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Sample records for terminally ill patients

  1. [COMMUNICATION WITH TERMINALLY ILL PATIENT].

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    The communication is a essential therapeutic instrument in every process of relationship in the team patient-family, and mainly in the transmission of bad news. The communication is not just a simple transmission of information. It is a process whose goal is to enable the adaptation of the patient and family to their actual situation and where the "what", "how" and "how much do you want to know", are belonged to the own patient. Along this article, we will expose some thoughts that the team has to take into account when informing the patient. We are going to explain the SPIKES protocol, or its Spanish version EPICEE. 6-step protocol, based on those recommended by the experts to deliver bad news procedures. And finally we'll talk about the conspiracy of silence, one of the most common and difficult situations to handle in day to day due to paternalism by professionals and families, in which they prefer to hide the situation to the patient, thinking it's the best for him. PMID:26121886

  2. When Technical Rationality Fails: Thinking about Terminally Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Still, A; Todd, C

    1998-01-01

    The theory that thinking is modelled on the social activity of argument is investigated through the views of general practitioners about terminally ill patients. The social activity of general practice centres on the consultation, which the doctor manages by 'technical rationality'. But this is difficult when the patient is terminally ill. In that case technical rationality is seen to fail and rhetorical skills are invoked. GPs' thinking about such consultations can be described using an agonistic model based on a hierarchy of objectives, strategies and tactics. The objective of keeping patients comfortable and dignified is aimed at through three strategies, and a variety of rhetorical tactics is drawn on in thinking about these strategies.

  3. How music-inspired weeping can help terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Norton, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Music's power to improve the 'human condition' has been acknowledged since ancient times. Something as counter-intuitive as weeping in response to music can ameliorate suffering for a time even for terminally ill patients. Several benefits-including catharsis, communication, and experiencing vitality-can be associated with grieving in response to "sad" music. In addressing the potential rewards of such an activity for terminally ill patients, this author combines concepts from philosopher Jerrold R. Levinson's article, entitled "Music and Negative Emotion," an illustration from a major motion picture, and supporting research from medical reports and aesthetic writings. Carefully offering this experience is recommended for patients who retain the capacity to express preference.

  4. Oral disease in terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M P; Bagg, J; Baxter, W P; Aitchison, T C

    1998-03-01

    Xerostomia is common among patients with advanced cancer and is likely to contribute to oral disease. This study determined the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms among a group of 70 terminally ill cancer patients [25 male, 45 female; age range 42-88 (mean 66) years] complaining of oral dryness, and examined the associated oral microflora. Imprint cultures for yeasts, coliforms and staphylococci were collected from the tongue and, in denture wearers, from the plate and denture fitting surface. A swab was collected for culture of herpes simplex virus. 68 patients (97%) complained of oral dryness during the day and 59 patients (84%) complained of oral dryness at night. Oral soreness was reported by 22 patients (31%). 46 patients (66%) had difficulty talking and 36 (51%) reported difficulty eating. Of the 56 denture wearers, 40% complained of denture problems. On examination, 63 (90%) of the patients had clinically dry mouths. Oral mucosal abnormalities were detected in 45 patients (65%), most commonly erythema (20%), coated tongue (20%), atrophic glossitis (17%), angular cheilitis (11%) and pseudomembraneous candidosis (9%). 47 (67%) of the patients carried yeasts, 18 (26%) were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and 13 (19%) carried coliforms. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from 5 patients, of whom 2 had herpetic stomatitis. Oral complications and abnormalities of the oral microflora can be detected among significant numbers of terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

  5. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended…

  6. Concept analysis of good death in terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Granda-Cameron, Clara; Houldin, Arlene

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this concept analysis of good death was to examine the attributes of a good death and explore the changes of the concept over time and its impact on terminally ill patients. The method used for this analysis was the Rodgers' evolutionary method. A literature search was completed using Medline Ovid and Journal Storage (JSTOR).The findings describe the evolution of the good death concept over time from the prehistoric era followed by premodern, modern, and postmodern times. In addition, information is presented about surrogate terms, attributes, antecedents, and consequences associated with good death followed by analysis and discussion of the findings. General attributes of a good death include pain and symptom management, awareness of death, patient's dignity, family presence, family support, and communication among patient, family, and health care providers. PMID:22363039

  7. Concept analysis of good death in terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Granda-Cameron, Clara; Houldin, Arlene

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this concept analysis of good death was to examine the attributes of a good death and explore the changes of the concept over time and its impact on terminally ill patients. The method used for this analysis was the Rodgers' evolutionary method. A literature search was completed using Medline Ovid and Journal Storage (JSTOR).The findings describe the evolution of the good death concept over time from the prehistoric era followed by premodern, modern, and postmodern times. In addition, information is presented about surrogate terms, attributes, antecedents, and consequences associated with good death followed by analysis and discussion of the findings. General attributes of a good death include pain and symptom management, awareness of death, patient's dignity, family presence, family support, and communication among patient, family, and health care providers.

  8. Islamic views on artificial nutrition and hydration in terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Alsolamy, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from terminally ill patients poses many ethical challenges. The literature provides little information about the Islamic beliefs, attitudes, and laws related to these challenges. Artificial nutrition and hydration may be futile and reduce quality of life. They can also harm the terminally ill patient because of complications such as aspiration pneumonia, dyspnea, nausea, diarrhea, and hypervolemia. From the perspective of Islam, rules governing the care of terminally ill patients are derived from the principle that injury and harm should be prevented or avoided. The hastening of death by the withdrawal of food and drink is forbidden, but Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile, death-delaying treatment, including life support. Nutritional support is considered basic care and not medical treatment, and there is an obligation to provide nutrition and hydration for the dying person unless it shortens life, causes more harm than benefit, or is contrary to an advance directive that is consistent with Islamic law. The decision about withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from the terminally ill Muslim patient is made with informed consent, considering the clinical context of minimizing harm to the patient, with input from the patient, family members, health care providers, and religious scholars.

  9. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  10. Rational Suicide and the Terminally Ill Cancer Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Karolynn; Tuckel, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research concerning the nature of the relationship between cancer and suicide and considers its implications on the rational suicide movement. Findings do not indicate a higher incidence of suicide among cancer patients, questioning the rational suicide position. (JAC)

  11. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  12. THE ADOPTION OF BUDDHISM'S PRINCIPLES AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING PHYSICIANS' WORK WITH TERMINALLY ILL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The medical approach as summarized by Leibowitz--"We must treat the person, not just the disease"--highlights the importance of treating the sick person and not only the illness' pathology. This approach calls for healing not only the physical side, but also--and mainly--the mental aspect of the patient. One of the goals of this article is to turn physicians' attention towards the compassion necessary in treating a person with a severe or chronic illness, or a person who is dying--precisely because sometimes there is no medical cure for the physical state of such a patient. Therefore, physicians' attention does need to be directed to providing emotional assistance to such a patient. Sometimes, the emotional strength the patient draws from the medical team that is treating him can change his view of, and approach to, the illness, and can enable his body to muster the emotional strength necessary to deal with his situation. Buddhism's approach enables the sick patient to experience his illness in a different way, by making peace with one's situation and, sometimes, even viewing the situation differently--viewing the illness as a type of renewal. Buddhism, therefore, enables a sick person to choose a different point of view when his energy is exhausted and he loses hope, providing quality of life to patients. In such a situation, a sick person finds emotional strength in the knowledge that the end of his life is actually a renewal somewhere else. The limited life expectancy of the terminally ill patient demands that he be able to spend his time with minimal concerns and worries, and does not leave much time for treating the emotional side--the patient's fear. In light of this fact, the patient's ability to look ahead and grasp at hope is the most important issue. As much as possible, this is accomplished in an atmosphere of acceptance and with the absence, or reduction, of fear. The freedom to decide for oneself how to behave, according to one's own approach, is what

  13. Ethical considerations in the management of analgesia in terminally ill pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Norbert J; Plantz, Diane M

    2014-11-01

    Research has demonstrated the significant symptom burden present at the end of life of terminally ill children. Medicine has always viewed the relief of pain and suffering as a fundamental human right and a moral and ethical obligation. At the end of life, pain and dyspnea are symptoms commonly experienced by both adults and children. Opioids are the mainstay in treating the suffering associated with pain and dyspnea; however, there exist several barriers to the use of opioids. We describe a case in which parents prevent a young patient from receiving adequate pain management during the course of a terminal illness. We discuss the importance of recognizing the barriers to opioid use and the ethical ramifications of failing to find common ground with the family. We highlight parental responsibilities and limitations of parental authority in decision making for their child.

  14. Should Health Care Providers Uphold the DNR of a Terminally Ill Patient Who Attempts Suicide?

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Jankowski, Jane; Mullen, Marcy

    2016-06-01

    An individual's right to refuse life-sustaining treatment is a fundamental expression of patient autonomy; however, supporting this right poses ethical dilemmas for healthcare providers when the patient has attempted suicide. Emergency physicians encounter patients who have attempted suicide and are likely among the first medical providers to face the dilemma of honoring the patient's DNR or intervening to reverse the effects of potentially fatal actions. We illustrate this issue by introducing a case example in which the DNR of a terminally ill woman was not honored because the cause of her cardiac arrest was suicide. We argue that although a terminal diagnosis should change the way health care providers respond to a suicide attempt, many of the theoretical underpinnings for how one should treat suicide attempts-especially the criterion of external reasonability, that is the action to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining measures is reasonable independent of the precipitating event-are common to all situations (Brown et al. in Am J Bioeth 13(3):3-12, 2013). The presumption that patients who attempt suicide lack capacity due to acute mental illness is flawed because it fails to account for a competent individual's reasonable preference to not be forced to live in an unbearable, terminal condition. In states without legislation allowing physician aid in dying, patients and providers must grapple with these limitations on a case-by-case basis. In cases where the patient has a limited life expectancy and there is not concern for psychiatric illness as the primary cause of the suicidal action, we argue that the negative right to refuse life-sustaining treatment should prevail. PMID:26223360

  15. Meaninglessness in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study and nurse education intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Hisayuki; Hirai, Kei; Tamura, Keiko; Kataoka, Jun; Ohnishi, Hideki; Akizuki, Nobuya; Kurihara, Yukie; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2007-08-01

    Recent empirical studies revealed that fostering patients' perception of meaning in their life is an essential task for palliative care clinicians. However, few studies have reported the effects of training programs for nurses specifically aimed at improving skills to relieve the meaninglessness of terminally ill cancer patients, and we have had no specific measurement instruments. The primary aims of this study were 1) to validate measurement tools to quantify nurses' self-reported practice and attitudes toward caring for terminally ill cancer patients feeling meaninglessness and 2) to explore the effects of the five-hour educational workshop focusing on meaninglessness on nurses' self-reported practice, attitudes toward caring for such patients, confidence, burnout, death anxiety, and meaning of life. A quasi-experimental pre-post questionnaire survey was performed on 147 nurses. The questionnaire was distributed before the intervention workshop and one and six months after. The workshop consisted of lecture, role-play, and the exercise of assessment and care planning based on two vignette verbatim records. First, using the first questionnaire sample and an additional sample of 20 nurses for the test-retest examination, we validated a six-item Self-Reported Practice scale, and an eight-item Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale with three subscales (Willingness to Help, Positive Appraisal, and Helplessness). The nurses also completed a scale to assess confidence in caring for terminally ill patients with meaninglessness, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Death Attitude Inventory, the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, the Self-Reported Practice Score in General Communication, and the three pain-related items from the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing. For the Self-Reported Practice scale and the subscales of the Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0

  16. Dehydration in terminally ill patients. Perceptions of long-term care nurses.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, Jennifer; Bauer-Wu, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    Dehydration in terminally ill patients has been found to be beneficial and to improve the quality of an individual's last few days of life. As the population continues to age, more individuals are cared for in long-term care (LTC) facilities, where they tend to spend their final days. Previous studies have examined the perceptions and attitudes of hospice nurses, acute care nurses, physicians, and caregivers; however, no such studies have evaluated LTC nurses. It is necessary to know LTC nurses' perceptions and attitudes so they can be offered the education needed to provide the best quality care for terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to describe how nurses working with elderly individuals in LTC perceived terminal dehydration (TD). Long-term care nurses (N = 64) were surveyed using a modified version of an established 10-item instrument. Significant findings included a positive correlation between age and positive perception of TD--as nurse age increaSed, a more positive view of TD was expressed. Also, the number of deaths witnessed was positively associated with the belief that TD was beneficial. In general, responses to the individual survey items were quite varied, representing inconsistencies in attitudes and care of dying LTC patients. The results of this descriptive study indicate the debate concerning the benefits of TD continues and remains an important topic for the LTC nurse.

  17. Impact of Palliative Care Consultation Service on Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Yi; Shen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chen-Yi; Wang, Hung-Ming; Tang, Shu-Chuan; Chin, Tsu-Ling; Chi, Chuan-Chuan; Yang, Jin-Mei; Chang, Chih-Wen; Lai, Ying-Fen; Yeh, Ya-Chi; Hung, Yu-Shin; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The palliative care consultation service (PCCS) that has been enthusiastically promoted in Taiwan since 2005 was designed to provide comprehensive end-of-life care for terminally ill patients with qualified interdisciplinary specialists in acute care ward setting. This study aims to evaluate the impact of PCCS on terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 10,594 terminal cancer patients who were referred to PCCS from a single medical center in Taiwan between 2006 and 2014 were enrolled. The percentages of patients’ and their families’ disease awareness, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) designation, refusal and acceptance of palliative care among terminally ill cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively. At the beginning of PCCS, the percentages of disease awareness among patients and their family were increased from 25.4% to 37.9% (P = 0.007) and from 61.2% to 84.7% between 2006 and 2014 (P = 0.001), respectively. Patients’ disease awareness after PCCS referral between 2006 and 2014 was increased from 47.1% to 64.5% (P = 0.016). Family's awareness of diagnosis and prognosis after PCCS referral researched to a steady plateau, 94.1% to 97.8% in different year cohort (P = 0.34). The percentage of DNR designation rate at the beginning of PCCS (in 2006) was 15.5%, and the designation rate was increased annually and finally reached to 42.0% in 2014 (P = 0.004). The percentage of DNR consents after PCCS was also improved from 44.0% in 2006 up to 80.0% in 2014 (P = 0.005). PCCS refusal rate decreased gradually and dropped to 1.6% in 2014 (P = 0.005). The percentage of PCCS utilization was increased 5-fold during the 9-year period after the promotion of PCCS In the program of PCCS promotion, an increasing trend of PCCS utilization, better patients’ and their families’ awareness of diagnosis and prognosis, more consent to DNR, more patients were discharged with stable condition at the end of PCCS and a decrease refusal rate of end

  18. The attitudes of Greek physicians and lay people on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P = .002) reported that in the case of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 8.1% of lay people and 2.1% of physicians agreed on physician-assisted suicide (P = .023). Many of the respondents, especially physicians, supported sedation but not euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. However, many of the respondents would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death.

  19. Opinions of private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein, South Africa, regarding euthanasia of terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Brits, L; Human, L; Pieterse, L; Sonnekus, P; Joubert, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the opinions of private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein, South Africa, regarding euthanasia of terminally ill patients. This descriptive study was performed amongst a simple random sample of 100 of 230 private medical practitioners in Bloemfontein. Information was obtained through anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Written informed consent was obtained. 68 of the doctors selected completed the questionnaire. Only three refused participation because they were opposed to euthanasia. Respondents were mainly male (74.2%), married (91.9%) and Afrikaans-speaking (91.9%). More were specialists (53.2%) than general practitioners (46.8%). A smaller percentage (35.5%) would never consider euthanasia for themselves compared to for their patients (46.8%). The decision should be made by the patient (50%), the patient's doctor with two colleagues (46.8%), close family (45.2%) or a special committee of specialists in ethics and medicine (37.1%). The majority (46.9%) indicated that euthanasia should be performed by an independent doctor trained in euthanasia, followed by the patient's doctor (30.7%). Notification should mainly be given to a special committee (49.9%). Only 9.8% felt that no notification was necessary. There was strong opposition to prescribing of medication to let the patient die. Withdrawal of essential medical treatment to speed up death was the most acceptable method. Although the responding group was fairly homogeneous, responses varied widely, indicating the complexity of opinions.

  20. The Palliative Care Information Act and Access to Palliative Care in Terminally ill Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Kitty; Patel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that over 50% of end-of-life discussions take place for the first time in the hospital and that terminally ill patients often have unrealistic views regarding the possible scope of treatment. The Palliative Care information Act (PCIA) was passed in an attempt to address the lack of access for terminally ill patients to palliative care services. A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 2010 to present, and there were none found measuring the effectiveness of the PCIA. Objectives: We aimed to study the effect of the PCIA on access to palliative care services. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all terminally ill patients who died at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center from January 2010 to August 2013 in relation to passing of the PCIA. Results: Prelaw (prior to the law passing), 12.3% of the terminal patients received palliative care consults, 25% during the transition period (time between passing of law and when it came into effect) and 37.7% postlaw (after coming into effect) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Legislation can have a significant effect on terminally ill patient's access to palliative care services and can change the culture of a hospital to be more pro-palliative for the appropriate populations. PMID:27803564

  1. [Is there an indication for parenteral nutrition support in the terminally ill cancer patient?].

    PubMed

    Gutman, Mordechai; Singer, Pierre; Gimmon, Zvi

    2008-03-01

    Cancer cachexia is mediated by cytokines affecting intermediate metabolism of energy, proteins, carbohydrate and lipid. It is aggravated by common therapeutic measures: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy that reduce oral intake as well as increase catabolism. Enteral or parenteral nutrition support decreases the catabolic rate of the patient, helping the patient withstand the side effects of the therapeutic measures, but do not reverse to anabolism. Terminally ill cancer patients who are refractory to the different therapeutic measures need palliative care. Nutrition is a basic human right and is conceived by the patient and his family, as well as by the medical community and human society, to be vital for survival. We obviously make every effort to feed our cancer patients as long as they can tolerate food via the alimentary system. However, we are reluctant to administer parenteral feeding, due to fear of accelerated tumor growth, complications, cost and futility, thereby leading to unnecessary prolongation of suffering. However, there is a group of patients who, although they are not candidates for any antineoplastic therapy, are still in good physical and mental condition, with expected life spans of three months or more, suffering from conditions such as intestinal obstruction, fistulas or any condition which makes the preferred route of enteral nutrition impossible. In these specific patients, palliative parenteral nutrition should be considered. The functional status of the patient has to be reasonable (Karnofsky status > 50, ECOG< 3). The decision should be taken after careful multidisciplinary discussion. The patient and caregivers should be aware that this is not a cancer-specific treatment and probably will not prolong the patient's life. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in this situation is best if provided at the patient's home.

  2. Being friendly and informal: reflected in nurses', terminally ill patients' and relatives' conversations at home.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M

    1991-08-01

    The aspect of the study discussed is part of the analysis of audio-recorded, naturally occurring conversations between symptom control team (SCT) nurses, terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives in their own homes over a 3-month period. Using an ethnographic, extended case-study approach, four 'role formats' were identified as consistently used by the SCT nurses to carry out their work through conversation, one of them being 'friendly and informal'. The SCT nurses explicitly made it known to patients and their relatives that they intended to be 'friendly and informal'. How such a claim was translated into practice, both non-conversationally and through conversation, is the focus of this paper. Being 'friends' and being 'friendly and informal' with patients and clients is frequently advocated in medical and nursing literature, but how this is achieved in practice and the responses of patients seems unstudied. Therefore, the analysis discussed in this paper opens up for critical reflection an unquestioned, taken-for-granted aspect of practice where it is demonstrated how 'friendliness and informality' are conveyed through chatting and how it differs from 'formal' conversations. PMID:1779081

  3. Recruiting Terminally Ill Patients into Non-Therapeutic Oncology Studies: views of Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and should not occur at all, or should be greatly restricted, while some proponents doubt whether such restrictions are appropriate. Our objective was to explore clinician-researcher attitudes and concerns when recruiting patients who are in advanced stages of cancer into non-therapeutic research. Methods We conducted a qualitative exploratory study by carrying out open-ended interviews with health professionals, including physicians, research nurses, and study coordinators. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory. Results The analysis of the interviews unveiled three prominent themes: 1) ethical considerations; 2) patient-centered issues; 3) health professional issues. Respondents identified ethical issues surrounding autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, discrimination, and confidentiality; bringing to light that patients contribute to science because of a sense of altruism and that they want reassurance before consenting. Several patient-centered and health professional issues are having an impact on the recruitment of patients for non-therapeutic research. Facilitators were most commonly associated with patient-centered issues enhancing communication, whereas barriers in non-therapeutic research were most often professionally based, including the doctor-patient relationship, time constraints, and a lack of education and training in research. Conclusions This paper aims to

  4. Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition?

    PubMed Central

    Lascaratos, J; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Marketos, S

    1999-01-01

    Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content. PMID:10390682

  5. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  6. When should managed care firms terminate private benefits for chronically mentally ill patients?

    PubMed

    Gerson, S N

    1994-01-01

    Corporate America's healthcare cost crisis and the country's budget deficit are forcing limits on the resources used to finance healthcare, including mental healthcare. At the same time, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act bars discrimination against patients with chronic illnesses, including chronic mental illness. Therefore, corporate benefits managers need guidance on how to ethically and rationally allocate scarce clinical resources to those high-morbidity insureds who utilize disproportionate amounts of these resources. In particular, how should we define the public/private interface: When do patients who repeatedly fail to respond to treatment fall out of the private sector's responsibility? The author, medical director for a leading behavioral healthcare utilization management company, offers the following guidelines recommending reasonable and practical limitations on trials of treatment for seven common categories of difficult psychiatric patients. PMID:10141406

  7. Impact of Palliative Care Consultation Service on Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: A 9-Year Observational Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ching-Yi; Shen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chen-Yi; Wang, Hung-Ming; Tang, Shu-Chuan; Chin, Tsu-Ling; Chi, Chuan-Chuan; Yang, Jin-Mei; Chang, Chih-Wen; Lai, Ying-Fen; Yeh, Ya-Chi; Hung, Yu-Shin; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2016-03-01

    The palliative care consultation service (PCCS) that has been enthusiastically promoted in Taiwan since 2005 was designed to provide comprehensive end-of-life care for terminally ill patients with qualified interdisciplinary specialists in acute care ward setting. This study aims to evaluate the impact of PCCS on terminally ill cancer patients.A total of 10,594 terminal cancer patients who were referred to PCCS from a single medical center in Taiwan between 2006 and 2014 were enrolled. The percentages of patients' and their families' disease awareness, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) designation, refusal and acceptance of palliative care among terminally ill cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively.At the beginning of PCCS, the percentages of disease awareness among patients and their family were increased from 25.4% to 37.9% (P = 0.007) and from 61.2% to 84.7% between 2006 and 2014 (P = 0.001), respectively. Patients' disease awareness after PCCS referral between 2006 and 2014 was increased from 47.1% to 64.5% (P = 0.016). Family's awareness of diagnosis and prognosis after PCCS referral researched to a steady plateau, 94.1% to 97.8% in different year cohort (P = 0.34). The percentage of DNR designation rate at the beginning of PCCS (in 2006) was 15.5%, and the designation rate was increased annually and finally reached to 42.0% in 2014 (P = 0.004). The percentage of DNR consents after PCCS was also improved from 44.0% in 2006 up to 80.0% in 2014 (P = 0.005). PCCS refusal rate decreased gradually and dropped to 1.6% in 2014 (P = 0.005). The percentage of PCCS utilization was increased 5-fold during the 9-year period after the promotion of PCCSIn the program of PCCS promotion, an increasing trend of PCCS utilization, better patients' and their families' awareness of diagnosis and prognosis, more consent to DNR, more patients were discharged with stable condition at the end of PCCS and a decrease refusal rate of end-of-life palliative care

  8. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  9. Is the clock ticking for terminally ill patients in Israel? Preliminary comment on a proposal for a bill of rights for the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents and discusses a recent Israeli proposal to legislate on the rights of the dying patient. A gap exists between elitist biases of the committee proposing the law, and popular values and sentiments. The proposed law divides the dying patients into two groups: "those who wish to go on living" and "those who wish to die". The former will have a right to life prolonging extraordinary care. It is not clear who would foot the bill for this care. Also it is hard to see how this munificence could fail to discriminate against all other patients. Both the secular ethicists and the rabbis involved in drawing up the proposal accepted the assumption that it is good for some terminal patients to die. The rabbis objected, however, to direct and active interventions that shorten life. The solution arrived at was to install timers in the ventilators so as to allow them to expire automatically unless the patient wishes for their resetting.

  10. Defining dignity in terminally ill cancer patients: a factor-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Hack, Thomas F; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2004-10-01

    The construct of 'dignity' is frequently raised in discussions about quality end of life care for terminal cancer patients, and is invoked by parties on both sides of the euthanasia debate. Lacking in this general debate has been an empirical explication of 'dignity' from the viewpoint of cancer patients themselves. The purpose of the present study was to use factor-analytic and regression methods to analyze dignity data gathered from 213 cancer patients having less than 6 months to live. Patients rated their sense of dignity, and completed measures of symptom distress and psychological well-being. The results showed that although the majority of patients had an intact sense of dignity, there were 99 (46%) patients who reported at least some, or occasional loss of dignity, and 16 (7.5%) patients who indicated that loss of dignity was a significant problem. The exploratory factor analysis yielded six primary factors: (1) Pain; (2) Intimate Dependency; (3) Hopelessness/Depression; (4) Informal Support Network; (5) Formal Support Network; and (6) Quality of Life. Subsequent regression analyses of modifiable factors produced a final two-factor (Hopelessness/Depression and Intimate Dependency) model of statistical significance. These results provide empirical support for the dignity model, and suggest that the provision of end of life care should include methods for treating depression, fostering hope, and facilitating functional independence.

  11. Meaning of care for terminally Ill HIV-infected patients by HIV-infected peer caregivers in a simulation-based training program in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Shin, Gisoo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation-based training program for people living with HIV (PLWH) as peer caregivers who would take care of terminally ill, HIV-infected patients. We used qualitative research methods and standardized patients to explore the meaning of caring for patients as peer caregivers. Study participants included 32 patients registered as PLWH at the South Korea Federation for HIV/AIDS. The meanings of peer caregiving were categorized into four dimensions: physical, psychological, relational, and economic. Our study had benefits in knowledge acquisition for caregivers as well as care recipients, empathy with HIV-infected care recipients, improvement in self-esteem and social participation, and financial self-sufficiency to enable independent living for caregivers. The simulation training program for PLWH peer caregivers for terminally ill HIV-infected patients demonstrated value, for both PLWH caregivers and terminally ill HIV-infected patients in South Korea, to improve the quality of care.

  12. TERMINAL ILLNESS IN AN INDIAN SETTING: PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, R.; Singh, R.P.N.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of 50 terminally ill cancer patients revealed that 52% were uninformed regarding their diagnosis and prognosis. In almost all cases the relatives had been adequately informed. No less than 82% of the terminally ill patients showed an awareness of the fatal prognosis. Most of the patients found the communication with the doctor and the relatives as unsatisfactory. Comparing this group with another group of non-terminal medically ill patients showed striking differences between the two groups. The findings are compared with those reported from the West and the implications of the above observations discussed. PMID:21927320

  13. Can prospect theory explain risk-seeking behavior by terminally ill patients?

    PubMed

    Rasiel, Emma B; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Schulman, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    Patients with life-threatening conditions sometimes appear to make risky treatment decisions as their condition declines, contradicting the risk-averse behavior predicted by expected utility theory. Prospect theory accommodates such decisions by describing how individuals evaluate outcomes relative to a reference point and how they exhibit risk-seeking behavior over losses relative to that point. The authors show that a patient's reference point for his or her health is a key factor in determining which treatment option the patient selects, and they examine under what circumstances the more risky option is selected. The authors argue that patients' reference points may take time to adjust following a change in diagnosis, with implications for predicting under what circumstances a patient may select experimental or conventional therapies or select no treatment. PMID:16282211

  14. Three lessons from a randomized trial of massage and meditation at end of life: patient benefit, outcome measure selection, and design of trials with terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Standish, Leanna J; Kozak, Leila; Lafferty, William E

    2009-01-01

    Improving end-of-life care is a priority in the United States, but assigning priorities for standard care services requires evaluations using appropriate study design and appropriate outcome indicators. A recent randomized controlled trial with terminally ill patients produced no evidence of benefit from massage or guided meditation, when evaluated with measures of global quality of life or pain distress over the course of patient participation. However, reanalysis using a more targeted outcome, surrogates' assessment of patients' benefit from the study intervention, suggested significant gains from massage-the treatment patients gave their highest preassignment preference ratings. The authors conclude that adding a menu of complementary therapies as part of standard end-of-life care may yield significant benefit, that patient preference is an important predictor of outcome, and that modifications in trial design may be appropriate for end-of-life studies.

  15. Meaning of care for terminally Ill HIV-infected patients by HIV-infected peer caregivers in a simulation-based training program in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Shin, Gisoo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation-based training program for people living with HIV (PLWH) as peer caregivers who would take care of terminally ill, HIV-infected patients. We used qualitative research methods and standardized patients to explore the meaning of caring for patients as peer caregivers. Study participants included 32 patients registered as PLWH at the South Korea Federation for HIV/AIDS. The meanings of peer caregiving were categorized into four dimensions: physical, psychological, relational, and economic. Our study had benefits in knowledge acquisition for caregivers as well as care recipients, empathy with HIV-infected care recipients, improvement in self-esteem and social participation, and financial self-sufficiency to enable independent living for caregivers. The simulation training program for PLWH peer caregivers for terminally ill HIV-infected patients demonstrated value, for both PLWH caregivers and terminally ill HIV-infected patients in South Korea, to improve the quality of care. PMID:26279386

  16. Ultimate journey of the terminally ill

    PubMed Central

    Daneault, Serge; Lussier, Véronique; Mongeau, Suzanne; Yelle, Louise; Côté, Andréanne; Sicotte, Claude; Paillé, Pierre; Dion, Dominique; Coulombe, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the role of hope among terminally ill cancer patients. Design Qualitative analysis. Setting A tertiary specialized cancer centre in Canada. Participants Cancer patients in palliative care with an estimated remaining life expectancy of 12 months or less (N = 12) and their loved ones (N = 12) and treating physicians (N = 12). Methods Each patient underwent up to 3 interviews and identified a loved one who participated in 1 interview. Treating physicians were also interviewed. All interviews were fully transcribed and analyzed by at least 2 investigators. Interviews were collected until saturation occurred. Main findings Seven attributes describe the experiences of palliative cancer patients and their caregivers: hope as an irrational phenomenon that is a deeply rooted, affect-based response to adversity; initial hope for miraculous healing; hope as a phenomenon that changes over time, evolving in different ways depending on circumstances; hope for prolonged life when there is no further hope for cure; hope for a good quality of life when the possibility of prolonging life becomes limited; a lack of hope for some when treatments are no longer effective in curbing illness progression; and for others hope as enjoying the present moment and preparing for the end of life. Conclusion Approaches aimed at sustaining hope need to reflect that patients’ reactions might fluctuate between despair and a form of acceptance that leads to a certain serenity. Clinicians need to maintain some degree of hope while remaining as realistic as possible. The findings also raise questions about how hope influences patients’ perceptions and acceptance of their treatments. PMID:27521394

  17. Burden to others and the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Kristjanson, Linda J; Hack, Thomas F; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2007-11-01

    Studies of patients who are terminally ill consistently identify strong associations between "sense of burden to others" and marked end-of-life distress. However, little research has addressed the issue of burden to others among patients nearing death. The aim of this study was to carefully examine "burden to others" and clarify its relationship with various psychosocial, physical, and existential issues arising in patients who are terminally ill. A cohort of 211 patients with end-stage cancer was assessed, using an assortment of validated psychometrics to document psychosocial, physical, and existential aspects of their end-of-life experience. This included an assessment of their sense of "burden to others." Forty percent of participants indicated a negligible sense of burden to others, scoring within the lowest quarter on an ordinal measure of "burden to others;" 25% scored within the second lowest quarter; 12% within the third quarter; and 23% within the highest or most severe range. The most highly correlated variables with "sense of burden to others" included depression (r=0.460; df=201, P<0.0001), hopelessness (r=0.420; df=199, P<0.0001), and outlook (r=0.362; df=200, P<0.0001). Four variables emerged in a multiple regression analysis predicting burden to others, including hopelessness, current quality of life, depression, and level of fatigue [R(2) adj=0.32, F(6,174)=13.76, P<0.0001]. There was no association between sense of burden to others and actual degree of physical dependency. Feeling a sense of burden to others is common among dying patients. Although 40% of the sample reported little in the way of sense of burden to others, the remainder endorsed higher degrees of burden-related distress, with 23% scoring within the most severe range. The lack of association between "sense of burden to others" and the degree of physical dependency suggests this perception is largely mediated through psychological and existential considerations. Strategies that

  18. Correlates of spiritual well-being in terminally ill persons with AIDS and terminally ill persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pace, J C; Stables, J L

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to determine if terminally ill patients with AIDS had greater religious and spiritual care needs than other terminally ill patient populations, particularly those with cancer, a study was conducted in a community-based hospice in the southeast. The purpose of the study was to compare the perceptions of spiritual well-being, loneliness, social support, health hardiness, pain, and functional status among terminally ill clients with cancer and terminally ill clients with AIDS in a hospice setting and to examine predictors of spiritual well-being in a hospice population. A sample of 55 hospice patients completed the Correlates of Spiritual Well-Being Scale (COSWEB), which includes a demographic data sheet and instruments to measure spiritual well-being, loneliness, health hardiness, social support, functional status, and pain. Patients with AIDS reported significantly lower spiritual well-being than did patients with cancer and other chronic, terminal illnesses. Patients with AIDS also reported significantly greater loneliness than other patient populations. The number of social supports for patients with AIDS was significantly lower than for cancer patients and other groups; moreover, patients with AIDS were significantly more dissatisfied with their supports than other patient groups. The best predictors of spiritual well-being in this study were social support and loneliness, which explained 47% of the variance in spiritual well-being. The results of this study suggest differences between specific groups of hospice patients. Patients with AIDS may be less spiritually well than other terminally ill patient populations due to decreased support systems, dissatisfaction with supports, greater feelings of loneliness, younger ages on entry to hospice, fewer family supports, lack of recognized long-term relationships, and related issues such as homophobia, perceived rejection by religious denominations, unstable living environments, economic disadvantages, and

  19. The ethics of withdrawing artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients: an end-of-life dilemma for Japanese nurses and families.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Emiko; Davis, Anne J; Aiba, Toshiaki

    2002-01-01

    End-of-life issues have become an urgent problem in Japan, where people are among the longest lived in the world and most of them die while connected to high-technology medical equipment. This study examines a sensitive end-of-life ethical issue that concerns patients, families and nurses: the withdrawal of artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients. A sample of 160 Japanese nurses, who completed a questionnaire that included forced-choice and open-ended questions, supported this act under only two specific conditions: if the patient requested it, and if it relieved the patient's suffering. They considered that the doctor's orders, the family's request, or the patient's advanced age did not ethically justify this act. A small number of people who had recently lost a relative took part in semistructured interviews focusing on their experiences of their terminally ill relatives being given artificial food and fluid. Ethical, social and cultural factors surrounding this issue are discussed. PMID:16010894

  20. Death education and attitudes toward euthanasia and terminal illness.

    PubMed

    Nagi, M H; Lazerine, N G

    1982-01-01

    The attitudes of a random sample of Cleveland clergy toward the experience of terminal illness and the circumstances justifying euthanasia are presented and analyzed. The clergy response patterns revealed that, although eager to prolong life as long as possible, terminally ill patients fear a prolonged period of illness more than death itself. They also agreed that most patients favor the disclosure of terminal illness. The clergy's response to a questionnaire exhibited a definite ranking (i.e., scaling) in the order of priority of the different circumstances justifying passive euthanasia. Using training in death counseling as a control variable produced sharper division in the response categories for each statement. The controversial nature of euthanasia and the problem of ascertaining the psychological needs of the terminally ill became more apparent with the group who had more training in death counseling. Interpretations of the findings are presented, and a need for a careful reexamination of the effects of death education on attitudes toward controversial subjects in death and dying is stressed.

  1. The Creative Use of Psychotherapy with Terminally Ill with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, William A.

    One clinical psychologist worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting for an 18-month time period. Interventions included individual psychotherapy, mental status assessments, staff group sessions, and supportive services for families and significant others. During that time,…

  2. The landscape of distress in the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Hack, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike; Sinclair, Shane; Murray, Alison

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the complexities of distress and knowing who is most vulnerable is foundational to the provision of quality, palliative end-of-life care. Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of symptom distress among patients nearing death, these studies have tended to largely focus on physical and, to a lesser extent, psychological challenges. The aim of this study was to use the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), a novel, reliable, and validated measure of end-of-life distress, to describe a broad landscape of distress in patients who are terminally ill. The PDI, a 25-item self-report, was administered to 253 patients receiving palliative care. Each PDI item is rated by patients to indicate the degree to which they experience various kinds of end-of-life distress. Palliative care patients reported an average of 5.74 problems (standard deviation, 5.49; range, 0-24), including physical, psychological, existential, and spiritual challenges. Being an inpatient, being educated, and having a partner were associated with certain kinds of end-of-life problems, particularly existential distress. Spirituality, especially its existential or "sense of meaning and purpose" dimension, was associated with less distress for terminally ill patients. A better appreciation for the nature of distress is a critical step toward a fuller understanding of the challenges facing the terminally ill. A clear articulation of the landscape of distress, including insight regarding those who are most at risk, should pave the way toward more effective, dignity-conserving end-of-life care.

  3. [Continuity of care, innovation and redefinition of professional roles in the healthcare of chronically and terminally ill patients. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Nevado, Dolores; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Rodríguez-Lozano, María Ángeles

    2012-03-01

    Continuity of care is essential to address the multiple needs of the chronically and terminally ill. To achieve this aim, the organizational barriers of the different levels of care must be overcome by establishing appropriate coordination mechanisms. Interest in finding effective solutions to the problems that threaten continuity of care is increasing, favoring the continued development of professional and institutional strategies to improve coordination. The present article explores some of the proposals to improve the coordination of care in primary care settings, from the point of view of nursing, social work and palliative care. Due to the increase in patients with chronic and complex needs and multimorbidity, the number and quality of home visits should be increased. The effectiveness of home care depends on the regularity of follow-up and the stability of the healthcare programs, rather than on the service responsible for monitoring the patient or the professional responsible for home visits.

  4. Bishops' response to Act on Rights of Terminally Ill.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, D

    1987-01-01

    In August 1985 the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws drafted a document entitled The Uniform Rights of the Terminally Ill Act, which it recommended for enactment by all U.S. states. The act attempts to set uniform, clear guidelines for advance directives, or living wills--written declarations made by a patient that are used to guide treatment decisions should the patient become incompetent and terminally ill. The act limits the scope of an advance directive to the withdrawal or withholding of "life-sustaining treatment," which is "any medical procedure or intervention that when administered to a qualified patient will serve only to prolong the process of dying." Qualified patients are those with a terminal condition, which is "an incurable or irreversible condition that without the administration of life-sustaining treatment will, in the opinion of the attending physician, result in death within a relatively short time." The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) Committee for Pro-Life Activities responded to the act in July 1986. The NCCB wishes to narrow the act's scope to apply only to patients in the "final stage of a terminal condition." Other specific concerns are the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration, the need for communication with the family in making decisions, and the protection of an unborn child's life when the mother fulfills the conditions of the act and her living will stipulates a desire for withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Hospital care for the terminally ill: a model program.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Darr, K

    1978-03-01

    While community hospitals increasingly are becoming community health care centers, evidence suggests a great need for most of these institutions to improve their care of the terminally ill. Based on a study of existing care programs and of thanatology literature, the authors have developed a model hospital program for dying patients and their families that uses a team approach to integrate resources for their care.

  6. Dignity in the terminally ill: a developing empirical model.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Kristjanson, Linda; Harlos, Mike

    2002-02-01

    Despite use of the term dignity in arguments for and against a patient's self-governance in matters pertaining to death, there is little empirical research on how this term has been used by patients who are nearing death. The objective of this study was to determine how dying patients understand and define the term dignity, in order to develop a model of dignity in the terminally ill. A semi-structured interview was designed to explore how patients cope with their advanced cancer and to detail their perceptions of dignity. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A consecutive sample of 50 consenting patients with advanced terminal cancer were recruited over a 15-month period of time from an urban extended care hospital housing a specialized unit for palliative care. This unit provides both inpatient services. and coordinates end-of-life care community based programming. Data were analysed using latent content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Four members of the research team independently coded the transcribed data, to develop conceptually meaningful categories of responses. Operational definitions were written for major categories, themes and sub-themes. Three major categories emerged from the qualitative analysis, including illness-related concerns; dignity conserving repertoire; and social dignity inventory. These broad categories and their carefully defined themes and sub-themes form the foundation for an emerging model of dignity amongst the dying. The concept of dignity and the dignity model offer a way of understanding how patients face advancing terminal illness. This will serve to promote dignity and the quality of life of patients nearing death.

  7. Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)

  8. Engaging Terminally Ill Patients in End of Life Talk: How Experienced Palliative Medicine Doctors Navigate the Dilemma of Promoting Discussions about Dying

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Ruth; Land, Victoria; Faull, Christina; Feathers, Luke; Seymour, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how palliative medicine doctors engage patients in end-of-life (hereon, EoL) talk. To examine whether the practice of “eliciting and responding to cues”, which has been widely advocated in the EoL care literature, promotes EoL talk. Design Conversation analysis of video- and audio-recorded consultations. Participants Unselected terminally ill patients and their companions in consultation with experienced palliative medicine doctors. Setting Outpatient clinic, day therapy clinic, and inpatient unit of a single English hospice. Results Doctors most commonly promoted EoL talk through open elaboration solicitations; these created opportunities for patients to introduce–then later further articulate–EoL considerations in such a way that doctors did not overtly ask about EoL matters. Importantly, the wording of elaboration solicitations avoided assuming that patients had EoL concerns. If a patient responded to open elaboration solicitations without introducing EoL considerations, doctors sometimes pursued EoL talk by switching to a less participatory and more presumptive type of solicitation, which suggested the patient might have EoL concerns. These more overt solicitations were used only later in consultations, which indicates that doctors give precedence to patients volunteering EoL considerations, and offer them opportunities to take the lead in initiating EoL talk. There is evidence that doctors treat elaboration of patients’ talk as a resource for engaging them in EoL conversations. However, there are limitations associated with labelling that talk as “cues” as is common in EoL communication contexts. We examine these limitations and propose “possible EoL considerations” as a descriptively more accurate term. Conclusions Through communicating–via open elaboration solicitations–in ways that create opportunities for patients to volunteer EoL considerations, doctors navigate a core dilemma in promoting EoL talk: giving

  9. The care of the terminally ill: morality and economics.

    PubMed

    Bayer, R; Callahan, D; Fletcher, J; Hodgson, T; Jennings, B; Monsees, D; Sieverts, S; Veatch, R

    1983-12-15

    Are current expenditures on dying patients disproportionate, unreasonable, or unjust? Although a review of empirical data reveals that care for the terminally ill is very costly, it is not appropriate to conclude that such expenditures represent a morally troubling misallocation of societal resources. Moreover, though efforts to reduce the costs of caring for the dying are not unreasonable, they must be undertaken with great caution. At present, such efforts should concentrate on three basic goals: development of better criteria for admission to intensive- and critical-care units; promotion of patient and family autonomy with regard to decisions to stop or refuse certain kinds of treatment; and promotion of alternative forms of institutional care, such as hospice care. The most difficult moral problems will arise when patients and their physicians seek access to therapies judged only marginally useful. There may be conflict between administrators with broad institutional responsibilities and clinicians committed to particular patients.

  10. Do models of care designed for terminally ill 'home alone' people improve their end-of-life experience? A patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Samar; O'Connor, Moira; Skett, Kim; Deas, Kathleen; Smith, Joanna

    2012-11-01

    Palliative care patients who live alone report greater psychological distress, and are less likely to die at home than those living with a family carer. However, there is a lack of research on the value of models of care that specifically address this disadvantage. This article describes the experiences of terminally ill 'home alone' people using one of two models of care aimed at maintaining participants' need for independent living, focusing on the effect of these two models of care on their physical, social and emotional needs. Twenty six palliative care patients of Silver Chain Hospice Care, in Western Australia, were randomly assigned to either having a personal alarm or additional care-aide hours in their home. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted in two phases in 2010 using face-to-face interviews. The care-aide model of care resulted in benefits such as easing the burden of everyday living; supporting well-being; enhancing quality of life and preserving a sense of dignity; and reducing loneliness and isolation. The personal alarm model of care imparted a sense of security; provided peace of mind; and helped to deal with feelings of isolation. Participants in both groups felt that they could remain at home longer. By providing a safer, more secure environment through the use of a personal alarm or additional care-aide hours, patients were able to continue their activities of daily living, could build a sense of 'normality' into their lives, and they could live independently through support and dignity.

  11. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  12. Death--whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S I; Walters, J W

    2000-04-01

    In Australia and Oregon, USA, legislation to permit statutory sanctioned physician-assisted dying was enacted. However, opponents, many of whom held strong religious views, were successful with repeal in Australia. Similar opposition in Oregon was formidable, but ultimately lost in a 60-40% vote reaffirming physician-assisted dying. This paper examines the human dilemma which arises when technological advances in end-of-life medicine conflict with traditional and religious sanctity-of-life values. Society places high value on personal autonomy, particularly in the United States. We compare the potential for inherent contradictions and arbitrary decisions where patient autonomy is either permitted or forbidden. The broader implications for human experience resulting from new legislation in both Australia and Oregon are discussed. We conclude that allowing autonomy for the terminally ill, within circumscribed options, results in fewer ethical contradictions and greater preservation of dignity. PMID:10786323

  13. Teachers' Knowledge and Support Systems Regarding Students with Terminal Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Coleman, Mari Beth; Best, Sherwood J.; Emerson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' knowledge and support when working with students with terminal illness or having experienced a student death. One hundred and ninety teachers of students with physical or multiple disabilities responded to a 40 item questionnaire that was distributed nationally. Results indicated that teachers have greater knowledge…

  14. [Withholding treatment in terminally-ill newborns with Islamic parents].

    PubMed

    Westra, A E; Smit, B J; Willems, D L

    2007-02-24

    End-of-life decisions for terminally-ill newborn infants are usually made with the consent of parents as well as physicians, but may occasionally involve disagreement about which decision is in the best interest of the child. Paediatricians, while acting in accordance with the principle of respecting the autonomy of the parents, may collide with their own motive of avoiding pointless suffering of the infant. Based on their religious beliefs Islamic parents may not consent to an end-of-life decision. Three newborn girls who eventually died had been suffering from a skeletal dysplasia and a serious bronchopulmonary dysplasia, serious intractable deterioration after surgery for necrotising enterocolitis, and trisomy 18 respectively. In the first two cases there was no preceding consensus between parents and physicians and the girls died after more suffering than the paediatrician found acceptable. The physicians should aspire to prevent conflict situations by paying sufficient attention to the differences in beliefs. This demands that physicians understand and respect different beliefs and that they are able to communicate on the subject of these differences. It is important to Islamic parents that the natural course allows Allah to exercise his authority over life and death, and human dignity. Doing the best for the child is often more important than respect for patient or parent autonomy. PMID:17378297

  15. The new Israeli law on the care of the terminally ill: conceptual innovations waiting for implementation.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    Israel has recently enacted a law on the care of terminally ill patients. This law, the Patient Nearing Death Act, is the first of its kind in the world. The law divides terminally ill patients--upon their own wishes--into two separate groups: "those who wish their lives be prolonged," and those who do not. Doctors will have to abide by elaborate advanced directives and take into account various sources of information on the presumed wishes of the patient. The law sanctions discontinuation of mechanical ventilation should it become a "cyclical" rather than "continuous" therapy, a provision that has implications for the use of the already available paraPAC ventilators. The law exposes gaps in modern Judaism between the religious law and the attitudes of the observant population with regard to medical ethics.

  16. Suicide in the medically and terminally ill: psychological and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kleespies, P M; Hughes, D H; Gallacher, F P

    2000-09-01

    For the clinician who works in a behavioral-medicine or primary-care setting, this article presents the association between medical illness and suicide. Specific illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, cancers of the brain and nervous system, and multiple sclerosis all are associated with an increased risk of suicide. Rates of major depression rise with increasing rates of serious medical illness; however, depression and associated suicidal ideation tend to be undertreated in the medically ill. When medical illness becomes terminal, the clinician's patient may be confronted with difficult end-of-life decisions. Great concern exists in the United States about the ethics of end-of-life decision making and the issue of physician-assisted suicide. The latter part of this article examines the terminally ill patient's right to refuse life-sustaining treatments or to have death hastened according to the principle of the "double effect." It also reviews psychologists' apparent acceptance of the concept of rational suicide, as well as assisted suicide under certain conditions, and offers several caveats. A reexamination of psychology's role, standards, and principles with respect to rational suicide is recommended.

  17. Communicating with terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L

    Communication between doctors and terminal cancer patients has been identified as a problem area in medical care. There have been attempts to overcome this problem by establishing new teaching programs; however, the most effective teaching methods are costly. A model is described that requires minimal staff involvement in teaching about communicating with terminal cancer patients.

  18. Depression in medically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Sandra; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    In medically ill patients, given the many entities the phenotype of depression may represent, clinicians must be prepared to cast their diagnostic nets widely, not settling for the obvious but frequently incorrect choice of major depressive episode and throwing antidepressants at it willy nilly. Having chosen the correct diagnosis from among a broad differential of depression “look-alikes,” clinicians can draw upon a broad swath of treatment modalities including medications, psychotherapy, social supports, and spiritual interventions. Working as a psychiatrist in the medical arena requires the curiosity and analytic skills of a detective and the breadth of knowledge of a polymath adapting therapeutic tools from across the biopsychosociospiritual spectrum to the specific needs of the patient. PMID:22370500

  19. On withholding nutrition and hydration in the terminally ill: has palliative medicine gone too far?

    PubMed Central

    Craig, G M

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores ethical issues relating to the management of patients who are terminally ill and unable to maintain their own nutrition and hydration. A policy of sedation without hydration or nutrition is used in palliative medicine under certain circumstances. The author argues that this policy is dangerous, medically, ethically and legally, and can be disturbing for relatives. The role of the family in management is discussed. This issue requires wide debate by the public and the profession. PMID:7527863

  20. Health Care Reform and Concurrent Curative Care for Terminally Ill Children: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 or health care reform, is a relatively small provision about concurrent curative care that significantly affects terminally ill children. Effective on March 23, 2010, terminally ill children, who are enrolled in a Medicaid or state Children’s Health Insurance Plans (CHIP) hospice benefit, may concurrently receive curative care related to their terminal health condition. The purpose of this article was to conduct a policy analysis of the concurrent curative care legislation by examining the intended goals of the policy to improve access to care and enhance quality of end of life care for terminally ill children. In addition, the policy analysis explored the political feasibility of implementing concurrent curative care at the state-level. Based on this policy analysis, the federal policy of concurrent curative care for children would generally achieve its intended goals. However, important policy omissions focus attention on the need for further federal end of life care legislation for children. These findings have implications nurses. PMID:22822304

  1. Attitudes toward care of the terminally ill: an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, Katherine H Murray

    2003-01-01

    This quasiexperimental study examined the effect of an educational program on attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their families. Participants were 115 undergraduate students: intervention group, N = 49; control group, N = 66. Pre- and post-intervention measurements were done with the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD, Form B). Students in the intervention group participated in a semester-long (15-week, 45-hour) educational program. Demographic variables, including age, gender, religion, major area of study, influence of religious beliefs, profession, previous education, and past or present experience with loss were evaluated. Statistical analyses (t-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and APVs) indicated a significant positive change in the attitude scores of the intervention group and no significant change in the attitude scores of the control group.

