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Sample records for terpene compound drug

  1. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the development of new flavor compounds from terpenic substrates.

    PubMed

    Bution, Murillo L; Molina, Gustavo; Abrahão, Meissa R E; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout human history, natural products have been the basis for the discovery and development of therapeutics, cosmetic and food compounds used in industry. Many compounds found in natural organisms are rather difficult to chemically synthesize and to extract in large amounts, and in this respect, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing an increasingly important role in the production of these compounds, such as new terpenes and terpenoids, which may potentially be used to create aromas in industry. Terpenes belong to the largest class of natural compounds, are produced by all living organisms and play a fundamental role in human nutrition, cosmetics and medicine. Recent advances in systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to perform metabolic engineering at the whole-cell level, thus enabling the optimal design of microorganisms for the efficient production of drugs, cosmetic and food additives. This review describes the recent advances made in the genetic and metabolic engineering of the terpenes pathway with a particular focus on systems biotechnology.

  2. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  3. Lipophilic extracts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC): a source of valuable bioactive terpenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patrícia A B; Guerra, Ângela R; Guerreiro, Olinda; Freire, Carmen S R; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Maria F; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2013-09-04

    Lipophilic extracts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) from the south of Portugal (Baixo Alentejo) were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One sesquiterpene lactone, four pentacyclic triterpenes, and four sterols were reported for the first time as cultivated cardoon components, namely, deacylcynaropicrin, β- and α-amyrin, lupenyl and ψ-taraxasteryl acetates, stigmasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, and Δ(5)-avenasterol. In addition, other new compounds were identified: ten fatty acids, eight long-chain aliphatic alcohols, and six aromatic compounds. Four triterpenyl fatty acid esters were also detected. Sesquiterpene lactones and pentacyclic triterpenes were the major lipophilic families, representing respectively 2-46% and 10-89% of the detected compounds. Cynaropicrin was the most abundant sesquiterpene lactone, while taraxasteryl acetate was the main pentacyclic triterpene. Fatty acids and sterols, mainly hexadecanoic acid and β-sitosterol, were present at lower amounts (1-20% and 1-11% of the detected compounds). Long-chain aliphatic alcohols and aromatic compounds were detected at reduced abundances (1-6% of the detected compounds).

  4. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Terpene Synthase Gene Family of Carrot (Daucus carota L.): Identification of QTLs and Candidate Genes Associated with Terpenoid Volatile Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Keilwagen, Jens; Lehnert, Heike; Berner, Thomas; Budahn, Holger; Nothnagel, Thomas; Ulrich, Detlef; Dunemann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Terpenes are an important group of secondary metabolites in carrots influencing taste and flavor, and some of them might also play a role as bioactive substances with an impact on human physiology and health. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis of terpene synthases (TPS) involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids will provide insights for improving breeding strategies aimed at quality traits and for developing specific carrot chemotypes possibly useful for pharmaceutical applications. Hence, a combination of terpene metabolite profiling, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used in this work to get insights into the genetic control of terpene biosynthesis in carrots and to identify several TPS candidate genes that might be involved in the production of specific monoterpenes. In a panel of 85 carrot cultivars and accessions, metabolite profiling was used to identify 31 terpenoid volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in carrot leaves and roots, and a GBS approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>168,000 SNPs). Based on this data, a total of 30 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was identified for 15 terpenoid volatiles. Most QTLs were detected for the monoterpene compounds ocimene, sabinene, β-pinene, borneol and bornyl acetate. We identified four genomic regions on three different carrot chromosomes by GWAS which are both associated with high significance (LOD ≥ 5.91) to distinct monoterpenes and to TPS candidate genes, which have been identified by homology-based gene prediction utilizing RNA-seq data. In total, 65 TPS candidate gene models in carrot were identified and assigned to known plant TPS subfamilies with the exception of TPS-d and TPS-h. TPS-b was identified as largest subfamily with 32 TPS candidate genes. PMID:29170675

  6. Ex vivo skin absorption of terpenes from Vicks VapoRub ointment.

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sopala, Monika

    2008-08-01

    The pharmaceutical market offers a wide range of inhalant drug products applied on the skin that contain essential oils and/or their isolated compounds, i.e. terpenes. Because there are few data concerning the skin penetration of terpenes, especially from complex carriers, the goal of this study was to determine the ex vivo skin absorption kinetics of chosen terpenes, namely eucalyptol, menthol, camphor, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene, from the product Vicks VapoRub. Human cadaver skin was placed in a flow-through diffusion chamber and the product was applied for 15, 30, and 60 min. After the application time the skin was separated into layers using a tape-stripping technique: three fractions of stratum corneum and epidermis with dermis, and terpenes amounts in the samples were determined by gas-chromatography. The investigated terpenes showed different absorption characteristics related to their physicochemical properties and did not permeate through the skin into the acceptor fluid. Eucalyptol had the largest total accumulation in the stratum corneum and in the epidermis with dermis, while alpha-pinene penetrated into the skin in the smallest amount. The short time in which saturation of the stratum corneum with the terpenes occurred and the high accumulation of most of the investigated terpenes in the skin layers proved that these compounds easily penetrate and permeate the stratum corneum and that in vivo they may easily penetrate into the blood circulation.

  7. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  8. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  9. Mapping Terpenes over the Teakettle Experimental Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycner, J.; Ustin, S.; Grigsby, S.

    2015-12-01

    Terpenes are a category of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) produced by many plants, most notably coniferous plants. Commonly, these terpenes are aromatic compounds. The intensity of terpene emission varies depending greatly on light and temperature. Through remote sensing data as well as ASD spectroradiometry data this study focuses on locating sources of terpene emissions in the Teakettle Experimental Forest. These emissions are of particular concern because of their influence on the chemical concentration of the lower troposphere, as well as being an indicator of tree health. A novel approach has been designed through this study in order to locate and further understand these terpene emissions. Terpenes such as camphene have been reported to have subtle spectral features located at around 1.7 μm. For the first time, a map of terpene sources has been constructed by accentuating this particular feature. A continuum interpolated band ratio (CIBR) was used in order to compute a relative abundance of terpenes from the AVIRIS data. The CIBR equation showed promise, as terpenes were most strongly concentrated in areas of coniferous vegetation (a primary source of terpenes) and were less prominent over bodies of water or industrialized areas. The greatest concentrations were focused over treetops and other woody vegetation. Although it is known that terpenes have weak absorption features in the SWIR, there is little information available regarding the mapping of terpene emissions. This project addresses a novel approach to observing biochemical components in the lower troposphere and could potentially give more information to explain the health of forest ecosystems.

  10. Volatile profiles of Italian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils via HS-SPME-GC-MS: newly identified compounds, flavors molecular markers, and terpenic profile.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Teresa; Alfei, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of the commercial, sensory, and analytical characteristics of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Italy (Marche region), renowned since ancient times. Headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was applied for the very first time to the sampling of volatile compounds of eleven typical Italian monocultivar EVOOs. Forty-eight compounds were characterised by GC-MS, some of them were only occasionally found in other EVOOs and some other were never detected before in any EVOO. Compounds belonging mainly to alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons chemical classes characterised the volatile profiles. The main volatile compounds detected in the EVOOs were the C6 compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, through the lipoxygenase pathway, in different proportion according to the specific cultivar. The results suggest that genetic factors strongly influence volatile formation and terpene hydrocarbons are claimed to be suitable markers of the geographic origin and genotype of the EVOO. Correlations among sensory attributes evaluated by a panel test and the presence of specific volatile compounds were highlighted for the very first time. The significance of the presence of some newly identified volatile compounds was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mechanisms regulating these pathways. The biochemical function of most prenyltransferases, the downstream enzymes that condense the C5-precursors into central 10-, 15-, and 20-carbon prenyldiphosphate intermediates, has been described, although the function of several isoforms of C20-prenyltranferases is not well understood. Prenyl diphosphates are converted to a variety of C10-, C15-, and C20-terpene products by enzymes of the terpene synthase (TPS) family. Genomic organization of the 32 Arabidopsis TPS genes indicates a species-specific divergence of terpene synthases with tissue- and cell-type specific expression profiles that may have emerged under selection pressures by different organisms. Pseudogenization, differential expression, and subcellular segregation of TPS genes and enzymes contribute to the natural variation of terpene biosynthesis among Arabidopsis accessions (ecotypes) and species. Arabidopsis will remain an important model to investigate the metabolic organization and molecular regulatory networks of terpene specialized metabolism in relation to the biological activities of terpenes. PMID:22303268

  12. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  14. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280...

  15. Historeceptomic Fingerprints for Drug-Like Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Grigoryan, Arsen; Swetnam, James; Xin, Junyang; Tivon, Doreen; Shmelkov, Sergey V; Cardozo, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Most drugs exert their beneficial and adverse effects through their combined action on several different molecular targets (polypharmacology). The true molecular fingerprint of the direct action of a drug has two components: the ensemble of all the receptors upon which a drug acts and their level of expression in organs/tissues. Conversely, the fingerprint of the adverse effects of a drug may derive from its action in bystander tissues. The ensemble of targets is almost always only partially known. Here we describe an approach improving upon and integrating both components: in silico identification of a more comprehensive ensemble of targets for any drug weighted by the expression of those receptors in relevant tissues. Our system combines more than 300,000 experimentally determined bioactivity values from the ChEMBL database and 4.2 billion molecular docking scores. We integrated these scores with gene expression data for human receptors across a panel of human tissues to produce drug-specific tissue-receptor (historeceptomics) scores. A statistical model was designed to identify significant scores, which define an improved fingerprint representing the unique activity of any drug. These multi-dimensional historeceptomic fingerprints describe, in a novel, intuitive, and easy to interpret style, the holistic, in vivo picture of the mechanism of any drug's action. Valuable applications in drug discovery and personalized medicine, including the identification of molecular signatures for drugs with polypharmacologic modes of action, detection of tissue-specific adverse effects of drugs, matching molecular signatures of a disease to drugs, target identification for bioactive compounds with unknown receptors, and hypothesis generation for drug/compound phenotypes may be enabled by this approach. The system has been deployed at drugable.org for access through a user-friendly web site.

  16. Protective Effects of Terpenes on the Cardiovascular System: Current Advances and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Zuzarte, Monica; Marques, Carla; Salgueiro, Ligia; Girao, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that seriously affect patient's life quality and are responsible for huge economic and social burdens. It is widely accepted that a plant-based diet may reduce the risk of CVDs by attenuating several risk factors and/or modulating disease's onset and progression. Plants are rich in secondary metabolites, being terpenes the most abundant and structurally diverse group. These compounds have shown broad therapeutic potential as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Despite their popularity, scientific evidence on terpenes cardiovascular effects remains sparse, limiting their potential use as cardioprotective and/or cardiotherapeutic agents. Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the present review aims to gather the knowledge and some of the most scientific evidence accumulated over the past years on the effect of terpenes in the cardiovascular field with focus on CVDs namely ischemic heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias and hypertension. Several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar were consulted. The bibliographic research focused primarily on English written papers published over the last 15 years. A systematic and comprehensive update on the cardiovascular effects of terpenes is provided. Moreover, whenever known, the possible mechanisms of action underlying the cardiovascular effects are pointed out as well as an attempt to identify the most relevant structure- activity relationships of the different classes of terpenes. Overall, this review enables a better understanding of the cardiovascular effects of terpenes, thus paving the way towards future research in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design.

  17. Mass spectrometry analysis of terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shujing; Dudley, Ed; Song, Qingbao; Plummer, Sue; Tang, Jiandong; Newton, Russell P; Brenton, A Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Terpene lactones are a family of compounds with unique chemical structures, first recognised in an extract of Ginkgo biloba. The discovery of terpene lactone derivatives has recently been reported in more and more plant extracts and even food products. In this study, mass spectrometric characteristics of the standard terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba were comprehensively studied using both an ion trap and a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer. The mass spectral fragmentation data from both techniques was compared to obtain the mass spectrometric fragmentation pathways of the terpene lactones with high confidence. The data obtained will facilitate the analysis and identification of terpene lactones in future plant research via the fragmentation knowledge reported here.

  18. Drugs and Drug-Like Compounds: Discriminating Approved Pharmaceuticals from Screening-Library Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierz, Amanda C.; King, Ross D.

    Compounds in drug screening-libraries should resemble pharmaceuticals. To operationally test this, we analysed the compounds in terms of known drug-like filters and developed a novel machine learning method to discriminate approved pharmaceuticals from “drug-like” compounds. This method uses both structural features and molecular properties for discrimination. The method has an estimated accuracy of 91% in discriminating between the Maybridge HitFinder library and approved pharmaceuticals, and 99% between the NATDiverse collection (from Analyticon Discovery) and approved pharmaceuticals. These results show that Lipinski’s Rule of 5 for oral absorption is not sufficient to describe “drug-likeness” and be the main basis of screening-library design.

  19. CYP109E1 is a novel versatile statin and terpene oxidase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Litzenburger, Martin; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Milhim, Mohammed; Brill, Elisa; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-12-01

    CYP109E1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium with a hydroxylation activity for testosterone and vitamin D3. This study reports the screening of a focused library of statins, terpene-derived and steroidal compounds to explore the substrate spectrum of this enzyme. Catalytic activity of CYP109E1 towards the statin drug-precursor compactin and the prodrugs lovastatin and simvastatin as well as biotechnologically relevant terpene compounds including ionones, nootkatone, isolongifolen-9-one, damascones, and β-damascenone was found in vitro. The novel substrates induced a type I spin-shift upon binding to P450 and thus permitted to determine dissociation constants. For the identification of conversion products by NMR spectroscopy, a B. megaterium whole-cell system was applied. NMR analysis revealed for the first time the ability of CYP109E1 to catalyze an industrially highly important reaction, the production of pravastatin from compactin, as well as regioselective oxidations generating drug metabolites (6'β-hydroxy-lovastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-simvastatin, and 4″-hydroxy-simvastatin) and valuable terpene derivatives (3-hydroxy-α-ionone, 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, 11,12-epoxy-nootkatone, 4(R)-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one, 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 4-hydroxy-β-damascone, and 3,4-epoxy-β-damascone). Besides that, a novel compound, 2-hydroxy-β-damascenone, produced by CYP109E1 was identified. Docking calculations using the crystal structure of CYP109E1 rationalized the experimentally observed regioselective hydroxylation and identified important amino acid residues for statin and terpene binding.

  20. Compound immobilization and drug-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rix, Uwe; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive small molecules act through modulating a yet unpredictable number of targets. It is therefore of critical importance to define the cellular target proteins of a compound as an entry point to understanding its mechanism of action. Often, this can be achieved in a direct fashion by chemical proteomics. As with any affinity chromatography, immobilization of the bait to a solid support is one of the earliest and most crucial steps in the process. Interfering with structural features that are important for identification of a target protein will be detrimental to binding affinity. Also, many molecules are sensitive to heat or to certain chemicals, such as acid or base, and might be destroyed during the process of immobilization, which therefore needs to be not only efficient, but also mild. The subsequent affinity chromatography step needs to preserve molecular and conformational integrity of both bait compound and proteins in order to result in the desired specific enrichment while ensuring a high level of compatibility with downstream analysis by mass spectrometry. Thus, the right choice of detergent, buffer, and protease inhibitors is also essential. This chapter describes a widely applicable procedure for the immobilization of small molecule drugs and for drug-affinity chromatography with subsequent protein identification by mass spectrometry.

