the nut shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of aluminum nitride were produced from a thermal treatment of a mixture of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and shells of almond, cashew, coconuts, pistachio, and walnuts in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures in excess of 1450 °C. By selecting the appropriate ratios of each nut powder to Al2O3, it is shown that stoichiometric aluminum nitride can be produced by carbo-thermal reduction in nitrogen atmosphere. Using x-ray diffraction analysis, Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that aluminum nitride consists of pure wurtzite phase. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of nanoparticles and in some cases nanotubes of AlN.

  12. Influence of gas temperature on ignition, burning and extinction of carbon particles-gas suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskaya, S. G.; Zuy, O. N.; Liseanskaia, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    The ignition and burning of monodisperse and two-fraction suspensions of carbon particles at gas temperature in the range 1100 ÷ 1500 K are modeled. The critical gas temperature of the suspension ignition, the particles ignition delay and burning time, the burning temperature, and the extinction parameters are determined. The data obtained are compared with burning characteristics of single particle of equal size. The ignition temperatures of the fine fraction (the particle diameter 60 μm) and the coarse one (120 μm) are practically the same. The ignition temperatures of the equivalent single particles are much higher and they differ by 100 K and more. The gas temperature is found below which the ignition delay of the fine fraction exceeds the one of the coarse fraction. It is found that, at critical ignition temperatures the burning temperature of the fine fraction is lower than that of the coarse fraction. At gas temperatures above 1250 K, the burning temperature of the fine fraction is higher. It is established that, in contrast to single particles, the temperature difference between the particles and the gas is small during gas-suspension extinction. Further oxidation of the particles occurs in the kinetic regime, so it is possible to estimate the time of their complete conversion.

  13. Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

    2003-09-23

    Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

  14. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  15. Hall effects on peristalsis of boron nitride-ethylene glycol nanofluid with temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Gul, Maimoona; Shehzad, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Current study provides a comprehensive numerical investigation of the peristaltic transport of boron nitride-ethylene glycol nanofluid through a symmetric channel in presence of magnetic field. Significant effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis have been included in the energy equation. Hall and Ohmic heating effects are also taken into consideration. Resulting system of non-linear equations is solved numerically using NDSolve in Mathematica. Expressions for velocity, temperature, concentration and streamlines are derived and plotted under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Influence of various parameters on heat and mass transfer rates have been discussed with the help of bar charts.

  16. Structural Evolution of Silicon Oxynitride Fiber Reinforced Boron Nitride Matrix Composite at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunrong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Changrui; Wang, Siqing; Xie, Zhengfang; Shao, Changwei

    2016-02-01

    The structural evolution of a silicon oxynitride fiber reinforced boron nitride matrix (Si-N-Of/BN) wave-transparent composite at high temperatures was investigated. When heat treated at 1600 °C, the composite retained a favorable bending strength of 55.3 MPa while partially crystallizing to Si2N2O and h-BN from the as-received amorphous structure. The Si-N-O fibers still performed as effective reinforcements despite the presence of small pores due to fiber decomposition. Upon heat treatment at 1800 °C, the Si-N-O fibers already lost their reinforcing function and rough hollow microstructure formed within the fibers because of the accelerated decomposition. Further heating to 2000 °C led to the complete decomposition of the reinforcing fibers and only h-BN particles survived. The crystallization and decomposition behaviors of the composite at high temperatures are discussed.

  17. Interface formation in monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sutter, P; Cortes, R; Lahiri, J; Sutter, E

    2012-09-12

    The ability to control the formation of interfaces between different materials has become one of the foundations of modern materials science. With the advent of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, low-dimensional equivalents of conventional interfaces can be envisioned: line boundaries separating different materials integrated in a single 2D sheet. Graphene and hexagonal boron nitride offer an attractive system from which to build such 2D heterostructures. They are isostructural, nearly lattice-matched, and isoelectronic, yet their different band structures promise interesting functional properties arising from their integration. Here, we use a combination of in situ microscopy techniques to study the growth and interface formation of monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures on ruthenium. In a sequential chemical vapor deposition process, boron nitride grows preferentially at the edges of existing monolayer graphene domains, which can be exploited for synthesizing continuous 2D membranes of graphene embedded in boron nitride. High-temperature growth leads to intermixing near the interface, similar to interfacial alloying in conventional heterostructures. Using real-time microscopy, we identify processes that eliminate this intermixing and thus pave the way to graphene-boron nitride heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces.

  18. The Hardest Superconducting Metal Nitride

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shanmin; Antonio, Daniel; Yu, Xiaohui; ...

    2015-09-03

    Transition–metal (TM) nitrides are a class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications. Hard superconducting nitrides are of particular interest for electronic applications under working conditions such as coating and high stress (e.g., electromechanical systems). However, most of the known TM nitrides crystallize in the rock–salt structure, a structure that is unfavorable to resist shear strain, and they exhibit relatively low indentation hardness, typically in the range of 10–20 GPa. Here, we report high–pressure synthesis of hexagonal δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN through an ion–exchange reaction at 3.5 GPa. The final products are in the bulk form withmore » crystallite sizes of 50 – 80 μm. Based on indentation testing on single crystals, hexagonal δ–MoN exhibits excellent hardness of ~30 GPa, which is 30% higher than cubic γ–MoN (~23 GPa) and is so far the hardest among the known metal nitrides. The hardness enhancement in hexagonal phase is attributed to extended covalently bonded Mo–N network than that in cubic phase. The measured superconducting transition temperatures for δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN are 13.8 and 5.5 K, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements.« less

  19. First-principles study of fission gas incorporation and migration in zirconium nitride

    DOE PAGES

    Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-03-24

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ZrN as a diffusion barrier against fission gases, we investigate in this paper the incorporation and migration of fission gas atoms, with a focus on Xe, in ZrN by first-principles calculations. The formations of point defects in ZrN, including vacancies, interstitials, divacancies, Frenkel pairs, and Schottky defects, are first studied. Among all the defects, the Schottky defect with two vacancies as first nearest neighbor is predicted to be the most favorable incorporation site for fission gas Xe in ZrN. The migration of Xe gas atom in ZrN is investigated through two diffusion mechanisms, i.e., interstitialmore » and vacancy-assisted diffusions. The migration barrier of Xe gas atom through the intrinsic interstitials in ZrN is considerably lower than that through vacancies. Finally, therefore, at low temperatures fission gas Xe atoms diffuse mainly through interstitials in single crystal ZrN, whereas at high temperatures Xe may diffuse in ZrN assisted by vacancies.« less

  20. Microstructure and dry-sliding wear properties of DC plasma nitrided 17-4 PH stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gui-jiang; Wang, Jun; Li, Cong; Peng, Qian; Gao, Jian; Shen, Bao-luo

    2008-05-01

    An attempt that the precipitation hardening steel 17-4PH was conducted by DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) is made to develop a kind of candidate material for nuclear reactor. Nitriding process performed at temperature ⩽ 400 °C takes effect on creation of the layers composed of S-phase (expanded austenite) and αN‧ (expanded martensite). Up to the temperature of 420 °C, the S-phase peaks disappear due to the transformation occurrence (S-phase → αN‧ + CrN). For the samples nitrided at temperature ⩾ 450 °C, no evidence of αN‧ is found owing to a precipitation (αN‧ → α +CrN) taking place. For the 480 °C/4 h treated sample, it is the surface microhardness that plays the lead role in the wear rate reduction but the surface roughness; while for the 400 °C/4 h treated sample, it is both of the surface roughness and the S-phase formation. Dry sliding wear of the untreated 17-4PH is mainly characterized by strong adhesion, abrasion and oxidation mechanism. Samples nitrided at 400 °C which is dominated by slight abrasion and plastic deformation exhibit the best dry sliding wear resistance compared to the samples nitrided at other temperatures.

  1. Method of enhancing the wettability of boron nitride for use as an electrochemical cell separator

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, L.R.

    1981-01-23

    A felt or other fabric of boron nitride suitable for use as an interelectrode separator within an electrochemical cell is wetted with a solution containing a thermally decomposable organic salt of an alkaline earth metal. An aqueous solution of magnesium acetate is the preferred solution for this purpose. After wetting the boron nitride, the solution is dried by heating at a sufficiently low temperature to prevent rapid boiling and the creation of voids within the separator. The dried material is then calcined at an elevated temperature in excess of 400/sup 0/C to provide a coating of an oxide of magnesium on the surface of the boron nitride fibers. A fabric or felt of boron nitride treated in this manner is easily wetted by molten electrolytic salts, such as the alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides, that are used in high temperature, secondary electrochemical cells.

  2. Method of enhancing the wettability of boron nitride for use as an electrochemical cell separator

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Lowell R.

    1982-01-01

    A felt or other fabric of boron nitride suitable for use as an interelecte separator within an electrochemical cell is wetted with a solution containing a thermally decomposable organic salt of an alkaline earth metal. An aqueous solution of magnesium acetate is the preferred solution for this purpose. After wetting the boron nitride, the solution is dried by heating at a sufficiently low temperature to prevent rapid boiling and the creation of voids within the separator. The dried material is then calcined at an elevated temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. to provide a coating of an oxide of magnesium on the surface of the boron nitride fibers. A fabric or felt of boron nitride treated in this manner is easily wetted by molten electrolytic salts, such as the alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides, that are used in high temperature, secondary electrochemical cells.

  3. Effects of the Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Zeng, Dezhi; Yan, Jing; Fan, Hongyuan

    2013-04-01

    The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear behavior of plasma nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and wear testing. The results show that a wear-resistant nitrided layer was formed on the surface of direct current plasma nitrided 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure and thickness of the nitrided layer is dependent on the treatment temperature rather than process pressure. XRD indicated that a single α N phase was formed during nitriding at 623 K (350 °C). When the temperature increased, the α N phase disappeared and CrN transformed in the nitrided layer. The hardness measurement demonstrated that the hardness of the stainless substrate steel increased from 320 HV0.1 in the untreated condition increasing to about 1275HV0.1 after nitriding 623 K (350 °C)/600 pa/4 hours. The extremely high values of the microhardness achieved by the great misfit-induced stress fields associated with the plenty of dislocation group and stacking fault. Dry-sliding wear resistance was improved by DC plasma nitriding. The best wear-resistance performance of a nitrided sample was obtained after nitriding at 673 K (350 °C), when the single α N-phase was produced and there were no CrN precipitates in the nitrided layer.

  4. Development of a Nitride Dispersion Strengthened (NDS) Metallic Alloy for High-Temperature Recuperators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Alloy 2- 40 2-17 Summary of Tensile and Creep/Rupture Results on 0.010-in.-Thick NDS 200 Material 2-41 2-18 Brazing Alloy Screening Tests on NOS 300 2-44...Nitride Strengthening Process 100 - - 90 - __ __ __ __ - 80 __ AFTER NITRIDE AND DENITRIDE CYCLE S 60 - - -- C,50- _ - 40 . 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200...commercially with development of the 200-series stainless steels and the Nitronic alloys (Armco Steel designation). Manganese also is known to

  5. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 KHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine combustor was developed. Environmental guidelines for this measurement are presented, followed by a preliminary design of the selected measurement method. Transient thermal conduction effects were identified as important; a preliminary finite-element conduction model quantified the errors expected by neglecting conduction. A compensation method was developed to account for effects of conduction and convection. This method was verified in analog electrical simulations, and used to compensate dynamic temperature data from a laboratory combustor and a gas turbine engine. Detailed data compensations are presented. Analysis of error sources in the method were done to derive confidence levels for the compensated data.

  6. Temperature measurement in a gas turbine engine combustor

    SciTech Connect

    DeSilva, Upul

    A method and system for determining a temperature of a working gas passing through a passage to a turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The method includes identifying an acoustic frequency at a first location in the engine upstream from the turbine section, and using the acoustic frequency for determining a first temperature value at the first location that is directly proportional to the acoustic frequency and a calculated constant value. A second temperature of the working gas is determined at a second location in the engine and, using the second temperature, a back calculation is performed to determinemore » a temperature value for the working gas at the first location. The first temperature value is compared to the back calculated temperature value to change the calculated constant value to a recalculated constant value. Subsequent first temperature values at the first location may be determined based on the recalculated constant value.« less

  7. Application of low-temperature plasma for the synthesis of hydrogenated graphene (graphane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavelkina, M. B.; Amirov, R. H.; Katarzhis, V. A.; Kiselev, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of a direct synthesis of hydrogenated graphene in decomposition of methane by means of low-temperature plasma was investigated. A DC plasma torch with an expanding channel-anode, a vortex gas supply and a self-setting arc length was used as a generator of low-temperature plasma. Argon was used as the plasma-forming gas. The temperatures of argon plasma and with methane addition to it were determined on the basis of spectral measurements. The synthesis products were characterized by electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The effect of hydrogenated graphene as a nanomodifier on the properties of the cubic boron nitride based functional ceramics was investigated.

  8. Low Temperature Reactive Sputtering of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films on Metallic Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Khaled Sayed Elbadawi; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on aluminum-molybdenum (AlMo) metallic nanocomposites using reactive DC sputtering at room temperature. The effect of sputtering parameters on film properties was assessed. A comparative study between AlN grown on AlMo and pure aluminum showed an equivalent (002) crystallographic texture. The piezoelectric coefficients were measured to be 0.5±0.1 C m-2 and 0.9±0.1 C m-2, for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo and pure Al, respectively. Films grown onto Al/0.32Mo however featured improved surface roughness. Roughness values were measured to be 1.3nm and 5.4 nm for AlN films grown on AlMo and on Al, respectively. In turn, the dielectric constant was measured to be 8.9±0.7 for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo seed layer, and 8.7±0.7 for AlN deposited on aluminum; thus, equivalent within experimental error. Compatibility of this room temperature process with the lift-off patterning of the deposited AlN is also reported. PMID:26193701

  9. Substrate nitridation induced modulations in transport properties of wurtzite GaN/p-Si (100) heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    Phase pure wurtzite GaN films were grown on Si (100) substrates by introducing a silicon nitride layer followed by low temperature GaN growth as buffer layers. GaN films grown directly on Si (100) were found to be phase mixtured, containing both cubic ({beta}) and hexagonal ({alpha}) modifications. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies reveal that the significant enhancement in the structural as well as in the optical properties of GaN films grown with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 800 deg. C when compared to the samples grown in the absence of silicon nitridemore » buffer layer and with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 600 deg. C. Core-level photoelectron spectroscopy of Si{sub x}N{sub y} layers reveals the sources for superior qualities of GaN epilayers grown with the high temperature substrate nitridation process. The discussion has been carried out on the typical inverted rectification behavior exhibited by n-GaN/p-Si heterojunctions. Considerable modulation in the transport mechanism was observed with the nitridation conditions. The heterojunction fabricated with the sample of substrate nitridation at high temperature exhibited superior rectifying nature with reduced trap concentrations. Lowest ideality factors ({approx}1.5) were observed in the heterojunctions grown with high temperature substrate nitridation which is attributed to the recombination tunneling at the space charge region transport mechanism at lower voltages and at higher voltages space charge limited current conduction is the dominating transport mechanism. Whereas, thermally generated carrier tunneling and recombination tunneling are the dominating transport mechanisms in the heterojunctions grown without substrate nitridation and low temperature substrate nitridation, respectively.« less

  10. Radio Frequency Plasma Synthesis of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) for Structural Applications: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Alexa, Joel A.; Jensen, Brian J.; Thomsen, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that nanotubes, such as carbon, boron nitride and even silicon, offer great potential for many aerospace applications. The opportunity exists to harness the extremely high strength and stiffness exhibited by high-purity, low-defect nanotubes in structural materials. Even though the technology associated with carbon nanotube (CNT) development is mature, the mechanical property benefits have yet to be fully realized. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) offer similar structural benefits, but exhibit superior chemical and thermal stability. A broader range of potential structural applications results, particularly as reinforcing agents for metal- and ceramic- based composites. However, synthesis of BNNTs is more challenging than CNTs mainly because of the higher processing temperatures required, and mass production techniques have yet to emerge. A promising technique is radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS), which is an inductively coupled, very high temperature process. The lack of electrodes and the self- contained, inert gas environment lend themselves to an ultraclean product. It is the aim of this White Paper to survey the state of the art with regard to nano-material production by analyzing the pros and cons of existing methods. The intention is to combine the best concepts and apply the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) RFPS facility to reliably synthesize large quantities of consistent, high-purity BNNTs.

  11. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, Rasit; Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  12. Semipolar III-nitride laser diodes with zinc oxide cladding.

    PubMed

    Myzaferi, Anisa; Reading, Arthur H; Farrell, Robert M; Cohen, Daniel A; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Incorporating transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers into III-nitride laser diodes (LDs) improves device design by reducing the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. We investigate using ZnO instead of ITO as the top cladding TCO of a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD. Numerical modeling indicates that replacing ITO with ZnO reduces the internal loss in a TCO clad LD due to the lower optical absorption in ZnO. Lasing was achieved at 453 nm with a threshold current density of 8.6 kA/cm 2 and a threshold voltage of 10.3 V in a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD with ZnO top cladding.

  13. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Cermet compositions having high temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance, and particularly adapted for production of high temperature resistant cermet insulator bodies are presented. The compositions are comprised of a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Also disclosed are novel ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride.

  14. Erbium doped aluminum nitride nanoparticles for nano-thermometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Sneha G.; Kordesch, Martin E.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) of aluminum nitride (AlN) doped in situ with erbium (Er) using the inert gas condensation technique. These NPs have optical properties that make them good candidates for nanoscale temperature sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Er3+ in these NPs shows two emission peaks in the green region at around 540 and 560 nm. The ratio of the intensities of these luminescence peaks is related to temperature. Using Boltzmann’s distribution, the temperature of the NP and its surrounding can be calculated. The NPs were directly deposited on (111) p-type silicon wafers, transmission electron microscope grids and glass cover slips. XRD and HRTEM study indicates that most of the NPs have crystalline hexagonal AlN structure. An enhancement of the luminescence from these NPs was observed after heating in-air at 770 K for 3 h. The sample was then heated in air using a scanning optical microscope laser. The corresponding change in PL peak intensities of the NPs was recorded for laser powers ranging from 0.2 to 15.1 mW. Temperature calculated using the Boltzmann’s distribution was in the range of 300-470 K. This temperature range is of interest for semiconductor device heating and for thermal treatment of cancerous cells, for example.

  15. Silicon Nitride Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Pazhayannur; Brown, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the development a global, multi-phase equation of state (EOS) for the ceramic silicon nitride (Si3N4) . Structural forms include amorphous silicon nitride normally used as a thin film and three crystalline polymorphs. Crystalline phases include hexagonal α-Si3N4, hexagonalβ-Si3N4, and the cubic spinel c-Si3N4. Decomposition at about 1900 °C results in a liquid silicon phase and gas phase products such as molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and atomic silicon. The silicon nitride EOS was developed using EOSPro which is a new and extended version of the PANDA II code. Both codes are valuable tools and have been used successfully for a variety of material classes. Both PANDA II and EOSPro can generate a tabular EOS that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes. The paper describes the development efforts for the component solid phases and presents results obtained using the EOSPro phase transition model to investigate the solid-solid phase transitions in relation to the available shock data. Furthermore, the EOSPro mixture model is used to develop a model for the decomposition products and then combined with the single component solid models to study the global phase diagram. Sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Living With a Star program office.

  16. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  17. Effect of substrate temperature and gas flow ratio on the nanocomposite TiAlBN coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Z. M.; Kwan, W. L.; Juoi, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Nanocomposite TiAlBN (nc-TiAlBN) coatings were successfully deposited via RF magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen-to-total gas flow ratio (RN), and substrate temperature (TS). All coatings were deposited on AISI 316 substrates using single Ti-Al-BN hot-pressed disc as a target. The grain size, phases, and chemical composition of the coatings were evaluated using glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that the grains size of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coatings were in the range of 3.5 to 5.7 nm and reached a nitride saturation state as early as 15 % RN. As the nitrogen concentration decreases, boron concentration increased from 9 at.% to 16.17 at.%. and thus, increase the TiB2 phase within the coatings. The TS, however, showed no significant effect either on the crystallographic structure, grain size, or in the chemical composition of the deposited nc-TiAlBN coating.

  18. Fuel development for gas-cooled fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Fielding, R.; Gan, J.

    2007-09-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, US DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum, December 2002]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the US and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic 'honeycomb' structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  19. Single photon emitters in boron nitride: More than a supplementary material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koperski, M.; Nogajewski, K.; Potemski, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present comprehensive optical studies of recently discovered single photon sources in boron nitride, which appear in form of narrow lines emitting centres. Here, we aim to compactly characterise their basic optical properties, including the demonstration of several novel findings, in order to inspire discussion about their origin and utility. Initial inspection reveals the presence of narrow emission lines in boron nitride powder and exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates. Generally rather stable, the boron nitride emitters constitute a good quality visible light source. However, as briefly discussed, certain specimens reveal a peculiar type of blinking effects, which are likely related to existence of meta-stable electronic states. More advanced characterisation of representative stable emitting centres uncovers a strong dependence of the emission intensity on the energy and polarisation of excitation. On this basis, we speculate that rather strict excitation selectivity is an important factor determining the character of the emission spectra, which allows the observation of single and well-isolated emitters. Finally, we investigate the properties of the emitting centres in varying external conditions. Quite surprisingly, it is found that the application of a magnetic field introduces no change in the emission spectra of boron nitride emitters. Further analysis of the impact of temperature on the emission spectra and the features seen in second-order correlation functions is used to provide an assessment of the potential functionality of boron nitride emitters as single photon sources capable of room temperature operation.

  20. First-principles investigation of armchair boron nitride nanoribbons for sensing PH3 gas molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Varun

    2014-09-01

    The present work exhibits density functional theory (DFT) based first-principles calculations to explore the sensing properties of bare armchair boron nitride nanoribbons (ABNNR) for PH3 gas molecules. Edges of the ribbon were considered as the sites of possible adsorption with two different configurations i.e. adsorption at one edge and adsorption at both edges of the ribbon. It is revealed that B atoms of the ribbons are more energetically favorable sites for the adsorption of PH3 molecules as compared with N atoms. The adsorption of PH3 affects the electronic properties of nanoribbons. One edge PH3 adsorbed ribbons are metallic whereas in both edges PH3 adsorption, the band gap is decreased than that of bare ribbon. The changes in electronic properties caused by PH3 adsorption are further supported by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the considered configurations. The results show that ABNNR can serve as a potential candidate for PH3 sensing applications.

  1. Room temperature synthesis of heptazine-based microporous polymer networks as photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Kailasam, Kamalakannan; Schmidt, Johannes; Bildirir, Hakan; Zhang, Guigang; Blechert, Siegfried; Wang, Xinchen; Thomas, Arne

    2013-06-25

    Two emerging material classes are combined in this work, namely polymeric carbon nitrides and microporous polymer networks. The former, polymeric carbon nitrides, are composed of amine-bridged heptazine moieties and showed interesting performance as a metal-free photocatalyst. These materials have, however, to be prepared at high temperatures, making control of their chemical structure difficult. The latter, microporous polymer networks have received increasing interest due to their high surface area, giving rise to interesting applications in gas storage or catalysis. Here, the central building block of carbon nitrides, a functionalized heptazine as monomer, and tecton are used to create microporous polymer networks. The resulting heptazine-based microporous polymers show high porosity, while their chemical structure resembles the ones of carbon nitrides. The polymers show activity for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water, even under visible light illumination. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Silicon Nitride Plates for Turbine Blade Application: FEA and NDE Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2001-01-01

    Engine manufacturers are continually attempting to improve the performance and the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines. The thermal efficiency is typically improved by raising the operating temperature of essential engine components in the combustion area. This reduces the heat loss to a cooling system and allows a greater portion of the heat to be used for propulsion. Further improvements can be achieved by diverting part of the air from the compressor, which would have been used in the combustor for combustion purposes, into the turbine components. Such a process is called active cooling. Increasing the operating temperature, decreasing the cooling air, or both can improve the efficiency of the engine. Furthermore, lightweight, strong, tough hightemperature materials are required to complement efficiency improvement for nextgeneration gas turbine engines that can operate with minimum cooling. Because of their low-density, high-temperature strength, and thermal conductivity, ceramics are being investigated as potential materials for replacing ordinary metals that are currently used for engine hot section components. Ceramic structures can withstand higher operating temperatures and other harsh environmental factors. In addition, their low densities relative to metals helps condense component mass (ref. 1). The objectives of this program at the NASA Glenn Research Center are to develop manufacturing technology, a thermal barrier coating/environmental barrier coating (TBC/EBC), and an analytical modeling capability to predict thermomechanical stresses, and to do minimal burner rig tests of silicon nitride (Si3N4) and SiC/SiC turbine nozzle vanes under simulated engine conditions. Furthermore, and in support of the latter objectives, an optimization exercise using finite element analysis and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was carried out to characterize and evaluate silicon nitride plates with cooling channels.

  3. Strategies to indium nitride and gallium nitride nanoparticles: Low-temperature, solution-phase and precursor routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingman, Sean Douglas

    I present new strategies to low-temperature solution-phase synthesis of indium and gallium nitride (InN and GaN) ceramic materials. The strategies include: direct conversion of precursor molecules to InN by pyrolysis, solution-phase synthesis of nanostructured InN fibers via molecular precursors and co-reactants, and synthesis of powders through reactions derived from molten-salt chemistry. Indium nitride powders are prepared by pyrolysis of the precursors R 2InN3 (R = t-Bu (1), i-Amyl(2), Et(3), i-Pr( 4)). The precursors are synthesized via azide-alkoxide exchange of R2InOMe with Me3SiN3. The precursors are coordination polymers containing five-coordinate indium centers. Pyrolysis of 1 and 2 under N2 at 400°C yields powders consisting primarily of InN with average crystal sizes of 15--35 nm. 1 yields nanocrystalline InN with average particle sizes of 7 nm at 250°C. 3 and 4 yield primarily In metal from pyrolysis. Refluxing 1 in diisopropylbenzene (203°C) in the presence of primary amines yields InN nanofibers 10--100 nm in length. InN nanofibers of up to 1 mum can be synthesized by treating 1 with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) The DMHy appears to control the fiber length by acting as a secondary source of active nitrogen in order to sustain fiber growth. The resulting fibers are attached to droplets of indium metal implying a solution-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Precursor 4 yields crystalline InN whiskers when reacted with DMHy. Reactions of 4 with reducing agents such as HSnBu3, yield InN nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 16 nm. Gallium precursors R2GaN3 (R = t-Bu( 5), Me3SiCH2(6) and i-Pr( 7)), synthesized by azide-alkoxide exchange, are found to be inert toward solution decomposition and do not yield GaN. These compounds are molecular dimers and trimers unlike the indium analogs. Compound 6 displays a monomer-dimer equilibrium in benzene solution, but exists as a solid-state trimer. InN powders are also synthesized by reactions of InCl3 and

  4. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control.