  2. Intentions to work during terminal illness: an exploratory study of antecedent conditions.

    PubMed

    Westaby, James D; Versenyi, Andrea; Hausmann, Robert C

    2005-11-01

    Facing a terminal illness is an unimaginably difficult experience, yet many individuals intend to work despite their prognosis. However, research has not systematically examined the potential antecedents underlying such intentions. Using behavioral intention theory as an underlying framework, this study hypothesized that reasons for working (intrinsic and extrinsic), the will to live, disability severity, accessibility of travel, and age would predict intentions to work during terminal illness. A representative sample of medically diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's disease) patients with a mean life expectancy of approximately 3 years participated (mean age=57.8 years). Controlling for length of diagnosis, employment status, and demographic variables, results indicated that intrinsic reasons were particularly strong predictors of intentions, followed by age, disability severity, and accessibility of travel. Exploratory findings also indicated that behavioral intentions were positively related to future employment status, consistent with past theory. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:16316283

  3. Creating the final conversations scale: a measure of end-of-life relational communication with terminally ill individuals.

    PubMed

    Generous, Mark Alan; Keeley, Maureen P

    2014-01-01

    Final conversations (FCs) are defined as the communicative interactions, both verbal and nonverbal, that occur between terminally ill patients and relational partners. In this study, the "Final Conversations Scale" was developed and tested. A total of 152 participants that had engaged in final conversations with individuals that were terminally ill completed the newly developed instrument. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure, including: messages of spirituality/religion; expressions of love; proactive difficult relationship talk; everyday communication; and talk about illness/death. Participants' perceptions of the relational closeness and difficulty with the deceased significantly influenced the individuals' recalled frequency of FCs messages. Practical and scholarly implications focus on the needs of the family members regarding their communication with terminally ill individuals, as well as directions for future research with the FCs Scale. PMID:25148453

  4. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  5. Nursing's role in the nutritional care of the terminally ill: weathering the storm.

    PubMed

    Baack, C M

    1993-01-01

    The role of the nurse in nutritional care of the terminally ill is first, to come to terms with personal, psychological, and moral and ethical issues surrounding nutrition and hydration on an individual level; and second, to enter into a partnership with the patient and family and guide them through the storm of emotions and questions using a framework based on principles of ethics, crisis intervention, and effective communication. The nurse's ability to be present with the patient and family during this time is his/her primary tool as the nurse helps them maintain wellness and equilibrium.

  6. [NURSING ACTION BEFORE THE TERMINAL PATIENT PHYSICAL CARE].

    PubMed

    Delgado Sevilla, David; Juarez Vela, Raúl; Pellicer García, Begoña; Redondo Castán, Luis Carlos; Ramón Arbués, Enrique; López Martín, Inmaculada; De Blas Gómez, Irene; Alburquerque Medina, Eulalia

    2014-11-01

    Palliative care is a group of actions performed by nurses in order to increase the comfort and well-being of patients with terminal illnesses. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines this term as: An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual [1]. Cicely Mary Strode Saunders is considered as the precursor of the palliative care, who explained the need to change the Palliative Care Units in order to improve the quality of life of patients with terminal illnesses. Palliative care is necessary for patients with a terminal illness. In such cases, the life expectancy is less than six months. Human being is considered a biopsychosocial model. For this reason, the nurse must take into account all the requirements arising from these three dimensions of the human being. In this essay, we deal with palliative care in patients with terminal illnesses, considering the role of the nurse as an important reference when teaching palliative care to the main carer. PMID:26118206

  7. Finding Boundaries Inside Prison Walls: Case Study of a Terminally Ill Inmate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2004-01-01

    The number of terminally ill prison inmates rises each year. Mental health professionals are uniquely prepared to provide therapy during the end-of-life process with their assessment, training, empathy, and communication skills. This case study examines the six-month therapy of one terminally ill inmate, using a client-centered approach. Drawing…

  8. Preparation for Counseling Adults with Terminal Illness: Personal and Professional Parallels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manis, Amie A.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on counseling adults with terminal illness, particularly the literature on the nature of preparation that counselors and other professionals who attend to the needs of adults with a terminal illness require. The authors review information and findings from philosophical, psychological, practical,…

  9. Caregiver Grief in Terminal Illness and Bereavement: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers experience multiple losses during the downhill trajectory of a loved one's terminal illness. Using mixed methods, this two-stage study explored caregiver grief during a terminal illness and after the care recipient's death. Caregiver grief was a state of heightened responsiveness during end-stage care: anxiety, hostility, depression,…

  10. Perspectives of Cardiac Care Unit Nursing Staff about Developing Hospice Services in Iran for Terminally ill Cardiovascular Patients: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Imani, Shahin; Aghaei, Mir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted aiming to determine the points of view of cardiac care units’ nursing staff about designing and providing Hospice services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in the final stages of life. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the perspectives of 16 Cardiac Care Unit (CCU) nurses selected purposefully among hospitals of Tabriz-Iran University of Medical Sciences were investigated using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed in content analysis method. Results: 33 themes were finally extracted. Some nurses were for and some were against designing and providing Hospice services in Iran. The main reasons identified for supporting this plan included: Possibility of designing and providing these services consistent with high ethical values of Iranian society; approval of authorities due to increasing the load of chronic diseases and aged population; need of families due to the problems in taking care of patients and life concerns; better pain relief and respectful death; decrease of costs as a result of lower usage of diagnostic-therapeutic services, less use of expensive facilities and drugs, and better usage of hospital beds. Conclusion: Growing load of chronic diseases has made the need for Hospice as a necessary issue in Iran. In order to provide these services, studying the viewpoints of health service providers is inevitable. Therefore using and applying the results of this study in planning and policy making about designing and providing these services in Iran for cardiovascular patients in their final stages of lives could be helpful. PMID:25709187

  11. [Enteral nutrition and the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Planas, M

    1999-09-01

    Critically ill patients often suffer from malnutrition y loss of muscle weight throughout the whole time they are ill, even when they receive nutritional therapy, due to the tremendous amount of stress they undergo accompanied by a high degree of hypercatabolism. The most recent theories all coincide in the importance of the intestine as the preferred way for nutrients to enter the bodies of these patients because besides fulfilling its function to absorb and digest nutrients, the intestine plays an important role as a barrier to bacteria and their toxins. For these reasons, enteral nutrition should be the first option to consider whenever we must feed a critically ill patient by artificial means.

  12. End-of-Life Decision Making: A Preliminary Outline for Preparing Counselors to Work with Terminally Ill Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Magenta, Mary

    2008-01-01

    End-of-life care is continuously becoming an issue of paramount importance given an increase in medical advances, the aging of the population, and the movement toward contributing toward a quality of life among terminally ill patients. However, there is a dearth in literature related to this topic specifically in terms of preparing counselors to…

  13. Fear of death, death attitudes, and religious conviction in the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Nehemkis, A M; Charter, R A

    The way in which an individual's belief system about death affects fear of death (FOD) has been largely neglected in the thanatology literature. The present study addresses the dimension of certainty or uncertainty with which beliefs about death are held and examines the way in which such attitudes might affect the FOD in dying patients. Twenty terminally ill patients were administered three FOD measures and a death perspective scale which assessed eight death attitudes. FOD among the terminally ill at both the conscious and fantasy level was low. Increased age was associated with declining conscious FOD, independent of life expectancy. Of the eight death perspectives, the attitudes toward death as afterlife-of-reward most directly tap the dimension of certainty or uncertainty. A significant curvilinear relationship emerged between this death perspective and FOD, suggesting that beliefs are a less critical determinant of death fear than is the certainty with which these beliefs are held. The study raises research and clinical issues pertinent to understanding FOD in dying patients.

  14. The search for a higher power among terminally ill people with no previous religion or belief.

    PubMed

    Collin, Margery

    2012-08-01

    In a palliative care setting, there is evidence from the practice of spiritual care delivery to suggest that some terminally ill patients may seek, with varying degrees of openness and articulation, to connect with a higher power, or God, despite having expressed no previous interest in religion or belief. Developing a better understanding of the thoughts and feelings of such patients requires insight into the initial triggers of their search. In this small qualitative study involving six patients, fear, hope, and a natural connection are posited as possible prompts. The results highlight the complexity of ambivalent feelings toward a transcendent being that can be the focus of anger and blame while simultaneously offering a source of comfort and hope for an afterlife. Moreover, the study revealed something of the extent to which health professionals may feel limited in facilitating necessary discussion by a need to protect patients and themselves from entering an unfamiliar and complex area. PMID:23123983

  15. Palliative care for the terminally ill in America: the consideration of QALYs, costs, and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Mahon, Margaret M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for cost-effective use of medical interventions has advantages, but can also be challenging in the context of end-of-life palliative treatments. A quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) provides a common currency to assess the extent of the benefits gained from a variety of interventions in terms of health-related quality of life and survival for the patient. However, since it is in the nature of end-of-life palliative care that the benefits it brings to its patients are of short duration, it fares poorly under a policy of QALY-maximization. Nevertheless, we argue that the goals of palliative care and QALY are not incompatible, and optimal integration of palliative care into the calculation of QALY may reveal a mechanism to modify considerations of how optimal quality of life can be achieved, even in the face of terminal illness. The use of QALYs in resource allocation means that palliative care will always compete with alternative uses of the same money. More research should be conducted to evaluate choices between palliative care and more aggressive therapies for the terminally ill. However, current limited data show that investing in palliative care makes more sense not only ethically, but also financially. PMID:22071573

  16. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; de Lara, Tais Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990’s. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  17. Bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; Lara, Tais Rodrigues de

    2015-01-01

    The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990's. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560

  18. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  19. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as “the forgotten electrolyte”, is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:26566403

  20. Measurement of sleep in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Richards, K C; O'Sullivan, P S; Phillips, R L

    2000-01-01

    Research to evaluate interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients has been restricted by the lack of brief, inexpensive outcome measures. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument to measure sleep in critically ill patients. A convenience sample of 70 alert, oriented, critically ill males was studied using polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard for sleep measurement, for one night. In the morning the patients completed the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ), a five-item visual analog scale. Internal consistency reliability of the RCSQ was .90 and principal components factor analysis revealed a single factor (Eigenvalue = 3.61, percent variance = 72.2). The RCSQ total score accounted for approximately 33% of the variance in the PSG indicator sleep efficiency index (p < .001). The data provide support for the reliability and validity of the RCSQ. PMID:11227580

  1. The use of video tape in teaching how psychological factors influence nutritional status in chronic/terminal illness.

    PubMed

    LeGardeur, B Y; Fe-Bornstein, M; Lopez, A

    1991-01-01

    The medical students of Louisiana State University Medical School in New Orleans are required to take a clinical nutrition course in their senior year. In 1989, audio-visual media were used to introduce the students to the ways that the psychological aspects of chronic/terminal illness can influence nutritional status. In order to illustrate this topic, a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was interviewed by a psychiatrist, internist, and a dietitian over several weeks. The interviews were videotaped and the videotape was edited to 25 minutes to address specific areas including psychiatric symptomatology, coping with illness, attitude towards treatment, diet and nutritional status, and results of the anthropometric and clinical exams. During the nutrition course, the videotape was presented to the students with subsequent discussion facilitated by the psychiatrist. The students agreed the subject was favorably presented and had increased their understanding of psychological factors in physical illness. The pre- and post-film examinations suggested the students were already aware of many of the psychological issues of chronic/terminal illness. The videotaped interview of a real person diagnosed with a chronic/terminal illness was found to be useful in introducing a difficult subject within a limited course schedule.

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Freda

    2003-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interactions among behavior, neural, and endocrine functions and the immune system. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the evidence concerning interactions among behavior, the neuroendocrine system, and the immune system, and to show how this evidence relates to critical care patients. It has been shown that the immune function of many patients in the intensive care unit is suppressed as a result of trauma, sepsis, or profound physiologic and psychological stress. Three of the most common stressors among patients in the intensive care unit are pain, sleep deprivation, and fear or anxiety. Findings have shown each of these stressors to be associated with decreased immune functioning. Nurses have an important responsibility to protect their patients from infection and promote their ability to heal. Several actions are suggested that can help the nurse achieve these goals. It is hoped that nurses would keep these interactions in mind while caring for their patients in the intensive care unit.

  3. Medical illness in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goldman, L S

    1999-01-01

    Research into the relationship between physical illness and schizophrenia has revealed that patients with schizophrenia may be at decreased risk for certain disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and allergies, but at increased risk for others, including substance abuse and polydipsia. Although such knowledge may ultimately help determine the underlying causes of schizophrenia, the principal concern of practicing clinicians should be to diagnose and treat medical comorbidity in individual patients. Nearly 50% of patients with schizophrenia have a comorbid medical condition, but many of these illnesses are misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. A fragmented health care system, lack of access to care, patient inability to clearly appreciate or describe a medical problem, and patient reluctance to discuss such problems all contribute to the lack of attention to medical problems in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrists and primary care practitioners who treat patients with schizophrenia should make an effort to uncover medical illnesses by using a structured interview or routine physical examination whenever a patient is seen for care. PMID:10548136

  4. [Hyperprolactinemia in mentally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Manuel Maria de; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common, but neglected, adverse effect of conventional antipschycotics and of some of the atypical antipshycotics. It occurs in almost 42% of men and in 75% of women with schizophrenia who are treated with prolactin-raising antipshycotics, even though it has aroused minimal interest within the scientific community when compared with extra-pyramidal effects. Conventional antipsychotics and some of the atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, paliperidone, amisulpride and zotepine, are frequently associated with the raise in prolactin plasma levels. Because of this increment in prolactin secretion, they are usually known as prolactin-raising antipshycotics. On the contrary, some of the atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, aripiprazole and ziprazidone, have a minimal or no significant effect in prolactin levels, being known as prolactin-sparing antipsychotics. Hyperprolactinemia clinical symptoms include gynaecomastia, galactorrhoea, menstrual irregularities, infertility, sexual dysfunction, acne and hirsutism. Some of these symptoms are due to the prolactin direct action in body tissues, while a couple of them can be due to a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis dysregulation mediated by the elevation of prolactin. Some studies seem to point the evidence of an association between hyperprolactinemia and long-term consequences, such as bone mineral density decrement and breast cancer. However, these results must be confirmed through further studies. Antipsychotic treatment is the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia in psychiatric patients. However, the evidence of a prolactin increased plasma level demands the differential diagnosis with other pathologies, such as hyphotalamic and pituitary neoplasic disease. The management of a patient with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia must be adapted to each patient and it may include a reduction in the dosage of the offending antipsychotic, switching to a

  5. [PHARMACONUTRITION IN SEVERELY ILL PATIENT].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Escudero Álvarez, Elena; García Almeida, Jose Manuel; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; García Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gil Hernández, Angel; Matos Adames, Alfredo; Molina Soria, Juan Bautista; Montejo González, Juan Carlos; Sánchez Alvarez, Carmen; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    "Pharmaconutrient" is a term applicable to those compounds which. in addition to their nutritional function, play a role as aids in the treatment of patients with severe pathologies, including sepsis, trauma, burns and major surgery, In general, enrichment of enteral an parenteral formulas with pharmaconutrients contribute to positively modulate the inflammatory response, infection and controlling the internal milieu, which in turn can be evaluated through lower mortality, hospital and intensive care units stay, days of mechanical ventilation and other parameters allowing to asses their effects. Arginine, glutamine, nucleotides, omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant micronutrients, make up the nucleus of pharmaconutrients used with that aim, usually as mixtures of them. In the present review current evidence about the effects, indications, limitations, doses, potential adverse risks and even counter-indications is analysed.

  6. Insulin infusion therapy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Jean-Marie; Gauthier, Lyne

    2014-04-01

    While dysglycemia (hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glucose variability) is clearly associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients, target range of blood glucose control remains controversial. Standardized insulin infusion protocols constitute the basis of treatment of these patients. The choice of protocol and its implementation is a great challenge. In this article, we review the published data to help define the essential elements that compose a good protocol and apply the right conditions to make it safe and effective. PMID:24690510

  7. Management of Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hranjec, Tjasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Critically ill patients have an increased risk of developing infections and infectious complications, sometimes followed by death. Despite a substantial investment of resources in outcomes improvement, optimum treatment for such patients remains unclear for practicing intensivists. Methods: We conducted a review that highlights the most recent developments in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of infection and the evaluation of its outcomes. The review examines the prevention of infection, such as through daily bathing with chlorhexidine and the addition of probiotics to treatment regimens, and questions the previous standards of care, including the monitoring of gastric residuals and treatment of severely ill patients with drotrecogin alfa (activated). It also discusses novel approaches to the treatment of severely ill infected patients with extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and the earlier normalization of body temperature. Results: The development of new antibiotics continues at a slow pace, with the likelihood that alternative approaches to the management of infection, including changes in the quality of patient care, are producing needed improvements. Conclusions: Clinical outcomes of infection are improving slowly as medical teams strive for better patient care. Lack of reimbursement is unnecessary as a punitive approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24841214

  8. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  9. Reversing oliguria in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    DePriest, J

    1997-09-01

    Oliguria is a common occurrence in the ICU setting. In patients with preserved renal function, fluid challenges or low doses of diuretics are generally successful. In patients with oliguric renal failure, it is still essential to ensure adequate intravascular fluid volume, especially in critically ill patients. Loop diuretics remain the mainstay of treatment. When diuretic resistance is encountered, physicians should consider further optimization of hemodynamics, alternative loop diuretics, and combined drug therapy. In some cases, continuous renal replacement therapy can be very effective. Yet, while these interventions can help reduce the morbidity of severe volume overload, they have not been shown to improve mortality rates. PMID:9300031

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH TERMINAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    McCarley, Tracey H.

    1963-01-01

    The dying patient reacts emotionally to the problems encountered in the terminal period according to his established pattern of response to stress. The nature of this pattern will play a part in his experience of pain. Some of the types of reaction include the bizarre misinterpretation of bodily sensation of the psychotic, the development of conversion symptoms, the increase in pain through muscle tension in the anxious but overcontrolled person, and the stoical acceptance by guilt-ridden patients. Physicians are sometimes reluctant to devote full attention to the care of the terminally ill for a number of reasons, including the attitude that “curing” is the only worthwhile activity of a doctor of medicine. Observers have found that the physician's attention to the day to day anxieties of the patient in a terminal stage may contribute substantially to his comfort. PMID:18732651

  11. Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Sam; Speare, Rick; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2012-06-01

    Terminal changes in frogs infected with the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) include epidermal degeneration leading to inhibited epidermal electrolyte transport, systemic electrolyte disturbances, and asystolic cardiac arrest. There are few reports of successful treatment of chytridiomycosis and none that include curing amphibians with severe disease. Three terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient temperature to 28 degrees C for 14 days. All terminally ill frogs recovered rapidly to normal activity levels and appetite within 5 days of commencing treatment. In contrast, five untreated terminally ill L. caerulea with heavy Bd infections died within 24-48 hr of becoming moribund. Subclinical infections in 15 experimentally infected L. caerulea were cured within 28 days by continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution without adverse effects. This is the first known report of a clinical treatment protocol for curing terminally ill Bd-infected frogs.

  12. Thyroid function in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita

    2015-10-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU.

  13. Reconciling Quinlan and Saikewicz: decision making for the terminally ill incompetent.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1979-01-01

    One of the most perplexing problems in the medicolegal field concerns the criteria on which decisions not to treat terminally ill incompetent patients should be made. These decisions traditionally have been made by physicians in hospitals--sometimes with the assistance of the patient's family--on the basis of their perceptions of the patient's "best interests." Recently, two state supreme courts have ruled on this question. The New Jersey Supreme Court, in the Quinlan case, developed a medical prognosis criterion, and permitted the patient's guardian, family, and physicians to apply it with the concurrence of a hospital "ethics committee." The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, in the Saikewicz case, adopted, on different facts, the test of "substituted judgment" to be applied by a probate court after an adjudicatory hearing. The two cases have been interpreted by many in the medical profession as representing conflicting viewpoints--one supportive of traditional medical decision making and the other distrustful of it. It is the thesis of this Article that Quinlan and Saikewicz are in fundamental agreement and can be reconciled by the next state supreme court that rules on this question. Both courts enunciate a constitutional right to refuse life-sustaining treatment, based on the right to privacy. They agree that incompetents should be afforded the opportunity to exercise this right, and that certain state interests can overcome it. They agree also that physicians should be permitted to make medical judgments, and that societal judgments belong in the courts. The differences in how the opinions are perceived result from the interplay of several factors: the differences in the facts of the cases; the inarticulate use of the term "ethics committee" by the Quinlan court; the literal interpretation of the role of such a committee by the Saikewicz court; a desire for 100 percent immunity on the part of physicians and hospital administrators in Massachusetts; and

  14. Rhabdomyolysis in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. The aim: of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. Material and methods: A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic “Mother Teresa” in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1st till December 31st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Results: Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Conclusion: Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI. PMID:27703296

  15. Lingering terminal illness and family: insights from literature.

    PubMed

    Bertman, S L

    1980-12-01

    Literature invites us to enter into the human dilemma in a manner that is different from but no less penetrating than clinical observation. The writer's craft uncovers realities other than the statistically measurable and objective. In languages far from the strictly literal and closer to indirection, symbolism, and aesthetics, the literary artist probes imagination and consciousness. He presents us with transcripts of conversations replete with intonations, and we thereby become privy to motivations and inner thoughts. The artistry of a piece of fiction, autobiographical essay, poem, or drama propels us into empathetic relationships. We feel with the emotions of the involved dramatis personae; we witness their interactions; we experience their points of view. And by such participation, we, the readers, come to perceive and even refine our own. Themes of chronic illness, dying, and bereavement are certainly not alien to literature. This paper explores several literary moments that may help the professional who is working with these issues to have a broader appreciation of the subtleties of these human experiences.

  16. [Clinical efficacy of octreotide acetate in cancer patients with malignant bowel symptoms depend on terminal stage].

    PubMed

    Uchino, Ryojin; Kusano, Shuichi; Hanada, Norihisa; Ohara, Chitoshi; Okino, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    There are many reports that octreotide acetate(SMS)is effective for terminally ill cancer patients with malignant bowel obstructions such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. We retrospectively found that the clinical efficacy of SMS in 23 patients with these symptoms depended on the early terminal stage(about six months until death)or middle terminal stage(within one month until death). SMS was more effective to relieve abdominal distension(p=0. 01)and these bowel symptoms occurred among cancer patients in the early terminal stage rather than in the middle terminal stage(p<0. 001).

  17. Talking with a child about a parent's terminal illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child will continue to live with the surviving parent after you die. The parent without cancer ... resume bedwetting or need more attention from the surviving parent. Try to be patient, and remember that ...

  18. Storytelling by Adults Diagnosed with Terminal Illness: Narrative Identifying through Dialogical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogical qualitative research study was to gain insight into the process of storytelling with adults diagnosed with terminal illness as a way of making meaning of their experiences and lives. The study was informed by the conceptual frameworks of story, storytelling, and story listening which are grounded in the theory of…

  19. Ethical Guidelines for Counselors when Working with Clients with Terminal Illness Requesting Physician Aid in Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).

  20. The Medicare Hospice Benefit: Ten Years of Federal Policy for the Terminally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela J.; Mike, Paula B.

    1995-01-01

    The political and social development of the Medicare Hospice Benefit combines humanitarian and cost-saving strategies. Although it mainstreamed care of the terminally ill and provided multiple services, four major constraints of the benefit package are identified and explored. It is important that we analyze this policy before we devise new ways…

  1. 76 FR 38744 - Proposed Information Collection (Application by Insured Terminally Ill Person for Accelerated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... stating the life expectancy of the insured person and a statement by the insured on the amount of... terminally ill may request a portion of the face value of his or her Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) or Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) prior to death. If the insured would like to receive...

  2. [Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient].

    PubMed

    Tobar A, Eduardo; Silva O, Francisco; Olivares C, Roberto; Gaete G, Pablo; Luppi N, Mario

    2011-02-01

    Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  3. Patients' perception of their depressive illness.

    PubMed

    Manber, Rachel; Chambers, Andrea S; Hitt, Sabrina K; McGahuey, Cynthia; Delgado, Pedro; Allen, John J B

    2003-01-01

    Perception of illness has been described as an important predictor in the medical health psychology literature, but has been given little attention in the domain of mental disorders. The patient's Perception of Depression Questionnaire (PDIQ) is a newly developed measure whose factor structure and psychometric properties were evaluated on a sample of 174 outpatients meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. The clinical utility of the questionnaire was assessed on a sub-sample of 121 participants in a study of acupuncture treatment for depression. The questionnaire has four subscales, each with high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. These four subscales are: Self-Efficacy, which reflects perceived controllability of the illness, Externalizing, which reflects attributing the illness to external causes, Hopeless/Flawed, which reflect a belief that depression is a personal trait and therefore there is little hope for cure, and Holistic, which reflects a belief in alternative therapies. Although the PDIQ did not predict outcome, its subscales were related to adherence to treatment, treatment preference, expectations, and therapeutic alliance. The subscales have adequate convergent/discriminant validity and are clinically relevant to aspects of treatment provision.

  4. Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; Mesotten, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Studies on tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy abruptly changed the climate of limited interest in the problem of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients and reopened the discussion on accuracy and reliability of glucose sensor devices. This article describes important components of blood glucose measurements and their interferences with the focus on the intensive care unit setting. Typical methodologies, organized from analytical accuracy to clinical accuracy, to assess imprecision and bias of a glucose sensor are also discussed. Finally, a list of recommendations and requirements to be considered when evaluating (time-discrete) glucose sensor devices is given. PMID:22401319

  5. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotta, M O; Roberts, J A; Lipman, J

    2015-12-01

    The judicious use of existing antibiotics is essential for preserving their activity against infections. In the era of multi-drug resistance, this is of particular importance in clinical areas characterized by high antibiotic use, such as the ICU. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients requires sound knowledge not only of the altered physiology in serious infections - including severe sepsis, septic shock and ventilator-associated pneumonia - but also of the pathogen-drug exposure relationship (i.e. pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index). An important consideration is the fact that extreme shifts in organ function, such as those seen in hyperdynamic patients or those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, can have an impact upon drug exposure, and constant vigilance is required when reviewing antibiotic dosing regimens in the critically ill. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remain important interventions in these patients; however, both of these treatments can have a profound effect on antibiotic exposure. We suggest placing emphasis on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring and dose individualization when optimizing therapy in these settings.

  6. Anesthesia of the critically ill equine patient.

    PubMed

    Cornick-Seahorn, Janyce

    2004-04-01

    There is a plethora of information regarding anesthetic management of horses; however, controlled studies of the critically ill equine patient are few. These patients should be managed like any equine anesthetic candidate but much more stringently:I. Preoperative evaluation and appropriate therapy may represent the difference between life and death during the intraoperative and recovery periods. 2. The anesthetic induction and maintenance protocol should be based on the individual situation of the veterinary facility and personnel("comfort zone"). 3. Appropriate monitoring and intraoperative supportive measures are essential. 4. The anesthetic period is a significant perturbation to homeostasis. Even if the horse seems to have done well (ie, as indicated by the cardiopulmonary values), a problem-free anesthetic period does not guarantee a successful recovery, and close monitoring should continue until the horse is ambulatory. 5. Critically ill patients are often in a negative energy balance. Supportive measures to ensure an adequate caloric intake, such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, facilitate healing and return of homeostasis.

  7. Nitrogen Balance and Protein Requirements for Critically Ill Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Roland N.

    2016-01-01

    Critically ill older patients with sarcopenia experience greater morbidity and mortality than younger patients. It is anticipated that unabated protein catabolism would be detrimental for the critically ill older patient. Healthy older subjects experience a diminished response to protein supplementation when compared to their younger counterparts, but this anabolic resistance can be overcome by increasing protein intake. Preliminary evidence suggests that older patients may respond differently to protein intake than younger patients during critical illness as well. If sufficient protein intake is given, older patients can achieve a similar nitrogen accretion response as younger patients even during critical illness. However, there is concern among some clinicians that increasing protein intake in older patients during critical illness may lead to azotemia due to decreased renal functional reserve which may augment the propensity towards worsened renal function and worsened clinical outcomes. Current evidence regarding protein requirements, nitrogen balance, ureagenesis, and clinical outcomes during nutritional therapy for critically ill older patients is reviewed. PMID:27096868

  8. Nutritional support in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, J P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author reviews the newer nutritional substrates in use or under investigation for enteral and parenteral nutrition. Management of the critically ill patient remains a significant challenge to clinicians, and it is hoped that dietary manipulations, such as those outlined, may augment host barriers and immune function and improve survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The role of nutrition in patient well-being has long been recognized, but until the past 25 years, the technology to artificially provide nutrients when patients could not eat was not developed. With current, new methods for enteral and vascular access, patients can be fed nonvolitionally with little difficulty. Continued efforts have been directed toward identifying optimal feeding formulations, which have resulted in a multitude of commercially available products. In the past several years, attention has been turned to evaluation of four specialized nutrients and the use of other substrates as pharmacologic agents. METHODS: Pertinent laboratory and clinical data were reviewed to present the pros and cons for each nutritive substrate. CONCLUSIONS: Medium-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, and glutamine have been shown to be of clinical benefit and should be in common use in the near future. Short-chain fatty acids still are under investigation. Albumin, vitamins E and C, arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids show great promise as pharmacologic agents to manipulate the stress response. Nucleotides remain investigational. CONTENTS SUMMARY: The application of some new nutritional substrates for use in critically ill patients, both as caloric sources and as pharmacologic agents, are reviewed. PMID:7979608

  9. Nutritional Assessment in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Najmeh; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zand, Farid; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the days of admission and discharge via a detailed nutritional assessment. Methods: Totally, 125 patients were followed up from admission to discharge at 8ICUs in Shiraz, Iran. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indices, and body composition indicators. Diet prescription and intake was also evaluated. Results: Malnutrition prevalence significantly increased on the day of discharge (58.62%) compared to the day of admission (28.8%) according to SGA (P<0.001). The patients’ weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference decreased significantly as well (P<0.001). Lean mass weight and body cell mass also decreased significantly (P<0.001). Biochemical indices showed no notable changes except for magnesium, which decreased significantly (P=0.013). A negative significant correlation was observed between malnutrition on discharge day and anthropometric measurements. Positive and significant correlations were observed between the number of days without enteral feeding, days delayed from ICU admission to the commencement of enteral feeding, and the length of ICU stay and malnutrition on discharge day. Energy and protein intakes were significantly less than the prescribed diet (26.26% and 26.48%, respectively). Conclusion: Malnutrition on discharge day increased in the patients in the ICU according to SGA. Anthropometric measurements were better predictors of the nutritional outcome of our critically ill patients than were biochemical tests. PMID:27217600

  10. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  11. Nitric oxide production in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H R; Carcillo, J A; Burckart, G; Kaplan, S S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure serum nitrite and nitrate levels in critically ill children as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production. HYPOTHESIS: Endogenous NO production is increased in children with conditions characterised by immune stimulation. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study in a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 137 consecutive critically ill children with a variety of clinical conditions. INTERVENTIONS: Using a rapid microtitre plate technique, daily serum nitrite and nitrate levels were measured from serum samples that remained in the clinical laboratory after daily routine phlebotomy. Clinical and laboratory information was also gathered daily for each patient. RESULTS: The maximum serum nitrite plus nitrate levels (microM) reached by children with infection (41.8 (SD 18.1)), sepsis syndrome (85.1 (39.9)), shock without sepsis (36.4 (19.1)), transplantation alone (61.0 (43.4)), transplantation with sepsis (200.7 (150.5)), or rejection (161.7 (70.4)), were higher than in controls (18.1 (9.3)). In the absence of exogenous NO donors, levels greater than 80 microM were reached only in children with the sepsis syndrome, organ transplantation, or acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Increased endogenous NO production occurs in children with clinical conditions associated with immune stimulation. Further investigation is warranted to determine the value of this simple and rapid test as a clinically useful diagnostic tool and therapeutic monitor in the evaluation of children at risk for the sepsis syndrome or acute allograft rejection. PMID:8758122

  12. [The psychosocial protection of the terminal patient].

    PubMed

    Sardi, P A

    1981-12-22

    The growing question of terminal patients has imposed on facts for technical and logistical reasons the creation of some "Palliative Care Units". We add here psychosociological motivations for making therm more and better: terminal patient today must be sheltered against repression now weighing on Thanatos, just as once children had to be sheltered against repression then weighing on Eros. This is an institutional defensive front that we must adapt each time to the direction of the attack. PMID:6172749

  13. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. PMID:27013315

  14. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.

  15. Monitoring the critically ill surgical patient.

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, R L; Doris, P J

    1979-01-01

    Critically ill surgical patients account for approximately half the patients in an active multidisciplinary critical care unit. Hypovolemia and sepsis are common in such patients and affect a number of organ systems. Monitoring these systems provides therapeutically relevant information that may decrease morbidity and improve patient survival. Circulatory hemodynamics may be assessed by direct measurement of the arterial blood pressure, central venous and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and cardiac output determination; the data thus obtained are valuable in guiding fluid replacement in the hypovolemic individual. The respiratory status may be assessed by bedside spirometry and measurement of arterial blood gas tensions to gauge pulmonary function and the need for assisted ventilation. Renal dysfunction is common in such patients; careful analysis of both urine and blood may identify prerenal as opposed to renal and postrenal factors. Monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract, especially for hemorrhage, is important. Finally, careful attention to nutritional status and provision of adequate protein and energy intake by mouth or by vein is a vital component of the optimal care of these patients. PMID:115566

  16. The prediction of in-hospital mortality by amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and other independent variables in acutely ill patients with suspected heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kellett, John

    2005-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurement can detect and assess heart failure. However, compared with traditional clinical parameters, its value in predicting the in-hospital mortality of patients with suspected heart disease has not been reported. METHODS: We examined the ability of 11 continuous and 21 categorical variables, including NT-proBNP levels measured at the time of admission, to predict in-hospital mortality. The setting was a small Irish rural hospital where 342 consecutive patients with suspected heart disease were admitted as acute medical emergencies. RESULTS: The 31 patients who died while in hospital had significantly higher NT-proBNP levels on admission than patients discharged alive (11,548+/-13,531 vs. 3805+/-6914 pg/mL, p<0.0001). Patients who died in-hospital were older, had significantly higher white cell counts, blood urea and modified early warning (MEW) scores, and lower temperatures, blood pressures and oxygen saturation. Four variables were found to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality: a systolic blood pressure equal to or below 100 mm Hg, a urea level above 13 mmol/L, a white cell count greater than 13*10(9)/L and a NT-proBNP level greater than or equal to 11,500 pg/mL. The presence of three of these variables was associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 54%. CONCLUSIONS: Four variables (i.e. hypotension, elevated urea, leukocytosis and elevated NT-proBNP levels) are comparable independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  17. The terminally ill Muslim: death and dying from the Muslim perspective.

    PubMed

    Sarhill, N; LeGrand, S; Islambouli, R; Davis, M P; Walsh, D

    2001-01-01

    Islam holds life as sacred and belonging to God and that all creatures will die one day. Suicide is forbidden. Muslims believe death is only a transition between two different lives. The terminally ill Muslim desires to perform five ritual requirements. Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are acceptable. A deceased Muslim must always be buried after being ritually washed and wrapped. There are different Muslim schools of thought, but they are united regarding their views on death and dying. PMID:11467099

  18. Ethical challenges of treating the critically ill pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    van Bogaert, Louis-Jacques; Dhai, A

    2008-10-01

    Most ethical issues in obstetrics, both in the critical care and non-emergency situations, hinge around the maternal-fetal relationship. With access to the necessary information and support, most women strive to improve their chance of having healthy babies. However, there could be situations where their interests do not correspond with fetal interests, thereby giving rise to conflict situations. At the centre of the debate about a possible conflict is the notion of the fetus as a patient. A pregnant woman's autonomy and informed refusal should be respected. Where she is not competent to make an informed decision, proxy consent should be obtained or the doctrine of substituted judgement be applied. A decision to withhold or withdraw treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) should only occur once a definitive diagnosis of terminal illness is made. Standards for the management of the human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive woman in the obstetric ICU situtation should be no different from standards employed to manage a critically ill pregnant patient in ICU with a chronic medical disease.

  19. Legal aspects of end-of-life decisions in Italy: the penal relevance of the limitation of treatment in the terminally ill and the problem of causality by omission. The legal puzzle of end-of-life care in Italy: is therapeutic limitation in the terminally ill patients a crime of omission liable to prosecution?

    PubMed

    Fabris, E P; Piccinni, M

    2008-01-01

    The interruption of life support poses different problems for he who interrogates himself regarding the possible juridical role of omissible behaviour or activities by part of the physician when dealing with end-of-life interventions within the boundary of life and death. The present contribution proposes to trace the coordinates necessary to answer the main query regarding the obligations which may be incumbent on the physician. For this reason, the necessity to interpret the legal sanctions in a technical key is highlighted. This is performed in sight of a progressive and inevitable adaptation to problems which are the result of a social evolution, and to the conception of values which constitute an object responsibility, as renewed by the constitution. The laws that discipline crimes against life and individual integrity must be interpreted while keeping in mind that the objective of maintaining the patient in life must be integrated with the control of suffering and the guarantee of a dignified death. When identifying the principles which have to inspire the decisions during 'borderline or boundary situations', it is highlighted the way the physician has to resort to a just equilibrium between benefit, which can be reasonably expected, and sacrifice, which should be imposed, taking into consideration the criteria of good clinical practice, among which attention to the patient's will must be taken into consideration.

  20. Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Yaacov G.; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality communication, fear of death, and…

  1. The chronic illness problem inventory: problem-oriented psychosocial assessment of patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Naliboff, B D; Heinrich, R L; Schag, C C

    1984-01-01

    Two studies are presented which describe the development of a problem-oriented psychosocial screening instrument for use in health care settings. Reliability and validity data are presented on the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) which demonstrate its ability to document accurately patient's specific problems in areas of physical limitations, psychosocial functioning, health care behaviors and marital adjustment. A study is also presented which compares the problems of patients with three distinct chronic illnesses: pain, obesity, and respiratory ailments. Results indicate a significantly greater severity of problems for pain patients and especially patients with multiple pain complaints. Problem areas common to all three illness groups are discussed in the context of providing better comprehensive treatment for chronically ill patients. PMID:6735596

  2. Expanding the Use of Continuous Sedation Until Death: Moving Beyond the Last Resort for the Terminally Ill.

    PubMed

    LiPuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    As currently practiced, the use of continuous sedation until death (CSD) is controlled by clinicians in a way that may deny patients a key choice in controlling their dying process. Ethical guidelines from the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pain Medicine describe CSD as a "last resort," and a position statement from the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine describe it as "an intervention reserved for extreme situations." Accordingly, patients must progress to unremitting pain and suffering and reach a last-resort stage before the option to pursue CSD is considered. Alternatively, we present and defend a new guideline in which decisionally capable, terminally ill patients who have a life expectancy of less than six months may request CSD before being subjected to the refractory suffering of a treatment of "last resort."

  3. Expanding the Use of Continuous Sedation Until Death: Moving Beyond the Last Resort for the Terminally Ill.

    PubMed

    LiPuma, Samuel H; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    As currently practiced, the use of continuous sedation until death (CSD) is controlled by clinicians in a way that may deny patients a key choice in controlling their dying process. Ethical guidelines from the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pain Medicine describe CSD as a "last resort," and a position statement from the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine describe it as "an intervention reserved for extreme situations." Accordingly, patients must progress to unremitting pain and suffering and reach a last-resort stage before the option to pursue CSD is considered. Alternatively, we present and defend a new guideline in which decisionally capable, terminally ill patients who have a life expectancy of less than six months may request CSD before being subjected to the refractory suffering of a treatment of "last resort." PMID:26132059

  4. Pharmacotherapy for Hyperglycemia in Noncritically Ill Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Carlos E.; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2014-01-01

    In Brief Hyperglycemia in the hospital setting affects 38-46% of noncritically ill hospitalized patients. Evidence from observational studies indicates that inpatient hyperglycemia, in patients with and without diabetes, is associated with increased risks of complications and mortality. Substantial evidence indicates that correction of hyperglycemia through insulin administration reduces hospital complications and mortality in critically ill patients, as well as in general medicine and surgery patients. This article provides a review of the evidence on the different therapies available for hyperglycemia management in noncritically ill hospitalized patients. PMID:26246777

  5. Attitudes toward euthanasia among Polish physicians, nurses and people who have no professional experience with the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Glebocka, A; Gawor, A; Ostrowski, F

    2013-01-01

    Euthanasia is an issue that generates an extensive social debate. Euthanasia is generally classified as either active or passive. The former is usually defined as taking specific steps to cause the patient's death, while the latter is described as withdrawal of medical treatment with the deliberate intention of bringing the patient's life to an end. The dispute on euthanasia involves a multitude of aspects including religious, legal, cultural, ethical, medical, and spiritual issues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the views of medical professionals toward the highly controversial issue of euthanasia. Accordingly, the research has been conducted among a group of Polish nurses and physicians working in Intensive Care and Oncology Units. Their views have been compared to those of the control group, which included the members of the general public, who do not work in medical profession. It was expected that the education and training and the day-to-day exposure to vegetative patients might influence the views of medical personnel concerning euthanasia. The research demonstrated that the members of all groups supported liberal views. Conservative views were not popular among the respondents. The physicians turned out to be the least conservative group. The survey has also demonstrated that there is a broad consensus that informational and psychological support should be provided to terminally ill patients and their relatives. The attitude toward the passive form of euthanasia seems to have broad support. In particular doctors tend to approve this form of bringing a terminally ill patient's life to an end. The active euthanasia is regarded with much less favor and physicians, in particular, appear to disapprove of it.

  6. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  7. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    PubMed

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  8. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake

    PubMed Central

    Echarte, Luis E.; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J. V.; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes – deep-seated beliefs – intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth. PMID:26903921

  9. Dying to know: qualitative research with terminally ill persons and their families.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristin; Flemons, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    This article illustrates the use of qualitative research methods in the field of thanatology. The authors--a former doctoral candidate and her dissertation chair--describe their ongoing naturalistic inquiry of terminally ill persons and their family members. By describing the reasoning and decision-making informing their study, the authors provide an instructive "how to" on the following topics: finding a research question and a method; assessing risks and benefits; sampling; gaining entry/access to research informants; participant observation; interviewing; analyzing data, and establishing "relational integrity." In a final section, the first author offers reflections on the personal challenges she faced while conducting her research.

  10. Illness Beliefs Predict Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Vedhara, Kavita; Dawe, Karen; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Cullum, Nicky; Dayan, Colin; Drake, Nicola; Price, Patricia; Tarlton, John; Weinman, John; Day, Andrew; Campbell, Rona; Reps, Jenna; Soria, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ illness beliefs have been associated with glycaemic control in diabetes and survival in other conditions. Objective We examined whether illness beliefs independently predicted survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. Methods Patients (n = 169) were recruited between 2002 and 2007. Data on illness beliefs were collected at baseline. Data on survival were extracted on 1st November 2011. Number of days survived reflected the number of days from date of recruitment to 1st November 2011. Results Cox regressions examined the predictors of time to death and identified ischemia and identity beliefs (beliefs regarding symptoms associated with foot ulceration) as significant predictors of time to death. Conclusions Our data indicate that illness beliefs have a significant independent effect on survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. These findings suggest that illness beliefs could improve our understanding of mortality risk in this patient group and could also be the basis for future therapeutic interventions to improve survival. PMID:27096609

  11. Treating nonthyroidal illness syndrome in the critically ill patient: still a matter of controversy.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Paliani, G; Annetta, M G; Pontecorvi, A; Antonelli, M

    2009-08-01

    The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a clinical condition of abnormal thyroid function tests observed in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine, with normal or low levels of thyroxine and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is still a matter of controversy whether the NTIS represents a protective adaptation of the organism to a stressful event or a maladaptive response to illness that needs correction. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in certain clinical situations, such as caloric restriction, cardiac disease, acute renal failure, brain-dead potential donors, and burn patients. Treating patients with NTIS seems not to be harmful, but there is no persuasive evidence that it is beneficial. The administration of hypothalamic releasing factors in patients with NTIS appears to be safe and effective in improving metabolism and restoring the anterior pituitary pulsatile secretion in the chronic phase of critical illness. However, also this promising strategy needs to be explored further. Anyhow, an extremely prudent approach is needed if treatment is given. Much of the data appearing in the literature on the treatment of NTIS encourage further randomized controlled trials on large number of patients. At present, however, we believe that there is no indication for treating thyroid hormone abnormalities in critically ill patients until convincing proof of efficacy and safety is provided.

  12. The support needs of terminally ill people living alone at home: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Samar M.; Breen, Lauren J.; Howting, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Context: The number of terminally ill people who live alone at home and without a caregiver is growing and exerting pressure on the stretched resources of home-based palliative care services. Objectives: We aimed to highlight the unmet support needs of terminally ill people who live alone at home and have no primary caregiver and identify specific models of care that have been used to address these gaps. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals in English using a systematic approach, searching databases 2002–2013. This review identified 547 abstracts as being potentially relevant. Of these, 95 were retrieved and assessed, with 37 studies finally reviewed. Results: Majority of the studies highlighted the reduced likelihood of this group to be cared for and die at home and the experiences of more psychosocial distress and more hospital admissions than people with a primary caregiver. Few studies reported on the development of models of care but showed that the challenges faced by this group may be mitigated by interventions tailored to meet their specific needs. Conclusion: This is the first review to highlight the growing challenges facing community palliative care services in supporting the increasing number of people living alone who require care. There is a need for more studies to examine the effectiveness of informal support networks and suitable models of care and to provide directions that will inform service planning for this growing and challenging group. PMID:25750828

  13. [Chronic critically ill patients from a gastroenterological perspective].

    PubMed

    Bittinger, M; Messmann, H

    2013-05-01

    From a gastroenterological point of view, for chronic critically ill patients a differentiation has to be made between general gastroenterological problems, which are important in many or all chronic critically ill patients and patients with gastroenterological diseases which are the reason for the chronic critically ill status. General gastroenterological problems are, for example the nutrition of these patients and also considerations about ulcer prophylaxis or gastroenterological complications, such as antibiotic-associated colitis. Gastroenterological diseases as the reason for a chronic critically ill status are more in the minority. Diseases which should be taken into consideration are advanced liver cirrhosis and short bowel syndrome. This manuscript is intended to discuss gastroenterological problems in this selected group of patients and to show possible solutions and treatment options. PMID:23423578

  14. Thrombo-prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Saurabh; Sharma, Jai Prakash; Joshi, Rajnish; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Thrombo-prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality in surgical patients. The purpose of this review is to find out the evidence-based clinical practice criteria of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients. English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the critically ill and medically ill population. For the same, we searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. In acutely ill medical patients on the basis of meta-analysis by Lederle et al. (40 trials) and LIFENOX study, heparin prophylaxis had no significant effect on mortality. The prophylaxis may have reduced PE in acutely ill medical patients, but led to more bleeding events, thus resulting in no net benefit. In critically ill patients, results of meta-analysis by Alhazzani et al. and PROTECT Trial indicate that any heparin prophylaxis compared with placebo reduces the rate of DVT and PE, but not symptomatic DVT. Major bleeding risk and mortality rates were similar. On the basis of MAGELLAN trial and EINSTEIN program, rivaroxaban offers a single-drug approach to the short-term and continued treatment of venous thrombosis. Aspirin has been used as antiplatelet agent, but when the data from two trials the ASPIRE and WARFASA study were pooled, there was a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thrombo-embolism and a 34% reduction in the rate of major vascular events.

  15. The pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient

    SciTech Connect

    Chernow, B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers addressing the pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient. Chapter topics include: Radiation injury; Red cell substitutes: a current appraisal; and Psychopharmacology in the ICU.

  16. Ill health in spouses of psychiatric patients: cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Vandereycken, W

    1994-10-01

    1. In the literature on the marital relationship of psychiatric patients it often has been reported that the healthy spouses may show a considerable degree of psychological distress. 2. A correlation of psychiatric disorders in married couples commonly has been interpreted according to two models: assortative mating and pathogenic interaction, neither of which can sufficiently explain the spousal psychiatric illness correlation. 3. The issue of psychiatric illness in the spouses of patients merits more attention from both researchers and clinicians. A psychiatric illness in one spouse must be understood within the ongoing interaction of the marital relationship.

  17. Nutritional therapy in critically ill and injured patients.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    Nutritional support of critically ill or injured patients has undergone significant advances in the last few decades. These advances are the direct result of the growing scientific progress and increased knowledge of the biology and biochemistry of key metabolic and nutrient changes induced by injury, sepsis, and other critical illnesses, both in adults and children. As this knowledge has increased, the science of nutritional support has become more disease based and disorder based. This article discusses protein and nitrogen metabolism in critically ill patients, immunomodulation, and the key nutrients involved in an immune-enhancing diet.

  18. Significance of End-of-life Dreams and Visions Experienced by the Terminally Ill in Rural and Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Abhijit Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Background: End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) are not uncommon and are experienced by many near the time of death. These visions can occur months, weeks, days or hours before death. We wanted to document ELDVs, if any, in rural and urban settings in India, where talking about death is usually considered a taboo and also to compare its incidence with the urban population. Principle Research Question: Do terminally ill patients receiving home care in rural and urban India experience ELDVs? If yes, then an enquiry into the nature of such ELDVs. Study Design: Prospective, cohort based, with a mixed-methods research design. Methodology: 60 terminally ill patients with Palliative Performance Scale of <40, who consented to participate in the study were enrolled and questioned about the occurrence of ELDVs if any. Questions were both closed-ended and open ended regarding the content, frequency, recall, associated symptom burden, etc. Results: 63.3% cases reported experiencing ELDVs. 55.5% of the rural patients reported ELDVs while 66.6% of the urban patients did the same. 78.9% (30) of the subjects were able to recall the ELDVs vividly and in detail, 13.1% (5) subjects were able to recall somewhat and 7.8% (3) subjects had trouble in recalling them. 84.2% (32) subjects reported the ELDVs as 'distressing'. 30 subjects (78.9%) reported seeing 'deceased' people, be it relatives, friends or acquaintances. 12 (31.5%) saw living friends and relatives, 52.6% (20) saw people or forms that they did not recognize, 21% (8) visualized making preparations or going on a journey. 76.3% (29) patients had a symptom burden of >7 (on a VAS of 1-10), which corresponded to 'severe distress'. 94.7% (36) patients felt much better having discussed their ELDVs with the team. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that ELDVs are not uncommon in India and the incidence does not differ significantly between rural and urban population. Our subjects found them to be distressing initially

  19. Understanding death with limited experience in life: dying children’s and adolescents’ understanding of their own terminal illness and death

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Alan T.; Kearney, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review An up-to-date summary of the literature on children’s and adolescents’ understanding of their own terminal illness and death. Recent findings Clinicians still find it difficult to speak with pediatric patients about death even though guidelines for facilitating communication on the topic exist. As a result, pediatric patients are less likely to develop a clear understanding of their illness and there is a disconnect between clinicians and parents about prognosis, even when clinicians have concluded there is no longer possibility for cure. Insufficient communication and poor understanding may increase the risk of patients feeling isolated, mistrustful and anxious, and deprive them of a role model who can communicate about painful issues or share difficult feelings. Despite these complexities, young people often show remarkable resiliency in the face of death and want to get the most out of the remaining time they have. Summary In addition to these most recent findings, this review examines the challenges in researching this topic, obstacles to patients receiving information about prognosis, and how physical symptoms affect patients’ ability to develop an understanding. It also reviews sources of insight into pediatric patients’ understanding including the development of concepts of death, fears about their own death, legal interpretations of what patients understand, and how terminally ill young people continue to treasure life. It concludes by addressing ways clinicians can use the knowledge we have to communicate well with dying children and adolescents and their families. PMID:25581454

  20. Caring for a terminally ill person with pain, at home. An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J

    1991-02-01

    Pain control for a person with a terminal illness provides the same sorts of challenges for those people who choose to stay at home as those who remain in hospital. The differences lie in the choices that are made for treatment, at times, the response to treatment; and the consequential effects treatment may have on families. This article discusses a case study in which the client's pain was managed in the home within a Hospice Care program that incorporates a visiting domiciliary nursing service. In Australia, such a program has all the advantages of a hospital setting, in that it has access to oncology units and the knowledge therein as well as catering to individual's needs in their own environment.