  1. Tomato Fruits-A Platform for Metabolic Engineering of Terpenes.

    PubMed

    Gutensohn, M; Dudareva, N

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of plant metabolites including mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes. They have numerous functions in basic physiological processes as well as the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment. Due to the tight regulation of biosynthetic pathways and the resulting limited natural availability of terpenes, there is a strong interest in increasing their production in plants by metabolic engineering for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. The tomato fruit system was developed as a platform for metabolic engineering of terpenes to overcome detrimental effects on overall plant growth and photosynthesis traits, which are affected when terpenoid engineering is performed in vegetative tissues. Here we describe how the use of fruit-specific promoters for transgene expression can avoid these unwanted effects. In addition, targeting the expression of the introduced terpene biosynthetic gene to fruit tissue can take advantage of the large precursor pool provided by the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is highly active during tomato fruit ripening to facilitate the accumulation of carotenoids. We also discuss how the production of high levels of target terpene compounds can be achieved in fruits by the expression of individual or a combination of (i) the MEP or mevalonic acid pathway enzymes, (ii) prenyltransferases, and/or (iii) terpene synthases. Finally, we provide a brief outline of how the emitted as well as internal pools of terpenes can be analyzed in transgenic tomato fruits. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress in terpene synthesis strategies through engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paramasivan, Kalaivani; Mutturi, Sarma

    2017-12-01

    Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns. Industrial workhorses' viz., Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have become microorganisms to produce non-native terpenes in order to address critical issues such as demand-supply imbalance, sustainability and commercial viability. S. cerevisiae enjoys several advantages for synthesizing non-native terpenes with the most significant being the compatibility for expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes from plant origin. Moreover, achievement of high titers such as 40 g/l of amorphadiene, a sesquiterpene, boosts commercial interest and encourages the researchers to envisage both molecular and process strategies for developing yeast cell factories to produce these compounds. This review contains a brief consideration of existing strategies to engineer S. cerevisiae toward the synthesis of terpene molecules. Some of the common targets for synthesis of terpenes in S. cerevisiae are as follows: overexpression of tHMG1, ERG20, upc2-1 in case of all classes of terpenes; repression of ERG9 by replacement of the native promoter with a repressive methionine promoter in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes; overexpression of BTS1 in case of di- and tetraterpenes. Site-directed mutagenesis such as Upc2p (G888A) in case of all classes of terpenes, ERG20p (K197G) in case of monoterpenes, HMG2p (K6R) in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes could be some generic targets. Efforts are made to consolidate various studies

  3. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  4. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  5. Compounding and Extralabel Use of Drugs in Exotic Animal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Powers, Lauren V; Davidson, Gigi

    2018-05-01

    Extralabel drug use is the use of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug in a manner different from what is stipulated on the approved label. Compounding is the process of preparing a medication in a manner not indicated on the label to create a formulation specifically tailored to the needs of an individual patient. Extralabel drug use and compounding are vital aspects of safe and effective drug delivery to patients in exotic animal practice. There are few FDA-approved drugs for exotic animal species, and many approved drugs for other species are not available in suitable formulations for use in exotic animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compound Libraries: Recent Advances and Their Applications in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhen; Hu, Guoping; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xuejin; Xiong, Jian; Li, Peng; Xu, Yan; Ma, Rujian; Chen, Shuhui; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Hit identification is the starting point of small-molecule drug discovery and is therefore very important to the pharmaceutical industry. One of the most important approaches to identify a new hit is to screen a compound library using an in vitro assay. High-throughput screening has made great contributions to drug discovery since the 1990s but requires expensive equipment and facilities, and its success depends on the size of the compound library. Recent progress in the development of compound libraries has provided more efficient ways to identify new hits for novel drug targets, thereby helping to promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry, especially for firstin- class drugs. A multistage and systematic research of articles published between 1986 and 2017 has been performed, which was organized into 5 sections and discussed in detail. In this review, the sources and classification of compound libraries are summarized. The progress made in combinatorial libraries and DNA-encoded libraries is reviewed. Library design methods, especially for focused libraries, are introduced in detail. In the final part, the status of the compound libraries at WuXi is reported. The progress related to compound libraries, especially drug template libraries, DELs, and focused libraries, will help to identify better hits for novel drug targets and promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, these libraries can facilitate hit identification, which benefits most research organizations, including academics and small companies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Deposition Fluxes of Terpenes over Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, I.; Hörtnagl, L.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Müller, M.; Graus, M.; Karl, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hansel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Eddy covariance flux measurements were carried out for two subsequent vegetation periods above a temperate mountain grassland in an alpine valley using a proton-transfer-reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a PTR-time of flight – mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF). In 2008 and during the first half of the vegetation period 2009 the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for the sum of monoterpenes (MTs) were typically well below 1 ppbv and neither MT emission nor deposition was observed. After a hailstorm in July 2009 an order of magnitude higher amount of terpenes was transported to the site from nearby coniferous forests causing elevated VMRs. As a consequence, deposition fluxes of terpenes to the grassland, which continued over a time period of several weeks without significant re-emission, were observed. For days without precipitation the deposition occurred at velocities close to the aerodynamic limit. In addition to monoterpene uptake, deposition fluxes of the sum of sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and the sum of oxygenated terpenes (OTs) were detected. Considering an entire growing season for the grassland (i.e., 1st of April to 1st of November), the cumulative carbon deposition of monoterpenes reached 276 mg C m−2. This is comparable to the net carbon emission of methanol (329 mg C m−2), which is the dominant non methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emitted from this site, during the same time period. It is suggested that deposition of monoterpenes to terrestrial ecosystems could play a more significant role in the reactive carbon budget than previously assumed. PMID:24383048

  8. Negative inotropism of terpenes on guinea pig left atrium: structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Carla M L; Oliveira, Ingrid S N; Santos, José N A; Souza, Américo A; Menezes-Filho, José E R; Silva Neto, Júlio A; Lima, Tamires C; de Sousa, Damião P

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacological effect of seven structurally related terpenes on the contractility of cardiac muscle. The effect of terpenes was studied on isolated electrically driven guinea pig left atrium. From concentration-response curves for inotropic effect were determined the EC 50 and relative potency of such terpenes. Our results revealed that all terpenes, except phytol, showed ability to reduce the contractile response of guinea pig left atrium. Further, relative potency was directly related to the number of isoprene units and to the lipophilicity of the compounds. For example, sesquiterpenes farnesol and nerolidol showed higher relative potency when compared with the monoterpenes citronellol, geraniol and nerol. We can conclude that most of the evaluated terpenes showed a promising negative inotropism on the atrial muscle. Future studies are necessary to investigate their action mechanism.

  9. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils.

    PubMed

    Irmisch, Sandra; Krause, Sandra T; Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G

    2012-06-08

    The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-β-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (-)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (-)-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils.

  10. The organ-specific expression of terpene synthase genes contributes to the terpene hydrocarbon composition of chamomile essential oils

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The essential oil of chamomile, one of the oldest and agronomically most important medicinal plant species in Europe, has significant antiphlogistic, spasmolytic and antimicrobial activities. It is rich in chamazulene, a pharmaceutically active compound spontaneously formed during steam distillation from the sesquiterpene lactone matricine. Chamomile oil also contains sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons which are produced by the action of terpene synthases (TPS), the key enzymes in constructing terpene carbon skeletons. Results Here, we present the identification and characterization of five TPS enzymes contributing to terpene biosynthesis in chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Four of these enzymes were exclusively expressed in above-ground organs and produced the common terpene hydrocarbons (−)-(E)-β-caryophyllene (MrTPS1), (+)-germacrene A (MrTPS3), (E)-β-ocimene (MrTPS4) and (−)-germacrene D (MrTPS5). A fifth TPS, the multiproduct enzyme MrTPS2, was mainly expressed in roots and formed several Asteraceae-specific tricyclic sesquiterpenes with (−)-α-isocomene being the major product. The TPS transcript accumulation patterns in different organs of chamomile were consistent with the abundance of the corresponding TPS products isolated from these organs suggesting that the spatial regulation of TPS gene expression qualitatively contribute to terpene composition. Conclusions The terpene synthases characterized in this study are involved in the organ-specific formation of essential oils in chamomile. While the products of MrTPS1, MrTPS2, MrTPS4 and MrTPS5 accumulate in the oils without further chemical alterations, (+)-germacrene A produced by MrTPS3 accumulates only in trace amounts, indicating that it is converted into another compound like matricine. Thus, MrTPS3, but also the other TPS genes, are good markers for further breeding of chamomile cultivars rich in pharmaceutically active essential oils. PMID:22682202

  11. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  13. Drug nanoparticles: formulating poorly water-soluble compounds.

    PubMed

    Merisko-Liversidge, Elaine M; Liversidge, Gary G

    2008-01-01

    More than 40% of compounds identified through combinatorial screening programs are poorly soluble in water. These molecules are difficult to formulate using conventional approaches and are associated with innumerable formulation-related performance issues. Formulating these compounds as pure drug nanoparticles is one of the newer drug-delivery strategies applied to this class of molecules. Nanoparticle dispersions are stable and have a mean diameter of less than 1 micron. The formulations consist of water, drug, and one or more generally regarded as safe excipients. These liquid dispersions exhibit an acceptable shelf-life and can be postprocessed into various types of solid dosage forms. Drug nanoparticles have been shown to improve bioavailability and enhance drug exposure for oral and parenteral dosage forms. Suitable formulations for the most commonly used routes of administration can be identified with milligram quantities of drug substance, providing the discovery scientist with an alternate avenue for screening and identifying superior analogs. For the toxicologist, the approach provides a means for dose escalation using a formulation that is commercially viable. In the past few years, formulating poorly water-soluble compounds using a nanoparticulate approach has evolved from a conception to a realization whose versatility and applicability are just beginning to be realized.

  14. Heterologous expression of 2-methylisoborneol / 2 methylenebornane biosynthesis genes in Escherichia coli yields novel C11-terpenes

    PubMed Central

    Wortmann, Hannah; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Schrader, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The structural diversity of terpenoids is limited by the isoprene rule which states that all primary terpene synthase products derive from methyl-branched building blocks with five carbon atoms. With this study we discover a broad spectrum of novel terpenoids with eleven carbon atoms as byproducts of bacterial 2-methylisoborneol or 2-methylenebornane synthases. Both enzymes use 2-methyl-GPP as substrate, which is synthesized from GPP by the action of a methyltransferase. We used E. coli strains that heterologously produce different C11-terpene synthases together with the GPP methyltransferase and the mevalonate pathway enzymes. With this de novo approach, 35 different C11-terpenes could be produced. In addition to eleven known compounds, it was possible to detect 24 novel C11-terpenes which have not yet been described as terpene synthase products. Four of them, 3,4-dimethylcumene, 2-methylborneol and the two diastereomers of 2-methylcitronellol could be identified. Furthermore, we showed that an E. coli strain expressing the GPP-methyltransferase can produce the C16-terpene 6-methylfarnesol which indicates the condensation of 2-methyl-GPP and IPP to 6-methyl-FPP by the E. coli FPP-synthase. Our study demonstrates the broad range of unusual terpenes accessible by expression of GPP-methyltransferases and C11-terpene synthases in E. coli and provides an extended mechanism for C11-terpene synthases. PMID:29672609

  15. Identification of terpenes and essential oils by means of static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Maecker, Roman; Vyhmeister, Eduardo; Meisen, Stefan; Rosales Martinez, Antonio; Kuklya, Andriy; Telgheder, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS GC-IMS) is a relatively new analytical technique that has considerable potential for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, SHS GC-IMS was used for the identification of the major terpene components of various essential oils (EOs). Based on the data obtained from 25 terpene standards and 50 EOs, a database for fingerprint identification of characteristic terpenes and EOs was generated utilizing SHS GC-IMS for authenticity testing of fragrances in foods, cosmetics, and personal care products. This database contains specific normalized IMS drift times and GC retention indices for 50 terpene components of EOs. Initially, the SHS GC-IMS parameters, e.g., drift gas and carrier gas flow rates, drift tube, and column temperatures, were evaluated to determine suitable operating conditions for terpene separation and identification. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a reference method for the identification of terpenes in EOs. The fingerprint pattern based on the normalized IMS drift times and retention indices of 50 terpenes is presented for 50 EOs. The applicability of the method was proven on examples of ten commercially available food, cosmetic, and personal care product samples. The results confirm the suitability of SHS GC-IMS as a powerful analytical technique for direct identification of terpene components in solid and liquid samples without any pretreatment. Graphical abstract Fingerprint pattern identification of terpenes and essential oils using static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

  16. FDA Expands List of "Do Not Compound" Drug Products.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    EDITOR'S ABSTRACT On October 3, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published in the Federal Register an expanded list of drug products that are not to be used in compounding extemporaneous dosage forms. This list contains numerous analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents and other chemicals sometimes used to manage pain and related symptoms. Because pharmacies are licensed by the states and other jurisdictions (districts, territories) as opposed to the federal government, regulation of extemporaneous compounding is inconsistent across the nation and minimal to nonexistent is some jurisdictions. Clinicians are urged to assure that pharmacies they and their patients use adhere to this list and compound only dosage forms for which there is good evidence of both safety and efficacy.

  17. Volatilisation of terpenes from Salvia mellifera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, B. J.; Dement, W. A.; Mooney, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    The study demonstrates significant terpene volatilisation from Salvia mellifera. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured in an intact branch of a potted plant using a gas analysis system. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were determined for various temperatures. The rates were directly proportional to leaf temperature and were the same in both light and dark reactions. Using the temperature curve for the steady-state rate of terpene volatilisation and the gas exchange characteristics, the daily carbon gain and terpene loss were calculated.

  18. The Screening Compound Collection: A Key Asset for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Boss, Christoph; Hazemann, Julien; Kimmerlin, Thierry; von Korff, Modest; Lüthi, Urs; Peter, Oliver; Sander, Thomas; Siegrist, Romain

    2017-10-25

    In this case study on an essential instrument of modern drug discovery, we summarize our successful efforts in the last four years toward enhancing the Actelion screening compound collection. A key organizational step was the establishment of the Compound Library Committee (CLC) in September 2013. This cross-functional team consisting of computational scientists, medicinal chemists and a biologist was endowed with a significant annual budget for regular new compound purchases. Based on an initial library analysis performed in 2013, the CLC developed a New Library Strategy. The established continuous library turn-over mode, and the screening library size of 300'000 compounds were maintained, while the structural library quality was increased. This was achieved by shifting the selection criteria from 'druglike' to 'leadlike' structures, enriching for non-flat structures, aiming for compound novelty, and increasing the ratio of higher cost 'Premium Compounds'. Novel chemical space was gained by adding natural compounds, macrocycles, designed and focused libraries to the collection, and through mutual exchanges of proprietary compounds with agrochemical companies. A comparative analysis in 2016 provided evidence for the positive impact of these measures. Screening the improved library has provided several highly promising hits, including a macrocyclic compound, that are currently followed up in different Hit-to-Lead and Lead Optimization programs. It is important to state that the goal of the CLC was not to achieve higher HTS hit rates, but to increase the chances of identified hits to serve as the basis of successful early drug discovery programs. The experience gathered so far legitimates the New Library Strategy.

  19. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions for New Drug Compounds Using a Weighted Nearest Neighbor Profile.