  5. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  6. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chengkun; Chen, Hailong; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jifeng; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3), etc. and cured at room temperature (RT). Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN), nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO), and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions during heat treatment, and it was found that 15 wt % nano-AlN could clearly decrease the curing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microphenomenon of the modified adhesive at ultrahigh-temperature. The differential thermal analysis of the inorganic phosphate adhesive showed that the weight loss was approximately 6.5 wt % when the mass ratio of resin to curing agent was 1:1.5. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the adhesive with 10% nano-AlN showed that the phase structure changed from AlPO4(11-0500) to the more stable AlPO4(10-0423) structure after heat treatment. The shear strength of the adhesive containing 10% nano-AlN reached 7.3 MPa at RT due to the addition of nano-AlN, which promoted the formation of phosphate and increased the Al3+. PMID:29099812

  7. Fatigue life of high-speed ball bearings with silicon nitride balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Hot-pressed silicon nitride was evaluated as a rolling-element bearing material. The five-ball fatigue tester was used to test 12.7-mm- diameter silicon nitride balls at maximum Hertz stresses ranging from 4.27 x 10 to the 9th power n/sq m to 6.21 x 10 to the 9th power n/sq m at a race temperature of 328K. The fatigue life of NC-132 hot-pressed silicon nitride was found to be equal to typical bearing steels and much greater than other ceramic or cermet materials at the same stress levels. A digital computer program was used to predict the fatigue life of 120-mm- bore angular-contact ball bearings containing either steel or silicon nitride balls. The analysis indicates that there is no improvement in the lives of bearings of the same geometry operating at DN values from 2 to 4 million where silicon nitride balls are used in place of steel balls.

  8. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  9. Growth of single-layer boron nitride dome-shaped nanostructures catalysed by iron clusters.

    PubMed

    Torre, A La; Åhlgren, E H; Fay, M W; Ben Romdhane, F; Skowron, S T; Parmenter, C; Davies, A J; Jouhannaud, J; Pourroy, G; Khlobystov, A N; Brown, P D; Besley, E; Banhart, F

    2016-08-11

    We report on the growth and formation of single-layer boron nitride dome-shaped nanostructures mediated by small iron clusters located on flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. The nanostructures were synthesized in situ at high temperature inside a transmission electron microscope while the e-beam was blanked. The formation process, typically originating at defective step-edges on the boron nitride support, was investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and computational modelling. Computational modelling showed that the domes exhibit a nanotube-like structure with flat circular caps and that their stability was comparable to that of a single boron nitride layer.

  10. Phase formation in selected surface-roughened plasma-nitrided 304 austenite stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gajendra Prasad; Joseph, Alphonsa; Raole, Prakash Manohar; Barhai, Prema Kanta; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2008-04-01

    Direct current (DC) glow discharge plasma nitriding was carried out on three selected surface-roughened AISI 304 stainless steel samples at 833 K under 4 mbar pressures for 24 h in the presence of N 2 :H 2 gas mixtures of 50 : 50 ratios. After plasma nitriding, the phase formation, case depth, surface roughness, and microhardness of a plasma-nitrided layer were evaluated by glancing angle x-ray diffractogram, optical microscope, stylus profilometer, and Vickers microhardness tester techniques. The case depth, surface hardness, and phase formation variations were observed with a variation in initial surface roughness. The diffraction patterns of the plasma-nitrided samples showed the modified intensities of the α and γ phases along with those of the CrN, Fe 4 N, and Fe 3 N phases. Hardness and case depth variations were observed with a variation in surface roughness. A maximum hardness of 1058 Hv and a case depth of 95 μm were achieved in least surface-roughened samples.

  11. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, R.; Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1995-05-23

    A process is disclosed for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  12. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  13. Examination of T-111 clad uranium nitride fuel pins irradiated up to 13,000 hours at a clad temperature of 990 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.; Siegel, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The examination of 27 fuel pins irradiated for up to 13,000 hours at 990 C is described. The fuel pin clad was a tantalum alloy with uranium nitride as the nuclear fuel. Two nominal fuel pin diameters were tested with a maximum burnup of 2.34 atom percent. Twenty-two fuel pins were tested for fission gas leaks; thirteen pins leaked. Clad ductility tests indicated clad embrittlement. The embrittlement is attributed to hydrogen from an n,p reaction in the fuel. Fuel swelling was burnup dependent, and the amount of fission gas release was low, generally less than 0.5 percent. No incompatibilities between fuel, liner, and clad were in evidence.

  14. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2018-07-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  15. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2017-11-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  16. Template-Free Synthesis of Highly Porous Boron Nitride: Insights into Pore Network Design and Impact on Gas Sorption.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Sofia; McGilvery, Catriona M; Bailey, Josh; Petit, Camille

    2017-10-24

    Production of biocompatible and stable porous materials, e.g., boron nitride, exhibiting tunable and enhanced porosity is a prerequisite if they are to be employed to address challenges such as drug delivery, molecular separations, or catalysis. However, there is currently very limited understanding of the formation mechanisms of porous boron nitride and the parameters controlling its porosity, which ultimately prevents exploiting the material's full potential. Herein, we produce boron nitride with high and tunable surface area and micro/mesoporosity via a facile template-free method using multiple readily available N-containing precursors with different thermal decomposition patterns. The gases are gradually released, creating hierarchical pores, high surface areas (>1900 m 2 /g), and micropore volumes. We use 3D tomography techniques to reconstruct the pore structure, allowing direct visualization of the mesopore network. Additional imaging and analytical tools are employed to characterize the materials from the micro- down to the nanoscale. The CO 2 uptake of the materials rivals or surpasses those of commercial benchmarks or other boron nitride materials reported to date (up to 4 times higher), even after pelletizing. Overall, the approach provides a scalable route to porous boron nitride production as well as fundamental insights into the material's formation, which can be used to design a variety of boron nitride structures.

  17. Single-Photon Emitters in Boron Nitride Nanococoons.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Joshua; Blaikie, Andrew; Fathalizadeh, Aidin; Miller, David; Yasin, Fehmi S; Williams, Kerisha; Mohrhardt, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Zettl, Alex; Alemán, Benjamín

    2018-04-11

    Quantum emitters in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are attractive for a variety of quantum and photonic technologies because they combine ultra-bright, room-temperature single-photon emission with an atomically thin crystal. However, the emitter's prominence is hindered by large, strain-induced wavelength shifts. We report the discovery of a visible-wavelength, single-photon emitter (SPE) in a zero-dimensional boron nitride allotrope (the boron nitride nanococoon, BNNC) that retains the excellent optical characteristics of few-layer hBN while possessing an emission line variation that is lower by a factor of 5 than the hBN emitter. We determined the emission source to be the nanometer-size BNNC through the cross-correlation of optical confocal microscopy with high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Altogether, this discovery enlivens color centers in BN materials and, because of the BN nanococoon's size, opens new and exciting opportunities in nanophotonics, quantum information, biological imaging, and nanoscale sensing.

  18. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  19. Hardness, microstructure and surface characterization of laser gas nitrided commercially pure titanium using high power CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Selvan, J.S.; Subramanian, K.; Nath, A.K.

    Surface nitriding of commercially pure (CP) titanium was carried out using high power CO{sub 2} laser at pure nitrogen and dilute nitrogen (N{sub 2} + Ar) environment. The hardness, microstructure, and melt pool configuration of the laser melted titanium in helium and argon atmosphere was compared with laser melting at pure and dilute nitrogen environment. The hardness of the nitrided layer was of the order of 1000 to 1600 HV. The hardness of the laser melted titanium in the argon and helium atmosphere was 500 to 1000 HV. Using x-ray analysis of the formation of TiN and Ti{sub 2}N phasemore » was identified in the laser nitrided titanium. The presence of nitrogen in the nitrided zone was confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. The microstructures revealed densely populated dendrites in the sample nitrided at 100% N{sub 2} environment and thinly populated dendrites in dilute environment. The crack intensity was large in the nitrided sample at pure nitrogen, and few cracks were observed in the 50% N{sub 2} + 50% Ar environment.« less

  20. The structure and function of supported molybdenum nitride and molybdenum carbide hydrotreating catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, Gregory Martin

    1997-11-01

    A series of gamma-Alsb2Osb3 supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides were prepared by the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdates with ammonia and methane/hydrogen mixtures, respectively. In the first part of this research, the effects of synthesis heating rates and molybdenum loading on the catalytic properties of the materials were examined. A significant amount of excess carbon was deposited on the surface of the carbides during synthesis. The materials consisted of small particles which were very highly dispersed. Oxygen chemisorption indicated that the nitride particles may have been two-dimensional. The dispersion of the carbides, however, appeared to decrease as the loading increased. The catalysts were evaluated for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The molybdenum loading had the largest effect on the activity of the materials. For the nitrides, the HDN and HDS activities were inverse functions of the loading. This suggested that the most active HDN and HDS sites were located at the perimeter of the two-dimensional particles. The HDN and HDS activities of the carbides followed the same trend as the oxygen uptake. This result suggested that oxygen titrated the active sites on the supported carbides. Selected catalysts were evaluated for methylcarbazole HDN, dibenzothiophene HDS, and dibenzofuran HDO. The activity and selectivity of the nitrides and carbides were competitive with a presulfided commercial catalyst. In the second part of this work, a series of supported nitrides and carbides were prepared using a wider range of loadings (5-30 wt% Mo). Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the temperature at which excess carbon was deposited on the carbides. By modifying the synthesis parameters, the deposition of excess carbon was effectively inhibited. The dispersions of the supported nitrides and carbides were constant and suggested that the materials consisted of two

  1. Room temperature single photon source using fiber-integrated hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Tobias; Lu, Yuerui; Lam, Ping Koy

    2017-07-01

    Single photons are a key resource for quantum optics and optical quantum information processing. The integration of scalable room temperature quantum emitters into photonic circuits remains to be a technical challenge. Here we utilize a defect center in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) attached by Van der Waals force onto a multimode fiber as a single photon source. We perform an optical characterization of the source in terms of spectrum, state lifetime, power saturation and photostability. A special feature of our source is that it allows for easy switching between fiber-coupled and free space single photon generation modes. In order to prove the quantum nature of the emission we measure the second-order correlation function {{g}(2)}≤ft(τ \\right) . For both fiber-coupled and free space emission, the {{g}(2)}≤ft(τ \\right) dips below 0.5 indicating operation in the single photon regime. The results so far demonstrate the feasibility of 2D material single photon sources for scalable photonic quantum information processing.

  2. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  3. A Thermodynamic Model to Estimate the Formation of Complex Nitrides of Al x Mg(1- x)N in Silicon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yan; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Ming; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2018-06-01

    A complex nitride of Al x Mg(1- x)N was observed in silicon steels. A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the ferrite/nitride equilibrium in the Fe-Al-Mg-N alloy system, using published binary solubility products for stoichiometric phases. The model was used to estimate the solubility product of nitride compound, equilibrium ferrite, and nitride compositions, and the amounts of each phase, as a function of steel composition and temperature. In the current model, the molar ratio Al/(Al + Mg) in the complex nitride was great due to the low dissolved magnesium in steel. For a steel containing 0.52 wt pct Als, 10 ppm T.Mg., and 20 ppm T.N. at 1100 K (827 °C), the complex nitride was expressed by Al0.99496Mg0.00504N and the solubility product of this complex nitride was 2.95 × 10-7. In addition, the solution temperature of the complex nitride increased with increasing the nitrogen and aluminum in steel. The good agreement between the prediction and the detected precipitate compositions validated the current model.

  4. A Precise Calibration Technique for Measuring High Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Schultz, Donald F.

    2000-01-01

    A technique was developed for direct measurement of gas temperatures in the range of 2050 K 2700 K with improved accuracy and reproducibility. The technique utilized the low-emittance of certain fibrous materials, and the uncertainty of the technique was United by the uncertainty in the melting points of the materials, i.e., +/-15 K. The materials were pure, thin, metal-oxide fibers whose diameters varied from 60 microns to 400 microns in the experiments. The sharp increase in the emittance of the fibers upon melting was utilized as indication of reaching a known gas temperature. The accuracy of the technique was confirmed by both calculated low emittance values of transparent fibers, of order 0.01, up to a few degrees below their melting point and by the fiber-diameter independence of the results. This melting-point temperature was approached by increments not larger than 4 K, which was accomplished by controlled increases of reactant flow rates in hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-oxygen flames. As examples of the applications of the technique, the gas-temperature measurements were used: (a) for assessing the uncertainty in inferring gas temperatures from thermocouple measurements, and (b) for calibrating an IR camera to measure gas temperatures. The technique offers an excellent calibration reference for other gas-temperature measurement methods to improve their accuracy and reliably extending their temperature range of applicability.

  5. A Precise Calibration Technique for Measuring High Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Schultz, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    A technique was developed for direct measurement of gas temperatures in the range of 2050 K - 2700 K with improved accuracy and reproducibility. The technique utilized the low-emittance of certain fibrous Materials, and the uncertainty of the technique was limited by the uncertainty in the melting points of the materials, i.e., +/- 15 K. The materials were pure, thin, metal-oxide fibers whose diameters varied from 60 mm to 400 mm in the experiments. The sharp increase in the emittance of the fibers upon melting was utilized as indication of reaching a known gas temperature. The accuracy of the technique was confirmed by both calculated low emittance values of transparent fibers, of order 0.01, up to a few degrees below their melting point and by the fiber-diameter independence of the results. This melting-point temperature was approached by increments not larger than 4 K, which was accomplished by controlled increases of reactant flow rates in hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen- oxygen flames. As examples of the applications of the technique, the gas-temperature measurements were used (a) for assessing the uncertainty in infering gas temperatures from thermocouple measurements, and (b) for calibrating an IR camera to measure gas temperatures. The technique offers an excellent calibration reference for other gas-temperature measurement methods to improve their accuracy and reliably extending their temperature range of applicability.

  6. Silicon nitride equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert C.; Swaminathan, Pazhayannur K.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the development of a global, multi-phase equation of state (EOS) for the ceramic silicon nitride (Si3N4).1 Structural forms include amorphous silicon nitride normally used as a thin film and three crystalline polymorphs. Crystalline phases include hexagonal α-Si3N4, hexagonal β-Si3N4, and the cubic spinel c-Si3N4. Decomposition at about 1900 °C results in a liquid silicon phase and gas phase products such as molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and atomic silicon. The silicon nitride EOS was developed using EOSPro which is a new and extended version of the PANDA II code. Both codes are valuable tools and have been used successfully for a variety of material classes. Both PANDA II and EOSPro can generate a tabular EOS that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes. The paper describes the development efforts for the component solid phases and presents results obtained using the EOSPro phase transition model to investigate the solid-solid phase transitions in relation to the available shock data that have indicated a complex and slow time dependent phase change to the c-Si3N4 phase. Furthermore, the EOSPro mixture model is used to develop a model for the decomposition products; however, the need for a kinetic approach is suggested to combine with the single component solid models to simulate and further investigate the global phase coexistences.

  7. Fabrication of turbine components and properties of sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, J. T.; French, K. W.; Quackenbush, C. L.; Smith, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a status report on the injection molding of sinterable silicon nitride at GTE Laboratories. The effort involves fabrication of single axial turbine blades and monolithic radial turbine rotors. The injection molding process is reviewed and the fabrication of the turbine components discussed. Oxidation resistance and strength results of current injection molded sintered silicon nitride as well as dimensional checks on sintered turbine blades demonstrate that this material is a viable candidate for high temperature structural applications.

  8. An Annotated Bibliography on Silicon Nitride for Structural Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    a sea of interconnected flakes. Nitriding at temp- eratures above the melting point of Si leads to the growth of largely /3-Si3N4 with only small...partly to oxidation and partly to microplasticity at the crack tip. High temperature modulus of elasticity decreased with increasing temperature but the

  9. Low temperature binary gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Glen E.; Leonard, Kenneth R.

    2017-12-01

    Application of partial pressure technology to combinations of one gas above its critical temperature (helium) mixed with a two-phase liquid (nitrogen) can result in liquid temperatures down to and below the nitrogen triple point. The thermodynamics of this process is developed and an experimental apparatus is described which was used to produce a helium/nitrogen bath temperature of 59.17 K, 4 K lower than the 63.2 K nitrogen triple point and lower than any liquid nitrogen temperature reported in the literature.

  10. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  11. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steelmore » samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.« less

  12. Synthesis of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Mono layer: Control of Nucleation and Crystal Morphology

    DOE PAGES

    Stehle, Yijing Y.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; ...

    2015-11-10

    Mono layer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) attracts significant attention due to the potential to be used as a complementary two-dimensional dielectric in fabrication of functional 2D heterostructures. Here we investigate the growth stages of the hBN single crystals and show that hBN crystals change their shape from triangular to truncated triangular and further to hexagonal depending on copper substrate distance from the precursor. We suggest that the observed hBN crystal shape variation is affected by the ratio of boron to nitrogen active species concentrations on the copper surface inside the CVD reactor. Strong temperature dependence reveals the activation energies formore » the hBN nucleation process of similar to 5 eV and crystal growth of similar to 3.5 eV. We also show that the resulting h-BN film morphology is strongly affected by the heating method of borazane precursor and the buffer gas. Elucidation of these details facilitated synthesis of high quality large area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper using borazane as a precursor.« less

  13. Wettability of Pyrolytic Boron Nitride by Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    1991-01-01

    The wetting of pyrolytic boron nitride by molten 99.9999 percent pure aluminum was investigated by using the sessile drop method in a vacuum operating at approximately 660 micro-Pa at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 C. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with an increase in temperature. For temperatures at 900 C or less, the equilibrium contact angle was greater than 90 deg. At 1000 C a nonwetting-to-wetting transition occurred and the contact angle stabilized at 49 deg.

  14. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of nitrogen-rich surface layers on AISI 304 stainless steel by rapid nitriding in a hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Zhang, Shangzhou; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yijie

    2018-01-01

    Nitriding treatments have been successfully applied to austenitic stainless steels to improve their hardness and tribological properties. However, at temperatures above 450 °C, conventional plasma nitriding processes decrease the corrosion resistance due to the formation of CrN phases within the modified layer. In this work, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were efficiently treated by rapid plasma nitriding at a high temperature of 530 °C in a hollow cathode discharge. The enhanced ionization obtained in the hollow cathode configuration provided a high current density and, consequently, a high temperature could be attained in a short time. The nitrided layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the dual-layer structure of the nitrided layer consists of a high-N face-centered cubic structure with a free CrN precipitate outer (top) layer and a nitrogen-expanded austenite S-phase bottom layer. The rapid nitriding-assisted hollow cathode discharge technique permits the use of high temperatures, as high as 530 °C, without promoting degradation in the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

  15. PECVD silicon-rich nitride and low stress nitride films mechanical characterization using membrane point load deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagolini, Alvise; Picciotto, Antonino; Crivellari, Michele; Conci, Paolo; Bellutti, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    An analysis of the mechanical properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) silicon nitrides is presented, using micro fabricated silicon nitride membranes under point load deflection. The membranes are made of PECVD silicon-rich nitride and low stress nitride films. The mechanical performance of the bended membranes is examined both with analytical models and finite element simulation in order to extract the elastic modulus and residual stress values. The elastic modulus of low stress silicon nitride is calculated using stress free analytical models, while for silicon-rich silicon nitride and annealed low stress silicon nitride it is estimated with a pre-stressed model of point-load deflection. The effect of annealing both in nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere is evaluated in terms of residual stress, refractive index and thickness variation. It is demonstrated that a hydrogen rich annealing atmosphere induces very little change in low stress silicon nitride. Nitrogen annealing effects are measured and shown to be much higher in silicon-rich nitride than in low stress silicon nitride. An estimate of PECVD silicon-rich nitride elastic modulus is obtained in the range between 240-320 GPa for deposited samples and 390 GPa for samples annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. PECVD low stress silicon nitride elastic modulus is estimated to be 88 GPa as deposited and 320 GPa after nitrogen annealing.

  16. Engineering and Localization of Quantum Emitters in Large Hexagonal Boron Nitride Layers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sumin; Tran, Toan Trong; Elbadawi, Christopher; Lobo, Charlene; Wang, Xuewen; Juodkazis, Saulius; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-11-02

    Hexagonal boron nitride is a wide-band-gap van der Waals material that has recently emerged as a promising platform for quantum photonics experiments. In this work, we study the formation and localization of narrowband quantum emitters in large flakes (up to tens of micrometers wide) of hexagonal boron nitride. The emitters can be activated in as-grown hexagonal boron nitride by electron irradiation or high-temperature annealing, and the emitter formation probability can be increased by ion implantation or focused laser irradiation of the as-grown material. Interestingly, we show that the emitters are always localized at the edges of the flakes, unlike most luminescent point defects in three-dimensional materials. Our results constitute an important step on the roadmap of deploying hexagonal boron nitride in nanophotonics applications.

  17. Ultrahigh performance heat spreader based on gas-liquid exfoliation boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Wang, Qiaolei; Peng, Wanjun; Yu, Haibin

    2017-11-24

    Due to their high thermal conductivity and insulation performance, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have great promise to fabricate thermal management equipment for application in power electronics. The liquid-phase exfoliation route has been regarded as the most commonly used approach to produce single and few-layered BNNS for many research fields. However, this process takes a long time, and the production yield is extremely low. In this work, an efficient technique to obtain few-layered (mostly < 5 layers), high-yield (∼33%), and plane-defect-free BNNS by the combination of liquid N 2 (L-N 2 ) gasification and liquid exfoliation was developed. The as-obtained BNNS suspensions could be vacuum filtered to make a thermal conductive film named a BNNS heat spreader which possessed a superior thermal conductivity of 61.2 W m -1 K -1 at room temperature. In addition, we also proved that the thermal conductivity of the BNNS heat spreader increased with the increase of density, creating an approach for fine tuning the thermal property of this heat spreader.

  18. Ultrahigh performance heat spreader based on gas-liquid exfoliation boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Wang, Qiaolei; Peng, Wanjun; Yu, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Due to their high thermal conductivity and insulation performance, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) have great promise to fabricate thermal management equipment for application in power electronics. The liquid-phase exfoliation route has been regarded as the most commonly used approach to produce single and few-layered BNNS for many research fields. However, this process takes a long time, and the production yield is extremely low. In this work, an efficient technique to obtain few-layered (mostly < 5 layers), high-yield (˜33%), and plane-defect-free BNNS by the combination of liquid N2 (L-N2) gasification and liquid exfoliation was developed. The as-obtained BNNS suspensions could be vacuum filtered to make a thermal conductive film named a BNNS heat spreader which possessed a superior thermal conductivity of 61.2 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature. In addition, we also proved that the thermal conductivity of the BNNS heat spreader increased with the increase of density, creating an approach for fine tuning the thermal property of this heat spreader.

  19. Development of silicon nitride of improved toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of reaction sintered Si2N4 energy absorbing surface layers to hot-pressed Si3N4 was investigated. The surface layer was formed by in-place nitridation of silicon powder. It was found that reaction sintered Si3N4 layers of 1 mm thickness, fabricated from either -100, +200, -200, or -325 mesh Si powder and nitrided in 96% N2/4% H2 so that approximately 20-25 vol % unnitrided Si remained in the layer, resulted in a sevenfold increase in ballistic impact resistance of a 0.64 cm thick hot-pressed SI3N4 substrate from RT 1370 C. Both NC-132 SI3N4, with MgO additive, and NCX-34 Si3N4, with Y2O3 additive, were evaluated as substrate material. The finer grain size -200 and -325 mesh nitrided Si layers were for their smoothness and relatively high density. It was found that nitriding in N2/H2 mixtures, rather than pure N2, resulted in a microstructure that did not substantially degrade the strength of the hot-pressed Si3N4 substrate. Thermal cycling tests on the RSSN/HPSN combinations from 200 C to 1370 C for 75 cycles in air did not degrade the impact resistance nor the interfacial bonding, although a large amount of internal silica formation occurred within the RSSN layer. Mach 0.8, 5 hr, hot gas erosion tests showed no surface recession of RSSN layers at 1200 C and slight surface recession at 1370 C.

  20. High Operating Temperature and Low Power Consumption Boron Nitride Nanosheets Based Broadband UV Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Manuel; Velázquez, Rafael; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zhou, Andrew F.; Feng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We extend our work on the use of digitally controlled pulsed laser plasma deposition (PLPD) technique to synthesize high quality, 2-dimensional single crystalline boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) at a low substrate temperature for applications in high-performance deep UV photodetectors. The obtained sample consists of a large amount of BNNSs partially overlapping one another with random orientations. Each sheet is composed of a few (from 2 to 10) stacked atomic layers exhibiting high transparency due to its highly ordered hBN crystallinity. Deep UV detectors based on the obtained BNNSs were designed, fabricated, and tested. The bias and temperature effects on the photocurrent strength and the signal-to-noise ratio have been carefully characterized and discussed. A significant shift in the cut off wavelength of the BNNSs based photodetectors was observed suggesting a band gap reduction as a result of the BNNSs’ collective structure. The newly designed photodetector presented exceptional properties: a high sensitivity to weak intensities of radiation in both UVC and UVB range while remaining visible-blind, and a high signal-to-noise ratio operation even at temperatures as high as 400 °C. In addition, the BNNSs based photodetector exhibited potential for self-powered operation. PMID:28256507

  1. Nitriding of Polymer by Low Energy Nitrogen Neutral Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Keigo; Yamakawa, Koji; Den, Shoji; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2012-03-01

    Nitriding of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) has been carried out at room temperature using a nitrogen neutral beam with kinetic energy of less than 100 eV. The surface hardness of nitrided samples increased to two times that of the untreated sample, when the acceleration voltage was between 30 and 50 V. The thickness of the hardened polymer layer was estimated to be 1 µm. It was concluded that the hardness enhancement was caused by the diffusion of nitrogen atoms into the polymer.

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    White Army Material and Mechanics Research Center E. M. Lenoe, R. N. Katz, D. R. Messier, H. Priest m ’■ V ..W.*.il.’■.■,:;.-M V -^.’ -i.-■..::.■ f.:irjU...Stator Vane Development 6.1.1 Design and Analysis v 6.1.2 Static Rig Testing 6.1.3 Vane Fabrication 6.1.4 Heat Transfer Tests Progress on Materials...Oxidation on the Strengths of Hot- Pressed Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbide Properties of Yttria Hot-Pressed Silicon Nitride i ii iii iv v x 1

  3. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    f7<psBCsqRf°?^PM^ppRi^Sq^PMip««niS! V Modulus of Rupture tests were conducted on 274 specimens of hot pressed silicon nitride to investigate the...Reaction Sintered 813^ 4. 3 Nitriding Developments 4.4 Sialon Materials 4. 5 Silicon Milling Studies 5. References v Page No. 1 ii...iv v vi ix 1 3 5 7 7 14 17 19 19 21 38 48 65 66 73 75 87 89 97 101 103 .:,:.o:^ -.. ...•• ._ . .- —~ «-«aa. m

  4. Discontinuous precipitation in a nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel on solution nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh; Akbari, Alireza; Grumsen, Flemming B.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Chromium-rich nitride precipitates in production of nickel-free austenitic stainless steel plates via pressurised solution nitriding of Fe-22.7Cr-2.4Mo ferritic stainless steel at 1473 K (1200 °C) under a nitrogen gas atmosphere was investigated. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition, morphology and crystallographic orientation between the resulted austenite and precipitates were investigated using optical microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). On prolonged nitriding, Chromium-rich nitride precipitates were formed firstly close to the surface and later throughout the sample with austenitic structure. Chromium-rich nitride precipitates with a rod or strip-like morphology was developed by a discontinuous cellular precipitation mechanism. STEM-EDS analysis demonstrated partitioning of metallic elements between austenite and nitrides, with chromium contents of about 80 wt.% in the precipitates. XRD analysis indicated that the Chromium-rich nitride precipitates are hexagonal (Cr, Mo)2N. Based on the TEM studies, (Cr, Mo)2N precipitates presented a (1 1 1)γ//(0 0 2)(Cr, Mo)2N, ?γ//?(Cr, Mo)2N orientation relationship with respect to the austenite matrix. EBSD studies revealed that the austenite in the regions that have transformed into austenite and (Cr, Mo)2N have no orientation relation to the untransformed austenite.