  1. Risk Factors for Anticipatory Grief in Family Members of Terminally Ill Veterans Receiving Palliative Care Services.

    PubMed

    Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention. PMID:26654060

  2. Bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Grocke, Denise; McFerran, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child. In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 bereaved parents who were recruited through a community-based palliative care program. The parent participants' experiences varied as their children who received music therapy ranged in ages from 5 months to 12 years old. The interview transcripts were analyzed using phenomenological strategies. Five global themes emerged from the analysis. These included (a) music therapy was valued as a means of altering the child's and family's perception of their situation in the midst of adversity, (b) music therapy was a significant component of remembrance, (c) music therapy was a multifaceted experience for the child and family, (d) music therapy enhanced communication and expression, and (e) parents shared perceptions of and recommendations for improving music therapy services. These emergent themes yield knowledge into the relevance of music therapy within pediatric palliative care.

  3. Assessment and treatment of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient. PMID:24770692

  4. [Assessment and treatment of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient.

  5. Ethical dilemmas for house staff physicians. The care of critically ill and dying patients.

    PubMed

    Winkenwerder, W

    1985-12-27

    Winkenwerder describes a disagreement about proper management of a critically ill patient that arose during his tenure as a house staff physician. Despite the attending physician's consideration of the family's wishes and the best interests of the patient, the resident was uneasy with the decision to continue life-prolonging treatment and the role he was to play in implementing such procedures. The author argues that ethical decisions within the group of physicians caring for a patient, especially one who is terminally ill, are not always resolved to everyone's satisfaction. What then are the rights and duties of residents to refuse further participation in care? Winkenwerder suggests dealing with conflicts through recognizing value differences, increasing formal ethics teaching, using consultants, and maximizing communication among members of patient care teams.

  6. Nutritional support in critically ill patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, P W; Enriquez, A; Barrera, R

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional depletion is a common problem seen in critically ill patients with cancer and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Infection and injury activate a cascade of metabolic events that leads to a poor nutritional state and wasteful energy consumption. The goals of nutritional support entail minimizing starvation, preventing nutrient deficiencies, supporting or improving immune function, and facilitating tissue repair and wound healing. Further understanding of the metabolic changes of illness will improve effective regulation of the inflammatory events occurring in critically ill patients. Multiple clinical parameters are available to assess the nutritional status in critically ill patients, but no standard recommendations can be made at this time. The use of these parameters can be appropriate, provided that their limitations are understood clearly. The development and standardization of objective parameters to identify patients at risk or with subclinical malnutrition are needed. Enteral and parenteral feedings are safe and effective methods to deliver nutrients to critically ill patients with cancer who are unable to ingest adequate amounts orally. Early nutritional support should be instituted in the appropriate clinical setting. Specialized nutritional solutions and supplements require careful consideration in patients with renal, hepatic, cardiac, or pulmonary disorders. The unselective use of nutritional support is not indicated in well-nourished patients with cancer undergoing surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy in whom adequate oral intake is anticipated. Nutritional support remains an important adjunctive therapy in the overall management of critically ill patients. Continued clinical investigations in nutrition are necessary to identify other groups of patients who can benefit from nutritional interventions. PMID:11525056

  7. Management of pain, agitation, and delirium in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Pandharipande, Pratik P; Patel, Mayur B; Barr, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) are common in critically ill patients. Consequently, analgesic and sedative medications are frequently administered to critically ill patients to treat PAD, to improve synchrony with mechanical ventilation, and to decrease the physiological stress response. However, prolonged, continuous deep sedation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including longer durations of mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stays, acute brain dysfunction, and an increased risk of death. The 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines were developed to provide a clear, evidence-based road map for clinicians to better manage PAD in critically ill patients. Significant knowledge gaps in these areas still remain, but if widely adopted, the PAD Guidelines can help bridge these gaps and will be transformative in terms of their impact on ICU care. Strong evidence indicates that linking PAD management strategies with ventilator weaning, early mobility, and sleep hygiene in ICU patients will result in significant synergistic benefits to patient care and reductions in costs. An interdisciplinary team-based approach, using proven process improvement strategies, and ICU patient and family activation and engagement, will help ensure successful implementation of the ICU PAD Care Bundle in ICUs. This paper highlights the major recommendations of the 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines. We hope this review will help ICU physicians and other health care providers advance the management of PAD in critically ill patients, and improve patients' clinical outcomes.

  8. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  9. Early Mobilization and Rehabilitation of Patients Who Are Critically Ill.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed D; Parker, Ann M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are increasingly recognized as a cause of both short- and long-term physical morbidity in survivors of critical illness. This recognition has given rise to research aimed at better understanding the risk factors and mechanisms associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and physical impairment associated with critical illness, as well as possible interventions to prevent or treat these issues. Among potential risk factors, bed rest is an important modifiable risk factor. Early mobilization and rehabilitation of patients who are critically ill may help prevent or mitigate the sequelae of bed rest and improve patient outcomes. Research studies and quality improvement projects have demonstrated that early mobilization and rehabilitation are safe and feasible in patients who are critically ill, with potential benefits including improved physical functioning and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care, and hospital stay. Despite these findings, early mobilization and rehabilitation are still uncommon in routine clinical practice, with many perceived barriers. This review summarizes potential risk factors for neuromuscular dysfunction and physical impairment associated with critical illness, highlights the potential role of early mobilization and rehabilitation in improving patient outcomes, and discusses some of the commonly perceived barriers to early mobilization and strategies for overcoming them. PMID:26997241

  10. Waking up the gut in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Meier, Juris J

    2010-01-01

    Multiorgan failure frequently develops in critically ill patients. While therapeutic efforts in such patients are often focused on the lungs, on the cardiovascular system as well as on the kidneys, it is important to also consider the functional alterations in gut motility and hormone secretion. Given the central regulatory functions of many gut hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, ghrelin and others, exogenous supplementation of some of these factors may be beneficial under conditions of critical illness. From a pragmatic point of view, the most feasible way towards a restoration of gut hormone secretion in critically ill patients is to provide enteral nutritional supply as soon as possible.

  11. [Patient-caregiver relationship: when illness blogs step in].

    PubMed

    Rondi, Céline; Berney, Alexandre

    2014-02-12

    The use of social media as a communication tool is rapidly growing in the community, and more specifically in patients, through illness blogs. This has been true for several years in North America, but is becoming a reality in Europe as well. We report here the first results of studies on the putative psychological benefits and risks of illness blogs for their authors. We also explore the possible impact of blogging on the patient-caregiver relationship. Social media are expected to have a growing influence in certain areas of health care. Physicians should therefore stay informed about them, take advantage of their benefits, and anticipate their risks.

  12. Introduction to drug pharmacokinetics in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian S; Yogaratnam, Dinesh; Levasseur-Franklin, Kimberly E; Forni, Allison; Fong, Jeffrey

    2012-05-01

    Despite regular use of drugs for critically ill patients, overall data are limited regarding the impact of critical illness on pharmacokinetics (PK). Designing safe and effective drug regimens for patients with critical illness requires an understanding of PK. This article reviews general principles of PK, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination, and how critical illness can influence these parameters. In the area of drug absorption, we discuss the impact of vasopressor use, delayed gastric emptying and feeding tubes, and nutrient interactions. On the topic of drug distribution, we review fluid resuscitation, alterations in plasma protein binding, and tissue perfusion. With drug metabolism, we discuss hepatic enzyme activity, protein binding, and hepatic blood flow. Finally, we review drug elimination in the critically ill patient and discuss the impact of augmented renal clearance and acute kidney injury on drug therapies. In each section, we highlight select literature reviewing the PK impact of these conditions on a drug PK profile and, where appropriate, provide general suggestions for clinicians on how to modify drug regimens to manage PK challenges. PMID:22553267

  13. Pulmonary penetration of piperacillin and tazobactam in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Felton, TW; McCalman, K; Malagon, I; Isalska, B; Whalley, S; Goodwin, J; Bentley, AM; Hope, WW

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections in critically ill patients are common and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Piperacillin-tazobactam is a frequently used therapy in critically ill patients with pulmonary infection. Antibiotic concentrations in the lung reflect target site antibiotic concentrations in patients with pneumonia. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma and intra-pulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of piperacillin-tazobactam in critically ill patients administered standard piperacillin-tazobactam regimens. A population PK model was developed to describe plasma and intra-pulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations. The probability of piperacillin exposures reaching pharmacodynamic endpoints and the impact of pulmonary permeability on piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration was explored. The median piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration ratio was 49.3% and 121.2%, respectively. Pulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentration were unpredictable and negatively correlated to pulmonary permeability. Current piperacillin-tazobactam regimens may be insufficient to treat pneumonia caused by piperacillin-tazobactam susceptible organisms in some critically ill patients. PMID:24926779

  14. Spiritual Care For Jewish Patients Facing A Life Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bluman, Rabbi Olga F.; Klein, Linda; Thomas, Jay; Ferrell, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Providing biopsychosocial/spiritual care for patients facing a life threatening illness can be complex, and this complexity can be amplified when a patient identifies as Jewish. A common but incorrect assumption is that a person who identifies him or herself as Jewish abides by the tenets of the Jewish religion. However, many Jews consider themselves Jewish in an ethnic or cultural sense rather than connected to a religion or belief in God. This case report presents an ethnic/cultural Jew with a life threatening illness of advanced lung cancer. Despite evidence of spiritual/existential suffering, this patient declined spiritual care. From an analysis of this case and clinical experience, we suggest exploratory questions that clinicians can use in response to common questions or statements made by such patients. This exploration may lead to a chaplain referral and we highlight interventions that chaplains and clinicians may find helpful as they come alongside Jewish patients. PMID:23614173

  15. Consent for Dental Therapy in Severely Ill Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litch, C. Scott; Liggett, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    Legal standards for informed consent are discussed in the context of dental care for the elderly and severely ill. Variations in state common law and legislation are analyzed, focusing on differences between practitioner-oriented and patient-oriented approaches to informed consent. Implications for educators and practitioners are examined.…

  16. Distinct Features of Nonthyroidal Illness in Critically Ill Patients With Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Kyung; Hwang, Sena; Kim, Daham; Lee, Seul Gi; Jeong, Seonhyang; Seol, Mi-Youn; Kim, Hyunji; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Shin, Dong Yeop; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Jandee; Jo, Young Suk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonthyroidal illness (NTI), often observed in critically ill patients, arises through diverse alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. However, the causal relationship between underlying disease and NTI diversity in critically ill patients is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine NTI severity and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients with respect to their underlying disease(s). The medical records of 616 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2009 and October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with known diseases or taking medications that affect thyroid function were excluded. All-cause mortality (ACM) and length of stay (LOS) in the ICU were assessed as adverse outcomes. The enrolled patients (n = 213) were divided into the following 4 groups according to the severity of NTI at the nadir of their thyroid function test (TFT): normal (n = 11, 5.2%), mild NTI (n = 113, 53.1%), moderate NTI (n = 78, 36.6%), and severe NTI (n = 11, 5.2%). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age and gender. NTI severity showed a significantly strong association with ACM (P < 0.0001) and a significant positive association with LOS in the ICU (P = 0.031). After adjusting for age, gender, and current medications affecting TFT, increasing NTI severity led to increased ACM (odds ratio = 3.101; 95% confidence interval = 1.711–5.618; P < 0.0001). Notably, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe NTI was markedly higher in patients with infectious disease than in those with noninfectious disease (P = 0.012). Consistent with this, serum C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe NTI (P = 0.016). NTI severity is associated with increased ACM, LOS, and underlying infectious disease. Future studies will focus on the biological and clinical implications of infectious disease on the HPT axis. PMID

  17. Parenteral Nutrition in the Critically Ill Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoes extensive resection of the small bowel and right colon with a jejunostomy and colostomy because of mesenteric ischemia. In the surgical intensive care unit, severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome with possible sepsis develops. The patient is treated with volume resuscitation, vasopressor support, mechanical ventilation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and intravenous insulin infusion. Low-dose tube feedings are initiated postoperatively through a nasogastric tube. However, these feedings are discontinued after the development of escalating vasopressor requirements, worsening abdominal distention, and increased gastric residual volume, along with an episode of emesis. The hospital nutritional-support service is consulted for feeding recommendations. A discussion with the patient's family reveals that during the previous 6 months, she lost approximately 15% of her usual body weight and decreased her food intake because of abdominal pain associated with eating. Her preoperative body weight was 51 kg (112 lb), or 90% of her ideal body weight. The physical examination reveals mild wasting of skeletal muscle and fat. Blood tests show hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, and normal hepatic and renal function. Central venous parenteral nutrition is recommended. PMID:19741230

  18. The Misdiagnosis of Black Patients with Manic Depressive Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Mehta, Harshad

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that, contrary to earlier beliefs, blacks may well demonstrate similar prevalence rates for manic depressive illness when compared with whites. Yet the authors believe that black manic depressive patients are frequently misdiagnosed as being chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics and treated with major tranquilizers when lithium is the drug of choice. This contention is supported by three case histories and some institutional dynamics that cause this form of iatrogenic morbidity to continue to prey upon black psychiatric patients. PMID:7365814

  19. [Dialysis dose quantification in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.

  20. [Meaning and spirituality in patients with chronic somatic illness].

    PubMed

    Mehnert, A

    2006-08-01

    Issues of the meaning of life and spirituality are particularly important subjects given the threat of a serious illness and the confrontation with the finiteness of one's own life. Thus, addressing questions of meaning and spiritual domains of supportive care has been identified as essential by patients as well as by health care professionals. In recent years more research has focussed on theoretical conceptualization, empirical examination as well as on the development of meaning-centred interventions in somatically ill patients. Theoretical models for the understanding, development and adaptation of concepts and interventions addressing meaning and spirituality in the chronically ill are offered by the philosophical tradition of existentialism, logotherapy as well as by cognitive and developmental psychology, in particular studies on autobiographical memory and life story. However, the current state of empirical research focussing on the association between meaning, spirituality and physical as well as mental health and underlying mechanisms is not sufficient to draw reliable conclusions. With regard to psychosocial care, meaning-centred interventions have been developed in recent years primarily within the context of palliative care. These interventions are intended to support patients to find meaning in life in the face of a serious illness and to experience their life as fulfilled.

  1. Nutrition intervention in the critically ill cardiothoracic patient.

    PubMed

    Cresci, Gail; Hummell, A Christine; Raheem, Sulieman Abdal; Cole, Denise

    2012-06-01

    Despite acute myocardial infarction and cardiac surgery accounting for 2 of the most common reasons patients are admitted to the intensive care unit, little attention and investigation have been directed specifically for these patients. This patient population therefore deserves special attention as they are often malnourished but require emergent interventions, making nutrition intervention challenging. This article reviews current medical interventions implemented in critically ill cardiothoracic patients and discusses evidence-based nutrition therapy, including enteral and parenteral feeding, glycemic control, and antioxidant provision. PMID:22516943

  2. Psychiatric complications in the critically ill cardiac patient.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, K M; Cassem, E H

    1993-01-01

    Psychiatric consultation to the critically ill cardiac patient focuses on several common problems: anxiety, delirium, depression, personality reactions, and behavioral disturbances. A review of the causes and treatment of anxiety in the coronary care unit is followed by a discussion of delirium in the critically ill cardiac patient. A description of delirium associated with the use of the intraaortic balloon pump and its treatment with high doses of intravenous haloperidol is also included. After the initial crisis has been stabilized in the critical care unit, the premorbid personality traits of the patient may emerge as behavioral disturbances--particularly as the duration of stay increases. The use of psychiatric consultation completes the discussion. PMID:8219821

  3. Ineffective chronic illness behaviour in a patient with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric illness: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare – which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this ‘difficult’ case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations. PMID:22798085

  4. [Mental illness in the view of patients and their families].

    PubMed

    Spadini, Luciene Simões; de Mello e Souza, Maria Conceição Bernardo

    2006-03-01

    With the aim of studying the comprehension of mental illness of patients and their families, we conducted a bibliographical study of articles in Brazilian periodicals, theses and dissertations in the period between 1993 and 2003. The identification of the sources was done through the automated search systems Latin American Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) and the University of São Paulo's Bibliographic Data Bank On-line Global Catalog (DEDALUS). Nineteen papers were selected and four categories identified: family difficulty in the relationship with the patient; prejudice and stigma; organic/ biological explanation for the illness; and fear and pain of insanity. Most of the papers show that, regarding assistance, there is a need for support and expansion of the public health system in order to meet the demands. It is believed that the number of publications is small considering the importance of the problem, showing the need for new research.

  5. Patients' and partners' perspectives of chronic illness and its management.

    PubMed

    Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Venetis, Maria K

    2012-06-01

    are significant differences in (a) how patients and partners experience illness uncertainty and illness interference and (b) how appraisals of illness uncertainty and illness interference influence communication efficacy and health condition management. We discuss the findings and implications of the study.

  6. Illness perception differences between Russian- and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Popov, Nadia; Heruti, Irit; Levy, Sigal; Lulav-Grinwald, Doron; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2014-03-01

    Illness perception influences health and illness behaviors. This study was designed to estimate illness perception differences between Russian-speaking and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients. Changes in illness perception associated with time spent in Israel among Russian-speaking patients were also evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated differences in illness perception of patients exposed to Chernobyl's consequences. A total of 144 oncology patients (77 Hebrew-speaking, 67 Russian-speaking) completed personal data questionnaires and The illness perception questionnaire revised, translated into Russian for this study. Significantly more Russian-speaking oncology patients perceived their illness as chronic and having negative consequences on life (p < .01). Russian-speaking oncology patients tend to have a more negative perception of cancer compared to Hebrew-speaking patients. Time spent in Israel may create more positive perceptions of cancer among these patients. No illness perception differences were found concerning Chernobyl consequences.

  7. Dangers of growth hormone therapy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, E; Takala, J

    2000-07-01

    Prolonged stay of patients is the major challenge for modern intensive care because of its effects on morbidity and resource utilization. Severe trauma or infection are associated with the catabolic response, characterized by increased protein turnover and negative nitrogen balance. Severe catabolism leads to end-organ dysfunction and muscular weakness prolonging the need for mechanical ventilation. Catabolism cannot be prevented with standard parenteral or enteral nutritional formulas. In order to prevent the complications of catabolism in intensive care patients, recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) has been applied during two decades as an experimental therapy for patients requiring parenteral nutrition and for those with respiratory failure. Administration of rhGH has resulted in positive nitrogen balance, and studies in mechanically ventilated patients suggest that it may shorten the need for ventilatory support. In contrast to the results of these relatively small studies, a recent multinational randomized controlled trial revealed that the administration of rhGH (with doses 10-20 times higher than those used for replacement therapy) increases the mortality of critically ill patients. This excessive mortality in patients treated with rhGH was related to infections and development of multiple organ failure. Administration of high doses of rhGH to critically ill patients cannot thus be recommended.

  8. Glycemic control in non-diabetic critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Smiley, Dawn; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common and costly health care problem in hospitalized patients. In hospital hyperglycemia is defined as any glucose value >7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl). Hyperglycemia is present in 40% of critically ill patients and in up to 80% of patients after cardiac surgery, with ~ 80% of ICU patients with hyperglycemia having no history of diabetes prior to admission. The risk of hospital complications relates to the severity of hyperglycemia, with a higher risk observed in patients without a history of diabetes compared to those with known diabetes. Improvement in glycemic control reduces hospital complications and mortality; however, the ideal glycemic target has not been determined. A target glucose level between 7.8 and 10.0 mmol/l (140 and 180 mg/dl) is recommended for the majority of ICU patients. This review aims to present updated recommendations for the inpatient management of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients with and without a history of diabetes. PMID:21925080

  9. Endocrine and metabolic considerations in critically ill patients 4

    PubMed Central

    Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU. PMID:26071885

  10. Management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deepali; Endicott, Jeffrey; Burry, Lisa; Ramos, Liz; Yeung, Siu Yan Amy; Devabhakthuni, Sandeep; Chan, Claire; Tobia, Anthony; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 16-31% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have an alcohol use disorder and are at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Patients admitted to the ICU with AWS have an increased hospital and ICU length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, higher costs, and increased mortality compared with those admitted without an alcohol-related disorder. Despite the high prevalence of AWS among ICU patients, no guidelines for the recognition or management of AWS or delirium tremens in the critically ill currently exist, leading to tremendous variability in clinical practice. Goals of care should include immediate management of dehydration, nutritional deficits, and electrolyte derangements; relief of withdrawal symptoms; prevention of progression of symptoms; and treatment of comorbid illnesses. Symptom-triggered treatment of AWS with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists is the cornerstone of therapy. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are most studied and are often the preferred first-line agents due to their efficacy and safety profile. However, controversy still exists as to who should receive treatment, how to administer BZDs, and which BZD to use. Although most patients with AWS respond to usual doses of BZDs, ICU clinicians are challenged with managing BZD-resistant patients. Recent literature has shown that using an early multimodal approach to managing BZD-resistant patients appears beneficial in rapidly improving symptoms. This review highlights the results of recent promising studies published between 2011 and 2015 evaluating adjunctive therapies for BZD-resistant alcohol withdrawal such as antiepileptics, baclofen, dexmedetomidine, ethanol, ketamine, phenobarbital, propofol, and ketamine. We provide guidance on the places in therapy for select agents for management of critically ill patients in the presence of AWS. PMID:27196747

  11. [Recommendations for artificial nutritional support in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocío; Culebras, Jesús

    2006-07-01

    The development of artificial nutritional support has been increased in the last years. Access routes and composition of formulas have been improved. Critic patients is a group of great controversy in this topic area. Enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, acute pancreatitis, burn and septic with a A level of evidence. Enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel disease, chronic hepatopathy, surgery ot digestive tract in patients with cancer disease, patients with HIV infection and patients with politraumatism. Parenteral nutrition is better than enteral nutrition in patients with haematopoyetic transplantation with a B level of evidence. Some nutrients have been shown a beneficial effect in artificial nutritional support such as (diets low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates) (level A), diets with inmunonutrients in patients with surgery of digestive tract cancer (level B), diet enhanced with w3 fatty acids in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (level C), and patients with HIV infection (level B), diets enriched with glutamin in patients with politraumatism and haematopoyetic transplantation (level B). Specific diets have not been shown beneficial effects in some pathologies (short bowel syndrome, acute pancreatitis, renal insufficiency treated with dialysis, and respiratory insufficiency). Diets with arginine are contraindicated in septic critically ill patients (level A). In conclusion, artificial nutritional support in critic patients is a controversy topic area with a high level of change in knowledgments with new improvements in access route, diets and designs of interventional trials.

  12. Enteral nutrition in the hemodynamically unstable critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Flordelís Lasierra, J L; Pérez-Vela, J L; Montejo González, J C

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients has been demonstrated by several studies, especially when it is started early, in the first 24-48h of stay in the Intensive Care Unit, and this practice is currently advised by the main clinical guidelines. The start of enteral nutrition is controversial in patients with hemodynamic failure, since it may trigger intestinal ischemia. However, there are data from experimental studies in animals, as well as from observational studies in humans that allow for hypotheses regarding its beneficial effect and safety. Interventional clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Sleep Disturbances in Acutely Ill Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Tanner, J Mark; Dumont, Natalie A

    2016-06-01

    Intensive care units may place acutely ill patients with cancer at additional risk for sleep loss and associated negative effects. Research suggests that communication about sleep in patients with cancer is suboptimal and sleep problems are not regularly assessed or adequately treated throughout the cancer trajectory. However, many sleep problems and fatigue can be managed effectively. This article synthesizes the current literature regarding the prevalence, cause, and risk factors that contribute to sleep disturbance in the context of acute cancer care. It describes the consequences of poor sleep and discusses appropriate assessment and treatment options. PMID:27215362

  14. Selective Plasma Exchange for Critically Ill Patients Accompanied With Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Hajime; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Manabu; Igarashi, Toshiko

    2016-08-01

    Selective plasma exchange is a blood purification therapy in which simple plasma exchange is performed using a selective membrane plasma separator (pore size of 0.03 µm). Seven critically ill patients accompanied with thrombocytopenia were treated with selective plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma. The total bilirubin levels and prothrombin time international normalized ratios decreased significantly after treatment. The total protein, albumin, and fibrinogen levels increased significantly after treatment. Selective plasma exchange may be a useful blood purification therapy for removing causal substances and retaining coagulation factors in patients accompanied with thrombocytopenia. PMID:27523072

  15. [Endoscopic treatment in critically ill patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kheladze, Z S; Dzhaiani, S V; Tsutskiridze, B N; Kheladze, Zv Z; Chakhunashvili, G K; Chakhunashvili, D K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to ascertain the optimal methods of an endoscopic haemostasis in critical care patients with GDB. The research was conducted on critically ill patients. The different endoscopic methods of treatment: injectional hemostasis, irrigation with local hemostatics, thermo coagulation, and combined method were used. Treatment with injectional hemostasis resulted in hemostasis in 75% of patients. Irrigation with local hemostatics was conducted using the local hemostatic agent caprofer and (or) 10% solution of epsylonaminocapronal acid. The final hemostasis was achieved in the 90% of the cases; bleeding was stopped in 85% of the cases when the hemorrhages occurred from chronic ulcers. The effect of thermo coagulation method was 80-85%. Combined method of treatment (combination of the irrigation with caprofer and thermo coagulation) helped to achieve 95% of the final hemostasis in critically ill patients. The achieved results certify that the combined use of caprofer and method of electro coagulation in critical care patients with GDB is very perspective. Simultaneously with this, it is also recommended to use anti-segregation therapy with blockers of proton pomp and boosting the defense of the mucous tissue with high doses of mucogen. PMID:20413810

  16. [Endoscopic treatment in critically ill patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kheladze, Z S; Dzhaiani, S V; Tsutskiridze, B N; Kheladze, Zv Z; Chakhunashvili, G K; Chakhunashvili, D K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to ascertain the optimal methods of an endoscopic haemostasis in critical care patients with GDB. The research was conducted on critically ill patients. The different endoscopic methods of treatment: injectional hemostasis, irrigation with local hemostatics, thermo coagulation, and combined method were used. Treatment with injectional hemostasis resulted in hemostasis in 75% of patients. Irrigation with local hemostatics was conducted using the local hemostatic agent caprofer and (or) 10% solution of epsylonaminocapronal acid. The final hemostasis was achieved in the 90% of the cases; bleeding was stopped in 85% of the cases when the hemorrhages occurred from chronic ulcers. The effect of thermo coagulation method was 80-85%. Combined method of treatment (combination of the irrigation with caprofer and thermo coagulation) helped to achieve 95% of the final hemostasis in critically ill patients. The achieved results certify that the combined use of caprofer and method of electro coagulation in critical care patients with GDB is very perspective. Simultaneously with this, it is also recommended to use anti-segregation therapy with blockers of proton pomp and boosting the defense of the mucous tissue with high doses of mucogen.

  17. Outcomes of critically ill cancer patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    PubMed Central

    Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Correa-García, Paulina; García-Guillén, Francisco J; González-Herrera, María O; Pérez-Alonso, Américo; Texcocano-Becerra, Julia; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Meneses-García, Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes of critically ill cancer patients with Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) infection. METHODS: This was an observational study that included 23 consecutive cancer patients who acquired AB infections during their stay at ICU of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan), located in Mexico City. Data collection took place between January 2011, and December 2012. Patients who had AB infections before ICU admission, and infections that occurred during the first 2 d of ICU stay were excluded. Data were obtained by reviewing the electronic health record of each patient. This investigation was approved by the Scientific and Ethics Committees at INCan. Because of its observational nature, informed consent of the patients was not required. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, a total of 494 critically ill patients with cancer were admitted to the ICU of the INCan, 23 (4.6%) of whom developed AB infections. Sixteen (60.9%) of these patients had hematologic malignancies. Most frequent reasons for ICU admission were severe sepsis or septic shock (56.2%) and postoperative care (21.7%). The respiratory tract was the most frequent site of AB infection (91.3%). The most common organ dysfunction observed in our group of patients were the respiratory (100%), cardiovascular (100%), hepatic (73.9%) and renal dysfunction (65.2%). The ICU mortality of patients with 3 or less organ system dysfunctions was 11.7% (2/17) compared with 66.6% (4/6) for the group of patients with 4 or more organ system dysfunctions (P = 0.021). Multivariate analysis identified blood lactate levels (BLL) as the only variable independently associated with in-ICU death (OR = 2.59, 95%CI: 1.04-6.43, P = 0.040). ICU and hospital mortality rates were 26.1% and 43.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate in critically ill patients with both HM, and AB infections who are admitted to the ICU is high. The variable most associated with increased mortality was

  18. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population.

  19. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population. PMID:22539798

  20. Estimating Kidney Function in the Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seller-Pérez, Gemma; Herrera-Gutiérrez, Manuel E.; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Sánchez-Izquierdo-Riera, José A.; do Pico, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an accepted measure for assessment of kidney function. For the critically ill patient, creatinine clearance is the method of reference for the estimation of the GFR, although this is often not measured but estimated by equations (i.e., Cockroft-Gault or MDRD) not well suited for the critically ill patient. Functional evaluation of the kidney rests in serum creatinine (Crs) that is subjected to multiple external factors, especially relevant overhydration and loss of muscle mass. The laboratory method used introduces variations in Crs, an important fact considering that small increases in Crs have serious repercussion on the prognosis of patients. Efforts directed to stratify the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) have crystallized in the RIFLE or AKIN systems, based in sequential changes in Crs or urine flow. These systems have provided a common definition of AKI and, due to their sensitivity, have meant a considerable advantage for the clinical practice but, on the other side, have introduced an uncertainty in clinical research because of potentially overestimating AKI incidence. Another significant drawback is the unavoidable period of time needed before a patient is classified, and this is perhaps the problem to be overcome in the near future. PMID:23862059

  1. Low but Sufficient Anidulafungin Exposure in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Arends, Jan P.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease severity or plasma protein levels were explored. Concentration-time curves were therefore obtained at steady state. Anidulafungin concentrations were measured with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The MIC values of the Candida species were determined with the Etest. The target AUC/MIC ratio was based on European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) data. Twenty patients were included. The patients received a maintenance dose of 100 mg once daily after a loading dose of 200 mg on the first day. The mean (±standard deviation) AUC, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax), and minimum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmin) were 69.8 ± 24.1 mg · h/liter, 4.7 ± 1.4 mg/liter, and 2.2 ± 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. The MIC values of all cultured Candida species were below the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. The exposure to anidulafungin in relation to the MIC that was determined appeared sufficient in all patients. The anidulafungin exposure was low in our critically ill patients. However, combined with the low MICs of the isolated Candida strains, the lower exposure observed in comparison to the exposure in the general patient population resulted in favorable AUC/MIC ratios, based on EUCAST data. No correlation was observed between anidulafungin exposure and disease severity or plasma protein concentrations. In patients with less-susceptible Candida albicans or glabrata strains, we recommend considering determining the anidulafungin exposure to ensure adequate exposure. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01047267.) PMID:24165173

  2. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  3. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  4. Care-related pain in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Ayasrah, S

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in pain management, critically ill patients continue to have unacceptably high rates of uncontrolled pain. Using the Behavioural Pain Scale and physiological indicators of pain, this study examines pain levels in mechanically ventilated patients prior to and during routine nursing procedures. A prospective descriptive design was used to assess and describe care-related pain associated with nociceptive procedures (repositioning, endotracheal suctioning, and vascular punctures) and non-nociceptive procedures (mouth care, eye care and dressing change). A sample of 247 mechanically ventilated Jordanian patients was recruited from intensive care units in a military hospital. The overall mean procedural pain score of 6.34 (standard deviation [SD] 2.36) was significantly higher than the mean preprocedural pain score of 3.43 (SD 0.67, t[246]=20.82, P<0.001). The highest mean procedural pain scores were observed during repositioning (9.25, SD 1.29). Few patients received analgesics and/or sedatives in the hour prior to the procedures. The mean Ramsay Scale score was 2.49 (SD 0.95), indicating that patients were either anxious or responsive to command only. The mean physiological indicators of pain increased during repositioning and endotracheal suctioning and decreased during the rest of the procedures. Mechanically ventilated patients experience pain prior to and during routine nursing procedures. Harmless and comfort procedures are actually painful. When caring for nonverbal critically ill patients, clinicians need to consider care-related pain associated with their interventions. Relying on changes in vital signs as a primary indicator of pain can be misleading. PMID:27456175

  5. Coagulation and complement system in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Helling, H; Stephan, B; Pindur, G

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation and inflammatory response including the complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of critical illness. However, only limited data are available addressing the relationship of both pathways and its assessment of a predictive value for the clinical outcome in intense care medicine. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation and complement system were studied in patients with septicaemia and multiple trauma regarded as being exemplary for critical illness. 34 patients (mean age: 51.38 years (±16.57), 15 females, 19 males) were investigated at day 1 of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Leukocytes, complement factors C3a and C5a were significantly (p <  0.0500) higher in sepsis than in trauma, whereas platelet count and plasma fibrinogen were significantly lower in multiple trauma. Activation markers of coagulation were elevated in both groups, however, thrombin-antithrombin-complex was significantly higher in multiple trauma. DIC scores of 5 were not exceeded in any of the two groups. Analysing the influences on mortality (11/34; 32.35% ), which was not different in both groups, non-survivors were significantly older, had significantly higher multiple organ failure (MOF) scores, lactate, abnormal prothrombin times and lower C1-inhibitor activities, even more pronounced in early deaths, than survivors. In septic non-survivors protein C was significantly lower than in trauma. We conclude from these data that activation of the complement system as part of the inflammatory response is a significant mechanism in septicaemia, whereas loss and consumption of blood components including parts of the coagulation and complement system is more characteristic for multiple trauma. Protein C in case of severe reduction might be of special concern for surviving in sepsis. Activation of haemostasis was occurring in both diseases, however, overt DIC was not confirmed in this study to be a leading mechanism in critically ill patients

  6. Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Monitoring in the Critically Ill Patient

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Guerrero-De-Mier, Manuel; López-Álvaro, Julián

    2011-01-01

    Echocardiography has shown to be an essential diagnostic tool in the critically ill patient's assessment. In this scenario the initial fluid therapy, such as it is recommended in the actual clinical guidelines, not always provides the desired results and maintains a considerable incidence of cardiorrespiratory insufficiency. Echocardiography can council us on these patients' clinical handling, not only the initial fluid therapy but also on the best-suited election of the vasoactive/inotropic treatment and the early detection of complications. It contributes as well to improving the etiological diagnosis, allowing one to know the heart performance with more precision. The objective of this manuscript is to review the more important parameters that can assist the intensivist in theragnosis of hemodynamically unstable patients. PMID:22758613

  7. Powered intraosseous device (EZ-IO) for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Oksan, Derinoz; Ayfer, Keles

    2013-07-01

    We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent powered intraosseous line insertion between July 1, 2008 and August 31, 2010 to determine its users, indications, procedural details, success rates, and complications. Intraosseous (IO) line was inserted in the anteromedial aspect of the proximal tibia in all patients. The first attempt was successful in 80%, and the median duration for insertion of the IO line was 4 hours. Extravasation was the most common complication. Ninety-six percent of the physicians had undergone prior training in IO insertion. Because of its high success and short procedure time, IO access should be the first alternative to failed vascular access in critically ill children. Training in IO should be extended to all who care for pediatric patients in inpatient as well as in prehospital and emergency department settings.

  8. Update in the management of critically ill burned patients.

    PubMed

    Lorente, J A; Amaya-Villar, R

    2016-01-01

    The management of critically ill burn patients is challenging. These patients have to be managed in specialized centers, where the expertise of physicians and nursing personnel guarantees the best treatment. Mortality of burn patients has improved over the past decades due to a better understanding of burn shock pathophysiology, optimal surgical management, infection control and nutritional support. Indeed, a more aggressive resuscitation, early excision and grafting, the judicious use of topical antibiotics, and the provision of an adequate calorie and protein intake are key to attain best survival results. General advances in critical care have also to be implemented, including protective ventilation, glycemic control, selective decontamination of the digestive tract, and implementation of sedation protocols.

  9. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy in critically ill obese patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) and the incidence of complications in critically ill, obese patients. Methods Fifty consecutive patients were included in a prospective study in two surgical and critical care medicine departments. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at least 30 kg/m2. The feasibility of PCT and the incidence of complications were compared in obese patients (n = 26) and non-obese patients (n = 24). Results are expressed as the median (25th-75th percentile) or number (percentage). Results The median BMIs were 34 kg/m2 (32-38) in the obese patient group and 25 kg/m2 (24-28) in the non-obese group (p < 0.001). The median times for tracheostomy were 10 min (8-14) in non-obese patients and 9 min (5-10) in obese-patients (p = 0.1). The overall complication rate was similar in obese and non-obese patient groups (35% vs. 33%, p = 0.92). Most complications were minor (hypotension, desaturation, tracheal cuff puncture and minor bleeding), with no differences between obese and non-obese groups. Bronchoscopic inspection revealed two cases of granuloma (8%) in obese patients. One non-obese patient developed a peristomal skin infection, which was treated with intravenous antibiotics. Ultrasound-guided PCT was possible in all enrolled patients and there were no surgical conversions or deaths. Conclusions This study demonstrated that US-guided PCT is feasible in obese patients with a low complication rate. Obesity may not constitute a contra-indication for US-guided PCT. A US examination provides information on cervical anatomy and hence modifies and guides choice of the PCT puncture site. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01502657. PMID:22390815

  10. Communication with patients suffering from serious physical illness.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Costantini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Communication is the corner stone of the relationship with the patient in all medical settings with the main aims of creating a good inter-personal relationship, exchanging information, and making treatment-related decisions. In a rapidly changing cultural and social context, the paternalistic approach of doctors knowing the best and deciding what should be done for a patient has been replaced by a shared decision-making approach, with patients being advised to educate themselves, ask questions and influence the course of the discussion with their doctors. Thus, a need for an improvement in the communication skills of physicians is extremely important for patients affected by serious physical illness (e.g. cancer, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Certain attitudes, behaviour and skills (e.g. capacity to impart confidence, being empathetic, providing a 'human touch', relating on a personal level, being forthright, being respectful, and being thorough) are part of effective communication. However, some specific aspects influencing doctor-patient communication and relationships, such as personality variables, coping and attachment styles, as well as cultural factors, should also be taken in to account. The development of training curricula to help doctors acquire proper skills in communication is mandatory, since research has shown that training in communication may facilitate the effectiveness of a doctor-patient relationship and the patient's satisfaction with care and give a general sense of humanity, which is easily lost in a biotechnologically oriented medicine.

  11. The immunocompromised oncohematological critically ill patient: considerations in severe infections

    PubMed Central

    Lagunes, Leonel; Morales-Codina, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain a major cause of mortality among critically ill patient. This is particularly relevant among cancer patients as highlighted by different series showing that up to one in five patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with sepsis have cancer, and also, sepsis is a leading reason for ICU admission in patients with cancer. The classic predictors of mortality among these patients (such as cancer lineage, neutropenia degree, or bone marrow transplantation history) have changed during the last decades, and they should no longer be used to rule out ICU admission. Instead, a newer approach to these patients should be performed taking into account organ failure assessment and prior performance status. When a doubt exists about the criteria for ICU admission, not only a trial of ICU management should be proposed to assert that no patients are withhold of the opportunity for recovering from the acute condition, but also an early admission, to prevent more derangement, and thus impact on mortality. PMID:27713885

  12. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  13. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients. PMID:22367732

  14. Agreement between two plasma bicarbonate assays in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Story, D A; Poustie, S

    2000-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that measurement of plasma bicarbonate concentration using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation may be unreliable, particularly in critically ill patients. We examined the agreement between two plasma bicarbonate concentration assays in critically ill patients. Data were collected from records of routine daily blood samples. Paired samples were taken at the same time from arterial lines. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare two bicarbonate assays in clinical use. The first used the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for blood-gas machine calculations. The second used a spectrophotometric enzymatic technique. Comparing the enzymatic method to the calculated method (enzymatic minus calculated) the bias was -1.6 mmol/l (95% CI: -1.2 to -2.0 mmol/l). The limits of agreement were -5.85 mmol/l to 2.65 mmol/l. This study found poor agreement between the two bicarbonate assays. This poor agreement is clinically important but the causes are unclear. We suggest further investigation of the reliability of bicarbonate assays.

  15. Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Teodoro; Bonet, Alfonso; Rubio, Mercedes; Mateo, Dolores; Farré, Mercé; Acosta, José Antonio; Blesa, Antonio; Montejo, Juan Carlos; de Lorenzo, Abelardo García; Mesejo, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients is a complication that seems to be frequent, but it has not been assessed previously in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of incidence in 40 intensive care units. Different liver dysfunction patterns were defined: (a) cholestasis: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l, gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, or bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl; (b) liver necrosis: aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l, plus bilirubin of more than 1.2 mg/dl or international normalized ratio of more than 1.4; and (c) mixed pattern: alkaline phosphatase of more than 280 IU/l or gamma-glutamyl-transferase of more than 50 IU/l, plus aspartate aminotransferase of more than 40 IU/l or alanine aminotransferase of more than 42 IU/l. Results Seven hundred and twenty-five of 3,409 patients received artificial nutrition: 303 received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and 422 received enteral nutrition (EN). Twenty-three percent of patients developed liver dysfunction: 30% in the TPN group and 18% in the EN group. The univariate analysis showed an association between liver dysfunction and TPN (p < 0.001), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score on admission (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.001), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and malnutrition (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, liver dysfunction was associated with TPN (p < 0.001), sepsis (p < 0.02), early use of artificial nutrition (p < 0.03), and calculated energy requirements of more than 25 kcal/kg per day (p < 0.05). Conclusion TPN, sepsis, and excessive calculated energy requirements appear as risk factors for developing liver dysfunction. Septic critically ill patients should not be fed with excessive caloric amounts, particularly when TPN is employed. Administering artificial nutrition in the first 24 hours

  16. [Tissue oxygen saturation in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Gruartmoner, G; Mesquida, J; Baigorri, F

    2014-05-01

    Hemodynamic resuscitation seeks to correct global macrocirculatory parameters of pressure and flow. However, current evidence has shown that despite the normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations can persist, and these alterations have been independently associated with a poorer patient prognosis. This in turn has lead to growing interest in new technologies for exploring regional circulation and microcirculation. Near infra-red spectroscopy allows us to monitor tissue oxygen saturation, and has been proposed as a noninvasive, continuous and easy-to-obtain measure of regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on near infra-red spectroscopy and its potential clinical role in the resuscitation of critically ill patients in shock.

  17. Complications of tracheal intubation in critically ill pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Suhail Sarwar; Janarthanan, S.; Harish, M. M.; Chaudhari, Harish; Prabu, R. Natesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Kulkarni, Atul Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The oncologists are treating cancer more aggressively, leading to increase in number of pediatric admissions to the ICU. Due to anatomical and physiological differences, pediatric patients are at high risk of complications during intubation. We evaluated the incidence of complications during intubations in pediatric patients in our ICU. Subjects and Methods: We performed retrospective analysis of complications occurring during intubation in 42 pediatric patients. All intubations were orotracheal. We recorded number of attempts at intubation, need for use of intubation adjuncts and complications during laryngoscopy and intubation. The incidence of difficult intubation, hypoxia, and severe cardiovascular collapse was also noted. Results: Complications occurred during 13 (31%) intubations. Hypoxia and severe cardiovascular collapse occurred in during 7 (16.7%) intubations each, while 4 patients (9.5%) (n=4) had cardiac arrest during intubation. Thirty three (78.6%) intubations were successful in first attempt and difficult intubation was recorded in 4 patients. Conclusion: Critically ill pediatric cancer patients have a high rate of complications during intubation. PMID:27555695

  18. Prevalence of carnitine depletion in critically ill patients with undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, A; Hyltander, A; Sjöberg, A; Arfvidsson, B; Sandström, R; Wickström, I; Lundholm, K

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent secondary carnitine deficiency may exist based on the prevalence of subnormal carnitine status in patients with critical illness and abnormal nutritional state. Healthy control patients (n = 12) were investigated and compared with patients with possible secondary carnitine deficiency, ie, patients with overt severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM, n = 28), postoperative long-term (greater than 14 days) parenteral glucose feeding (250 g glucose/d, n = 7), severe liver disease (n = 10), renal insufficiency (n = 7), and sustained septicemia with increased metabolic rate (n = 8). Nutritional status, energy expenditure, creatinine excretion, and blood biochemical tests were measured in relationship to free and total carnitine concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle tissue, as well as urinary excretion of free and total carnitine. The overall mortality rate was 48% within 30 days of the investigation in study patients with the highest mortality in liver disease (90%). The hospitalization range was 14 to 129 days in study patients. Most study patients had lost weight (4% to 19%) and had abnormal body composition. Patients with liver disease, septicemia, renal insufficiency, and those on long-term glucose feeding had significantly higher than predicted metabolic rate (+25% +/- 3%), while patients with severe malnutrition had decreased metabolic rate compared with controls. Patients with liver disease had increased plasma concentrations of free (96 +/- 16 mumol/L) and total (144 +/- 27 mumol/L) carnitine compared with controls (45 +/- 3, 58 +/- 7 mumol/L, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1736038

  19. Scoring Systems in Assessing Survival of Critically Ill ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Ana D.; Trpkovic, Sladjana V.; Pavlovic, Aleksandar P.; Marinkovic, Olivera M.; Ilic, Aleksandra N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine which of the most commonly used scoring systems for evaluation of critically ill patients in the ICU is the best and simplest to use in our hospital. Material/Methods This prospective study included 60 critically ill patients. After admittance to the ICU, APACHE II, SAPS II, and MPM II0 were calculated. During further treatment in the ICU, SOFA and MPM II were calculated at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h and 7 days after admittance using laboratory and radiological measures. Results In comparison with survivors, non-survivors were older (p<0.01) and spent significantly more days on mechanical ventilation (p<0.01). ARDS was significantly more common in patients who survived compared to those who did not (chi-square=7.02, p<0.01), which is not the case with sepsis (chi-square=0.388, p=0.53). AUROC SAPS II was 0.690, and is only slightly higher than the other 2 AUROC incipient scoring systems, MPM II and APACHE II (0.654 and 0.623). The APACHE II has the highest specificity (81.8%) and MPM II the highest sensitivity (85.2%). MPM II7day AUROC (1.0) shows the best discrimination between patients who survived and those who did not. MPM II48 (0.836), SOFA72 (0.821) and MPM II72 (0.817) also had good discrimination scores. Conclusions APACHE II and SAPS II measured on admission to the ICU were significant predictors of complications. MPM II7day has the best discriminatory power, followed by SOFA7day and MPM II48. MPM II7day has the best calibration followed by SOFA7day and APACHE II. PMID:26336861

  20. Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is highly addictive, and nicotine abstinence is associated with withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sudden nicotine abstinence on the development of agitation and delirium, and on morbidities and outcomes in critically ill patients who required respiratory support, either noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study in two intensive care units (ICUs). The 144 consecutive patients admitted to ICUs and requiring mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were included. Smoking status was assessed at ICU admission by using the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Agitation, with the Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS), and delirium, with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC), were tested twice daily during the ICU stay. Agitation and delirium were defined by SAS >4 and ICDSC >4, respectively. Nosocomial complications and outcomes were evaluated. Results Smokers (n = 44) were younger and more frequently male and were more likely to have a history of alcoholism and to have septic shock as the reason for ICU admission than were nonsmokers. The incidence of agitation, but not delirium, increased significantly in the smoker group (64% versus 32%; P = 0.0005). Nicotine abstinence was associated with higher incidences of self-removal of tubes and catheters, and with more interventions, including the need for supplemental sedatives, analgesics, neuroleptics, and physical restraints. Sedation-free days, ventilator-free days, length of stay, and mortality in ICUs did not differ between groups. Multivariate analysis identified active smoking (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.45-6.74; P = 0.003) as an independent risk factor for agitation. Based on a subgroup of 56 patients, analysis of 28 pairs of patients (smokers and nonsmokers in a 1:1 ratio) matched for age, gender, and alcoholism status found similar results

  1. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Renata Matos; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Neves, Renata Cristina Miranda; Shigemichi, Liane Hirano; Kanda, Sandra Sayuri; Maekawa, Carla; Silva, Eliezer; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed. PMID:24068269

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fosfomycin in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Suzanne L.; Frantzeskaki, Frantzeska; Wallis, Steven C.; Diakaki, Chryssa; Giamarellou, Helen; Koulenti, Despoina; Karaiskos, Ilias; Lipman, Jeffrey; Dimopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the population pharmacokinetics of fosfomycin in critically ill patients. In this observational study, serial blood samples were taken over several dosing intervals of intravenous fosfomycin treatment. Blood samples were analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Five hundred fifteen blood samples were collected over one to six dosing intervals from 12 patients. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (17) years, 67% of patients were male, and creatinine clearance (CLCR) ranged from 30 to 300 ml/min. A two-compartment model with between-subject variability on clearance and volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) described the data adequately. Calculated CLCR was supported as a covariate on fosfomycin clearance. The mean parameter estimates for clearance on the first day were 2.06 liters/h, Vc of 27.2 liters, intercompartmental clearance of 19.8 liters/h, and volume of the peripheral compartment of 22.3 liters. We found significant pharmacokinetic variability for fosfomycin in this heterogeneous patient sample, which may be explained somewhat by the observed variations in renal function. PMID:26239990

  3. Fear of death, mortality communication, and psychological distress among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-02-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality comunication, fear of death, and psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptomatology, emotional exhaustion) among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 236 participants were recruited over 18 months within the first year of caregiver bereavement. Retrospectively reported mortality communication was statistically greater among secular caregivers; in contrast, both fear of death and depressive symptoms were greater among the religiously observant. Path analyses subsequently revealed notable differences between groups. Among secular caregivers, a significant inverse relationship between mortality communication and the two indices of caregiver distress emerged. In contrast, the association between mortality communication and psychological distress among the religious was moderated by these caregivers' fear of death. The results of this study suggest that fear of death is a significant predictor of psychological distress among religiously observant caregivers of terminal cancer patients (i.e., fear of their own death as elicited by the caregiving role). Fostering morality communication between secular caregivers and patients would appear to be one means of reducing the likelihood of clinically significant psychological distress. This may be insufficient among religiously observant caregivers, however, for whom fear of death may first need to be redressed.