    PubMed

    van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In silico discovery of interactions between drug compounds and target proteins is of core importance for improving the efficiency of the laborious and costly experimental determination of drug-target interaction. Drug-target interaction data are available for many classes of pharmaceutically useful target proteins including enzymes, ion channels, GPCRs and nuclear receptors. However, current drug-target interaction databases contain a small number of drug-target pairs which are experimentally validated interactions. In particular, for some drug compounds (or targets) there is no available interaction. This motivates the need for developing methods that predict interacting pairs with high accuracy also for these 'new' drug compounds (or targets). We show that a simple weighted nearest neighbor procedure is highly effective for this task. We integrate this procedure into a recent machine learning method for drug-target interaction we developed in previous work. Results of experiments indicate that the resulting method predicts true interactions with high accuracy also for new drug compounds and achieves results comparable or better than those of recent state-of-the-art algorithms. Software is publicly available at http://cs.ru.nl/~tvanlaarhoven/drugtarget2013/.

  20. From crystal to compound: structure-based antimalarial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Drinkwater, Nyssa; McGowan, Sheena

    2014-08-01

    Despite a century of control and eradication campaigns, malaria remains one of the world's most devastating diseases. Our once-powerful therapeutic weapons are losing the war against the Plasmodium parasite, whose ability to rapidly develop and spread drug resistance hamper past and present malaria-control efforts. Finding new and effective treatments for malaria is now a top global health priority, fuelling an increase in funding and promoting open-source collaborations between researchers and pharmaceutical consortia around the world. The result of this is rapid advances in drug discovery approaches and technologies, with three major methods for antimalarial drug development emerging: (i) chemistry-based, (ii) target-based, and (iii) cell-based. Common to all three of these approaches is the unique ability of structural biology to inform and accelerate drug development. Where possible, SBDD (structure-based drug discovery) is a foundation for antimalarial drug development programmes, and has been invaluable to the development of a number of current pre-clinical and clinical candidates. However, as we expand our understanding of the malarial life cycle and mechanisms of resistance development, SBDD as a field must continue to evolve in order to develop compounds that adhere to the ideal characteristics for novel antimalarial therapeutics and to avoid high attrition rates pre- and post-clinic. In the present review, we aim to examine the contribution that SBDD has made to current antimalarial drug development efforts, covering hit discovery to lead optimization and prevention of parasite resistance. Finally, the potential for structural biology, particularly high-throughput structural genomics programmes, to identify future targets for drug discovery are discussed.

  1. Indoor fine particles: the role of terpene emissions from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Golam; Olson, David A; Corsi, Richard L; Weschler, Charles J

    2004-03-01

    Consumer products can emit significant quantities of terpenes, which can react with ozone (O3). Resulting byproducts include compounds with low vapor pressures that contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential for SOA growth, in the presence of O3, following the use of a lime-scented liquid air freshener, a pine-scented solid air freshener, a lemon-scented general-purpose cleaner, a wood floor cleaner, and a perfume. Two chamber experiments were performed for each of these five terpene-containing agents, one at an elevated O3 concentration and-the other at a lower O3 concentration. Particle number and mass concentrations increased and O3 concentrations decreased during each experiment. Experiments with terpene-based air fresheners produced the highest increases in particle number and mass concentrations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that homogeneous reactions between O3 and terpenes from various consumer products can lead to increases in fine particle mass concentrations when these products are used indoors. Particle increases can occur during periods of elevated outdoor O3 concentrations or indoor O3 generation, coupled with elevated terpene releases. Human exposure to fine particles can be reduced by minimizing indoor terpene concentrations or O3 concentrations.

  2. Selecting Microbial Strains from Pine Tree Resin: Biotechnological Applications from a Terpene World

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Marín, Maria; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Resin is a chemical and physical defensive barrier secreted by many plants, especially coniferous trees, with insecticidal and antimicrobial properties. The degradation of terpenes, the main components accounting for the toxicity of resin, is highly relevant for a vast range of biotechnological processes, including bioremediation. In the present work, we used a resin-based selective medium in order to study the resin-tolerant microbial communities associated with the galls formed by the moth Retinia resinella; as well as resin from Pinus sylvestris forests, one of the largest ecosystems on Earth and a yet-unexplored source of terpene-degrading microorganisms. The taxonomic and functional diversity of the cultivated, resin-tolerant fraction of the whole microbiota were unveiled by high-throughput sequencing, which resulted in the detection of more than 40 bacterial genera among the terpene-degrading microorganisms, and a range of genes involved in the degradation of different terpene families. We further characterized through culture-based approaches and transcriptome sequencing selected microbial strains, including Pseudomonas sp., the most abundant species in both environmental resin and R. resinella resin-rich galls, and three fungal species, and experimentally confirmed their ability to degrade resin and also other terpene-based compounds and, thus, their potential use in biotechnological applications involving terpene catabolism. PMID:24971580

  3. 78 FR 72897 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Interim Product Reporting for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing... Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' The draft... human drug compounders that choose to register as outsourcing facilities (outsourcing facilities). DATES...

  4. In-vitro Drug Dissolution Studies in Medicinal Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bozal-Palabiyik, Burcin; Uslu, Bengi; Ozkan, Yalcin; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2018-03-22

    After oral administration, drug absorption from solid dosage forms depend on the release of the drug active compounds from the dosage form, the dissolution or solubilization of the drug under physiological conditions, and the permeability across the gastrointestinal tract. Dissolution testing is an essential part of designing more effective solid dosage forms in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover dissolution testing contributes to the selection of appropriate formulation excipients for improving the dosage form efficiency. This study aims to analyze in-vitro drug dissolution testing in solid dosage forms since 2010 in order to present a comprehensive outlook of recent trends. In doing that the previous studies in the literature are summarized in the form of a table to demonstrate the apparatuses used for dissolution testing, the media in which the solid dosage form is dissolved, the method preferred for analysis from dissolution media, the conditions of analyses and the results obtained. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Principal component analysis (PCA) of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Peña, Leandro

    2016-12-01

    We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S), down-regulated (AS) or non-altered (EV; control) ("Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception"(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016)) [1]). Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC-MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  6. Novel Antibacterial Compounds and their Drug Targets - Successes and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Polski, Andrzej; Sobótka-Polska, Karolina; Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Pitucha, Monika

    2017-01-01

    molecular basis of drug resistance, drug targets for novel antibacterial drugs, and new compounds (since year 2010) from different chemical classes with antibacterial activity, focusing on structure-activity relationships. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    DOEpatents

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  8. Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Saito, Alexandre Y; Marin Rodriguez, Adriana A; Menchaca Vega, Danielle S; Sussmann, Rodrigo A C; Kimura, Emília A; Katzin, Alejandro M

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, an infectious disease that kills more than 438,000 people per year worldwide, is a major public health problem. The emergence of strains resistant to conventional therapeutic agents necessitates the discovery of new drugs. We previously demonstrated that various substances, including terpenes, have antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo. Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants that is used in scented products and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a food-flavouring agent. In this study, the antimalarial activity of nerolidol was investigated in a mouse model of malaria. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and were treated with 1000 mg/kg/dose nerolidol in two doses delivered by the oral or inhalation route. In mice treated with nerolidol, parasitaemia was inhibited by >99% (oral) and >80% (inhalation) until 14 days after infection (P <0.0001). On Day 30 post-infection, the survival rate of orally treated mice was 90% compared with 16% in controls (P <0.0001). In contrast, inhalation-treated mice showed a survival rate of 50% vs. 42% in controls (P > 0.05). The toxicity of nerolidol administered by either route was not significant, whilst genotoxicity was observed only at the highest dose tested. These results indicate that combined use of nerolidol and other drugs targeting different points of the same isoprenoid pathway may be an effective treatment for malaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. [Photosensitization and photoprotection by some drugs, metabolites and other compounds].

    PubMed

    Lozovskaia, E L; Makareeva, E N; Makedonov, I U

    1997-01-01

    Photosensitizing and photoprotecting efficiency of about a hundred of compounds, mainly drugs, was studied. The method based on chemiluminescence occurred along with photooxidation of glycyltryptophan under irradiation in UVB range in solution was used for testing. As a measure of photosensitizing efficiency the concentration of photosensitizer which induced two-fold increase of chemiluminescence intensity was chosen. The most effective photosensitizers are riboflavin, FAD, furagin, psoralene, vicasol, benzobarbital, mydocalm, angelicyn, furadonin, ethacridin, diazolin, folic acid. With regard to pharmacological doses of drugs in organism more dangerous sensitizers (in descending order) are p-aminosalicylic acid, furagin, riboflavin, benzobarbital, thiopental, chloramphenicol, nicodin, mydocalm, furadonin, oxolonic acid, furazolidone, psoralene, nicotinamide and diazolin. Photoprotecting effect was described by the concentration at which chemiluminescence intensity decreased twice. The most effective photoprotectors are etamsilat, quercetin, ftivazid, chlorpromazine, diprazine, thioridazine, aminophenazone, oxaphenamide. Concentration dependence for some of these drugs (etamsilat, chlorpromazine, diprazine, thioridazine) is non-monotonous: they inhibit photooxidation in low concentration (about 10(-7)-10(-6) M), but at higher concentrations (10(-5)-10(-4) M) photosensitization dominates over photoprotection.

  10. Extemporaneous compounding of oral liquid dosage formulations and alternative drug delivery methods for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Lam, Masha S H

    2011-02-01

    Oncology pharmacists face a constant challenge with patients who cannot swallow oral anticancer drugs, making extemporaneous oral liquid preparation a requirement. Improper extemporaneous preparation of these agents, especially with the traditional chemotherapy with a narrow therapeutic index, may increase the risk of over- or underdosing. In community pharmacies, multiple barriers exist that prevent these pharmacies from preparing extemporaneous oral anticancer drug formulations for a patient's use at home. In a home setting, patients or caregivers without proper counseling and education on how to safely handle chemotherapy are at increased risk for exposure to these drugs. Based on a review of the literature, compounding recipes are available for 46% of oral anticancer agents. A paucity of data exists on dose uniformity, bioequivalence, and stability of extemporaneous oral liquid formulations of anticancer drugs. Pharmacists must have an understanding of the basic scientific principles that are an essential foundation for the proper preparation of extemporaneous oral anticancer liquid formulations. The collaborative effort of a multidisciplinary team can also help identify different barriers in the community setting, especially in areas where community pharmacies may lack resources for the extemporaneous compounding of oral chemotherapy, and to find ways to coordinate better pharmaceutical care. There are great opportunities for oncology pharmacists, as well as community pharmacists, as a resource for educating and monitoring patients receiving oral chemotherapy to ensure dosing accuracy, safe administration, and proper disposal of hazardous drugs. Development of national guidelines to promote standards of practice in the community and/or home setting is urgently needed to help improve the safety of dispensing and handling oral chemotherapeutic agents, including extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of these drugs.

  11. An Isotopic Labelling Strategy to Study Cytochrome P450 Oxidations of Terpenes.

    PubMed

    Rinkel, Jan; Litzenburger, Martin; Bernhardt, Rita; Dickschat, Jeroen Sidney

    2018-04-26

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP267B1 from Sorangium cellulosum was applied for enzymatic oxidation of the sesquiterpene alcohols T-muurolol and isodauc-8-en-11-ol. Various isotopically labelled geranyl and farnesyl diphosphates were used for product identification from micro-scale reactions, for determination of the absolute configurations of unknown compounds, to follow the stereochemical course of a cytochrome P450-catalysed hydroxylation step, and to investigate kinetic isotope effects. Overall, this study demonstrates that isotopically labelled terpene precursors are highly useful to follow cytochrome P450 dependent oxidations of terpenes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Plant-Derived Terpenes: A Feedstock for Specialty Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mewalal, Ritesh; Rai, Durgesh K; Kainer, David; Chen, Feng; Külheim, Carsten; Peter, Gary F; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2017-03-01

    Research toward renewable and sustainable energy has identified specific terpenes capable of supplementing or replacing current petroleum-derived fuels. Despite being naturally produced and stored by many plants, there are few examples of commercial recovery of terpenes from plants because of low yields. Plant terpene biosynthesis is regulated at multiple levels, leading to wide variability in terpene content and chemistry. Advances in the plant molecular toolkit, including annotated genomes, high-throughput omics profiling, and genome editing, have begun to elucidate plant terpene metabolism, and such information is useful for bioengineering metabolic pathways for specific terpenes. We review here the status of terpenes as a specialty biofuel and discuss the potential of plants as a viable agronomic solution for future terpene-derived biofuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant-Derived Terpenes: A Feedstock for Specialty Biofuels

    DOE PAGES

    Mewalal, Ritesh; Rai, Durgesh K.; Kainer, David; ...

    2016-09-09

    Research toward renewable and sustainable energy has identified candidate terpenes capable of blending/replacing petroleum-derived jet, diesel and tactical fuels. Additionally, despite being naturally produced and stored by many plants, there are few examples of commercial recovery of terpenes from plants due to low yields. Plant terpene biosynthesis is regulated at multiple levels leading to wide variability in terpene content and chemistry. Advances in the plant molecular toolkit including annotated genomes, high-throughput omics profiling and genome-editing provides an ideal platform for high-resolution analysis and in-depth understanding of plant terpene metabolism. Concomitantly, such information is useful for bioengineering strategies of metabolic pathwaysmore » for candidate terpenes. Within this paper, we review the status of terpenes as an advanced biofuel and discuss the potential of plants as a viable agronomic solution for future advanced terpene-derived biofuels.« less

  14. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... manufacturing, processing, or packaging of a drug, becomes an active ingredient or a finished dosage form of the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I [Docket No... Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503A of the Federal Food...

  15. Drug-likeness analysis of traditional Chinese medicines: 2. Characterization of scaffold architectures for drug-like compounds, non-drug-like compounds, and natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sheng; Li, Youyong; Wang, Junmei; Xu, Xiaojie; Xu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Lei; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-01-21

    In order to better understand the structural features of natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, the scaffold architectures of drug-like compounds in MACCS-II Drug Data Report (MDDR), non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD), and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD) were explored and compared. First, the different scaffolds were extracted from ACD, MDDR and TCMCD by using three scaffold representations, including Murcko frameworks, Scaffold Tree, and ring systems with different complexity and side chains. Then, by examining the accumulative frequency of the scaffolds in each dataset, we observed that the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree offer advantages over the other scaffold architectures to represent the scaffold diversity of the compound libraries. By comparing the similarity of the scaffold architectures presented in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD, structural overlaps were observed not only between MDDR and TCMCD but also between MDDR and ACD. Finally, Tree Maps were used to cluster the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree and visualize the scaffold space of the three datasets. The analysis of the scaffold architectures of MDDR, ACD and TCMCD shows that, on average, drug-like molecules in MDDR have the highest diversity while natural compounds in TCMCD have the highest complexity. According to the Tree Maps, it can be observed that the Level 1 scaffolds present in MDDR have higher diversity than those presented in TCMCD and ACD. However, some representative scaffolds in MDDR with high frequency show structural similarities to those in TCMCD and ACD, suggesting that some scaffolds in TCMCD and ACD may be potentially drug-like fragments for fragment-based and de novo drug design.