  5. Production of near-full density uranium nitride microspheres with a hot isostatic press

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jacob W.; Kiggans, Jr., Jim O.; Helmreich, Grant W.

    Depleted uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters ranging from 420 to 858 microns and theoretical densities (TD) between 87 and 91 percent were postprocessed using a hot isostatic press (HIP) in an argon gas media. This treatment was shown to increase the TD up to above 97%. Uranium nitride is highly reactive with oxygen. Therefore, a novel crucible design was implemented to remove impurities in the argon gas via in situ gettering to avoid oxidation of the UN kernels. The density before and after each HIP procedure was calculated from average weight, volume, and ellipticity determined with established characterization techniquesmore » for particle. Furthermore, micrographs confirmed the nearly full densification of the particles using the gettering approach and HIP processing parameters investigated in this work.« less

  6. Structure, Mechanics and Synthesis of Nanoscale Carbon and Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Steven G.

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I, we examine the properties of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride. We begin with an introduction to the theory of elastic sheets, where the stretching and bending modes are considered in detail. The coupling between stretching and bending modes is thought to play a crucial role in the thermodynamic stability of atomically-thin 2D sheets such as graphene. In Chapter 2, we begin by looking at the fabrication of suspended, atomically thin sheets of graphene. We then study their mechanical resonances which are read via an optical transduction technique. The frequency of the resonators was found to depend on their temperature, as was their quality factor. We conclude by offering some interpretations of the data in terms of the stretching and bending modes of graphene. In Chapter 3, we look briefly at the fabrication of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. We examine the structure of the sheets using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). We then show a technique by which one can make sheets suspended over a trench with adjustable supports. Finally, DC measurements of the resistivity of the sheets in the temperature range 600 -- 1400 C are presented. In Chapter 4, we study the folding of few-layer graphene oxide, graphene and boron nitride into 3D aerogel monoliths. The properties of graphene oxide are first considered, after which the structure of graphene and boron nitride aerogels is examined using TEM and SEM. Some models for their structure are proposed. In Part II, we look at synthesis techniques for boron nitride (BN). In Chapter 5, we study the conversion of carbon structures of boron nitride via the application of carbothermal reduction of boron oxide followed by nitridation. We apply the conversion to a wide variety of morphologies, including aerogels, carbon fibers and nanotubes, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the latter chapters, we look at the

  7. The steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride: The impact of crystal temperature and doping concentration variations

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca

    2016-03-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient aspects of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride, with a focus on the response to variations in the crystal temperature and the doping concentration. We find that while the electron transport associated with zinc-blende InN is highly sensitive to the crystal temperature, it is not very sensitive to the doping concentration selection. The device consequences of these results are then explored.

  8. Wafer-Scale and Wrinkle-Free Epitaxial Growth of Single-Orientated Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Sapphire.

    PubMed

    Jang, A-Rang; Hong, Seokmo; Hyun, Chohee; Yoon, Seong In; Kim, Gwangwoo; Jeong, Hu Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Sung O; Wong, Kester; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Park, Noejung; Yu, Kwangnam; Choi, Eunjip; Mishchenko, Artem; Withers, Freddie; Novoselov, Kostya S; Lim, Hyunseob; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2016-05-11

    Large-scale growth of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride has been a challenge in two-dimensional-material-based electronics. Herein, we present wafer-scale and wrinkle-free epitaxial growth of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride on a sapphire substrate by using high-temperature and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations and theoretical calculations reveal that synthesized hexagonal boron nitride has a single rotational orientation with AA' stacking order. A facile method for transferring hexagonal boron nitride onto other target substrates was developed, which provides the opportunity for using hexagonal boron nitride as a substrate in practical electronic circuits. A graphene field effect transistor fabricated on our hexagonal boron nitride sheets shows clear quantum oscillation and highly improved carrier mobility because the ultraflatness of the hexagonal boron nitride surface can reduce the substrate-induced degradation of the carrier mobility of two-dimensional materials.

  9. Synthesis of crumpled nanosheets of polymeric carbon nitride from melamine cyanurate

    SciTech Connect

    Dante, Roberto C., E-mail: rcdante@yahoo.com; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Sánchez-Arévalo, F.M.

    2013-05-01

    Polymeric carbon nitride was synthesized by pyrolysis in nitrogen flux at different temperatures between 450 and 700 °C using melamine cyanurate as a reagent and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The obtained carbon nitride consisted of curled nanosheets (650 °C), and globular particles (700 °C) with formula C₆N₇NHNH₂. The reaction yield of the catalyzed reaction was around the 15% for the sample treated at 700 °C, in a tapped crucible. The optical band gap of the polymer obtained at 700 °C is around 2.9 eV. The gap to the Fermi level is around 2 eV, considerably above the half ofmore » the band gap (due to electrons trapped in the gap), indicating that the polymer is probably a n-type semiconductor. - Graphical abstract: Transition from amorphous to crystalline carbon nitride, which is composed of globular particles and is a n-type wide band semiconductor. Highlights: • We synthetized carbon nitride using melamine cyanurate. • The reaction of carbon nitride formation is catalyzed by sulfuric acid. • The carbon nitride obtained at 700 °C is composed of globular particles. • The material obtained at 700 °C is a n-type semiconductor.« less

  10. Kinetic modelling of chlorination of nitrided ilmenite using MATLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar, E-mail: srsivakumar@usm.my; Kwok, Teong Chen, E-mail: ctck@live.com; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul, E-mail: rezanshk@gmail.com

    In the present study, chlorination of nitride ilmenite using 2{sup k} factorial design was investigated. The reduction experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 400°C to 500°C, chlorination duration from 1 hour to 3 hours and using different type of carbon reactant. Phases of raw materials and reduced samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ilmenite was reduced to TiO{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z} through carbothermal and nitridation for further chlorination into titanium tetrachloride. The Design of Experiment analysis suggested that the types of carbon reactant contribute most influence to the extent of chlorination of nitride ilmenite. The extentmore » of chlorination was highest at 500°C with 3 hours chlorination time and carbon nanotube as carbon reactant.« less

  11. Effect of ripples on the finite temperature elastic properties of hexagonal boron nitride using strain-fluctuation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Siby; Ajith, K. M.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2017-11-01

    This work intents to put forth the results of a classical molecular dynamics study to investigate the temperature dependent elastic constants of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) between 100 and 1000 K for the first time using strain fluctuation method. The temperature dependence of out-of-plane fluctuations (ripples) is quantified and is explained using continuum theory of membranes. At low temperatures, negative in-plane thermal expansion is observed and at high temperatures, a transition to positive thermal expansion has been observed due to the presence of thermally excited ripples. The decrease of Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio with increase in temperature has been analyzed. The thermal rippling in h-BN leads to strong anharmonic behaviour that causes large deviation from the isotropic elasticity. A detailed study shows that the strong thermal rippling in large systems is also responsible for the softening of elastic constants in h-BN. From the determined values of elastic constants and elastic moduli, it has been elucidated that 2D h-BN sheets meet the Born's mechanical stability criterion in the investigated temperature range. The variation of longitudinal and shear velocities with temperature is also calculated from the computed values of elastic constants and elastic moduli.

  12. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  13. Use of additives to improve microstructures and fracture resistance of silicon nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F [Oak Ridge, TN; Lin, Hua-Tay [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-06-28

    A high-strength, fracture-resistant silicon nitride ceramic material that includes about 5 to about 75 wt-% of elongated reinforcing grains of beta-silicon nitride, about 20 to about 95 wt-% of fine grains of beta-silicon nitride, wherein the fine grains have a major axis of less than about 1 micron; and about 1 to about 15 wt-% of an amorphous intergranular phase comprising Si, N, O, a rare earth element and a secondary densification element. The elongated reinforcing grains have an aspect ratio of 2:1 or greater and a major axis measuring about 1 micron or greater. The elongated reinforcing grains are essentially isotropically oriented within the ceramic microstructure. The silicon nitride ceramic exhibits a room temperature flexure strength of 1,000 MPa or greater and a fracture toughness of 9 MPa-m.sup.(1/2) or greater. The silicon nitride ceramic exhibits a peak strength of 800 MPa or greater at 1200 degrees C. Also included are methods of making silicon nitride ceramic materials which exhibit the described high flexure strength and fracture-resistant values.

  14. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  15. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  16. Method and device to synthesize boron nitride nanotubes and related nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-07-19

    Methods and apparatus for producing chemical nanostructures having multiple elements, such as boron and nitride, e.g. boron nitride nanotubes, are disclosed. The method comprises creating a plasma jet, or plume, such as by an arc discharge. The plasma plume is elongated and has a temperature gradient along its length. It extends along its length into a port connector area having ports for introduction of feed materials. The feed materials include the multiple elements, which are introduced separately as fluids or powders at multiple ports along the length of the plasma plume, said ports entering the plasma plume at different temperatures. The method further comprises modifying a temperature at a distal portion of or immediately downstream of said plasma plume; and collecting said chemical nanostructures after said modifying.

  17. Study of the kinetics and mechanism of the thermal nitridation of SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Madhukar, A.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Naiman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the nitridation time and temperature dependence of the nitrogen distribution in thermally nitrided SiO2 films. The XPS data show that the maximum nitrogen concentration near the (SiO(x)N(y)/Si interface is initially at the interface, but moves 20-25 A away from the interface with increasing nitridation time. Computer modeling of the kinetic processes involved is carried out and reveals a mechanism in which diffusing species, initially consisting primarily of nitrogen, react with the substrate, followed by formation of the oxygen-rich oxynitride due to reaction of the diffusing oxygen displaced by the slower nitridation of the SiO2. The data are consistent with this mechanism provided the influence of the interfacial strain on the nitridation and oxidation kinetics is explicitly accounted for.

  18. Process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1992-04-28

    Disclosed is a process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride comprising the steps of: [A] preparing an intimate mixture of powdered boron oxide, a powdered metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium or aluminum, and a powdered metal azide; [B] igniting the mixture and bringing it to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs; [C] shocking the mixture at the end of the combustion thereof with a high pressure wave, thereby forming as a reaction product, wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride and occluded metal oxide; and, optionally [D] removing the occluded metal oxide from the reaction product. Also disclosed are reaction products made by the process described.

  19. Process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, deceased, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride comprising the steps of: [A] preparing an intimate mixture of powdered boron oxide, a powdered metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium or aluminum, and a powdered metal azide; [B] igniting the mixture and bringing it to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs; [C] shocking the mixture at the end of the combustion thereof with a high pressure wave, thereby forming as a reaction product, wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride and occluded metal oxide; and, optionally [D] removing the occluded metal oxide from the reaction product. Also disclosed are reaction products made by the process described.

  20. Heuristic Analysis Model of Nitrided Layers’ Formation Consisting of the Image Processing and Analysis and Elements of Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Tomasz; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a selected area of research and development concerning the methods of material analysis based on the automatic image recognition of the investigated metallographic sections. The objectives of the analyses of the materials for gas nitriding technology are described. The methods of the preparation of nitrided layers, the steps of the process and the construction and operation of devices for gas nitriding are given. We discuss the possibility of using the methods of digital images processing in the analysis of the materials, as well as their essential task groups: improving the quality of the images, segmentation, morphological transformations and image recognition. The developed analysis model of the nitrided layers formation, covering image processing and analysis techniques, as well as selected methods of artificial intelligence are presented. The model is divided into stages, which are formalized in order to better reproduce their actions. The validation of the presented method is performed. The advantages and limitations of the developed solution, as well as the possibilities of its practical use, are listed. PMID:28773389

  1. Low-Temperature Photochemically Activated Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide for Highly Stable Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2016-08-10

    We report on highly stable amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) gas sensors for ultraviolet (UV)-activated room-temperature detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IGZO sensors fabricated by a low-temperature photochemical activation process and exhibiting two orders higher photocurrent compared to conventional zinc oxide sensors, allowed high gas sensitivity against various VOCs even at room temperature. From a systematic analysis, it was found that by increasing the UV intensity, the gas sensitivity, response time, and recovery behavior of an IGZO sensor were strongly enhanced. In particular, under an UV intensity of 30 mW cm(-2), the IGZO sensor exhibited gas sensitivity, response time and recovery time of 37%, 37 and 53 s, respectively, against 750 ppm concentration of acetone gas. Moreover, the IGZO gas sensor had an excellent long-term stability showing around 6% variation in gas sensitivity over 70 days. These results strongly support a conclusion that a low-temperature solution-processed amorphous IGZO film can serve as a good candidate for room-temperature VOCs sensors for emerging wearable electronics.

  2. Investigation of nitrogen transport in active screen plasma nitriding processes - Uphill diffusion effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. J.; Fraczek, T.; Kurpaska, L.; Lubas, M.; Sitarz, M.

    2018-07-01

    The paper presents a structure of a nitrided layer formed with active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) technique, which is a modification of plasma nitriding. The model investigated material was Fe Armco. The nitriding processes were carried out at 773 K for 6 h and 150 Pa. The main objective of this study was to confirm nitrogen migration effect and its influence on the nitride layer formation in different area of the layer interfaces (ε/ε+γ‧/γ‧). The results of the tests were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, SEM/EBSD), transmission electron microscopy - electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EFTEM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (WDS). The analysis of the results suggests that the structures of the nitrided layers and nitrides morphology differ for various parameters and are dependent on the surface layer saturation mechanism for each of the temperatures and process parameters. New approaches in diffusion of nitrogen and carbon atoms and optimizing process were also analyzed. Nitrogen and also carbon transport in the sublayer was observed by several effects i.e. uphill diffusion effect which confirmed migration of the atoms in diffusive layer towards top surface (ε/ε+γ‧ interface) and stress change effect in the nitrogen saturation area of the (Fe(C,N)+γ‧) layer. Results showed in the paper might be used both for optimization of ASPN processes, modeling of nitrided layers formation mechanism and for controlling the nitrided layers morphology when nitriding different Fe based materials.

  3. Synthesis of nanowires and nanoparticles of cubic aluminium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, C.; Godbole, V. P.; Rohatgi, V. K.; Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2004-03-01

    Nanostructures of cubic aluminium nitride were synthesized by DC arc-plasma-induced melting of aluminium in a nitrogen-argon ambient. The material flux ejected from the molten aluminium surface was found to react with nitrogen under highly non-equilibrium conditions and subsequently condense on a water-cooled surface to yield a mixture of nanowires and nanoparticles of crystalline cubic aluminium nitride. Both x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction measurements revealed that the as-synthesized nitrides adopted the cubic phase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to understand the bonding configuration. Microstructural features of the synthesized material were best studied by transmission electron microscopy. From these analyses cubic aluminium nitride was found to be the dominating phase for both nanowires and nanoparticles synthesized at low currents. The typical particle size distribution was found to range over 15-80 nm, whereas the wires varied from 30 to 100 nm in diameter and 500 to 700 nm in length, depending upon the process parameters such as arc current and the nitrogen pressure. The reaction products inside the plasma zone were also obtained theoretically by minimization of free energy and the favourable zone temperature necessary for the formation of aluminium nitride was found to be {\\sim } 6000 K. Results are discussed in view of the highly non-equilibrium conditions that prevail during the arc-plasma synthesis.

  4. Effect of processing parameters on reaction bonding of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, M. H.; Gregory, O. J.; Magida, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reaction bonded silicon nitride was developed. The relationship between the various processing parameters and the resulting microstructures was to design and synthesize reaction bonded materials with improved room temperature mechanical properties.

  5. Preparation of nanocrystalline TiN coated cubic boron nitride powders by a sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee S; Umer, M Adeel; Ryu, Ho J; Hong, Soon H

    2011-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles coated with 20 wt% nanocrystalline TiN were prepared by coating the surface of cBN particles with TiO2, followed by nitridation with NH3 gas at 900 degrees C. Coating of TiO2 on cBN powders was accomplished by a sol-gel process from a solution of titanium (IV) isopropoxide and anhydrous ethanol. An amorphous TiO(x) layer of 50 nm thickness was homogenously formed on the surface of the cBN particles by the sol-gel process. The amorphous layer was then crystallized to an anatase TiO2 phase through calcination in air at 400 degrees C. The crystallized TiO2 layer was 50 nm in thickness, and the size of TiO2 particles comprising the layer was nearly 10 nm. The TiO2 on cBN surfaces was completely converted into nanocrystalline TiN of uniform particles 20 nm in size on cBN particles by nitridation under flowing NH3 gas.

  6. Gradient microstructure and microhardness in a nitrided 18CrNiMo7-6 gear steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Wu, G. L.; Zhang, X.; Fu, W. T.; Huang, X.

    2017-07-01

    A commercial gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) containing a tempered martensite structure was nitrided using a pressurized gas nitriding process under a pressure of 5 atm at 530 °C for 5 hours. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the nitrided sample were characterized by Vickers hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction, and backscatter electron imaging in a scanning electron microscope. A micro-hardness gradient was identified over a distance of 500 μm with hardness values of 900 HV at the top surface and 300 HV in the core. This micro-hardness gradient corresponds to a gradient in the microstructure that changes from a nitride compound layer at the top surface (∼ 20 μm thick) to a diffusion zone with a decreasing nitrogen concentration and precipitate density with distance from the surface, finally reaching the core matrix layer with a recovered martensite structure.

  7. Superconducting transition temperature of a boron nitride layer with a high niobium coverage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Gerardo; Magana, Fernando

    We explore the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a Boron Nitride (BN) sheet, by doping its surface with Nb atoms sitting on the center of the hexagons. We used first-principles density functional theory in the general gradient approximation. The Quantum-Espresso package was used with norm conserving pseudo potentials. The structure considered was relaxed to their minimum energy configuration. Phonon frequencies were calculated using the linear-response technique on several phonon wave-vector meshes. The electron-phonon coupling parameter was calculated for a number of k meshes. The superconducting critical temperature was estimated using the Allen-Dynes formula with μ* = 0.1 - 0.15. We note that Nb is a good candidate material to show a superconductor transition for the BN-metal system. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  8. Temperatures of dust and gas in S 140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumpia, E.; Harvey, P. M.; Ossenkopf, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Mookerjea, B.; Fuente, A.; Kramer, C.

    2015-08-01

    Context. In dense parts of interstellar clouds (≥105 cm-3), dust and gas are expected to be in thermal equilibrium, being coupled via collisions. However, previous studies have shown that in the presence of intense radiation fields, the temperatures of the dust and gas may remain decoupled even at higher densities. Aims: The objective of this work is to study in detail the temperatures of dust and gas in the photon-dominated region S 140, especially around the deeply embedded infrared sources IRS 1-3 and at the ionization front. Methods: We derive the dust temperature and column density by combining Herschel-PACS continuum observations with SOFIA observations at 37 μm and SCUBA data at 450 μm. We model these observations using simple greybody fits and the DUSTY radiative transfer code. For the gas analysis we use RADEX to model the CO 1-0, CO 2-1, 13CO 1-0 and C18O 1-0 emission lines mapped with the IRAM-30 m telescope over a 4' field. Around IRS 1-3, we use HIFI observations of single-points and cuts in CO 9-8, 13CO 10-9 and C18O 9-8 to constrain the amount of warm gas, using the best fitting dust model derived with DUSTY as input to the non-local radiative transfer model RATRAN. The velocity information in the lines allows us to separate the quiescent component from outflows when deriving the gas temperature and column density. Results: We find that the gas temperature around the infrared sources varies between ~35 and ~55 K. In contrast to expectation, the gas is systematically warmer than the dust by ~5-15 K despite the high gas density. In addition we observe an increase of the gas temperature from 30-35 K in the surrounding up to 40-45 K towards the ionization front, most likely due to the UV radiation from the external star. Furthermore, detailed models of the temperature structure close to IRS 1 which take the known density gradient into account show that the gas is warmer and/or denser than what we model. Finally, modelling of the dust emission from

  9. Temperatures and Stresses on Hollow Blades For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollmann, Erich

    1947-01-01

    The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.

  10. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Manjeet; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H3BO3). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications as well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  11. Features of the phase composition and morphology of the particles of sialon synthesized from silicon and aluminum nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivicheva, S. N.; Lysenkov, A. S.; Ovsyannikov, N. A.; Titov, D. D.; Kargin, Yu F.

    2018-04-01

    The phase composition and morphological features of sialons were studied under the same conditions of firing (duration, temperature) using different initial components, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride, and a mixture of silicon nitrides and aluminum with the application of nitrides of the corresponding oxide (aluminum or silicon) sol-gel method. The effect of the initial reagents composition on the phase composition of the final product and the morphological features of the sialon powders obtained in a single firing step in a nitrogen atmosphere is shown.

  12. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures. PMID:24113685

  13. Silicon carbide-based hydrogen gas sensors for high-temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-10-09

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  14. Thermodynamic considerations of the vapor phase reactions in III-nitride metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth mechanism of the III-nitride semiconductors GaN, AlN, and InN by first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analyses. In these analyses, we investigated the decomposition processes of the group III source gases X(CH3)3 (X = Ga, Al, In) at finite temperatures and determined whether the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct can be formed or not. The results of our calculations show that the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct cannot be formed in the gas phase in GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), whereas, in AlN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2AlNH2 adduct in the gas phase is exclusive. In the case of GaN MOVPE, trimethylgallium (TMG, [Ga(CH3)3]) decomposition into Ga gas on the growth surface with the assistance of H2 carrier gas, instead of the formation of the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct, occurs almost exclusively. Moreover, in the case of InN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2InNH2 adduct does not occur and it is relatively easy to produce In gas even without H2 in the carrier gas.

  15. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devicesmore » and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.« less

  16. Iodine isothermal migration behaviour in titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavarini, S.; Jaffrezic, H.; Martin, P.; Peaucelle, C.; Toulhoat, N.; Cardinal, S.; Moncoffre, N.; Pichon, C.; Tribet, M.

    2008-02-01

    Titanium nitride is one of the inert matrixes proposed to surround the fuel in gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) systems. These reactors will operate at high temperature and refractory materials with a high chemical stability and good mechanical properties are required. Furthermore, a total retention of the most volatile fission products, such as I, Xe or Cs, by the inert matrix is needed during the in-pile process. The isothermal migration of iodine in TiN was studied by implanting 800 keV I ++ ions in sintered samples at an ion fluence of 5 × 10 15 cm -2. Thermal treatments were performed under secondary vacuum at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1700 °C. Iodine concentration profiles were determined by 2.5 MeV α-particle elastic backscattering. The migration of iodine seems to be correlated with point defects created by implanted ions near the surface. The Arrhenius plot corresponding to iodine detrapping is curved with possibly two straight-line regions which could indicate either the presence of two types of traps, or a strong dependence of trap's concentration on temperature above 1500 °C. The activation energies associated with each linear region of the Arrhenius plot were found to be: Ea = 2.4 ± 0.2 eV below 1500 °C and E=11.4±0.2 eV above 1500 °C. Nitrogen evaporation from TiN surface under secondary vacuum was proposed as a contributing factor to the enhanced mobility of iodine at high temperature.

  17. Stability of Titanium Nitride and Titanium Carbide When Exposed to Hydrogen Atoms from 298 to 1950 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.

    1961-01-01

    Titanium nitride and titanium carbide deposited on tungsten wires were exposed to hydrogen atoms (10(exp -4) atm pressure) produced by the action of microwave radiation on molecular hydrogen. The results of these experiments in the temperature range 298 to 1950 K indicate that no appreciable reaction takes place between atomic hydrogen and TiN or TiC. The formation of reaction products (NH3, CH4, C2H2) should be favored at lower temperatures. However, because of the high catalytic activity of Ti for H atom recombination, the rate of such reactions with H atoms is controlled by the rate of evaporation of Ti from the surface, this rate being low at temperatures below 1200 K. In order to interpret the stability of TiN and TiC in H atoms more fully, the stability of TiN and TiC in vacuum and H2 gas was also studied. The thermodynamic computations conform in order of magnitude to the experimentally found rates of decomposition of TiN and TiC in vacuum and are also consistent with the fact that no appreciable reaction is found with these compounds in molecular H2 at a pressure of 10(exp -3) atmosphere in the temperature range 2980 to 2060 K. When TiN or TiC was heated in atomic H or molecular H2, no reaction products other than those obtained from the simple decomposition of the nitride and carbide were observed. The gaseous products were analyzed in a mass spectrometer.

  18. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Panda, P.C.; Seydel, E.R.; Raj, R.

    1988-03-22

    A process is disclosed for preparing silicon nitride ceramic parts which are relatively flaw free and which need little or no machining, said process comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a starting powder by wet or dry mixing ingredients comprising by weight from about 70% to about 99% silicon nitride, from about 1% to about 30% of liquid phase forming additive and from 1% to about 7% free silicon; (b) cold pressing to obtain a preform of green density ranging from about 30% to about 75% of theoretical density; (c) sintering at atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 1,400 C to about 2,200 C to obtain a density which ranges from about 50% to about 100% of theoretical density and which is higher than said preform green density, and (d) press forging workpiece resulting from step (c) by isothermally uniaxially pressing said workpiece in an open die without initial contact between said workpiece and die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing and so that pressed workpiece does not contact die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing, to substantially final shape in a nitrogen atmosphere utilizing a temperature within the range of from about 1,400 C to essentially 1,750 C and strain rate within the range of about 10[sup [minus]7] to about 10[sup [minus]1] seconds[sup [minus]1], the temperature and strain rate being such that surface cracks do not occur, said pressing being carried out to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30% whereby superplastic forging is effected.

  19. High-Performance Polymers Sandwiched with Chemical Vapor Deposited Hexagonal Boron Nitrides as Scalable High-Temperature Dielectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Amin; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; AlSaud, Mohammed Abu; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Bo; Liu, Feihua; Chen, Long-Qing; Alem, Nasim; Wang, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Polymer dielectrics are the preferred materials of choice for power electronics and pulsed power applications. However, their relatively low operating temperatures significantly limit their uses in harsh-environment energy storage devices, e.g., automobile and aerospace power systems. Herein, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films are prepared from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and readily transferred onto polyetherimide (PEI) films. Greatly improved performance in terms of discharged energy density and charge-discharge efficiency is achieved in the PEI sandwiched with CVD-grown h-BN films at elevated temperatures when compared to neat PEI films and other high-temperature polymer and nanocomposite dielectrics. Notably, the h-BN-coated PEI films are capable of operating with >90% charge-discharge efficiencies and delivering high energy densities, i.e., 1.2 J cm -3 , even at a temperature close to the glass transition temperature of polymer (i.e., 217 °C) where pristine PEI almost fails. Outstanding cyclability and dielectric stability over a straight 55 000 charge-discharge cycles are demonstrated in the h-BN-coated PEI at high temperatures. The work demonstrates a general and scalable pathway to enable the high-temperature capacitive energy applications of a wide range of engineering polymers and also offers an efficient method for the synthesis and transfer of 2D nanomaterials at the scale demanded for applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Morphology and band structure regulation of graphitic carbon nitride microspheres by solvothermal temperature to boost photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Yan, Qingyun; Dong, Pei; Zhao, Chaocheng; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Fang; Li, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) microspheres (CNMS) were fabricated via a solvothermal method by using supramolecular complexes of dicyandiamide and cyanuric chloride as precursors. The effect of solvothermal temperature on the morphology, band structure, and activity was systematically investigated. Structural characterization results indicate that the samples prepared at 180 °C (CNMS-180) and 200 °C (CNMS-200) possess spherical morphology, while irregular bulk particles were obtained at 160 °C (CN-160). In addition, the band gap increased as the solvothermal temperature decreased from 200 to 160 °C. In comparison with CN-160 and CNMS-200, the valence band of CNMS-180 was more positive and thus gives higher photo-oxidation capability. Accordingly, CNMS-180 exhibits higher photocatalytic degradation efficiency on Rhodamine B, stronger photocurrent response, and lower charge transfer resistance. Additionally, CNMS-180 exhibits excellent stability after four runs. This work might provide a guidance for the regulation of morphology and band structure of g-C3N4-based materials prepared at low temperatures.