  4. Unmeasured anions and mortality in critically ill patients in 2016.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of acid-base disturbances, especially metabolic acidosis may negatively affect the outcome of critically ill patients. Lactic acidosis is the most frequent etiology and has largest impact on the prognosis. Since lactate measurement might not have always been available at bedside, it had been regarded as one of the unmeasured anions. Therefore, anion gap and strong ion gap has been used to as a surrogate of lactate concentration. From this perspective, the relationship between either anion gap or strong ion gap and mortality has been explored. Then, lactate became routinely measurable at bedside and the direct comparison between directly measured lactate and these surrogate parameters can be possible. Currently available evidence suggests that directly measured lactate has larger prognostic ability for mortality than albumin-corrected anion gap and strong ion gap without lactate. In this commentary, the rationale and possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27429758

  5. Associations between perceived chronic care quality, perceived patient centeredness, and illness representations among persons with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joseph; Iyer, Neeraj N; Collins, William B

    2014-01-01

    Patient beliefs about their illness can motivate behaviors consistent with good disease management. Perceived high-quality chronic care would be expected to increase likelihood of having such beliefs. Associations between perceived quality of chronic care and illness representations, and associations between patient centeredness and illness representations were assessed among persons with diabetes. A mail survey of diabetic patients visiting a multispecialty physician network serving urban and suburban populations in a large midwestern city was conducted. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care-5A questionnaire was used to assess perceived chronic care quality and patient centeredness. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to assess illness representations. Of 500 mailed surveys, 89 completed surveys were returned. The sample consisted mostly of retirees (61%), Whites (81%), and women (60%). Higher perceived chronic care quality was associated with better disease understanding of diabetes (0.24, p = .05). Patients reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) indicated better disease understanding (-0.26, p = .04) and those reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) perceived less impact of illness (0.29, p = .02). Chronic care quality as defined in the Chronic Care Model and consistency of chronic care with patient expectations (patient centeredness) was associated with illness representations favorable for good self-care management.

  6. Acute kidney injury in critically ill cancer patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Lameire, Norbert; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer represent a growing group among actual ICU admissions (up to 20 %). Due to their increased susceptibility to infectious and noninfectious complications related to the underlying cancer itself or its treatment, these patients frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). A wide variety of definitions for AKI are still used in the cancer literature, despite existing guidelines on definitions and staging of AKI. Alternative diagnostic investigations such as Cystatin C and urinary biomarkers are discussed briefly. This review summarizes the literature between 2010 and 2015 on epidemiology and prognosis of AKI in this population. Overall, the causes of AKI in the setting of malignancy are similar to those in other clinical settings, including preexisting chronic kidney disease. In addition, nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer treatments including the more recently introduced targeted therapies is increasingly observed. However, data are sometimes difficult to interpret because they are often presented from the oncological rather than from the nephrological point of view. Because the development of the acute tumor lysis syndrome is one of the major causes of AKI in patients with a high tumor burden or a high cell turnover, the diagnosis, risk factors, and preventive measures of the syndrome will be discussed. Finally, we will briefly discuss renal replacement therapy modalities and the emergence of chronic kidney disease in the growing subgroup of critically ill post-AKI survivors. PMID:27480256

  7. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  8. The effects of death education on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their families.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, K H

    1991-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of an education program on nurses' attitudes toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members. The program, based on the hospice concept of care, included a didactic section based on Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying, and a role-play model designed by the researcher. Data were collected from 34 licensed nurses, aged 18 to 65, practicing in the midwestern United States. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was designed by the researcher to assess nurses' attitudes. The FATCOD was found to be a valid and reliable tool. All nurses completed the tool before and after the education program (pre-test, post-test). Compared by a t-test, the scores for the nurses were significantly higher after participation in the educational program. The t-value was found to be 2.97, significant at the less than 0.01 level, 2-tailed probability = 0.006. These findings support the hypothesis that nurses have a more positive attitude toward caring for terminally ill persons and their family members after participation in the program, than the same nurses had before participating in the program. Demographic information including age, years of experience in nursing, highest degree held, basic type of nursing preparation and previous education on death and dying were analyzed to determine their relationship to the nurses' attitudes. The only information which demonstrated any significant relationship to the nurses' attitudes was that of previous education on death and dying. These were computed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 3.22, F prob = 0.04, significant at less than 0.05 level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Mental Representations of Illness in Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: How Do Patients Perceive Their Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Di Mattei, Valentina E.; Carnelli, Letizia; Mazzetti, Martina; Bernardi, Martina; Di Pierro, Rossella; Bergamini, Alice; Mangili, Giorgia; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestational Trophoblastic Disease comprises a group of benign and malignant disorders that derive from the placenta. Using Leventhal’s Common-Sense Model as a theoretical framework, this paper examines illness perception in women who have been diagnosed with this disease. Methods Thirty-one women diagnosed with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in a hospital in Italy were asked to complete the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised to measure the following: illness Identity, illness opinions and causes of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Results High mean scores were observed in the Emotional representations and Treatment control subscales. A significant difference emerged between hydatidiform mole patients and those with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on the Identity subscale. A significant correlation emerged between “time since diagnosis” and the Treatment control subscale. Discussion This study is the first to investigate illness perception in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. From a clinical perspective the results highlight the need for multidisciplinary support programs to promote a more realistic illness perception. PMID:27101144

  10. Teaching Medical Students about Communicating with Patients with Major Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ramanan, Radhika A; Lee, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Persons with major mental illness often have chronic diseases and poor physical health. Therefore, all practicing physicians should learn about communicating effectively with these patients. Few efforts to teach medical students communication skills have specifically targeted patients with major mental illness. Indeed, most of the limited literature on this topic is decades old, predating significant scientific advances in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric therapeutics and changes in social policies regarding major mental illness. To gather preliminary insight into training needs, we interviewed 13 final-year students from 2 Boston medical schools. Students' observations coalesced around 4 themes: fears and anxieties about interacting with persons with major mental illness; residents “protecting” students from patients with major mental illness; lack of clinical maturity; and barriers to learning during psychiatry rotations. Educational researchers must explore ways to better prepare young physicians to communicate effectively with patients with major mental illness. PMID:16970561

  11. Synchronization of Cardio-Respiratory Dynamics in Critically Ill Patients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burykin, Anton; Buchman, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    We studied changes in cardio-respiratory synchronization and dynamics of cardiovascular system during transition from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous respiration in critically ill patients. This observational study exploits a standard clinical practice---the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). The SBT consists of a period of mechanical ventilation, followed by a period of spontaneous breathing, followed by resumption of mechanical ventilation. We collected continuous respiratory, cardiac (EKG), and blood pressure signals of mechanically ventilated patients before, during and after SBT. The data were analyzed by means of spectral analysis, phase dynamics, and entropy measures. Mechanical ventilation appears to affect not only the lungs but also the cardiac and vascular systems. Spontaneous cardiovascular rhythms are entrained by the mechanical ventilator and are drawn into synchrony. Sudden interruption of mechanical ventilation causes gross desynchronization, which is restored by reinstitution of mechanical ventilation. The data suggest (1) therapies intended to support one organ system may propagate unanticipated effects to other organ systems and (2) sustained therapies may adversely affect recovery of normal organ system interactions.

  12. Illness perceptions and coping determine quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Gaab, Erin; Voorhaar, Maarten; Asijee, Guus; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2016-01-01

    Background A key goal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care is to improve patients’ quality of life (QoL). For outcomes such as QoL, illness perceptions and coping are important determinants. Aim The primary aim was to assess the associations between illness perceptions, coping and QoL in COPD patients. A secondary aim was to compare illness perceptions and coping of patients with reference values derived from the literature. Patients and methods A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence scale (UPCC), and a QoL item. Correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Student’s t-tests were used to compare patients with COPD with reference values derived from the literature. Results Patients with better understanding of COPD utilized more proactive coping strategies (P=0.04). A more intense emotional response to COPD was related to less proactive coping (P=0.02). Patients who reported using more proactive coping techniques also reported to have a better QoL (P<0.01). Illness perceptions were also related to QoL: more positive illness perceptions were related to a better QoL (all P<0.05). Patients with COPD reported more negative illness perceptions than people with a common cold or patients with asthma (all P<0.01), but reported similar perceptions compared with patients with diabetes. Conclusion Patients with COPD reported a moderate QoL, but appeared to be proficient in proactive coping. Illness perceptions, coping, and QoL were all associated with each other. Patients reported more strongly affected illness perceptions compared to people with a cold and patients with asthma. We postulate that a self-management intervention targeting patients’ illness perceptions leads to improved QoL. PMID:27601893

  13. Illness perceptions and coping determine quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Gaab, Erin; Voorhaar, Maarten; Asijee, Guus; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2016-01-01

    Background A key goal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care is to improve patients’ quality of life (QoL). For outcomes such as QoL, illness perceptions and coping are important determinants. Aim The primary aim was to assess the associations between illness perceptions, coping and QoL in COPD patients. A secondary aim was to compare illness perceptions and coping of patients with reference values derived from the literature. Patients and methods A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence scale (UPCC), and a QoL item. Correlations and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Student’s t-tests were used to compare patients with COPD with reference values derived from the literature. Results Patients with better understanding of COPD utilized more proactive coping strategies (P=0.04). A more intense emotional response to COPD was related to less proactive coping (P=0.02). Patients who reported using more proactive coping techniques also reported to have a better QoL (P<0.01). Illness perceptions were also related to QoL: more positive illness perceptions were related to a better QoL (all P<0.05). Patients with COPD reported more negative illness perceptions than people with a common cold or patients with asthma (all P<0.01), but reported similar perceptions compared with patients with diabetes. Conclusion Patients with COPD reported a moderate QoL, but appeared to be proficient in proactive coping. Illness perceptions, coping, and QoL were all associated with each other. Patients reported more strongly affected illness perceptions compared to people with a cold and patients with asthma. We postulate that a self-management intervention targeting patients’ illness perceptions leads to improved QoL.

  14. Alteration of the sublingual microvascular glycocalyx in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Donati, Abele; Damiani, Elisa; Domizi, Roberta; Romano, Rocco; Adrario, Erica; Pelaia, Paolo; Ince, Can; Singer, Mervyn

    2013-11-01

    Glycocalyx degradation may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and tissue hypoperfusion during systemic inflammation and sepsis. In this observational study we evaluated the alteration of the sublingual microvascular glycocalyx in 16 healthy volunteers and 50 critically ill patients. Sidestream Dark Field images of the sublingual microcirculation were automatically analyzed by dedicated software. The Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) was calculated as the dimensions of the permeable part of the glycocalyx allowing the penetration of circulating red blood cells, providing an index of glycocalyx damage. The PBR was increased in ICU patients compared to healthy controls (2.7 [2.59-2.88] vs. 2.46 [2.37-2.59]μm, p<0.0001) and tended to be higher in the 32 septic patients compared to non-septics (2.77 [2.62-2.93] vs. 2.67 [2.55-2.75]μm, p=0.05), suggesting more severe glycocalyx alterations. A PBR of 2.76 showed the best discriminative ability towards the presence of sepsis (sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 83%; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.82, p=0.05). A weak positive correlation was found between PBR and heart rate (r=0.3, p=0.03). In 17 septic patients, a correlation was found between PBR and number of rolling leukocytes in post-capillary venules (RL/venule) (r=0.55, p=0.02), confirming that glycocalyx shedding enhances leukocyte-endothelium interaction.

  15. Senescent birds redouble reproductive effort when ill: confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2006-06-22

    This study reports an experimental confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis, a longstanding theoretical idea that animals should increase their reproductive effort as they age and their prospects for survival and reproduction decline. Previous correlational and experimental attempts to test this hypothesis have yielded contradictory results. In the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived bird, after initial increase, male reproductive success declines progressively with age. Before laying, males of two age classes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide to elicit an immune response, which induced symptoms of declining survival prospects. Reproductive success of immune-challenged mature males fell, while that of immune-challenged old males showed a 98% increase. These results demonstrate that senescent males with poor reproductive prospects increase their effort when those prospects are threatened, whereas younger males with good reproductive prospects do not.

  16. Senescent birds redouble reproductive effort when ill: confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2006-06-22

    This study reports an experimental confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis, a longstanding theoretical idea that animals should increase their reproductive effort as they age and their prospects for survival and reproduction decline. Previous correlational and experimental attempts to test this hypothesis have yielded contradictory results. In the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived bird, after initial increase, male reproductive success declines progressively with age. Before laying, males of two age classes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide to elicit an immune response, which induced symptoms of declining survival prospects. Reproductive success of immune-challenged mature males fell, while that of immune-challenged old males showed a 98% increase. These results demonstrate that senescent males with poor reproductive prospects increase their effort when those prospects are threatened, whereas younger males with good reproductive prospects do not. PMID:16777735

  17. Illness Perception and Information Behaviour of Patients with Rare Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katavic, Snježana Stanarevic; Tanackovic, Sanjica Faletar; Badurina, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined possible correlations between health information behaviour and illness perception among patients with rare chronic diseases. Illness perception is related to coping strategies used by patients, and some health information behaviour practices may be associated with better coping and more positive perception of…

  18. Predictive value of an abnormal hepatobiliary scan in patients with severe intercurrent illness

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Froelich, J.W.; Lloyd, R.; Thrall, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients had severe intercurrent illness and the gallbladder could not be seen on a hepatobiliary scan. In 4, surgery and pathological examination showed that the gallbladder was normal; 1 had chronic cholecystitis and 5 had acute acalculous cholecystitis. This study indicates that a positive hepatobiliary scan may not be indicative of acute gallbladder disease in the seriously ill patient.

  19. Body Consciousness, Illness-Related Impairment, and Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the joint effects of private body consciousness (PBC) and degree of illness-related physical impairment on treatment regimen adherence in a sample of 52 hemodialysis patients. Predicted the effect of PBC on adherence would vary as a function of patients' level of illness-related physical impairment. Results are discussed in terms of…

  20. Postoperative hospital course of patients with history of severe psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; McCartney, J R; Saravay, S M; Katz, E

    1987-09-01

    The postoperative hospital course of 54 patients with a past history of psychiatric illness was studied through chart review. Both chronic schizophrenics and chronic depressives tolerated surgical procedures well, without any unusual difficulties or exacerbation of psychiatric illness. They represented no management problems. Patients with acute, severe upset in the preoperative period (regardless of diagnosis) presented most of the management problems postoperatively. PMID:3678811

  1. Pharmacokinetic Changes and Dosing Modification of Aminoglycosides in Critically Ill Obese Patients: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Marangos, Markos; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the literature and provide recommendations for use of aminoglycoside antibiotics in critically ill obese patients. Literature search in PubMed for all articles on the use of aminoglycosides in critically ill obese patients was conducted, and all articles related to pharmacokinetics in obesity were reviewed. Bibliographies of all searched manuscripts were also reviewed in an attempt to find additional references. Although aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics have been described in detail, data on aminoglycoside use and appropriate dose modification in critically ill obese patients are very limited. Knowledge on aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics and use in critically ill obese patients is incomplete. Pathophysiologic changes in obesity can result in sub- or supra-therapeutic aminoglycoside plasma concentrations, especially in the presence of sepsis. Rigorous clinical studies are needed to establish aminoglycoside dosing guidelines in critically ill obese patients with sepsis. PMID:24883145

  2. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

  3. Causal attribution and illness perception: a cross-sectional study in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment.

  4. Seeing illness in art and medicine: a patient and printmaker collaboration.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Devan; Stahl, Darian Goldin

    2016-09-01

    For many patients, viewing one's illness through medical imaging technology can be an unsettling experience. Patients are likely not to see themselves represented in medical images and may find it difficult to reconcile this new image with their own body image. In this article, a patient with multiple sclerosis and a printmaker describe a collaborative project they have developed, wherein the patient's medical images are incorporated into pieces of fine art. The aim of the project is to open up the interpretation of the ill-body to persons outside the medical field, so as to do justice to the multiple dimensions of the body chronically ill persons often inhabit. PMID:27001596

  5. Ethacrynic Acid Continuous Infusions in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jamie L.; Schaefer, Jared; Tam, Matthew; Harrison, Donald L.; Johnson, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to describe dosage regimens and treatment outcomes in critically ill children receiving ethacrynic acid continuous infusions (CI). METHODS This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated patients less than 18 years of age who received ethacrynic acid CI with a duration exceeding 12 hours, from January 1, 2007, through January 31, 2012. The primary objective was to determine the mean/median doses of ethacrynic acid CI. Secondary objectives were to assess surrogate efficacy markers (e.g., urine output [UOP], fluid balance) and the number of patients with electrolyte abnormalities or metabolic alkalosis. Descriptive statistics were used. A series of repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess differences in surrogate efficacy markers and in adverse events that occurred pre-, mid-, and posttherapy. RESULTS Nine patients were included. The mean ± SD initial and maximum doses (mg/kg/hr) were 0.13 ± 0.07 (median 0.1; range, 0.08–0.3) and 0.17 ± 0.08 (median, 0.16; range 0.09–0.3), respectively. The median UOP (mL/kg/hr) pre-, mid-, and postinfusions (interquartile range [IQR]) were 2.4 (1.8–3.2), 4.2 (3.5–6), and 4 (3.4–5.3), respectively. The median fluid balance (mL; IQR) was 189 (90–526), −258 (−411.7 to 249) and −113.5 (−212.5 to 80.2), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in UOP and fluid balance pre- versus mid-therapy (0.014) and pre- versus posttherapy (p=0.010). No significant differences were noted with magnesium and potassium. Five children (55.6%) developed metabolic alkalosis. CONCLUSIONS This study provides preliminary evidence for ethacrynic acid CI in children. The median initial dose and maximum dose in this cohort were 0.13 mg/kg/hr and 0.17 mg/kg/hr, respectively. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24782692

  6. Patients' narratives of chronic illnesses and the notion of biographical disruption.

    PubMed

    Delbene, Roxana

    2011-01-01

    Bury's (1982) argument that the onset of a chronic illness represents a biographical disruption has become paradigmatic in the sociology of illness studies. More recently Bury (1991, 1997) himself Williams (2000) and other medical sociologists have argued that the notion of illness as biographical disruption needs re-examination. Following a phenomenological approach, in this paper the author draws on different narrative models (Labov and Waletzky 1967 and Ricoeur 1980) to analyze how patients orient to the onset of chronic illness as the complicating action. The data comprise eight narratives collected in South America: three correspond to patients with renal failure, and five to patients with HIV/AIDS disease. It is observed that in some cases, patients' complicating actions are rather oriented to experiences of poverty, drug addiction, and criminality that took place prior to their onset of their illnesses. These experiences, instead of the onset of their illnesses, occupy the place of the complicating action in these patients' narratives. The author discusses that in the studies of illness narratives, it is difficult to operate from a different paradigm, but argues that conflating the onset of chronic illness with a biographical disruption may confuse the episodic dimension of narrative with the configurational dimension.

  7. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected. PMID:25494930

  8. Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability. PMID:20572095

  9. Patients' illness schemata of hypertension: the role of beliefs for the choice of treatment.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria; Marcelino, Dalia Silva; Claudino, Adelaide; Cortes, Maria Armanda; Maroco, Joao; Weinman, John

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate what are the illness perceptions of hypertensive patients and their relationship with beliefs about specific medicines, and (2) to identify different illness schemata and how they relate to the choice of medication. This was a cross-sectional study in which 191 Portuguese patients (59% females), with a hypertension diagnosis, aged over 18 years old, were recruited from a hospital clinic in the Lisbon Metropolitan area. The questionnaire included measures of choice of medication, beliefs about specific medicines (BMQ-Specific), illness perception (Brief-IPQ), and socio-demographic information. The results indicated that the components of the illness perceptions were associated with patients' beliefs about necessity and concerns about medication. Patients seem to differ in their choice of medication (generic or brand names) according to the three illness schemata identified. Patients with more negative illness schemata were more likely to choose a brand medicine, whereas patients with a more positive perception of hypertension were more likely to choose a generic medicine. Our findings support the argument that illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines play a role in influencing patients' preferences of medicines for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:20204931

  10. Assessing Patient Management Plans of Doctors and Medical Students: An Illness Script Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monajemi, Alireza; Schmidt, Henk G.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Illness script theory offers explanations for expert-novice differences in clinical reasoning. However, it has mainly focused on diagnostic (Dx) performance, while patient management (Mx) has been largely ignored. The aim of the present study was to show the role of Mx knowledge in illness script development and how it relates to…

  11. Does health status influence acceptance of illness in patients with chronic respiratory diseases?

    PubMed

    Kurpas, D; Mroczek, B; Brodowski, J; Urban, M; Nitsch-Osuch, A

    2015-01-01

    The level of illness acceptance correlates positively with compliance to the doctor's recommendations, and negatively with the frequency and intensity of complications of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the clinical condition on the level of illness acceptance, and to find variables which would have the most profound effect on the level of illness acceptance in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The study group consisted of 594 adult patients (mean age: 60 ± 15 years) with mixed chronic respiratory diseases, recruited from patients of 136 general practitioners. The average score in the Acceptance of Illness Scale was 26.2 ± 7.6. The low level of illness acceptance was noted in 174 (62.6 %) and high in 46 (16.6 %) patients. Analysis of multiple regressions was used to examine the influence of explanatory variables on the level of illness acceptance. The variables which shaped the level of illness acceptance in our patients included: improvement of health, intensity of symptoms, age, marital status, education level, place of residence, BMI, and the number of chronic diseases. All above mentioned variables should be considered during a design of prevention programs for patients with mixed chronic respiratory diseases.

  12. Patients understanding of depression associated with chronic physical illness: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of depression can be difficult in primary care, particularly when associated with chronic illness. Patient beliefs may affect detection and subsequent engagement with management. We explored patient beliefs about the nature of depression associated with physical illness. Methods A qualitative interview study of patients registered with general practices in Leeds, UK. We invited patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes from primary care to participate in semi-structured interviews exploring their beliefs and experiences. We analysed transcripts using a thematic approach, extended to consider narratives as important contextual elements. Results We interviewed 26 patients, including 17 with personal experience of depression. We developed six themes: recognising a problem, complex causality, the role of the primary care, responsibility, resilience, and the role of their life story. Participants did not consistently talk about depression as an illness-like disorder. They described a change in their sense of self against the background of their life stories. Participants were unsure about seeking help from general practitioners (GPs) and felt a personal responsibility to overcome depression themselves. Chronic illness, as opposed to other life pressures, was seen as a justifiable cause of depression. Conclusions People with chronic illness do not necessarily regard depression as an easily defined illness, especially outside of the context of their life stories. Efforts to engage patients with chronic illness in the detection and management of depression may need further tailoring to accommodate beliefs about how people view themselves, responsibility and negative views of treatment. PMID:24555886

  13. Head-of-bed elevation in critically ill patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Metheny, Norma A; Frantz, Rita A

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are confused by conflicting guidelines about the use of head-of-bed elevation to prevent aspiration and pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. Research-based information in support of guidelines for head-of-bed elevation to prevent either condition is limited. However, positioning of the head of the bed has been studied more extensively for the prevention of aspiration than for the prevention of pressure ulcers, especially in critically ill patients. More research on pressure ulcers has been conducted in healthy persons or residents of nursing homes than in critically ill patients. Thus, the optimal elevation for the head of the bed to balance the risks for aspiration and pressure ulcers in critically ill patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation and tube feedings is unknown. Currently available information provides some indications of how to position patients; however, randomized controlled trials where both outcomes are evaluated simultaneously at various head-of-bed positions are needed.

  14. Religion and suicide in patients with mental illness or cancer.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, the highest rates of suicide are observed in persons without religious affiliation and the lowest in Catholics, with Protestants in an intermediate position. We examined whether this association was modified by concomitant psychiatric diagnoses or malignancies, based on 6,909 suicides (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) recorded in 3.69 million adult residents 2001-2008. Suicides were related to mental illness or cancer if codes F or C, respectively, were mentioned on the death certificate. The protective effect of religion was substantially stronger if a diagnosis of cancer was mentioned on the death certificate and weaker if a mental illness was mentioned.

  15. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356) gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298). Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented through survey method is

  16. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  17. The management of inoperable gastrointestinal obstruction in terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ventafridda, V; Ripamonti, C; Caraceni, A; Spoldi, E; Messina, L; De Conno, F

    1990-08-31

    The aim of the study was to assess vomit and pain control in terminal cancer patients with inoperable gastrointestinal obstruction, using a pharmacologic symptomatic treatment which prevents recourse to nasogastric tube placement and intravenous hydration, in hospital and home care settings. Twenty-two symptomatic patients, who were judged as inoperable, were treated with a pharmacologic association of morphine hydrochloride and scopolamine butylbromide as analgesics and haloperidol as an antiemetic. The drugs were administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion via a syringe driver or intravenously only when a central venous catheter had been inserted previously. Daily recordings included assessment of pain, number of vomiting episodes, dry mouth, drowsiness, and thirst sensation. Data were examined before starting the treatment (T0), 2 days after (T2) and 2 days before death (T-2). They showed that there was a significant decrease in the pain score (p less than 0.001) on T2 and a further decrease on T-2 (p less than 0.05). Vomiting was controlled in all patients, with the exception of three patients with upper abdomen obstruction who required nasogastric tube placement. Dry mouth showed an upward trend throughout the observation period (p less than 0.05) but was successfully treated by administering liquids by mouth or ice-cubes to suck. Drowsiness too presented an upward trend from T0 to T-2 (p less than 0.001). Only one patient out of 16 who reported to be thirsty required intravenous hydration. We believe that in terminal cancer patients, vomit and pain resulting from inoperable intestinal obstruction, with the exception of obstruction of the upper abdomen, can be controlled through administration of analgesic and antiemetic drugs, in the hospital and at home, without recourse to nasogastric tube placement or intravenous hydration. PMID:1697993

  18. Time to look beyond one-year mortality in critically ill hematological patients?

    PubMed

    Moors, Ine; Benoit, Dominique D

    2014-01-01

    The spectacular improvement in long-term prognosis of patients with hematological malignancies since the 1980s, coupled with the subsequent improvement over the past decade in short- and mid-term survival in cases of critical illness, resulted in an increasing referral of such patients to the ICU. A remaining question, however, is how these patients perform in the long term with regard to survival and quality of life. Here we discuss the present multicenter study on survival beyond 1 year in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies. We conclude with suggestions on how we can further improve the long-term outcome of these patients. PMID:24517551

  19. Complex and dynamic times of being chronically ill: Beyond disease trajectories of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Sergei; Rapport, Frances; Seagrove, Anne

    2015-12-01

    This article contributes to health research literature by problematizing the linear, sequential and intelligible understanding of time in the studies of illness. Drawing on the work of Martin Heidegger, it attempts to overcome the problem of considering the time of illness as either a framework controlling patients' experiences or a mind-dependent feature of their lives. The paper offers a conceptual analysis of the stories of ulcerative colitis patients from a recent clinical trial to present temporalities of illness as both objective and subjective, relational and dynamic. We attend to a combination of temporalities related to the ambiguous unfolding of illness and patients' relationships with such an unpredictable world of changing bodies, medical practices and temporal norms. Furthermore, our analysis reveals openness of times and considers ulcerative colitis patients as constantly evolving beings, with multiple possibilities brought about by illness. The paper highlights co-existence of times and considers patients' lives as incorporating a multiplicity of futures, presents and pasts. It concludes with conceptual observations about the consequences of developing complex approaches to illness in health research, which can better highlight the situatedness of patients and their multi-dimensional temporal foundations. PMID:26560409

  20. Complex and dynamic times of being chronically ill: Beyond disease trajectories of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Sergei; Rapport, Frances; Seagrove, Anne

    2015-12-01

    This article contributes to health research literature by problematizing the linear, sequential and intelligible understanding of time in the studies of illness. Drawing on the work of Martin Heidegger, it attempts to overcome the problem of considering the time of illness as either a framework controlling patients' experiences or a mind-dependent feature of their lives. The paper offers a conceptual analysis of the stories of ulcerative colitis patients from a recent clinical trial to present temporalities of illness as both objective and subjective, relational and dynamic. We attend to a combination of temporalities related to the ambiguous unfolding of illness and patients' relationships with such an unpredictable world of changing bodies, medical practices and temporal norms. Furthermore, our analysis reveals openness of times and considers ulcerative colitis patients as constantly evolving beings, with multiple possibilities brought about by illness. The paper highlights co-existence of times and considers patients' lives as incorporating a multiplicity of futures, presents and pasts. It concludes with conceptual observations about the consequences of developing complex approaches to illness in health research, which can better highlight the situatedness of patients and their multi-dimensional temporal foundations.

  1. Measuring sleep in critically ill patients: beware the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Watson, Paula L

    2007-01-01

    Survivors of critical illness frequently report poor sleep while in the intensive care unit (ICU), and sleep deprivation has been hypothesized to lead to emotional distress, ICU delirium and neurocognitive dysfunction, prolongation of mechanical ventilation, and decreased immune function. Thus, the careful study of sleep in the ICU is essential to understanding possible relationships with adverse clinical outcomes. Such research, however, must be conducted using sleep measurement techniques that have important limitations in this unique setting. Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard but is cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive. As such, alternative methods of sleep measurement such as actigraphy, processed electroencephalography monitors, and subjective observation are often used. Though helpful in some instances, data obtained using these methods can often be inaccurate and misleading. Even PSG itself must be interpreted with caution in this population due to effects of critical illness and associated treatments. PMID:17850679

  2. Fresh Approach for Critically Ill Patients with Time-sensitive Needs.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    To meet the needs of critically ill patients with time-sensitive needs, the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) created the Critical Care Resuscitation Unit (CCRU), a six-bed, short-stay ICU designed to accelerate care to resource-heavy patients who require immediate evaluation and treatment. The CCRU is modeled after UMMC's trauma resuscitation unit, but with resources and staff geared toward non-trauma, critically ill patients, many of whom require life-saving care. The unit is largely staffed by emergency providers who have undergone additional training in critical care. In place at UMMC since July 2013, the CCRU has enabled UMMC to accommodate many more incoming critically ill patients than it has in the past. In its first year of operation, critically ill transfer patients increased more than 64%. Investigators also observed reduced hospital length of stay for these patients, and they noted trends toward lower mortality. Before the creation of the CCRU, developers say that care of critically ill patients often was delayed because there was no space available in an appropriate ICU. Patients admitted to the CCRU present with a wide range of complex critical care needs that require immediate attention, such as ruptured blood vessels, aortic dissections, strokes requiring neuro interventional radiologic procedures, and aneurysmal bleeds. Developers have streamlined the transfer process so that appropriate care can commence even before patients arrive in the CCRU. PMID:27439226

  3. Comorbid illnesses and chest radiographic severity in African-American sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Westney, Gloria E; Habib, Sadia; Quarshie, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis disease expression differs along racial/ethnic lines and black race has been cited as a poor prognostic factor. Besides genetic, healthcare, and socioeconomic factors, comorbid illnesses may influence sarcoidosis disease expression. We set out to investigate the association between comorbid illnesses and chest radiographic severity in a population of African-American sarcoidosis patients. The study was designed as a retrospective database analysis. The hospital and outpatient databases of the Grady Health System were searched to capture adult patients between November 1999 and December 2003 with the ICD-9 codes of 135 or 519.8, along with all associated secondary and tertiary diagnostic codes. Patient electronic pathology and radiographic reports were reviewed for tissue biopsies showing noncaseating granulomas and for chest radiographic Scadding stage. A total of 165 African-American patients were identified (64% female, 43 +/- 10 years old). Ninety percent (149/165) had comorbid illnesses. The most frequent chronic comorbid illnesses were hypertension (39%), diabetes mellitus (19%), anemia (19%), asthma (15%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (15%), depression (13%), and heart failure (10%). Females had increased frequency and clustering of chronic illnesses. Chest radiographic stages were more severe in patients with anemia, depression, and those less than 40 years old. Males, within each chronic illnesses category, had more severe CXR stages compared to females; however, significance was not achieved. We concluded that most adult patients with sarcoidosis have comorbid illnesses and these, in addition to gender differences, may influence sarcoidosis disease expression. Screening for comorbid illnesses should be an important aspect of sarcoidosis patient management.

  4. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486

  5. Understanding the suffering of a patient with an illness: signs, context and strategies.

    PubMed

    Hueso Montoro, César; Siles González, José; Amezcua, Manuel; Bonill de Las Nieves, Candela; Pastor Montero, Sonia; Celdrán Mañas, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the suffering of a patient with an illness, by using a secondary research method, that is, a qualitative meta-study. The primary data source of the meta-study includes "biographical reports". This project is based on a case study, in which the first-hand experiences of a patient with an illness were collected. The findings of the reports were compiled using the Archivos de la Memoria collection of the Index Foundation (Granada, Spain) and journals specialized in editing these materials. A selection of 20 biographical reports was targeted. The results of the meta-study show that suffering is a multidimensional process within a framework of ambiguous feelings. The suffering involves family and social network participation. Patients develop a range of strategies to overcome the illness. One of the effects is the fear of illness relapse or worsening.

  6. Correlations Between Awareness of Illness (Insight) and History of Addiction in Heroin-Addicted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Lamanna, Francesco; Bacciardi, Silvia; Perugi, Giulio; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic, and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight). The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behavior. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic, and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period. PMID:22787450

  7. Understanding the suffering of a patient with an illness: signs, context and strategies.

    PubMed

    Hueso Montoro, César; Siles González, José; Amezcua, Manuel; Bonill de Las Nieves, Candela; Pastor Montero, Sonia; Celdrán Mañas, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the suffering of a patient with an illness, by using a secondary research method, that is, a qualitative meta-study. The primary data source of the meta-study includes "biographical reports". This project is based on a case study, in which the first-hand experiences of a patient with an illness were collected. The findings of the reports were compiled using the Archivos de la Memoria collection of the Index Foundation (Granada, Spain) and journals specialized in editing these materials. A selection of 20 biographical reports was targeted. The results of the meta-study show that suffering is a multidimensional process within a framework of ambiguous feelings. The suffering involves family and social network participation. Patients develop a range of strategies to overcome the illness. One of the effects is the fear of illness relapse or worsening. PMID:22991127

  8. Working Alliance in Patients with Severe Mental Illness Who Need a Crisis Intervention Plan.

    PubMed

    Ruchlewska, Asia; Kamperman, Astrid M; van der Gaag, Mark; Wierdsma, André I; Mulder, Niels C L

    2016-01-01

    Working alliance has been characterized as an important predictor of positive treatment outcomes. We examined whether illness insight, psychosocial functioning, social support and locus of control were associated with working alliance as perceived by both patient and clinician. We assessed 195 outpatients with psychotic or bipolar disorders. Our findings indicated that patients rated the alliance more positively when they experienced a greater need for treatment, fewer behavioral and social problems, and more psychiatric symptoms. Clinicians rated the alliance more positively in patients who reported fewer social problems and better illness insight. Patients' demographic characteristics, including being female and married, were also positively related to the clinician-rated alliance. Our results suggest that patients and clinicians have divergent perceptions of the alliance. Clinicians may need help developing awareness of the goals and tasks of patients with certain characteristics, i.e., singles, men, those with poor illness insight and those who report poor social functioning.

  9. A meta-ethnographic synthesis on phenomenographic studies of patients' experiences of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Röing, Marta; Sanner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenography is a qualitative research approach developed within an educational framework, focusing on the qualitative experience of learning. It is also being used, to a lesser degree, in healthcare research. In the present study, we conducted a meta-ethnographic synthesis of phenomenographic studies on chronic illness, in order to give a broader perspective of how chronic illness can be experienced. Our aim was not to describe patients' various individual experiences of illness, but instead to identify the different ways chronic illness can be experienced by patients. Our synthesis and phenomenographic interpretation of 12 selected articles found that patients' experiences of chronic illness can be described in terms of a different lived body, a struggle with threat to identity and self-esteem, a diminished lifeworld, and a challenging reality. These experiences relate to each other in a process of recurring loops, where the different ways of experiencing continue to influence each other over time. According to these findings, the use of phenomenography as a research approach has the potential to add to the understanding of how chronic illness can be experienced. Patients may benefit from seeing that their illness can be experienced in many different ways and that it has many aspects, which then can lead to a better understanding and coping with their illness. We suggest that it may be worthwhile to expand the scope of phenomenography outside pedagogics. This presupposes a revision of the application to include a wider and more comprehensive description, for instance, of the different ways illness and healthcare phenomena can be experienced, and how these different ways are related to each other, with less focus on hierarchical relations.

  10. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  11. Rehabilitation of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy and Myopathy Patients: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Primoz; Vidmar, Gaj; Kuret, Zala; Bizovicar, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently develops in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The number of patients with CIPNM admitted to inpatient rehabilitation is increasing. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the outcome of their rehabilitation. Twenty-seven patients with CIPNM were included in…

  12. Study of Aetiology and Outcome in Acute Febrile Illness Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muthaiah, Bhanukumar; Kondareddy, Srinivas; Chikkegowda, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute febrile illness with Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) carries significant morbidity and mortality despite standard therapy in intensive care settings. Infections are the most common cause of MODS followed by polytrauma. Present study was undertaken in medical intensive care units of a tertiary hospital to study the aetiology and outcome among patients with acute febrile illness developing MODS. Aim 1) To study the aetiology of acute febrile illness in patients developing MODS. 2) To study the final outcome among these patients. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mysuru, Karnataka, India, over a period of 6 months from July 2013 to December 2013. The Institutional Ethics Committee Approval (IEC) was obtained before the commencement of the study. A total of 213 cases admitted in intensive care unit with acute febrile illness with two or more organ dysfunction were screened for the inclusion and exclusion criterias. Results A total of 213 cases of acute febrile illness with one or more organ dysfunction were screened. Of the screened patients 75 patients were finally included in the study out of which 46 (61.3%) patients were males and 29 (38.7%) patients were females. Aetiology for acute febrile illness with MODS could be established in 49 (65.3%) patients and it was obscure in 26 (34.7%) patients despite repeated investigations. Dengue infection (29.3%) was the commonest cause of febrile illness with MODS followed by leptospirosis (22.7%). Majority of these patients had haematological derangements (78.7%) and liver function test abnormalities (68%). Out of these 75 cases, 54 (72%) patients recovered completely and 21 (28%) patients died. Among males (N=46), 35 (76.1%) patients recovered and 11 (23.9%) patients died where as among females (N=29), 19 (65.5%) patients recovered and 10 (34.5%) patients died. Mortality was proportionate with the number of organ dysfunction, especially Central

  13. UNITED STATES DENTAL PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTIONS OF DENTAL ANXIETY AND NEED FOR SEDATION IN PATIENTS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Lisa J.; Hyatt, Halee A.; Huggins, Kimberly Hanson; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dental fear is a barrier to receiving dental care, particularly for those patients who also suffer from mental illnesses. The current study examined United States dental professionals’ perceptions of dental fear experienced by patients with mental illness, and frequency of sedation of patients with and without mental illness. Dentists and dental staff members (n = 187) completed a survey about their experiences in treating patients with mental illness. More participants agreed (79.8%) than disagreed (20.2%) that patients with mental illness have more anxiety regarding dental treatment (p < .001) than dental patients without mental illness. Further, significantly more participants reported mentally ill patients’ anxiety is “possibly” or “definitely” a barrier to both receiving (96.8%; p < .001) and providing (76.9%; p < .01) dental treatment. Despite reporting more fear in these patients, there were no significant differences in frequency of sedation procedures between those with and without mental illness, regardless of type of sedation (p’s > .05). This lack of difference in sedation for mentally ill patients suggests hesitancy on the part of dental providers to sedate patients with mental illness and highlights a lack of clinical guidelines for this population in the US. Suggestions are given for the assessment and clinical management of patients with mental illness. PMID:24876662

  14. Supporting Cancer Patients in Illness Management: Usability Evaluation of a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David R; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2014-01-01

    influenced by different context-related factors, such as type of access terminal (eg, desktop computer, tablet, mobile phone) and phases of illness. Based on the observed results, we proposed design and functionality recommendations that can be used for the development of mobile apps for cancer patients to support their health management process. Conclusions Understanding and addressing users’ requirements is one of the main prerequisites for developing useful and effective technology-based health interventions. The results of this study outline different user requirements related to the design of the mobile patient support app for cancer patients. The results will be used in the iterative development of the Connect Mobile app and can also inform other developers and researchers in development, integration, and evaluation of mobile health apps and services that support cancer patients in managing their health-related issues. PMID:25119490

  15. Cardiac patient-spouse dissimilarities in illness perception: Associations with patient self-rated health and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Zarogiannos, Aristeides; Karamvakalis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    The study examined the illness perception dissimilarities between chronic cardiac patients and their spouses, as well as the associations of perception dissimilarities with patients' overall self-rated health (SRH) and illness-related coping strategies. Seventy-three patients (65 males, 8 females) with an old myocardial infarction and subsequent cardiovascular problems, and their spouses completed the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Patients also completed a coping measure (the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale) and a question regarding SRH. Significant differences, with spouses scoring higher than patients, were found in perceptions regarding illness chronicity, personal control and the emotional impact of the illness. The correlations of dissimilarity scores to SRH and coping were sporadic and weak. Additionally, after controlling for patients' own perceptions, the effects of dissimilarity scores almost disappeared. However, when three different groups were constructed reflecting whether both partners scored high, low, or in an opposing way on each IPQ-R subscale, the overall matching in several illness perceptions was associated with certain coping strategies, even after controlling for the effects of the patients' own perceptions. With respect to SRH, no significant effects were found. PMID:20204941

  16. Circulating MicroRNA-150 Serum Levels Predict Survival in Patients with Critical Illness and Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Cardenas, David; Vucur, Mihael; Scholten, David; Frey, Norbert; Koch, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank; Luedde, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Down-regulation of miR-150 was recently linked to inflammation and bacterial infection. Furthermore, reduced serum levels of miR-150 were reported from a small cohort of patients with sepsis. We thus aimed at evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-150 serum levels in patients with critically illness and sepsis. Methods miR-150 serum levels were analyzed in a cohort of 223 critically ill patients of which 138 fulfilled sepsis criteria and compared to 76 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data and extensive sets of routine and experimental biomarkers. Results Measurements of miR-150 serum concentrations revealed only slightly reduced miR-150 serum levels in critically ill patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore miR-150 levels did not significantly differ in critically ill patients with our without sepsis, indicating that miR-150 serum levels are not suitable for diagnostic establishment of sepsis. However, serum levels of miR-150 correlated with hepatic or renal dysfunction. Low miR-150 serum levels were associated with an unfavorable prognosis of patients, since low miR-150 serum levels predicted mortality with high diagnostic accuracy compared with established clinical scores and biomarkers. Conclusion Reduced miR-150 serum concentrations are associated with an unfavorable outcome in patients with critical illness, independent of the presence of sepsis. Besides a possible pathogenic role of miR-150 in critical illness, our study indicates a potential use of circulating miRNAs as a prognostic rather than diagnostic marker in critically ill patients. PMID:23372743

  17. Diaphragm Muscle Fiber Weakness and Ubiquitin–Proteasome Activation in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Witt, Christian C.; de Waard, Monique C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique M. E.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Manders, Emmy; van Hees, Hieronymus W. H.; van den Brom, Charissa E.; Silderhuis, Vera; Lawlor, Michael W.; Labeit, Siegfried; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Hartemink, Koen J.; Paul, Marinus A.; Heunks, Leo M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives: We hypothesized that diaphragm muscle fibers of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients display atrophy and contractile weakness, and that the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is activated in the diaphragm. Methods: We obtained diaphragm muscle biopsies from 22 critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation before surgery and compared these with biopsies obtained from patients during thoracic surgery for resection of a suspected early lung malignancy (control subjects). In a proof-of-concept study in a muscle-specific ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) knockout mouse model, we evaluated the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in the development of contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. Measurements and Main Results: Both slow- and fast-twitch diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients had approximately 25% smaller cross-sectional area, and had contractile force reduced by half or more. Markers of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway were significantly up-regulated in the diaphragm of critically ill patients. Finally, MuRF-1 knockout mice were protected against the development of diaphragm contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: These findings show that diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients display atrophy and severe contractile weakness, and in the diaphragm of critically ill patients the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is activated. This study provides rationale for the development of treatment strategies that target the contractility of diaphragm fibers to facilitate weaning. PMID:25760684

  18. Tracheostomy in special groups of critically ill patients: Who, when, and where?

    PubMed Central

    Longworth, Aisling; Veitch, David; Gudibande, Sandeep; Whitehouse, Tony; Snelson, Catherine; Veenith, Tonny

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy is one of the most common procedures undertaken in critically ill patients. It offers many theoretical advantages over translaryngeal intubation. Recent evidence in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients, however, has not demonstrated a benefit for tracheostomy, in terms of mortality, length of stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. It may be a beneficial intervention in articular subsets of ICU patients. In this article, we will focus on the evidence for the timing of tracheostomy and its effect on various subgroups of patients in critical care. PMID:27275076

  19. Early sedation use in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients: when less is really more.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christie M; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, there has been an explosion of literature surrounding sedation management for critically ill patients. The clinical target has moved away from an unconscious and immobile patient toward a goal of light or no sedation and early mobility. The move away from terms such as 'sedation' toward more patient-centered and symptom-based control of pain, anxiety, and agitation makes the management of critically ill patients more individualized and dynamic. Over-sedation has been associated with negative ICU outcomes, including longer durations of mechanical ventilation and lengths of stay, but few studies have been able to associate deep sedation with increased mortality. PMID:25673278

  20. Characteristic illness behaviour in assault patients: DATES syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J P; Peak, J D; Haria, S; Sleeman, F

    1995-01-01

    Violent crime has become a public health issue, not least because the needs of victims have been neglected in the criminal justice system. Since this group suffer more psychological distress than victims of accidents, we compared illness experience in 433 adult assault victims with paired victims of accidents in a case control study. In the 10 year period prior to injury, there was a significant excess of hospital contacts in the assault group in relation to trauma, elective surgery and drug abuse but not to other psychiatric or medical conditions. This spectrum of disorders constitutes a previously unrecognized syndrome in young adults, probably representing the manifestations of antisocial personality. PMID:7769600

  1. A special population. The elderly deinstitutionalized chronically mentally ill patient.

    PubMed

    Talbott, J A

    1983-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization began with some noble sentiments: to treat and care for the mentally ill in settings that were closer to their homes, families, and neighborhoods; to treat people in more therapeutic and less restrictive settings; and to provide the array of services and settings in the community rather than in far distant institutions. However, few of these intentions have been realized. It is up to us to point out the discrimination, the inequity, indeed the insanity of our current practices and non-system.

  2. Feeding the critically ill obese patient: the role of hypocaloric nutrition support.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jerad P; Choban, Patricia Smith

    2006-12-01

    Obesity and its many metabolic and physiologic comorbidities are becoming more common. Thus, a strategy to approach the nutritional needs of obese critically ill patients is warranted. The adverse effect of obesity on the respiratory system is well established. The obesity may be an inciting event or merely an additional burden in the obese critically ill patient. A strategy of hypocaloric nutrition support avoids the many detrimental effects of overfeeding and has been considered for all critically ill patients. In the obese patient, the strategy addresses the additional problem of the excessive fat store and has the additional benefit of fat reduction while sparing lean body mass. In the patient with normal renal and hepatic function, hypocaloric nutrition support simplifies care and may improve outcome. PMID:17150433

  3. Applying a coping with stress questionnaire for cancer patients to patients with non-cancer chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Orive, Miren; Quintana, Jose M; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Las Hayas, Carlota; Bilbao, Amaia; Barrio, Irantzu; Matellanes, Begoña; Padierna, Jesús A

    2013-06-01

    One of the few instruments to evaluate coping skills among patients with chronic illnesses is the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento al Estrés para Pacientes Oncológicos (CAEPO), created initially for cancer patients. We evaluate how well CAEPO applies to patients with non-cancer chronic illnesses. A total of 344 patients (115 with chronic hepatitis C, 120 with inflammatory bowel disease and 109 with recurrent vertigo) completed the CAEPO. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha provide only partial support for the seven factors suggested by the original CAEPO. A streamlined version with fewer dimensions and items may be a better solution for identifying coping strategies among these patients.

  4. Illness perceptions, negative emotions, and pain in patients with noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Israel, Jared I; White, Kamila S; Gervino, Ernest V

    2015-03-01

    Illness-specific cognitions are associated with outcomes in numerous health conditions, however, little is known about their role in noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). NCCP is prevalent, impairing, and associated with elevated health care utilization. Our objective was to investigate the relations between illness perceptions, emotion, and pain in a sample of 196 adult patients diagnosed with NCCP. We found that negative illness perceptions were associated with greater anxiety, depression, chest pain, and pain-related life interference while controlling for the effects of demographic and pain-related variables. These results expand current NCCP theory and may inform future treatment development.

  5. Illness perceptions mediate the relationship between depression and quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Becker, Danielle A; Singh, Anuradha; Friedman, Daniel; Montesdeoca, Jacqueline; French, Jacqueline; Devinsky, Orrin; Spruill, Tanya M

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether negative illness perceptions help explain the link between depression and quality of life. Seventy patients with epilepsy completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring depression, illness perception, and quality of life (QOL). Illness perception statistically mediated the relationship between depression and QOL (Indirect effect (CI; confidence interval) = -.72, lower limit = -1.7, upper limit = -.22, p < .05). Results held with and without adjusting for potential confounding variables (age, sex, ethnicity, income, and seizure frequency) and when operationalizing depression as a continuous variable that indexed severity of symptoms or as a dichotomous variable that indexed criteria consistent with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This study is the first to suggest that illness perceptions may be a useful target in screening and intervention approaches in order to improve QOL among low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients with epilepsy.

  6. [What information do patients with schizophrenia have about their illness and treatment?].

    PubMed

    Ferreri, M; Rouillon, F; Nuss, P; Bazin, N; Farah, S; Djaballah, K; Gerard, D

    2000-01-01

    Improved compliance with antipsychotic medication is a major issue in schizophrenic management. For this purpose educational programs have been used, but up to now, little or no information has been gathered or published in France concerning schizophrenic patients' opinion on information they have about their disease and their treatment. Thus we conducted a survey in concert with 78 psychiatrists from the French psychiatric health service. From this cross sectional survey we assessed 336 outpatients (male: 72%; mean age: 36 +/- 10.4 years) with schizophrenia according to the DSM IV (paranoid sub type: 57%, disorganized: 12%, catatonic: 1%, undifferentiated: 12%, residual: 18%). The mean duration of the illness was 11.6 years (sd: 8.5) and the mean duration of the follow up with the same psychiatrist was 5.4 years (sd: 5.1). Patients completed a questionnaire which assessed their level of information on mental illness and treatment. The diagnosis of schizophrenia has been told to their patients by 39% of the psychiatrists, and treatment has been explained to the patients by 96% of the practitioners. Results indicate less than half of the patients (45%) felt ill, only 46% thought they knew their illness well or very well (nevertheless only 31% of them named spontaneously the diagnosis of schizophrenia or psychosis), and 61% considered that they had been given sufficient information. Most of the patients (79%) were persuaded that their treatment was useful, and 75% of patient were completely satisfied with their treatment. Surprisingly 92% reported taking their medication regularly. Most patients think that a high level of information about their illness (74%) and treatment (79%) help them to cope better with their schizophrenia. Analysis performed according to patients characteristics indicated that paranoid patients felt more ill (p = 0.035) than others, thought to know less about their illness (p = 0.0065), and were less satisfied with their treatment (p = 0

  7. [Occupational status and prospects of psychiatric patients. Correlation between earning status and development of psychiatric illness].