  16. Drug-likeness analysis of traditional Chinese medicines: 2. Characterization of scaffold architectures for drug-like compounds, non-drug-like compounds, and natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to better understand the structural features of natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, the scaffold architectures of drug-like compounds in MACCS-II Drug Data Report (MDDR), non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD), and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD) were explored and compared. Results First, the different scaffolds were extracted from ACD, MDDR and TCMCD by using three scaffold representations, including Murcko frameworks, Scaffold Tree, and ring systems with different complexity and side chains. Then, by examining the accumulative frequency of the scaffolds in each dataset, we observed that the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree offer advantages over the other scaffold architectures to represent the scaffold diversity of the compound libraries. By comparing the similarity of the scaffold architectures presented in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD, structural overlaps were observed not only between MDDR and TCMCD but also between MDDR and ACD. Finally, Tree Maps were used to cluster the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree and visualize the scaffold space of the three datasets. Conclusion The analysis of the scaffold architectures of MDDR, ACD and TCMCD shows that, on average, drug-like molecules in MDDR have the highest diversity while natural compounds in TCMCD have the highest complexity. According to the Tree Maps, it can be observed that the Level 1 scaffolds present in MDDR have higher diversity than those presented in TCMCD and ACD. However, some representative scaffolds in MDDR with high frequency show structural similarities to those in TCMCD and ACD, suggesting that some scaffolds in TCMCD and ACD may be potentially drug-like fragments for fragment-based and de novo drug design. PMID:23336706

  17. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    PubMed

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  18. Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic xylariaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs)more » derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Lastly, out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.« less

  19. Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic xylariaceae

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs)more » derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Lastly, out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.« less

  20. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Can psychedelic compounds play a part in drug dependence therapy?

    PubMed

    Sessa, Ben; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus there is now a revisiting of psychedelic drug therapy throughout psychiatry, with studies examining the drugs psilocybin, ketamine, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of drug dependence. Limitations to these therapies are both clinical and legal, but the possibility of improving outcomes for patients with substance dependency imposes an obligation to research this area. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  2. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Bukari, Abdallah A; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-07-28

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on 'lipid sinks' and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    D’Addio, Suzanne M.; Bukari, Abdallah A.; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on ‘lipid sinks’ and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation’. PMID:27298440

  4. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  5. Toxicant Formation in Dabbing: The Terpene Story

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Inhalable, noncombustible cannabis products are playing a central role in the expansion of the medical and recreational use of cannabis. In particular, the practice of “dabbing” with butane hash oil has emerged with great popularity in states that have legalized cannabis. Despite their growing popularity, the degradation product profiles of these new products have not been extensively investigated. The study herein focuses on the chemistry of myrcene and other common terpenes found in cannabis extracts. Methacrolein, benzene, and several other products of concern to human health were formed under the conditions that simulated real-world dabbing. The terpene degradation products observed are consistent with those reported in the atmospheric chemistry literature. PMID:28983528

  6. HS-SPME/GC analysis reveals the population variability of terpene contents in Juniperus communis needles.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Madanecki, Piotr; Gołebiowski, Marek; Stepnowski, Piotr; Ochocka, J Renata

    2009-12-01

    Juniperus communis var. communis L. is an aromatic plant - typical boreal element of flora. In the extensive literature concerning J. communis, there is much data on the composition and the content of essential oil of needles and coneberries, but a detailed analysis of terpene distribution within and between populations is missing. A representative pool of 74 J. communis individuals originating from ten populations of Northern Poland was investigated in order to evaluate the intra- and interpopulational variability of the terpene pattern. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC/MS and GC/FID was applied in achiral and enantioselective analysis. The majority of the samples (85%), despite different origin, were similar in the terpene pattern. High diversity of terpenes was observed within the populations and low diversity between them. High variation of enantiomeric composition was in accordance with large variation of individual compounds in general (achiral analysis). J. communis samples from Northern Poland could be distinguished by the alpha-pinene/sabinene ratio, and they were divided into three chemical races.

  7. Compound annotation with real time cellular activity profiles to improve drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a range of innovative strategies have been developed to improve the productivity of pharmaceutical research and development. In particular, compound annotation, combined with informatics, has provided unprecedented opportunities for drug discovery. In this review, a literature search from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to provide an overview of the compound annotation approaches currently used in drug discovery. Based on this, a framework related to a compound annotation approach using real-time cellular activity profiles for probe, drug, and biology discovery is proposed. Compound annotation with chemical structure, drug-like properties, bioactivities, genome-wide effects, clinical phenotypes, and textural abstracts has received significant attention in early drug discovery. However, these annotations are mostly associated with endpoint results. Advances in assay techniques have made it possible to obtain real-time cellular activity profiles of drug molecules under different phenotypes, so it is possible to generate compound annotation with real-time cellular activity profiles. Combining compound annotation with informatics, such as similarity analysis, presents a good opportunity to improve the rate of discovery of novel drugs and probes, and enhance our understanding of the underlying biology.

  8. Polyphenylenesulfide, noxon® an ozone scavenger for the analysis of oxygenated terpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogirou, A.; Duane, M.; Kotzias, D.; Lahaniati, M.; Larsen, B. R.

    During sampling, oxygenated terpenes may undergo decomposition through reaction with atmospheric ozone. We have studied their ozonolytic decomposition during preconcentration on Tenax. The saturated. terpenoids 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate nopinone and pinonaldehyde are practically unaffected by ozone in the range of 8 to 120 ppbv. Compounds which contain one or more C-C double bonds are decomposed in the order: linalool ≈ citronellal ≈ 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one > citral > 4-acetyl-1-methyl-cyclohexane > 3-(1-methylethenyl)-6-oxo-heptanal > myrtenal ≈ 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The degree of decomposition varies from 0 to 5% for the least reactive to 80 to 90% for the most reactive compounds. A broad range of material was investigated as potential ozone scavengers. By using the polymer noXon (polyphenylenesulfide) all the investigated compounds could be sampled with quantitative recoveries even at high ozone mixing ratios (95-110 ppbv). This ozone scrubber was tested for sampling of terpene oxidation products on Tenax and dinitrophenylhydrazine impregnated C 18-silicagel cartridges. Recoveries from 85 to 110% were obtained for all investigated compounds. The method was used for the analysis of oxidation products of terpenes in ambient air in three campaigns. Attention was focused on nopinone from β-pinene, pinonaldehyde from α-pinene, 3-(1-methylethenyl)-6-oxo-heptanal and 4-acetyl-1-methyl-cyclohexane from limonene, and 5-(1-methylethyl)-bicyclo[3.1.0] hexan-2-one from sabinene. Nopinone was the only product which could be frequently detected in ratios from 0 to 90% of the measured β-pinene concentrations. Pinonaldehyde was encountered only once (30% of α-pinene) while the other products were not found. These data have to be seen as a first attempt to measure terpene oxidation products in the troposphere.

  9. N cycling and the composition of terpenes and tannins in boreal forest soils: Effects of logging residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Kukkola, Mikko; Tamminen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence available that certain terpenes and tannins may mediate substantial changes in nitrogen cycling processes in boreal forest soils. Terpenes and tannins are two important groups of plant secondary metabolites: Terpenes are hydrocarbons having different number of isoprene-derived units and tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds able to interact with proteins. Logging residues, consisting of fresh tree tops and branches with needles contain large amounts of terpenes and tannins. Currently there is increasing demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production. Therefore, harvesting of logging residues has become more common from both clear-cutting and thinning stands, instead of conventional stem-only harvest where logging residues are retained on the site. Our aim was to determine how logging residues affect soil N cycling processes in Scots pine and Norway spruce thinning stands in long-term, and how these processes are related to the composition of terpenes and tannins in the soil. Samples were taken from the humus layer of pine and spruce experiments which had been thinned 4-to-19 years before; in the thinning different amounts of logging residues had been distributed on the plots. Logging residues had only little effect on soil microbial biomass N or C. However, in several sites logging residues increased the rate of net N mineralization and the ratios net N mineralization/ C mineralization and net N mineralization/microbial biomass N, and these positive effects were very long-lasting. Logging residues also changed the composition of different terpenes and condensed tannins in soil. In general, with regard to the processes and ratios indicating N availability, stem-only harvest seems to be more favorable than whole-tree harvest. The results from long-term field experiments will be discussed in relation to the effects of different terpenes and tannins, observed in short-term laboratory experiments, on N cycling processes.

  10. FAF-Drugs3: a web server for compound property calculation and chemical library design

    PubMed Central

    Lagorce, David; Sperandio, Olivier; Baell, Jonathan B.; Miteva, Maria A.; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug attrition late in preclinical or clinical development is a serious economic problem in the field of drug discovery. These problems can be linked, in part, to the quality of the compound collections used during the hit generation stage and to the selection of compounds undergoing optimization. Here, we present FAF-Drugs3, a web server that can be used for drug discovery and chemical biology projects to help in preparing compound libraries and to assist decision-making during the hit selection/lead optimization phase. Since it was first described in 2006, FAF-Drugs has been significantly modified. The tool now applies an enhanced structure curation procedure, can filter or analyze molecules with user-defined or eight predefined physicochemical filters as well as with several simple ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) rules. In addition, compounds can be filtered using an updated list of 154 hand-curated structural alerts while Pan Assay Interference compounds (PAINS) and other, generally unwanted groups are also investigated. FAF-Drugs3 offers access to user-friendly html result pages and the possibility to download all computed data. The server requires as input an SDF file of the compounds; it is open to all users and can be accessed without registration at http://fafdrugs3.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr. PMID:25883137

  11. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6) parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9) parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  12. Terpenes Increase the Lipid Dynamics in the Leishmania Plasma Membrane at Concentrations Similar to Their IC50 Values

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×106 parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4–9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×109 parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis. PMID:25101672

  13. Bioactive compounds in bee propolis for drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2018-02-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous product collected by honeybees. It has been used in folk medicine since ancient times because of its numerous biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies of the chemical composition of propolis have demonstrated that its compositional variability depends on the source plant. We have studied the chemistry and biological activities of various types of propolis from Apis mellifera. The studies of propolis collected in Brazil, Japan, Korea, the Solomon Island and Senegal are summarized. Brazilian green propolis contained high levels of artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid), which has a potent apoptosis-inducing agent as well as an angiogenesis inhibitor. The several phenolic compounds with potent antibacterial activity in Brazilian red propolis were found. The propolis from Okinawa, Japan, contained some prenylflavonoids with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The propolis from the Solomon Islands and Hawaii have the same compounds as Okinawan propolis. The propolis from Jeju Island, Korea had the promotion effect on nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion in human glioblastoma T98G cells. The compounds isolated from Senegalese propolis showed high anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibition of the liposaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).

  14. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  15. Differential sensing using proteins: exploiting the cross-reactivity of serum albumin to pattern individual terpenes and terpenes in perfume.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michelle M; Anslyn, Eric V

    2009-12-02

    There has been a growing interest in the use of differential sensing for analyte classification. In an effort to mimic the mammalian senses of taste and smell, which utilize protein-based receptors, we have introduced serum albumins as nonselective receptors for recognition of small hydrophobic molecules. Herein, we employ a sensing ensemble consisting of serum albumins, a hydrophobic fluorescent indicator (PRODAN), and a hydrophobic additive (deoxycholate) to detect terpenes. With the aid of linear discriminant analysis, we successfully applied our system to differentiate five terpenes. We then extended our terpene analysis and utilized our sensing ensemble for terpene discrimination within the complex mixtures found in perfume.

  16. Development of an Isolator System for PET Drug Compounding with Sterilization and Dispensing Units.

    PubMed

    Waki, Atsuo; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Mizukawa, Yousuke; Kinoshita, Toshiaki; Ichihara, Hironobu; Kaneko, Izumi; Iwakuma, Kazuko; Kawamura, Kazuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    To maintain sterility of PET drug is the most important for in-house positron emission tomography (PET) drug manufacturing, and sanitary control of the laboratory to perform aseptic procedure is the key point for the sterility of PET drugs. However, rigorous sanitary control affects both the high cost and the low efficiency. To conquer those, we developed an isolator system especially for PET drug compounding including sterilization and dispensing units. This system consists of a HEPA unit for inlet and outlet, positive regulation of the ear inside isolator, a sterilizer with vapored hydrogen peroxide and a dispenser with self-shield for radiation. We set the materials for the dispenser through gloves, and the compounding such as sterilization and dispensing PET drugs to the containers is performed automatically without radiation. High level assurance of PET drug sterility is expected to be accomplished in the PET centers of the hospitals without high level sanitary control.

  17. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  18. Determination of drugs and drug-like compounds in different samples with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2011-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART), a relatively new ionization source for mass spectrometry, ionizes small-molecule components from different kinds of samples without any sample preparation and chromatographic separation. The current paper reviews the published data available on the determination of drugs and drug-like compounds in different matrices with DART-MS, including identification and quantitation issues. Parameters that affect ionization efficiency and mass spectra composition are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Potential Contribution of Fish Feed and Phytoplankton to the Content of Volatile Terpenes in Cultured Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Podduturi, Raju; Petersen, Mikael A; Mahmud, Sultan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Jørgensen, Niels O G

    2017-05-10

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most recognized off-flavors in freshwater fish, but terpenes may also contribute off-flavor in fish. We identified six monoterpenes, 11 sesquiterpenes, and three terpene-related compounds in pangasius and tilapia from aquaculture farms in Bangladesh. The concentrations of most of the volatiles were below published odor thresholds, except for α-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-ionone in tilapia, and limonene and β-ionone in pangasius. To identify sources of the terpenes, terpene profiles of fish feed and phytoplankton in the ponds were analyzed. In feed and mustard cake (feed ingredient), five monoterpenes and two sesquiterpenes were identified, and five of these compounds were also detected in the fish. In phytoplankton, 11 monoterpenes were found and three also occurred in the fish. The higher number of terpenes common to both fish and feed, than to fish and phytoplankton, suggests that feed was a more abundant source of odor-active terpenes in the fish than phytoplankton.

  20. Connection Map for Compounds (CMC): A Server for Combinatorial Drug Toxicity and Efficacy Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Tsompana, Maria; Wang, Yong; Wu, Dingfeng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhu, Ruixin

    2016-09-26

    Drug discovery and development is a costly and time-consuming process with a high risk for failure resulting primarily from a drug's associated clinical safety and efficacy potential. Identifying and eliminating inapt candidate drugs as early as possible is an effective way for reducing unnecessary costs, but limited analytical tools are currently available for this purpose. Recent growth in the area of toxicogenomics and pharmacogenomics has provided with a vast amount of drug expression microarray data. Web servers such as CMap and LTMap have used this information to evaluate drug toxicity and mechanisms of action independently; however, their wider applicability has been limited by the lack of a combinatorial drug-safety type of analysis. Using available genome-wide drug transcriptional expression profiles, we developed the first web server for combinatorial evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of candidate drugs named "Connection Map for Compounds" (CMC). Using CMC, researchers can initially compare their query drug gene signatures with prebuilt gene profiles generated from two large-scale toxicogenomics databases, and subsequently perform a drug efficacy analysis for identification of known mechanisms of drug action or generation of new predictions. CMC provides a novel approach for drug repositioning and early evaluation in drug discovery with its unique combination of toxicity and efficacy analyses, expansibility of data and algorithms, and customization of reference gene profiles. CMC can be freely accessed at http://cadd.tongji.edu.cn/webserver/CMCbp.jsp .

  1. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  2. Drug-repositioning opportunities for cancer therapy: novel molecular targets for known compounds.