  1. Method for Improving Mg Doping During Group-III Nitride MOCVD

    DOEpatents

    Creighton, J. Randall; Wang, George T.

    2008-11-11

    A method for improving Mg doping of Group III-N materials grown by MOCVD preventing condensation in the gas phase or on reactor surfaces of adducts of magnesocene and ammonia by suitably heating reactor surfaces between the location of mixing of the magnesocene and ammonia reactants and the Group III-nitride surface whereon growth is to occur.

  2. Thickness limitations in carbon nanotube reinforced silicon nitride coatings synthesized by vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, Gyula

    Chemical vapor infiltration is a convenient method for synthesizing carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced ceramic coatings. The thickness over which infiltration is relatively uniform is limited by gas phase diffusion in the pore structure. These effects were investigated in two types of silicon nitride matrix composites. With CNTs that were distributed uniformly on the substrate surface dense coatings were limited to thicknesses of several microns. With dual structured CNT arrays produced by photolithography coatings up to 400 gm thick were obtained with minimal residual porosity. Gas transport into these dual structured materials was facilitated by creating micron sized channels between "CNT pillars"more » (i.e. each pillar consisted of a large number of individual CNTs). The experimental results are consistent with basic comparisons between the rates of gas diffusion and silicon nitride growth in porous structures. This analysis also provides a general insight into optimizing infiltration conditions during the fabrication of thick CNT-reinforced composite coatings. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  3. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  4. Seebeck Coefficient Measurements on Micron-Size Single-Crystal Zinc Germanium Nitride Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, J. S.; Colvin, J. R.; Quayle, P. C.; Peshek, T. J.; Kash, K.

    2016-06-01

    II-IV-nitride compounds are tetrahedrally bonded, heterovalent ternary semiconductors that have recently garnered attention for their potential technological applications. These materials are derived from the parent III-nitride compounds; ZnGeN2 is the II-IV-nitride analogue to the III-nitride GaN. Very little is known about the transport properties of ZnGeN2. In this work, we present Seebeck coefficient ( S) data on 3-micron-diameter, 70-micron-long, single-crystal ZnGeN2 rods, employing a novel measurement approach. The measurements of S show that the majority free carriers are electrons, and imply that the carrier gas is degenerate. Within a single-band model for the conduction band, a carrier concentration of order 1019 cm-3 was estimated for a measured S = -90 μV/K. Together with electrical transport measurements, a lower limit for the electron mobility is estimated to be ˜20 cm2/V-s. A discussion of this material as a thermoelectric is presented. The background level of free electrons in this unintentionally doped ZnGeN2 is very near the predicted optimum value for maximum thermoelectric performance.

  5. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  6. High temperature and low pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on AlGaN: Band offsets and passivation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Pramod; Washiyama, Shun; Kaess, Felix

    2016-04-14

    In this work, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the band offsets and interface Fermi level at the heterojunction formed by stoichiometric silicon nitride deposited on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (of varying Al composition “x”) via low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride is found to form a type II staggered band alignment with AlGaN for all Al compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and present an electron barrier into AlGaN even at higher Al compositions, where E{sub g}(AlGaN) > E{sub g}(Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). Further, no band bending is observed in AlGaN for x ≤ 0.6 and a reduced band bending (by ∼1 eV in comparison to that atmore » free surface) is observed for x > 0.6. The Fermi level in silicon nitride is found to be at 3 eV with respect to its valence band, which is likely due to silicon (≡Si{sup 0/−1}) dangling bonds. The presence of band bending for x > 0.6 is seen as a likely consequence of Fermi level alignment at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN hetero-interface and not due to interface states. Photoelectron spectroscopy results are corroborated by current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements. A shift in the interface Fermi level (before band bending at equilibrium) from the conduction band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/n-GaN to the valence band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/p-GaN is observed, which strongly indicates a reduction in mid-gap interface states. Hence, stoichiometric silicon nitride is found to be a feasible passivation and dielectric insulation material for AlGaN at any composition.« less

  7. Transition-Metal Nitride Core@Noble-Metal Shell Nanoparticles as Highly CO Tolerant Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Garg, Aaron; Milina, Maria; Ball, Madelyn; ...

    2017-05-25

    Core–shell architectures offer an effective way to tune and enhance the properties of noble-metal catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of Pt shell on titanium tungsten nitride core nanoparticles (Pt/TiWN) by high temperature ammonia nitridation of a parent core–shell carbide material (Pt/TiWC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed significant core-level shifts for Pt shells supported on TiWN cores, corresponding to increased stabilization of the Pt valence d-states. The modulation of the electronic structure of the Pt shell by the nitride core translated into enhanced CO tolerance during hydrogen electrooxidation in the presence of CO. In conclusion, the ability to control shell coveragemore » and vary the heterometallic composition of the shell and nitride core opens up attractive opportunities to synthesize a broad range of new materials with tunable catalytic properties.« less

  8. Transition-Metal Nitride Core@Noble-Metal Shell Nanoparticles as Highly CO Tolerant Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Aaron; Milina, Maria; Ball, Madelyn

    Core–shell architectures offer an effective way to tune and enhance the properties of noble-metal catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of Pt shell on titanium tungsten nitride core nanoparticles (Pt/TiWN) by high temperature ammonia nitridation of a parent core–shell carbide material (Pt/TiWC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed significant core-level shifts for Pt shells supported on TiWN cores, corresponding to increased stabilization of the Pt valence d-states. The modulation of the electronic structure of the Pt shell by the nitride core translated into enhanced CO tolerance during hydrogen electrooxidation in the presence of CO. In conclusion, the ability to control shell coveragemore » and vary the heterometallic composition of the shell and nitride core opens up attractive opportunities to synthesize a broad range of new materials with tunable catalytic properties.« less

  9. Formation of uranium and cerium nitrides by the reaction of carbides with NH 3 and N 2/H 2 stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Matsuoka, Hirotaka; Sawa, Masaji; Hirota, Masayuki; Miyake, Masanobu; Katsura, Masahiro

    1997-08-01

    UC or CeC 2 were converted into U 2N 3 or CeN by the use of NH 3 or an N 2/H 2 gas mixture. A stream of NH 3 works not only as a nitriding agent but also as a carbon clearing agent due to its high nitriding and hydriding activities. When the carbide is converted into nitride, carbon is liberated. Some experiments were performed in order to examine the role of the carbon activity of carbon materials (amorphous carbon or graphite) in the formation of CH 4.

  10. Temperature and the Ideal Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)

  11. Microplasma Processed Ultrathin Boron Nitride Nanosheets for Polymer Nanocomposites with Enhanced Thermal Transport Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ri-Chao; Sun, Dan; Lu, Ai; Askari, Sadegh; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Joseph, Paul; Dixon, Dorian; Ostrikov, Kostya; Maguire, Paul; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-06-01

    This Research Article reports on the enhancement of the thermal transport properties of nanocomposite materials containing hexagonal boron nitride in poly(vinyl alcohol) through room-temperature atmospheric pressure direct-current microplasma processing. Results show that the microplasma treatment leads to exfoliation of the hexagonal boron nitride in isopropyl alcohol, reducing the number of stacks from >30 to a few or single layers. The thermal diffusivity of the resulting nanocomposites reaches 8.5 mm(2) s(-1), 50 times greater than blank poly(vinyl alcohol) and twice that of nanocomposites containing nonplasma treated boron nitride nanosheets. From TEM analysis, we observe much less aggregation of the nanosheets after plasma processing along with indications of an amorphous carbon interfacial layer, which may contribute to stable dispersion of boron nitride nanosheets in the resulting plasma treated colloids.

  12. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Akshay, E-mail: akshaykumar.tiet@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications asmore » well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)« less

  13. Sublimation behavior of silicon nitride /Si3N4/ coated silicon germanium /SiGe/ unicouples. [for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapfer, G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1975-01-01

    For the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), the silicon germanium unicouples are coated with silicon nitride to minimize degradation mechanisms which are directly attributable to material sublimation effects. A program is under way to determine the effective vapor suppression of this coating as a function of temperature and gas environment. The results of weight loss experiments, using Si3N4 coated hot shoes (SiMo), operating over a temperature range from 900 C to 1200 C, are analyzed and discussed. These experiments were conducted both in high vacuum and at different pressures of carbon monoxide (CO) to determine its effect on the coating. Although the results show a favorable vapor suppression at all operating temperatures, the pressure of the CO and the thickness of the coating have a decided effect on the useful lifetime of the coating.

  14. Measurement and thermal modeling of sapphire substrate temperature at III-Nitride MOVPE conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Creighton, J. Randall; Coltrin, Michael E.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.

    2017-04-01

    Here, growth rates and alloy composition of AlGaN grown by MOVPE is often very temperature dependent due to the presence of gas-phase parasitic chemical processes. These processes make wafer temperature measurement highly important, but in fact such measurements are very difficult because of substrate transparency in the near- IR (~900 nm) where conventional pyrometers detect radiation. The transparency problem can be solved by using a mid-IR pyrometer operating at a wavelength (~7500 nm) where sapphire is opaque. We employ a mid- IR pyrometer to measure the sapphire wafer temperature and simultaneously a near-IR pyrometer to measure wafer pocket temperature, whilemore » varying reactor pressure in both a N 2 and H 2 ambient. Near 1300 °C, as the reactor pressure is lowered from 300 Torr to 10 Torr the wafer temperature drops dramatically, and the ΔT between the pocket and wafer increases from ~20 °C to ~250 °C. Without the mid-IR pyrometer the large wafer temperature change with pressure would not have been noted. In order to explain this behavior we have developed a quasi-2D thermal model that includes a proper accounting of the pressure-dependent thermal contact resistance, and also accounts for sapphire optical transmission. The model and experimental results demonstrate that at most growth conditions the majority of the heat is transported from the wafer pocket to the wafer via gas conduction, in the free molecular flow limit. In this limit gas conductivity is independent of gap size but first order in pressure, and can quantitatively explain results from 20 to 300 Torr. Further analysis yields a measure of the thermal accommodation coefficients; α(H 2) =0.23, α(N 2) =0.50, which are in the range typically measured.« less

  15. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  16. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  17. Improved reaction sintered silicon nitride. [protective coatings to improve oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Processing treatments were applied to as-nitrided reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) with the purposes of improving strength after processing to above 350 MN/m2 and improving strength after oxidation exposure. The experimental approaches are divided into three broad classifications: sintering of surface-applied powders; impregnation of solution followed by further thermal processing; and infiltration of molten silicon and subsequent carburization or nitridation of the silicon. The impregnation of RSSN with solutions of aluminum nitrate and zirconyl chloride, followed by heating at 1400-1500 C in a nitrogen atmosphere containing silicon monoxide, improved RSSN strength and oxidation resistance. The room temperature bend strength of RSSN was increased nearly fifty percent above the untreated strength with mean absolute strengths up to 420 MN/m2. Strengths of treated samples that were measured after a 12 hour oxidation exposure in air were up to 90 percent of the original as-nitrided strength, as compared to retained strengths in the range of 35 to 60 percent for untreated RSSN after the same oxidation exposure.

  18. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  19. New Tunneling Features in Polar III-Nitride Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encomendero, Jimy; Faria, Faiza Afroz; Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Rouvimov, Sergei; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Fay, Patrick; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2017-10-01

    For the past two decades, repeatable resonant tunneling transport of electrons in III-nitride double barrier heterostructures has remained elusive at room temperature. In this work we theoretically and experimentally study III-nitride double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), the quantum transport characteristics of which exhibit new features that are unexplainable using existing semiconductor theory. The repeatable and robust resonant transport in our devices enables us to track the origin of these features to the broken inversion symmetry in the uniaxial crystal structure, which generates built-in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields. Resonant tunneling transport enabled by the ground state as well as by the first excited state is demonstrated for the first time over a wide temperature window in planar III-nitride RTDs. An analytical transport model for polar resonant tunneling heterostructures is introduced for the first time, showing a good quantitative agreement with experimental data. From this model we realize that tunneling transport is an extremely sensitive measure of the built-in polarization fields. Since such electric fields play a crucial role in the design of electronic and photonic devices, but are difficult to measure, our work provides a completely new method to accurately determine their magnitude for the entire class of polar heterostructures.

  20. Non-intrusive measurement of hot gas temperature in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko; Yan, Michelle Xiaohong; Rosca, Justinian; Ulerich, Nancy H.

    2016-09-27

    A method and apparatus for operating a gas turbine engine including determining a temperature of a working gas at a predetermined axial location within the engine. An acoustic signal is encoded with a distinct signature defined by a set of predetermined frequencies transmitted as a non-broadband signal. Acoustic signals are transmitted from an acoustic transmitter located at a predetermined axial location along the flow path of the gas turbine engine. A received signal is compared to one or more transmitted signals to identify a similarity of the received signal to a transmitted signal to identify a transmission time for the received signal. A time-of-flight is determined for the signal and the time-of-flight for the signal is processed to determine a temperature in a region of the predetermined axial location.

  1. Development of III-nitride semiconductors by molecular beam epitaxy and cluster beam epitaxy and fabrication of LEDs based on indium gallium nitride MQWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-Chou Papo

    The family of III-Nitrides (the binaries InN, GaN, AIN, and their alloys) is one of the most important classes of semiconductor materials. Of the three, Indium Nitride (InN) and Aluminum Nitride (AIN) have been investigated much less than Gallium Nitride (GaN). However, both of these materials are important for optoelectronic infrared and ultraviolet devices. In particular, since InN was found recently to be a narrow gap semiconductor (Eg=0.7eV), its development should extend the applications of nitride semiconductors to the spectral region appropriate to fiber optics communication and photovoltaic applications. Similarly, the development of AIN should lead to deep UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). The first part of this work addresses the evaluation of structural, optical and transport properties of InN films grown by two different deposition methods. In one method, active nitrogen was produced in the form of nitrogen radicals by a radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted source. In an alternative method, active nitrogen was produced in the form of clusters containing approximately 2000 nitrogen molecules. These clusters were produced by adiabatic expansion from high stagnation pressure through a narrow nozzle into vacuum. The clusters were singly or doubly ionized with positive charge by electron impact and accelerated up to approximately 20 to 25 KV prior to their disintegration on the substrate. Due to the high local temperature produced during the impact of clusters with the substrate, this method is suitable for the deposition of InN at very low temperatures. The films are auto-doped n-type with carrier concentrations varying from 3 x 1018 to 1020 cm-3 and the electron effective mass of these films was determined to be 0.09m0. The majority of the AIN films was grown by the cluster beam epitaxy method and was doped n- and p- type by incorporating silicon (Si) and magnesium (Mg) during the film deposition. All films were grown under Al-rich conditions at relatively

  2. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1995-04-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  3. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  4. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  5. Large Reduction of Hot Spot Temperature in Graphene Electronic Devices with Heat-Spreading Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Choi, David; Poudel, Nirakar; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji; Cronin, Stephen B; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2018-04-04

    Scanning thermal microscopy measurements reveal a significant thermal benefit of including a high thermal conductivity hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heat-spreading layer between graphene and either a SiO 2 /Si substrate or a 100 μm thick Corning flexible Willow glass (WG) substrate. At the same power density, an 80 nm thick h-BN layer on the silicon substrate can yield a factor of 2.2 reduction of the hot spot temperature, whereas a 35 nm thick h-BN layer on the WG substrate is sufficient to obtain a factor of 4.1 reduction. The larger effect of the h-BN heat spreader on WG than on SiO 2 /Si is attributed to a smaller effective heat transfer coefficient per unit area for three-dimensional heat conduction into the thick, low-thermal conductivity WG substrate than for one-dimensional heat conduction through the thin oxide layer on silicon. Consequently, the h-BN lateral heat-spreading length is much larger on WG than on SiO 2 /Si, resulting in a larger degree of temperature reduction.

  6. Thermodynamic study on the role of hydrogen during the MOVPE growth of group III nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukitu, Akinori; Taki, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Seki, Hisashi

    1999-02-01

    The role of hydrogen during the MOVPE growth of group III nitrides is investigated from a thermodynamic point of view. The effect of hydrogen is reported for the driving force for the deposition of binary nitrides as functions of growth temperature and V/III ratio. The effect of hydrogen for the InGaN growth is discussed for the vapor-solid relationship, the formation of compositional inhomogeneity and input partial pressure of the group III elements. The difference between the growth reaction of the indium containing nitrides and that of other III-V compounds is also discussed.

  7. BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1981-08-18

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  8. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  9. Paralinear Oxidation of Silicon Nitride in a Water Vapor/Oxygen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao; Humphrey, Donald L.; Lewton, Susan M.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Three silicon nitride materials were exposed to dry oxygen flowing at 0.44 cm/s at temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Reaction kinetics were measured with a continuously recording microbalance. Parabolic kinetics were observed. When the same materials were exposed to a 50% H2O - 50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s, all three types exhibited paralinear kinetics. The material is oxidized by water vapor to form solid silica. The protective silica is in turn volatilized by water vapor to form primarily gaseous Si(OH)4. Nonlinear least squares analysis and a paralinear kinetic model were used to determine both parabolic and linear rate constants from the kinetic data. Volatilization of the protective silica scale can result in accelerated consumption of Si3N4. Recession rates under conditions more representative of actual combustors are compared to the furnace data.

  10. Mechanistic approach for nitride fuel evolution and fission product release under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgodvorov, A. P.; Ozrin, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    A model for describing uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuel pellet burning was developed. Except fission products generating, the model includes impurities of oxygen and carbon. Nitrogen behaviour in nitride fuel was analysed and the nitrogen chemical potential in solid solution with uranium-plutonium nitride was constructed. The chemical program module was tested with the help of thermodynamic equilibrium phase distribution calculation. Results were compared with analogous data in literature, quite good agreement was achieved, especially for uranium sesquinitride, metallic species and some oxides. Calculation of a process of nitride fuel burning was also conducted. Used mechanistic approaches for fission product evolution give the opportunity to find fission gas release fractions and also volumes of intergranular secondary phases. Calculations present that the most massive secondary phases are the oxide and metallic phases. Oxide phase contain approximately 1 % wt of substance over all time of burning with slightly increasing of content. Metallic phase has considerable rising of mass and by the last stage of burning it contains about 0.6 % wt of substance. Intermetallic phase has less increasing rate than metallic phase and include from 0.1 to 0.2 % wt over all time of burning. The highest element fractions of released gaseous fission products correspond to caesium and iodide.

  11. Electron temperature and density measurement of tungsten inert gas arcs with Ar-He shielding gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Marques, J.-L.; Forster, G.; Schein, J.

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostics of atmospheric welding plasma is a well-established technology. In most cases the measurements are limited to processes using pure shielding gas. However in many applications shielding gas is a mixture of various components including metal vapor in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Shielding gas mixtures are intentionally used for tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding in order to improve the welding performance. For example adding Helium to Argon shielding gas allows the weld geometry and porosity to be influenced. Yet thermal plasmas produced with gas mixtures or metal vapor still require further experimental investigation. In this work coherent Thomson scattering is used to measure electron temperature and density in these plasmas, since this technique allows independent measurements of electron and ion temperature. Here thermal plasmas generated by a TIG process with 50% Argon and 50% Helium shielding gas mixture have been investigated. Electron temperature and density measured by coherent Thomson scattering have been compared to the results of spectroscopic measurements of the plasma density using Stark broadening of the 696.5 nm Argon spectral line. Further investigations of MIG processes using Thomson scattering technique are planned.

  12. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 3; Analysis of Rotor and Blade Temperatures in Liquid-Cooled Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. Byron; Livingood, John N. B.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the radial temperature distribution through the rotor and constant cross sectional area blades near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the rotor and blade temperatures of a specific turbine using a gas flow of 55 pounds per second, a coolant flow of 6.42 pounds per second, and an average coolant temperature of 200 degrees F. The effect of using kerosene, water, and ethylene glycol was determined. The effect of varying blade length and coolant passage lengths with water as the coolant was also determined. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.

  13. Pleistocene tropical Pacific temperature sensitivity to radiative greenhouse gas forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, K. A.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    How high will Earth's global average surface temperature ultimately rise as greenhouse gas concentrations increase in the future? One way to tackle this question is to compare contemporaneous temperature and greenhouse gas concentration data from paleoclimate records, while considering that other radiative forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in the amount and distribution of incoming solar radiation associated with changes in the Earth's orbital configuration) also contribute to surface temperature change. Since the sensitivity of surface temperature varies with location and latitude, here we choose a central location representative of the west Pacific warm pool, far from upwelling regions or surface temperature gradients in order to minimize climate feedbacks associated with high-latitude regions or oceanic dynamics. The 'steady-state' or long-term temperature change associated with greenhouse gas radiative forcing is often labeled as equilibrium (or 'Earth system') climate sensitivity to the doubling of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. Climate models suggest that Earth system sensitivity does not change dramatically over times when CO2 was lower or higher than the modern atmospheric value. Thus, in our investigation of the changes in tropical SST, from the glacial to interglacial states when greenhouse gas forcing nearly doubled, we use Late Pleistocene paleoclimate records to constrain earth system sensitivity for the tropics. Here we use Mg/Ca-paleothermometry using the foraminifera G. ruber from ODP Site 871 from the past 500 kyr in the western Pacific warm pool to estimate tropical Pacific equilibrium climate sensitivity to a doubling of greenhouse gas concentrations to be ~4°C. This tropical SST sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing is ~1-2°C higher than that predicted by climate models of past glacial periods or future warming for the tropical Pacific. Equatorial Pacific SST sensitivity may be higher than predicted by models for a number of reasons

  14. Oxidative Unzipping and Transformation of High Aspect Ratio Boron Nitride Nanotubes into “White Graphene Oxide” Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Agrawal, Richa; Boesl, Benjamin; Wang, Chunlei; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and chemical transformations in boron nitride nanotubes under high temperature atmospheric conditions is probed in this study. We report atmospheric oxygen induced cleavage of boron nitride nanotubes at temperatures exceeding 750 °C for the first time. Unzipping is then followed by coalescence of these densely clustered multiple uncurled ribbons to form stacks of 2D sheets. FTIR and EDS analysis suggest these 2D platelets to be Boron Nitride Oxide platelets, with analogous structure to Graphene Oxide, and therefore we term them as “White Graphene Oxide” (WGO). However, not all BNNTs deteriorate even at temperatures as high as 1000 °C. This leads to the formation of a hybrid nanomaterial system comprising of 1D BN nanotubes and 2D BN oxide platelets, potentially having advanced high temperature sensing, radiation shielding, mechanical strengthening, electron emission and thermal management applications due to synergistic improvement of multi-plane transport and mechanical properties. This is the first report on transformation of BNNT bundles to a continuous array of White Graphene Oxide nanoplatelet stacks. PMID:27388704

  15. Oxidative Unzipping and Transformation of High Aspect Ratio Boron Nitride Nanotubes into “White Graphene Oxide” Platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Agrawal, Richa; Boesl, Benjamin; Wang, Chunlei; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Morphological and chemical transformations in boron nitride nanotubes under high temperature atmospheric conditions is probed in this study. We report atmospheric oxygen induced cleavage of boron nitride nanotubes at temperatures exceeding 750 °C for the first time. Unzipping is then followed by coalescence of these densely clustered multiple uncurled ribbons to form stacks of 2D sheets. FTIR and EDS analysis suggest these 2D platelets to be Boron Nitride Oxide platelets, with analogous structure to Graphene Oxide, and therefore we term them as “White Graphene Oxide” (WGO). However, not all BNNTs deteriorate even at temperatures as high as 1000 °C. This leads to the formation of a hybrid nanomaterial system comprising of 1D BN nanotubes and 2D BN oxide platelets, potentially having advanced high temperature sensing, radiation shielding, mechanical strengthening, electron emission and thermal management applications due to synergistic improvement of multi-plane transport and mechanical properties. This is the first report on transformation of BNNT bundles to a continuous array of White Graphene Oxide nanoplatelet stacks.

  16. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nan, E-mail: nanniu@fas.harvard.edu; Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing

    2015-06-08

    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ∼450 nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100 000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, β = 0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Active Screen Plasma Nitrided 38CrMoAl Steel under Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; He, Yongyong; Mao, JunYuan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The 38CrMoAl steels were nitrided at different temperatures for 7 h using active screen plasma discharge. The analysis showed that the thick compound layer composed of ɛ-Fe2-3N and γ‧-Fe4N was formed on the surface. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by measuring the anodic polarization curves in natural sea water (similar 3.5% NaCl solution), and observation of corroded surface were conducted. The electromechanical measurements indicated that the corrosion potential of the nitrided specimens shifted to a nobler value compared to that of untreated specimens. Passive regions were also observed in the polarization curves for all the nitrided specimens. These results indicate that active screen plasma nitriding can enhance the corrosion resistance of the 38CrMoAl steel under marine environment.

  18. Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, F.; Leng, Y. X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P. Ch.

    2007-04-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film.

  19. A novel crack healing in steels by gas nitrocarburizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ai; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Chengsong; Cui, Guodong; Zhao, Hui; Yang, Chuan

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the gas nitrocarburizing technique was applied for the first time to solve the challenge in crack healing of metallic materials. The crack-healing behavior of 42CrMo steel was investigated. The gas nitrocarburizing was carried out in two steps with the decrease of the healing temperature. The mechanical properties after healing were measured using the three-point blending test. X-ray diffraction, optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the phase composition and microstructure of crack healing area and analyze healing mechanisms involved. The results show that the optimal healing effect could be obtained when it is healed at 760 °C for 2 h and then at 550 °C for 4 h. The maximum healing degree reached to 63.68%. The crack healing process could be divided into two stages, i.e. healing in crack tips at high temperatures and then in crack openings at low temperatures. The volumetric expansion and filling of formed nitrides contributed to the rapid healing of the large-sized cracks. The healing efficiency could be improved by decreasing the healing temperature. Moreover, high pressure gas nitrocarburizing was considered as another potential way to improve the healing efficiency and healing degree.

  20. Control of iron nitride layers growth kinetics in the binary Fe-N system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchane, L.; Bilger, P.; Dulcy, J.; Gantois, M.

    1996-07-01

    This study is within the framework of a research program dedicated to defining the optimal conditions for the nitriding of iron and steels at atmospheric pressure by using various mixtures, NH3-N2-H2 and NH3-Ar. After studying the mechanisms of phase formation and mass transfer at the gas-solid interface, a mathematical model is developed in order to predict the nitrogen transfer rate in the solid, the nitride layer growth rate, and the nitrogen concentration profiles. In order to validate the model and to show its possibilities, it is compared with thermogravimetric experiments, analyses, and metallurgical observations (X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe anal-ysis). The results obtained allow us to demonstrate the sound correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions. By applying the model to the iron-nitrogen binary system, when the ɛ/γ/α configuration referred to the Fe-N phase diagram is formed, we have experimentally determined the effective diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in the ɛ phase. The latter is constant for a composition of the ɛ nitride between 8 and 9.5 wt pct nitrogen. All the results obtained show that it is possible, by means of dynamic gas flow regulation, to eliminate the incubation period and to control the thickness, composition, and structure of the compound layer at the beginning of the treatment.