    PubMed

    Moos, Manfred; Wolfersdorf, Manfred

    2003-05-01

    According to a study in two clinics in the region of "Oberfranken" (1997) employment or unemployment has a different effect on the development of the mental illness: According to therapist inside opinion women suffered more from paid employment, men, however, from unemployment. In comparisons between the different diagnosis groups comparatively unfavourable effects of unemployment on the development of the illness of, addicted people became evident, negative effects of paid employment, however, were particularly found with patients suffering from F4 disorders (ICD-10).

  8. Adipose tissue alterations in critical illness: a paradox as to patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wade, Charles E

    2013-09-20

    Adipocyte morphological changes in critically ill patients have been reported, potentially providing beneficial effects. Marques and colleagues reported that these morphological adipocyte changes, as well as accumulation of M2 phenotype macrophages, occur irrespective of nutritional status in the critically ill. The present study provides insight into the alterations that occur, although further studies are needed to fully understand the role that adipose tissue plays in the critically injured.

  9. Catecholamine use is associated with enterocyte damage in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Piton, Gaël; Cypriani, Benoit; Regnard, Jacques; Patry, Cyrille; Puyraveau, Marc; Capellier, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    Small bowel damage is frequent but underdiagnosed among critically ill patients with shock. High catecholamine doses may have a deleterious effect on mesenteric blood flow. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) concentration is a marker of enterocyte damage, whereas plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of functional enterocyte mass. We hypothesized that high doses of catecholamines in critically ill patients may be associated with enterocyte damage. This study aimed to determine the link between catecholamine use and dose with enterocyte damage. This is a prospective observational study performed in a large regional university teaching hospital. Critically ill patients requiring epinephrine and/or norepinephrine at admission to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) were included, as well as controls not receiving catecholamines. We evaluated at admission plasma I-FABP and citrulline concentrations, abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), and variables relating to prognosis and treatment. Patients were categorized according to the quartiles of catecholamine dose at ICU admission. Sixty critically ill patients receiving catecholamines and 27 not receiving catecholamines were included. Plasma I-FABP was higher among patients receiving catecholamine than in controls. Among patients receiving catecholamines, a dose of 0.48 γ kg min or more at ICU admission was associated with a higher I-FABP concentration. A Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score higher than 11 and plasma I-FABP more than 524 pg mL at ICU admission were independently associated with 28-day mortality (odds ratio, 4.0 [1.24-12.95] and odds ratio, 4.90 [1.44-16.6], respectively). Catecholamine use is associated with I-FABP elevation in critically ill patients. Critically ill patients receiving more than 0.48 γ kg min of epinephrine and/or norepinephrine at ICU admission have high I-FABP concentrations. This suggests that enterocyte damage reflects the severity of shock, and an

  10. Therapeutic monitoring of amikacin and gentamicin in critically and noncritically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Tijana; Avram, Sanja; Milaković, Dragana; Špirić, Nikolina; Kovačević, Pedja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) enables individualization in the treatment to optimize clinical benefit and minimize drugs' side effects. Critically ill septic patients represent a challenge for antimicrobial treatment because of pathophysiological impact of sepsis on pharmacokinetics of drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of gentamicin and amikacin dosing in critically and noncritically ill patients, as well as to estimate the need for its regular therapeutic monitoring. Subjects and Methods: It was a prospective study which included 31 patients on gentamicin and 16 patients on amikacin from four different units who met the inclusion criteria. Trough concentrations of drugs were measured in serum just before third or fourth dose of antibiotic, whereas peak concentrations were measured in serum 1 h after the completion of drug administration (steady state). Relevant data on patients' clinical course of disease, comorbidities, and concomitant medication were collected from medical charts in order to identify their possible influence on drugs' concentrations. Results: Peak concentrations of amikacin were in reference range in 81.8% critically ill and in 80% of noncritically ill patients (P = 0.931). Peak concentrations of gentamicin were in reference range in 88.9% critically ill and in 77.3% of noncritically ill patients (P = 0.457). Conclusion: Serum concentrations of aminoglycosides (amikacin and gentamicin) were in reference range in most of the patients in our study, suggesting that dosing of these drugs in the University Hospital Clinical Center, Banja Luka, was adequate. In patients without kidney or liver disease, regular TDM of aminoglycosides is not necessary. PMID:27330257

  11. Acceptance of illness and satisfaction with life among malaria patients in rivers state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health condition is one of the basic factors affecting satisfaction with life, and the level of illness acceptance. The purpose of the study was to analyse the level of illness acceptance, the level of satisfaction with life among malaria patients, and the level of trust placed in the physician and the nurse. Methods The study employs the method of diagnostic survey based on standardised AIS and SWLS scales, as well as Anderson and Dedrick’s PPTS and PNTS scales. Results The average AIS level was 12 points, while the average level of SwL at the SWLS scale was 16.5 points. The average level of trust in the physician and the nurse amounted to 50.6 points and 51.4 points, respectively. The correlation between the level of illness acceptance and self-evaluated satisfaction with life was statistically significant, with R = 0.56. The marital status influenced the level of illness acceptance with p < 0.05 and the level of satisfaction with life with p < 0.05. The employment status affected the level of satisfaction with life with p < 0.05 and the level of illness acceptance with p < 0.05. Conclusions The majority of malaria patients did not accept their illness, while the level of satisfaction with life was low. The majority of respondents trusted their physician and nurse. There is a statistically significant correlation between the level of illness acceptance and the self-evaluated satisfaction with life. The marital status had a statistically significant effect on the acceptance of illness and the satisfaction with life. The individuals who had a job demonstrated higher levels of quality of life and illness acceptance. PMID:24885562

  12. [Maintenance of intestinal barrier function in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuwen; Ren, Jianan; Li, Jieshou

    2016-07-01

    The syndrome known as chronic critical illness (CCI) is defined as that critically ill patients survive their initial acute illness but go on to experience persistent organ failures necessitating prolonged intensive care. Intestinal barrier is the physical barrier that separates the internal and external environments and prevents the invasion of pathogenic antigens. Due to its pathogenesis, many CCI patients have injured intestinal barrier. Gut is the motor organ of stress responses, and gut-associated infections may initiate multiple organ dysfunction. In this way, it is important to maintain intestinal barrier of such patients. Apart from treatment for underlying diseases, resuscitation aiming at improving tissue perfusion, appropriate nutritional support, protection of normal intestinal flora, and provision of probiotics can maintain intestinal barrier of CCI patients. The maintenance and support of barrier function requires attention. PMID:27452748

  13. Consensus recommendations for the management of hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients in the Indian setting.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, J J; Chatterjee, P S; Saikia, M; Muruganathan, A; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Hyperglycaemia occurs frequently in critically-ill patients. Not only does it occur among patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus but elevated blood glucose values during an acute illness can also be seen in previously glucose-tolerant individuals (stress hyperglycaemia). Numerous observational studies have shown an increase in morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients with hyperglycaemia. Interestingly, outcomes in individuals with stress hyperglycaemia are worse than that in critically ill hyperglycaemic patients with pre-existing diabetes. Proper management of hyperglycaemia has been shown to result in improved clinical outcomes. Critically ill patients with hyperglycaemia should primarily be managed with intravenous insulin infusion to allow dynamic adjustment of treatment to suit the rapid changes in blood glucose values in these patients. Currently, there are in existence a fair number of published protocols to administer intensive intravenous insulin therapy that range from the relatively simple to the fairly complex. Different management strategies have been proposed depending upon whether the critically ill hyperglycaemic patient is stationed in the emergency department, the medical intensive care unit (ICU), the surgical ICU or the coronary care unit. Moreover, the ideal target blood glucose value to maintain in this group of patients remains controversial. Keeping these issues in mind, a group of leading experts in the fields of diabetes and critical care extensively reviewed the literature and framed recommendations with special attention to clinical practice in India. The aim was to formulate recommendations which are based on sound evidence and yet are simple and easy to understand and implement across the ICU throughout the country. In the current recommendations, intensive intravenous insulin therapy has been suggested as the preferred mode of managing hyperglycaemia in patients admitted to critical care settings. The current

  14. Dental Hygiene Students' Preparation for Treatment of Patients with Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)

  15. [The features of daily functioning of mentally ill patients: a sociological survey].

    PubMed

    Nekrasov, M A; Khritinin, D F

    2014-01-01

    The data of a sociological survey of 1042 mentally ill patients are presented. The aim of the investigation was to study different aspects of daily functioning of patients with mental diseases. It has been shown that the negative consequences of mental disease are seen at every level (professional, family and social) of daily functioning.

  16. Transportation of Critically Ill Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Broman, L Mikael; Frenckner, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be a life-saving procedure for patients with severe reversible pulmonary or cardiac failure or for patients in need for a bridge to transplantation. ECMO is provided by specialized centers, but patients in need of ECMO are frequently taken care of at other centers. Conventional transports to an ECMO center can be hazardous and deaths have been described. For this reason, many ECMO centers have developed transport programs with mobile ECMO. After request, the mobile team including all necessary equipment to initiate ECMO is sent to the referring hospital, where the patient is cannulated and ECMO commenced. The patient is then transported on ECMO to the ECMO facility by road, helicopter, or fixed-wing aircraft depending on distance, weather conditions, etc. Eight publications have reported series of more than 50 transports on ECMO of which the largest included over 700. Together, these papers report on more than 1400 patient transports on ECMO. Two deaths during transport have occurred. A number of other adverse events are described, but without effect on patient outcome. Survival of patients transported on ECMO is equivalent to that of non-transported ECMO patients. It is concluded that long-, short-distance interhospital transports on ECMO can be performed safely. The staff should be experienced and highly competent in intensive care, ECMO cannulation, ECMO treatment, intensive care transport, and air transport medicine. PMID:27379221

  17. Transportation of Critically Ill Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Broman, L. Mikael; Frenckner, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be a life-saving procedure for patients with severe reversible pulmonary or cardiac failure or for patients in need for a bridge to transplantation. ECMO is provided by specialized centers, but patients in need of ECMO are frequently taken care of at other centers. Conventional transports to an ECMO center can be hazardous and deaths have been described. For this reason, many ECMO centers have developed transport programs with mobile ECMO. After request, the mobile team including all necessary equipment to initiate ECMO is sent to the referring hospital, where the patient is cannulated and ECMO commenced. The patient is then transported on ECMO to the ECMO facility by road, helicopter, or fixed-wing aircraft depending on distance, weather conditions, etc. Eight publications have reported series of more than 50 transports on ECMO of which the largest included over 700. Together, these papers report on more than 1400 patient transports on ECMO. Two deaths during transport have occurred. A number of other adverse events are described, but without effect on patient outcome. Survival of patients transported on ECMO is equivalent to that of non-transported ECMO patients. It is concluded that long-, short-distance interhospital transports on ECMO can be performed safely. The staff should be experienced and highly competent in intensive care, ECMO cannulation, ECMO treatment, intensive care transport, and air transport medicine. PMID:27379221

  18. Measuring Hospital Inefficiency: The Effects of Controlling for Quality and Patient Burden of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Mutter, Ryan L; Rosko, Michael D; Wong, Herbert S

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of employing a variety of controls for hospital quality and patient burden of illness on the mean estimated inefficiency and relative ranking of hospitals generated by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Study Setting This study included urban U.S. hospitals in 20 states operating in 2001. Data Design/Data Collection We took hospital data for 1,290 hospitals from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Medicare Cost Reports. We employed a variety of controls for hospital quality and patient burden of illness. Among the variables we used were a subset of the quality indicators generated from the application of the Patient Safety Indicator and Inpatient Quality Indicator modules of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Quality Indicator software to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Databases. Measures of a component of patient burden of illness came from the application of the Comorbidity Software to HCUP data. Data Analysis We used SFA to estimate hospital cost-inefficiency. We tested key assumptions of the SFA model with likelihood ratio tests. Principal Findings The measures produced by the Comorbidity Software appear to account for variations in patient burden of illness that had previously been masquerading as inefficiency. Outcome measures of quality can provide useful insight into a hospital's operations but may have little impact on estimated inefficiency once controls for structural quality and patient burden of illness have been employed. Conclusions Choices about controlling for quality and patient burden of illness can have a nontrivial impact on mean estimated hospital inefficiency and the relative ranking of hospitals generated by SFA. PMID:18783458

  19. Characteristics of terminal cancer patients who committed suicide during a home palliative care program.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, A; Ripamonti, C; Totis, A; Ventafridda, V; De Conno, F; Contiero, P; Tamburini, M

    2001-07-01

    Cancer patients may commit suicide at any stage of the disease and many risk factors of suicide have been described in the literature. To identify the possible vulnerability factors of suicide in five terminal cancer patients who committed suicide while they were cared for at home by well-trained palliative care teams, a psychological autopsy study was carried out by reviewing their medical records; their report of symptoms at the time of care; and with the caregivers', doctors', and nurses' recollection of events by means of a structured interview prepared ad hoc. We collected data regarding the physical, emotional, and social suffering of the patients, their personality profile, and their feelings with respect to the illness and disability. The interviews lasted for a mean of two hours and were performed from 2-8 years after the suicide events by the social worker at the Rehabilitation and Palliative Care Division. The interviews took place between June 1996 and January 1998. All the patients showed great concern about the lack of autonomy and independence, refused dependence on others and had fear/worry of losing their autonomy. Four patients presented functional and physical impairments, uncontrolled pain, awareness of being in the terminal stage, and mild to moderate depression. They had a feeling of hopelessness consequent to their clinical conditions, fear of suffering, and feeling of being a burden on others. They had a strong character and managerial professions. They had isolated themselves from others and they had previously talked about suicide. Before committing suicide, three patients had adverse physical/emotional consequences to the oncological treatments-they showed aggressiveness towards their family and one towards the home care physician. Multiple vulnerability factors were present simultaneously in all patients. However, the loss of, and the fear of losing, autonomy and their independence and of being a burden on others were the most relevant

  20. The effects of undertreated chronic medical illnesses in patients with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Goracci, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    Severe mental disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia often co-occur with chronic medical illnesses, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These comorbidities are associated with a more severe course of mental illness, reduced quality of life, and premature mortality. Although the association between mental disorders and physical health complications has long been recognized, medical conditions remain undertreated in clinical psychiatric practice, and the life expectancy for individuals with serious psychiatric disorders is approximately 30% shorter than that of the general US population. Factors that are related to the mental illness (eg, cognitive impairment, reduced ability to function, and a lack of communication skills) as well as factors such as the high cost of medical care may make accessing general health care a difficult task for patients. Even when medical care is received by patients, the quality is often poor, and dangerous illnesses may be undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, harmful side effects of medications used to treat psychiatric disorders, unhealthy habits and lifestyles, and a possible genetic susceptibility to medical conditions increase the likelihood of comorbid physical conditions in patients with severe mental illness. Implementing behavioral interventions into clinical practice may help patients improve their overall health and prevent chronic medical conditions. PMID:19570498

  1. Familiarity with mental illness and approval of structural discrimination against psychiatric patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-01-01

    Structural discrimination against psychiatric patients may occur as a result of distribution of resources in the health system. We examine whether familiarity with mental illness, which reduces discrimination on the individual level, also moderates the approval of structural discrimination in health care funding. We conducted a representative survey of the German population (N=5025) in 2001 using a fully structured personal interview, including a measure of preferences for the allocation of health resources and an assessment of familiarity with mental illness. The approval of structural discrimination was inversely related to the individual's familiarity with mental illness in depression and, to a lesser extent, in schizophrenia. This relationship was absent for alcoholism and generally weak for contacts to mentally ill persons outside one's own family. Strategies successful in reducing individual discrimination are thus not necessarily suitable for combating structural discrimination and need to be tailored to their specific target.

  2. Propofol-Related Infusion Syndrome in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: Coincidence, Association, or Causation?

    PubMed Central

    Timpe, Erin M.; Eichner, Samantha F.; Phelps, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two decades numerous reports have described the development of a propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS) in critically ill adult and pediatric patients who received continuous infusion propofol for anesthesia or sedation. The syndrome is generally characterized by progressive metabolic acidosis, hemodynamic instability and bradyarrhythmias that are refractory to aggressive pharmacological treatments. PRIS may occur with or without the presence of hepatomegaly, rhabdomyolysis or lipemia. To date, the medical literature contains accounts of 20 deaths in critically ill pediatric patients who developed features consistent with PRIS. These reports have generated considerable discussion and debate regarding the relationship, if any, between propofol and a constellation of clinical symptoms and features that have been attributed to its use in critically ill pediatric patients. This paper reviews the literature concerning PRIS, its clinical presentation, proposed mechanisms for the syndrome, and potential management should the syndrome occur. PMID:23118644

  3. Development of disaster pamphlets based on health needs of patients with chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of

  4. Home care for terminally ill Turks and Moroccans and their families in the Netherlands: carers' experiences and factors influencing ease of access and use of services.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, F M; Francke, A L

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of relatives of elderly terminally ill Turks and Moroccans regarding Dutch professional home care and the barriers to the use this care. Nine Turkish and ten Moroccan family members, who recently looked after dying members of their families, were interviewed using a semi-structured topic list. The data was analyzed using the method described by Glaser and Strauss. The results of this study make it clear that there is no uniform pattern in the use of home care. However, family members who did use home care facilities were all satisfied. Furthermore, on the basis of this study, several factors influencing access to and use of home care were discerned, e.g., illness, family structure, decision making, pressure from the community, information and formal referrals. In addition, the authors found that 'preferences regarding family care' influenced all former factors.

  5. Pharmacological and Mechanical Thromboprophylaxis in Critically Ill Patients: a Network Meta-Analysis of 12 Trials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thromboprophylaxis for venous thromboembolism is widely used in critically ill patients. However, only limited evidence exists regarding the efficacy and safety of the various thromboprophylaxis techniques, especially mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the overall incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) for between unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in critically ill patients. A Bayesian random effects model for multiple treatment comparisons was constructed. The primary outcome measure was the overall incidence of DVT at the longest follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was the incidence of major bleeding, as defined by the original trials. Our analysis included 8,622 patients from 12 RCTs. The incidence of DVT was significantly lower in patients treated with UFH (OR, 0.45; 95% CrI, 0.22–0.83) or LMWH (OR, 0.38; 95% CrI, 0.18–0.72) than in patients in the control group. IPC was associated with a reduced incidence of DVT compared to the control group, but the effect was not statistically significant (OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.20–1.23). The risk of DVT was similar for patients treated with UFH and LMWH (OR, 1.16; 95% CrI, 0.68–2.11). The risk of major bleeding was similar between the treatment groups in medical critically ill patients and also in critically ill patients with a high risk of bleeding. In critically ill patients, the efficacy of mechanical thromboprophylaxis in reducing the risk of DVT is not as robust as those of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. PMID:27709864

  6. Hsp72 Is a Novel Biomarker to Predict Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Salas-Nolasco, Omar I.; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Casas-Aparicio, Gustavo; Irizar-Santana, Sergio; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Bobadilla, Norma A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates the course of disease in critically ill patients. Efforts to change its clinical course have failed because of the fail in the early detection. This study was designed to assess whether heat shock protein (Hsp72) is an early and sensitive biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) biomarkers. Methods A total of 56 critically ill patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these patients, 17 developed AKI and 20 were selected as controls. In AKI patients, Kim-1, IL-18, NGAL, and Hsp72 were measured from 3 days before and until 2 days after the AKI diagnosis and in no-AKI patients at 1, 5 and 10 days after admission. Biomarker sensitivity and specificity were determined. To validate the results obtained with ROC curves for Hsp72, a new set of critically ill patients was included, 10 with AKI and 12 with no-AKI patients. Results Urinary Hsp72 levels rose since 3 days before the AKI diagnosis in critically ill patients; this early increase was not seen with any other tested biomarkers. Kim-1, IL-18, NGAL, and Hsp72 significantly increased from 2 days before AKI and remained elevated during the AKI diagnosis. The best sensitivity/specificity was observed in Kim-1 and Hsp72: 83/95% and 100/90%, respectively, whereas 1 day before the AKI diagnosis, the values were 100/100% and 100/90%, respectively. The sensibility, specificity and accuracy in the validation test for Hsp72 were 100%, 83.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Conclusions The biomarker Hsp72 is enough sensitive and specific to predict AKI in critically ill patients up to 3 days before the diagnosis. PMID:25313566

  7. Congregate living for the mentally ill: patients as tenants.

    PubMed

    Burger, A S; Kimelman, L; Lurie, A; Rabiner, C J

    1978-09-01

    The authors describe an apartment-living project for chronic mental patients released from the Hillside Division of the Long Island Jewish-Hillside Medical Center. The apartments, which are rented by the hospital and sublet to the patients, are located in modern, well-maintained high-rise buildings within commuting distance from the hospital. To avoid creating a psychiatric ghetto, the project rents no more than two apartments in buildings of a hundred or more units. The hospital was able to rent the apartments by assuring the landlords that the hospital would be a financially responsible tenant and that staff would be in continuing contact with the patients, would be available to the landlords if problems arose, and would remove troublesome tenants. Some of the problems encountered by the patients in the program are described, as are guidelines for selecting those who have a reasonable chance of benefiting from such a program. PMID:208956

  8. [Burden of illness in Polish patients with reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Reguła, Jarosław; Kulich, Károly R; Stasiewicz, Jan; Jasiński, Bolesław; Carlsson, Jonas; Wiklund, Ingela

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and socioeconomic burden of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considerable. The primary symptom of GERD is heartburn, but it may also be associated with extraesophageal manifestations, such as asthma, chest pain and otolaryngologic disorders. The objective of the study was to describe the impact of heartburn on patients' Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in Poland, using validated generic and disease-specific instruments to measure patient-reported outcomes. Patients with symptoms of heartburn completed the Polish versions of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD), the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Frequency and severity of heartburn during the previous 7 days were also recorded. 135 patients completed the assessments (mean age of 44 years, SD = 15; 61% female). 55% of patients had moderate symptoms and nearly two thirds (64%) had symptoms on 5 or more days in the previous week. Patients were most bothered by symptoms of reflux (mean GSRS score of 4.1, on a scale of 1 [not bothered] to 7 [very bothered]), indigestion (3.5) and abdominal pain (3.2). As a result of their symptoms, patients experienced impaired vitality (mean QOLRAD score of 3.8, on a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 represents the most severe impact on daily functioning), problems with food and drink (3.9), emotional distress (4.1) and sleep disturbance (4.7). Using HAD, 32% of heartburn patients were anxious and 10% were depressed. In conclusion it should be stated that there is consistent evidence that GERD substantially impairs all aspects of health-related quality of life.

  9. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    PubMed

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  10. [A religious sect, its mental ill patients, its physician and its psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M; Khaleff, M; Labrousse, D

    1975-01-01

    A religious Sect (Jéhovah witness), its mental patients, its doctor and its psychiatrists. The authors study religious sects, specially Jéhovoah witness. Such 15 mentally ill patients among this group have been treated at the psychiatric clinic. The fact that they are members of a community, sharing the same religious faith, and having in common severe rules of life, is considered as having a pathogenic or beneficial effect. One of them, physician, explain their opinion of mental illness : they believe in biological factors and discard any psychotherapeutic mean. PMID:1163915

  11. [Ways of maintaining oral hygiene in disabled and chronically ill patients--review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Disabled and chronically ill patients face many obstacles in maintaining oral hygiene at an appropriate level. Such a situation is caused, inter alia, by the fact that those people are less predisposed manually, but also by a lack of understanding of the need for carrying out systematic hygienic measures by disabled themselves as well as their parents or caregivers. Technical difficulties during the procedure of teeth cleaning are also a problem. Currently, specialized products designed to help disabled and chronically ill patients and their caregivers to perform daily preventive treatments are available on the market.

  12. Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. )

    1991-12-01

    Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

  13. Hospital-based multidisciplinary training in the care of seriously mentally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Addleton, R L; Tratnack, S A; Donat, D C

    1991-01-01

    A four-week training program at a state hospital in Virginia familiarized undergraduate and graduate students in medicine, occupational therapy, pharmacy, psychiatric nursing, psychology, and social work with the range of care for chronic mentally ill patients. Designed to improve the training of mental health professionals and recruit mental health professionals to work in public mental health settings, the program included lectures, group discussions, field trips to community-based treatment and rehabilitation facilities, and supervised clinical experiences. Students who participated in the program reported being less discouraged about working with chronic mentally ill patients and more likely to choose careers in public psychiatric settings.

  14. Psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Amer, Nuha Remon Yacoub; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2014-11-01

    Suicide ideation (SI) is considered a major psychiatric emergency in patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses. Suicide ideation is a multifaceted issue that involves bio- psychosocial and cultural factors that interfere with patients' abilities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial predictors of SI among Jordanian patients with chronic illnesses. A cross-sectional design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 480 patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The mean score of suicide ideation was 4.07 (SD  =  1.7) and almost 20% (n  =  85) of the participants found to be suicidal, the majority were suffering from moderate to severe depressive symptoms and low levels of life satisfaction. Also, the analysis showed that the patients had a high level of optimism and moderate perception of social support from family, friends, and significant other. Type of illness has a significant relation to the 'seriousness' component of SI (p  =  0.023). Depression (β  =  0.345, p<0.001) was a significant risk factor for 'thought' component of SI, and optimism (β  =  -0.008, p<0.05) a significant protective factor against the thought component of SI. Patients with chronic illnesses suffer serious psychological disturbances and are in need of psychological care, and periodic psychological screening to maintain their psychological wellbeing.

  15. Psychological distress and somatisation as prognostic factors in patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, C K; Fink, P; Olesen, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal illness is a common cause of absenteeism from work, workers' compensation, and disability retirement, and accounts for 9.3% to 17% of patient contacts in general practice. To understand the increase in self-reported musculoskeletal illness and to improve treatment and prevention, it is important to know which factors to target when dealing with these patients. AIM: To investigate whether the prognosis for patients with musculoskeletal illness referred to physiotherapy from general practice can be predicted by the presence of psychological distress and somatisation identified by a general practitioner (GP) and standard questionnaires. METHOD: A multi-practice survey based on questionnaires (index and three-month follow-up). Nine hundred and five consecutive patients referred to physiotherapy from 124 different general practices in Denmark were included. Outcome measures were physical health change, sick leave, patient self-rated improvement, and change in use of medication. RESULTS: Psychological distress and somatisation rated by both GPs and standard questionnaires acted with almost no exception as significant predictors of all four outcome measures. CONCLUSION: Psychological distress and somatisation are important factors when considering preventive initiatives and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice. PMID:10954933

  16. Relevance of immobility and importance of risk assessment management for medically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hull, Russell D

    2013-06-01

    Recent or continued immobility is a significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. Patients may benefit from thromboprophylaxis; however, its optimal duration remains unclear. The Extended Clinical Prophylaxis in Acutely Ill Medical Patients (EXCLAIM) study was the first trial to systematically investigate how the degree of immobilization relates to the risk of developing VTE. EXCLAIM offers insights into the duration of VTE risk associated with reduced mobility and helps identify which patients would benefit most from extended-duration thromboprophylaxis. Further recent studies suggest that extended-duration thromboprophylaxis may be in order in certain high-risk patients to protect the patients from the risk of VTE events occurring, particularly in the posthospitalization period. Baseline d-dimer data and level of mobility could be included in risk assessment. Physicians are recommended to consider the use of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis based on individual risk assessment management (RAM) and balance of benefit and harm.

  17. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members

  18. Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Oxidant Function Predicts Poor Outcome in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schrutka, Lore; Goliasch, Georg; Meyer, Brigitte; Wurm, Raphael; Koller, Lorenz; Kriechbaumer, Lukas; Heinz, Gottfried; Pacher, Richard; Lang, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress affects clinical outcome in critically ill patients. Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles generally possess anti-oxidant capacities, deleterious properties of HDL have been described in acutely ill patients. The impact of anti-oxidant HDL capacities on clinical outcome in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore analyzed the predictive value of anti-oxidant HDL function on mortality in an unselected cohort of critically ill patients. Method We prospectively enrolled 270 consecutive patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU) and determined anti-oxidant HDL function using the HDL oxidant index (HOI). Based on their HOI, the study population was stratified into patients with impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and the residual study population. Results During a median follow-up time of 9.8 years (IQR: 9.2 to 10.0), 69% of patients died. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant and independent association between impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and short-term mortality with an adjusted HR of 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.24; p = 0.001) as well as 10-year mortality with an adj. HR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.02–1.40; p = 0.032) when compared to the residual study population. Anti-oxidant HDL function correlated with the amount of oxidative stress as determined by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (r = 0.38; p<0.001). Conclusion Impaired anti-oxidant HDL function represents a strong and independent predictor of 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality in critically ill patients. PMID:26978526

  19. Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients with Cancer-Related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Viviane B. L.; Vassalo, Juliana; Silva, Ulysses V. A.; Caruso, Pedro; Torelly, André P.; Silva, Eliezer; Teles, José M. M.; Knibel, Marcos; Rezende, Ederlon; Netto, José J. S.; Piras, Claudio; Azevedo, Luciano C. P.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Spector, Nelson; Salluh, Jorge I. F.; Soares, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer patients are at risk for severe complications related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment and, therefore, usually require admission to intensive care units (ICU). Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes in this subgroup of patients. Materials and Methods Secondary analysis of two prospective cohorts of cancer patients admitted to ICUs. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify variables associated with hospital mortality. Results Out of 2,028 patients, 456 (23%) had cancer-related complications. Compared to those without cancer-related complications, they more frequently had worse performance status (PS) (57% vs 36% with PS≥2), active malignancy (95% vs 58%), need for vasopressors (45% vs 34%), mechanical ventilation (70% vs 51%) and dialysis (12% vs 8%) (P<0.001 for all analyses). ICU (47% vs. 27%) and hospital (63% vs. 38%) mortality rates were also higher in patients with cancer-related complications (P<0.001). Chemo/radiation therapy-induced toxicity (6%), venous thromboembolism (5%), respiratory failure (4%), gastrointestinal involvement (3%) and vena cava syndrome (VCS) (2%) were the most frequent cancer-related complications. In multivariable analysis, the presence of cancer-related complications per se was not associated with mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.66), P = 0.131]. However, among the individual cancer-related complications, VCS [OR = 3.79 (1.11–12.92), P = 0.033], gastrointestinal involvement [OR = 3.05 (1.57–5.91), P = <0.001] and respiratory failure [OR = 1.96(1.04–3.71), P = 0.038] were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions The prognostic impact of cancer-related complications was variable. Although some complications were associated with worse outcomes, the presence of an acute cancer-related complication per se should not guide decisions to admit a patient to ICU. PMID:27764143

  20. Neuromuscular disorders and sleep in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muna; Selim, Bernardo; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; St Louis, Erik K

    2015-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent presenting manifestation of neuromuscular disorders and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. If not recognized and addressed early in the clinical course, SDB can lead to clinical deterioration with respiratory failure. The pathophysiologic basis of SDB in neuromuscular disorders, clinical features encountered in specific neuromuscular diseases, and diagnostic and management strategies for SDB in neuromuscular patients in the critical care setting are reviewed. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation has been a crucial advance in critical care management, improving sleep quality and often preventing or delaying mechanical ventilation and improving survival in neuromuscular patients.

  1. Neuromuscular Disorders and Sleep in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Muna; Selim, Bernardo; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent presenting manifestation of neuromuscular disorders and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. If not promptly recognized and addressed early in the clinical course, SDB can lead to clinical deterioration with respiratory failure. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic basis of SDB in neuromuscular disorders, clinical features encountered in specific neuromuscular diseases, and diagnostic and management strategies for SDB in neuromuscular patients in the critical care setting. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPV) has been a crucial advance in critical care management, improving sleep quality and often preventing or delaying mechanical ventilation and improving survival in neuromuscular patients. PMID:26118919

  2. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Brinkmann, Saskia J H; Buijs, Nikki; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bet, Pierre M; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE) calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%). Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285.

  3. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Brinkmann, Saskia J. H.; Buijs, Nikki; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bet, Pierre M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE) calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%). Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285. PMID:27200186

  4. Caring for seriously mentally ill patients. Qualitative study of family physicians' experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; Lent, Barbara; Stirling, April; Takhar, Jatinder; Bishop, Joan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine family physicians' experiences in caring for patients with serious mental illness and their expectations of a shared mental health care (SMHC) model. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: London, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of 11 full-time family physicians providing ongoing care for patients with serious mental illness. METHOD: Eleven interviews were conducted to explore family physicians' experiences. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was done using a constant comparative approach and was carried out concurrently rather than sequentially. Researchers read all interview transcripts independently before comparing and combining their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews together to discover relationships between and among emerging themes. MAIN FINDINGS: Findings reflected three main themes: what family physicians perceive they bring to care of seriously mentally ill patients (i.e., whole-person approach to care); challenges family physicians face in participating in shared care of these patients (i.e., communication and access issues); and family physicians' expectations of a SMHC model (i.e., guidance and feedback). CONCLUSION: As seriously mentally ill patients are moved out of institutions, the need for an effective and efficient SMHC model becomes imperative. Our findings suggest that family physicians could be an important part of SMHC models but only if systemic barriers are removed and collaborative practice is encouraged. PMID:12053636

  5. The patient's diagnosis: explanatory models of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sayre, J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a grounded theory about individuals' perception of the situation of being a psychiatric patient. Thirty-five inpatients (19 males, 16 females), ages 18 to 68, in two psychiatric units of an urban, public facility were interviewed on a biweekly basis from admission to discharge. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, and the data indicated that participants used the basic social process of managing self-worth to deal with the stigmatizing social predicament of being a mental patient. Events occurring before admission that shaped their responses were substance abuse, medication noncompliance, and the lack of social capital, which led to norm violations and subsequent hospitalization. Six attribution categories emerged: problem, disease, crisis, punishment, ordination, and violation. Findings support the need for professionals to improve their practice by acknowledging the effects of patients' subjective assessments on their response to hospitalization and by placing more emphasis on assisting patients to deal with the stigmatizing effects of a psychiatric diagnosis.

  6. Infectious Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness among Patients Seeking Health Care in South-Central Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Blair, Patrick J.; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Putnam, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations. PMID:22302857

  7. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.

  8. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  9. Helping at the bedside: spouses' preferences for helping critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Deborah

    2004-10-01

    Spouses of patients in intensive care units (ICU) need to be close and helpful to ill partners. According to adult attachment theory, emotional responses may be related to preferences for closeness and helpfulness, and according to control theory optimism also may influence spouses' emotional responses. Spouses' goals and helping behaviors were assessed in 88 spouses of ICU patients. Using a repeated-measures design, the relationships of closeness, helpfulness, and optimism to emotional outcomes were assessed. Preferences for closeness and helpfulness were strongly related, and together with optimism, predicted spouses' mood at some point of the illness trajectory. Spouses who were over-involved with partners' care requirements were at greater risk for emotional distress. Results suggest that closeness and helpfulness are integrated concepts, and that attachment dimensions of a relationship and optimism are useful for understanding spouses' emotional responses to critical illness.

  10. Feeding critically ill patients the right 'whey': thinking outside of the box. A personal view.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscle mass is an almost universal problem in survivors of critical illness and is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Contrary to common practice, the provision of protein/amino acids as a continuous infusion significantly limits protein synthesis whereas intermittent feeding maximally stimulates skeletal muscle synthesis. Furthermore, whey-based protein (high in leucine) increases muscle synthesis compared to soy or casein-based protein. In addition to its adverse effects on skeletal muscle synthesis, continuous feeding is unphysiological and has adverse effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and gastrointestinal function. I propose that critically ill patients' be fed intermittently with a whey-based formula and that such an approach is likely to be associated with better glycemic control, less hepatic steatosis and greater preservation of muscle mass. This paper provides the scientific basis for my approach to intermittent feeding of critically ill patients.

  11. Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sandesc, Dorel; Dumache, Raluca; Nartita, Radu; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Alina Carmen; Luca, Loredana; Vernic, Corina; Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea

    2015-01-01

    The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therapeutic management of such patients, multiple surgical interventions are required and therefore they are being subjected to repeated general anesthesia. In this paper, we want to present the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress in critically ill patients with multiple traumas and the implications of general anesthesia on the redox mechanisms of the cell. We also want to summarize the antioxidant treatments able to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by modulating the biochemical activity of some cellular mechanisms. PMID:26693352

  12. Adults Living with Limited Literacy and Chronic Illness: Patient Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…

  13. Illness representations, psychological distress and non-cardiac chest pain in patients attending an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R.; Norman, P.; Goodacre, S.; Thompson, A.R.; McEachan, R.R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many patients who attend an emergency department (ED) with chest pain receive a diagnosis of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), and often suffer poor psychological outcomes and continued pain. This study assessed the role of illness representations in explaining psychological distress and continued chest pain in patients attending an ED. Methods: ED NCCP patients (N = 138) completed measures assessing illness representations, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) at baseline, and chest pain at one month. Results: Illness representations explained significant amounts of the variance in anxiety (Adj. R² = .38), depression (Adj. R² = .18) and mental QoL (Adj. R² = .36). A belief in psychological causes had the strongest associations with outcomes. At one month, 28.7% of participants reported experiencing frequent pain, 13.2% infrequent pain and 58.1% no pain. Anxiety, depression and poor QoL, but not illness representations, were associated with continued chest pain. Conclusions: The findings suggest that (i) continued chest pain is related to psychological distress and poor QoL, (ii) interventions should be aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving QoL and (iii) given the associations between perceived psychological causes and psychological distress/QoL, NCCP patients in the ED might benefit from psychological therapies to manage their chest pain. PMID:24831735

  14. Relationship Between Upper Respiratory Tract Influenza Test Result and Clinical Outcomes Among Critically Ill Influenza Patients.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna P; Bajwa, Ednan K; Parker, Robert A; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-01-01

    Among critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract (LRT)-confirmed influenza, we retrospectively observed worse 28-day clinical outcomes in upper respiratory tract (URT)-negative versus URT-positive subjects. This finding may reflect disease progression and highlights the need for influenza testing of both URT and LRT specimens to improve diagnostic yield and possibly inform prognosis. PMID:26966696

  15. Hospice Comics: Representations of Patient and Family Experience of Illness and Death in Graphic Novels.

    PubMed

    Czerwiec, Mk; Huang, Michelle N

    2014-08-20

    Non-fiction graphic novels about illness and death created by patients and their loved ones have much to teach all readers. However, the bond of empathy made possible in the comic form may have special lessons for healthcare providers who read these texts and are open to the insights they provide.

  16. Adverse outcomes following hospitalization in acutely ill older patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Roger Y; Miller, William C

    2008-01-01

    Background The longitudinal outcomes of patients admitted to acute care for elders units (ACE) are mixed. We studied the associations between socio-demographic and functional measures with hospital length of stay (LOS), and which variables predicted adverse events (non-independent living, readmission, death) 3 and 6 months later. Methods Prospective cohort study of community-living, medical patients age 75 or over admitted to ACE at a teaching hospital. Results The population included 147 subjects, median LOS of 9 days (interquartile range 5–15 days). All returned home/community after hospitalization. Just prior to discharge, baseline timed up and go test (TUG, P < 0.001), bipedal stance balance (P = 0.001), and clinical frailty scale scores (P = 0.02) predicted LOS, with TUG as the only independent predictor (P < 0.001) in multiple regression analysis. By 3 months, 59.9% of subjects remained free of an adverse event, and by 6 months, 49.0% were event free. The 3 and 6-month mortality was 10.2% and 12.9% respectively. Almost one-third of subjects had developed an adverse event by 6 months, with the highest risk within the first 3 months post discharge. An abnormal TUG score was associated with increased adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.59, P = 0.03. A higher FMMSE score (adjusted HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96, P = 0.003) and independent living before hospitalization (adjusted HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.84, P = 0.01) were associated with reduced risk of adverse outcome. Conclusion Some ACE patients demonstrate further functional decline following hospitalization, resulting in loss of independence, repeat hospitalization, or death. Abnormal TUG is associated with prolonged LOS and future adverse outcomes. PMID:18479512

  17. Fluid and electrolyte overload in critically ill patients: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Gobatto, André Luiz Nunes; Melro, Lívia Maria Garcia; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Park, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Fluids are considered the cornerstone of therapy for many shock states, particularly states that are associated with relative or absolute hypovolemia. Fluids are also commonly used for many other purposes, such as renal protection from endogenous and exogenous substances, for the safe dilution of medications and as “maintenance” fluids. However, a large amount of evidence from the last decade has shown that fluids can have deleterious effects on several organ functions, both from excessive amounts of fluids and from their non-physiological electrolyte composition. Additionally, fluid prescription is more common in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome whose kidneys may have impaired mechanisms of electrolyte and free water excretion. These processes have been studied as separate entities (hypernatremia, hyperchloremic acidosis and progressive fluid accumulation) leading to worse outcomes in many clinical scenarios, including but not limited to acute kidney injury, worsening respiratory function, higher mortality and higher hospital and intensive care unit length-of-stays. In this review, we synthesize this evidence and describe this phenomenon as fluid and electrolyte overload with potentially deleterious effects. Finally, we propose a strategy to safely use fluids and thereafter wean patients from fluids, along with other caveats to be considered when dealing with fluids in the intensive care unit. PMID:25938027

  18. Retrospective review on obstetric cases of critically ill and dead patients in Dongguan.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Han; Fang, Yun-Yong; Zheng, Yan-Bing; Xiao, Li-Juan; Huang, Su-Ran; Liu, Xi-Zhen; Cai, Li-Hua

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective analysis was set to understand the epidemiological status of the critically ill obstetric patients in Dongguan city, Guangdong, China. Understanding the risk factors for the death cases can provide scientific evidences for future preventive strategies to decrease the maternal mortality rate. This retrospective included the statistical data and clinical data on the cases of critically ill and dead obstetric patients admitted to Dongguan People's Hospital and Dongguan Maternal & Child Health Hospital from September 1st, 2009 to August 31st, 2013. Data included numbers of the critically ill maternal and obstetric women, common obstetric and maternal comorbidities and complications in the critically ill patients, the basic characteristics of maternal and obstetric deaths, records of regular prenatal examinations, the time intervals between onset of acute symptoms and ICU admission, blood purification, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score. During the 5-year period, there were increasing trend of critically ill pregnant and obstetric patients, and the prevalence rate of critically ill obstetric patients was 8.99-9.28 %. The most common obstetric causes of admission were massive postpartum hemorrhage (63.54 %), followed by pregnancy-associated hypertension (15.85 %) and placenta previa (8.92 %). The most common non-obstetric causes of admission were acute heart failure (1.98 %). In the observed period, 20 critically ill obstetric patients died in these two hospitals (mortality rate 0.24 %, 20/8,129). The mean age of dead women was (30.3 ± 6.6) years old and mean gestational age was (30.1 ± 9.3) weeks. 75 % of the patient had more than two pregnancies. Over 90 % of the patients received education below junior high school level. 85 % of the patients were non-Dongguan natives and regular prenatal care rate was only 15 % on dead cases. The most common causes of death were pregnancy-associated hypertension, acute

  19. Social simulation theory: a framework to explain nurses' understanding of patients' experiences of ill-health.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental aim in caring practice is to understand patients' experiences of ill-health. These experiences have a qualitative content and cannot, unlike thoughts and beliefs with conceptual content, directly be expressed in words. Nurses therefore face a variety of interpretive challenges when they aim to understand patients' subjective perspectives on disease and illness. The article argues that theories on social simulation can shed light on how nurses manage to meet these challenges. The core assumption of social simulationism is that we do not understand other people by forming mental representations of how they think, but by putting ourselves in their situation in a more imaginative way. According to simulationism, any attempt to understand a patient's behavior is made on the basis of simulating what it is like to be that patient in the given context. The article argues that this approach to social interpretation can clarify how nurses manage to achieve aims of patient understanding, even when they have limited time to communicate and incomplete knowledge of patients' perspectives. Furthermore, simulation theory provides a normative framework for interpretation, in the sense that its theoretical assumptions constitute ideals for how nurses should seek to understand patients' experiences of illness.

  20. Recommendations to Facilitate Expanded Access to Investigational Therapies for Seriously Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Rebecca N; Edwards, Terri L; Boswell, Haley C; Bernard, Gordon R; Harris, Paul A; Pulley, Jill M

    2016-03-01

    When clinical trial enrollment is not an option for seriously ill patients whose illnesses have not responded to approved treatment options, those patients and their physicians may consider gaining access to investigational therapies through a pathway established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called expanded access. However, recent events have highlighted the challenging dynamics involved in accessing investigational therapies through expanded access that include a complex interplay of factors involving the patient, physician, drug company, FDA, and, increasingly, social media. The authors offer several potential strategies to streamline what is otherwise an arduous process for all involved. (1) The drug company should prospectively determine whether it will establish an expanded access program for specific drugs. (2) A central clearinghouse for companies should support registration of expanded access drugs for suitable patients. (3) The determination of whether a patient fits criteria would be made by an independent review board of clinicians. (4) An independent coordinating center is needed; academic health centers are ideally suited for that role. (5) Adequate financing of the costs of therapy need to be in place to make expanded access a reality, given frequent lack of payer coverage for therapies. (6) Further enhancement of regulatory pathways, approaches, or rules would promote expanded access. (7) Patients should explicitly acknowledge the limited data available. (8) There should be a shared, secure, technical platform to facilitate expanded access. All the authors' strategies present important prospects for improving treatment options for the most seriously ill patients. PMID:26445080

  1. Individualised antibiotic dosing for patients who are critically ill: challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Lipman, Jeffrey; Mouton, Johan W; Vinks, Alexander A; Felton, Timothy W; Hope, William W; Farkas, Andras; Neely, Michael N; Schentag, Jerome J; Drusano, George; Frey, Otto R; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Kuti, Joseph L

    2014-06-01

    Infections in critically ill patients are associated with persistently poor clinical outcomes. These patients have severely altered and variable antibiotic pharmacokinetics and are infected by less susceptible pathogens. Antibiotic dosing that does not account for these features is likely to result in suboptimum outcomes. In this Review, we explore the challenges related to patients and pathogens that contribute to inadequate antibiotic dosing and discuss how to implement a process for individualised antibiotic therapy that increases the accuracy of dosing and optimises care for critically ill patients. To improve antibiotic dosing, any physiological changes in patients that could alter antibiotic concentrations should first be established; such changes include altered fluid status, changes in serum albumin concentrations and renal and hepatic function, and microvascular failure. Second, antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens should be confirmed with microbiological techniques. Data for bacterial susceptibility could then be combined with measured data for antibiotic concentrations (when available) in clinical dosing software, which uses pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic derived models from critically ill patients to predict accurately the dosing needs for individual patients. Individualisation of dosing could optimise antibiotic exposure and maximise effectiveness.

  2. Incomplete medication adherence of chronically ill patients in German primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hüther, Jakob; von Wolff, Alessa; Stange, Dorit; Härter, Martin; Baehr, Michael; Dartsch, Dorothee C; Kriston, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Background Incomplete medication adherence is a major problem in health care worldwide. Patients who adhere to medical treatment have a better prognosis and create fewer costs. Objective To assess the degree of incomplete adherence of chronically ill routine primary care patients in a German setting and analyze the association between incomplete medication adherence, as well as clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, chronically ill patients were asked to assess their adherence in primary care retrospectively using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-D) questionnaire. To investigate the association of incomplete adherence with sociodemographic and clinical data, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results In total, 62.1% of 190 patients were categorized as incompletely adherent. The mean MARS-D score was 23.5 (standard deviation = 2.7). Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations at P < 0.05 between degree of adherence and patient characteristics. The total explained variance amounted to 11.8% (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.118) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Previously reported results regarding associations of sociodemographic and clinical data with incomplete medication adherence could not be confirmed for this sample of chronically ill patients. In order to be able to provide guidelines for the reduction of incomplete medication adherence in German primary care, further research is needed. PMID:23569363

  3. Family functioning in families of first-episode psychosis patients as compared to chronic mentally ill patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Stefanakis, Zacharias; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2014-11-30

    The present study aimed to investigate possible differences in family environment among patients experiencing their First Episode of Psychosis (FEP), chronic patients and controls. Family cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV) and psychological distress (GHQ-28) were evaluated in families of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients, as well as 50 controls, whereas expressed emotion (FQ) and family burden (FBS) were assessed in families of FEP and chronic patients. Multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated impaired cohesion and flexibility for families of FEP patients compared to controls, and lower scores for families of chronic patients compared to those of FEP patients. Caregivers of chronic patients scored significantly higher in criticism, and reported higher burden and psychological distress than those of FEP patients. Our findings suggest that unbalanced levels of cohesion and flexibility, high criticism and burden appeared to be the outcome of psychosis and not risk factors triggering the onset of the illness. Furthermore, emotional over-involvement both in terms of positive (i.e. concern) and negative behaviors (i.e. overprotection) is prevalent in Greek families. Psychoeducational interventions from the early stages of the illness should be considered to promote caregivers' awareness regarding the patients' illness, which in turn, may ameliorate dysfunctional family interactions.

  4. Organ dysfunction in critically ill cancer patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    ÑAMENDYS-SILVA, SILVIO A.; CORREA-GARCÍA, PAULINA; GARCÍA-GUILLÉN, FRANCISCO J.; LÓPEZ-BASAVE, HORACIO N.; MONTALVO-ESQUIVEL, GONZALO; TEXCOCANO-BECERRA, JULIA; HERRERA-GÓMEZ, ÁNGEL; MENESES-GARCÍA, ABELARDO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the incidence of organ dysfunction and the intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes of critically ill cancer patients during the cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy post-operative period. The present study included 25 critically ill cancer patients admitted to the ICU of the National Cancer Institute (Mexico City, Mexico) between January 2007 and February 2013. The incidence of organ dysfunction was 68% and patients exhibiting ≤1 organ system dysfunction during ICU admittance remained in hospital for a significantly shorter period compared with patients who exhibited ≥2 organ system dysfunctions (12.4±10.7 vs. 24.1±12.8 days; P=0.025). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that a high incidence of organ dysfunction was associated with a longer ICU hospital stay. PMID:25789059

  5. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  6. [Recommendations for nutritional assessment and specialized nutritional support of critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Leyba, C; Montejo Gonzalez, J C; Jiménez Jiménez, F Javier; Lopez Martinez, J; García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A; Grau Carmona, T; Acosta Escribano, J; Mesejo Arizmendi, A; Fernandez Ortega, F; Ordoñez Gonzalez, F J; Bonet Saris, A; Blesa Malpica, A

    2005-06-01

    Due to the characteristics of critically ill patients, elaborating recommendations on nutritional support for these patients is difficult. Usually the time of onset of nutritional support or its features are not well established, so that its application is based on experts' opinion. In the present document, recommendations formulated by the Metabolism and Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC) are presented. Recommendations are based on the literature analysis and further discussion by the working group members in order to define, consensually, the more relevant issues of metabolic and nutritional support of patients in a critical condition. Several clinical situations have been considered which are developed in the following articles of this publication. The present recommendations aim at providing a guideline for the less experienced clinicians when considering the metabolic and nutritional issues of critically ill patients.