    PubMed

    Würth, Roberto; Thellung, Stefano; Bajetto, Adriana; Mazzanti, Michele; Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Drug repositioning is gaining increasing attention in drug discovery because it represents a smart way to exploit new molecular targets of a known drug or target promiscuity among diverse diseases, for medical uses different from the one originally considered. In this review, we focus on known non-oncological drugs with new therapeutic applications in oncology, explaining the rationale behind this approach and providing practical evidence. Moving from incompleteness of the knowledge of drug-target interactions, particularly for older molecules, we highlight opportunities for repurposing compounds as cancer therapeutics, underling the biologically and clinically relevant affinities for new targets. Ideal candidates for repositioning can contribute to the therapeutically unmet need for more-efficient anticancer agents, including drugs that selectively target cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Discriminating Drug-Like Compounds by Partition Trees with Quantum Similarity Indices and Graph Invariants.

    PubMed

    Julián-Ortiz, Jesus V de; Gozalbes, Rafael; Besalú, Emili

    2016-01-01

    The search for new drug candidates in databases is of paramount importance in pharmaceutical chemistry. The selection of molecular subsets is greatly optimized and much more promising when potential drug-like molecules are detected a priori. In this work, about one hundred thousand molecules are ranked following a new methodology: a drug/non-drug classifier constructed by a consensual set of classification trees. The classification trees arise from the stochastic generation of training sets, which in turn are used to estimate probability factors of test molecules to be drug-like compounds. Molecules were represented by Topological Quantum Similarity Indices and their Graph Theoretical counterparts. The contribution of the present paper consists of presenting an effective ranking method able to improve the probability of finding drug-like substances by using these types of molecular descriptors.

  4. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    PubMed Central

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-01-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination. PMID:25335793

  5. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-10-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

  6. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-10-22

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

  7. Studying of drug solubility in water and alcohols using drug-ammonium ionic liquid-compounds.

    PubMed

    Halayqa, Mohammad; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Domańska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Synthesis of three mefenamic acid (MEF) derivatives - ionic liquid compounds composed of MEF in an anionic form and ammonium cation (choline, MEF1), or {di(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium (MEF2)}, or {tri(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium compound (MEF3)} is presented. The basic thermal properties of pure compounds i.e. fusion temperatures, and the enthalpy of fusion of these compounds have been measured with differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The solubilities of MEF1, MEF2 and MEF3 using the dynamic method were measured at constant pH in a range of temperature from (290 to 370) K in three solvents: water, ethanol and 1-octanol. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of three commonly known G E equations: the Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC with the assumption that the systems studied here present simple eutectic behaviour. The activity coefficients of pharmaceuticals at saturated solutions in each binary mixture were calculated from the experimental data. The formation of MEF-ionic liquid compounds greatly increases the solubility in water in comparison with pure MEF or complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The development of these compounds formulations will assist in medication taking into account oral solid or gel medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacologically directed strategies in academic anticancer drug discovery based on the European NCI compounds initiative.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hans R; Govaerts, Anne-Sophie; Fichtner, Iduna; Burtles, Sally; Westwell, Andrew D; Peters, Godefridus J

    2017-07-11

    The European NCI compounds programme, a joint initiative of the EORTC Research Branch, Cancer Research Campaign and the US National Cancer Institute, was initiated in 1993. The objective was to help the NCI in reducing the backlog of in vivo testing of potential anticancer compounds, synthesised in Europe that emerged from the NCI in vitro 60-cell screen. Over a period of more than twenty years the EORTC-Cancer Research Campaign panel reviewed ∼2000 compounds of which 95 were selected for further evaluation. Selected compounds were stepwise developed with clear go/no go decision points using a pharmacologically directed programme. This approach eliminated quickly compounds with unsuitable pharmacological properties. A few compounds went into Phase I clinical evaluation. The lessons learned and many of the principles outlined in the paper can easily be applied to current and future drug discovery and development programmes. Changes in the review panel, restrictions regarding numbers and types of compounds tested in the NCI in vitro screen and the appearance of targeted agents led to the discontinuation of the European NCI programme in 2017 and its transformation into an academic platform of excellence for anticancer drug discovery and development within the EORTC-PAMM group. This group remains open for advice and collaboration with interested parties in the field of cancer pharmacology.

  9. Drug Repurposing Screening Identifies Novel Compounds That Effectively Inhibit Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Ashley J.; Drozda, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of <5 µM. A significant number of these compounds are established inhibitors of dopamine or estrogen signaling. Follow-up experiments with the dopamine receptor inhibitor pimozide revealed that the drug impacted both parasite invasion and replication but did so independently of inhibition of dopamine or other neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Tamoxifen, which is an established inhibitor of the estrogen receptor, also reduced parasite invasion and replication. Even though Toxoplasma can activate the estrogen receptor, tamoxifen inhibits parasite growth independently of this transcription factor. Tamoxifen is also a potent inducer of autophagy, and we find that the drug stimulates recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3-green fluorescent protein onto the membrane of the vacuolar compartment in which the parasite resides and replicates. In contrast to other antiparasitic drugs, including pimozide, tamoxifen treatment of infected cells leads to a time-dependent elimination of intracellular parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that tamoxifen restricts Toxoplasma growth by inducing xenophagy or autophagic destruction of this obligate intracellular parasite. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to treat microbial infections, and the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as one approach to achieving this goal. Using the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a library of 1,120 compounds and identified several

  10. An iterative approach for compound detection in an unknown pharmaceutical drug product: Application on Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boiret, Mathieu; Gorretta, Nathalie; Ginot, Yves-Michel; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2016-02-20

    Raman chemical imaging provides both spectral and spatial information on a pharmaceutical drug product. Even if the main objective of chemical imaging is to obtain distribution maps of each formulation compound, identification of pure signals in a mixture dataset remains of huge interest. In this work, an iterative approach is proposed to identify the compounds in a pharmaceutical drug product, assuming that the chemical composition of the product is not known by the analyst and that a low dose compound can be present in the studied medicine. The proposed approach uses a spectral library, spectral distances and orthogonal projections to iteratively detect pure compounds of a tablet. Since the proposed method is not based on variance decomposition, it should be well adapted for a drug product which contains a low dose product, interpreted as a compound located in few pixels and with low spectral contributions. The method is tested on a tablet specifically manufactured for this study with one active pharmaceutical ingredient and five excipients. A spectral library, constituted of 24 pure pharmaceutical compounds, is used as a reference spectral database. Pure spectra of active and excipients, including a modification of the crystalline form and a low dose compound, are iteratively detected. Once the pure spectra are identified, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares process is performed on the data to provide distribution maps of each compound in the studied sample. Distributions of the two crystalline forms of active and the five excipients were in accordance with the theoretical formulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 72840 - Drug Products That Present Demonstrable Difficulties for Compounding Under Sections 503A and 503B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... equipment that could affect drug safety or effectiveness? 6. Training Is specialized, highly technical training essential to ensure proper compounding of the drug product? 7. Testing and Quality Assurance Is...

  12. 78 FR 72899 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Registration for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... facilities. The draft guidance discusses the process for registration of outsourcing facilities. The draft... outsourcing facilities that will participate in the process. Estimated reporting burden until September 30...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Registration for Human Drug Compounding Outsourcing Facilities Under...

  13. The potential of multi-compound nanoparticles to bypass drug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, C G; Peters, Godefridus J; Ossendorp, Ferry; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapy against several solid tumors is generally limited and this is often due to the development of resistance or poor delivery of the drugs to the tumor. Mechanisms of resistance may vary between cancer types. However, with current development of genetic analyses, imaging, and novel delivery systems, we may be able to characterize and bypass resistance, e.g., by inhibition of the right target at the tumor site. Therefore, combined drug treatments, where one drug will revert or obstruct the development of resistance and the other will concurrently kill the cancer cell, are rational solutions. However, drug exposure of one drug will defer greatly from the other due to their physicochemical properties. In this sense, multi-compound nanoparticles are an excellent modality to equalize drug exposure, i.e., one common physicochemical profile. In this review, we will discuss novel approaches that employ nanoparticle technology that addresses specific mechanisms of resistance in cancer. The PubMed literature was consulted and reviewed. Nanoparticle technology is emerging as a dexterous solution that may address several forms of resistance in cancer. For instance, we discuss advances that address mechanisms of resistance with multi-compound nanoparticles which co-deliver chemotherapeutics with an anti-resistance agent. Promising anti-resistance agents are (1) targeted in vivo gene silencing methods aimed to disrupt key resistance gene expression or (2) protein kinase inhibitors to disrupt key resistance pathways or (3) efflux pumps inhibitors to limit drug cellular efflux.

  14. 78 FR 72901 - Draft Guidance; Pharmacy Compounding of Human Drug Products Under Section 503A of the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... the Drug Quality and Security Act to remove the unconstitutional advertising, promotion, and... 503A are met. The conditions of section 503A of the FD&C Act included restrictions on the advertising or promotion of the compounding of any particular drug, class of drug, or type of drug, and the...

  15. Very large virtual compound spaces: construction, storage and utility in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Recent activities in the construction, storage and exploration of very large virtual compound spaces are reviewed by this report. As expected, the systematic exploration of compound spaces at the highest resolution (individual atoms and bonds) is intrinsically intractable. By contrast, by staying within a finite number of reactions and a finite number of reactants or fragments, several virtual compound spaces have been constructed in a combinatorial fashion with sizes ranging from 10(11)11 to 10(20)20 compounds. Multiple search methods have been developed to perform searches (e.g. similarity, exact and substructure) into those compound spaces without the need for full enumeration. The up-front investment spent on synthetic feasibility during the construction of some of those virtual compound spaces enables a wider adoption by medicinal chemists to design and synthesize important compounds for drug discovery. Recent activities in the area of exploring virtual compound spaces via the evolutionary approach based on Genetic Algorithm also suggests a positive shift of focus from method development to workflow, integration and ease of use, all of which are required for this approach to be widely adopted by medicinal chemists.

  16. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacitymore » while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.« less

  17. Relationship between electronic properties and drug activity of seven quinoxaline compounds: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Roonasi, Payman; Assle taghipour, Khatoon; van der Spoel, David; Manzetti, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The quantum chemical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory were carried out on seven quinoxaline compounds, which have been synthesized as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Three conformers were optimized for each compound and the lowest energy structure was found and used in further calculations. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters as well as electron density around oxygen and nitrogen atoms were calculated for each compound. The relationship between the calculated electronic parameters and biological activity of the studied compounds were investigated. Six similar quinoxaline derivatives with possible more drug activity were suggested based on the calculated electronic descriptors. A mechanism was proposed and discussed based on the calculated electronic parameters and bond dissociation energies.

  18. Identification of inhibitors for putative malaria drug targets amongst novel antimalarial compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory J.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Gilligan, James H.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Francek, Carolyn; Chen, Zhong; Dagostino, Eleanor F.; Stockmyer, Justin B.; Wang, Yu; Rodenbough, Philip P.; Castaneda, Lisa J.; Leibly, David J.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Gelb, Michael H.; Brinker, Achim; Engels, Ingo; Taylor, Jennifer; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Fantauzzi, Pascal; Glynne, Richard J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Kuhen, Kelli L.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of most marketed antimalarial drugs has been compromised by evolution of parasite resistance, underscoring an urgent need to find new drugs with new mechanisms of action. We have taken a high-throughput approach toward identifying novel antimalarial chemical inhibitors of prioritized drug targets for P. falciparum, excluding targets which are inhibited by currently used drugs. A screen of commercially available libraries identified 5,655 low molecular weight compounds that inhibit growth of P. falciparum cultures with EC50 values below 1.25 μM. These compounds were then tested in 384- or 1536-well biochemical assays for activity against nine Plasmodium enzymes: adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS), choline kinase (CK), deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), guanylate kinase (GK), N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH). These enzymes were selected using TDRtargets.org, and are believed to have excellent potential as drug targets based on criteria such as their likely essentiality, druggability, and amenability to high-throughput biochemical screening. Six of these targets were inhibited by one or more of the antimalarial scaffolds and may have potential use in drug development, further target validation studies and exploration of P. falciparum biochemistry and biology. PMID:20813141

  19. Identification of inhibitors for putative malaria drug targets among novel antimalarial compounds.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Gregory J; Napuli, Alberto J; Gilligan, James H; Gagaring, Kerstin; Borboa, Rachel; Francek, Carolyn; Chen, Zhong; Dagostino, Eleanor F; Stockmyer, Justin B; Wang, Yu; Rodenbough, Philip P; Castaneda, Lisa J; Leibly, David J; Bhandari, Janhavi; Gelb, Michael H; Brinker, Achim; Engels, Ingo H; Taylor, Jennifer; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Fantauzzi, Pascal; Glynne, Richard J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Kuhen, Kelli L

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of most marketed antimalarial drugs has been compromised by evolution of parasite resistance, underscoring an urgent need to find new drugs with new mechanisms of action. We have taken a high-throughput approach toward identifying novel antimalarial chemical inhibitors of prioritized drug targets for Plasmodium falciparum, excluding targets which are inhibited by currently used drugs. A screen of commercially available libraries identified 5655 low molecular weight compounds that inhibit growth of P. falciparum cultures with EC(50) values below 1.25μM. These compounds were then tested in 384- or 1536-well biochemical assays for activity against nine Plasmodium enzymes: adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS), choline kinase (CK), deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), guanylate kinase (GK), N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH). These enzymes were selected using TDRtargets.org, and are believed to have excellent potential as drug targets based on criteria such as their likely essentiality, druggability, and amenability to high-throughput biochemical screening. Six of these targets were inhibited by one or more of the antimalarial scaffolds and may have potential use in drug development, further target validation studies and exploration of P. falciparum biochemistry and biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-06-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

  2. Optimization of the Caco-2 permeability assay to screen drug compounds for intestinal absorption and efflux.

    PubMed

    Press, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In vitro permeability assays are a valuable tool for scientists during lead compound optimization. As a majority of discovery projects are focused on the development of orally bioavailable drugs, correlation of in vitro permeability data to in vivo absorption results is critical for understanding the structural-physicochemical relationship (SPR) of drugs exhibiting low levels of absorption. For more than a decade, the Caco-2 screening assay has remained a popular, in vitro system to test compounds for both intestinal permeability and efflux liability. Despite advances in artificial membrane technology and in silico modeling systems, drug compounds still benefit from testing in cell-based epithelial monolayer assays for lead optimization. This chapter provides technical information for performing and optimizing the Caco-2 assay. In addition, techniques are discussed for dealing with some of the most pressing issues surrounding in vitro permeability assays (i.e., low aqueous solubility of test compounds and low postassay recovery). Insights are offered to help researchers avoid common pitfalls in the interpretation of in vitro permeability data, which can often lead to the perception of misleading results for correlation to in vivo data.

  3. Metabolic Clustering Analysis as a Strategy for Compound Selection in the Drug Discovery Pipeline for Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emily G; Godzien, Joanna; Peña, Imanol; López-Gonzálvez, Ángeles; Angulo, Santiago; Gradillas, Ana; Alonso-Herranz, Vanesa; Martín, Julio; Fiandor, Jose M; Barrett, Michael P; Gabarro, Raquel; Barbas, Coral

    2018-05-18

    A lack of viable hits, increasing resistance, and limited knowledge on mode of action is hindering drug discovery for many diseases. To optimize prioritization and accelerate the discovery process, a strategy to cluster compounds based on more than chemical structure is required. We show the power of metabolomics in comparing effects on metabolism of 28 different candidate treatments for Leishmaniasis (25 from the GSK Leishmania box, two analogues of Leishmania box series, and amphotericin B as a gold standard treatment), tested in the axenic amastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry was applied to identify the metabolic profile of Leishmania donovani, and principal components analysis was used to cluster compounds on potential mode of action, offering a medium throughput screening approach in drug selection/prioritization. The comprehensive and sensitive nature of the data has also made detailed effects of each compound obtainable, providing a resource to assist in further mechanistic studies and prioritization of these compounds for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.