  1. Gas temperature measurements in deuterium hollow cathode glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Majstorović, Gordana, E-mail: gordana.majstorovic@va.mod.gov.rs; Šišović, Nikola, E-mail: nikolas@ff.bg.ac.rs

    2016-03-25

    We report results of optical emission spectroscopy measurements of rotational T{sub rot} and translational (gas) temperature of deuterium molecules in a hollow cathode (HC) glow discharge. The rotational temperature of excited electronic state of D{sub 2} was determined from the intensity distribution in the rotational structure of Q branch of the two Fulcher-α diagonal bands: (ν’=ν”=2) and (ν’=ν”=3). The population of excited energy levels, determined from relative line intensities, was used to derive radial rotational temperature distributions as well as gas temperature distribution of deuterium molecule.

  2. Molecular Simulation Study of Gas Solubility and Diffusion in a Polymer-Boron Nitride Nanotube Composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyue; Jagirdar, Preeti; Naserifar, Saber; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2016-02-25

    We study the possibility of using polymer composites made of a polymer and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) as a new type of membranes for gas separation. The polymer used is amorphous poly(ether imide) (PEI), and zigzag BNNTs are used to generate the composites with the PEI. The solubilities and self-diffusivities of CO2 and CH4 in the PEI and its composites with the BNNTs are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The molecular models of the PEI and its composites with the BNNTs are generated using energy minimization and MD simulation, and the Universal Force Field is used to represent the interactions between all the atoms. The morhology of the composites are characterized and are compared with that of PEI. The accuracy of the computations is tested by calculating the gases' solubilities and self-diffsivities in the pure PEI and comparing them with the experimental data. Good agreement is obtained with the data. The computed diffusivities and solubilities in the polymer-BNNTs composites are much larger than those in the pure polymer, which are attributed to the changes that the BNNTs induce in the polymer composite's free-volume distribution. As the mechanical properties of the polymer-BNNTs composites are superior over those of the pure PEI, their use as a membrane for gas separation offers distinct advantages over the pure polymer. We also demonstrate that, calculating the diffusion coefficients with MD simulations in the NPT ensemble, as opposed to the common practice of utilizing the NVT ensemble, leads to much more accurate results.

  3. Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

    2013-08-01

    The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 °C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( α`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

  4. Reaction layer characterization of the braze joint of silicon nitride to stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R.; Indacochea, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    This investigation studies the role of titanium in the development of the reaction layer in braze joining silicon nitride to stainless steel using titanium-active copper-silver filler metals. This reaction layer formed as a result of titanium diffusing to the filler metal/silicon nitride interface and reacting with the silicon nitride to form the intermetallics, titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium suicide (Ti 5Si3). This reaction layer, as recognized in the literature, allows wetting of the ceramic substrate by the molten filler metal. The reaction layer thickness increases with temperature and time. Its growth rate obeys the parabolic relationship. Activation energies of 220.1 and 210.9 kj/mol were calculated for growth of the reaction layer for the two filler metals used. These values are close to the activation energy of nitrogen in TiN (217.6 kj/mol). Two filler metals were used in this study, Ticusil (68.8 wt% Ag, 26.7 wt% Cu, 4.5 wt% Ti) and CB4 (70.5 wt% Ag, 26.5 wt% Cu, 3.0 wt% Ti). The joints were processed in vacuum at temperatures of 840 to 900 °C at various times. Bonding strength is affected by reaction layer thickness in the absence of Ti-Cu intermetallics in the filler metal matrix.

  5. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions. [for thermal resistant insulators and refractory coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance are properties of cermet compositions particularly to provide high temperature resistant refractory coatings on metal substrates, for use as electrical insulation seals for thermionic converters. The compositions comprise a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride are also described.

  6. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  7. A method to monitor the quality of ultra-thin nitride for trench DRAM with a buried strap structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsien; Wang, Chun-Yao; Chang, Ian; Kao, Chien-Kang; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Ku, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A new approach to monitor the quality of an ultra-thin nitride film has been proposed. The nitride quality is monitored by observing the oxide thickness for the nitride film after wet oxidation since the resistance to oxidation strongly depends on its quality. To obtain a stable oxide thickness without interference from extrinsic factors for process monitoring, monitor wafers without dilute HF solution clean are suggested because the native-oxide containing surface is less sensitive to oxygen and therefore forms the nitride film with stable quality. In addition, the correlation between variable retention time (VRT) performance of a real dynamic random access memory (DRAM) product and oxide thickness from different nitride process temperatures can be successfully explained and this correlation can also be used to establish the appropriate oxide thickness range for process monitoring.

  8. On the origin of phosphorus nitride in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mininni, C.; Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Caselli, P.; Vasyunin, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present multitransition observations of phosphorus nitride (PN) towards a sample of nine massive dense cores in different evolutionary stages. Using transitions with different excitation conditions, we have found for the first time that the excitation temperatures of PN are in the range ˜5-30 K. To investigate the main chemical route for the PN formation (surface-chemistry versus gas-phase chemistry), and the dominant desorption mechanism (thermal versus shock), we have compared our results with those obtained from molecules tracing different chemical and physical conditions (SiO, SO, CH3OH, and N2H+). We have found that the PN line profiles are very well correlated with those of SiO and SO in six out of the nine targets, which indicate that PN may be released by sputtering of dust grains due to shocks. This finding is corroborated by a faint but statistically significant positive trend between the PN abundance and those of SiO and SO. However, in three objects the PN lines have no hints of high-velocity wings, which indicates an alternative origin of PN. Overall, our results indicate that the origin of PN is not unique, as it can be formed not only in protostellar shocks, but also in colder and more quiescent gas through alternative pathways.

  9. BN Bonded BN fiber article from boric oxide fiber

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1978-12-19

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising boron oxide fibers and boric acid, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the boric acid and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  10. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  11. High quality boron carbon nitride/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions based on magnetron sputtered boron carbon nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J. C.; Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnique Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3A7; Jha, S. K., E-mail: skylec@gmail.com, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-11-10

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were synthesized on Si (100) and fused silica substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The BCN films were amorphous, and they exhibited an optical band gap of ∼1.0 eV and p-type conductivity. The BCN films were over-coated with ZnO nanorod arrays using hydrothermal synthesis to form BCN/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions, exhibiting a rectification ratio of 1500 at bias voltages of ±5 V.

  12. Surface Chemistry, Microstructure, and Tribological Properties of Cubic Boron Nitride Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Wheeler, Donald R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Miyake, Shojiro

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with the surface chemistry, microstructure, bonding state, morphology, and friction and wear properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films that were synthesized by magnetically enhanced plasma ion plating. Several analytical techniques - x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface profilometry - were used to characterize the films. Sliding friction experiments using a ball-on-disk configuration were conducted for the c-BN films in sliding contact with 440C stainless-steel balls at room temperature in ultrahigh vacuum (pressure, 10(exp -6), in ambient air, and under water lubrication. Results indicate that the boron-to-nitrogen ratio on the surface of the as-deposited c-BN film is greater than 1 and that not all the boron is present as boron nitride but a small percentage is present as an oxide. Both in air and under water lubrication, the c-BN film in sliding contact with steel showed a low wear rate, whereas a high wear rate was observed in vacuum. In air and under water lubrication, c-BN exhibited wear resistance superior to that of amorphous boron nitride, titanium nitride, and titanium carbide.

  13. Characterization of DC Magnetron Sputtering Plasma Used for Deposition of Amorphous Carbon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcón, Luis; López, J.; Zambrano, G.; Prieto, P.

    2006-12-01

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films are attractive due to their potential applications, in different areas. This material can be hard and used as a protective coating, or can be soft and porous and used as the active element in gas sensors, it can also be used as a radiation detector due to its thermoluminescent response. The use of this material for one or another application, will depend on the material's structure, which can be changed by changing the deposition parameters. When using the d.c. magnetron sputtering technique it means mainly the change of discharge power, type of Ar/N2 gas mixture, and the working gas pressure. The variation of these deposition parameters has an important influence on the characteristics of the plasma formed in the discharge. In this work we studied the plasma characteristics, such as the type of excited species, plasma density, and electron temperature under different deposition conditions, using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), and a single Langmuir probe. These parameters were correlated with the properties of a-CNx films deposited under those characterized regimes, in order to establish the role that the plasma parameters play on the formation of the different structures of CNx films.

  14. Lattice dynamics and electron/phonon interactions in epitaxial transition-metal nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Antonio Rodolph Bighetti

    the films are completely dense with smooth surfaces (roughness = 1.3 nm, consistent with atomic-force microscopy analyses). Based upon temperature-dependent electronic transport measurements, epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers have a room-temperature resistivity rho 300K of 12.0 muO-cm, a temperature coefficient of resistivity between 100 and 300 K of 5.6x10-8 O-cm K -1, a residual resistivity rhoo below 30 K of 0.78 muO-cm (corresponding to a residual resistivity ratio rho300K/rho 15K = 15), and the layers exhibit a superconducting transition temperature Tc = 10.4 K. The relatively high residual resistivity ratio, combined with long in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray coherence lengths, xi|| = 18 nm and xi⊥ = 161 nm, indicates high crystalline quality with low mosaicity. The reflectance of ZrN(001), as determined by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, decreases slowly from 95% at 1 eV to 90% at 2 eV with a reflectance edge at 3.04 eV. Interband transitions dominate the dielectric response above 2 eV. The ZrN(001) nanoindentation hardness and modulus are 22.7+/-1.7 and 450+/-25 GPa. Transport electron/phonon coupling parameters and Eliashberg spectral functions alphatr2F(ho) are determined for Group-IV TM nitrides TiN, ZrN, and HfN, and the rare-earth (RE) nitride CeN using an inversion procedure based upon temperature-dependent (4 < T < 300 K) resistivity measurements. Transport electron/phonon coupling parameters lambdatr vary from 1.11 for ZrN to 0.82 for HfN, 0.73 for TiN, and 0.44 for CeN. The small variation in lambda tr among the TM nitrides and the weak coupling in CeN are consistent with measured Tc values: 10.4 (ZrN), 9.18 (HfN), 5.35 (TiN), and < 4 K for CeN. The Eliashberg spectral function describes the strength and energy spectrum of electron/phonon coupling in conventional superconductors. Spectral peaks in alpha2F(ho), corresponding to regions in energy-space for which electrons couple to acoustic hoac and optical ho op phonon modes, are centered at ho

  15. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  16. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  17. Enhancing the Hardness of Sintered SS 17-4PH Using Nitriding Process for Bracket Orthodontic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharno, B.; Supriadi, S.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Widjaya, T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Brackets orthodontic create teeth movement by applying force from wire to bracket then transferred to teeth. However, emergence of friction between brackets and wires reduces load for teeth movement towards desired area. In order to overcome these problem, surface treatment like nitriding chosen as a process which could escalate efficiency of transferred force by improving material hardness since hard materials have low friction levels. This work investigated nitriding treatment to form nitride layer which affecting hardness of sintered SS 17-4PH. The nitride layers produced after nitriding process at various temperature i.e. 470°C, 500°C, 530°C with 8hr holding time under 50% NH3 atmosphere. Optical metallography was conducted to compare microstructure of base and surface metal while the increasing of surface hardness then observed using vickers microhardness tester. Hardened surface layer was obtained after gaseous nitriding process because of nitride layer that contains Fe4N, CrN and Fe-αN formed. Hardness layers can achieved value 1051 HV associated with varies thickness from 53 to 119 μm. The presence of a precipitation process occurring in conjunction with nitriding process can lead to a decrease in hardness due to nitrogen content diminishing in solid solution phase. This problem causes weakening of nitrogen expansion in martensite lattice.

  18. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  19. Computed Temperature Distribution and Cooling of Solid Gas-Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, J. George; Gazley, Carl, Jr.

    1947-01-01

    Computations were made to determine the temperature distribution and cooling of solid gas-turbine blades.A range of temperatures was used from 1500 degrees to 2500 degrees F, blade-root temperatures from 100 degrees to 1000 degrees F, blade thermal conductivity from 8 to 220 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F/ft), and net gas to metal heat transfer coefficients from 75 to 250 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F).

  20. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-08-05

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α'-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α' → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α'N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance.

  1. Influence of low-temperature nitriding on the strain-induced martensite and laser-quenched austenite in a magnetic encoder made from 304L stainless steel

    PubMed Central

    Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaž; Kogej, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of producing a magnetic encoder by an innovative process. Instead of turning grooves in the encoder bar for precise positioning, we incorporated the information in 304L stainless steel by transforming the austenite to martensite after bar extrusion in liquid nitrogen and marking it with a laser, which caused a local transformation of martensite back into austenite. 304L has an excellent corrosion resistance, but a low hardness and poor wear resistance, which limits its range of applications. However, nitriding is a very promising way to enhance the mechanical and magnetic properties. After low-temperature nitriding at 400 °C it is clear that both ε- and α′-martensite are present in the deformed microstructure, indicating the simultaneous stress-induced and strain-induced transformations of the austenite. The effects of a laser surface treatment and the consequent appearance of a non-magnetic phase due to the α′ → γ transformation were investigated. The EDS maps show a high concentration of nitrogen in the alternating hard surface layers of γN and α′N (expanded austenite and martensite), but no significantly higher concentration of chromium or iron was detected. The high surface hardness of this nitride layer will lead to steels and encoders with better wear and corrosion resistance. PMID:27492862

  2. Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Nord, J.; Albe, K.; Erhart, P.; Nordlund, K. Modelling of Compound Semiconductors: Analytical Bond-order Potential for Gallium , Nitrogen and Gallium ...Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates by Iskander G. Batyrev, Chi-Chin Wu...Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates Iskander G. Batyrev and N. Scott Weingarten Weapons and

  3. SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Brian; Butt, Darryl P.; Marx, Brian M.

    A carbothermic reduction of the metal oxides in a hydrogen/nitrogen mixed gas stream prior to nitriding in a nitrogen gas stream was used to synthesize uranium nitride at 1500 deg. C, cerium nitride at 1400 deg. C, and dysprosium nitride at 1500 deg. C. Cerium nitride and dysprosium nitride were also synthesized via hydriding and nitriding the metal shavings at 900 deg. C and 1500 deg. C, respectively. Also, a novel ball-milling synthesis route was used to produce cerium nitride and dysprosium nitride from the metal shavings at room temperature. Dysprosium nitride was also produced by reacting the metal shavingsmore » in a high purity nitrogen gas stream at 1300 deg. C. All materials were characterized by phase analysis via X-ray diffraction. Only the high purity materials were further analyzed via chemical analysis to characterize the trace oxygen concentration. (authors)« less

  4. Hard carbon nitride and method for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Hansen, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Novel crystalline .alpha. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride and .beta. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride are formed by sputtering carbon in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere onto a single crystal germanium or silicon, respectively, substrate.

  5. Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilraja Singaravelu, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Michael Kelley

    2010-10-01

    Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from fundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance is critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of most of these machines. Presently Nb SRF cavities operate near 1.9 K, well (and expensively) below the 4.2 K atmospheric boiling point of liquid He. Transforming the 40 nm thick active interior surface layer from Nb to delta NbN (Tc = 17 K instead of 9.2 K) appearsmore » to be a promising approach. Traditional furnace nitriding appears to have not been successful for this. Further, exposing a complete SRF cavity to the time-temperature history required for nitriding risks mechanical distortion. Gas laser nitriding instead has been applied successfully to other metals [P.Schaaf, Prog. Mat. Sci. 47 (2002) 1]. The beam dimensions and thermal diffusion length permit modeling in one dimension to predict the time course of the surface temperature for a range of per-pulse energy densities. As with the earlier work, we chose conditions just sufficient for boiling as a reference point. We used a Spectra Physics HIPPO nanosecond laser (l = 1064 nm, Emax= 0.392 mJ, beam spot@ 34 microns, PRF =15 – 30 kHz) to obtain an incident fluence of 1.73 - 2.15 J/cm2 for each laser pulse at the target. The target was a 50 mm diameter SRF-grade Nb disk maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 550 – 625 torr and rotated at a constant speed of 9 rpm. The materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show a sharp transition with fluence from a smooth, undulating topography to significant roughening, interpreted here as the onset of ablation. EPMA measurements of N/Nb atom ratio as a function of depth found a

  6. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Residual Stresses in the Nitrided Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Narayanaswamy, S.; Huang, Y. Z.; Zarinejad, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, residual stresses distribution in the gas nitrided AISI 4140 sample has been studied using finite element (FE) simulation. The nitrogen concentration profile is obtained from the diffusion-controlled compound layer growth model, and nitrogen concentration controls the material volume change through phase transformation and lattice interstitials which results in residual stresses. Such model is validated through residual stress measurement technique—micro-ring-core method, which is applied to the nitriding process to obtain the residual stresses profiles in both the compound and diffusion layer. The numerical and experimental results are in good agreement with each other; they both indicate significant stress variation in the compound layer, which was not captured in previous research works due to the resolution limit of the traditional methods.

  7. Hard carbon nitride and method for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Haller, E.E.; Cohen, M.L.; Hansen, W.L.

    1992-05-05

    Novel crystalline [alpha](silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride and [beta](silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride are formed by sputtering carbon in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere onto a single crystal germanium or silicon, respectively, substrate. 1 figure.

  8. Large spin accumulation and crystallographic dependence of spin transport in single crystal gallium nitride nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-Eon; Park, Youn Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Hee Gyum; Min, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Hyung-jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Heon-Jin; Han, Suk Hee; Johnson, Mark; Chang, Joonyeon

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor spintronics is an alternative to conventional electronics that offers devices with high performance, low power and multiple functionality. Although a large number of devices with mesoscopic dimensions have been successfully demonstrated at low temperatures for decades, room-temperature operation still needs to go further. Here we study spin injection in single-crystal gallium nitride nanowires and report robust spin accumulation at room temperature with enhanced spin injection polarization of 9%. A large Overhauser coupling between the electron spin accumulation and the lattice nuclei is observed. Finally, our single-crystal gallium nitride samples have a trigonal cross-section defined by the (001), () and () planes. Using the Hanle effect, we show that the spin accumulation is significantly different for injection across the (001) and () (or ()) planes. This provides a technique for increasing room temperature spin injection in mesoscopic systems. PMID:28569767

  9. Experimental observation of boron nitride chains.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Ovidiu; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Lehtinen, Ossi; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kaiser, Ute; Suenaga, Kazu; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2014-12-23

    We report the formation and characterization of boron nitride atomic chains. The chains were made from hexagonal boron nitride sheets using the electron beam inside a transmission electron microscope. We find that the stability and lifetime of the chains are significantly improved when they are supported by another boron nitride layer. With the help of first-principles calculations, we prove the heteroatomic structure of the chains and determine their mechanical and electronic properties. Our study completes the analogy between various boron nitride and carbon polymorphs, in accordance with earlier theoretical predictions.

  10. Surface nitridation improves bone cell response to melt-derived bioactive silicate/borosilicate glass composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Orgaz, Felipe; Dzika, Alexandra; Szycht, Olga; Amat, Daniel; Barba, Flora; Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Novel bioactive amorphous glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) with interconnected porosity have been developed. Hierarchically interconnected porous glass scaffolds were prepared from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses: a ICIE16 bioactive glass that was previously developed by Wu et al. (2011) to prevent crystallization, and a borosilicate glass of composition 73.48 SiO2-11.35 B2O3-15.15 Na2O (wt%). The resulting melt derived glass-glass composite scaffolds (ICIE16/BSG) were subject to surface functionalization to further improve its interaction with biological systems. Surface functionalization was performed by a nitridation process with hot gas N2/ammonia at 550°C for 2h, obtaining the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Evaluation of the degradation rate and the conversion to hydroxyapatite after immersion in simulated body fluid predicted a good biological activity of all the scaffolds, but particularly of the nitrided ones. In vitro evaluation of osteoblastic cells cultured onto the nitrided and non-nitrided scaffolds showed cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on all scaffolds, but both proliferation and differentiation were improved in the nitrided ICIE16/BSG-NITRI. Biomaterials are often required in the clinic to stimulate bone repair. We have developed a novel bioglass (ICIE16/SBG-NITRI) that can be sintered into highly porous 3D scaffolds, and we have further improved its bioactivity by nitridation. ICIE16/SBG-NITRI was synthesized from a mixture of two melt-derived glasses through combined gel casting and foam replication techniques, followed by nitridation. To mimic bone, it presents high-interconnected porosity while being mechanically stable. Nitridation improved its reactivity and bioactivity facilitating its resorption and the deposition of apatite (bone-like mineral) on its surface and increasing its degradation rate. The nitrided surface also improved the bioglass' interaction with bone cells, which were found to attach better to ICIE16

  11. Optimization of process parameters for RF sputter deposition of tin-nitride thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, Teena; Rao, G. Mohan

    2018-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit Tin-nitride thin films on Si and glass substrate at different process parameters. Influence of varying parameters like substrate temperature, target-substrate distance and RF power is studied in detail. X-ray diffraction method is used as a key technique for analyzing the changes in the stoichiometric and structural properties of the deposited films. Depending on the combination of deposition parameters, crystalline as well as amorphous films were obtained. Pure tin-nitride thin films were deposited at 15W RF power and 600°C substrate temperature with target-substrate distance fixed at 10cm. Bandgap value of 1.6 eV calculated for the film deposited at optimum process conditions matches well with reported values.

  12. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    DOEpatents

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  13. Bulk Group-III Nitride Crystal Growth in Supercritical Ammonia-Sodium Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Steven Herbert

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys with indium nitride (InGaN) and aluminum nitride (AlGaN), collectively referred to as Group-III Nitride semiconductors, have enabled white solid-state lighting (SSL) sources and power electronic devices. While these technologies have already made a lasting, positive impact on society, improvements in design and efficiency are anticipated by shifting from heteroepitaxial growth on foreign substrates (such as sapphire, Si, SiC, etc.) to homoepitaxial growth on native, bulk GaN substrates. Bulk GaN has not supplanted foreign substrate materials due to the extreme conditions required to achieve a stoichiometric GaN melt (temperatures and pressures in excess of 2200°C and 6 GPa, respectively). The only method used to produce bulk GaN on an industrial scale is hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), but the high cost of gaseous precursors and relatively poor crystal quality have limited the adoption of this technology. A solution growth technique known as the ammonothermal method has attracted interest from academia and industry alike for its ability to produce bulk GaN boules of exceedingly high crystal quality. The ammonothermal method employs supercritical ammonia (NH3) solutions to dissolve, transport, and crystallize GaN. However, ammonothermal growth pressures are still relatively high (˜200 MPa), which has thus far prevented the acquisition of fundamental crystal growth knowledge needed to efficiently (i.e. through data-driven approaches) advance the field. This dissertation focused on addressing the gaps in the literature through two studies employing in situ fluid temperature analysis. The first study focused on identifying the solubility of GaN in supercritical NH3-Na solutions. The design and utilization of in situ and ex situ monitoring equipment enabled the first reports of the two-phase nature of supercritical NH3-Na solutions, and of Ga-alloying of Ni-containing autoclave components. The effects of these error sources on

  14. The effect of preparation conditions on the structure and mechanical properties of reaction-sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, J.

    1980-01-01

    The microstructure of reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was changed over a wide range by varying the grain density, grain size of the silicon starting powder, nitriding conditions, and by introducing artificial pores. The influence of single microstructural parameters on mechanical properties like room temperature strength, creep behavior, and resistance to thermal shock was investigated. The essential factors influencing these properties were found to be total porosity, pore size distribution, and the fractions of alpha and beta Si3N4. In view of high temperature engineering applications of RSSN, potentials for optimizing the material's properties by controlled processing are discussed.

  15. Deposition of reactively ion beam sputtered silicon nitride coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.

    1982-01-01

    An ion beam source was used to deposit silicon nitride films by reactively sputtering a silicon target with beams of Ar + N2 mixtures. The nitrogen fraction in the sputtering gas was 0.05 to 0.80 at a total pressure of 6 to 2 millionth torr. The ion beam current was 50 mA at 500 V. The composition of the deposited films was investigated by auger electron spectroscopy and the rate of deposition was determined by interferometry. A relatively low rate of deposition of about 2 nm. one-tenth min. was found. AES spectra of films obtained with nitrogen fractions higher than 0.50 were consistent with a silicon to nitrogen ratio corresponding to Si3N4. However the AES spectra also indicated that the sputtered silicon nitride films were contaminated with oxygen and carbon and contained significant amounts of iron, nickel, and chromium, most probably sputtered from the holder of the substrate and target.

  16. Surface cleaning and pure nitridation of GaSb by in-situ plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotow, Takahiro; Fujikawa, Sachie; Fujishiro, Hiroki I.; Ogura, Mutsuo; Chang, Wen Hsin; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2017-10-01

    A clean and flat GaSb surface without native oxides has been attained by H2 plasma cleaning and subsequent in-situ N2 plasma nitridation process at 300 oC. The mechanisms of thermal desorption behavior of native oxides on GaSb have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) analysis. The suitable heat treatment process window for preparing a clean GaSb surface is given. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicates that native oxides were completely removed on the GaSb surface after H2 plasma exposure and the pure nitridation of the clean GaSb surface was obtained at a relatively low temperature of 300 °C. This pure nitridation of GaSb have a possibility to be used as a passivation layer for high quality GaSb MOS devices.

  17. Variable-temperature cryogenic trap for the separation of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a continuous variable-temperature U-shaped cold trap which can both purify vacuum-line combustion products for subsequent stable isotopic analysis and isolate the methane and ethane constituents of natural gases. The canister containing the trap is submerged in liquid nitrogen, and, as the gas cools, the gas mixture components condense sequentially according to their relative vapor pressures. After the about 12 min required for the bottom of the trap to reach the liquid-nitrogen temperature, passage of electric current through the resistance wire wrapped around the tubing covering the U-trap permits distillation of successive gas components at optimal temperatures. Data on the separation achieved for two mixtures, the first being typical vacuum-line combustion products of geochemical samples such as rocks and the second being natural gas, are presented, and the thermal behavior and power consumption are reported.

  18. Sub-to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Anderson, Lawrence F.

    2004-03-16

    A sub- to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by combining a thermoelectric cooler and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Sub-ambient temperature programming enables the efficient separation of volatile organic compounds and super-ambient temperature programming enables the elution of less volatile analytes within a reasonable time. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  19. Silicon nitride films deposited with an electron beam created plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. C.; Emery, K. A.; Rocca, J. J.; Thompson, L. R.; Zamani, H.; Collins, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (EBCVD) of silicon nitride films using NH3, N2, and SiH4 as the reactant gases is reported. The films have been deposited on aluminum, SiO2, and polysilicon film substrates as well as on crystalline silicon substrates. The range of experimental conditions under which silicon nitrides have been deposited includes substrate temperatures from 50 to 400 C, electron beam currents of 2-40 mA, electron beam energies of 1-5 keV, total ambient pressures of 0.1-0.4 Torr, and NH3/SiH4 mass flow ratios of 1-80. The physical, electrical, and chemical properties of the EBCVD films are discussed.