  7. Predictors of dexmedetomidine-associated hypotension in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Anthony T.; Blais, Danielle M.; Jones, G. Morgan; Burcham, Pamela K.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Cook, Charles H.; Murphy, Claire V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine is commonly used for sedation in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and its use may be associated with hypotension. We sought to determine predictors of dexmedetomidine-associated hypotension. Methods: Retrospective, single-center study of 283 ICU patients in four adults ICUs over a 12 month period. Univariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with dexmedetomidine-related hypotension. Risk factors significant at the 0.20 level in the univariate analysis were considered for inclusion into a step-wise multiple logistical regression model. Results: Hypotension occurred in 121 (42.8%) patients with a median mean arterial pressure (MAP) nadir of 54 mmHg. Univariate analyses showed an association between hypotension and age (P = 0.03), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (P = 0.02), baseline MAP (<0.001), admission to the cardiothoracic ICU (P = 0.05), history of coronary artery disease (P = 0.02), and postcardiac surgery (P = 0.0009). Admission to the medical ICU was associated with a decrease in development in hypotension (P = 0.03). There was a trend for hypotension with weight (P = 0.09) and history of congestive heart failure (P = 0.12) Only MAP prior to initiation (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.95–0.99; P < 0.0001), APACHE II scores (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.12; P = 0.017), and history of coronary artery disease (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26–0.90, P = 0.022) were independently associated with hypotension by multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine-associated hypotension is common. Preexisting low blood pressure, history of coronary artery disease, and higher acuity were identified as independent risk factors for dexmedetomidine-associated hypotension. PMID:27722111

  8. Independent determinants of early death in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mario H; Moubarak, Patricia; Wolf, Hilde; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hartl, Wolfgang H

    2008-07-01

    Abnormalities in cardiocirculatory, respiratory, or coagulatory parameters are frequent after major surgery, but so far, no study has investigated their predictive value for early intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. We aimed to describe and quantify the relation between these parameters that are routinely determined on ICU admission and early death after complex surgery. Individual patient data were available from a local ICU database. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study using prospectively collected data from March 1, 1993, through February 28, 2005. A cohort of 4,214 cases who were admitted to the ICU immediately after operation was analyzed. We studied age, sex, number of red blood cell units transfused on admission day, and admission values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin concentration, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, respiratory function (Pao2/Fio2 ratio), and body temperature for their association with 4-day mortality. Effects were adjusted for the underlying disease and for disease severity during the first 24 h after admission. We used generalized additive models to fit continuous variables individually before combining them into the final generalized model. We found an independent linear association between the number of transfused red blood cell units, partial thromboplastin time, and body temperature with acute outcome. A smoothed model described the independent interaction between admission blood pressure and early death. Only values of less than 80 mmHg were associated with an increased risk of 4-day mortality. According to these results, bleeding complications after ICU admission should be treated aggressively to prevent early death of the patient. However, normotensive conditions do not seem to be required to prevent early mortality. Whether rapid rewarming may improve outcome needs further rigorous study.

  9. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of delirium in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hipp, Dustin M; Ely, E Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Delirium is a common yet under-diagnosed syndrome of acute brain dysfunction, which is characterized by inattention, fluctuating mental status, altered level of consciousness, or disorganized thinking. Although our recognition of risk factors for delirium has progressed, our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remains limited. Improvements in monitoring and assessment for delirium (particularly in the intensive care setting) have resulted in validated and reliable tools such as arousal scales and bedside delirium monitoring instruments. Once delirium is recognized and the modifiable risk factors are addressed, the next step in management (if delirium persists) is often pharmacological intervention. The sedatives, analgesics, and hypnotics most often used in the intensive care unit (ICU) to achieve patient comfort are all too frequently deliriogenic, resulting in a longer duration of ICU and hospital stay, and increased costs. Therefore, identification of safe and efficacious agents to reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of ICU delirium is a hot topic in critical care. Recognizing that there are no medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention or treatment of delirium, we chose anti-psychotics and alpha-2 agonists as the general pharmacological focus of this article because both were subjects of relatively recent data and ongoing clinical trials. Emerging pharmacological strategies for addressing delirium must be combined with nonpharmacological approaches (such as daily spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials) and early mobility (combined with the increasingly popular approach called: Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium Monitoring, Early Mobility, and Exercise [ABCDE] of critical care) to develop evidence-based approaches that will ensure safer and faster recovery of the sickest patients in our healthcare system. PMID:22270810

  10. [Serum lactate level as a indicator of tissue hypoxia in severely ill patients].

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; Schieveld, S J; Brinkert, W

    2000-04-15

    Adequate oxygen supply to the tissues is of vital importance to survive critical illness and trauma. Shock can be defined as an imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen supply. Clinical features of shock, like hypotension, tachycardia, cold clammy skin et cetera, are poorly correlated with presence of tissue hypoxia. A high lactate level is an early sign of tissue hypoxia. In severely ill patients tissue hypoxia is the most important cause of increased lactate levels. Increased blood lactate levels are related to increased mortality. Optimizing oxygen supply by fluid resuscitation is the intervention of first choice. PMID:10812440

  11. Laser Doppler flowmetry and cardiac output in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Eyer, S; Borgos, J; Strate, R G

    1987-08-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) accurately measures cutaneous microcirculatory blood flow. We compared change in LDF flow to change in thermodilution cardiac output in ten critically ill surgical patients. A subset analysis of three patients with low cardiac output (cardiac index less than 2 L/min X m2) showed no correlation. We conclude that, under these study conditions, LDF microcirculatory flow did not reflect macrocirculatory flow. We conjecture that overcoming cutaneous vasoregulation with thermal vasodilation may obviate these results.

  12. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Investigated dream content of 104 dreams from nine terminally ill patients with estimated life expectancy of one year or less. Found differences between dreams of terminally ill and dreams of physically healthy individuals, suggesting an adaptive withdrawal and process of social and emotional disengagement by terminally ill individuals. (Author/NB)

  13. Comparing the safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in psychiatric patients with comorbid medical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, John W

    2009-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illnesses have a higher risk of premature mortality than the general US population. Illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are frequently complicated by physical comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, including both coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, which are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among individuals with severe mental illnesses. Modifiable risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, and obesity are common in this population and contribute to risk for both diabetes and coronary heart disease. While many psychotropic medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have similar efficacy, some medications are associated with more metabolic side effects than others, and clinicians should consider these risks when choosing among these medications. Patients with severe mental illnesses tend to have reduced access to health care and treatment for medical comorbidities compared with the general population. Therefore, clinicians involved in the care of this patient population should screen and monitor carefully for cardiometabolic side effects and risk factors. PMID:19570499

  14. Point-of-care testing in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Fries, Dietmar; Streif, Werner

    2015-02-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing in hemostasis has experienced a significant increase in the spectrum of available tests and the number of tests performed. Short turn-around time and observation of rapid changes in test results are facilitated. The quality control process in POC testing must encompass a preanalytic (collection), analytic (measurement), and postanalytic (clinical response) phase. Erroneous interpretation of findings and difficult quality controls can outweigh the advantages of POC testing.Only a limited number of hemostatic POC tests have proven useful so far: prothrombin time POC-monitoring of oral vitamin K antagonists; activated clotting time POC-monitoring of high-dose heparin therapy; platelet function analyzer (PFA; Siemens, Marburg, Germany) closure time (CT)-detection of von Willebrand disease and severe platelet function defects; whole blood aggregometry (WBA) Multiplate (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and the VerifyNow system (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA)-detection of platelet dysfunction due to antiplatelet drugs; thromboelastography-continuous observation of clot formation and fibrinolysis. The use of various agonists in WBA and thromboelastography (TEG) requires some expertise. In experienced hands the PFA CT and WBA and TEG are recommended combinations.Application of POC testing depends strictly on whether it improves medical care and patient outcome. More POC test systems are in the research pipeline, but only a few will resist the ravages of time. PMID:25611850

  15. [Pulmonary-renal crosstalk in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Donoso F, Alejandro; Arriagada S, Daniela; Cruces R, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of renal replacement therapy, mortality of acute renal failure remains high, especially when occurring simultaneously with distant organic failure as it is in the case of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this update, birideccional deleterious relationship between lung and kidney on the setting of organ dysfunction is reviewed, which presents important clinical aspects of knowing. Specifically, the renal effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the use of positive-pressure mechanical ventilation are discussed, being ventilator induced lung injury one of the most common models for studying the lung-kidney crosstalk. The role of renal failure induced by mechanical ventilation (ventilator-induced kidney injury) in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure is emphasized. We also analyze the impact of the acute renal failure in the lung, recognizing an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability, inflammation, and alteration of sodium and water channels in the alveolar epithelial. This conceptual model can be the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to use in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

  16. [Pulmonary-renal crosstalk in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Donoso F, Alejandro; Arriagada S, Daniela; Cruces R, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of renal replacement therapy, mortality of acute renal failure remains high, especially when occurring simultaneously with distant organic failure as it is in the case of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this update, birideccional deleterious relationship between lung and kidney on the setting of organ dysfunction is reviewed, which presents important clinical aspects of knowing. Specifically, the renal effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the use of positive-pressure mechanical ventilation are discussed, being ventilator induced lung injury one of the most common models for studying the lung-kidney crosstalk. The role of renal failure induced by mechanical ventilation (ventilator-induced kidney injury) in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure is emphasized. We also analyze the impact of the acute renal failure in the lung, recognizing an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability, inflammation, and alteration of sodium and water channels in the alveolar epithelial. This conceptual model can be the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to use in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. PMID:26338439

  17. Chronic illness behavior in psychiatric patients: an attempt at behavioral validation.

    PubMed

    Winstead, D K; Schwartz, B D; Price, A

    1980-03-01

    Recent literature has focused on chronic illness behavior as a final common pathway for many patients with psychosomatic disorders and learning theory has been used to explain the behaviors of these patients. The present study evaluated psychiatric patients in a variety of treatment settings using the methodology of Wooley and Blackwell (1). Blank forms were used as "do it yourself" tokens and rewarded behaviors were categorized as care-taking, sociability, achievement, communication, or other. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that psychiatric patients did not differentially reward care-taking, as a chronic illness model would have anticipated; rather, they most frequently rewarded socialization and achievement. In addition, we found that patients without disability compensation rewarded socialization more frequently and achievement less frequently than did those patients with compensation. Treatment setting was not related to the types of behaviors that were rewarded. This study does not support a behavioral theory of chronic illness behavior in a general psychiatric population. The results are discussed with respect to the implications for psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine.

  18. Biomedicine or holistic medicine for treating mentally ill patients? A philosophical and economical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-12-18

    Today we have two scientific medical traditions, two schools or treatment systems: holistic medicine and biomedicine. The two traditions are based on two very different philosophical positions: subjectivistic and objectivistic. The philosopher Buber taught us that you can say I-Thou or I-It, holding the other person as a subject or an object. These two fundamentally different attitudes seem to characterize the difference in world view and patient approach in the two schools, one coming from psychoanalysis and the old, holistic tradition of Hippocratic medicine. Holistic medicine during the last decade has developed its philosophical positions and is today an independent, medical system seemingly capable of curing mentally ill patients at the cost of a few thousand Euros with no side effects and with lasting value for the patient. The problem is that very few studies have tested the effect of holistic medicine on mentally ill patients. Another problem is that the effect of holistic medicine must be documented in a way that respects this school's philosophical integrity, allowing for subjective assessment of patient benefit and using the patient as his/her own control, as placebo control cannot be used in placebo-only treatment. As the existing data are strongly in favor of using holistic medicine, which seems to be safer, more efficient, and cheaper, it is recommended that clinical holistic medicine also be used as treatment for mental illness. More research and funding is needed to develop scientific holistic medicine.

  19. Self-Management: Enabling and empowering patients living with cancer as a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    McCorkle, Ruth; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Mark; Schulman-Green, Dena; Schilling, Lynne S.; Lorig, Kate; Wagner, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    With recent improvements in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, people with cancer are living longer, and their cancer may be managed as a chronic illness. Cancer as a chronic illness places new demands on patients and families to manage their own care, and it challenges old paradigms that oncology's work is done after treatment. As a chronic illness, however, cancer care occurs on a continuum that stretches from prevention to the end of life, with early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship in between. In this paper, we review self-management interventions that enable patients and families to participate in managing their care along this continuum. We review randomized controlled trials of self-management interventions with cancer patients and families in the treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life phases of the cancer-care continuum. We also present the Chronic Care Model as a model of care that oncology practices can use to enable and empower patients and families to engage in self-management. We conclude that, the need for a common language by which to speak about self-management and a common set of self-management actions for cancer care notwithstanding, oncology practices can now build strong relationships with their patients and formulate mutually-agreed upon care plans that enable and empower patients to care for themselves in the way they prefer. PMID:21205833

  20. [Effect of exercise training on rehabilitation of the chronic critical illness patients].

    PubMed

    Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Jianan

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decades, the evolution of the techniques used in the intensive care has led on one side to better survival rates in ICU patients. On the other side, it has resulted in a growing number of patients who survive an acute event to chronic condition, and who then become dependent on one or more life support treatments. Such patients are called chronic critical illness(CCI) patients. Even these patients can dismiss from intensive care unit (ICU) or transfer to specialized rehabilitation care settings, the mortality of these patients is still very high. Therefore, how to promote the rehabilitation of CCI patients is one of the most important research points of epidemiology, public health and social economics. Exercise training can promote rehabilitation, improve quality of life and independent functional status in these patients, which should be used as one of the standard treatment protocols for CCI patients. PMID:27452749

  1. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  2. Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander Thomas; Spiro, Theodore Erich; Büller, Harry Roger; Haskell, Lloyd; Hu, Dayi; Hull, Russell; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Merli, Geno; Schellong, Sebastian; Spyropoulos, Alex; Tapson, Victor

    2011-05-01

    Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately 10 days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE in acutely ill medical patients, and whether extended-duration (approximately 5 weeks) rivaroxaban is superior to standard-duration enoxaparin. Patients aged 40 years or older and hospitalized for various acute medical illnesses with risk factors for VTE randomly receive either s.c. enoxaparin 40 mg once daily (od) for 10 ± 4 days or oral rivaroxaban 10 mg od for 35 ± 4 days. The primary efficacy outcomes are the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic DVT, symptomatic non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), and VTE-related death up to day 10 + 4 and up to day 35 + 4. The primary safety outcome is the composite of treatment-emergent major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. As of July 2010, 8,101 patients from 52 countries have been randomized. These patients have a broad range of medical conditions: approximately one-third were diagnosed with acute heart failure, just under one-third were diagnosed with acute infectious disease, and just under one-quarter were diagnosed with acute respiratory insufficiency. MAGELLAN will determine the efficacy, safety, and pharmacological profile of oral rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE in a diverse population of medically ill patients and the potential of extended-duration therapy to reduce incidence of VTE.

  3. Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for the Assessment of Nutritional Status in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoojin; Kwon, Oran; Shin, Cheung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in the critically ill patients and known to cause a variety of negative clinical outcomes. However, various conventional methods for nutrition assessment have several limitations. We hypothesized that body composition data, as measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), may have a significant role in evaluating nutritional status and predicting clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. We gathered clinical, biochemical, and BIA data from 66 critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Patients were divided into three nutritional status groups according to their serum albumin level and total lymphocyte counts. The BIA results, conventional indicators of nutrition status, and clinical outcomes were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results showed that the BIA indices including phase angle (PhA), extracellular water (ECW), and ECW/total body water (TBW) were significantly associated with the severity of nutritional status. Particularly, PhA, an indicator of the health of the cell membrane, was higher in the well-nourished patient group, whereas the edema index (ECW/TBW) was higher in the severely malnourished patient group. PhA was positively associated with albumin and ECW/TBW was negatively associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin, and duration of mechanical ventilation. In non-survivors, PhA was significantly lower and both ECW/TBW and %TBW/fat free mass were higher than in survivors. In conclusion, several BIA indexes including PhA and ECW/TBW may be useful for nutritional assessment and represent significant prognostic factors in the care of critically ill patients. PMID:25713790

  4. Engaging Critically Ill Patients in Symptom Management: Thinking Outside the Box!

    PubMed

    Chlan, Linda L

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an immense challenge for clinicians. Interventions to maintain physiological stability and life itself can cause a number of adverse effects that have a marked impact on patients beyond the period of critical illness or injury. These ICU-acquired conditions include but are not limited to weakness, depression, and post-intensive care syndrome, all of which markedly affect patients' quality of life after they leave the unit. How best to manage the many symptoms experienced by patients undergoing mechanical ventilation without contributing to adverse ICU-acquired sequelae remains a daunting charge for clinicians and requires innovative "out of the box" approaches to address these complex issues. Systematic, cutting-edge research is needed to challenge the "usual" way of managing ICU patients in order to provide the best available evidence for practice integration that minimizes adverse, ICU-acquired sequelae and improves outcomes for the most vulnerable patients. This article highlights a program of research focused on interventions for managing symptoms in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support, including the appropriate empowerment of symptom self-management by patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Development and testing of innovative, nontraditional interventions specifically tailored for ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support are presented. Music listening is highlighted as a nonpharmacological, adjunctive intervention to reduce anxiety associated with mechanical ventilation. Patient-controlled sedation is discussed as an alternative method to meet patients' highly individual needs for sedative therapy to promote comfort. PMID:27369026

  5. Comparison of the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria to predict mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Talita Machado; de Souza, Sérgio Pinto; de Magalhães, Janine Garcia; de Carvalho, Márcia Sampaio; Cunha, André Luiz Barreto; Dantas, João Gabriel Athayde de Oliveira; Cruz, Marília Galvão; Guimarães, Yasmin Laryssa Moura; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria are used to classify these patients. The present study's aim was to compare these criteria as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients. Methods Prospective cohort study using medical records as the source of data. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit were included. The exclusion criteria were hospitalization for less than 24 hours and death. Patients were followed until discharge or death. Student's t test, chi-squared analysis, a multivariate logistic regression and ROC curves were used for the data analysis. Results The mean patient age was 64 years old, and the majority of patients were women of African descent. According to RIFLE, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 22.58%, 24.19% and 35.48% for patients without acute kidney injury (AKI) in stages of Risk, Injury and Failure, respectively. For AKIN, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 29.03%, 12.90% and 40.32% for patients without AKI and at stage I, stage II and stage III, respectively. For KDIGO 2012, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 29.03%, 11.29% and 41.94% for patients without AKI and at stage I, stage II and stage III, respectively. All three classification systems showed similar ROC curves for mortality. Conclusion The RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria were good tools for predicting mortality in critically ill patients with no significant difference between them. PMID:24553510

  6. Quality indicators on the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Vera, P; Palomar, M; Álvarez-Lerma, F

    2014-12-01

    Quality indicators have been applied to many areas of health care in recent years, including intensive care. However, they have not been specifically developed and validated for antimicrobial use in critically ill patients. Antimicrobials play a key role in intensive care units not only in the prognosis of each individual patient, but also in the development of resistance and changes in the flora in this setting. Evaluating the use of these agents is complex in the intensive care unit, however, because the indications vary greatly and antimicrobial treatment is often changed during admission. We designed and developed specific quality indicators regarding the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. These indicators are proposed as a tool for application in intensive care units to detect problems in the use of antimicrobials. Future trials are needed, however, to validate these indicators in a large population over time.

  7. Overview of managing medical comorbidities in patients with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S

    2009-06-01

    Patients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality rates compared with the general population. The leading cause of death for individuals with psychotic illnesses or bipolar disorder is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is often the result of patients' health problems associated with their psychiatric disorders, including, but not limited to, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Such problems occur more often and have worse outcomes in patients with serious mental illness than the general population because of a combination of factors such as inadequate access to quality care, poor lifestyle choices, and the association between some antipsychotic medications and weight gain. Coordinated somatic and psychiatric treatment, weight-neutral or weight-reducing pharmaceuticals, and behavioral weight management programs may help lessen the burden of CVD in the mental health population. PMID:19573473

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcomes enabled by the neuromuscular electric stimulation in critically ill patients in intensive care unit assisted. Methods A systematic review of the literature by means of clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and PEDro using the descriptors “intensive care unit”, “physical therapy”, “physiotherapy”, “electric stimulation” and “randomized controlled trials”. Results We included four trials. The sample size varied between 8 to 33 individuals of both genders, with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Of the articles analyzed, three showed significant benefits of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, functionality, or loss of thickness of the muscle layer. Conclusion The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation promotes a beneficial response in critically patients in intensive care. PMID:25295458

  9. Emergency and disaster preparedness for chronically ill patients: a review of recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters, especially those in developed countries, have highlighted the importance of disaster preparedness measures for chronic diseases. A number of surviving patients experienced the exacerbation of a chronic illness, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases, due to disaster-related stress, interruption of care, or both; for some patients, these exacerbations resulted in death. Here, we review reports from recent disasters in developed countries and summarize the recommendations for disaster preparedness of chronically ill patients. A considerable number of recommendations based on the lessons learned from recent disasters have been developed, and they provide practical and essential steps to prevent treatment interruption during and after a disaster. To improve preparedness efforts, we suggest that health care providers should be aware of the following three suggestions: 1) recommendations should be evidence-based; 2) recommendations should contain consistent messages; and 3) recommendations should be feasible.

  10. Fluid therapy in critically ill patients: perspectives from the right heart.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Paul; Rodrigus, Tim; Nossent, Esther; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-01-01

    As right heart function can affect outcome in the critically ill patient, a thorough understanding of factors determining right heart performance in health and disease is pivotal for the critical care physician. This review focuses on fluid therapy, which remains controversial in the setting of impending or overt right heart failure. In this context, we will attempt to elucidate which patients are likely to benefit from fluid administration and for which patients fluid therapy would likely be harmful. Following a general discussion of right heart function and failure, we specifically focus on important causes of right heart failure in the critically ill, i.e. sepsis induced myocardial dysfunction, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pulmonary embolism and the effects of positive pressure ventilation. It is argued that fluid therapy should always be cautiously administered with the right heart in mind, which calls for close multimodal monitoring.

  11. Emergency and disaster preparedness for chronically ill patients: a review of recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters, especially those in developed countries, have highlighted the importance of disaster preparedness measures for chronic diseases. A number of surviving patients experienced the exacerbation of a chronic illness, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases, due to disaster-related stress, interruption of care, or both; for some patients, these exacerbations resulted in death. Here, we review reports from recent disasters in developed countries and summarize the recommendations for disaster preparedness of chronically ill patients. A considerable number of recommendations based on the lessons learned from recent disasters have been developed, and they provide practical and essential steps to prevent treatment interruption during and after a disaster. To improve preparedness efforts, we suggest that health care providers should be aware of the following three suggestions: 1) recommendations should be evidence-based; 2) recommendations should contain consistent messages; and 3) recommendations should be feasible. PMID:27147882

  12. Failure of lorazepam to treat alprazolam withdrawal in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Gaurav; Gesin, Gail; Christmas, A Britton; Sing, Ronald F

    2014-02-01

    Management of sedation in the critical care unit is an ongoing challenge. Benzodiazepines have been commonly used as sedatives in critically ill patients. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that make benzodiazepines effective and safe in critical care sedation include rapid onset of action and decreased respiratory depression. Alprazolam is a commonly used benzodiazepine that is prescribed for anxiety and panic disorders. It is frequently prescribed in the outpatient setting. Its use has been reported to result in a relatively high rate of dependence and subsequent withdrawal symptoms. Symptoms of alprazolam withdrawal can be difficult to recognize and treat in the critical care setting. In addition, other benzodiazepines may also be ineffective in treating alprazolam withdrawal. We present a case of alprazolam withdrawal in a critically ill trauma patient who failed treatment with lorazepam and haloperidol. Subsequent replacement with alprazolam resulted in significant improvement in the patient's medication use and clinical status.

  13. EM Talk: communication skills training for emergency medicine patients with serious illness.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Emlet, Lillian L; Kuntz, Joanne; Shreves, Ashley; Zimny, Erin; Gang, Maureen; Schaulis, Monique; Schmidt, Scott; Isaacs, Eric; Arnold, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The emergency department visit for a patient with serious illness represents a sentinel event, signalling a change in the illness trajectory. By better understanding patient and family wishes, emergency physicians can reinforce advance care plans and ensure the hospital care provided matches the patient's values. Despite their importance in care at the end of life, emergency physicians have received little training on how to talk to seriously ill patients and their families about goals of care. To expand communication skills training to emergency medicine, we developed a programme to give emergency medicine physicians the ability to empathically deliver serious news and to talk about goals of care. We have built on lessons from prior studies to design an intervention employing the most effective pedagogical techniques, including the use of simulated patients/families, role-playing and small group learning with constructive feedback from master clinicians. Here, we describe our evidence-based communication skills training course EM Talk using simulation, reflective feedback and deliberate practice. PMID:26762163

  14. Clinical review: optimizing enteral nutrition for critically ill patients - a simple data-driven formula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In modern critical care, the paradigm of 'therapeutic nutrition' is replacing traditional 'supportive nutrition'. Standard enteral formulas meet basic macro- and micronutrient needs; therapeutic enteral formulas meet these basic needs and also contain specific pharmaconutrients that may attenuate hyperinflammatory responses, enhance the immune responses to infection, or improve gastrointestinal tolerance. Choosing the right enteral feeding formula may positively affect a patient's outcome; targeted use of therapeutic formulas can reduce the incidence of infectious complications, shorten lengths of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, and lower risk for mortality. In this paper, we review principles of how to feed (enteral, parenteral, or both) and when to feed (early versus delayed start) patients who are critically ill. We discuss what to feed these patients in the context of specific pharmaconutrients in specialized feeding formulations, that is, arginine, glutamine, antioxidants, certain ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, hydrolyzed proteins, and medium-chain triglycerides. We summarize current expert guidelines for nutrition in patients with critical illness, and we present specific clinical evidence on the use of enteral formulas supplemented with anti-inflammatory or immune-modulating nutrients, and gastrointestinal tolerance-promoting nutritional formulas. Finally, we introduce an algorithm to help bedside clinicians make data-driven feeding decisions for patients with critical illness. PMID:22136305

  15. The significance of tubular and glomerular proteinuria in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Christopher Thiam Seong; Tan, Han Khim; Lau, Yeow Kok

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently need acute renal replacement therapy (aRRT). We evaluated an inexpensive, rapid quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria on the course of AKI patients requiring aRRT in intensive care. Method: This was a prospective, observational study of critically ill patients with severe established AKI or Acute on Chronic Kidney Injury (AoCKI) requiring aRRT. Urine samples were analyzed using Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulphate-Polyacryamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results: A total of 30 critically ill patients were studied. Those who died have higher APACHE II (29 ± 6 vs. 20 ± 5, p<0.001), multi-organ failure (0.7 ± 0.5 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.02) and Tubular/Glomerular ratio (114 ± 60 vs. 75± 37, p < 0.05).The renal non-recoverers have higher baseline creatinine (415 ± 328 vs. 125± 19 umol/l, p < 0.01), urinary Dipstick value (1.8±0.8 vs. 0.5±0, p <0.05) and Glomerular score (3.0 ± 1.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.02).Heavy tubular proteinuria also predicts a longer duration of interim dialysis support and mortality whereas glomerular proteinuria correlates with development of chronicity and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Conclusions: The dominant presence of tubular proteinuria is associated with poor survival in patients who have high APACHE II score and multi-organ failure. It also correlates with a longer duration of dialysis support in survivals. Renal Non-recoverers had heavy dominant presence of glomerular proteinuria. SDS-PAGE proteinuria analysis offers a reliable and inexpensive method to prognosticate proteinuria in this group of critically ill patients. PMID:25674105

  16. Effect of Obesity on the Population Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Alobaid, Abdulaziz S; Wallis, Steven C; Jarrett, Paul; Starr, Therese; Stuart, Janine; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Ordóñez Mejia, Jenny Lisette; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-08-01

    Severe pathophysiological changes in critical illness can lead to dramatically altered antimicrobial pharmacokinetics (PK). The additional effect of obesity on PK potentially increases the challenge for effective dosing. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the population PK of meropenem for a cohort of critically ill patients, including obese and morbidly obese patients. Critically ill patients prescribed meropenem were recruited into the following three body mass index (BMI) groups: nonobese (18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30.0 to 39.9 kg/m(2)), and morbidly obese (≥40 kg/m(2)). Serial plasma samples were taken, and meropenem concentrations were determined using a validated chromatographic method. Population PK analysis and Monte Carlo dosing simulations were undertaken with Pmetrics. Nineteen critically ill patients with different BMI categories were enrolled. The patients' mean ± standard deviation (SD) age, weight, and BMI were 49 ± 15.9 years, 95 ± 22.0 kg, and 33 ± 7.0 kg/m(2), respectively. A two-compartment model described the data adequately. The mean ± SD parameter estimates for the final covariate model were as follows: clearance (CL), 15.5 ± 6.0 liters/h; volume of distribution in the central compartment (V1), 11.7 ± 5.8 liters; intercompartmental clearance from the central compartment to the peripheral compartment, 25.6 ± 35.1 liters h(-1); and intercompartmental clearance from the peripheral compartment to the central compartment, 8.32 ± 12.24 liters h(-1) Higher creatinine clearance (CLCR) was associated with a lower probability of target attainment, with BMI having little effect. Although obesity was found to be associated with an increased V1, dose adjustment based on CLCR appears to be more important than patient BMI. PMID:27185798

  17. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:24807079

  18. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made.

  19. Intensity of Renal Support in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The optimal intensity of renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury is controversial. METHODS We randomly assigned critically ill patients with acute kidney injury and failure of at least one nonrenal organ or sepsis to receive intensive or less intensive renal-replacement therapy. The primary end point was death from any cause by day 60. In both study groups, hemodynamically stable patients underwent intermittent hemodialysis, and hemodynamically unstable patients underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration or sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Patients receiving the intensive treatment strategy underwent intermittent hemodialysis and sustained low-efficiency dialysis six times per week and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 35 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour; for patients receiving the less-intensive treatment strategy, the corresponding treatments were provided thrice weekly and at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. RESULTS Baseline characteristics of the 1124 patients in the two groups were similar. The rate of death from any cause by day 60 was 53.6% with intensive therapy and 51.5% with less-intensive therapy (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.40; P = 0.47). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the duration of renalreplacement therapy or the rate of recovery of kidney function or nonrenal organ failure. Hypotension during intermittent dialysis occurred in more patients randomly assigned to receive intensive therapy, although the frequency of hemodialysis sessions complicated by hypotension was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Intensive renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury did not decrease mortality, improve recovery of kidney function, or reduce the rate of nonrenal organ failure as compared with less-intensive therapy involving a defined dose of intermittent hemodialysis three times per week and continuous renal

  20. Coefficient of glucose variation is independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients receiving intravenous insulin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both patient- and context-specific factors may explain the conflicting evidence regarding glucose control in critically ill patients. Blood glucose variability appears to correlate with mortality, but this variability may be an indicator of disease severity, rather than an independent predictor of mortality. We assessed blood glucose coefficient of variation as an independent predictor of mortality in the critically ill. Methods We used eProtocol-Insulin, an electronic protocol for managing intravenous insulin with explicit rules, high clinician compliance, and reproducibility. We studied critically ill patients from eight hospitals, excluding patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and patients supported with eProtocol-insulin for < 24 hours or with < 10 glucose measurements. Our primary clinical outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We performed multivariable logistic regression, with covariates of age, gender, glucose coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean), Charlson comorbidity score, acute physiology score, presence of diabetes, and occurrence of hypoglycemia < 60 mg/dL. Results We studied 6101 critically ill adults. Coefficient of variation was independently associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.23 for every 10% increase, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for hypoglycemia, age, disease severity, and comorbidities. The association was higher in non-diabetics (OR = 1.37, P < 0.001) than in diabetics (OR 1.15, P = 0.001). Conclusions Blood glucose variability is associated with mortality and is independent of hypoglycemia, disease severity, and comorbidities. Future studies should evaluate blood glucose variability. PMID:24886864

  1. Multiple Biomarkers to Assess the Pathophysiological State in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, Prashanth; Anand, Usha

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis is associated with various metabolic derangements as a consequence of inflammatory response, ischemia and oxidative stress. Four parameters of relevance are procalcitonin (PCT), ischemia modified albumin (IMA) pH and lactate. The study was carried out to highlight the concomitant occurrence of sepsis, ischemia and lactic acidosis, all of which could have deleterious effects on organ function. 26 critically ill patients with a provisional diagnosis of sepsis were the test subjects. The control group had 25 apparently healthy volunteers. PCT, lactate and IMA were assayed. PCT was estimated on an automated analyser using electro-chemiluminescence. Lactate and pH were estimated on a blood gas analyzer. Serum IMA was estimated spectrophotometrically by Albumin Cobalt Binding Test. Statistical tools like students 't' test and Venn diagram were employed to depict the outcome of the study. All critically ill patients had significantly higher IMA levels (0.96746 ± 0.73407) as compared to the control group (0.00728 ± 0.00895) with a p value of <0.0001. The Venn diagram was used to depict the finding that all 26 test subjects had elevated levels of IMA, of which PCT was elevated in 22 and lactate in 20. Both PCT and lactate were abnormal in 17 patients. The most significant observation was that all critically ill patients, irrespective of the presence of sepsis or lactic acidosis had elevated levels of IMA which is clearly indicative of the ubiquitous presence of oxidative stress. The Venn diagram is an elegant representation of the concurrent multiple pathophysiological processes which occur in critically ill patients. PMID:27382202

  2. Physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D I; Frohnauer, M; Cyr-Alves, H; Kramer, R S; Lucas, F L; Morton, J R; Cox, D F; Becker, K; Devlin, J T

    2007-07-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study, we assessed potential physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in acute illness. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery was employed as a prospective model of acute illness and NTIS. Triiodothyronine (T(3)) or placebo was infused for 24 h after surgery, with a T(3) dose selected to maintain postoperative serum T(3) concentrations at preoperative levels. Patients were evaluated before coronary artery bypass graft and during the postoperative period. Cardiovascular function was monitored with Swan-Ganz catheter measurements and ECG. Urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were used to evaluate protein metabolism. Serum measurements of relevant hormones, iron, and total iron-binding capacity were used to assess effects on sex steroid, growth hormone axis, and iron responses to illness. Cardiovascular function was not affected by T(3) infusion, except for a transient higher cardiac index in the T(3) group 6 h after surgery (3.04 +/- 0.12 for T(3) and 2.53 +/- 0.08 for placebo, P = 0.0016). Protein metabolism was not affected; changes in urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were equivalent in the two groups (P = 0.35 and P = 0.95, respectively). No differences were observed in changes in testosterone, estrogens, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone I, iron, or total iron-binding capacity between T(3) and placebo groups. We conclude that, in the early stages of major illness, the decrease in circulating T(3) concentrations in NTIS has only a minimal transient physiological impact on cardiac function and plays no significant role in protecting against protein catabolism or modulating other endocrine responses or iron responses to illness.

  3. Personal Prayer in Patients Dealing with Chronic Illness: A Review of the Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jors, Karin; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness. PMID:25815041

  4. Personal prayer in patients dealing with chronic illness: a review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Jors, Karin; Büssing, Arndt; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness. PMID:25815041

  5. Endocrine emergencies in critically ill patients: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Jindal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management. PMID:23087855

  6. Frequency and outcome of patients with nonthyroidal illness syndrome in a medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Plikat, Katharina; Langgartner, Julia; Buettner, Roland; Bollheimer, L Cornelius; Woenckhaus, Ulrike; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Wrede, Christian E

    2007-02-01

    Acute and chronic critical conditions are associated with reduced serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT(3)), free thyroxine FT(4), and thyrotropin, known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). It is still controversial whether these changes reflect a protective mechanism or a maladaptive process during prolonged illness. However, larger studies to determine the prevalence of the NTIS and its association with outcome in medical intensive care units (ICUs) are missing. Complete thyroid hormone levels from 247 of 743 patients admitted to our ICU between October 2002 and February 2004 were retrospectively evaluated. From these patients, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health II scores, ICU mortality, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and concomitant medication were recorded. Ninety-seven patients (44.1%) had low FT(3) levels indicating an NTIS, either with normal (23.6%) or reduced (20.5%) serum thyrotropin levels. Of 97 patients with NTIS, 24 (23.3%) also showed reduced serum FT(4) levels. The NTIS was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health II scores, mortality, length of stay, and mechanical ventilation. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, the combination of low FT(3) and low FT(4) was an independent risk factor for survival. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome is frequent at a medical ICU. A reduction of FT(4) together with FT(3) is associated with an increase in mortality and might reflect a maladaptive process, thereby worsening the disease.

  7. Limiting intensive care therapy in dying critically Ill patients: Experience from a tertiary care center in United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ur Rahman; Said, Abuhasna; Faris, Chedid; Al Mussady, Mousab; Al Jundi, Amer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Limitations of life-support interventions, by either withholding or withdrawing support, are integrated parts of intensive care unit (ICU) activities and are ethically acceptable. The end-of-life legal aspects and practices in United Arab Emirates ICUs are rarely mentioned in the medical literature. The objective of this study was to examine the current practice of limiting futile life-sustaining therapies in our ICU, modalities for implementing of these decisions, and documentations in dying critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at our ICU. We studied all ICU patients who died from September 2008 to February 2009. Patients’ baseline demo-graphics, past medical problems, diagnosis on admission to ICU, and decision to withhold, withdraw and their modalities were collected. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at our ICU. We studied all ICU patients who died from September 2008 to February 2009. Patients’ baseline demo-graphics, past medical problems, diagnosis on admission to ICU, and decision to withhold, withdraw and their modalities were collected. Results: The electronic medical records of 67 patients were reviewed. The commonest method of limiting therapy was no escalation 53.6%. Interventions were withheld in 41.5%. “Do not resuscitate” order was documented in only 16.3%. The commonest method of documenting limitation of therapy was discussion with the family and documenting the prognosis and futility of additional therapy (73.3%). Patients who died early (<48 hrs) compared to patients who died late (>48 hrs) of ICU admission received terminal cardiopulmonary resuscitation more frequently (P < 0.007), had less frequent prognosis documentation (P < 0.009), and had more vasopressors administered (P < 0.006). Conclusion: Withholding therapy after discussion with the family was the preferred mode of limiting therapy in a dying patient. PMID:24404458

  8. Diagnostic errors in emergency room medicine: physical illness in patients labeled "psychiatric" and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Leeman, C P

    1975-01-01

    Patients coming to general hospital emergency rooms often present mixed physical and psychological problems. An unfortunate tendency of physicians caring for these patients to "label" them as either "organic" or "psychiatric," based on initial impressions, may lead to inadequate diagnosis and improper treatment. Four case examples are discussed, in which diagnostic errors resulted either from ignoring psychological and social factors, or by focusing on emotional factors to the exclusion of organic disease. The provision of quality medical care in a hospital emergency room requires that attention be directed coordinately to both physical and emotional factors in each patient's illness.

  9. Dyschloremia Is a Risk Factor for the Development of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Min; Li, Guangxi; Sarvottam, Kumar; Wang, Shengyu; Thongprayoon, Charat; Dong, Yue; Gajic, Ognjen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dyschloremia is common in critically ill patients, although its impact has not been well studied. We investigated the epidemiology of dyschloremia and its associations with the incidence of acute kidney injury and other intensive care unit outcomes. Material and Methods This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study at Mayo Clinic Hospital—Rochester. All adult patients admitted to intensive care units from January 1st, 2006, through December 30th, 2012 were included. Patients with known acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease stage 5 before intensive care unit admission were excluded. We evaluated the association of dyschloremia with ICU outcomes, after adjustments for the effect of age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index and severity of illness score. Results A total of 6,025 patients were enrolled in the final analysis following the implementation of eligibility criteria. From the cohort, 1,970 patients (33%) developed acute kidney injury. Of the total patients enrolled, 4,174 had a baseline serum chloride. In this group, 1,530 (37%) had hypochloremia, and 257 (6%) were hyperchloremic. The incidence of acute kidney injury was higher in hypochloremic and hyperchloremic patients compared to those with a normal serum chloride level (43% vs.30% and 34% vs. 30%, respectively; P < .001). Baseline serum chloride was lower in the acute kidney injury group vs. the non-acute kidney injury group [100 mmol/L (96–104) vs. 102 mmol/L (98–105), P < .0001]. In a multivariable logistic regression model, baseline serum chloride of ≤94 mmol/L found to be independently associated with the risk of acute kidney injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6; P = .01). Discussion Dyschloremia is common in critically ill patients, and severe hypochloremia is independently associated with an increased risk of development of acute kidney injury. PMID:27490461

  10. Assisted suicide in the care of mentally ill patients: the Lucio Magri's case.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Mancarella, Paola; Cecchi, Rossana; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A year after Mario Monicelli's suicide, the death of another famous person in Italy, Lucio Magri, reawakened the Italian debate on social, ethical and juridical issues in end-of-life decisions. Unlike Monicelli, Lucio Magri decided to end his own life in Switzerland with the help of a physician because his mental illness rendered his life unbearable. Both Monicelli and Magri suffered from a severe depression. The authors analyze the ethical issues regarding the right to die for mentally ill patients and neurological disabled patients, discussing the decision-making autonomy in persons suffering from severe depression. The role of the psychiatry in the management of end-of-life decision requests is considered along with pros and cons of suicide prevention and rationale suicide.

  11. [Fish oil containing lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: Critical analysis and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted.

  12. [Health belief model and sick role behavior of Korean chronically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Gu, M O; Lee, E O

    1990-08-30

    This article reviewed & analyzed 33 studies of the Health Belief Model applied to korean chronic ill patients which were published from 1975 to 1990. The findings of analysis are as follows. The subjects of researchs are patients with various chronic illness including Pulmonary Tb., DM., Hemodialysis & Kidney Transplantation, Hypertension, etc. The type of research is retrospective survey in all studies. The measurement of health belief in all studies & sick role behavior in most studies have relied on self report. The analysis of the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior was done using correlation coefficient in most studies. To analyze empirical support for the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior, Significance ratio was computed. This ratio is value wherein the number of statistically significant findings with relationship in the expected direction for an HBM dimension are divided by total number of studies which reported significance levels for that dimension. Examination of this ratio across the 33 studies reveals susceptibility (30.3%), severity (34.4%), benefit (65.6%), barrier (50%). The following suggestions are based on the above findings and literature review. 1. It is necessary to develop the reliable, valid and standardized instrument for measurement of health beliefs. 2. In the further measurement of perceived susceptibility of the chronic ill patients. It is considering that the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity are measured together or the measurement of perceived susceptibility is eliminated. 3. Relationship between perceived severity and sick role behavior is suggested to be analized using ANOVA, chi 2 square instead of correlation coefficient. 4. Sick role behaviors should be measured by both self report and objective measurement. 5. Prospective, longitudinal survey should be needed. 6. Other factors influencing sick role behaviors of chronic ill patients should be investigated further.

  13. Critically ill patients in emergency department may be characterized by low amplitude and high variability of amplitude of pulse photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present pilot study was to determine if pulse photoplethysmography amplitude (PPGA) could be used as an indicator of critical illness and as a predictor of higher need of care in emergency department patients. Methods This was a prospective observational study. We collected vital signs and one minute of pulse photoplethysmograph signal from 251 consecutive patients admitted to a university hospital emergency department. The patients were divided in two groups regarding to the modified Early Warning Score (mEWS): > 3 (critically ill) and ≤ 3 (non-critically ill). Photoplethysmography characteristics were compared between the groups. Results Sufficient data for analysis was acquired from 212 patients (84.5%). Patients in critically ill group more frequently required intubation and invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the ED and received more intravenous fluids. Mean pulse photoplethysmography amplitude (PPGA) was significantly lower in critically ill patients (median 1.105 [95% CI of mean 0.9946-2.302] vs. 2.476 [95% CI of mean 2.239-2.714], P = 0.0257). Higher variability of PPGA significantly correlated with higher amount of fluids received in the ED (r = 0.1501, p = 0.0296). Conclusions This pilot study revealed differences in PPGA characteristics between critically ill and non-critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to determine if these easily available parameters could help increase accuracy in triage when used in addition to routine monitoring of vital signs. PMID:23799988

  14. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management. PMID:27313939

  15. Clustering analysis to identify distinct spectral components of encephalogram burst suppression in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, David W; Westover, M Brandon; McClain, Lauren M; Nagaraj, Sunil B; Bajwa, Ednan K; Quraishi, Sadeq A; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Cobb, J Perren; Purdon, Patrick L

    2015-01-01

    Millions of patients are admitted each year to intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States. A significant fraction of ICU survivors develop life-long cognitive impairment, incurring tremendous financial and societal costs. Delirium, a state of impaired awareness, attention and cognition that frequently develops during ICU care, is a major risk factor for post-ICU cognitive impairment. Recent studies suggest that patients experiencing electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression have higher rates of mortality and are more likely to develop delirium than patients who do not experience burst suppression. Burst suppression is typically associated with coma and deep levels of anesthesia or hypothermia, and is defined clinically as an alternating pattern of high-amplitude "burst" periods interrupted by sustained low-amplitude "suppression" periods. Here we describe a clustering method to analyze EEG spectra during burst and suppression periods. We used this method to identify a set of distinct spectral patterns in the EEG during burst and suppression periods in critically ill patients. These patterns correlate with level of patient sedation, quantified in terms of sedative infusion rates and clinical sedation scores. This analysis suggests that EEG burst suppression in critically ill patients may not be a single state, but instead may reflect a plurality of states whose specific dynamics relate to a patient's underlying brain function. PMID:26737967

  16. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management. PMID:27313939

  17. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.

  18. Recommendations for the intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted to provide Intensive Care Units and Emergency Departments with a set of practical procedures (check-lists) for managing critically-ill adult patients in order to avoid complications during intra-hospital transport (IHT). Methods Digital research was carried out via the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and HEALTHSTAR databases using the following key words: transferring, transport, intrahospital or intra-hospital, and critically ill patient. The reference bibliographies of each of the selected articles between 1998 and 2009 were also studied. Results This review focuses on the analysis and overcoming of IHT-related risks, the associated adverse events, and their nature and incidence. The suggested preventive measures are also reviewed. A check-list for quick execution of IHT is then put forward and justified. Conclusions Despite improvements in IHT practices, significant risks are still involved. Basic training, good clinical sense and a risk-benefit analysis are currently the only deciding factors. A critically ill patient, prepared and accompanied by an inexperienced team, is a risky combination. The development of adapted equipment and the widespread use of check-lists and proper training programmes would increase the safety of IHT and reduce the risks in the long-term. Further investigation is required in order to evaluate the protective role of such preventive measures. PMID:20470381

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Doripenem in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Abd Rahman, Azrin N.; Mat-Nor, Mohd-Basri; Sulaiman, Helmi; Wallis, Steven C.; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A.; Staatz, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Doripenem has been recently introduced in Malaysia and is used for severe infections in the intensive care unit. However, limited data currently exist to guide optimal dosing in this scenario. We aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of doripenem in Malaysian critically ill patients with sepsis and use Monte Carlo dosing simulations to develop clinically relevant dosing guidelines for these patients. In this pharmacokinetic study, 12 critically ill adult patients with sepsis receiving 500 mg of doripenem every 8 h as a 1-hour infusion were enrolled. Serial blood samples were collected on 2 different days, and population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. A two-compartment linear model with between-subject and between-occasion variability on clearance was adequate in describing the data. The typical volume of distribution and clearance of doripenem in this cohort were 0.47 liters/kg and 0.14 liters/kg/h, respectively. Doripenem clearance was significantly influenced by patients' creatinine clearance (CLCR), such that a 30-ml/min increase in the estimated CLCR would increase doripenem CL by 52%. Monte Carlo dosing simulations suggested that, for pathogens with a MIC of 8 mg/liter, a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is optimal for patients with a CLCR of 30 to 100 ml/min, while a dose of 2,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is best for patients manifesting a CLCR of >100 ml/min. Findings from this study suggest that, for doripenem usage in Malaysian critically ill patients, an alternative dosing approach may be meritorious, particularly when multidrug resistance pathogens are involved. PMID:26482304

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of Doripenem in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Abd Rahman, Azrin N; Mat-Nor, Mohd-Basri; Sulaiman, Helmi; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Staatz, Christine E

    2015-10-19

    Doripenem has been recently introduced in Malaysia and is used for severe infections in the intensive care unit. However, limited data currently exist to guide optimal dosing in this scenario. We aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of doripenem in Malaysian critically ill patients with sepsis and use Monte Carlo dosing simulations to develop clinically relevant dosing guidelines for these patients. In this pharmacokinetic study, 12 critically ill adult patients with sepsis receiving 500 mg of doripenem every 8 h as a 1-hour infusion were enrolled. Serial blood samples were collected on 2 different days, and population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. A two-compartment linear model with between-subject and between-occasion variability on clearance was adequate in describing the data. The typical volume of distribution and clearance of doripenem in this cohort were 0.47 liters/kg and 0.14 liters/kg/h, respectively. Doripenem clearance was significantly influenced by patients' creatinine clearance (CL(CR)), such that a 30-ml/min increase in the estimated CL(CR) would increase doripenem CL by 52%. Monte Carlo dosing simulations suggested that, for pathogens with a MIC of 8 mg/liter, a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is optimal for patients with a CL(CR) of 30 to 100 ml/min, while a dose of 2,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is best for patients manifesting a CL(CR) of >100 ml/min. Findings from this study suggest that, for doripenem usage in Malaysian critically ill patients, an alternative dosing approach may be meritorious, particularly when multidrug resistance pathogens are involved.