  4. Secondary metabolite concentrations and terpene emissions of Scots pine xylem after long-term forest fertilization.

    PubMed

    Turtola, S; Manninen, A M; Holopainen, J K; Levula, T; Raitio, H; Kainulainen, P

    2002-01-01

    Secondary compounds are known to be associated with the resistance of conifer xylem against insects and fungi. The effects of long-term forest fertilization with nitrogen (N) or with N, calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) on secondary compounds in the xylem of 50-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were examined. Xylem samples were collected from trees growing in three locations in southern Finland: Vilppula, Padasjoki, and Punkaharju. Forests were fertilized every fifth (Vilppula and Padasjoki) or tenth (Punkaharju) year since the 1950s. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and resin acids in the heartwood and sapwood of Scots pine. Terpene emissions were analyzed from the sapwood and total phenolics from the heartwood. Fertilization did not have any significant effect on the concentrations and emissions of xylem monoterpenes. Concentrations of several individual terpenes in sapwood were positively correlated with the corresponding terpene emission. The concentrations of individual resin acids (i.e., abietic and dehydroabietic) decreased significantly in Punkaharju, but increased in the sapwood of N-fertilized trees compared with control ones at Padasjoki and Vilppula. The concentrations of resin acids in the heartwood were not significantly affected by fertilization. Both fertilization treatments decreased the total phenolic concentrations in the heartwood of trees growing in Padasjoki. There was a significant positive correlation between the total phenolics and total resin acid concentration. Overall, resin acids and phenolics seemed be more responsive than monoterpenes to N treatment. These results suggest that forest fertilization might cause slight changes in secondary compound concentrations of xylem, and thus might have significance in the decay resistance of wood.

  5. Tackling the conformational sampling of larger flexible compounds and macrocycles in pharmacology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Jen; Foloppe, Nicolas

    2013-12-15

    Computational conformational sampling underpins much of molecular modeling and design in pharmaceutical work. The sampling of smaller drug-like compounds has been an active area of research. However, few studies have tested in details the sampling of larger more flexible compounds, which are also relevant to drug discovery, including therapeutic peptides, macrocycles, and inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Here, we investigate extensively mainstream conformational sampling methods on three carefully curated compound sets, namely the 'Drug-like', larger 'Flexible', and 'Macrocycle' compounds. These test molecules are chemically diverse with reliable X-ray protein-bound bioactive structures. The compared sampling methods include Stochastic Search and the recent LowModeMD from MOE, all the low-mode based approaches from MacroModel, and MD/LLMOD recently developed for macrocycles. In addition to default settings, key parameters of the sampling protocols were explored. The performance of the computational protocols was assessed via (i) the reproduction of the X-ray bioactive structures, (ii) the size, coverage and diversity of the output conformational ensembles, (iii) the compactness/extendedness of the conformers, and (iv) the ability to locate the global energy minimum. The influence of the stochastic nature of the searches on the results was also examined. Much better results were obtained by adopting search parameters enhanced over the default settings, while maintaining computational tractability. In MOE, the recent LowModeMD emerged as the method of choice. Mixed torsional/low-mode from MacroModel performed as well as LowModeMD, and MD/LLMOD performed well for macrocycles. The low-mode based approaches yielded very encouraging results with the flexible and macrocycle sets. Thus, one can productively tackle the computational conformational search of larger flexible compounds for drug discovery, including macrocycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Binding thermodynamics discriminates fragments from druglike compounds: a thermodynamic description of fragment-based drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, Glyn; Ferenczy, György G; Ulander, Johan; Keserű, György M

    2017-04-01

    Small is beautiful - reducing the size and complexity of chemical starting points for drug design allows better sampling of chemical space, reveals the most energetically important interactions within protein-binding sites and can lead to improvements in the physicochemical properties of the final drug. The impact of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) on recent drug discovery projects and our improved knowledge of the structural and thermodynamic details of ligand binding has prompted us to explore the relationships between ligand-binding thermodynamics and FBDD. Information on binding thermodynamics can give insights into the contributions to protein-ligand interactions and could therefore be used to prioritise compounds with a high degree of specificity in forming key interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on zebrafish models of hallucinogenic drugs and related psychotropic compounds.

    PubMed

    Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Stewart, Adam Michael; Arnold, Raymond; Gjeloshi, Visar; Kondaveeti, Divya; Poudel, Manoj K; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-08-21

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs' action. The utility of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans.

  8. A strategy to find novel candidate anti-Alzheimer's disease drugs by constructing interaction networks between drug targets and natural compounds in medical plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Wen; Li, Wen-Xing; Wang, Guang-Hui; Li, Gong-Hua; Liu, Jia-Qian; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Wang, Qian; Li, Hui-Juan; Dai, Shao-Xing; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer' disease (AD) is an ultimately fatal degenerative brain disorder that has an increasingly large burden on health and social care systems. There are only five drugs for AD on the market, and no new effective medicines have been discovered for many years. Chinese medicinal plants have been used to treat diseases for thousands of years, and screening herbal remedies is a way to develop new drugs. We used molecular docking to screen 30,438 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against a comprehensive list of AD target proteins. TCM compounds in the top 0.5% of binding affinity scores for each target protein were selected as our research objects. Structural similarities between existing drugs from DrugBank database and selected TCM compounds as well as the druggability of our candidate compounds were studied. Finally, we searched the CNKI database to obtain studies on anti-AD Chinese plants from 2007 to 2017, and only clinical studies were included. A total of 1,476 compounds (top 0.5%) were selected as drug candidates. Most of these compounds are abundantly found in plants used for treating AD in China, especially the plants from two genera Panax and Morus. We classified the compounds by single target and multiple targets and analyzed the interactions between target proteins and compounds. Analysis of structural similarity revealed that 17 candidate anti-AD compounds were structurally identical to 14 existing approved drugs. Most of them have been reported to have a positive effect in AD. After filtering for compound druggability, we identified 11 anti-AD compounds with favorable properties, seven of which are found in anti-AD Chinese plants. Of 11 anti-AD compounds, four compounds 5,862, 5,863, 5,868, 5,869 have anti-inflammatory activity. The compound 28,814 mainly has immunoregulatory activity. The other six compounds have not yet been reported for any biology activity at present. Natural compounds from TCM provide a broad prospect for the

  9. The effect of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds on the development of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Birosová, Lucia; Mikulásová, Mária; Chromá, Magdaléna

    2005-12-01

    The effect of two phenolic compounds vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) and lignin on the development of drug/antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium was studied. Using the modified Ames test we have shown that vanillin alone has negligible effect on spontaneous mutability to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin resistance. At the tested concentrations vanillin reduces the toxicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and reduces the ability of this compound to induce mutations leading to ciprofloxacin but not to gentamicin resistance. Lignin at higher concentrations increases mutagenicity to ciprofloxacin resistance and possess considerable inhibition effect on the spontaneous and 4NQO induced mutability to gentamicin resistance.

  10. Calculating the Solubilities of Drugs and Drug-Like Compounds in Octanol.

    PubMed

    Alantary, Doaa; Yalkowsky, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the Van't Hoff equation is used to predict the solubility of organic compounds in dry octanol. The new equation describes a linear relationship between the logarithm of the solubility of a solute in octanol to its melting temperature. More than 620 experimentally measured octanol solubilities, collected from the literature, are used to validate the equation without using any regression or fitting. The average absolute error of the prediction is 0.66 log units. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Moderation-integrated-balance presupposition of Chinese medicine compound and pharmacological problems in traditional Chinese drug research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2017-03-01

    The moderation-integrated-balance presupposition (MIBP) of Chinese medicine compound was first proposed in this paper based on the review of function characteristics and action principles of Chinese medicine compound. Furthermore, the pharmacological problems of traditional Chinese drug research were discussed in details. The results were of important value in accelerating the transformation of traditional Chinese medicine compound, and constructing the new drug innovation and review system for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Update on medical and regulatory issues pertaining to compounded and FDA-approved drugs, including hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V.; Pickar, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We review the historical regulation of drug compounding, concerns about widespread use of non-Food and Drug Admiistration (FDA)-approved compounded bioidentical hormone therapies (CBHTs), which do not have proper labeling and warnings, and anticipated impact of the 2013 Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) on compounding. Methods: US government websites were searched for documents concerning drug compounding regulation and oversight from 1938 (passage of Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [FDCA]) through 2014, including chronologies, Congressional testimony, FDA guidelines and enforcements, and reports. The FDCA and DQSA were reviewed. PubMed and Google were searched for articles on compounded drugs, including CBHT. Results: Congress explicitly granted the FDA limited oversight of compounded drugs in a 1997 amendment to the FDCA, but the FDA has encountered obstacles in exercising that authority. After 64 patient deaths and 750 adversely affected patients from the 2012 meningitis outbreak due to contaminated compounded steroid injections, Congress passed the DQSA, authorizing the FDA to create a voluntary registration for facilities that manufacture and distribute sterile compounded drugs in bulk and reinforcing FDCA regulations for traditional compounding. Given history and current environment, concerns remain about CBHT product regulation and their lack of safety and efficacy data. Conclusions: The DQSA and its reinforcement of §503A of the FDCA solidifies FDA authority to enforce FDCA provisions against compounders of CBHT. The new law may improve compliance and accreditation by the compounding industry; support state and FDA oversight; and prevent the distribution of misbranded, adulterated, or inconsistently compounded medications, and false and misleading claims, thus reducing public health risk. PMID:26418479

  13. Head shop compound abuse amongst attendees of the Drug Treatment Centre Board.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Coleman, N

    2010-05-01

    The use of "Head Shop" compounds has received much media attention lately. There is very little research in the current literature with regard to the extent of the usage of these substances amongst the drug using population in Ireland. We conducted a study to examine the extent of the usage of Mephedrone, Methylone and BZP amongst attendees of Methadone maintenance programs at the DTCB. Two hundred and nine samples in total were tested. The results showed significant usage of these compounds amongst this cohort of drug users, with 29 (13.9%) of samples tested being positive for Mephedrone, 7 (3.3%) positive for Methylone and 1 (0.5%) positive for BZP.

  14. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Adams, John H.; Adelfio, Roberto; Ahyong, Vida; Akabas, Myles H.; Alano, Pietro; Alday, Aintzane; Alemán Resto, Yesmalie; Alsibaee, Aishah; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Andrews, Katherine T.; Avery, Simon V.; Avery, Vicky M.; Ayong, Lawrence; Baker, Mark; Baker, Stephen; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Bickle, Quentin; Bounaadja, Lotfi; Bowling, Tana; Bosch, Jürgen; Boucher, Lauren E.; Boyom, Fabrice F.; Brea, Jose; Brennan, Marian; Burton, Audrey; Caffrey, Conor R.; Camarda, Grazia; Carrasquilla, Manuela; Carter, Dee; Belen Cassera, Maria; Chih-Chien Cheng, Ken; Chindaudomsate, Worathad; Chubb, Anthony; Colon, Beatrice L.; Colón-López, Daisy D.; Corbett, Yolanda; Crowther, Gregory J.; Cowan, Noemi; D’Alessandro, Sarah; Le Dang, Na; Delves, Michael; Du, Alan Y.; Duffy, Sandra; Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Shimaa; Ferdig, Michael T.; Fernández Robledo, José A.; Fidock, David A.; Florent, Isabelle; Fokou, Patrick V. T.; Galstian, Ani; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Gold, Ben; Golub, Todd; Goldgof, Gregory M.; Guha, Rajarshi; Guiguemde, W. Armand; Gural, Nil; Guy, R. Kiplin; Hansen, Michael A. E.; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Hemphill, Andrew; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Horii, Takaaki; Horrocks, Paul; Hughes, Tyler B.; Huston, Christopher; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Itoe, Maurice A.; Jadhav, Ajit; Naranuntarat Jensen, Amornrat; Jensen, Laran T.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Kaiser, Annette; Keiser, Jennifer; Ketas, Thomas; Kicka, Sebastien; Kim, Sunyoung; Kirk, Kiaran; Kumar, Vidya P.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Landfear, Scott; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Sukjun; Lehane, Adele M.; Li, Fengwu; Little, David; Liu, Liqiong; Llinás, Manuel; Loza, Maria I.; Lubar, Aristea; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Lucet, Isabelle; Maes, Louis; Mancama, Dalu; Mansour, Nuha R.; March, Sandra; McGowan, Sheena; Medina Vera, Iset; Meister, Stephan; Mercer, Luke; Mestres, Jordi; Mfopa, Alvine N.; Misra, Raj N.; Moon, Seunghyun; Moore, John P.; Morais Rodrigues da Costa, Francielly; Müller, Joachim; Muriana, Arantza; Nakazawa Hewitt, Stephen; Nare, Bakela; Nathan, Carl; Narraidoo, Nathalie; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Ojo, Kayode K.; Ortiz, Diana; Panic, Gordana; Papadatos, George; Parapini, Silvia; Patra, Kailash; Pham, Ngoc; Prats, Sarah; Plouffe, David M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Pradhan, Anupam; Quevedo, Celia; Quinn, Ronald J.; Rice, Christopher A.; Abdo Rizk, Mohamed; Ruecker, Andrea; St. Onge, Robert; Salgado Ferreira, Rafaela; Samra, Jasmeet; Robinett, Natalie G.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Schmitt, Marjorie; Silva Villela, Filipe; Silvestrini, Francesco; Sinden, Robert; Smith, Dennis A.; Soldati, Thierry; Spitzmüller, Andreas; Stamm, Serge Maximilian; Sullivan, David J.; Sullivan, William; Suresh, Sundari; Suzuki, Brian M.; Suzuki, Yo; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Taramelli, Donatella; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Theron, Anjo; Thomas, David; Tonissen, Kathryn F.; Townson, Simon; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Trofimov, Valentin; Udenze, Kenneth O.; Ullah, Imran; Vallieres, Cindy; Vigil, Edgar; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Voong Vinh, Phat; Vu, Hoan; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Weatherby, Kate; White, Pamela M.; Wilks, Andrew F.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Wojcik, Edward; Wree, Melanie; Wu, Wesley; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zollo, Paul H. A.; Abla, Nada; Blasco, Benjamin; Burrows, Jeremy; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Spangenberg, Thomas; Wells, Timothy; Willis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34%) of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments and medicinal