  20. Thin-walled boron nitride microtubes exhibiting intense band-edge UV emission at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi; Terao, Takeshi; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-02-25

    Boron nitride (BN) microtubes were synthesized in a vertical induction furnace using Li(2)CO(3) and B reactants. Their structures and morphologies were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The microtubes have diameters of 1-3 microm, lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers, and well-structured ultrathin walls only approximately 50 nm thick. A mechanism combining the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and template self-sacrificing processes is proposed to explain the formation of these novel one-dimensional microstructures, in which the Li(2)O-B(2)O(3) eutectic reaction plays an important role. Cathodoluminescence studies show that even at room temperature the thin-walled BN microtubes can possess an intense band-edge emission at approximately 216.5 nm, which is distinct compared with other BN nanostructures. The study suggests that the thin-walled BN microtubes should be promising for constructing compact deep UV devices and find potential applications in microreactors and microfluidic and drug delivery systems.

  1. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  2. Probing carbon impurities in hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. R.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride epilayers have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Photocurrent excitation spectroscopy has been utilized to probe the energy levels associated with carbon impurities in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The observed transition peaks in photocurrent excitation spectra correspond well to the energy positions of the bandgap, substitutional donors (CB, carbon impurities occupying boron sites), and substitutional acceptors (CN, carbon impurities occupying nitrogen sites). From the observed transition peak positions, the derived energy level of CB donors in h-BN is ED ˜ 0.45 eV, which agrees well with the value deduced from the temperature dependent electrical resistivity. The present study further confirms that the room temperature bandgap of h-BN is about 6.42-6.45 eV, and the CN deep acceptors have an energy level of about 2.2-2.3 eV. The results also infer that carbon doping introduces both shallow donors (CB) and deep acceptors (CN) via self-compensation, and the energy level of carbon donors appears to be too deep to enable carbon as a viable candidate as an n-type dopant in h-BN epilayers.

  3. Deformation-Induced Dissolution and Precipitation of Nitrides in Austenite and Ferrite of a High-Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabashov, V. A.; Makarov, A. V.; Kozlov, K. A.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Zamatovskii, A. E.; Volkova, E. G.; Luchko, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    Methods of Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron microscopy have been used to study the effect of the severe plastic deformation by high pressure torsion in Bridgman anvils on the dissolution and precipitation of chromium nitrides in the austenitic and ferritic structure of an Fe71.2Cr22.7Mn1.3N4.8 high-nitrogen steel. It has been found that an alternative process of dynamic aging with the formation of secondary nitrides affects the kinetics of the dissolution of chromium nitrides. The dynamic aging of ferrite is activated with an increase in the deformation temperature from 80 to 573 K.

  4. Atomizing-gas temperature effect on cryogenic spray dropsize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Correlating expressions for two-phase flow breakup of liquid nitrogen, LN2, jets in sonic velocity nitrogen gasflows were obtained for an atomizing-gas temperature range of 111 to 442 K. The correlations were based on characteristic dropsize measurements obtained with a scattered-light scanner. The effect of droplet vaporization on the measurements of the volume-median dropsize was calculated by using previously determined heat and momentum transfer expressions for droplets evaporating in high-velocity gasflow. Finally, the dropsize of the originally unvaporized spray was calculated, normalized with respect to jet diameter and correlated with atomizing-gas flowrate and temperature.

  5. Boron nitride housing cools transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron nitride ceramic heat sink cools transistors in r-f transmitter and receiver circuits. Heat dissipated by the transistor is conducted by the boron nitride housing to the metal chassis on which it is mounted.

  6. Deep eutectic solvent approach towards nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Gage, Samuel H.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; ...

    2016-12-15

    Nickel nitride is an attractive material for a broad range of applications including catalysis. However preparations and especially those targeting nanoscale particles remain a major challenge. Herein, we report a wet-chemical approach to produce nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites using deep eutectic solvents. A choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent was used as a reaction medium to form gels containing nickel acetate tetrahydrate. Heat treatment of the gel in inert atmosphere forms nanoparticles embedded within a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to understand the decomposition profile of the precursors and to select pyrolysis temperatures locatedmore » in regions of thermal stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of metallic nickel, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the existence of a nickel nitride surface layer. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis these mixed phase, possibly core-shell type nanoparticles, have very defined facets. Furthermore, these materials represent a unique opportunity to tune catalytic properties of nickel-based catalysts through control of their composition, surface structure, and morphology; in addition to employing potential benefits of a nitrogen-doped carbon support.« less

  7. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  8. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Misra, Mira

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  9. Chemical synthesis of hexagonal indium nitride nanocrystallines at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shen, Qianli; Zhao, Dejian; Lu, Juanjuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Junhao; Bao, Keyan; Zhou, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hexagonal indium nitride nanocystallines with high crystallinity have been prepared by the reaction of InCl3·4H2O, sulfur and NaNH2 in an autoclave at 160 °C. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained InN sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. As InCl3·4H2O is substituted by In(NO3)3·4.5H2O, InN nanocrystallines could also be obtained by using the similar method. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the InN emits a broad peak positioned at 2.3 eV.

  10. Isolating Gas Sensor From Pressure And Temperature Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chen, Tony T. D.; Chaturvedi, Sushi K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage flow system enables oxygen sensor in system to measure oxygen content of low-pressure, possibly-high-temperature atmosphere in test environment while protecting sensor against possibly high temperature and fluctuations in pressure of atmosphere. Sensor for which flow system designed is zirconium oxide oxygen sensor sampling atmospheres in high-temperature wind tunnels. Also adapted to other gas-analysis instruments that must be isolated from pressure and temperature effects of test environments.

  11. Analysis and improvement of gas turbine blade temperature measurement error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-10-01

    Gas turbine blade components are easily damaged; they also operate in harsh high-temperature, high-pressure environments over extended durations. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. In this study, measurement errors in turbine blade temperatures were analyzed, taking into account detector lens contamination, the reflection of environmental energy from the target surface, the effects of the combustion gas, and the emissivity of the blade surface. In this paper, each of the above sources of measurement error is discussed, and an iterative computing method for calculating blade temperature is proposed.

  12. Nano- and Macro-wear of Bio-carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Emmanuel Kwesi; Ampaw, Edward; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Adetunji, A. R.; Olusunle, S. O. O.; Adewoye, O. O.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of nano- and macro-scale wear in a carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 steel. Carbo-nitriding is carried out using a novel method that involves the use of dried, cyanide-containing cassava leaves, as sources of carbon and nitrogen. These are used in a pack cementation that is used to diffuse carbon and nitrogen into case layers at intermediate temperatures [673.15 K, 723.15 K, 773.15 K, and 823.15 K (400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C)]. Nano- and macro-scale wear properties are studied in the case-hardened surfaces, using a combination of nano-scratch and pin-on-disk experiments. The measured wear volumes (at both nano- and macro-length scales) are shown to increase with decreasing pack cyaniding temperature. The nano- and macro-wear resistances are also shown to be enhanced by the in situ diffusion of carbon and nitrogen from cyanide-containing bio-processed waste. The underlying wear mechanisms are also elucidated via atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the wear tracks. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of hardened carbo-nitrided steel surfaces with improved wear resistance.

  13. Modeling of Aerobrake Ballute Stagnation Point Temperature and Heat Transfer to Inflation Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    2012-01-01

    A trailing Ballute drag device concept for spacecraft aerocapture is considered. A thermal model for calculation of the Ballute membrane temperature and the inflation gas temperature is developed. An algorithm capturing the most salient features of the concept is implemented. In conjunction with the thermal model, trajectory calculations for two candidate missions, Titan Explorer and Neptune Orbiter missions, are used to estimate the stagnation point temperature and the inflation gas temperature. Radiation from both sides of the membrane at the stagnation point and conduction to the inflating gas is included. The results showed that the radiation from the membrane and to a much lesser extent conduction to the inflating gas, are likely to be the controlling heat transfer mechanisms and that the increase in gas temperature due to aerodynamic heating is of secondary importance.

  14. Characterization of Ar/N2/H2 middle-pressure RF discharge and application of the afterglow region for nitridation of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raud, J.; Jõgi, I.; Matisen, L.; Navrátil, Z.; Talviste, R.; Trunec, D.; Aarik, J.

    2017-12-01

    This work characterizes the production and destruction of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms in RF capacitively coupled middle-pressure discharge in argon/nitrogen/hydrogen mixtures. Input power, electron concentration, electric field strength and mean electron energy were determined on the basis of electrical measurements. Gas temperature and concentration of Ar atoms in 1s states were determined from spectral measurements. On the basis of experimentally determined plasma characteristics, main production and loss mechanisms of H and N atoms were discussed. The plasma produced radicals were applied for the nitridation and oxide reduction of gallium arsenide in the afterglow region of discharge. After plasma treatment the GaAs samples were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. Successful nitridation of GaAs sample was obtained in the case of Ar/5% N2 discharge. In this gas mixture the N atoms were generated via dissociative recombination of N2+ created by charge transfer from Ar+. The treatment in Ar/5% N2/1% H2 mixture resulted in the reduction of oxide signals in the XPS spectra. Negligible formation of GaN in the latter mixture was connected with reduced concentration of N atoms, which was, in turn, due to less efficient mechanism of N atom production (electron impact dissociation of N2 molecules) and additional loss channel in reaction with H2.

  15. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  16. Hybridized boron-carbon nitride fibrous nanostructures on Ni substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Yoke Khin; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2002-04-01

    Stoichiometric BC2N films can be deposited on Si (100) at 800 °C, however, they are phase separated as pure carbon and BN phases. Likewise, hybridized boron-carbon nitride (BCN) films can be synthesized on Ni substrates. On Ni, the carbon and BN phases are hybridized through carbon nitride and boron carbide bonds. These films appeared as fibrous nanostructures. Evidence indicates that the Ni substrate acts as a sink for the carbon and forces the carbon composites to grow on top of the B and N atoms. However, as these films are grown thicker, phase separation occurs again. These results indicate that hybridized BCN phases should now be regarded as semiconducting or superhard nanostructures. High-temperature deposition on Ni substrates might be a solution to the obstacle of preparing hybridized BCN phases.

  17. Tensile strength of aluminium nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Deng Gang; Ong, Chung Wo; Aravind, Manju; Tsang, Mei Po; Loong Choy, Chung; Lu, Deren; Ma, Dejun

    2004-11-01

    Two-layered aluminium nitride (AlN)/silicon nitride microbridges were fabricated for microbridge tests to evaluate the elastic modulus, residual stress and tensile strength of the AlN films. The silicon nitride layer was added to increase the robustness of the structure. In a microbridge test, load was applied to the centre of a microbridge and was gradually increased by a nano-indenter equipped with a wedge tip until the sample was broken, while displacement was recorded coherently. Measurements were performed on single-layered silicon nitride microbridges and two-layered AlN/silicon nitride microbridges respectively. The data were fitted to a theory to derive the elastic modulus, residual stress and tensile strength of the silicon nitride films and AlN films. For the AlN films, the three parameters were determined to be 200, 0.06 and 0.3 GPa, respectively. The values of elastic modulus obtained were consistent with those measured by conventional nano-indentation method. The tensile strength value can be used as a reference to reflect the maximum tolerable tensile stress of AlN films when they are used in micro-electromechanical devices.

  18. Gallium nitride-based micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonas, Andreas Robert

    Gallium Nitride and its associated alloys InGaN and AlGaN have many material properties that are highly desirable for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and more specifically micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The group III-nitrides are tough, stiff, optically transparent, direct bandgap, chemically inert, highly piezoelectric, and capable of functioning at high temperatures. There is currently no other semiconductor system that possesses all of these properties. Taken together, these attributes make the nitrides prime candidates not only for creating new versions of existing device structures, but also for creating entirely unique devices which combine these properties in novel ways. Unfortunately, their chemical resiliency also makes the group III-nitrides extraordinarily difficult to shape into devices. In particular, until this research, no undercut etch technology existed that could controllably separate a selected part of a MEMS device from its sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. This has effectively prevented GaN-based MEMS from being developed. This dissertation describes how this fabrication obstacle was overcome by a novel etching geometry (bandgap-selective backside-illuminated photoelectochemical (BS-BIPEC) etching) and its resulting morphologies. Several gallium-nitride based MEMS devices were created, actuated, and modelled, including cantilevers and membranes. We describe in particular our pursuit of one of the many novel device elements that is possible only in this material system: a transducer that uses an externally applied strain to dynamically change the optical transition energy of a quantum well. While the device objective of a dynamically tunable quantum well was not achieved, we have demonstrated sufficient progress to believe that such a device will be possible soon. We have observed a shift (5.5meV) of quantum well transition energies in released structures, and we have created structures that can apply large biaxial

  19. Synthesis of Spherical Carbon Nitride-Based Polymer Composites by Continuous Aerosol-Photopolymerization with Efficient Light Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Poostforooshan, Jalal; Badiei, Alireza; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Weber, Alfred P

    2016-08-24

    Here we report a novel, facile, and sustainable approach for the preparation of spherical submicrometer carbon nitride-based polymer composites by a continuous aerosol-photopolymerization process. In this regard, spherical mesoporous carbon nitride (SMCN) nanoparticles were initially prepared via a nanocasting approach using spray-drying synthesized spherical mesoporous silica (SMS) nanoparticles as hard templates. In addition to experimental characterization, the effect of porosity on the light absorption enhancement and consequently the generation rate of electron-hole pairs inside the SMCN was simulated using a three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. To produce the carbon nitride-based polymer composite, SMCN nanoparticles exhibit excellent performance in photopolymerization of butyl acrylate (PBuA) monomer in the presence of n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a co-initiator in a continuous aerosol-based process. In this one-pot synthesis, SMCN nanoparticles act not only as photoinitiators but at the same time as fillers and templates. The average aerosol residence time in the photoreactor is about 90 s. The presented aerosol-photopolymerization process avoids the need for solvent and surfactant, operates at room temperature, and, more importantly, is suitable to produce the spherical composite with hydrophobic polymers. Furthermore, we simulated the condition of SMCN nanoparticles during illumination in the gas phase process, which can freely rotate. The results demonstrated that the hole (h(+)) density is almost equally distributed in the whole part of the SMCN nanoparticles due to their rotation, leading to efficient light harvesting and more homogeneous photoreaction. The combination of the outstanding features of environmentally friendly SMCN, photopolymerization, and aerosol processing might open new avenues, especially in green chemistry, to produce novel polymer composites with multifunctional properties.

  20. Finishing Techniques for Silicon Nitride Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    finishing procedures. Rolling contact fatigue lives of silicon nitride with selected smoother finishes tested at 800 ksi Hertz stress were an order...grinding. Rolling contact fatigue lives of silicon nitride with selected smoother finishes tested at 800 ksi Hertz stress were an order of magnitude...lives of silicon nitride with selected smoother finishes tested at 800 ksi Hertz stress were an order of magnitude longer than those

  1. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  2. Mechanism study and numerical simulation of Uranium nitriding induced by high energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Jingjing; Qi, Yanwen; Li, Shengpeng; Zhao, Hui

    2018-06-01

    The gradients of interfacial tension induced by local heating led to Marangoni convection, which had a significant effect on surface formation and the process of mass transport in the laser nitriding of uranium. An experimental observation of the underlying processes was very difficult. In present study, the Marangoni convection was considered and the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis technique of FLUENT program was performed to determine the physical processes such as heat transfer and mass transport. The progress of gas-liquid falling film desorption was presented by combining phase-change model with fluid volume function (VOF) model. The time-dependent distribution of the temperature had been derived. Moreover, the concentration and distribution of nitrogen across the laser spot are calculated. The simulation results matched with the experimental data. The numerical resolution method provided a better approach to know the physical processes and dependencies of the coating formation.

  3. Fission-gas release from uranium nitride at high fission rate density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Tambling, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    A sweep gas facility has been used to measure the release rates of radioactive fission gases from small UN specimens irradiated to 8-percent burnup at high fission-rate densities. The measured release rates have been correlated with an equation whose terms correspond to direct recoil release, fission-enhanced diffusion, and atomic diffusion (a function of temperature). Release rates were found to increase linearly with burnups between 1.5 and 8 percent. Pore migration was observed after operation at 1550 K to over 6 percent burnup.

  4. Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Lei; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Shihai; Zhang, Guangzu; Li, Haoyu; Iagodkine, Elissei; Haque, Aman; Chen, Long-Qing; Jackson, Tom; Wang, Qing

    2015-07-30

    Dielectric materials, which store energy electrostatically, are ubiquitous in advanced electronics and electric power systems. Compared to their ceramic counterparts, polymer dielectrics have higher breakdown strengths and greater reliability, are scalable, lightweight and can be shaped into intricate configurations, and are therefore an ideal choice for many power electronics, power conditioning, and pulsed power applications. However, polymer dielectrics are limited to relatively low working temperatures, and thus fail to meet the rising demand for electricity under the extreme conditions present in applications such as hybrid and electric vehicles, aerospace power electronics, and underground oil and gas exploration. Here we describe crosslinked polymer nanocomposites that contain boron nitride nanosheets, the dielectric properties of which are stable over a broad temperature and frequency range. The nanocomposites have outstanding high-voltage capacitive energy storage capabilities at record temperatures (a Weibull breakdown strength of 403 megavolts per metre and a discharged energy density of 1.8 joules per cubic centimetre at 250 degrees Celsius). Their electrical conduction is several orders of magnitude lower than that of existing polymers and their high operating temperatures are attributed to greatly improved thermal conductivity, owing to the presence of the boron nitride nanosheets, which improve heat dissipation compared to pristine polymers (which are inherently susceptible to thermal runaway). Moreover, the polymer nanocomposites are lightweight, photopatternable and mechanically flexible, and have been demonstrated to preserve excellent dielectric and capacitive performance after intensive bending cycles. These findings enable broader applications of organic materials in high-temperature electronics and energy storage devices.

  5. Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Lei; Gadinski, Matthew R.; Zhang, Shihai; Zhang, Guangzu; Li, Haoyu; Haque, Aman; Chen, Long-Qing; Jackson, Tom; Wang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    Dielectric materials, which store energy electrostatically, are ubiquitous in advanced electronics and electric power systems. Compared to their ceramic counterparts, polymer dielectrics have higher breakdown strengths and greater reliability, are scalable, lightweight and can be shaped into intricate configurations, and are therefore an ideal choice for many power electronics, power conditioning, and pulsed power applications. However, polymer dielectrics are limited to relatively low working temperatures, and thus fail to meet the rising demand for electricity under the extreme conditions present in applications such as hybrid and electric vehicles, aerospace power electronics, and underground oil and gas exploration. Here we describe crosslinked polymer nanocomposites that contain boron nitride nanosheets, the dielectric properties of which are stable over a broad temperature and frequency range. The nanocomposites have outstanding high-voltage capacitive energy storage capabilities at record temperatures (a Weibull breakdown strength of 403 megavolts per metre and a discharged energy density of 1.8 joules per cubic centimetre at 250 degrees Celsius). Their electrical conduction is several orders of magnitude lower than that of existing polymers and their high operating temperatures are attributed to greatly improved thermal conductivity, owing to the presence of the boron nitride nanosheets, which improve heat dissipation compared to pristine polymers (which are inherently susceptible to thermal runaway). Moreover, the polymer nanocomposites are lightweight, photopatternable and mechanically flexible, and have been demonstrated to preserve excellent dielectric and capacitive performance after intensive bending cycles. These findings enable broader applications of organic materials in high-temperature electronics and energy storage devices.

  6. A chemical and fluid dynamic study of the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum nitride in a vertical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bather, Wayne Anthony

    The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of compound semiconductors has become important in producing many high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices from the wide bandgaps III-V nitrides, for example, aluminum nitride (AlN). A systematic theoretical and experimental investigation of the chemistry and mass transport process in a MOCVD system can yield predictive models of the deposition process. The chemistries and fluid dynamics of the MOCVD growth of AlN in a vertical reactor is analyzed and characterized in order to parameterize and model the deposition process. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of the predeposition reactions between trimethylaluminum (TMAl) and ammonia (NHsb3) is carried out in a static gas cell to examine the primary homogeneous gas phase reactions, pyrolysis of the reactants, and adduct formation, possibly accompanied by elimination reactions. A series of reactions, based on laboratory studies and literature review, is then proposed to model the deposition process. All pertinent kinetic, thermochemical, and transport properties were obtained. Utilizing a mass transport model, we performed computational fluid dynamics calculations using the FLUENT software package. We determined temperature, velocity, and concentration profiles, along with deposition rates inside the experimental vertical CVD reactor in the Howard University Material Science Research Center of Excellence. Experimental deposition rate data were found to be in good agreement with those predicted from the simulations, thus validating the proposed model. The control of the homogeneous gas phase reaction leading to the formation and subsequent decomposition of the adduct is critical to the formation of device-grade AlN films. Many basic processes occurring during MOCVD of AlN are still not completely understood, and none of the detailed surface reaction mechanisms are known.

  7. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  8. Synthesis of reduced carbon nitride at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, Alexey; Bondarenko, Marina, E-mail: mebondarenko@ukr.net; Kharlamova, Ganna

    For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene) is obtained. It is differed from usually synthesized carbon nitride by a significantly large (on 0.09 nm) interplanar distance is. At the same time, the chemical bonds between atoms in a heteroatomic plane of reduced carbon nitride correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The samples of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide were synthesized under the special reactionary conditions of a pyrolysis of melamine and urea. We believe that reduced carbon nitride consists ofmore » weakly connected carbon-nitrogen monosheets (azagraphene sheets) as well as reduced (from graphene oxide) graphene contains weakly connected graphene sheets. - Graphical abstract: XRD pattern and schematic atomic model of one layer of reduced carbon nitride, carbon nitride oxide and synthesized carbon nitride. For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of the water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O is obtained the reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene). Display Omitted - Highlights: • First the reduced carbon nitride (RCN) at the reduction of the carbon nitride oxide was obtained. • Water-soluble carbon nitride oxide was reduced by hydroquinone. • The chemical bonds in a heteroatomic plane of RCN correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Reduced carbon nitride consists of poorly connected heteroatomic azagraphene layers.« less

  9. Nonlinear conductivity in silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, Enis

    2017-08-01

    To better comprehend electrical silicon-package interaction in high voltage applications requires full characterization of the electrical properties of dielectric materials employed in wafer and package level design. Not only the packaging but wafer level dielectrics, i.e. passivation layers, would experience high electric fields generated by the voltage applied pads. In addition the interface between the passivation layer and a mold compound might develop space charge because of the mismatch in electrical properties of the materials. In this contribution electrical properties of a thin silicon nitride (Si3N4) dielectric is reported as a function of temperature and electric field. The measured values later analyzed using different temperature dependent exponential expressions and found that the Mott variable range hopping conduction model was successful to express the data. A full temperature/electric field dependency of conductivity is generated. It was found that the conduction in Si3N4 could be expressed like a field ionization or Fowler-Nordheim mechanism.

  10. Electric field dynamics in nitride structures containing quaternary alloy (Al, In, Ga)N

    SciTech Connect

    Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl; Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw; Sakowski, K.

    2016-07-07

    Molecular beam epitaxy growth and basic physical properties of quaternary AlInGaN layers, sufficiently thick for construction of electron blocking layers (EBL), embedded in ternary InGaN layers are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed good crystallographic structure and compositional uniformity of the quaternary layers contained in other nitride layers, which are typical for construction of nitride based devices. The AlInGaN layer was epitaxially compatible to InGaN matrix, strained, and no strain related dislocation creation was observed. The strain penetrated for limited depth, below 3 nm, even for relatively high content of indium (7%). For lower indium content (0.6%), the strain wasmore » below the detection limit by TEM strain analysis. The structures containing quaternary AlInGaN layers were studied by time dependent photoluminescence (PL) at different temperatures and excitation powers. It was shown that PL spectra contain three peaks: high energy donor bound exciton peak from the bulk GaN (DX GaN) and the two peaks (A and B) from InGaN layers. No emission from quaternary AlInGaN layers was observed. An accumulation of electrons on the EBL interface in high-In sample and formation of 2D electron gas (2DEG) was detected. The dynamics of 2DEG was studied by time resolved luminescence revealing strong dependence of emission energy on the 2DEG concentration. Theoretical calculations as well as power-dependence and temperature-dependence analysis showed the importance of electric field inside the structure. At the interface, the field was screened by carriers and could be changed by illumination. From these measurements, the dynamics of electric field was described as the discharge of carriers accumulated on the EBL.« less

  11. High Temperature Gas Energy Transfer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-15

    will be made. A theoretical model has been applied to the calculation of energy transfer amounts between molecules as a function of molecular size... theoretical analysis was given of shock tube data for high temperature gas reactions. The data were analyzed to show that colli- sional energy transfer...Systems by I. Oref and B. S. Rabiovitch. In this report a simple theoretical model describing energy transfer probabilities is given. Conservation of

  12. Adiabatic temperature changes of magma-gas mixtures during ascent and eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, L.G.; Ghiorso, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Most quantitative studies of flow dynamics in eruptive conduits during volcanic eruptions use a simplified energy equation that ignores either temperature changes, or the thermal effects of gas exsolution. In this paper we assess the effects of those simplifications by analyzing the influence of equilibrium gas exsolution and expansion on final temperatures, velocities, and liquid viscosities of magma-gas mixtures during adiabatic decompression. For a given initial pressure (p1), temperature (T1) and melt composition, the final temperature (Tf) and velocity (Umax) will vary depending on the degree to which friction and other irreversible processes reduce mechanical energy within the conduit. The final conditions range between two thermodynamic end members: (1) Constant enthalpy (dh=0), in which Tf is maximal and no energy goes into lifting or acceleration; and (2) constant entropy (ds=0), in which Tf is minimal and maximum energy goes into lifting and acceleration. For ds=0, T1=900 ??C and p1=200 MPa, a water-saturated albitic melt cools by ???200 ??C during decompression, but only about 250 ??C of this temperature decrease can be attributed to the energy of gas exsolution per se: The remainder results from expansion of gas that has already exsolved. For the same T1 and p1, and dh=0, Tf is 10-15 ??C hotter than T1 but is about 10-25 ??C cooler than Tf in similar calculations that ignore the energy of gas exsolution. For ds=0, p1=200 MPa and T1= 9,000 ??C, assuming that all the enthalpy change of decompression goes into kinetic energy, a water-saturated albitic mixture can theoretically accelerate to ???800 m/s. Similar calculations that ignore gas exsolution (but take into account gas expansion) give velocities about 10-15% higher. For the same T1, p1 = 200 MPa, and ds = 0, the cooling associated with gas expansion and exsolution increases final melt viscosity more than 2.5 orders of magnitude. For dh = 0, isenthalpic heating decreases final melt viscosity by about

  13. Novel gallium nitride based microwave noise and power heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumbes, Eduardo Martin

    With the pioneering efforts of Isamu Akasaki of Meiji University and Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Chemical Industries in the late 1980's and early 1990's, the first long-lived candela-class blue and ultraviolet light emitting devices have finally come to fruition. Their success in conquering this Holy Grail in opto-electronics is due to their development of a new technology based remarkably on a class of semiconductor materials that has been practically ignored and overlooked by almost everyone for the past twenty years---the nitrides of Al, Ga and In and their alloys. The breakthroughs made from this new technology in the last decade of the 20th century has revolutionized and revitalized worldwide research and development efforts to the point where it is feasible for other important technologies such as high-density information storage, high-resolution full-color displays and efficient white light lamps and UV sensors to come much closer to realization. Equally important is the potential that this new technology can bring toward the development of efficient ultra-high power and high-temperature electronics that will revolutionize the aerospace and high-speed communication industries. Specifically, the large bandgap and strong polar properties of the group III-nitrides has at present allowed for the realization of simple doped and remarkably undoped AlGaN/GaN transistor structures on sapphire and SiC substrates with two-dimensional electron gas sheet densities significantly greater than that of conventional transistor structures based on GaAs and InP. This dissertation will look specifically at extending undoped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors or HFETs towards more advanced system applications involving the integration of these devices onto a more advanced Si technology and looking at the feasibility of this integration. It will also address important issues similar devices on semi-insulating SiC substrates have in robust microwave low noise and

  14. Biological Behaviour and Enhanced Anticorrosive Performance of the Nitrided Superelastic Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-0.5N Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Osiceanu, Petre; Gloriant, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The influence of gas nitriding surface treatment on the superelastic Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-0.5N alloy was evaluated. A thorough characterization of bare and nitrided Ti-based alloy and pure Ti was performed in terms of surface film composition and morphology, electrochemical behaviour, and short term osteoblast response. XPS analysis showed that the nitriding treatment strongly influenced the composition (nitrides and oxynitrides) and surface properties both of the substrate and of the bulk alloy. SEM images revealed that the nitrided surface appears as a similar dotted pattern caused by the formation of N-rich domains coexisting with less nitrided domains, while before treatment only topographical features could be observed. All the electrochemical results confirmed the high chemical stability of the nitride and oxynitride coating and the superiority of the applied treatment. The values of the corrosion parameters ascertained the excellent corrosion resistance of the coated alloy in the real functional conditions from the human body. Cell culture experiments with MG63 osteoblasts demonstrated that the studied biomaterials do not elicit any toxic effects and support cell adhesion and enhanced cell proliferation. Altogether, these data indicate that the nitrided Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-0.5N alloy is the most suitable substrate for application in bone implantology. PMID:26583096

  15. A study of vapor-phase deposition of silicon nitride layers by ammonolysis of dichlorosilane at lowered pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Manzha, N. M., E-mail: magazine@miee.ru

    2010-12-15

    Deposition kinetics of silicon nitride layers at lowered reactor pressures of 10-130 Pa and temperatures in the range 973-1073 K has been studied. The equilibrium constant of the bimolecular reaction of dichlorosilane with ammonia has been calculated. The apparent activation energies calculated taking into account the experimental growth rate nearly coincide with the experimental data. Recommendations for improving the quality of silicon nitride layers are made.