  1. Patient Safety Events and Harms During Medical and Surgical Hospitalizations for Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma E.; Pronovost, Peter; Dixon, Lisa B.; Guallar, Eliseo; Ford, Daniel E.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Boonyasai, Romsai T.; Thompson, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of patient safety events and associated nonfatal physical harms and mortality in a cohort of persons with serious mental illness. This group experiences high rates of medical comorbidity and premature mortality and may be at high risk of adverse patient safety events. Methods Medical record review was conducted for medical-surgical hospitalizations occurring during 1994–2004 in a community-based cohort of Maryland adults with serious mental illness. Individuals were eligible if they died within 30 days of a medical-surgical hospitalization and if they also had at least one prior medical-surgical hospitalization within five years of death. All admissions took place at Maryland general hospitals. A case-crossover analysis examined the relationships among patient safety events, physical harms, and elevated likelihood of death within 30 days of hospitalization. Results A total of 790 hospitalizations among 253 adults were reviewed. The mean number of patient safety events per hospitalization was 5.8, and the rate of physical harms was 142 per 100 hospitalizations. The odds of physical harm were elevated in hospitalizations in which 22 of the 34 patient safety events occurred (p<.05), including medical events (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3–1.7) and procedure-related events (OR=1.6, CI=1.2–2.0). Adjusted odds of death within 30 days of hospitalization were elevated for individuals with any patient safety event, compared with those with no event (OR=3.7, CI=1.4–10.3). Conclusions Patient safety events were positively associated with physical harm and 30-day mortality in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:27181736

  2. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kunka, Megan E.; Cady, Elizabeth A.; Woo, Heejung C.; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours), which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient's actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure. PMID:26246919

  3. Clustering analysis to identify distinct spectral components of encephalogram burst suppression in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, David W.; Westover, M. Brandon; McClain, Lauren M.; Nagaraj, Sunil B.; Bajwa, Ednan K.; Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Cobb, J. Perren; Purdon, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of patients are admitted each year to intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States. A significant fraction of ICU survivors develop life-long cognitive impairment, incurring tremendous financial and societal costs. Delirium, a state of impaired awareness, attention and cognition that frequently develops during ICU care, is a major risk factor for post-ICU cognitive impairment. Recent studies suggest that patients experiencing electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression have higher rates of mortality and are more likely to develop delirium than patients who do not experience burst suppression. Burst suppression is typically associated with coma and deep levels of anesthesia or hypothermia, and is defined clinically as an alternating pattern of high-amplitude “burst” periods interrupted by sustained low-amplitude “suppression” periods. Here we describe a clustering method to analyze EEG spectra during burst and suppression periods. We used this method to identify a set of distinct spectral patterns in the EEG during burst and suppression periods in critically ill patients. These patterns correlate with level of patient sedation, quantified in terms of sedative infusion rates and clinical sedation scores. This analysis suggests that EEG burst suppression in critically ill patients may not be a single state, but instead may reflect a plurality of states whose specific dynamics relate to a patient’s underlying brain function. PMID:26737967

  4. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  5. Narcissistic rage: The Achilles’ heel of the patient with chronic physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Goulia, Panagiota; Arvanitakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Based on the psychoanalytic reading of Homer’s Iliad whose principal theme is “Achilles’ rage” (the semi-mortal hero invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel, hence “Achilles’ heel” has come to mean a person’s principal weakness), we aimed to assess whether “narcissistic rage” has an impact on several psychosocial variables in patients with severe physical illness across time. In 878 patients with cancer, rheumatological diseases, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and glaucoma, we assessed psychological distress (SCL-90 and GHQ-28), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), interpersonal difficulties (IIP-40), hostility (HDHQ), and defense styles (DSQ). Narcissistic rage comprised DSQ “omnipotence” and HDHQ “extraverted hostility”. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses were performed. We showed that, in patients with disease duration less than one year, narcissistic rage had a minor impact on psychosocial variables studied, indicating that the rage was rather part of a “normal” mourning process. On the contrary, in patients with longer disease duration, increased rates of narcissistic rage had a great impact on all outcome variables, and the opposite was true for patients with low rates of narcissistic rage, indicating that narcissistic rage constitutes actually an “Achilles’ Heel” for patients with long-term physical illness. These findings may have important clinical implications. PMID:19936167

  6. The distinct clinical profile of chronically critically ill patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Reina, Rosa; Canales, Héctor S; Saenz, María Gabriela; Gonzalez, Francisco E; Aprea, María M; Laffaire, Enrique; Gola, Victor; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to describe the epidemiology, clinical profiles, outcomes, and factors that might predict progression of critically ill patients to chronically critically ill (CCI) patients, a still poorly characterized subgroup. Methods We prospectively studied all patients admitted to a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2005. On admission, we recorded epidemiological data, the presence of organ failure (multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS)), underlying diseases (McCabe score), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock. Daily, we recorded MODS, ARDS, shock, mechanical ventilation use, lengths of ICU and hospital stay (LOS), and outcome. CCI patients were defined as those having a tracheotomy placed for continued ventilation. Clinical complications and time to tracheal decannulation were registered. Predictors of progression to CCI were identified by logistic regression. Results Ninety-five patients (12%) fulfilled the CCI definition and, compared with the remaining 690 patients, these CCI patients were sicker (APACHE II, 21 ± 7 versus 18 ± 9 for non-CCI patients, p = 0.005); had more organ dysfunctions (SOFA 7 ± 3 versus 6 ± 4, p < 0.003); received more interventions (TISS 32 ± 10 versus 26 ± 8, p < 0.0001); and had less underlying diseases and had undergone emergency surgery more frequently (43 versus 24%, p = 0.001). ARDS and shock were present in 84% and 83% of CCI patients, respectively, versus 44% and 48% in the other patients (p < 0.0001 for both). CCI patients had higher expected mortality (38% versus 32%, p = 0.003), but observed mortality was similar (32% versus 35%, p = 0.59). Independent predictors of progression to CCI were ARDS on admission, APACHE II and McCabe scores (odds ratio (OR) 2.26, p < 0.001; OR 1.03, p < 0.01; and OR 0.34, p < 0.0001, respectively). Lengths of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital stay were 33 (24 to 50), 39 (29 to 55) and 55 (37 to 84

  7. Human Rights Act 1998 and mental health legislation: implications for the management of mentally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Leung, W-C

    2002-03-01

    In the management of mentally ill patients, there is a tension between protecting the rights of individual patients and safeguarding public safety. The Human Rights Act 1998 emphasises on the former while two recent white papers focus on the latter. This article first examines the extent to which the Mental Health Act 1983 is consistent with the Human Rights Act. It argues that while the recent white papers exploit the gaps in the judgments given by the European courts, its compatibility with human rights is very doubtful. The practical implications of the Human Rights Act for doctors are discussed.

  8. Course of illness in comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes. PMID:27025465

  9. Perfectionism, Type D personality, and illness-related coping styles in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Flett, Gordon L; Madan, Mina; Oh, Paul; Marzolini, Susan; Reitav, Jaan; Hewitt, Paul L; Sturman, Edward D

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes.

  10. Course of illness in comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes.

  11. [III Working Meeting SENPE-Baxter: complementary parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, A García; Grau, T; Montejo, J C; Leyba, C Ortiz; Santana, S Ruiz

    2008-01-01

    In the setting of a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the available evidence as well as the experience from experts, the indications and management guidelines for Complementary Parenteral Nutrition (CPN) in the critically ill patient are established. The conclusion refers to the importance of its indication in all the cases where enteral nutrition (EN) is insufficient to cover at least 60% of the caloric-protein target. At least 80% of the patient's caloric requirements should be covered with EN and CPN, with the recommendation of targeting 100% of the demands.

  12. Psychiatric illness in inpatients with neurological disorders: patients' views on discussion of emotional problems with neurologists.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, K W; Goldberg, D P

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in inpatients with neurological disorders and the extent to which it is detected by neurologists were measured by using a two stage model of psychiatric assessment and from information recorded in the patients' medical notes. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was estimated as 39%, of which 72% was unrecognised by the neurologists. Only a minority of patients with an uncertain physical diagnosis had a psychiatric illness, showing the error in assuming that a patient's physical symptoms arise from a psychological disturbance if an organic aetiology cannot be determined. When the patients were interviewed on their discharge from hospital they were divided on whether they had wished to discuss their mood with neurologists while they were in hospital. The reasons that they gave suggested that interactions between patients and doctors and the lack of ward facilities for private consultations with doctors are important determinants of hidden psychiatric morbidity in medical inpatients. PMID:6434026

  13. Intensify, resuscitate or palliate: decision making in the critically ill patient with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Quentin A

    2010-01-01

    The survival prospects of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy (HM) are reviewed, as are the variables which might influence decisions about the limitation of life sustaining therapies (LLST). Approximately 40% of patients with HM admitted to ICU survive to hospital discharge and a broad admission policy is warranted. Short term survival is predicted by the severity of the underlying physiological disturbance rather than cancer specific characteristics, although the prognostic importance of neutropenia and prior stem cell transplantation remains to be clarified. Survival to hospital discharge in cancer patients following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is only 6-8%. Poor performance status and progressive deterioration despite ICU support appear to predict worse outcome. Patients should be provided with realistic information in order to make an informed decision about CPR. Decisions about LLST must be individualised. Consideration should be given to the patient's wishes and prognosis, the immediate clinical circumstances and their potential reversibility. PMID:19913962

  14. Supplemental Parenteral Nutrition Is the Key to Prevent Energy Deficits in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Taku; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This review emphasizes the role of a timely supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) for critically ill patients. It contradicts the recommendations of current guidelines to avoid the use of PN, as it is associated with risk. Critical illness results in severe metabolic stress. During the early phase, inflammatory cytokines and mediators induce catabolism to meet the increased body energy demands by endogenous sources. This response is not suppressed by exogenous energy administration, and the early use of PN to reach the energy target leads to overfeeding. On the other hand, early and progressive enteral nutrition (EN) is less likely to cause overfeeding because of variable gastrointestinal tolerance, a factor frequently associated with significant energy deficit. Recent studies demonstrate that adequate feeding is beneficial during and after the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Supplemental PN allows for timely adequate feeding, if sufficient precautions are taken to avoid overfeeding. Indirect calorimetry can precisely define the adequate energy prescription. Our pragmatic approach is to start early EN to progressively test the gut tolerance and add supplemental PN on day 3 or 4 after ICU admission, only if EN does not meet the measured energy target. We believe that supplemental PN plays a pivotal role in the achievement of adequate feeding in critically ill patients with intolerance to EN and does not cause harm if overfeeding is avoided by careful prescription, ideally based on energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry. PMID:27256992

  15. Supplemental Parenteral Nutrition Is the Key to Prevent Energy Deficits in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Taku; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This review emphasizes the role of a timely supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) for critically ill patients. It contradicts the recommendations of current guidelines to avoid the use of PN, as it is associated with risk. Critical illness results in severe metabolic stress. During the early phase, inflammatory cytokines and mediators induce catabolism to meet the increased body energy demands by endogenous sources. This response is not suppressed by exogenous energy administration, and the early use of PN to reach the energy target leads to overfeeding. On the other hand, early and progressive enteral nutrition (EN) is less likely to cause overfeeding because of variable gastrointestinal tolerance, a factor frequently associated with significant energy deficit. Recent studies demonstrate that adequate feeding is beneficial during and after the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Supplemental PN allows for timely adequate feeding, if sufficient precautions are taken to avoid overfeeding. Indirect calorimetry can precisely define the adequate energy prescription. Our pragmatic approach is to start early EN to progressively test the gut tolerance and add supplemental PN on day 3 or 4 after ICU admission, only if EN does not meet the measured energy target. We believe that supplemental PN plays a pivotal role in the achievement of adequate feeding in critically ill patients with intolerance to EN and does not cause harm if overfeeding is avoided by careful prescription, ideally based on energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry.

  16. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eu Jeen; Ha, Hyeong Seok; Kong, Young Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continuous intravenous access is imperative in emergency situations. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization was investigated in critically ill pediatric patients to assess the feasibility of the procedure. Methods Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit between February 2011 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. All patients received a central venous catheter from attending house staff under ultrasound guidance. Outcome measures included successful insertion of the catheter, cannulation time, number of cannulation attempts, and number and type of resulting complications. Results Forty-one central venous catheters (93.2%) were successfully inserted into 44 patients (21 males and 23 females; mean age, 6.54±1.06 years). Thirty-three patients (75.0%) had neurological disorders. The right IJV was used for catheter insertion in 34 cases (82.9%). The mean number of cannulation attempts and the mean cannulation time was 1.57±0.34 and 14.07±1.91 minutes, respectively, the mean catheter dwell time was 14.73±2.5 days. Accidental catheter removal was observed in 9 patients (22.0%). Six patients (13.6%) reported complications, the most serious being catheter-related sepsis, which affected 1 patient (2.3%). Other complications included 2 reported cases of catheter malposition (4.6%), and 1 case each of arterial puncture (2.3%), pneumothorax (2.3%), and skin infection (2.3%). Conclusion The results suggest that ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization can be performed easily and without any serious complications in pediatric patients, even when performed by visiting house staff. Therefore, ultrasound-guided IJV catheterization is strongly recommended for critically ill pediatric patients. PMID:25932035

  17. Long- and medium-chain triglycerides during parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Delafosse, B; Viale, J P; Pachiaudi, C; Normand, S; Goudable, J; Bouffard, Y; Annat, G; Bertrand, O

    1997-04-01

    Due to their special metabolic pathway, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have been claimed to be oxidized more extensively, compared with long-chain triglycerides (LCT), when administered as a parenteral nutritional support. This enhanced lipid oxidation rate of MCT emulsions could be particularly disclosed in hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions. In an attempt to further elucidate this question, we measured substrate oxidation rates in critically ill patients liable to experience such metabolic conditions, that is to say postoperative patients after esophageal resection receiving 1.5 times their measured energy expenditure (n = 12) or after liver transplantation (n = 8). These patients received either LCT or MCT-LCT emulsions. The metabolic measurements were performed simultaneously by two methods, namely indirect calorimetry and isotopic methods based on natural abundance of nutrients. Although both groups of patients were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, the measured carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were not different with whatever type of lipid was administered. The MCT-LCT emulsions did not offer clear-cut advantages over LCT emulsions in critically ill patients when lipid energetic fate was considered. PMID:9142873

  18. Medical explanations and lay conceptions of disease and illness in doctor-patient interaction.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2008-01-01

    Hilary Putnam's influential analysis of the 'division of linguistic labour' has a striking application in the area of doctor-patient interaction: patients typically think of themselves as consumers of technical medical terms in the sense that they normally defer to health professionals' explanations of meaning. It is at the same time well documented that patients tend to think they are entitled to understand lay health terms like 'sickness' and 'illness' in ways that do not necessarily correspond to health professionals' understanding. Drawing on recent philosophical theories of concept possession, the article argues that this disparity between medical and lay vocabulary implies that it is, in an important range of cases, easier for doctors to create a communicative platform of shared concepts by using and explaining special medical expressions than by using common lay expressions. This conclusion is contrasted with the view that doctors and patients typically understand each other when they use lay vocabulary. Obviously, use of expressions like 'sickness' or 'illness' does not necessarily lead to poor communication, but it is important that doctors have an awareness of how patients interpret such terms.

  19. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Ji, Dong; Ji, Ying-Jie; Li, Chen; Gao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhao, Min; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, less than half of EVD-suspected cases were laboratory tested as Ebola virus (EBOV)-negative, but disease identity remained unknown. In this study we investigated the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in EBOV-negative cases. From November 13, 2014 to March 16, 2015, EVD-suspected patients were admitted to Jui Government Hospital and assessed for EBOV infection by real-time PCR. Of 278 EBOV negative patients, 223 (80.21%), 142 (51.08%), 123 (44.24%), 114 (41.01%), 59 (21.22%), 35 (12.59%), and 12 (4.32%) reported fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 121 (43.52%), 44 (15.83%), 36 (12.95%), 33 (11.87%), 23 (8.27%), 10 (3.60%) patients were diagnosed as infection with malaria, HIV, Lassa fever, tuberculosis, yellow fever, and pneumonia, respectively. No significant differences in clinical features and symptoms were found between non-EVD and EVD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to explore the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in uninfected patients in Sierra Leone, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis to EVD confirmation. PMID:27058894

  20. Sedation and analgesia for critically ill pediatric burn patients: the current state of practice.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Andrew; Preston, Robert J; Cochran, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess current practice patterns and attitudes toward pediatric sedation and analgesia in United States (US) burn centers for critically ill patients. Survey-based questionnaire was sent to 119 Directors at US burn centers that care for pediatric patients. Forty-one surveys (34%) were analyzed. 48.8% of responding centers mandate pediatric consultation for pediatric burn patients based on factors such as age and burn size. The most common sedation and analgesic agents used were midazolam, fentanyl, morphine, ketamine, and diphenhydramine. Written sedation policies exist at 63.4% of centers. 90.2% of centers employ scoring systems to guide agent titration. 60.9% of respondents practice sedation holidays "always" or "usually." 90.2% of centers perceive the medications they routinely use are "always" or "often" efficacious in pediatric sedation and analgesia. 53.7% of respondents reported the presence of withdrawal signs and symptoms in their patient population. The lack of consensus guidelines for sedation and analgesia delivery to pediatric intensive care unit patients results in practice variation. The majority of centers perceive their sedation and analgesia strategies to be efficacious despite the heavy reliance on propofol and midazolam, both of which have questionable safety profiles in critically ill children.

  1. Alterations in theophylline protein binding in acutely ill patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Zarowitz, B; Shlom, J; Eichenhorn, M S; Popovich, J

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the role of decreased theophylline protein binding as a possible explanation for observed decreases in total theophylline concentrations (TC) in acutely-ill patients (AIP). Multiple blood samples were obtained from nine AIP with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and from 13 stable COPD patients. The mean albumin concentration +/- SD was 2.7 +/- .61 mg/dl in the AIP vs 4.0 +/- 0.52 mg/dl in the stable COPD patients (p less than 0.005). Total (TC) and unbound theophylline concentrations (UTC) were determined. Theophylline protein binding was assessed at room temperature by centrifugal ultrafiltration of the patients' sera. The TC was 13.7 +/- 4.8 micrograms/ml in the stable COPD patients vs 11.8 +/- 4.1 micrograms/ml in the AIP although the mean dose was larger (17.21 +/- 5.41 vs 10.7 +/- 4.09 mg/kg/day of theophylline) in the AIP (p less than 0.005). There was no difference in UTC between the two groups (7.4 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml and 8.1 +/- 2.6 micrograms/ml); however, the unbound fraction was higher in the AIP (p less than 0.005). We conclude that theophylline protein binding appears altered in AIP and that the altered binding relates predominantly to the severity of the clinical illness.

  2. Internalized stigma and its psychosocial correlates in Korean patients with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jung; Song, Youn Joo; Ryu, Hyun-Sook; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Jae Min; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2015-02-28

    We aimed to examine internalized stigma of patients with mental illness in Korea and identify the contributing factors to internalized stigma among socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables using a cross-sectional study design. A total of 160 patients were recruited from a university mental hospital. We collected socio-demographic data, clinical variables and administered self-report scales to measure internalized stigma and levels of self-esteem, hopelessness, social support, and social conflict. Internalized stigma was identified in 8.1% of patients in our sample. High internalized stigma was independently predicted by low self-esteem, high hopelessness, and high social conflict among the psychosocial variables. Our finding suggests that simple psychoeducation only for insight gaining cannot improve internalized stigma. To manage internalized stigma in mentally ill patients, it is needed to promote hope and self-esteem. We also suggest that a relevant psychosocial intervention, such as developing coping skills for social conflict with family, can help patients overcome their internalized stigma.

  3. Entropy correlates with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha

    2014-04-01

    Sedation is routinely used in intensive care units. However due to absence of objective scoring systems like Bispectral Index and entropy our ability to regulate the degree of sedation is limited. This deficiency is further highlighted by the fact that agitation scores used in intensive care units (ICU) have no role in paralyzed patients. The present study compares entropy as a sedation scoring modality with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in an ICU. Twenty-seven, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients of either sex, 16-65 years of age, were studied over a period of 24 h. They received a standard sedation regimen consisting of a bolus dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 lg/kg followed by infusions of propofol and fentanyl ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg/h and 0.5 to 2.0 lg/kg/h, respectively. Clinically relevant values of RASS for optimal ICU sedation (between 0 and -3) in non-paralyzed patients were compared to corresponding entropy values, to find if any significant correlation exists between the two. These entropy measurements were obtained using the Datex-Ohmeda-M-EntropyTM module. This module is presently not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for monitoring sedation in ICU. A total of 527 readings were obtained. There was a statistically significant correlation between the state entropy (SE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.334, p\\0.0001]; response entropy (RE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.341, p\\0.0001]). For adequate sedation as judged by a RASS value of 0 to -3, the mean SE was 57.86 ± 16.50 and RE was 67.75 ± 15.65. The present study illustrates that entropy correlates with RASS (between scores 0 and -3) when assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  4. Endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients: the effect of exogenous glutamine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Methods Mechanically ventilated patients (n = 11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. Results A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P = 0.009). Conclusions The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen. PMID:24731231

  5. Clinimetric properties of illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) and brief illness perception questionnaire (Brief IPQ) in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leysen, Marijke; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Paul van Wilgen, C; Struyf, Filip; Vermandel, Alexandra; Kuppens, Kevin; Roussel, Nathalie A

    2015-02-01

    Several questionnaires are available to evaluate illness perceptions in patients, such as the illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) and the brief version (Brief IPQ). This study aims to systematically review the literature concerning the clinimetric properties of the IPQ-R and the Brief IPQ in patients with musculoskeletal pain. The electronic databases Web of Sciences and PubMed were searched. Studies were included when the clinimetric properties of the IPQ-R or Brief IPQ were assessed in adults with musculoskeletal pain. Methodological quality was determined using the COSMIN checklist. Eight articles were included and evaluated. The methodological quality was good for 3 COSMIN boxes, fair for 11 and poor for 3 boxes. None of the articles obtained an excellent methodological score. The results of this review suggest that the IPQ-R is a reliable questionnaire, except for illness coherence. Internal consistency is good, except for the causal domain. The IPQ-R has good construct validity, but the factor structure is unstable. Hence, the IPQ-R appears to be a useful instrument for assessing illness perceptions, but care must be taken when generalizing the results of adapted versions of the questionnaires. The Brief IPQ shows moderate overall test-retest reliability. No articles examining the validity of the Brief IPQ were found. Further research should therefore focus on the content and criterion validity of the IPQ-R and the clinimetric properties of the Brief IPQ.

  6. Use of Opiates to Manage Pain in the Seriously and Terminally Ill Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... true for using larger than recommended doses of plain Tylenol, aspirin, or some arthritis medications. Someone who ... dose of Tylenol, and he should NOT take plain Tylenol to supplement the Percocet medicine. Why doesn’ ...

  7. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  8. Use of an Electronic Patient Portal Among the Chronically Ill: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Linna, Miika; Rönkkö, Ilona; Kröger, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic patient portals may enhance effective interaction between the patient and the health care provider. To grasp the full potential of patient portals, health care providers need more knowledge on which patient groups prefer electronic services and how patients should be served through this channel. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how chronically ill patients’ state of health, comorbidities, and previous care are associated with their adoption and use of a patient portal. Methods A total of 222 chronically ill patients, who were offered access to a patient portal with their health records and secure messaging with care professionals, were included in the study. Differences in the characteristics of non-users, viewers, and interactive users of the patient portal were analyzed before access to the portal. Patients’ age, gender, diagnoses, levels of the relevant physiological measurements, health care contacts, and received physiological measurements were collected from the care provider’s electronic health record. In addition, patient-reported health and patient activation were assessed by a survey. Results Despite the broad range of measures used to indicate the patients’ state of health, the portal user groups differed only in their recorded diagnosis for hypertension, which was most common in the non-user group. However, there were significant differences in the amount of care received during the year before access to the portal. The non-user group had more nurse visits and more measurements of relevant physiological outcomes than viewers and interactive users. They also had fewer referrals to specialized care during the year before access to the portal than the two other groups. The viewers and the interactive users differed from each other significantly in the number of nurse calls received, the interactive users having more calls than the viewers. No significant differences in age, gender, or patient activation were

  9. Critical illness in pregnancy: part I: an approach to a pregnant patient in the ICU and common obstetric disorders.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Hall, Nicole; Karnad, Dilip R; Bandi, Venkata; Belfort, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Managing critically ill obstetric patients in the ICU is a challenge because of their altered physiology, different normal ranges for laboratory and clinical parameters in pregnancy, and potentially harmful effects of drugs and interventions on the fetus. About 200 to 700 women per 100,000 deliveries require ICU admission. A systematic five-step approach is recommended to enhance maternal and fetal outcomes: (1) differentiate between medical and obstetric disorders with similar manifestations, (2) identify and treat organ dysfunction, (3) assess maternal and fetal risk from continuing pregnancy and decide if delivery/termination of pregnancy will improve outcome, (4) choose an appropriate mode of delivery if necessary, and (5) optimize organ functions for safe delivery. A multidisciplinary team including the intensivist, obstetrician, maternal-fetal medicine specialist, anesthesiologist, neonatologist, nursing specialist, and transfusion medicine expert is key to optimize outcomes. Severe preeclampsia and its complications, HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome, and amniotic fluid embolism, which cause significant organ failure, are reviewed. Obstetric conditions that were not so common in the past are increasingly seen in the ICU. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of pregnancy is being diagnosed more frequently. Massive hemorrhage from adherent placenta is increasing because of the large number of pregnant women with scars from previous cesarean section. With more complex fetal surgical interventions being performed for congenital disorders, maternal complications are increasing. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is also becoming common because of treatment of infertility with assisted reproduction techniques. Part II will deal with common medical disorders and their management in critically ill pregnant women. PMID:26020613

  10. Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, T O; Ogunlesi, A O

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 70 insightful clinically stable out-patients with functional psychotic disorders and 70 accompanying relatives was carried out. They were interviewed about their beliefs concerning the cause of the illness, and their awareness of other possible aetiological factors. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were also elicited. Twelve (17.1%) patients and relatives, respectively, gave "medical" causal explanations; 16 (22.9%) patients and 13 (18.6%) relatives gave "psychosocial" causal explanations; 27 (38.6%) patients and 38 (54.3%) relatives were "uncertain" about the cause of their/relatives' illness (X2 = 5.08; df = 3: P = 0.16). Relatives reported a greater relevance of "heredity" (X2 = 11.58; P = 0.0006) and "supernatural" factors (X2 = 4.72: P = 0.029) as other possible causal factors, than patients. Patients with previous psychiatric hospitalisation reported higher prevalence of "psychosocial" and "supernatural" causal beliefs than those without (X2 = 9.15; P = 0.027). Also, patients with "medical" causal belief reported better treatment compliance than those with other beliefs (P = 0.031). Among relatives, "psychosocial" causal belief in comparison with other beliefs was associated with a longer duration of treatment in the hospital (h = 8.29; P = 0.04). For patients, knowledge about possible causal role of "heredity was significantly more prevalent among male than female patients (X2 = 6.55; P = 0.01) and admission of possible "supernatural" causation was associated with education below the secondary level (X2 = 6.68; P = 0.008). For relatives, knowledge about possible causal role of brain dysfunction was associated with longer duration of treatment (u = 3.93; P = 0.047), and knowledge of possible causal role of "psychosocial" stress was associated with urban place of residence rather than rural (X2 = 10.52; P = 0.0012). For both patients and relatives, the most acceptable aetiological proposition was the "supernatural" while the least

  11. Internists' attitudes towards terminal sedation in end of life care

    PubMed Central

    Kaldjian, L; Jekel, J; Bernene, J; Rosenthal, G; Vaughan-Sarrazin, M; Duffy, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of support for terminal sedation among internists, determine whether support for terminal sedation is accompanied by support for physician assisted suicide (PAS), and explore characteristics of internists who support terminal sedation but not assisted suicide. Design: A statewide, anonymous postal survey. Setting: Connecticut, USA. Participants: 677 Connecticut members of the American College of Physicians. Measurements: Attitudes toward terminal sedation and assisted suicide; experience providing primary care to terminally ill patients; demographic and religious characteristics. Results: 78% of respondents believed that if a terminally ill patient has intractable pain despite aggressive analgesia, it is ethically appropriate to provide terminal sedation (diminish consciousness to halt the experience of pain). Of those who favoured terminal sedation, 38% also agreed that PAS is ethically appropriate in some circumstances. Along a three point spectrum of aggressiveness in end of life care, the plurality of respondents (47%) were in the middle, agreeing with terminal sedation but not with PAS. Compared with respondents who were less aggressive or more aggressive, physicians in this middle group were more likely to report having more experience providing primary care to terminally ill patients (p = 0.02) and attending religious services more frequently (p<0.001). Conclusions: Support for terminal sedation was widespread in this population of physicians, and most who agreed with terminal sedation did not support PAS. Most internists who support aggressive palliation appear likely to draw an ethical line between terminal sedation and assisted suicide. PMID:15467087

  12. Acute Kidney Injury Classified by Serum Creatinine and Urine Output in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14–3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53–4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25–8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03–6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion. PMID:27803928

  13. Inpatient Management Of Diabetes Mellitus Among Noncritically Ill Patients At The University Hospital Of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee; González-Rosario, Rafael A.; González, Loida; Sánchez, Viviana; Vega, Mónica A.; Alvarado, Milliette; Ramón, Raul O.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the state of glycemic control in non-critically ill diabetic patients admitted to the PR University Hospital, and the adherence to current standard of care guidelines for the treatment of diabetes. METHODS This was a retrospective study of patients admitted to a General Medicine ward with Diabetes Mellitus as a secondary diagnosis. Clinical data was analyzed for the first 5 days and the last 24 hours of admission. RESULTS One hundred and forty-seven (147) non-critically ill diabetic patients were evaluated. The rate of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia was 56.7% and 2.8%, respectively. Nearly 60% of patients were hyperglycemic during the first 24 hrs of admission and 54.2% during the last 24 hrs. Mean last glucose value before discharge was 189.6 ± 73 mg/dL. Most patients were treated with subcutaneous insulin with basal insulin alone used as the most common regimen. The proportion of patients classified as uncontrolled receiving basal-bolus therapy increased from 54.3% on day 1 to 60.0% on day 5, with still 40.0% receiving only basal insulin. Most of the uncontrolled patients had their insulin dose increased (70.1%), however, a substantial portion had no change (23.7%) or even had a decrease (6.2%) in their insulin dose. CONCLUSIONS Even though there are areas of improvement in the management of hospitalized diabetic patients, it is still suboptimal, probably due to clinical inertia. A comprehensive educational diabetes management program, along with standardized insulin orders should be implemented to improve the care of these patients. PMID:24325996

  14. Characteristics of patients with influenza-like illness, severe acture respiratory illness, and laboratory-confirmed influenza at a major children's hospital in Angola, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Yolanda; Oliveira, Erika; Vasconcelos, Jocelyne; Cohen, Adam L; Francisco, Moises

    2012-12-15

    There are no published data on influenza trends in Angola, where pneumonia is a leading cause of death among young children. This study aims to describe the seasonal trends, types, and subtypes of influenza virus recovered from patients with respiratory illness who were admitted to the major children's hospital in Angola from May 2009 through April 2011. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from patients seen in the outpatient clinic with influenza-like illness (ILI) or hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 691 samples collected, 334 (48%) were from case patients with ILI, and 357 (52%) were from case patients with SARI. Most (86%) of these children were <5 years of age. Thirty-nine samples (47% SARI, 53% outpatient) tested positive for influenza virus, including 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09; n = 9), influenza A virus subtype H3, likely H3N2 (n = 12), and influenza B virus (n = 18). The proportion of specimens positive for influenza virus was 5% for ILI cases and 6% for SARI cases. After the peak of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection from May through September of 2009, additional peaks of ILI and SARI were seen, especially during February-April 2010. Influenza virus causes a small but preventable number of pneumonia cases among children in Angola.

  15. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  16. Assessment of candidemia-attributable mortality in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Candidemia in critically ill patients is usually a severe and life-threatening condition with a high crude mortality. Very few studies have focused on the impact of candidemia on ICU patient outcome and attributable mortality still remains controversial. This study was carried out to determine the attributable mortality of ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients using propensity score matching analysis. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted of all consecutive non-neutropenic adult patients admitted for at least seven days to 36 ICUs in Spain, France, and Argentina between April 2006 and June 2007. The probability of developing candidemia was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Each patient with ICU-acquired candidemia was matched with two control patients with the nearest available Mahalanobis metric matching within the calipers defined by the propensity score. Standardized differences tests (SDT) for each variable before and after matching were calculated. Attributable mortality was determined by a modified Poisson regression model adjusted by those variables that still presented certain misalignments defined as a SDT > 10%. Results Thirty-eight candidemias were diagnosed in 1,107 patients (34.3 episodes/1,000 ICU patients). Patients with and without candidemia had an ICU crude mortality of 52.6% versus 20.6% (P < 0.001) and a crude hospital mortality of 55.3% versus 29.6% (P = 0.01), respectively. In the propensity matched analysis, the corresponding figures were 51.4% versus 37.1% (P = 0.222) and 54.3% versus 50% (P = 0.680). After controlling residual confusion by the Poisson regression model, the relative risk (RR) of ICU- and hospital-attributable mortality from candidemia was RR 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.98) and RR 1.096 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.69), respectively. Conclusions ICU-acquired candidemia in critically ill patients is not associated with an increase in either ICU or

  17. Emotional responses of family members of a critically ill patient: a hermeneutic analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This study used an exploratory design with a hermeneutic approach. The aim was to increase the understanding of the emotional responses of family members during the patient's critical care. Interviews from the main researcher's previous study about relatives of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) were used. Two of these interviews were chosen, one with the mother and one with the father of an adult young patient, who became critically ill and admitted to a general ICU in south-west Sweden. The present study identified six feelings describing the emotional responses of the family members. The family members experienced feelings of uncertainty, feelings of abandonment, feelings of desertion from the loved one, feelings of being close to the deathbed, feelings of being in a no-man's-land and feelings of attachment. The experienced feelings described in this article can contribute to expanding healthcare professionals understanding of the family members' emotional responses during the patient's critical care.

  18. Complications during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: Focus on risk identification and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Patrick H; Maheshwari, Neelabh; Hussain, Jafar; Scholl, Michael; Hughes, Michael; Papadimos, Thomas J; Guo, Weidun Alan; Cipolla, James; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Latchana, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Intrahospital transportation of critically ill patients is associated with significant complications. In order to reduce overall risk to the patient, such transports should well organized, efficient, and accompanied by the proper monitoring, equipment, and personnel. Protocols and guidelines for patient transfers should be utilized universally across all healthcare facilities. Care delivered during transport and at the site of diagnostic testing or procedure should be equivalent to the level of care provided in the originating environment. Here we review the most common problems encountered during transport in the hospital setting, including various associated adverse outcomes. Our objective is to make medical practitioners, nurses, and ancillary health care personnel more aware of the potential for various complications that may occur during patient movement from the intensive care unit to other locations within a healthcare facility, focusing on risk reduction and preventive strategies. PMID:26807395

  19. Respiratory muscle dysfunction: a multicausal entity in the critically ill patient undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Magda C; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Salazar C, Blanca C

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction, particularly of the diaphragm, may play a key role in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to difficulty in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The limited mobility of critically ill patients, and of the diaphragm in particular when prolonged mechanical ventilation support is required, promotes the early onset of respiratory muscle dysfunction, but this can also be caused or exacerbated by other factors that are common in these patients, such as sepsis, malnutrition, advanced age, duration and type of ventilation, and use of certain medications, such as steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents. In this review we will study in depth this multicausal origin, in which a common mechanism is altered protein metabolism, according to the findings reported in various models. The understanding of this multicausality produced by the same pathophysiological mechanism could facilitate the management and monitoring of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  20. Respiratory muscle dysfunction: a multicausal entity in the critically ill patient undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Magda C; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Salazar C, Blanca C

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction, particularly of the diaphragm, may play a key role in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to difficulty in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The limited mobility of critically ill patients, and of the diaphragm in particular when prolonged mechanical ventilation support is required, promotes the early onset of respiratory muscle dysfunction, but this can also be caused or exacerbated by other factors that are common in these patients, such as sepsis, malnutrition, advanced age, duration and type of ventilation, and use of certain medications, such as steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents. In this review we will study in depth this multicausal origin, in which a common mechanism is altered protein metabolism, according to the findings reported in various models. The understanding of this multicausality produced by the same pathophysiological mechanism could facilitate the management and monitoring of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. PMID:23669061

  1. Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scenario in an Indian homeopathic hospital.

    PubMed

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Nag, Goutam; Kundu, Monojit; Mondal, Ramkumar; Purkait, Rajib; Patra, Supratim; Ali, Seikh Swaif

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy research has focused on chronic conditions; however, the extent to which current homeopathic care is compliant with the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been sparsely shown. As the Bengali Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC)-20 was not available, the English questionnaire was translated and evaluated in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. The translation was done in six steps, and approved by an expert committee. Face validity was tested by 15 people for comprehension. Test/retest reliability (reproducibility) was tested on 30 patients with chronic conditions. Internal consistency was tested in 377 patients suffering from various chronic conditions. The questionnaire showed acceptable test/retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.57-0.75; positive to strong positive correlations; p < 0.0001] for all domains and the total score, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86 overall and 0.65-0.82 for individual subscales), and large responsiveness (1.11). The overall mean score percentage seemed to be moderate at 69.5 ± 8.8%. Gender and presence of chronic conditions did not seem to vary significantly with PACIC-20 subscale scores (p > 0.05); however, monthly household income had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on the subscales except for "delivery system or practice design." Overall, chronic illness care appeared to be quite promising and CCM-compliant. The psychometric properties of the Bengali PACIC-20 were satisfactory, rendering it a valid and reliable instrument for assessing chronic illness care among the patients attending a homeopathic hospital.

  2. Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients: Making It Safe and Effective

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for hyperglycemia in critically ill patients has become a standard practice. Target levels for glycemia have fluctuated since 2000, as evidence initially indicated that tight glycemic control to so-called normoglycemia (80–110 mg/dl) leads to the lowest morbidity and mortality without hypoglycemic complications. Subsequent studies have demonstrated minimal clinical benefit combined with greater hypoglycemic morbidity and mortality with tight glycemic control in this population. The consensus glycemic targets were then liberalized to the mid 100s (mg/dl). Handheld POC blood glucose (BG) monitors have migrated from the outpatient setting to the hospital environment because they save time and money for managing critically ill patients who require IIT. These devices are less accurate than hospital-grade POC blood analyzers or central laboratory analyzers. Three questions must be answered to understand the role of IIT for defined populations of critically ill patients: (1) How safe is IIT, with various glycemic targets, from the risk of hypoglycemia? (2) How tightly must BG be controlled for this approach to be effective? (3) What role does the accuracy of BG measurements play in affecting the safety of this method? For each state of impaired glucose regulation seen in the hospital, such as hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, or glucose variability, the benefits, risks, and goals of treatment, including IIT, might differ. With improved accuracy of BG monitors, IIT might be rendered even more intensive than at present, because patients will be less likely to receive inadvertent overdosages of insulin. Greater doses of insulin, but with dosing based on more accurate glucose levels, might result in less hypoglycemia, less hyperglycemia, and less glycemic variability. PMID:21722591

  3. Depression predicts future emergency hospital admissions in primary care patients with chronic physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Elspeth A.; Dickens, Chris; Blakemore, Amy; Watson, Jennifer; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Afzal, Cara; Kapur, Navneet; Tomenson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective More than 15 million people currently suffer from a chronic physical illness in England. The objective of this study was to determine whether depression is independently associated with prospective emergency hospital admission in patients with chronic physical illness. Method 1860 primary care patients in socially deprived areas of Manchester with at least one of four exemplar chronic physical conditions completed a questionnaire about physical and mental health, including a measure of depression. Emergency hospital admissions were recorded using GP records for the year before and the year following completion of the questionnaire. Results The numbers of patients who had at least one emergency admission in the year before and the year after completion of the questionnaire were 221/1411 (15.7%) and 234/1398 (16.7%) respectively. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of prospective emergency admission to hospital: having no partner (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15); having ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46); having a threatening experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29); depression (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40); and emergency hospital admission in the year prior to questionnaire completion (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.98 to 5.86). Conclusion To prevent potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions, greater efforts should be made to detect and treat co-morbid depression in people with chronic physical illness in primary care, with a particular focus on patients who have no partner, have experienced threatening life events, and have had a recent emergency hospital admission. PMID:26919799

  4. Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scenario in an Indian homeopathic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Nag, Goutam; Kundu, Monojit; Mondal, Ramkumar; Purkait, Rajib; Patra, Supratim; Ali, Seikh Swaif

    2015-01-01

    Homeopathy research has focused on chronic conditions; however, the extent to which current homeopathic care is compliant with the Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been sparsely shown. As the Bengali Patient-Assessed Chronic Illness Care (PACIC)-20 was not available, the English questionnaire was translated and evaluated in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. The translation was done in six steps, and approved by an expert committee. Face validity was tested by 15 people for comprehension. Test/retest reliability (reproducibility) was tested on 30 patients with chronic conditions. Internal consistency was tested in 377 patients suffering from various chronic conditions. The questionnaire showed acceptable test/retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.57–0.75; positive to strong positive correlations; p < 0.0001] for all domains and the total score, strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86 overall and 0.65–0.82 for individual subscales), and large responsiveness (1.11). The overall mean score percentage seemed to be moderate at 69.5 ± 8.8%. Gender and presence of chronic conditions did not seem to vary significantly with PACIC-20 subscale scores (p > 0.05); however, monthly household income had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on the subscales except for “delivery system or practice design.” Overall, chronic illness care appeared to be quite promising and CCM-compliant. The psychometric properties of the Bengali PACIC-20 were satisfactory, rendering it a valid and reliable instrument for assessing chronic illness care among the patients attending a homeopathic hospital. PMID:26933640

  5. Variability of piperacillin concentrations in relation to tazobactam concentrations in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Zander, Johannes; Döbbeler, Gundula; Nagel, Dorothea; Scharf, Christina; Huseyn-Zada, Mikayil; Jung, Jette; Frey, Lorenz; Vogeser, Michael; Zoller, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring for critically ill patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam is described as a useful tool. However, the minimum inhibitory concentration of piperacillin depends on a sufficiently high concentration of tazobactam in case of β-lactamase-producing strains. Therefore, the relationship between piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations was assessed in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients. Sixty patients with severe infections receiving 4.5 g of piperacillin/tazobactam 2-3 times daily by intermittent infusion were included in this prospective observational study (NCT01793012). Over 4 days, multiple serum samples were obtained to determine the total piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations. The target ranges were defined as trough levels >16 mg/L (>22.5 mg/L) and >4 mg/L (>5.7 mg/L) for the calculated unbound concentrations (measured total concentrations) of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. Despite a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.93) comparing piperacillin and tazobactam trough levels, the piperacillin/tazobactam quotients varied between ca. 1 and 10. From linear regression analysis of piperacillin versus tazobactam values, it follows that a piperacillin trough level of 22.5 mg/L might be associated with tazobactam trough levels ranging from 1.5 mg/L to 10.1 mg/L. A 70 mg/L threshold for total piperacillin trough levels would be necessary to ensure that tazobactam concentrations are >5.7 mg/L. Because of the observed variability of piperacillin/tazobactam quotients, defining the total piperacillin target range ≥70 mg/L might be useful to ensure that tazobactam concentrations do not fall below 5.7 mg/L. Further studies are necessary to confirm that the used therapeutic ranges are associated with optimal outcomes in critically ill patients. PMID:27476810

  6. The controversy of the treatment of critically ill patients with thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Stathatos, N; Levetan, C; Burman, K D; Wartofsky, L

    2001-12-01

    There is currently a vast literature available on the changes in thyroid function tests that occur during non-thyroidal illness. The aetiology of these changes is, however, controversial, especially with respect to whether they play an adaptive role for the organism in order to cope with stress or whether they represent primary pathology of the pituitary-thyroid axis. This is particularly true for critically ill patients, in whom the most significant changes in thyroid function are observed. The changes include low levels of thyroxine and very low levels of tri-iodothyronine, which would, on the surface, appear to indicate hypothyroidism. Therapy with thyroid hormone, as either L-T4 or L-T3, has therefore been suggested because of these low values for thyroid hormones in the blood. It is, however, unclear whether treating these patients with thyroid hormone is beneficial or harmful. Multiple studies have addressed this issue with patients with cardiac disease, sepsis, pulmonary disease (e.g. acute respiratory distress syndrome) or severe infection, or with burn and trauma patients. In spite of a very large number of published studies, it is very difficult to form clear recommendations for treatment with thyroid hormone in the intensive care unit. Instead, we find the evidence far from compelling, and would advise withholding thyroid hormone therapy in the critical care setting in the absence of clear clinical or laboratory evidence for hypothyroidism.

  7. Indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients: role of the clinical dietitian in interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Porter, C; Cohen, N H

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation and interpretation of energy needs of critically ill patients require the expertise of clinical dietitians: Dietitians must be knowledgeable about the methods available to quantify energy needs and able to communicate effectively with physicians and nurses regarding nutritional requirements. Several prediction equations are available for calculating energy needs of critically ill patients. Indirect calorimetry is also used frequently to measure energy requirements in this patient population. This article defines when energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry may provide clinically useful information. Data obtained by indirect calorimetry must be interpreted carefully. Indirect calorimetry is based on the equations for oxidation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Errors in interpretation can be made when metabolic pathways other than oxidation dominate or when clinical conditions exist that affect carbon dioxide excretion from the lungs. Before incorporating data obtained from indirect calorimetry into a nutrition care plan, the clinical dietitian should carefully evaluate the following factors for a patient: clinical conditions when the measurement was made, desired weight loss or gain, tolerance to food or nutrition support, relationship between protein intake and energy need, and need for anabolism or growth. This article provides clinical examples illustrating how measured values compare with calculated values and recommendations for how to incorporate measured values into nutrition care plans. PMID:8537570

  8. Haemodynamic effects of parenteral vs. enteral paracetamol in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S J; Moran, J L; Williams, P J; Burns, K; Rowland, A; Miners, J O; Peake, S L

    2016-10-01

    Paracetamol is a commonly used drug in the intensive care unit. There have been reports in the literature of an association with significant hypotension, a potentially important interaction for labile critically ill patients. Route of administration may influence the incidence of hypotension. This single-centre, prospective, open-label, randomised, parallel-arm, active-control trial was designed to determine the incidence of hypotension following the administration of paracetamol to critically ill patients. Fifty adult patients receiving paracetamol for analgesia or pyrexia were randomly assigned to receive either the parenteral or enteral formulation of the drug. Paracetamol concentrations were measured at baseline and at multiple time points over 24 h. The maximal plasma paracetamol concentration was significantly different between routes; 156 vs. 73 micromol.l(-1) [p = 0.0005] following the first dose of parenteral or enteral paracetamol, respectively. Sixteen hypotensive events occurred in 12 patients: parenteral n = 12; enteral n = 4. The incident rate ratio for parenteral vs. enteral paracetamol was 2.94 (95% CI 0.97-8.92; p = 0.06). The incidence of hypotension associated with paracetamol administration is higher than previously reported and tends to be more frequent with parenteral paracetamol. PMID:27611038

  9. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed.

  10. The Pursuit of Preventive Care for Chronic Illness: Turning Healthy People into Chronic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kreiner, Meta J.; Hunt, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Preventive health care has become prominent in clinical medicine in the United States, emphasizing risk assessment and control, rather than addressing the signs and symptoms of pathology. Current clinical guidelines, reinforced by evidence-based decision aids and quality of care assessment, encourage clinicians to focus on maintaining rigid test thresholds which are based on population norms. While achieving these goals may benefit the total population, this may be of no benefit or even harmful to individual patients. In order to explore how this phenomenon is manifest in clinical care, and consider some factors that promote and sustain this trend, we analyze observations of over 100 clinical consultations, and open-ended interviews with 58 primary care clinicians and 70 of their patients. Both clinicians and patients equated at-risk states with illness, and viewed the associated interventions not as prevention, but as treatment. This conflation of risk and disease redefines clinical success such that reducing the threat of anticipated future illness requires acceptance of aggressive treatments and any associated adverse effects in the present. While the expanding emphasis on preventive medicine may improve the health profile of the total population, the implications of these innovations for the well-being of individual patients merits careful reconsideration. PMID:24372285

  11. The pursuit of preventive care for chronic illness: turning healthy people into chronic patients.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Meta J; Hunt, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    Preventive health care has become prominent in clinical medicine in the US, emphasising risk assessment and control, rather than addressing the signs and symptoms of pathology. Current clinical guidelines, reinforced by evidence-based decision aids and quality of care assessment, encourage clinicians to focus on maintaining rigid test thresholds that are based on population norms. While achieving these goals may benefit the total population, this may be of no benefit or even harmful to individual patients. In order to explore how this phenomenon is manifested in clinical care and consider some factors that promote and sustain this trend, we analysed observations of over 100 clinical consultations, and open-ended interviews with 58 primary care clinicians and 70 of their patients. Both clinicians and patients equated at-risk states with illness and viewed the associated interventions not as prevention, but as treatment. This conflation of risk and disease redefines clinical success such that reducing the threat of anticipated future illness requires the acceptance of aggressive treatments and any associated adverse effects in the present. While the expanding emphasis on preventive medicine may improve the health profile of the total population, the implications of these innovations for the wellbeing of individual patients merits careful reconsideration. PMID:24372285

  12. Coagulation Disorders and Bleedings in Critically Ill Patients With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Valade, Sandrine; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Boutboul, David; Zafrani, Lara; Stepanian, Alain; Canet, Emmanuel; Lemiale, Virginie; Venot, Marion; Veyradier, Agnès; Mariotte, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition related to a cytokine storm leading to multiorgan dysfunction. A better understanding of coagulation disorders, frequently reported in HLH patients, may improve outcomes. Critically ill HLH patients managed in a multidisciplinary national reference center were retrospectively included. Relationships between coagulation disorders, severe bleedings, and outcomes were assessed. One hundred and seventeen patients fulfilled the HLH 2004 criteria. The most common HLH etiology was hematologic conditions (73%), followed by infectious diseases (20%), systemic rheumatic diseases (5%), and undetermined HLH etiology (3%). All patients exerted thrombocytopenia. Coagulation disorders were diagnosed in 79 (68%) patients (61 had hypofibrinogenemia < 1.5 g/L, 51 had prothrombin time [PT]  <  0%). The worst median value throughout ICU stay was 52% (38-65) for PT with a factor V level of 35% (27-43), 1.59 (1.30-2.09) for the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio, and 2.33 g/L (1.13-3.86) for the fibrinogen level. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was found in 50% of patients. Coagulation disorders were more frequent in immunocompromised patients, those with histological/cytological feature of hemophagocytosis, those with the highest ferritin concentrations, and in patients with HLH not related to infection. These patients were more prone to receive mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or renal replacement therapy. Twenty-six (22%) patients presented severe bleeding complications, including 5 patients dying from hemorrhagic shock. Strikingly, the only coagulation parameter significantly associated with severe bleeding was low fibrinogen with a cutoff value of 2 g/L (P = 0.03). Overall, 33 (28%) patients died in the ICU and hospital mortality was 44%. Coagulation disorders were associated with higher mortality, especially fibrinogen < 2 g/L (P = 0.04) and PT value (P = 0

  13. Beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the most important intervention for successful treatment of septic shock, data guiding optimization of beta-lactam prescription in critically ill patients prescribed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are still limited. Being small hydrophilic molecules, beta-lactams are likely to be cleared by CRRT to a significant extent. As a result, additional variability may be introduced to the per se variable antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients. This article aims to describe the current clinical scenario for beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and CRRT, to highlight the sources of variability among the different studies that reduce extrapolation to clinical practice, and to identify the opportunities for future research and improvement in this field. Three frequently prescribed beta-lactams (meropenem, piperacillin and ceftriaxone) were chosen for review. Our findings showed that present dosing recommendations are based on studies with drawbacks limiting their applicability in the clinical setting. In general, current antibiotic dosing regimens for CRRT follow a one-size-fits-all fashion despite emerging clinical data suggesting that drug clearance is partially dependent on CRRT modality and intensity. Moreover, some studies pool data from heterogeneous populations with CRRT that may exhibit different pharmacokinetics (for example, admission diagnoses different to septic shock, such as trauma), which also limit their extrapolation to critically ill patients with septic shock. Finally, there is still no consensus regarding the %T>MIC (percentage of dosing interval when concentration of the antibiotic is above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the pathogen) value that should be chosen as the pharmacodynamic target for antibiotic therapy in patients with septic shock and CRRT. For empirically optimized dosing, during the first day a loading dose is required

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in somatic disease: lessons from critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-recognized complication of severe illness. PTSD has been described in patients after multiple trauma, burns, or myocardial infarction with a particularly high incidence in survivors of acute pulmonary failure (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) or septic shock. Many patients with evidence of PTSD after critical illness have been treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Studies in long-term survivors of ICU treatment demonstrated a clear and vivid recall of different categories of traumatic memory such as nightmares, anxiety, respiratory distress, or pain with little or no recall of factual events. A high number of these traumatic memories from the ICU has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the later development of PTSD in long-term survivors. In addition, patients in the ICU are often treated with stress hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine, or cortisol. The number of the above-mentioned categories of traumatic memory increased with the totally administered dosages of catecholamines and cortisol, and the evaluation of these categories at different time points after discharge from the ICU showed better memory consolidation with higher dosages of stress hormones administered. Conversely, the prolonged administration of beta-adrenergic antagonists during the recovery phase after cardiac surgery resulted in a lower number of traumatic memories and a lower incidence of stress symptoms at 6 months after surgery. Findings with regard to the administration of the stress hormone cortisol were more complex, however. Several studies from our group have demonstrated that the administration of stress doses of cortisol to critically ill patients resulted in a significant reduction of PTSD symptoms measured after recovery without influencing the number of categories of traumatic memory. This can possibly be explained by a cortisol-induced temporary impairment in traumatic memory retrieval that has previously been

  15. Allocation of transplantable organs: do people want to punish patients for causing their illness?

    PubMed

    Ubel, P A; Jepson, C; Baron, J; Mohr, T; McMorrow, S; Asch, D A

    2001-07-01

    Some people believe patients with alcoholic cirrhosis should not receive equal priority for scarce transplantable organs. This may reflect a belief that these patients (1) are personally responsible for causing their own illnesses, (2) have poor transplant prognoses, or (3) are unworthy because they have engaged in socially undesirable behavior. We explore the roles that social desirability and personal responsibility have in people's judgments about transplant allocation. We presented prospective jurors with 4 scenarios, asking them to distribute 100 transplantable organs among 2 groups of 100 patients each. In each scenario, 1 group of patients, but not the other, was described as having a history of unhealthy behavior (alcohol or cigarette use) associated with a poorer prognosis. In some scenarios, alcohol or cigarette use was said to cause the organ failure. In others, it only contributed to the patients' transplant prognosis. We also obtained self-reports of subjects' own smoking status. Subjects allocated significantly fewer than half the organs to those with unhealthy behaviors and worse prognoses (33%; P <.001), but the specific behavior (alcohol versus cigarette use) was not significantly associated with subjects' allocation choices. Significantly fewer organs were allocated to patients with behavior responsible for causing their diseases than to other patients (P <.0001). Subjects who never smoked discriminated the most and current smokers discriminated the least against patients with a history of unhealthy behavior (P <.0001). The public's transplantation allocation preferences are influenced by whether patients' behaviors are said to have caused their organ failure.