  15. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Adams, John H; Adelfio, Roberto; Ahyong, Vida; Akabas, Myles H; Alano, Pietro; Alday, Aintzane; Alemán Resto, Yesmalie; Alsibaee, Aishah; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Andrews, Katherine T; Avery, Simon V; Avery, Vicky M; Ayong, Lawrence; Baker, Mark; Baker, Stephen; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Bickle, Quentin; Bounaadja, Lotfi; Bowling, Tana; Bosch, Jürgen; Boucher, Lauren E; Boyom, Fabrice F; Brea, Jose; Brennan, Marian; Burton, Audrey; Caffrey, Conor R; Camarda, Grazia; Carrasquilla, Manuela; Carter, Dee; Belen Cassera, Maria; Chih-Chien Cheng, Ken; Chindaudomsate, Worathad; Chubb, Anthony; Colon, Beatrice L; Colón-López, Daisy D; Corbett, Yolanda; Crowther, Gregory J; Cowan, Noemi; D'Alessandro, Sarah; Le Dang, Na; Delves, Michael; DeRisi, Joseph L; Du, Alan Y; Duffy, Sandra; Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Shimaa; Ferdig, Michael T; Fernández Robledo, José A; Fidock, David A; Florent, Isabelle; Fokou, Patrick V T; Galstian, Ani; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Gokool, Suzanne; Gold, Ben; Golub, Todd; Goldgof, Gregory M; Guha, Rajarshi; Guiguemde, W Armand; Gural, Nil; Guy, R Kiplin; Hansen, Michael A E; Hanson, Kirsten K; Hemphill, Andrew; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Horii, Takaaki; Horrocks, Paul; Hughes, Tyler B; Huston, Christopher; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Itoe, Maurice A; Jadhav, Ajit; Naranuntarat Jensen, Amornrat; Jensen, Laran T; Jiang, Rays H Y; Kaiser, Annette; Keiser, Jennifer; Ketas, Thomas; Kicka, Sebastien; Kim, Sunyoung; Kirk, Kiaran; Kumar, Vidya P; Kyle, Dennis E; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Landfear, Scott; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Sukjun; Lehane, Adele M; Li, Fengwu; Little, David; Liu, Liqiong; Llinás, Manuel; Loza, Maria I; Lubar, Aristea; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Lucet, Isabelle; Maes, Louis; Mancama, Dalu; Mansour, Nuha R; March, Sandra; McGowan, Sheena; Medina Vera, Iset; Meister, Stephan; Mercer, Luke; Mestres, Jordi; Mfopa, Alvine N; Misra, Raj N; Moon, Seunghyun; Moore, John P; Morais Rodrigues da Costa, Francielly; Müller, Joachim; Muriana, Arantza; Nakazawa Hewitt, Stephen; Nare, Bakela; Nathan, Carl; Narraidoo, Nathalie; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Ojo, Kayode K; Ortiz, Diana; Panic, Gordana; Papadatos, George; Parapini, Silvia; Patra, Kailash; Pham, Ngoc; Prats, Sarah; Plouffe, David M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Pradhan, Anupam; Quevedo, Celia; Quinn, Ronald J; Rice, Christopher A; Abdo Rizk, Mohamed; Ruecker, Andrea; St Onge, Robert; Salgado Ferreira, Rafaela; Samra, Jasmeet; Robinett, Natalie G; Schlecht, Ulrich; Schmitt, Marjorie; Silva Villela, Filipe; Silvestrini, Francesco; Sinden, Robert; Smith, Dennis A; Soldati, Thierry; Spitzmüller, Andreas; Stamm, Serge Maximilian; Sullivan, David J; Sullivan, William; Suresh, Sundari; Suzuki, Brian M; Suzuki, Yo; Swamidass, S Joshua; Taramelli, Donatella; Tchokouaha, Lauve R Y; Theron, Anjo; Thomas, David; Tonissen, Kathryn F; Townson, Simon; Tripathi, Abhai K; Trofimov, Valentin; Udenze, Kenneth O; Ullah, Imran; Vallieres, Cindy; Vigil, Edgar; Vinetz, Joseph M; Voong Vinh, Phat; Vu, Hoan; Watanabe, Nao-Aki; Weatherby, Kate; White, Pamela M; Wilks, Andrew F; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wojcik, Edward; Wree, Melanie; Wu, Wesley; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zollo, Paul H A; Abla, Nada; Blasco, Benjamin; Burrows, Jeremy; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Spangenberg, Thomas; Wells, Timothy; Willis, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34%) of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments and medicinal

  16. Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, 25 years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine); protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir); cell entry inhibitors [fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide) and co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs: maraviroc)]; and integrase inhibitors (INIs: raltegravir). These compounds should be used in drug combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability and compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development.

  17. Three-dimensional compound comparison methods and their application in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Zhu, Xiaolei; Bures, Mark Gregory; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-07-16

    Virtual screening has been widely used in the drug discovery process. Ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) methods compare a library of compounds with a known active ligand. Two notable advantages of LBVS methods are that they do not require structural information of a target receptor and that they are faster than structure-based methods. LBVS methods can be classified based on the complexity of ligand structure information utilized: one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D). Unlike 1D and 2D methods, 3D methods can have enhanced performance since they treat the conformational flexibility of compounds. In this paper, a number of 3D methods will be reviewed. In addition, four representative 3D methods were benchmarked to understand their performance in virtual screening. Specifically, we tested overall performance in key aspects including the ability to find dissimilar active compounds, and computational speed.

  18. Slurry photocatalytic membrane reactor technology for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Towards cytostatic drug elimination.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Raphael; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Luis, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The potential of photocatalytic membrane reactors (PMR) to degrade cytostatic drugs is presented in this work as an emerging technology for wastewater treatment. Cytostatic drugs are pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) commonly used in cancer treatment. Such compounds and their metabolites, as well as their degraded by-products have genotoxic and mutagenic effects. A major challenge of cytostatic removal stands in the fact that most drugs are delivered to ambulant patients leading to diluted concentration in the municipal waste. Therefore safe strategies should be developed in order to collect and degrade the micro-pollutants using appropriate treatment technologies. Degradation of cytostatic compounds can be achieved with different conventional processes such as chemical oxidation, photolysis or photocatalysis but the treatment performances obtained are lower than the ones observed with slurry PMRs. Therefore the reasons why slurry PMRs may be considered as the next generation technology will be discussed in this work together with the limitations related to the mechanical abrasion of polymeric and ceramic membranes, catalyst suspension and interferences with the water matrix. Furthermore key recommendations are presented in order to develop a renewable energy powered water treatment based on long lifetime materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mappability of drug-like space: towards a polypharmacologically competent map of drug-relevant compounds.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Pavel; Gaspar, Helena; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Horvath, Dragos

    2015-12-01

    Intuitive, visual rendering--mapping--of high-dimensional chemical spaces (CS), is an important topic in chemoinformatics. Such maps were so far dedicated to specific compound collections--either limited series of known activities, or large, even exhaustive enumerations of molecules, but without associated property data. Typically, they were challenged to answer some classification problem with respect to those same molecules, admired for their aesthetical virtues and then forgotten--because they were set-specific constructs. This work wishes to address the question whether a general, compound set-independent map can be generated, and the claim of "universality" quantitatively justified, with respect to all the structure-activity information available so far--or, more realistically, an exploitable but significant fraction thereof. The "universal" CS map is expected to project molecules from the initial CS into a lower-dimensional space that is neighborhood behavior-compliant with respect to a large panel of ligand properties. Such map should be able to discriminate actives from inactives, or even support quantitative neighborhood-based, parameter-free property prediction (regression) models, for a wide panel of targets and target families. It should be polypharmacologically competent, without requiring any target-specific parameter fitting. This work describes an evolutionary growth procedure of such maps, based on generative topographic mapping, followed by the validation of their polypharmacological competence. Validation was achieved with respect to a maximum of exploitable structure-activity information, covering all of Homo sapiens proteins of the ChEMBL database, antiparasitic and antiviral data, etc. Five evolved maps satisfactorily solved hundreds of activity-based ligand classification challenges for targets, and even in vivo properties independent from training data. They also stood chemogenomics-related challenges, as cumulated responsibility vectors

  20. Mappability of drug-like space: towards a polypharmacologically competent map of drug-relevant compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Pavel; Gaspar, Helena; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Horvath, Dragos

    2015-12-01

    Intuitive, visual rendering—mapping—of high-dimensional chemical spaces (CS), is an important topic in chemoinformatics. Such maps were so far dedicated to specific compound collections—either limited series of known activities, or large, even exhaustive enumerations of molecules, but without associated property data. Typically, they were challenged to answer some classification problem with respect to those same molecules, admired for their aesthetical virtues and then forgotten—because they were set-specific constructs. This work wishes to address the question whether a general, compound set-independent map can be generated, and the claim of "universality" quantitatively justified, with respect to all the structure-activity information available so far—or, more realistically, an exploitable but significant fraction thereof. The "universal" CS map is expected to project molecules from the initial CS into a lower-dimensional space that is neighborhood behavior-compliant with respect to a large panel of ligand properties. Such map should be able to discriminate actives from inactives, or even support quantitative neighborhood-based, parameter-free property prediction (regression) models, for a wide panel of targets and target families. It should be polypharmacologically competent, without requiring any target-specific parameter fitting. This work describes an evolutionary growth procedure of such maps, based on generative topographic mapping, followed by the validation of their polypharmacological competence. Validation was achieved with respect to a maximum of exploitable structure-activity information, covering all of Homo sapiens proteins of the ChEMBL database, antiparasitic and antiviral data, etc. Five evolved maps satisfactorily solved hundreds of activity-based ligand classification challenges for targets, and even in vivo properties independent from training data. They also stood chemogenomics-related challenges, as cumulated responsibility

  1. Engineering a Synthetic Microbial Consortium for Comprehensive Conversion of Algae Biomass into Terpenes for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weihua; Wu, Benjamin Chiau-Pin; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    Recent strategies for algae-based biofuels have primarily focused on biodiesel production by exploiting high algal lipid yields under nutrient stress conditions. However, under conditions supporting robust algal biomass accumulation, carbohydrate and proteins typically comprise up to ~80% of the ash-free dry weight of algae biomass. Therefore, comprehensive utilization of algal biomass for production of multipurpose intermediate- to high-value bio-based products will promote scale-up of algae production and processing to commodity volumes. Terpenes are hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon-like (C:O>10:1) compounds with high energy density, and are therefore potentially promising candidates for the next generation of value added bio-based chemicals and “drop-in” replacementsmore » for petroleum-based fuels. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of bioconversion of proteins into sesquiterpene compounds as well as comprehensive bioconversion of algal carbohydrates and proteins into biofuels. To achieve this, the mevalonate pathway was reconstructed into an E. coli chassis with six different terpene synthases (TSs). Strains containing the various TSs produced a spectrum of sesquiterpene compounds in minimal medium containing amino acids as the sole carbon source. The sesquiterpene production was optimized through three different regulation strategies using chamigrene synthase as an example. The highest total terpene titer reached 166 mg/L, and was achieved by applying a strategy to minimize mevalonate accumulation in vivo. The highest yields of total terpene were produced under reduced IPTG induction levels (0.25 mM), reduced induction temperature (25°C), and elevated substrate concentration (20 g/L amino acid mixture). A synthetic bioconversion consortium consisting of two engineering E. coli strains (DH1-TS and YH40-TS) with reconstructed terpene biosynthetic pathways was designed for comprehensive single-pot conversion of algal carbohydrates and proteins to

  2. Freely Accessible Chemical Database Resources of Compounds for in Silico Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, JingFang; Wang, Di; Jia, Chenyang; Wang, Mengyao; Hao, GeFei; Yang, GuangFu

    2018-05-07

    In silico drug discovery has been proved to be a solidly established key component in early drug discovery. However, this task is hampered by the limitation of quantity and quality of compound databases for screening. In order to overcome these obstacles, freely accessible database resources of compounds have bloomed in recent years. Nevertheless, how to choose appropriate tools to treat these freely accessible databases are crucial. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review on this issue. The existed advantages and drawbacks of chemical databases were analyzed and summarized based on the collected six categories of freely accessible chemical databases from literature in this review. Suggestions on how and in which conditions the usage of these databases could be reasonable were provided. Tools and procedures for building 3D structure chemical libraries were also introduced. In this review, we described the freely accessible chemical database resources for in silico drug discovery. In particular, the chemical information for building chemical database appears as attractive resources for drug design to alleviate experimental pressure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Biogenic trypanocidal sesquiterpenes: lead compounds to design future trypanocidal drugs - a mini review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease among poor people in Africa and Latin America. Therapy against African and American trypanosomiasis is based on a few drugs that often cause severe side-effects. Therefore, it is essential to develop drug discovery especially from natural origins. Sesquiterpenes, a diverse group of natural terpenoids, are found in essential oils of many plants and show a broad range of bioactivities. They act through multiple mechanisms in the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis. Some of these active compounds contain hydroperoxides, aldehydes, alcohols, α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone and even halogenated moieties. Among the compounds reported, sesquiterpene lactones showed a potent anti-trypanosoma effect comparable with commercial trypanocidal drugs. Trypanocidal activity of sesquiterpene lactones mostly depends on the reaction between γ-lactone moieties and nucleophile groups of trypanithione, which is essential for Trypanosoma defense against the oxidative stresses. Elatol is a sesquiterpenoid from marine algae, with a different structure and considerable trypanocidal activity which could be an interesting candidate for further antiprotozoal investigations. To develop novel drugs with higher efficacy and lower toxicity from natural products, this review summarizes the more recent information on trypanocidal activities of various sesquiterpenes. PMID:23676125

  4. [Drug vectorization or how to modulate tissular and cellular distribution of biologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Couvreur, P

    2001-07-01

    Drug vectorization has undergone considerable development over the last few years. This review focuses on the intravenous route of administration. Colloid formulations allow a modulation of drug tissue distribution. Using liposomes and nanoparticles with unmodified surfaces, drugs can be targeted to macrophages of the reticulum endothelium system. When the liposomes or nanoparticles are covered with hydrophilic or flexible polymers, the vascular phase can be favored in order, for example, to facilitate selective extravasation at a tumor site. Therapeutic applications of these systems are presented. The development of "intelligent" vectors capable of modulating intracellular distribution of an active compounds is an equally interesting approach, for example pH-sensitive liposomes or nanoparticles decorated with folic acid capable of targeting intracellular cytoplasm.

  5. A review of antiviral drugs and other compounds with activity against feline herpesvirus-1

    PubMed Central

    Thomasy, S. M.; Maggs, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is a common and important cause of ocular surface disease, dermatitis, respiratory disease, and potentially intraocular disease in cats. However, many antiviral drugs developed for the treatment of humans infected with herpesviruses have been used to treat cats infected with FHV-1. Translational use of drugs in this manner ideally requires methodical investigation of their in vitro efficacy against FHV-1 followed by pharmacokinetic and safety trials in normal cats. Subsequently, placebo-controlled efficacy studies in experimentally-inoculated animals should be performed followed, finally, by carefully designed and monitored clinical trials in client-owned animals. This review is intended to provide a concise review of the available literature regarding the efficacy of antiviral drugs and other compounds with proven or putative activity against FHV-1, as well as a discussion of their safety in cats. PMID:27091747

  6. Key aspects of the Novartis compound collection enhancement project for the compilation of a comprehensive chemogenomics drug discovery screening collection.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Edgar; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Popov, Maxim; Azzaoui, Kamal; Havill, Benjamin; Schopfer, Ulrich; Engeloch, Caroline; Stanek, Jaroslav; Acklin, Pierre; Rigollier, Pascal; Stoll, Friederike; Koch, Guido; Meier, Peter; Orain, David; Giger, Rudolph; Hinrichs, Jürgen; Malagu, Karine; Zimmermann, Jürg; Roth, Hans-Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The NIBR (Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research) compound collection enrichment and enhancement project integrates corporate internal combinatorial compound synthesis and external compound acquisition activities in order to build up a comprehensive screening collection for a modern drug discovery organization. The main purpose of the screening collection is to supply the Novartis drug discovery pipeline with hit-to-lead compounds for today's and the future's portfolio of drug discovery programs, and to provide tool compounds for the chemogenomics investigation of novel biological pathways and circuits. As such, it integrates designed focused and diversity-based compound sets from the synthetic and natural paradigms able to cope with druggable and currently deemed undruggable targets and molecular interaction modes. Herein, we will summarize together with new trends published in the literature, scientific challenges faced and key approaches taken at NIBR to match the chemical and biological spaces.