  16. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better.

  17. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1994-01-01

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film.

  18. Formation of graphitic carbon nitride and boron carbon nitride film on sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Maito; Urakami, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    As a novel production method of boron carbon nitride (BCN) films, in this paper, we present the incorporation of B into graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). First, we investigated the formation of g-C3N4 films via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using melamine powder as the precursor. The formation of g-C3N4 films on a c-plane sapphire substrate was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The deposition temperature of g-C3N4 films was found to be suitable between 550 and 600 °C since the degradation and desorption of hexagonal C-N bonds should be suppressed. As for BCN films, we prepared BCN films via two-zone extended CVD using ammonia borane as the B precursor. Several XPS signals from B, C, and N core levels were detected from B-incorporated g-C3N4 films. While the N composition was almost constant, the marked tendencies for increasing B composition and decreasing C composition were achieved with the increase in the B incorporation, indicating the incorporation of B atoms by the substitution for C atoms. Optical absorptions were shifted to the high-energy side by B incorporation, which indicates the successful formation of BCN films using melamine and ammonia borane powders as precursors.

  19. Molybdenum Oxide Nitrides of the Mo2(O,N,□)5 Type: On the Way to Mo2O5.

    PubMed

    Weber, Dominik; Huber, Manop; Gorelik, Tatiana E; Abakumov, Artem M; Becker, Nils; Niehaus, Oliver; Schwickert, Christian; Culver, Sean P; Boysen, Hans; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Pöttgen, Rainer; Dronskowski, Richard; Ressler, Thorsten; Kolb, Ute; Lerch, Martin

    2017-08-07

    Blue-colored molybdenum oxide nitrides of the Mo 2 (O,N,□) 5 type were synthesized by direct nitridation of commercially available molybdenum trioxide with a mixture of gaseous ammonia and oxygen. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and stability of the obtained and hitherto unknown compounds are studied extensively. The average oxidation state of +5 for molybdenum is proven by Mo K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy; the magnetic behavior is in agreement with compounds exhibiting Mo V O 6 units. The new materials are stable up to ∼773 K in an inert gas atmosphere. At higher temperatures, decomposition is observed. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal the structure to be related to VNb 9 O 24.9 -type phases, however, with severe disorder hampering full structure determination. Still, the results demonstrate the possibility of a future synthesis of the potential binary oxide Mo 2 O 5 . On the basis of these findings, a tentative suggestion on the crystal structure of the potential compound Mo 2 O 5 , backed by electronic-structure and phonon calculations from first principles, is given.

  20. BN-C Hybrid Nanoribbons as Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishi Gilan, Mahdi; Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) molecules adsorption on the various composites of boron nitride and graphene BN-C hybrid nanoribbons are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique based on density functional theory (DFT). The effects of adsorption with possible random configurations on the average of the density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, and the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics are calculated. The results indicate that, by embedding armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) with boron nitride nanoribbon (BNNR), the various electronic properties can be observed after gas molecule adsorption. The electronic structure and gap of hybrids system is modified due to gas adsorption, and the systems act like the n-type semiconductor by NH3 molecule adsorption. The hybrid structures due to their tunable band gap are better candidates for gas detecting compared to the pristine BNNRs and AGNRs.

  1. Tunable and high-purity room temperature single-photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosso, Gabriele; Moon, Hyowon; Lienhard, Benjamin

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have emerged as promising platforms for solid-state quantum information processing devices with unusual potential for heterogeneous assembly. Recently, bright and photostable single photon emitters were reported from atomic defects in layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), but controlling inhomogeneous spectral distribution and reducing multi-photon emission presented open challenges. Here, we demonstrate that strain control allows spectral tunability of hBN single photon emitters over 6 meV, and material processing sharply improves the single photon purity. We observe high single photon count rates exceeding 7 × 10 6 counts per second at saturation, after correcting for uncorrelated photonmore » background. Furthermore, these emitters are stable to material transfer to other substrates. High-purity and photostable single photon emission at room temperature, together with spectral tunability and transferability, opens the door to scalable integration of high-quality quantum emitters in photonic quantum technologies.« less

  2. Tunable and high-purity room temperature single-photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride

    DOE PAGES

    Grosso, Gabriele; Moon, Hyowon; Lienhard, Benjamin; ...

    2017-09-26

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have emerged as promising platforms for solid-state quantum information processing devices with unusual potential for heterogeneous assembly. Recently, bright and photostable single photon emitters were reported from atomic defects in layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), but controlling inhomogeneous spectral distribution and reducing multi-photon emission presented open challenges. Here, we demonstrate that strain control allows spectral tunability of hBN single photon emitters over 6 meV, and material processing sharply improves the single photon purity. We observe high single photon count rates exceeding 7 × 10 6 counts per second at saturation, after correcting for uncorrelated photonmore » background. Furthermore, these emitters are stable to material transfer to other substrates. High-purity and photostable single photon emission at room temperature, together with spectral tunability and transferability, opens the door to scalable integration of high-quality quantum emitters in photonic quantum technologies.« less

  3. Temperature dependence of surface tension of molten iron under reducing gas atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, S.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuyama, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2011-12-01

    Surface tension of molten iron was measured under Ar-He-5vol.%H2 gas by oscillating droplet method using electromagnetic levitation furnace in consideration of the temperature dependence of oxygen partial pressure, Po2, of the gas. For comparison, the measurement was carried under Ar-He atmosphere to fix the Po2 of the inlet gas at 10-2Pa. The surface tension was successfully measured over a wide temperature range of about 780K including undercooling condition. When Po2 is fixed at 10-2 Pa, the surface tension increased and then decreased with increasing temperature like a boomerang shape. When the measurement was carried out under the H2-containing gas atmosphere, the temperature dependence of the surface tension shows unique kink at around 1810K instead of liner relationship due to competition between the temperature dependence of the Po2 and that of the equilibrium constant of oxygen adsorption reaction. The relationship between the calculated lnKad with respect to inverse temperature using Szyszkowski model was different between the atmospheric gases.

  4. Nanoporous Boron Nitride as Exceptionally Thermally Stable Adsorbent: Role in Efficient Separation of Light Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipendu; Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Yohannan, Samuel; Ho, Hoi Chun; Cakmak, Ercan; Chen, Jihua; Ozcan, Soydan

    2017-04-26

    In this work, nanoporous boron nitride sample was synthesized with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1360 m 2 /g and particle size 5-7 μm. The boron nitride was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen and air and subsequent analysis with XPS and XRD suggested that its structure is stable in air up to 800 °C and in nitrogen up to 1050 °C, which is higher than most of the common adsorbents reported so far. Nitrogen and hydrocarbon adsorption at 298 K and pressure up to 1 bar suggested that all hydrocarbon adsorption amounts were higher than that of nitrogen and the adsorbed amount of hydrocarbon increases with an increase in its molecular weight. The kinetics of adsorption data suggested that adsorption becomes slower with the increase in molecular weight of hydrocarbons. The equilibrium data suggested that that boron nitride is selective to paraffins in a paraffin-olefin mixture and hence may act as an "olefin generator". The ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST)-based selectivity for CH 4 /N 2 , C 2 H 6 /CH 4 , and C 3 H 8 /C 3 H 6 was very high and probably higher than the majority of adsorbents reported in the literature. IAST-based calculations were also employed to simulate the binary mixture adsorption data for the gas pairs of CH 4 /N 2 , C 2 H 6 /CH 4 , C 2 H 6 /C 2 H 4 , and C 3 H 8 /C 3 H 6 . Finally, a simple mathematical model was employed to simulate the breakthrough behavior of the above-mentioned four gas pairs in a dynamic column experiment. The overall results suggest that nanoporous boron nitride can be used as a potential adsorbent for light hydrocarbon separation.

  5. Oriented graphene nanoribbons embedded in hexagonal boron nitride trenches

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingxiu; He, Li; Wang, Hui Shan; Wang, Haomin; Tang, Shujie; Cong, Chunxiao; Xie, Hong; Li, Lei; Xia, Hui; Li, Tianxin; Wu, Tianru; Zhang, Daoli; Deng, Lianwen; Yu, Ting; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2017-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are ultra-narrow strips of graphene that have the potential to be used in high-performance graphene-based semiconductor electronics. However, controlled growth of GNRs on dielectric substrates remains a challenge. Here, we report the successful growth of GNRs directly on hexagonal boron nitride substrates with smooth edges and controllable widths using chemical vapour deposition. The approach is based on a type of template growth that allows for the in-plane epitaxy of mono-layered GNRs in nano-trenches on hexagonal boron nitride with edges following a zigzag direction. The embedded GNR channels show excellent electronic properties, even at room temperature. Such in-plane hetero-integration of GNRs, which is compatible with integrated circuit processing, creates a gapped channel with a width of a few benzene rings, enabling the development of digital integrated circuitry based on GNRs. PMID:28276532

  6. Mobility enhancement in graphene transistors on low temperature pulsed laser deposited boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Md Ahsan, E-mail: uddin2@email.sc.edu, E-mail: gkoley@clemson.edu; Koley, Goutam, E-mail: uddin2@email.sc.edu, E-mail: gkoley@clemson.edu; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208

    2015-11-16

    Low temperature pulsed laser deposited (PLD) ultrathin boron nitride (BN) on SiO{sub 2} was investigated as a dielectric for graphene electronics, and a significant enhancement in electrical transport properties of graphene/PLD BN compared to graphene/SiO{sub 2} has been observed. Graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred on PLD deposited and annealed BN exhibited up to three times higher field effect mobility compared to graphene on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. Graphene field effect transistor devices fabricated on 5 nm BN/SiO{sub 2} (300 nm) yielded maximum hole and electron mobility of 4980 and 4200 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In addition, significant improvement in carriermore » homogeneity and reduction in extrinsic doping in graphene on BN has been observed. An average Dirac point of 3.5 V and residual carrier concentration of 7.65 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} was observed for graphene transferred on 5 nm BN at ambient condition. The overall performance improvement on PLD BN can be attributed to dielectric screening of charged impurities, similar crystal structure and phonon modes, and reduced substrate induced doping.« less

  7. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-10-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO3) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000°C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO3, producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN /GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips.

  8. Temperature-triggered chemical switching growth of in-plane and vertically stacked graphene-boron nitride heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Du, Huiwen; Nie, Yufeng; Chen, Yubin; Ji, Qingqing; Sun, Jingyu; Yang, Yanlian; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    In-plane and vertically stacked heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN-G and G/h-BN, respectively) are both recent focuses of graphene research. However, targeted synthesis of either heterostructure remains a challenge. Here, via chemical vapour deposition and using benzoic acid precursor, we have achieved the selective growth of h-BN-G and G/h-BN through a temperature-triggered switching reaction. The perfect in-plane h-BN-G is characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), showing atomically patched graphene and h-BN with typical zigzag edges. In contrast, the vertical alignment of G/h-BN is confirmed by unique lattice-mismatch-induced moiré patterns in high-resolution STM images, and two sets of aligned selected area electron diffraction spots, both suggesting a van der Waals epitaxial mechanism. The present work demonstrates the chemical designability of growth process for controlled synthesis of graphene and h-BN heterostructures. With practical scalability, high uniformity and quality, our approach will promote the development of graphene-based electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:25869236

  9. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1994-06-14

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film. 11 figs.

  10. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.

  11. Precipitation Modeling in Nitriding in Fe-M Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomio, Yusaku; Miyamoto, Goro; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation of fine alloy nitrides near the specimen surface results in significant surface hardening in nitriding of alloyed steels. In this study, a simulation model of alloy nitride precipitation during nitriding is developed for Fe-M binary system based upon the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model in order to predict variations in the distribution of precipitates with depth. The model can predict the number density, average radius, and volume fraction of alloy nitrides as a function of depth from the surface and nitriding time. By a comparison with the experimental observation in a nitrided Fe-Cr alloy, it was found that the model can predict successfully the observed particle distribution from the surface into depth when appropriate solubility of CrN, interfacial energy between CrN and α, and nitrogen flux at the surface are selected.

  12. Consolidation of silicon nitride without additives. [for gas turbine engine efficiency increase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, P. F.; Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ceramics for gas turbine engine construction might make it possible to increase engine efficiency by raising operational temperatures to values beyond those which can be tolerated by metallic alloys. The most promising ceramics being investigated in this connection are Si3N4 and SiC. A description is presented of a study which had the objective to produce dense Si3N4. The two most common methods of consolidating Si3N4 currently being used include hot pressing and reaction sintering. The feasibility was explored of producing a sound, dense Si3N4 body without additives by means of conventional gas hot isostatic pressing techniques and an uncommon hydraulic hot isostatic pressing technique. It was found that Si3N4 can be densified without additions to a density which exceeds 95% of the theoretical value

  13. Suppression of H-/O2- exchange by incorporated nitride anions in the perovskite lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Fumitaka; Yajima, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Yoji; Matsui, Toshiaki; Hester, James; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the low temperature anion exchange behavior of hydride and oxide in perovskite oxynitrides. CaH2 reduction of (Sr1-xLax)Ti(O3-xNx) (0nitride, yielding the oxyhydride-nitride (Sr1-xLax)Ti(O3-x-yHyNx). However, the exchange of hydride is drastically suppressed with increasing nitrogen content and is completely impeded when the nitride content reaches 10% of the anionic site. This implies that the N3- anions in the oxide lattice play a crucial role in lowering diffusion of O2- (and H-). The present study indicates the necessity to consider kinetic aspects when manipulating anion compositions, in particular in a mixed anion system with a small amount of anion vacancies.

  14. Development of an Advanced Computational Model for OMCVD of Indium Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Carlos A.; Moore, Craig E.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Zhou, Ning; Lowry, Sam; Krishnan, Anantha; Frazier, Donald O.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced computational model is being developed to predict the formation of indium nitride (InN) film from the reaction of trimethylindium (In(CH3)3) with ammonia (NH3). The components are introduced into the reactor in the gas phase within a background of molecular nitrogen (N2). Organometallic chemical vapor deposition occurs on a heated sapphire surface. The model simulates heat and mass transport with gas and surface chemistry under steady state and pulsed conditions. The development and validation of an accurate model for the interactions between the diffusion of gas phase species and surface kinetics is essential to enable the regulation of the process in order to produce a low defect material. The validation of the model will be performed in concert with a NASA-North Carolina State University project.

  15. Dependence of mobility on the electron concentration upon scattering at polar optical phonons in A{sup III}–N nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, S. I., E-mail: sib@tpu.ru

    2016-04-15

    The dependence of the effective relaxation time on the electron concentration in A{sup III}–N nitrides in the case of electron scattering at polar longitudinal optical phonons is calculated by the marching method. The method takes into account the inelasticity of electron scattering at polar optical phonons for nitrides in the zinc-blende approximation. The calculations show a substantial increase in mobility in samples with a degenerate electron gas, if screening of the long-range potential of polar longitudinal optical phonons is taken into account.

  16. Defect mediated van der Waals epitaxy of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, M.; Bashouti, M.; Riechert, H.; Lopes, J. M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures comprising of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene are promising building blocks for novel two-dimensional devices such as atomically thin transistors or capacitors. However, demonstrators of those devices have been so far mostly fabricated by mechanical assembly, a non-scalable and time-consuming method, where transfer processes can contaminate the surfaces. Here, we investigate a direct growth process for the fabrication of insulating hexagonal boron nitride on high quality epitaxial graphene using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Samples were grown at varying temperatures and times and studied using atomic force microscopy, revealing a growth process limited by desorption at high temperatures. Nucleation was mostly commencing from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, such as step edges or wrinkles. Raman spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron measurements confirm the formation of hexagonal boron nitride and prove the resilience of graphene against the nitrogen plasma used during the growth process. The electrical properties and defects in the heterostructures were studied with high lateral resolution by tunneling current and Kelvin probe force measurements. This correlated approach revealed a nucleation apart from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, which is mediated by point defects. The presented results help understanding the nucleation and growth behavior during van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials, and point out a route for a scalable production of van der Waals heterostructures.

  17. Synthesis of boron nitride nanostructures from catalyst of iron compounds via thermal chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Wellington M.; Ribeiro, Hélio; Ferreira, Tiago H.; Ladeira, Luiz O.; Sousa, Edésia M. B.

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, patterned growth of boron nitride nanostructures (BNNs) is achieved by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at 1150 °C using a mixture of FeS/Fe2O3 catalyst supported in alumina nanostructured, boron amorphous and ammonia (NH3) as reagent gas. This innovative catalyst was synthesized in our laboratory and systematically characterized. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction profile of the synthesized catalyst indicates the coexistence of three different crystal structures showing the presence of a cubic structure of iron oxide and iron sulfide besides the gamma alumina (γ) phase. The results show that boron nitride bamboo-like nanotubes (BNNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets were successfully synthesized. Furthermore, the important contribution of this work is the manufacture of BNNs from FeS/Fe2O3 mixture.

  18. Laser nitriding of iron: Nitrogen profiles and phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illgner, C.; Schaaf, P.; Lieb, K. P.; Schubert, E.; Queitsch, R.; Bergmann, H.-W.

    1995-07-01

    Armco iron samples were surface nitrided by irradiating them with pulses of an excimer laser in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting nitrogen depth profiles measured by Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA) and the phase formation determined by Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) were investigated as functions of energy density and the number of pulses. The nitrogen content of the samples was found to be independent of the number of pulses in a layer of 50 nm from the surface and to increase in depths exceeding 150 nm. The phase composition did not change with the number of pulses. The nitrogen content can be related to an enhanced nitrogen solubility based on high temperatures and high pressures due to the laser-induced plasma above the sample. With increasing pulse energy density, the phase composition changes towards phases with higher nitrogen contents. Nitrogen diffusion seems to be the limiting factor for the nitriding process.

  19. The interaction between nitride uranium and stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, D. P.; Nikitin, S. N.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Yurlova, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride is most popular nuclear fuel for Fast Breeder Reactor New Generation. In-pile experiments at reactor BOR-60 was shown an interaction between nitride fuel and stainless steel in the range of 8-11% burn up (HA). In order to investigate this interaction has been done diffusion tests of 200 h and has been shown that the reaction occurs in the temperature range 1000-1100 ° C. UN interacted with steel in case of high pollution oxygen (1000-2000 ppm). Also has been shown to increase interaction UN with EP-823 steel in the presence of cesium. In this case the interaction layer had a thickness about 2-3 μm. Has been shown minimal interaction with new ODS steel EP-450. The interaction layer had a thickness less then 2 μm. Did not reveal the influence of tellurium and iodine increased interaction. It was show compatibility at 1000 °C between UN and EP-450 ODS steel, chrome steel, alloying aluminium and silicium.

  20. Lattice-Matched Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Albar, Juan D; Summerfield, Alex; Thomas, James C; Cheng, Tin S; Korolkov, Vladimir V; Stapleton, Emily; Wrigley, James; Goodey, Nathan L; Mellor, Christopher J; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Foxon, C Thomas; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V; Beton, Peter H

    2018-01-10

    Lattice-matched graphene on hexagonal boron nitride is expected to lead to the formation of a band gap but requires the formation of highly strained material and has not hitherto been realized. We demonstrate that aligned, lattice-matched graphene can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy using substrate temperatures in the range 1600-1710 °C and coexists with a topologically modified moiré pattern with regions of strained graphene which have giant moiré periods up to ∼80 nm. Raman spectra reveal narrow red-shifted peaks due to isotropic strain, while the giant moiré patterns result in complex splitting of Raman peaks due to strain variations across the moiré unit cell. The lattice-matched graphene has a lower conductance than both the Frenkel-Kontorova-type domain walls and also the topological defects where they terminate. We relate these results to theoretical models of band gap formation in graphene/boron nitride heterostructures.

  1. Redeposition in plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition: Silicon nitride film quality ruled by the gas residence time

    SciTech Connect

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: h.c.m.knoops@tue.nl, E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl; Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Bristol BS49 4AP; Peuter, K. de

    2015-07-06

    The requirements on the material properties and growth control of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) spacer films in transistors are becoming ever more stringent as scaling of transistor structures continues. One method to deposit high-quality films with excellent control is atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, depositing SiN{sub x} by ALD has turned out to be very challenging. In this work, it is shown that the plasma gas residence time τ is a key parameter for the deposition of SiN{sub x} by plasma-assisted ALD and that this parameter can be linked to a so-called “redeposition effect”. This previously ignored effect, which takesmore » place during the plasma step, is the dissociation of reaction products in the plasma and the subsequent redeposition of reaction-product fragments on the surface. For SiN{sub x} ALD using SiH{sub 2}(NH{sup t}Bu){sub 2} as precursor and N{sub 2} plasma as reactant, the gas residence time τ was found to determine both SiN{sub x} film quality and the resulting growth per cycle. It is shown that redeposition can be minimized by using a short residence time resulting in high-quality films with a high wet-etch resistance (i.e., a wet-etch rate of 0.5 nm/min in buffered HF solution). Due to the fundamental nature of the redeposition effect, it is expected to play a role in many more plasma-assisted ALD processes.« less

  2. Program for the development of high temperature electrical materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, W. S.; Lowry, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of high temperature, space-vacuum performance of selected electrical materials and components, high temperature capacitor development, and evaluation, construction, and endurance testing of compression sealed pyrolytic boron nitride slot insulation are described. The first subject above covered the aging evaluation of electrical devices constructed from selected electrical materials. Individual materials performances were also evaluated and reported. The second subject included study of methods of improving electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride capacitors. The third portion was conducted to evaluate the thermal and electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride as stator slot liner material under varied temperature and compressive loading. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  3. A low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor prepared on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was prepared on plastic substrate. The operating temperature of the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was reduced to room temperature using ultraviolet illumination. The experimental results indicate a favorable sensor response at low temperature, with the best response at 60 °C. The results also reveal that the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor can be easily integrated into portable products, whose waste heat can improve sensor response and achieve energy savings, while energy consumption can be further reduced by solar irradiation.

  4. Mechanical behavior and failure phenomenon of an in situ-toughened silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Choi, Sung R.; Freedman, Marc R.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    The Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of an in-situ toughened, silicon nitride material used to manufacture a turbine combustor were determined from room temperature to 1371 C. The material exhibited an elongated grain structure that resulted in improved fracture toughness, nonlinear crack growth resistance, and good elevated temperature strength. However, low temperature strength was limited by grains of excessive length (30 to 100 microns). These excessively long grains were surrounded by regions rich in sintering additives.

  5. Atomic and molecular hydrogen gas temperatures in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuell, Cameron M.; Corr, Cormac S.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral gas temperatures in hydrogen plasmas are important for experimental and modelling efforts in fusion technology, plasma processing, and surface modification applications. To provide values relevant to these application areas, neutral gas temperatures were measured in a low pressure (< 10 mTorr) radiofrequency helicon discharge using spectroscopic techniques. The atomic and molecular species were not found to be in thermal equilibrium with the atomic temperature being mostly larger then the molecular temperature. In low power operation (< 1 kW), the molecular hydrogen temperature was observed to be linearly proportional to the pressure while the atomic hydrogen temperature was inversely proportional. Both temperatures were observed to rise linearly with input power. For high power operation (5-20 kW), the molecular temperature was found to rise with both power and pressure up to a maximum of approximately 1200 K. Spatially resolved measurements near a graphite target demonstrated localised cooling near the sample surface. The temporal evolution of the molecular gas temperature during a high power 1.1 ms plasma pulse was also investigated and found to vary considerably as a function of pressure.

  6. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Method to grow group III-nitrides on copper using passivation layers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T; Figiel, Jeffrey T

    Group III-nitride epilayers can be grown directly on copper substrates using intermediate passivation layers. For example, single crystalline c-plane GaN can be grown on Cu (110) substrates with MOCVD. The growth relies on a low temperature AlN passivation layer to isolate any alloying reaction between Ga and Cu.

  8. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  9. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  10. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated natural gas fuel to determine the effect of increasing fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperatures ranged from ambient to 800 K (980 F). Combustor pressure was 6 atmospheres and the inlet air temperature ranged from 589 to 894 K (600 to 1150 F). The NOx emission index increased with fuel temperature at a rate of 4 to 9 percent per 100 K (180 F), depending on the inlet air temperature. The rate of increase in NOx was lowest at the highest inlet air temperature tested.

  11. Multifunctional potentiometric gas sensor array with an integrated temperature control and temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Bryan M; Wachsman, Eric D

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the subject invention relate to a gas sensor and method for sensing one or more gases. An embodiment incorporates an array of sensing electrodes maintained at similar or different temperatures, such that the sensitivity and species selectivity of the device can be fine tuned between different pairs of sensing electrodes. A specific embodiment pertains to a gas sensor array for monitoring combustion exhausts and/or chemical reaction byproducts. An embodiment of the subject device related to this invention operates at high temperatures and can withstand harsh chemical environments. Embodiments of the device are made on a single substrate. The devices can also be made on individual substrates and monitored individually as if they were part of an array on a single substrate. The device can incorporate sensing electrodes in the same environment, which allows the electrodes to be coplanar and, thus, keep manufacturing costs low. Embodiments of the device can provide improvements to sensitivity, selectivity, and signal interference via surface temperature control.