  16. Furosemide is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Levi, T.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Almeida, D.N.; Martins, R.T.C.; Silva, M.G.C.; Santana, N.C.P.; Sanjuan, I.T.; Cruz, C.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%) PMID:22641414

  17. New colistin population pharmacokinetic data in critically ill patients suggesting an alternative loading dose rationale.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, N; Mimoz, O; Mégarbane, B; Comets, E; Chatelier, D; Lasocki, S; Gauzit, R; Balayn, D; Gobin, P; Marchand, S; Couet, W

    2014-12-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest as the last-line defense therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and it was shown that due to slow CMS conversion, colistin plasma concentrations increase very slowly after treatment initiation, which constitutes the rationale for a loading dose in critically ill patients. However, faster CMS conversion was observed in healthy volunteers but using a different CMS brand, which may also have a major impact on colistin pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three critically ill patients not undergoing dialysis received multiple doses of CMS. The CMS concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach. We confirmed that CMS renal clearance and colistin concentrations at steady state are mostly governed by creatinine clearance, but we predict a typical maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of colistin close to 2 mg/liter, occurring 3 h after an initial dose of 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS. Accordingly, the estimated colistin half-life (t1/2) was relatively short (3.1 h), with rapid attainment of steady state. Our results are only partially consistent with other recently published results. We confirm that the CMS maintenance dose should be adjusted according to renal function in critically ill patients. However, much higher than expected colistin concentrations were observed after the initial CMS dose, with rapid steady-state achievement. These discrepancies challenge the pharmacokinetic rationale for a loading dose, which may still be appropriate for rapid bacterial eradication and an improved clinical cure rate. PMID:25267662

  18. New Colistin Population Pharmacokinetic Data in Critically Ill Patients Suggesting an Alternative Loading Dose Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, N.; Mimoz, O.; Mégarbane, B.; Comets, E.; Chatelier, D.; Lasocki, S.; Gauzit, R.; Balayn, D.; Gobin, P.; Marchand, S.

    2014-01-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest as the last-line defense therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and it was shown that due to slow CMS conversion, colistin plasma concentrations increase very slowly after treatment initiation, which constitutes the rationale for a loading dose in critically ill patients. However, faster CMS conversion was observed in healthy volunteers but using a different CMS brand, which may also have a major impact on colistin pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three critically ill patients not undergoing dialysis received multiple doses of CMS. The CMS concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach. We confirmed that CMS renal clearance and colistin concentrations at steady state are mostly governed by creatinine clearance, but we predict a typical maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of colistin close to 2 mg/liter, occurring 3 h after an initial dose of 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS. Accordingly, the estimated colistin half-life (t1/2) was relatively short (3.1 h), with rapid attainment of steady state. Our results are only partially consistent with other recently published results. We confirm that the CMS maintenance dose should be adjusted according to renal function in critically ill patients. However, much higher than expected colistin concentrations were observed after the initial CMS dose, with rapid steady-state achievement. These discrepancies challenge the pharmacokinetic rationale for a loading dose, which may still be appropriate for rapid bacterial eradication and an improved clinical cure rate. PMID:25267662

  19. "Shotgunning" in a population of patients with severe mental illness and comorbid substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Christopher; Goldberg, Richard; Tapscott, Stephanie; Medoff, Deborah; Rosenberg, Stanley; Dixon, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Shotgunning" refers to the practice of one individual forcibly exhaling smoke into the mouth of another, and may increase the risk of transmission of respiratory pathogens. The extent of shotgunning among individuals with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use is unknown. We included questions about shotgunning in an interview of 236 participants of a study testing a model to prevent and treat HIV and hepatitis. Shotgunning was common (61% [145/236]) and correlated with increased substance use severity and several high-risk behaviors. Only 8% (11/145) understood that shotgunning could transmit disease. Further research and patient education on shotgunning is warranted.

  20. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-04-15

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  1. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs. PMID:27452747

  2. Proton pump inhibitor use is not associated with cardiac arrhythmia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kenneth P; Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger G; Feng, Mengling; Celi, Leo A; Malley, Brian E; Danziger, John

    2015-07-01

    Hypomagnesemia can lead to cardiac arrythmias. Recently, observational data have linked chronic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure to hypomagnesemia. Whether PPI exposure increases the risk for arrhythmias has not been well studied. Using a large, single-center inception cohort of critically ill patients, we examined whether PPI exposure was associated with admission electrocardiogram readings of a cardiac arrhythmia in more than 8000 patients. There were 25.4% PPI users, whereas 6% were taking a histamine 2 antagonist. In all, 14.0% had a cardiac arrhythmia. PPI use was associated with an unadjusted risk of arrhythmia of 1.15 (95% CI,1.00-1.32; P =.04) and an adjusted risk of arrhythmia of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.06; P =.22). Among diuretic users (n = 2476), PPI use was similarly not associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia. In summary, in a large cohort of critically ill patients, PPI exposure is not associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of sufentanil during long-term infusion in critically ill pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Alicja; Bienert, Agnieszka; Wiczling, Paweł; Rosada-Kurasińska, Jowita; Zielińska, Marzena; Warzybok, Justyna; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Tibboel, Dick; Kaliszan, Roman; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of sufentanil and to assess the influence of covariates in critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. After institutional approval, 41 children were enrolled in the study. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) assessment were collected from routinely placed arterial catheters during and after discontinuation of infusion. Population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed using NONMEM. A 2-compartment model described sufentanil PK sufficiently. Typical values of the central and peripheral volume of distribution and the metabolic and intercompartmental clearance for a theoretical patient weighing 70 kg were VC = 7.90 l, VT  = 481 L, Cl =  5.3 L/h, and Q = 38.3 L/h, respectively. High interindividual variability of all PK parameters was noted. Allometric/isometric principles to scale sufentanil PK revealed that to achieve the same steady-state sufentanil concentrations in plasma for pediatric patients of different body weights, the infusion rate should follow the formula (infusion rate for a 70-kg adult patient, μg/h) × (body weight/70 kg)(0.75). Severity of illness described by PRISM score, the monitored physiological and laboratory parameters, and coadministered drugs such as vasopressors were not found to be significant covariates.

  4. Increased mortality among the critically ill patients admitted on weekends: a global trend.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness and injury have no concept of time and do not always occur within regular business hours or at times conducive to optimal hospital function. In fact, it is a global trend that critically ill patients admitted to hospitals on weekends suffer higher mortality rates than those admitted during the week. Using a Canadian nursing lens, it is clear that there are some obvious differences in hospital function on weekends that include decreased hospital staffing, access to diagnostic services, intensivist coverage and the reluctance of patients to seek care on weekends. However, the exact differences contributing to the increased mortality in this patient population on weekends and the solutions remain unclear in the literature, and further research is needed. Possible solutions include moving to a "closed" ICU system, increasing nurse staffing, intensivist coverage and diagnostic accessibility, and creating a true seven-day hospital system. Finally, it is unclear exactly how to solve the nurse staffing portion of this problem, as it appears internally linked to the nursing profession and externally to hospital management, recruiting difficulties and financial restraints, and a problem that will take more than change in nursing management strategy to resolve.

  5. The role of endocrine mechanisms in ventilator-associated lung injury in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Galusova, A; Vigas, M; Vlcek, M; Imrich, R; Majek, M

    2012-07-01

    The critically ill subjects are represented by a heterogeneous group of patients suffering from a life-threatening event of different origin, e.g. trauma, cardiopulmonary failure, surgery or sepsis. The majority of these patients are dependent on the artificial lung ventilation, which means a life-saving chance for them. However, the artificial lung ventilation may trigger ventilation-associated lung injury (VALI). The mechanical ventilation at higher volumes (volutrauma) and pressure (barotrauma) can cause histological changes in the lungs including impairments in the gap and adherens junctions and desmosomes. The injured lung epithelium may lead to an impairment of the surfactant production and function, and this may not only contribute to the pathophysiology of VALI but also to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Other components of VALI are atelectrauma and toxic effects of the oxygen. Collectively, all these effects may result in a lung inflammation associated with a subsequent profibrotic changes, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of the local and systemic endocrine responses such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The present review is aimed to describe some of the pathophysiologic aspects of VALI providing a basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the critically ill patients. PMID:22808908

  6. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs.

  7. Clinical Conundrums in Management of Hypothyroidism in Critically Ill Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Rinku; Bajaj, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly. Evidence acquisition: Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology. Results: Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Conclusions: The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients. PMID:24719636

  8. A Tool for Music Preference Assessment in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support

    PubMed Central

    CHLAN, LINDA; HEIDERSCHEIT, ANNIE

    2010-01-01

    Music is an ideal intervention to reduce anxiety and promote relaxation in critically ill patients. This article reviews the research studies on music-listening interventions to manage distressful symptoms in this population, and describes the development and implementation of the Music Assessment Tool (MAT) to assist professionals in ascertaining patients’ music preferences in the challenging, dynamic clinical environment of the intensive care unit (ICU). The MAT is easy to use with these patients who experience profound communication challenges due to fatigue and inability to speak because of endotracheal tube placement. The music therapist and ICU nursing staff are encouraged to work collaboratively to implement music in a personalized manner to ensure the greatest benefit for mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:24489432

  9. Bypassing non-adherence via PEG in a critically ill HIV-1-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Leipe, J; Hueber, A J; Rech, J; Harrer, T

    2008-08-01

    This case study describes a 44-year-old, chronically non-adherent, HIV-infected male with relapsing, life threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) and other recurring opportunistic infections. Non-adherence resulted in critical illness, suppressed CD4 lymphocyte count and elevated viral load. In order to bypass the patient's complete psychological aversion to taking medication, and after exhausting various psychological interventions, a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) tube was inserted for delivery of indispensable medication. During the 15-month follow-up the patient was adherent, exhibiting a consistently undetectable viral load, high CD4 count and a remission of the opportunistic infections. This is an interesting case study demonstrating life-saving and long-term benefit of PEG in an exceptional setting, which has implications for future research and treatment of non-adherent HIV-infected patients.

  10. The hospitalized prisoner with a life-threatening illness: criminal first and patient second?

    PubMed

    Badger, James M; Ladd, Rosalind Ekman; Friedemann, Glenn R

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the Patient's Bill of Rights applies to all patients including prisoners. Yet, a prisoners' incarcerated status generally prohibits inmates from making any decision that may shorten his/her life, and as such, the de facto medical decision maker becomes the medical director of the state correctional facility. This case study highlights the challenges that arise when the ethically appropriate response to a hospitalized prisoner's terminal medical condition warrants decisions that are in conflict with that advocated by the correctional facility. PMID:22617555

  11. Empowering the chronically ill? Patient collectives in the new Dutch health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Bartholomée, Yvette; Maarse, Hans

    2007-12-01

    On January 1, 2006, the Dutch government instituted major reforms to the country's health insurance scheme. One of the features of the new system is the opportunity for groups to form collectives that may negotiate and enter into group contracts with health insurers. This article discusses one particular type of collective, namely patient collectives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and to what extent, patient collectives empower chronically ill patients. The results of the study show that some patient groups were able to contract collective agreements with health insurers, whereas others were not. The eligibility of a group's disease for compensation through the risk equalisation fund (which subsidises the costs for many but not all disorders) seems to determine whether or not a patient organisation is able to successfully negotiate a collective contract for its members. Another key factor for success is the presence of a large membership whose constituents have similar healthcare needs. If both of these factors are present, insurers are more likely to develop specific products for particular groups of patients, as is the case for people with diabetes. Furthermore, the presence of patient collectives accords patient associations with a new role. It may be possible for them to become powerful players in the health insurance market. However, this new role may also lead to tensions, both within and between associations. PMID:17485132

  12. Empowering the chronically ill? Patient collectives in the new Dutch health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Bartholomée, Yvette; Maarse, Hans

    2007-12-01

    On January 1, 2006, the Dutch government instituted major reforms to the country's health insurance scheme. One of the features of the new system is the opportunity for groups to form collectives that may negotiate and enter into group contracts with health insurers. This article discusses one particular type of collective, namely patient collectives. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and to what extent, patient collectives empower chronically ill patients. The results of the study show that some patient groups were able to contract collective agreements with health insurers, whereas others were not. The eligibility of a group's disease for compensation through the risk equalisation fund (which subsidises the costs for many but not all disorders) seems to determine whether or not a patient organisation is able to successfully negotiate a collective contract for its members. Another key factor for success is the presence of a large membership whose constituents have similar healthcare needs. If both of these factors are present, insurers are more likely to develop specific products for particular groups of patients, as is the case for people with diabetes. Furthermore, the presence of patient collectives accords patient associations with a new role. It may be possible for them to become powerful players in the health insurance market. However, this new role may also lead to tensions, both within and between associations.

  13. Association of Hyperchloremia with Hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Septic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Javier A.; Canepa-Escaro, Fabrizio; Li, Xilong; Manllo, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Yee, Jerry; Yessayan, Lenar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperchloremia is frequently observed in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our study aimed to examine the association of serum chloride (Cl) levels with hospital mortality in septic ICU patients. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Urban academic medical center ICU. Patients ICU adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who had Cl measured on ICU admission were included. Those with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 or chronic dialysis were excluded. Intervention: None. Measurements and Main Results Of 1940 patients included in the study, 615 (31.7%) had hyperchloremia (Cl ≥ 110 mEq/L) on ICU admission. All-cause hospital mortality was the dependent variable. Cl on ICU admission (Cl0), Cl at 72 h (Cl72), and delta Cl (ΔCl = Cl72 – Cl0) were the independent variables. Those with Cl0 ≥ 110 mEq/L were older and had higher cumulative fluid balance, base deficit, and sequential organ failure assessment scores. Multivariate analysis showed that higher Cl72 but not Cl0 was independently associated with hospital mortality in the subgroup of patients with hyperchloremia on ICU admission [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for Cl72 per 5 mEq/L increase = 1.27, 95% CI (1.02–1.59), P = 0.03]. For those who were hyperchloremic on ICU admission, every within-subject 5 mEq/L increment in Cl72 was independently associated with hospital mortality [adjusted OR for ΔCl 5 mEq/L = 1.37, 95% CI [1.11–1.69], P = 0.003]. Conclusions In critically ill septic patients manifesting hyperchloremia (Cl ≥110 mEq/L) on ICU admission, higher Cl levels and within-subject worsening hyperchloremia at 72 h of ICU stay were associated with all-cause hospital mortality. These associations were independent of base deficit, cumulative fluid balance, acute kidney injury, and other critical illness parameters. PMID:26154934

  14. Innate immunity gene expression changes in critically ill patients with sepsis and disease-related malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Sarnecka, Agnieszka; Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Kosałka, Katarzyna; Wachowska, Ewelina; Bałan, Barbara J.; Jankowska, Marta; Korta, Teresa; Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata; Omidi, Mohammad; Majewska, Krystyna; Słotwińska, Sylwia M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to determine whether the expression of genes involved in innate antibacterial response (TL R2, NOD 1, TRAF6, HMGB 1 and Hsp70) in peripheral blood leukocytes in critically ill patients, may undergo significant changes depending on the severity of the infection and the degree of malnutrition. The study was performed in a group of 128 patients with infections treated in the intensive care and surgical ward. In 103/80.5% of patients, infections had a severe course (sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, mechanical ventilation of the lungs). Clinical monitoring included diagnosis of severe infection (according to the criteria of the ACC P/SCC M), assessment of severity of the patient condition and risk of death (APACHE II and SAPS II), nutritional assessment (NRS 2002 and SGA scales) and the observation of the early results of treatment. Gene expression at the mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. The results of the present study indicate that in critically ill patients treated in the IC U there are significant disturbances in the expression of genes associated with innate antimicrobial immunity, which may have a significant impact on the clinical outcome. The expression of these genes varies depending on the severity of the patient condition, severity of infection and nutritional status. Expression disorders of genes belonging to innate antimicrobial immunity should be diagnosed as early as possible, monitored during the treatment and taken into account during early therapeutic treatment (including early nutrition to support the functions of immune cells). PMID:26648775

  15. Clinical associations of host genetic variations in the genes of cytokines in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Belopolskaya, O B; Smelaya, T V; Moroz, V V; Golubev, A M; Salnikova, L E

    2015-01-01

    Host genetic variations may influence a changing profile of biochemical markers and outcome in patients with trauma/injury. The objective of this study was to assess clinical associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of cytokines in critically ill patients. A total of 430 patients were genotyped for SNPs in the genes of pro- (IL1B, IL6, IL8) and anti-inflammatory (IL4, IL10, IL13) cytokines. The main end-points were sepsis, mortality and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We evaluated the dynamic levels of bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase in five points of measurements (between 1 and 14 days after admission) and correlated them with SNPs. High-producing alleles of proinflammatory cytokines protected patients against sepsis (IL1B −511A and IL8 —251A) and mortality (IL1B −511A). High-producing alleles of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 —589T and IL13 431A (144Gln) were less frequent in ARDS patients. The carriers of IL6 —174C/C genotypes were prone to the increased levels of biochemical markers and acute kidney and liver insufficiency. Genotype-dependent differences in the levels of biochemical indicators gradually increased to a maximal value on the 14th day after admission. These findings suggest that genetic variability in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to different clinical phenotypes in patients at high risk of critical illness. PMID:25619315

  16. Psychiatric illness and psychosocial concerns of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, M L; Quirt, C; Ginsburg, A D; MacKillop, W J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature and incidence of psychiatric illness, symptoms of potential psychiatric significance, substance abuse and psychosocial concerns among patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Kingston Regional Cancer Centre, a tertiary care facility for ambulatory cancer patients. PATIENTS: Seventy-one consecutive English-speaking patients with recently diagnosed lung cancer undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy were asked to participate; 52 of the 57 patients who agreed were available for evaluation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Current and previous psychiatric diagnoses of affective, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and alcohol and tobacco abuse; symptoms of sadness, fear, shock, anger, denial, acceptance, guilt, suicidal ideation, thoughts of death, insomnia, loss of libido, impaired concentration and reduced level of work or interest; psychosocial concerns about family, work and finances; and an impression of coping. RESULTS: At the time of the interview two (4%) of the patients were found to have an affective disorder, none had an anxiety disorder, and six (12%) had an adjustment disorder. Previously, 16 patients (31%) had had an affective or anxiety disorder or both. Two (4%) had had an adjustment disorder following the diagnosis of their lung cancer that had resolved before the interview. At some point in their lives 24 patients (46%) had abused alcohol, and 7 (13%) were currently abusing alcohol. All had smoked, 33 (63%) having been tobacco dependent. Feelings of sadness were expressed by 23 (44%), fear by 15 (29%), anger by 2 (4%), shock by 9 (17%) and guilt by 4 (8%). Seven (13%) had considered suicide, and thoughts of death were reported by 16 (31%). Twenty (38%) were accepting of their diagnosis, and 5 (10%) expressed optimism. Twenty-seven (52%) had insomnia, which was reported to be severe by 15 (29%). Loss of libido was reported by 25 (48%) and was severe in 14 (27%). Difficulty concentrating was reported by

  17. [Music therapy used on a patient in the terminal stage of cancer who narrated a tale based on her fantasy].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    Music therapy was used on a patient in the terminal stage of cancer who described a fantastic tale built around her imagined pregnancy. We believe that psychiatric intervention was successful through the introduction of music therapy as part of her palliative treatment. Particularly notable in this case was that the patient dealt with the development of ascites by telling a fantastic tale related to a pregnancy--i.e., becoming pregnant with the therapist's child. Her tale started by statements such as "I am pregnant and suffering from morning sickness" and "I am in the third month of pregnancy with the child of my therapist." This progressed in parallel with the actual changes in her physiological symptoms. Among the attending physician, the patient, and her family, this imaginary tale was an important means of communication. The theme of pregnancy, love, and family developed from an unconscious dynamic process between the physician and patient, which could be interpreted as a family-related story originating in the mind of a terminally ill patient. Through this family romance with a major theme of pregnancy, the patient was able to sense her physical crises. This process may be thought of as a product of the so-called "mythgenerating capacity" under limited conditions, which was proposed by Ellenberger. Being aware of this situation, the attending physician and others in charge of her care did not insist on negating her story: instead they accepted her fantasy, and through it they succeeded in establishing psychiatric communications. The process may be considered a form of the narrative approach that is currently attracting attention. In this example, the "process of mourning" and "stages of accepting death" in the terminal state found an outlet in the creation of a fantasy. We believe that this case illustrates the important role of communication between the physician and a patient through the acceptance by the former of a fantastic tale given by the latter; and

  18. Health Care Providers and Dying Patients: Critical Issues in Terminal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Jeanne Quint

    1988-01-01

    Identifies three major areas of concern in relationship between health care providers and dying patients: (1) nature of difficulties and stresses associated with terminal care; (2) education of providers for work; and (3) influence of organizational structure and institutionalized values on services for dying patients and families. Reviews…

  19. [Recognition and rehabilitation of impaired awareness of illness, i.e. anosognosia in a patient with cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Mari E; Jehkonen, Mervi

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anosognosia after stroke is approximately 30%. Anosognosia refers to the lack of awareness of illness or specific symptom of illness in patients with neurological diseases. Because stroke patients with anosognosia are not properly comprehending the nature of their medical situation, they may not seek treatment in time, which weakens patients' commitment to treatment and rehabilitation. Anosognosia also exposes patients to dangerous situations in daily life. Anosognosia is associated with poor functional outcome after stroke, which makes the early neuropsychological identification and treatment of anosognosia important.

  20. Would you terminate a pregnancy affected by sickle cell disease? Analysis of views of patients in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; de Vries, Jantina; Royal, Charmaine D; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-09-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life and life expectancy for patients. In Cameroon, it is now possible to opt for termination of an affected pregnancy (TAP) where the fetus is found to be affected by SCD. Our earlier studies found that, contrary to the views of Cameroonian physicians, a majority of parents with their children suffering from SCD would choose to abort if the fetuses were found to be affected. What have not yet been investigated are the views of people suffering from/living with SCD. We used a quantitative sociological method, with administered structured questionnaires, to study the attitudes of adult patients suffering from SCD on prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) and possible TAP. The majority of the 89 participants were urban dwellers (84.3%), women (57.3%), Christian (95.5%) and single (90.9%), with a secondary/tertiary education (79.5%). The majority (89.2%) would consider PND for SCD; almost half (48.5%) would reject TAP while 40.9% would consider it. Respondents who rejected TAP claimed mostly ethical reasons (78.1%) while those who found TAP acceptable cited fear of having an affected child (88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (81.5%). Cameroonian patients with SCD are generally supportive of PND and a remarkably high number of patients living with SCD reported that they would consider terminating a pregnancy based on their assessment of the future well-being of the child. Research is required to investigate the burden of SCD on families and their quality of life.

  1. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over 5,000 cases of invasive Candida species infections occur in the United Kingdom each year, and around 40% of these cases occur in critical care units. Invasive fungal disease (IFD) in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at a cost to both the individual and the National Health Service. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review performed to identify and summarise the important risk factors derived from published multivariable analyses, risk prediction models and clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients to inform the primary data collection for the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation Study. Methods An internet search was performed to identify articles which investigated risk factors, risk prediction models or clinical decisions rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients. Eligible articles were identified in a staged process and were assessed by two investigators independently. The methodological quality of the reporting of the eligible articles was assessed using a set of questions addressing both general and statistical methodologies. Results Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, of which eight articles examined risk factors, four developed a risk prediction model or clinical decision rule and one evaluated a clinical decision rule. Studies varied in terms of objectives, risk factors, definitions and outcomes. The following risk factors were found in multiple studies to be significantly associated with IFD: surgery, total parenteral nutrition, fungal colonisation, renal replacement therapy, infection and/or sepsis, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or APACHE III score. Several other risk factors were also found to be statistically significant in single studies only. Risk factor selection process and modelling strategy also varied across studies, and sample sizes were inadequate for obtaining

  2. Clinical review: Practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of

  3. Clinical review: practical approach to hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Overgaard-Steensen, Christian; Ring, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances in sodium concentration are common in the critically ill patient and associated with increased mortality. The key principle in treatment and prevention is that plasma [Na+] (P-[Na+]) is determined by external water and cation balances. P-[Na+] determines plasma tonicity. An important exception is hyperglycaemia, where P-[Na+] may be reduced despite plasma hypertonicity. The patient is first treated to secure airway, breathing and circulation to diminish secondary organ damage. Symptoms are critical when handling a patient with hyponatraemia. Severe symptoms are treated with 2 ml/kg 3% NaCl bolus infusions irrespective of the supposed duration of hyponatraemia. The goal is to reduce cerebral symptoms. The bolus therapy ensures an immediate and controllable rise in P-[Na+]. A maximum of three boluses are given (increases P-[Na+] about 6 mmol/l). In all patients with hyponatraemia, correction above 10 mmol/l/day must be avoided to reduce the risk of osmotic demyelination. Practical measures for handling a rapid rise in P-[Na+] are discussed. The risk of overcorrection is associated with the mechanisms that cause hyponatraemia. Traditional classifications according to volume status are notoriously difficult to handle in clinical practice. Moreover, multiple combined mechanisms are common. More than one mechanism must therefore be considered for safe and lasting correction. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia, but implies that the patient is more ill and has a worse prognosis. A practical approach includes treatment of the underlying diseases and restoration of the distorted water and salt balances. Multiple combined mechanisms are common and must be searched for. Importantly, hypernatraemia is not only a matter of water deficit, and treatment of the critically ill patient with an accumulated fluid balance of 20 litres and corresponding weight gain should not comprise more water, but measures to invoke a negative cation balance. Reduction of

  4. Co-enrollment of critically ill patients into multiple studies: patterns, predictors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research on co-enrollment practices and their impact are limited in the ICU setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe patterns and predictors of co-enrollment of patients in a thromboprophylaxis trial, and 2) to examine the consequences of co-enrollment on clinical and trial outcomes. Methods In an observational analysis of an international thromboprophylaxis trial in 67 ICUs, we examined the co-enrollment of critically ill medical-surgical patients into more than one study, and examined the clinical and trial outcomes among co-enrolled and non-co-enrolled patients. Results Among 3,746 patients enrolled in PROTECT (Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial), 713 (19.0%) were co-enrolled in at least one other study (53.6% in a randomized trial, 37.0% in an observational study and 9.4% in both). Six factors independently associated with co-enrollment (all P < 0.001) were illness severity (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 to 1.53 for each 10-point Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score increase), substitute decision-makers providing consent, rather than patients (OR 3.31, 2.03 to 5.41), experience of persons inviting consent (OR 2.67, 1.74 to 4.11 for persons with > 10 years' experience compared to persons with none), center size (all ORs > 10 for ICUs with > 15 beds), affiliation with trials groups (OR 5.59, 3.49 to 8.95), and main trial rather than pilot phase (all ORs > 8 for recruitment year beyond the pilot). Co-enrollment did not influence clinical or trial outcomes or risk of adverse events. Conclusions Co-enrollment was strongly associated with features of the patients, research personnel, setting and study. Co-enrollment had no impact on trial results, and appeared safe, acceptable and feasible. Transparent reporting, scholarly discourse, ethical analysis and further research are needed on the complex topic of co-enrollment during critical illness. PMID:23298553

  5. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery. Methods Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appraisal. Reporting quality was assessed and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach applied to summarise overall quality of evidence. Results Five eligible SR were included in this overview, of which three included meta-analyses. Reporting quality of the reviews was judged as medium to high. Two reviews reported moderate-to-high quality evidence of the beneficial effects of physical therapy commencing during intensive care unit (ICU) admission in improving critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilisation. These interventions included early mobilisation, cycle ergometry and electrical muscle stimulation. Two reviews reported very low to low quality evidence of the beneficial effects of electrical muscle stimulation delivered in the ICU for improving muscle strength, muscle structure and critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. One review reported that due to a lack of good quality randomised controlled trials and inconsistency in measuring outcomes, there was insufficient evidence to support beneficial effects from physical rehabilitation delivered post-ICU discharge. Conclusions Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for

  6. Fungal Peritonitis: Underestimated Disease in Critically Ill Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lahmer, Tobias; Brandl, Andreas; Rasch, Sebastian; Schmid, Roland M.; Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous peritonitis, especially spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP), is an important and potentially fatal complication in patients with endstage liver disaese. We evaluated potential risk factors, microbiological findings, and outcome of patients with SFP compared to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in critically ill patients. Methods Retrospective analyses of critically ill patients with suspected spontaneous peritonitis. Results Out of 205 patients, 20 (10%) had SFP, 28 (14%) had SBP, 48 (24%) had peritonitis without microbiological findings (SP) and 109 (52%) had no-peritonitis (NP). APACHE II and SOFA score were significantly higher in patients with SFP (26; 22–28; p<0.004 and 16; 14–18; p<0.002), SBP (26; 22–28; p<0.004 and 16; 14–18; p<0.002) and SP (24; 18–30; p<0.045 and 14; 10–18; p<0.044) as compared to NP (22; 16–24 and 12; 10–14). CHILD Pugh classification was mainly CHILD C and MELD Score was in patients with SFP (34; 18–40; p<0.001), SBP (32;12–40 p<0.002) and SP (29; 14–40 p<0.003) significantly higher as compared to NP (25;8–40). Nosocomial peritonitis could be significantly more often found in patients with SFP (65%; p<0.023) and SBP (62%, p<0.030) as compared to SP (51 p = 0.243) and NP (45%). Antibiotic pretreatment last 3 month prior peritonitis was significantly more often in patients with SFP (85%; p<0.002), SBP (71%, p<0.033), and SP (56; p<0.040) as compared to NP (33%). Candida albicans (60%; 12/20) was the most common isolated fungus, followed by Candida glabrata (13%) and Candida krusei (13%). Mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with SFP (90%, p<0.001), followed by SBP (75%; p<0.001) and SP (69%; p<0.001) as compared to NP (45%). Conclusion SFP is not a rare complication in end stage liver disease which is associated with increased mortality. Physicians should be aware of SFP in patients with CHILD C liver cirrhosis, elevated MELD score, antibiotic pretreatment and

  7. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chan, Khee-Siang; Tseng, Kuei-Ling; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lactic acidosis. PMID:27748410

  8. Effect of Antiplatelet Therapy on Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Heng; Gu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Su; Chen, Liyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiplatelet agents are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases, but their pleiotropic effects in critically ill patients are controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies to investigate the effect of antiplatelet therapy in the critically ill. Methods Nine cohort studies, retrieved from PubMed and Embase before November 2015, involving 14,612 critically ill patients and 4765 cases of antiplatelet users, were meta-analysed. The main outcome was hospital or 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI). Random- or fixed-effect models were taken for quantitative synthesis of the data. Results Antiplatelet therapy was associated with decreased mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.71; I2 = 0%; P <0. 001) and ARDS/ALI (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50–0.82; I2 = 0%; P <0. 001). In every stratum of subgroups, similar findings on mortality reduction were consistently observed in critically ill patients. Conclusions Antiplatelet therapy is associated with reduced mortality and lower incidence of ARDS/ALI in critically ill patients, particularly those with predisposing conditions such as high-risk surgery, trauma, pneumonia, and sepsis. However, it remains unclear whether similar findings can be observed in the unselected and broad population with critical illness. PMID:27182704

  9. Frequency of Epstein - Barr Virus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Masakhwe, Clement; Ochanda, Horace; Nyakoe, Nancy; Ochiel, Daniel; Waitumbi, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya. Conclusions/Significance This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells. PMID:27163791

  10. Challenge for higher colistin dosage in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Friberg, Lena E; Galani, Lambrini; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Katsouda, Emmanouela; Athanassa, Zoe; Paskalis, Harris; Giamarellou, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, reduced daily doses of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) have resulted in suboptimal colistin concentrations. The necessity of a loading dose (LD) at treatment initiation has been proposed. A LD of 9 million IU (MU) [ca. 270 mg of colistin base activity (CBA)] was administrated with a maintenance dose of 4.5 MU (ca. 140 mg CBA) every 12 h (q12h) to eight critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at different time intervals after the LD and the fourth dose, whilst pre-filter and post-filter blood samples were also collected. CMS and colistin concentrations were determined using an LC-MS/MS assay. Median maximum observed concentrations after the LD were 22.1 mg/L for CMS and 1.55 mg/L for colistin, whereas during maintenance dosing the corresponding values were 12.6 mg/L and 1.72 mg/L, respectively. CVVHDF clearance was determined as 2.98 L/h for colistin, equivalent to 62% of total apparent colistin clearance in CVVHDF patients. Both CMS and colistin were cleared by CVVHDF. Application of a LD of 9 MU CMS resulted in more rapid achievement of the target colistin concentration. Following implementation of a predicted pharmacokinetic model on plasma CMS/colistin concentrations, a LD of 12 MU CMS appears more appropriate, whilst a CMS maintenance dosage of at least 6.5-7.5 MU q12h is suggested in patients undergoing CVVHDF. However, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the safety of a LD of 12 MU CMS in patients receiving CVVHDF. PMID:27474468

  11. Quality of life of caregivers of mentally ill patients in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Sabreen; Anurag, Khera; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Raj; Vashisht, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the quality of life (QOL) and its association with psycho-sociodemographic factors among caregivers of mentally ill patients in a tertiary care hospital in urban India. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted of 100 caregivers attending outpatient services in a tertiary care hospital. Data was collected using World Health Organization QOL-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. The higher score meant a better QOL. Results: Of 100 caregivers, 66% were men, 47% were parents and 64% were literate. 52% of the caregivers were providing care for 1–5 years. The mean total score of QOL of the study population was 13.34 with the highest score 15.15 in the physical domain, followed by 12.75 in social, 12.96 in environmental, and 12.52 in psychological domain. In a multiple linear regression model, caregiver's elderly age was significantly associated most of the domains of WHOQOL. Conclusion: Caregivers of mentally ill patients have diminished QOL levels. Studies measuring QOL among caregivers can help initiate early intervention among the vulnerable caregivers. This study would help in increasing the awareness among the professional health care workers, to identify at risk caregivers. Health workers by providing better health services and better psycho-education to the caregivers can improve their QOL. PMID:27212818

  12. The relationship between serum ferritin levels and electrocardiogram characteristics in acutely ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Krzysztof; Ali, Huma; Himmel, Andrew; Godula, Kasia; Stettmeier, Mary; Calvocoressi, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias are common comorbidities among acutely ill patients admitted to hospitals. An abnormal iron metabolism may contribute to the abnormalities in the conduction and propagation of action potentials through myocardium. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum indexes of iron metabolism correlate with electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. METHODS: In the present retrospective, pilot chart review, serum levels of iron, ferritin, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and total iron-binding capacity in 77 hospitalized patients with acute illness were correlated with ECG variables. RESULTS: The serum ferritin level correlated strongly (r=0.49) with QT/QTs interval. There were three subjects with QT prolongation (longer than 450 ms) within the high serum ferritin (576 ng/mL or greater) group versus subjects with low ferritin. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ferritin level and serum iron level contributed to the variance in the QT/QTs prolongation. No other correlation between the studied serum markers and ECG characteristics were found. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that serum ferritin and iron levels affect the QT interval in a variety of medical conditions, possibly contributing to the emergence of fatal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:20098576

  13. [Care of chronically ill geriatric patients with the cooperation of relatives].

    PubMed

    Huber, F; Stähelin, H B; Bloch, F

    1984-01-01

    In the first stage of the project "assistance of relatives for the care of chronically ill people" in context of the National Research Programme No 8 (Economy and efficacy of the Swiss Health System) a representative random sample of elderly longterm patients was arranged in Basle and the situation regarding their relatives investigated. Altogether 473 relatives were contacted. Finally 343 interviews with next-of-kin were held and as many questionnaires filled out. The main aim of the questioning in the first part of the study was to know who would be able to participate in the care at the hospital on a part-time basis. Basing on the results, it may be presumed that about 30% of the relatives of chronically ill patients who have regular personal contact with them are ready and willing to participate actively in a co-operative model set-up of a nursing institution. In the second stage the way should be paved for the management of a pilot-station. During the research programme between 1983 and 1985, the model-idea should be examined for its practicability. Afterwards it can be judged if the basic idea of the project evidences a real progress or remains a social-medical utopia.

  14. Effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with AIDS: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Huang, David B; Zhou, Jing

    2007-05-01

    Patients with AIDS frequently develop diarrhoeal illness. In this randomized, controlled study, 260 patients were screened for those who had not had diarrhoea in the preceding 3 months and who had received a stable highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for at least 6 weeks prior to the study enrollment. A total of 148 patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 75 patients were randomly assigned to an intensive handwashing intervention (i.e. handwashing after defecation, after cleaning infants who had defecated, before preparing food, before eating, and before and after sex) and 73 patients were randomly assigned to the control group. Patients in both groups were called weekly by telephone to determine compliance with handwashing and to determine the number of diarrhoeal episodes for the preceding week. Patients were observed for 1 year. Patients assigned to the intensive handwashing intervention group washed their hands more frequently compared with the control group (seven vs four times a day, respectively; P <0.05) and developed fewer episodes of diarrhoeal illness (1.24+/-0.9 vs 2.92+/-0.6 new episodes of diarrhoea, respectively; P <0.001) during the 1 year observation. The most common pathogens identified in both groups in patients who developed diarrhoeal illness were Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica and Shigella flexneri. These data suggest that intensive handwashing reduces diarrhoeal illness in patients with AIDS.

  15. Crowdsourcing Diagnosis for Patients With Undiagnosed Illnesses: An Evaluation of CrowdMed

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ashley N.D; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite visits to multiple physicians, many patients remain undiagnosed. A new online program, CrowdMed, aims to leverage the “wisdom of the crowd” by giving patients an opportunity to submit their cases and interact with case solvers to obtain diagnostic possibilities. Objective To describe CrowdMed and provide an independent assessment of its impact. Methods Patients submit their cases online to CrowdMed and case solvers sign up to help diagnose patients. Case solvers attempt to solve patients’ diagnostic dilemmas and often have an interactive online discussion with patients, including an exchange of additional diagnostic details. At the end, patients receive detailed reports containing diagnostic suggestions to discuss with their physicians and fill out surveys about their outcomes. We independently analyzed data collected from cases between May 2013 and April 2015 to determine patient and case solver characteristics and case outcomes. Results During the study period, 397 cases were completed. These patients previously visited a median of 5 physicians, incurred a median of US $10,000 in medical expenses, spent a median of 50 hours researching their illnesses online, and had symptoms for a median of 2.6 years. During this period, 357 active case solvers participated, of which 37.9% (132/348) were male and 58.3% (208/357) worked or studied in the medical industry. About half (50.9%, 202/397) of patients were likely to recommend CrowdMed to a friend, 59.6% (233/391) reported that the process gave insights that led them closer to the correct diagnoses, 57% (52/92) reported estimated decreases in medical expenses, and 38% (29/77) reported estimated improvement in school or work productivity. Conclusions Some patients with undiagnosed illnesses reported receiving helpful guidance from crowdsourcing their diagnoses during their difficult diagnostic journeys. However, further development and use of crowdsourcing methods to facilitate diagnosis requires

  16. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Mangieri, Paola; Naves, Luciana A; Suzuki, Kunio; Ferreira, Moema; Domingues, Lucilia

    2004-03-01

    We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH) is associated with changes in the hormonal profile in the first 24 hours after the event. We proposed that the hormonal changes observed are due to the intense stress to which the patients are exposed. However, the thyroidal hormonal profile is indicative of the presence of a nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In this paper, we examined whether the change in the thyroid hormone profile is compatible with a NTIS. Two groups of patients were included in the study: A) 30 patients with SH (21 females and 9 males; 41.7+/-11.4 years) and B) a control group including 25 patients with benign diseases of the spine (BDS) (lumbar disc hernia or stable spinal trauma) (8 females and 17 males; 41.3+/-14.2 years). In a subgroup of eight patients of each group serum triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 levels were measured. The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. The following results were obtained: The SH group had smaller serum T3 and free T4 levels than the BDS group (p<0.05): T3 (ng/mL): SH = 58.7+/-1.1 and BDS = 74.5+/-13.9; free T4 (ng/dL): SH = 0.9+/-0.2 and BDS = 1.1+/-0.3. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between the two groups: T4 ( microg/dL): SH = 6.9+/-1.1 and BDS = 7.4+/-2.1; TSH ( microUI/mL): SH = 1.5+/-0.8 and BDS = 1.8+/-1,0. In the sample of eight patients of each group we had the following results: T3 (ng/mL): SH = 66.8+/-3.8 and BDS = 77.2+/-1.1 (p <0.05); reverse T3 (ng/dL): SH = 32.8+/-8 and BDS = 24.7+/-2.2 (NS); T3/ reverse T3 ratio: SH = 2.6+/-0.3 and BDS = 3.3+/-0.4 (NS). Thyreoglobulin and microsomal antibodies were not detectable, except in one patient in the SH group. In conclusion, the SH patients present serum levels of T3 and free T4 significantly lower than that of BDS patients; the thyroidal hormone profile suggests that SH patients have

  17. Assessment of calcium homeostasis in the critically ill surgical patient. The diagnostic pitfalls of the McLean-Hastings nomogram.

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, G P; Chernow, B; Cook, D; Snyder, R; Clapper, M; O'Brian, J T

    1985-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common problem in critically ill surgical patients. We prospectively evaluated whether measurement of the total serum calcium (Ca) concentration or calculation of the serum ionized Ca level (by the McLean-Hastings nomogram) accurately reflects the measured serum ionized Ca level. Although 71% and 58% of 156 predominantly surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients were hypocalcemic by the total serum Ca or calculated ionized Ca level, respectively, only 12% were hypocalcemic by directly measured serum ionized Ca measurement. The total serum Ca and calculated ionized Ca concentrations were sensitive (95% and 89%, respectively) but lacked specificity (32% and 46%, respectively) in predicting ionized hypocalcemia. Analyses of Ca binding to albumin in the serum of surgical ICU patients and normal subjects suggested that there is a circulating factor in critically ill patients that increases the binding of Ca to albumin. These observations may explain why the McLean-Hastings nomogram underestimates the protein-induced changes in serum Ca in critically ill surgical subjects. We conclude that: total serum Ca and calculated ionized Ca concentrations are poor indicators of the true serum ionized Ca status in critically ill surgical patients, and we recommend direct measurement of serum ionized Ca levels in these patients; and variability in the affinity of Ca for binding proteins in critical illness may explain the poor correlation between serum total and ionized Ca measurements. PMID:4051606

  18. Perceived stigma of patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: relationships with patients' psychosocial conditions and attitudes of family caregivers and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Yeung, Frederick K K; Chan, Alan H L

    2014-03-01

    This descriptive survey investigated the level of perceived stigma among Chinese patients with severe mental illness (SMI) and its relationships with patients' psychosocial conditions and family caregivers' and mental health professionals' attitudes toward SMI in Hong Kong. A clustered, random sample of 311 patients and their family caregivers and 73 Chinese professionals participated. The patients reported a high level of withdrawal/secrecy and the professionals perceived a low to moderate level of stereotype/restriction to their patients. Families' expressed emotion and caregiving burden could increase patients' perceived stigma. Strategies in de-stigmatization of mental illness have been discussed, particularly from family-based approach.

  19. Non-invasive monitoring of oxygen delivery in acutely ill patients: new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Perel, Azriel

    2015-12-01

    Hypovolemia, anemia and hypoxemia may cause critical deterioration in the oxygen delivery (DO2). Their early detection followed by a prompt and appropriate intervention is a cornerstone in the care of critically ill patients. And yet, the remedies for these life-threatening conditions, namely fluids, blood and oxygen, have to be carefully titrated as they are all associated with severe side-effects when administered in excess. New technological developments enable us to monitor the components of DO2 in a continuous non-invasive manner via the sensor of the traditional pulse oximeter. The ability to better assess oxygenation, hemoglobin levels and fluid responsiveness continuously and simultaneously may be of great help in managing the DO2. The non-invasive nature of this technology may also extend the benefits of advanced monitoring to wider patient populations. PMID:26380992

  20. Disturbances of sodium in critically ill adult neurologic patients: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin; Crocker, Matthew; Watkiss, Jonathan; Smith, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of sodium and water balance are common in critically ill adult neurologic patients. Normal aspects of sodium and water regulation are reviewed. The etiology of possible causes of sodium disturbance is discussed in both the general inpatient and the neurologic populations. Areas of importance are highlighted with regard to the differential diagnosis of sodium disturbance in neurologic patients, and management strategies are discussed. Specific discussions of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral salt wasting syndrome, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and central diabetes insipidus are presented, as well as the problems of overtreatment. The importance of diagnosis at an early stage of these diseases is stressed, with a recommendation for conservative management of milder cases.

  1. [Update on invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic critically ill adult patients].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; Borges, Marcio; Pemán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic critically ill patients remains a challenge for clinicians due to its association with high morbidity and mortality rates, increased incidence, and health-care costs. It is well known that early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. For these reasons a thorough update has been performed in this setting focused on recent Spanish epidemiology, new predictive scores and microbiological tests such as mannan antigen, mannan antibodies, Candida albicans germ-tube antibodies or (1→3)-β-D-glucan detection, molecular techniques for the detection of fungal-specific DNA, advances in antifungal treatment and educational programs in Spain. An early diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is proposed based on the combination of scores and microbiological test. The aim of this review is to provide physicians with the best information available in order to improve the prognosis of these patients.

  2. [Update on invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic critically ill adult patients].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; Borges, Marcio; Pemán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic critically ill patients remains a challenge for clinicians due to its association with high morbidity and mortality rates, increased incidence, and health-care costs. It is well known that early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. For these reasons a thorough update has been performed in this setting focused on recent Spanish epidemiology, new predictive scores and microbiological tests such as mannan antigen, mannan antibodies, Candida albicans germ-tube antibodies or (1→3)-β-D-glucan detection, molecular techniques for the detection of fungal-specific DNA, advances in antifungal treatment and educational programs in Spain. An early diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is proposed based on the combination of scores and microbiological test. The aim of this review is to provide physicians with the best information available in order to improve the prognosis of these patients. PMID:27395022

  3. Elevation of procalcitonin after implantation of an interventional lung assist device in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Kott, Matthias; Bewig, Burkhard; Zick, Günther; Schaedler, Dirk; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A pumpless interventional arteriovenous lung assist device (iLA) facilitates the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood and is used as part of the lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In case of bacterial infection, delayed antimicrobial therapy increases the mortality in this group of high-risk critically ill patients, whereas overtreatment promotes bacterial resistance and leads to increased drug toxicity and costs. Besides clinical signs and symptoms, antimicrobial treatment is based on the kinetics of biomarkers such as procalcitonin (PCT). We hereby report an up to 10-fold increase in PCT serum concentrations in four mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS detected within 12-20 hours after iLA implantation in the absence of any infection. Procalcitonin concentrations returned to nearly baseline values in all patients on the fourth day after iLA implantation. We discuss the possible mechanisms of PCT induction in this specific patient population and recommend the onset of antibiotics administration after iLA implantation to be carefully considered in the context of other clinical findings and not solely based on the PCT kinetics. Repeated PCT measurements in short time intervals should be performed in these patients.

  4. A critical appraisal of point-of-care coagulation testing in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Hunt, B J

    2015-11-01

    Derangement of the coagulation system is a common phenomenon in critically ill patients, who may present with severe bleeding and/or conditions associated with a prothrombotic state. Monitoring of this coagulopathy can be performed with conventional coagulation assays; however, point-of-care tests have become increasingly attractive, because not only do they yield a more rapid result than clinical laboratory testing, but they may also provide a more complete picture of the condition of the hemostatic system. There are many potential areas of study and applications of point-of-care hemostatic testing in critical care, including patients who present with massive blood loss, patients with a hypercoagulable state (such as in disseminated intravascular coagulation), and monitoring of antiplatelet treatment for acute arterial thrombosis, mostly acute coronary syndromes. However, the limitations of near-patient hemostatic testing has not been fully appreciated, and are discussed here. The currently available evidence indicates that point-of-care tests may be applied to guide appropriate blood product transfusion and the use of hemostatic agents to correct the hemostatic defect or to ameliorate antithrombotic treatment. Disappointingly, however, only in cardiac surgery is there adequate evidence to show that application of near-patient thromboelastography leads to an improvement in clinically relevant outcomes, such as reductions in bleeding-related morbidity and mortality, and cost-effectiveness. More research is required to validate the utility and cost-effectiveness of near-patient hemostatic testing in other areas, especially in traumatic bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage.

  5. Caregiver burden in chronic mental illness: the role of patient and caregiver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Wiesheu, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the relative contribution of patient and caregiver characteristics in a sample of primary carers of patients with chronic mental disorders living in the community. As carers were recruited from caregiver organizations, mainly mothers of an adult child suffering from schizophrenia participated in the study (n = 102). Within a comprehensive transactional stress model, burden was assessed with respect to objective and subjective burden, cognitive-emotional well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Primary stressors include illness-related characteristics of the patient, and a number of personal dispositions and resources of the caregivers were included as potential moderating variables. Multiple regression analyses were separately calculated for each dimension of burden. Interaction of carers' expressed emotion and external locus of control with the patient's problem with family communication as well as perceived social support was most predictive for objective and subjective burden, whereas carers' neuroticism appeared as the most relevant predictor of their well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Among the patients' variables, regular employment contributed significantly to reduce carers' distress and enhance their well-being. As the sample was recruited from caregiver organizations, a selection bias has to be taken into account. To reduce caregiver burden, especially mothers' burden, the patients' occupational abilities should be strongly enhanced at an early stage. Family interventions should improve dysfunctional interactions, enhance the carers' social activities and focus more intensely on the carers' own dispositions. PMID:21538092

  6. Antimicrobial treatment and outcomes of critically ill patients with OXA-48like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections.

    PubMed

    Lowman, Warren; Schleicher, Gunter

    2015-02-01

    We report on the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial therapy, and outcomes of 20 critically ill patients with severe OXA-48like infections. Carbapenem-based therapy demonstrated improved survival (odds ratio = 5.0) as compared with non-carbapenem therapy. Risk factors for mortality included Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score and length of stay, highlighting the significant infl