  12. Neutral gas temperature estimates and metastable resonance energy transfer for argon-nitrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, A., E-mail: amelia.greig@anu.edu.au; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    2016-01-15

    Rovibrational spectroscopy band fitting of the nitrogen (N{sub 2}) second positive system is a technique used to estimate the neutral gas temperature of N{sub 2} discharges, or atomic discharges with trace amounts of a N{sub 2} added. For mixtures involving argon and N{sub 2}, resonant energy transfer between argon metastable atoms (Ar*) and N{sub 2} molecules may affect gas temperature estimates made using the second positive system. The effect of Ar* resonance energy transfer is investigated here by analyzing neutral gas temperatures of argon-N{sub 2} mixtures, for N{sub 2} percentages from 1% to 100%. Neutral gas temperature estimates are highermore » than expected for mixtures involving greater than 5% N{sub 2} addition, but are reasonable for argon with less than 5% N{sub 2} addition when compared with an analytic model for ion-neutral charge exchange collisional heating. Additional spatiotemporal investigations into neutral gas temperature estimates with 10% N{sub 2} addition demonstrate that although absolute temperature values may be affected by Ar* resonant energy transfer, spatiotemporal trends may still be used to accurately diagnose the discharge.« less

  13. Exploring electrolyte preference of vanadium nitride supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Zhaohui; Lu, Gang

    Highlights: • Hierarchical VN nanostructures were prepared on graphite foam. • Electrolyte preference of VN supercapacitor electrodes was explored. • VN showed better capacitive property in organic and alkaline electrolytes than LiCl. - Abstract: Vanadium nitride hierarchical nanostructures were prepared through an ammonia annealing procedure utilizing vanadium pentoxide nanostructures grown on graphite foam. The electrochemical properties of hierarchical vanadium nitride was tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes. As a result, the vanadium nitride showed better capacitive energy storage property in organic and alkaline electrolytes. This work provides insight into the charge storage process of vanadium nitride and our findings canmore » shed light on other transition metal nitride-based electrochemical energy storage systems.« less

  14. Basin-Wide Temperature Constraints On Gas Hydrate Stability In The Gulf Of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Reagan, M. T.; Guinasso, N. L.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate deposits commonly occur at the seafloor-water interface on marine margins. They are especially prevalent in the Gulf of Mexico where they are associated with natural oil seeps. The stability of these deposits is potentially challenged by fluctuations in bottom water temperature, on an annual time-scale, and under the long-term influence of climate change. We mapped the locations of natural oil seeps where shallow gas hydrate deposits are known to occur across the entire Gulf of Mexico basin based on a comprehensive review of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data (~200 images). We prepared a bottom water temperature map based on the archive of CTD casts from the Gulf (~6000 records). Comparing the distribution of gas hydrate deposits with predicted bottom water temperature, we find that a broad area of the upper slope lies above the theoretical stability horizon for structure 1 gas hydrate, while all sites where gas hydrate deposits occur are within the stability horizon for structure 2 gas hydrate. This is consistent with analytical results that structure 2 gas hydrates predominate on the upper slope (Klapp et al., 2010), where bottom water temperatures fluctuate over a 7 to 10 C range (approx. 600 m depth), while pure structure 1 hydrates are found at greater depths (approx. 3000 m). Where higher hydrocarbon gases are available, formation of structure 2 gas hydrate should significantly increase the resistance of shallow gas hydrate deposits to destabilizing effects variable or increasing bottom water temperature. Klapp, S.A., Bohrmann, G., Kuhs, W.F., Murshed, M.M., Pape, T., Klein, H., Techmer, K.S., Heeschen, K.U., and Abegg, F., 2010, Microstructures of structure I and II gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 27, p. 116-125.Bottom temperature and pressure for Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate outcrops and stability horizons for sI and sII hydrate.

  15. Electrical transport properties of epitaxial titanium nitride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makise, K.; Shinozaki, B.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured the transport properties of epitaxial titanium nitride (TiN) nanowires. Epitaxial TiN layer, deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on MgO(100) substrates at growth temperature T = 1073 K. Samples of nanowire were fabricated by e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Although TiN films with 100 nm-thickness have superconducting transition temperature T C ∼ 5 K, nanowires does not appear resistive transition until 0.15 K. The magnetoresistance (MR) are always negative. Furthermore for MR experimental results, we attempt to fit the data using one-dimensional weak localization theory. In addition we observed oscillations of magnetoresistance below 5 K.

  16. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  17. Synthesis of reduced carbon nitride at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C3N4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, Alexey; Bondarenko, Marina; Kharlamova, Ganna; Fomenko, Veniamin

    2016-09-01

    For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C3N4)O reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene) is obtained. It is differed from usually synthesized carbon nitride by a significantly large (on 0.09 nm) interplanar distance is. At the same time, the chemical bonds between atoms in a heteroatomic plane of reduced carbon nitride correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C3N4. The samples of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide were synthesized under the special reactionary conditions of a pyrolysis of melamine and urea. We believe that reduced carbon nitride consists of weakly connected carbon-nitrogen monosheets (azagraphene sheets) as well as reduced (from graphene oxide) graphene contains weakly connected graphene sheets.

  18. Reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from wet attrition-milled silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Shaw, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon powder wet milled in heptane was dried, compacted into test bar shape, helium-sintered, and then reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 vol% hydrogen. As-nitrided bend strengths averaged approximately 290 MPa at both room temperature and 1400 C. Fracture initiation appeared to be associated with subsurface flaws in high-strength specimens and both subsurface and surface flaws in low-strength specimens.

  19. Electrochemical Solution Growth of Magnetic Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, Todd C.; Pearce, Charles

    Magnetic nitrides, if manufactured in bulk form, would provide designers of transformers and inductors with a new class of better performing and affordable soft magnetic materials. According to experimental results from thin films and/or theoretical calculations, magnetic nitrides would have magnetic moments well in excess of current state of the art soft magnets. Furthermore, magnetic nitrides would have higher resistivities than current transformer core materials and therefore not require the use of laminates of inactive material to limit eddy current losses. However, almost all of the magnetic nitrides have been elusive except in difficult to reproduce thin films or asmore » inclusions in another material. Now, through its ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen, the electrochemical solution growth (ESG) technique can bring highly sought after (and previously inaccessible) new magnetic nitrides into existence in bulk form. This method utilizes a molten salt as a solvent to solubilize metal cations and nitrogen ions produced electrochemically and form nitrogen compounds. Unlike other growth methods, the scalable ESG process can sustain high growth rates (~mm/hr) even under reasonable operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and 500 °C). Ultimately, this translates into a high throughput, low cost, manufacturing process. The ESG process has already been used successfully to grow high quality GaN. Below, the experimental results of an exploratory express LDRD project to access the viability of the ESG technique to grow magnetic nitrides will be presented.« less

  20. Heat pipe temperature control utilizing a soluble gas absorption reservior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A new gas-controlled heat pipe design is described which uses a liquid matrix reservior, or sponge, to replace the standard gas reservior. Reservior volume may be reduced by a factor of five to ten for certain gas-liquid combinations, while retaining the same level of temperature control. Experiments with ammonia, butane, and carbon dioxide control gases with methanol working fluid are discussed.

  1. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, S.; Péron, F.; Lacquement, J.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 °C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 °C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing).

  2. Nitrogen incorporation in carbon nitride films produced by direct and dual ion-beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Abrasonis, G.; Gago, R.; Jimenez, I.

    2005-10-01

    Carbon (C) and carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) films were grown on Si(100) substrates by direct ion-beam sputtering (IBS) of a carbon target at different substrate temperatures (room temperature-450 deg. C) and Ar/N{sub 2} sputtering gas mixtures. Additionally, the effect of concurrent nitrogen-ion assistance during the growth of CN{sub x} films by IBS was also investigated. The samples were analyzed by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The ERDA results showed that significant nitrogen amount (up to 20 at. %) was incorporated in the films, without any other nitrogen source but the N{sub 2}-containing sputtering gas.more » The nitrogen concentration is proportional to the N{sub 2} content in the sputtering beam and no saturation limit is reached under the present working conditions. The film areal density derived from ERDA revealed a decrease in the amount of deposited material at increasing growth temperature, with a correlation between the C and N losses. The XANES results indicate that N atoms are efficiently incorporated into the carbon network and can be found in different bonding environments, such as pyridinelike, nitrilelike, graphitelike, and embedded N{sub 2} molecules. The contribution of molecular and pyridinelike nitrogen decreases when the temperature increases while the contribution of the nitrilelike nitrogen increases. The concurrent nitrogen ion assistance resulted in the significant increase of the nitrogen content in the film but it induced a further reduction of the deposited material. Additionally, the assisting ions inhibited the formation of the nitrilelike configurations while promoting nitrogen environments in graphitelike positions. The nitrogen incorporation and release mechanisms are discussed in terms of film growth precursors, ion bombardment effects, and chemical sputtering.« less

  3. Temporally and spatially resolved plasma spectroscopy in pulsed laser deposition of ultra-thin boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Glavin, Nicholas R., E-mail: nicholas.glavin.1@us.af.mil, E-mail: andrey.voevodin@us.af.mil; School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; Muratore, Christopher

    2015-04-28

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) has recently been investigated as a viable, alternative growth technique for two-dimensional materials with multiple benefits over other vapor deposition synthesis methods. The high kinetic energies and chemical reactivities of the condensing species formed from PVD processes can facilitate growth over large areas and at reduced substrate temperatures. In this study, chemistry, kinetic energies, time of flight data, and spatial distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated from a boron nitride (BN) target by a KrF laser at different pressures of nitrogen gas were investigated. Time resolved spectroscopy and wavelength specific imaging were used to identifymore » and track atomic neutral and ionized species including B{sup +}, B*, N{sup +}, N*, and molecular species including N{sub 2}*, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and BN. Formation and decay of these species formed both from ablation of the target and from interactions with the background gas were investigated and provided insights into fundamental growth mechanisms of continuous, amorphous boron nitride thin films. The correlation of the plasma diagnostic results with film chemical composition and thickness uniformity studies helped to identify that a predominant mechanism for BN film formation is condensation surface recombination of boron ions and neutral atomic nitrogen species. These species arrive nearly simultaneously to the substrate location, and BN formation occurs microseconds before arrival of majority of N{sup +} ions generated by plume collisions with background molecular nitrogen. The energetic nature and extended dwelling time of incident N{sup +} ions at the substrate location was found to negatively impact resulting BN film stoichiometry and thickness. Growth of stoichiometric films was optimized at enriched concentrations of ionized boron and neutral atomic nitrogen in plasma near the condensation surface, providing few nanometer thick films with 1:1 BN stoichiometry and

  4. FOREWORD: The physics of III-V nitrides The physics of III-V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. K.

    2009-04-01

    thought to be associated with the coupling of plasma and phonon modes, and this is discussed by Dyson. The intrinsic cause of phonon decay is the anharmonic interaction involving three phonons, and this process is described for zinc blende BN and hexagonal AlN, GaN and InN by Srivastava. The principal electron scattering mechanism at room temperature is associated with the interaction with polar optical modes. At high fields, transfer to the upper conduction-band valleys can take place and this involves the deformation-potential interaction. Deformation potentials have been derived by Yamakawa et al for GaN, and they have been incorporated into a cellular Monte Carlo simulation to describe high-field transport. In high-power devices, thermal as well as electronic transport is important. The thermal conductivity of the substrate of devices is a vital factor, and the possible use of AlN ceramics is discussed by AlShaikhi and Srivastarva. A striking device based on a zinc blende superlattice is the quantum cascade laser. Exploiting intersubband transitions in the AlN/GaN superlattice for the high-speed detection of infrared light is described by Hofstetter et al, clearly a first step towards a nitride based quantum cascade laser. In bulk material the displacement of As by N that transforms GaAs to GaN produces a huge change in properties. Adding a small amount of N to GaAs might be expected to produce a gradual more-or-less linear shift towards the properties of GaN, but this turns out to be far from the case. The strange properties of dilute nitrides have intrigued many workers in recent years. Its curious bandstructure suggested that hot-electron transport could exhibit a negative differential resistance, and a report on this topic can be found in the article by Patane et al A comprehensive study of transport of electrons and holes in dilute nitride/GaAs quantum wells is reported by Sun et al. An unusual new device—a spin filter—is presaged by the work of Zhao et al on

  5. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  6. Room-Temperature Synthesis of GaN Driven by Kinetic Energy beyond the Limit of Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Takane; Okada, Takeru; Samukawa, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2017-12-06

    The nitridation reaction is significantly important to utilize the unique properties of nitrides and nitrogen-doped materials. However, nitridation generally requires a high temperature or highly reactive reagents (often explosive) because the energies of N-N bond cleavage and nitrogen anion formation (N 3- ) are very high. We demonstrate the first room-temperature synthesis of GaN directly from GaCl 3 by nanoscale atom exchange reaction. Nonequilibrium nitrogen molecules with very high translational energy were used as a chemically stable and safe nitrogen source. The irradiation of molecular nitrogen to the desired reaction area successfully provided a gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheet that exhibited a typical photoluminescence spectrum. Because this process retains the target substrate room temperature and does not involve any photon nor charged ion, it allows damage-less synthesis of the semiconducting metal nitrides, even directly on plastic substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

  7. Stable synthesis of few-layered boron nitride nanotubes by anodic arc discharge.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yao-Wen; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce E; Yao, Nan

    2017-06-08

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were successfully synthesized by a dc arc discharge using a boron-rich anode as synthesis feedstock in a nitrogen gas environment at near atmospheric pressure. The synthesis was achieved independent of the cathode material suggesting that under such conditions the arc operates in so-called anodic mode with the anode material being consumed by evaporation due to the arc heating. To sustain the arc current by thermionic electron emission, the cathode has to be at sufficiently high temperature, which for a typical arc current density of ~100 A/cm 2 , is above the boron melting point (2350 K). With both electrodes made from the same boron-rich alloy, we found that the arc operation unstable due to frequent sticking between two molten electrodes and formation of molten droplets. Stable and reliable arc operation and arc synthesis were achieved with the boron-rich anode and the cathode made from a refractory metal which has a melting temperature above the melting point of boron. Ex-situ characterization of synthesized BNNTs with electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that independent of the cathode material, the tubes are primarily single and double walled. The results also show evidence of root-growth of BNNTs produced in the arc discharge.

  8. Structural and mechanical properties of CVD deposited titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Soham; Guha, Spandan; Ghadai, Ranjan; Kumar, Dhruva; Swain, Bibhu P.

    2017-06-01

    Titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) thin films were deposited by chemical vapour deposition using TiO2 powder, Al powder and N2 gas. The morphology and mechanical properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation technique, respectively. The structural properties were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The XRD result shows TiAlN films are of NaCl-type metal nitride structure. Micro-Raman peaks of the TiAlN thin film were observed within 450 and 642 cm-1 for acoustic and optic range, respectively. A maximum hardness and Young modulus up to 22 and 272.15 GPa, respectively, were observed in the TiAlN film deposited at 1200 °C.

  9. Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Mach, Regina; Mueller, Gerd; Krames, Michael R.; Höppe, Henning A.; Stadler, Florian; Schnick, Wolfgang; Juestel, Thomas; Schmidt, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The development and demonstration of a highly efficient warm-white all-nitride phosphor-converted light emitting diode (pc-LED) is presented utilizing a GaN based quantum well blue LED and two novel nitrogen containing luminescent materials, both of which are doped with Eu2+. For color conversion of the primary blue the nitridosilicates M2Si5N8 (orange-red) and MSi2O2N2 (yellow-green), with M = alkaline earth, were employed, thus achieving a high luminous efficiency (25 lumen/W at 1 W input), excellent color quality (correlated color temperature CCT = 3200 K, general color rendering index Ra > 90) and the highest proven color stability of any pc-LED obtained so far. Thus, these novel all-nitride LEDs are superior to both incandescent and fluorescent lamps and may therefore become the next generation of general lighting sources.

  10. Nanostructured silicon nitride from wheat and rice husks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Wollmershauser, J. A.; Feng, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticles, submicron-diameter tubes, and rods of Si3N4 were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat and rice husks at temperatures at and above 1300 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The whole pattern Rietveld analysis of the observed diffraction data from treatments at 1300 °C showed the formation of only hexagonal α-phase of Si3N4 with an R-factor of 1%, whereas samples treated at 1400 °C and above showed both α- and β-phases with an R-factor of 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of tubes, rods, and nanoparticles of Si3N4. In a two-step process, where pure SiC was produced first from rice or wheat husk in an argon atmosphere and subsequently treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1450 °C, a nanostructured composite material having α- and β-phases of Si3N4 combined with cubic phase of SiC was formed. The thermodynamics of the formation of silicon nitride is discussed in terms of the solid state reaction between organic matter (silica content), which is inherently present in the wheat and rice husks, with the nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere. Nanostructures of silicon nitride formed by a single direct reaction or their composites with SiC formed in a two-step process of agricultural byproducts provide an uncomplicated sustainable synthesis route for silicon nitride used in mechanical, biotechnology, and electro-optic nanotechnology applications.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel in chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, S.D. de; Olzon-Dionysio, M., E-mail: dmod@df.ufscar.br; Basso, R.L.O.

    2010-10-15

    Plasma nitriding of ASTM F138 stainless steel samples has been carried out using dc glow discharge under 80% H{sub 2}-20% N{sub 2} gas mixture, at 673 K, and 2, 4, and 7 h time intervals, in order to investigate the influence of treatment time on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance properties. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, besides electrochemical tests in NaCl aerated solution. A modified layer of about 6 {mu}m was observed for all the nitrided samples, independent of nitriding time. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broadmore » {gamma}{sub N} phase peaks, signifying a great degree of nitrogen supersaturation. Besides {gamma}{sub N,} the Moessbauer spectroscopy results indicated the occurrence of {gamma}' and {epsilon} phases, as well as some other less important phases. Corrosion measurements demonstrate that the plasma nitriding time affects the corrosion resistance and the best performance is reached at 4 h treatment. It seems that the {epsilon}/{gamma}' fraction ratio plays an important role on the resistance corrosion. Additionally, the Moessbauer spectroscopy was decisive in this study, since it was able to identify and quantify the iron phases that influence the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 samples.« less

  12. An "Inefficient Fin" Non-Dimensional Parameter to Measure Gas Temperatures Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemieux, Patrick; Murray, William; Cooke, Terry; Gerhardt, James

    2012-01-01

    A gas containment vessel that is not in thermal equilibrium with the bulk gas can affect its temperature measurement. The physical nature of many gas dynamics experiments often makes the accurate measurement of temperature a challenge. The environment itself typically requires that the thermocouple be sheathed, both to protect the wires and hot junction of the instrument from their environment, and to provide a smooth, rigid surface for pressure sealing of the enclosure. However, that enclosure may also be much colder than the gas to be sensed, or vice-versa. Either way, the effect of such gradients is to potentially skew the temperature measurements themselves, since heat may then be conducted by the instrument. Thermocouple designers traditionally address this problem by insulating the sheath from the thermocouple leads and hot junction as much as possible. The thermocouple leads are typically packed in a ceramic powder inside the sheath, protecting them somewhat from temperature gradients along the sheath, but there is no effective mechanism to shield the sheath from the enclosure body itself. Standard practice dictates that thermocouples be used in installations that do not present large thermal gradients along the probe. If this conduction dominates heat transfer near the tip of the probe, then temperature measurements may be expected to be skewed. While the same problem may be experienced in the measurement of temperature at various points within a solid in a gradient, it tends to be aggravated in the measurements of gas temperature, since heat transfer dependent on convection is often less efficient than conduction along the thermocouple. The proposed solution is an inefficient fin thermocouple probe. Conventional wisdom suggests that in many experiments where gas flows through an enclosure (e.g., flow in pipe, manifold, nozzle, etc.), the thermocouple be introduced flush to the surface, so as not to interfere with the flow. In practice, however, many such

  13. Thermodynamic Routes to Novel Metastable Nitrogen-Rich Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wenhao; Holder, Aaron; Orvañanos, Bernardo

    Compared to oxides, the nitrides are relatively unexplored, making them a promising chemical space for novel materials discovery. Of particular interest are nitrogen-rich nitrides, which often possess useful semiconducting properties for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, such nitrogen-rich compounds are generally metastable, and the lack of a guiding theory for their synthesis has limited their exploration. Here, we review the remarkable metastability of observed nitrides, and examine the thermodynamics of how reactive nitrogen precursors can stabilize metastable nitrogen-rich compositions during materials synthesis. We map these thermodynamic strategies onto a predictive computational search, training a data-mined ionic substitution algorithm specifically formore » nitride discovery, which we combine with grand-canonical DFT-SCAN phase stability calculations to compute stabilizing nitrogen chemical potentials. We identify several new nitrogen-rich binary nitrides for experimental investigation, notably the transition metal nitrides Mn3N4, Cr3N4, V3N4, and Nb3N5, the main group nitride SbN, and the pernitrides FeN2, CrN2, and Cu2N2. By formulating rational thermodynamic routes to metastable compounds, we expand the search space for functional technological materials beyond equilibrium phases and compositions.« less

  14. Thermodynamic Routes to Novel Metastable Nitrogen-Rich Nitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Wenhao; Holder, Aaron; Orvañanos, Bernardo; ...

    2017-07-17

    Compared to oxides, the nitrides are relatively unexplored, making them a promising chemical space for novel materials discovery. Of particular interest are nitrogen-rich nitrides, which often possess useful semiconducting properties for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, such nitrogen-rich compounds are generally metastable, and the lack of a guiding theory for their synthesis has limited their exploration. Here, we review the remarkable metastability of observed nitrides, and examine the thermodynamics of how reactive nitrogen precursors can stabilize metastable nitrogen-rich compositions during materials synthesis. We map these thermodynamic strategies onto a predictive computational search, training a data-mined ionic substitution algorithm specifically formore » nitride discovery, which we combine with grand-canonical DFT-SCAN phase stability calculations to compute stabilizing nitrogen chemical potentials. We identify several new nitrogen-rich binary nitrides for experimental investigation, notably the transition metal nitrides Mn3N4, Cr3N4, V3N4, and Nb3N5, the main group nitride SbN, and the pernitrides FeN2, CrN2, and Cu2N2. By formulating rational thermodynamic routes to metastable compounds, we expand the search space for functional technological materials beyond equilibrium phases and compositions.« less

  15. Preparation and evaluation of silicon nitride matrices for silicon nitride-SiC fiber composites. M.S. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelson, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fiber was added to three types of silicon nitride (Si3N4) matrices. Efforts were aimed at producing a dense Si3N4 matrix from reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) by hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP) and pressureless sintering, and from Si3N4 powder by hot-pressing. The sintering additives utilized were chosen to allow for densification, while not causing severe degradation of the fiber. The ceramic microstructures were evaluated using scanning optical microscopy. Vickers indentation was used to determine the microhardness and fracture toughness values of the matrices. The RBSN matrices in this study did not reach more than 80 percent of theoretical density after sintering at various temperatures, pressures, and additive levels. Hot-pressing Si3N4 powder produced the highest density matrices; hardness and toughness values were within an order of magnitude of the best literature values. The best sintering aid composition chosen included Y2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 or AlN. Photomicrographs demonstrate a significant reduction of fiber attack by this additive composition.

  16. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. Themore » high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.« less

  17. Boron Nitride Nanotubes Synthesized by Pressurized Reactive Milling Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotubes, because of their very high strength, are attractive as reinforcement materials for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Recently there has been considerable interest in developing and applying carbon nanotubes for both electronic and structural applications. Although carbon nanotubes can be used to reinforce composites, they oxidize at high temperatures and, therefore, may not be suitable for ceramic composites. Boron nitride, because it has a higher oxidation resistance than carbon, could be a potential reinforcement material for ceramic composites. Although boron nitride nanotubes (BNnT) are known to be structurally similar to carbon nanotubes, they have not undergone the same extensive scrutiny that carbon nanotubes have experienced in recent years. This has been due to the difficulty in synthesizing this material rather than lack of interest in the material. We expect that BNnTs will maintain the high strength of carbon nanotubes while offering superior performance for the high-temperature and/or corrosive applications of interest to NASA. At the NASA Glenn Research of preparing BN-nTs were investigated and compared. These include the arc jet process, the reactive milling process, and chemical vapor deposition. The most successful was a pressurized reactive milling process that synthesizes BN-nTs of reasonable quantities.

  18. Improved superconducting qubit coherence using titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Josephine B.; Vissers, Michael R.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Sandberg, Martin; Gao, Jiansong; Abraham, David W.; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Beth Rothwell, Mary; Keefe, George A.; Steffen, Matthias; Pappas, David P.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate enhanced relaxation and dephasing times of transmon qubits, up to ˜60 μs, by fabricating the interdigitated shunting capacitors using titanium nitride (TiN). Compared to qubits made with lift-off aluminum deposited simultaneously with the Josephson junction, this represents as much as a six-fold improvement and provides evidence that surface losses from two-level system (TLS) defects residing at or near interfaces contribute to decoherence. Concurrently, we observe an anomalous temperature dependent frequency shift of TiN resonators, which is inconsistent with the predicted TLS model.

  19. Thick c-BN films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in argon/nitrogen gas mixture with additional hydrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Wei; Xu, Bo; Li, Ying-Ai; Li, Hong-Dong; Gu, Guang-Rui; Yin, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The excellent physical and chemical properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) film make it a promising candidate for various industry applications. However, the c-BN film thickness restricts its practical applications in many cases. Thus, it is indispensable to develop an economic, simple and environment-friend way to synthesize high-quality thick, stable c-BN films. High-cubic-content BN films are prepared on silicon (100) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from an h-BN target at low substrate temperature. Adhesions of the c-BN films are greatly improved by adding hydrogen to the argon/nitrogen gas mixture, allowing the deposition of a film up to 5-μm thick. The compositions and the microstructure morphologies of the c-BN films grown at different substrate temperatures are systematically investigated with respect to the ratio of H2 gas content to total working gas. In addition, a primary mechanism for the deposition of thick c-BN film is proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51572105, 61504046, and 51272224), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Development and Reform Commission of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 2015Y050), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas of Jilin Province, China.

  20. Reactively sputtered nickel nitride as electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo Kang, Jin; Park, Min-Ah; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ha Park, Sun; Young Chung, Dong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin; Park, Jongwoo; Choi, Jung-Woo; Jae Lee, Kyung; Jeong, Juwon; Jae Ko, Min; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-01

    Nickel nitride electrodes were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel under a N2 atmosphere at room temperature for application in mesoscopic dye- or quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. This facile and reliable method led to the formation of a Ni2N film with a cauliflower-like nanostructure and tetrahedral crystal lattice. The prepared nickel nitride electrodes exhibited an excellent chemical stability toward both iodide and polysulfide redox electrolytes. Compared to conventional Pt electrodes, the nickel nitride electrodes showed an inferior electrocatalytic activity for the iodide redox electrolyte; however, it displayed a considerably superior electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox electrolyte. As a result, compared to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with a conversion efficiency (η) = 7.62%, and CdSe-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, η = 2.01%) employing Pt counter electrodes (CEs), the nickel nitride CEs exhibited a lower conversion efficiency (η = 3.75%) when applied to DSCs, but an enhanced conversion efficiency (η = 2.80%) when applied to CdSe-based QDSCs.