  7. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  8. A special terpene combination (Rowatinex®) improves stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in urolithiasis patients: results of a placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Romics, Imre; Siller, György; Kohnen, Ralf; Mavrogenis, Stelios; Varga, József; Holman, Endre

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of a special terpene combination in the treatment of patients with urolithiasis after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). 222 patients with clinically stable kidney or ureter stones of 0.3-2.0 cm undergoing complication-free ESWL were randomised to receive a special terpene combination (Rowatinex®; 3 × 2 capsules/day) or placebo. The study consisted of a 12-week active treatment phase and a 2-week follow-up phase. All patients had a physical examination, and diagnosis of kidney stones was made by X-ray, intravenous pyelogram or ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 8 and 12 as well as after 2 weeks of follow-up. Stone-free status was defined as obviously successful expulsion of calculi/fragments, being without any stone. In all, when compared to placebo, significantly more patients receiving the terpene combination treatment in the intent-to-treat (ITT) group [72 (67.9%) vs. 49 (50.0%); p = 0.0009] and the per-protocol (PP) group [69 (78.4%) vs. 48 (52.2%); p = 0.0004] were stone-free at the end of the study. Treatment with the terpene combination was also more effective when analysed with respect to the size of the treated stone. In addition, treatment with the terpene combination significantly reduced the median time to stone-free status from 85.0 to 56.0 days (p = 0.0061) and from 85.0 to 49.5 days (p = 0.0028) in the ITT and PP populations, respectively. Nine mild-to-moderate adverse events (AE; terpene combination group: 7 AE in 4 patients; placebo group: 2 AE in 2 patients) were assessed as drug-related. Treatment with the terpene combination is well tolerated and safe. The terpene combination was found to be an efficacious treatment in eliminating calculi fragments generated by ESWL as compared to placebo. The pharmacodynamic properties of the terpene combination (antilithogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, spasmolytic and analgesic effects), which have been also confirmed in preclinical studies, represent a

  9. Cytotoxicity of compounds from Xylopia aethiopica towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Sandjo, Louis P; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Zeino, Maen; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer represent a major hurdle in chemotherapy. Previously, the methanol extract of the medicinal spice Xylopia aethiopica displayed considerable cytotoxicity against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity of compounds, 16α-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 3,4',5-trihydroxy-6″,6″-dimethylpyrano[2,3-g]flavone (3), isotetrandrine (5) and trans-tiliroside (6) derived from the methanol crude extract of Xylopia aethiopica against 9 drug-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were all analyzed via flow cytometry. Flavonoid 3 and alkaloid 5 also displayed IC50 values ranging from 2.61 µM (towards leukemia CCRF-CEM cells) to 18.60 µM (towards gliobastoma multiforme U87MG.ΔEGFR cells) and from 1.45 µM (towards HepG2 cells) to 7.28 µM (towards MDA-MB-231-pcDNA cells), respectively. IC50 values ranged from 0.20 µM (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 195.12 µM (against CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin. Compound 3 induced apoptosis in leukemia CCRF-CEM cells mediated by the disruption of the MMP, whilst 5 induced apoptosis mediated by ROS production. Compounds 2 and 5 represent potential cytotoxic phytochemicals that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs against multifactorial drug-resistant cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of lomustine drug content in FDA-approved and compounded lomustine capsules.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, Butch; Warner, Matt; Hahn, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the lomustine content (potency) in compounded and FDA-approved lomustine capsules. DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE 2 formulations of lomustine capsules (low dose [7 to 11 mg] and high dose [40 to 48 mg]; 5 capsules/dose/source) from 3 compounders and from 1 manufacturer of FDA-approved capsules. PROCEDURES Lomustine content was measured by use of a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. An a priori acceptable range of 90% to 110% of the stated lomustine content was selected on the basis of US Pharmacopeia guidelines. RESULTS The measured amount of lomustine in all compounded capsules was less than the stated content (range, 59% to 95%) and was frequently outside the acceptable range (failure rate, 2/5 to 5/5). Coefficients of variation for lomustine content ranged from 4.1% to 16.7% for compounded low-dose capsules and from 1.1% to 10.8% for compounded high-dose capsules. The measured amount of lomustine in all FDA-approved capsules was slightly above the stated content (range, 104% to 110%) and consistently within the acceptable range. Coefficients of variation for lomustine content were 0.5% for low-dose and 2.3% for high-dose FDA-approved capsules. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compounded lomustine frequently did not contain the stated content of active drug and had a wider range of lomustine content variability than did the FDA-approved product. The sample size was small, and larger studies are needed to confirm these findings; however, we recommend that compounded veterinary formulations of lomustine not be used when appropriate doses can be achieved with FDA-approved capsules or combinations of FDA-approved capsules.

  11. [Obesity: a review of currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds in clinical development].

    PubMed

    Zieba, Remigiusz

    2007-10-19

    This review summarizes data on currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds under clinical development. Three antiobesity drugs are currently accepted for long-term use. Sibutramine is a noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake inhibitor which reduces body weight by about 4-5 kg but increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor which results in mean weight loss by about 3 kg and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance; however, adverse gastrointestinal effects have been observed. Rimonabant is an endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist which induces a 4-5 kg mean weight loss and improves glycemic and lipid profiles, but it induces anxiety and depressive disorders. Unfortunately, there are no data on the chronic administration of these drugs. Other drugs can induce weight loss, e.g. some antidepressants, antiseizure agents, and antidiabetic drugs. The moderate efficacy of currently used antiobesity drugs has led to an intense effort to identify new, safe antiobesity drugs with better therapeutic profiles. The new antiobesity drugs under clinical development include: 1) agents that affect neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, including noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion, radafaxine), selective 5HT2C receptor agonists (lorcaserin), and selective 5HT6 receptor antagonists, 2) agents that modulate the activity of neuropeptides influencing food intake, including leptin analogues, human ciliary neurotrophic factor (Axokine), neuropeptide Y antagonists, and melanine-concentrating hormone antagonists, 3) agents that affect the peripheral satiety signals and brain-gut axis, e.g. selective cholecystokinin receptor A agonists, PYY3-36, agents decreasing ghrelin activity, 4) thermogenic agents, e.g. selective beta3 receptor agonists and selective thyroid hormone receptor beta agonists, and 5) others, e.g. human growth hormone fragment (AOD9604

  12. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K; Pieber, Simone M; Slowik, Jay G; Tuthill, Rosemary N; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-10

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg -1 Herbs min -1 . These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  13. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air. PMID:27830718

  14. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  15. Plant terpenes: defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Ram A

    2015-04-01

    The terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural products and many interesting products are extensively applied in the industrial sector as flavors, fragrances, spices and are also used in perfumery and cosmetics. Many terpenoids have biological activities and also used for medical purposes. In higher plants, the conventional acetate-mevalonic acid pathway operates mainly in the cytosol and mitochondria and synthesizes sterols, sesquiterpenes and ubiquinones mainly. In the plastid, the non-mevalonic acid pathway takes place and synthesizes hemi-, mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes along with carotenoids and phytol tail of chlorophyll. In this review paper, recent developments in the biosynthesis of terpenoids, indepth description of terpene synthases and their phylogenetic analysis, regulation of terpene biosynthesis as well as updates of terpenes which have entered in the clinical studies are reviewed thoroughly.

  16. Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from aminoglycosides and cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Vlasits, Anna L.; Simon, Julian A.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W; Owens, Kelly N.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear accounts for many hearing loss and balance disorders. Several beneficial pharmaceutical drugs cause hair cell death as a side effect. These include aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin, and several cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Discovering new compounds that protect mammalian hair cells from toxic insults is experimentally difficult because of the inaccessibility of the inner ear. We used the zebrafish lateral line sensory system as an in vivo screening platform to survey a library of FDA-approved pharmaceuticals for compounds that protect hair cells from neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and cisplatin. Ten compounds were identified that provide protection from at least two of the four toxins. The resulting compounds fall into several drug classes, including serotonin and dopamine-modulating drugs, adrenergic receptor ligands, and estrogen receptor modulators. The protective compounds show different effects against the different toxins, supporting the idea that each toxin causes hair cell death by distinct, but partially overlapping, mechanisms. Furthermore, some compounds from the same drug classes had different protective properties, suggesting that they might not prevent hair cell death by their known target mechanisms. Some protective compounds blocked gentamicin uptake into hair cells, suggesting that they may block mechanotransduction or other routes of entry. The protective compounds identified in our screen will provide a starting point for studies in mammals as well as further research discovering the cellular signaling pathways that trigger hair cell death. PMID:22967486

  17. Estimating terpene and terpenoid emissions from conifer oleoresin composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2015-07-01

    The following algorithm, which is based on the thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte partitioning, was developed to predict emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids from specific storage sites in conifers: Ei =xoriγoripi∘ where Ei is the emission rate (μg C gdw-1 h-1) and pi∘ is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of the pure liquid terpene or terpenoid, respectively, and xori and γori are the mole fraction and activity coefficient (on a Raoult's law convention), respectively, of the terpene and terpenoid in the oleoresin. Activity coefficients are calculated with Hansen solubility parameters that account for dispersive, polar, and H-bonding interactions of the solutes with the oleoresin matrix. Estimates of pi∘ at 25 °C and molar enthalpies of vaporization are made with the SIMPOL.1 method and are used to estimate pi∘ at environmentally relevant temperatures. Estimated mixing ratios of terpenes and terpenols were comparatively higher above resin-acid- and monoterpene-rich oleoresins, respectively. The results indicated a greater affinity of terpenes and terpenols for the non-functionalized and carboxylic acid containing matrix through dispersive and H-bonding interactions, which are expressed in the emission algorithm by the activity coefficient. The correlation between measured emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids for Pinus strobus and emission rates predicted with the algorithm were very good (R = 0.95). Standard errors for the range and average of monoterpene emission rates were ±6 - ±86% and ±54%, respectively, and were similar in magnitude to reported standard deviations of monoterpene composition of foliar oils (±38 - ±51% and ±67%, respectively).

  18. Measured density and calculated baricity of custom-compounded drugs for chronic intrathecal infusion.

    PubMed

    Hejtmanek, Michael R; Harvey, Tracy D; Bernards, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    To minimize the frequency that intrathecal pumps require refilling, drugs are custom compounded at very high concentrations. Unfortunately, the baricity of these custom solutions is unknown, which is problematic, given baricity's importance in determining the spread of intrathecally administered drugs. Consequently, we measured the density and calculated the baricity of clinically relevant concentrations of multiple drugs used for intrathecal infusion. Morphine, clonidine, bupivacaine, and baclofen were weighed to within 0.0001 g and diluted in volumetric flasks to produce solutions of known concentrations (morphine 1, 10, 25, and 50 mg/mL; clonidine 0.05, 0.5, 1, and 3 mg/mL; bupivacaine 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL; baclofen 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 mg/mL). The densities of the solutions were measured at 37°C using the mechanical oscillation method. A "best-fit" curve was calculated for plots of concentration versus density for each drug. All prepared solutions of clonidine and baclofen were hypobaric. Higher concentrations of morphine and bupivacaine were hyperbaric, whereas lower concentrations were hypobaric. The relationship between concentration and density is linear for morphine (r > 0.99) and bupivacaine (r > 0.99) and logarithmic for baclofen (r = 0.96) and clonidine (r = 0.98). This is the first study to examine the relationship between concentration and density for custom drug concentrations commonly used in implanted intrathecal pumps. We calculated an equation that defines the relationship between concentration and density for each drug. Using these equations, clinicians can calculate the density of any solution made from the drugs studied here.

  19. Two terpene synthases are responsible for the major sesquiterpenes emitted from the flowers of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Beuning, Lesley L.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.; Dudareva, Natalia; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2009-01-01

    Kiwifruit vines rely on bees for pollen transfer between spatially separated male and female individuals and require synchronized flowering to ensure pollination. Volatile terpene compounds, which are important cues for insect pollinator attraction, were studied by dynamic headspace sampling in the major green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cultivar ‘Hayward’ and its male pollinator ‘Chieftain’. Terpene volatile levels showed a profile dominated by the sesquiterpenes α-farnesene and germacrene D. These two compounds were emitted by all floral tissues and could be observed throughout the day, with lower levels at night. The monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene was also detected in flowers but was emitted predominantly during the day and only from petal tissue. Using a functional genomics approach, two terpene synthase (TPS) genes were isolated from a ‘Hayward’ petal EST library. Bacterial expression and transient in planta data combined with analysis by enantioselective gas chromatography revealed that one TPS produced primarily (E,E)-α-farnesene and small amounts of (E)-β-ocimene, whereas the second TPS produced primarily (+)-germacrene D. Subcellular localization using GFP fusions showed that both enzymes were localized in the cytoplasm, the site for sesquiterpene production. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that both TPS genes were expressed in the same tissues and at the same times as the corresponding floral volatiles. The results indicate that two genes can account for the major floral sesquiterpene volatiles observed in both male and female A. deliciosa flowers. PMID:19516075

  20. Toward antituberculosis drugs: in silico screening of synthetic compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosisl,d-transpeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Billones, Junie B; Carrillo, Maria Constancia O; Organo, Voltaire G; Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Sy, Jamie Bernadette A; Emnacen, Inno A; Clavio, Nina Abigail B; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the main causative agent of tuberculosis, is the main reason why this disease continues to be a global public health threat. It is therefore imperative to find a novel antitubercular drug target that is unique to the structural machinery or is essential to the growth and survival of the bacterium. One such target is the enzyme l,d-transpeptidase 2, also known as LdtMt2, a protein primarily responsible for the catalysis of 3→3 cross-linkages that make up the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex of Mtb. In this study, structure-based pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and in silico toxicity evaluations were employed in screening compounds from a database of synthetic compounds. Out of the 4.5 million database compounds, 18 structures were identified as high-scoring, high-binding hits with very satisfactory absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Two out of the 18 compounds were further subjected to in vitro bioactivity assays, with one exhibiting a good inhibitory activity against the Mtb H37Ra strain.

  1. Ozone-initiated terpene reaction products in five European offices: replacement of a floor cleaning agent.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, A W; Kofoed-Sørensen, V; Mandin, C; Ventura, G; Mabilia, R; Perreca, E; Cattaneo, A; Spinazzè, A; Mihucz, V G; Szigeti, T; de Kluizenaar, Y; Cornelissen, H J M; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Sakellaris, I; Bartzis, J; Wolkoff, P

    2014-11-18

    Cleaning agents often emit terpenes that react rapidly with ozone. These ozone-initiated reactions, which occur in the gas-phase and on surfaces, produce a host of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds with possible adverse health effects in the eyes and airways. Within the European Union (EU) project OFFICAIR, common ozone-initiated reaction products were measured before and after the replacement of the regular floor cleaning agent with a preselected low emitting floor cleaning agent in four offices located in four EU countries. One reference office in a fifth country did not use any floor cleaning agent. Limonene, α-pinene, 3-carene, dihydromyrcenol, geraniol, linalool, and α-terpineol were targeted for measurement together with the common terpene oxidation products formaldehyde, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH), 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one, (6-MHO), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), and dihydrocarvone (DHC). Two-hour air samples on Tenax TA and DNPH cartridges were taken in the morning, noon, and in the afternoon and analyzed by thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and HPLC/UV analysis, respectively. Ozone was measured in all sites. All the regular cleaning agents emitted terpenes, mainly limonene and linalool. After the replacement of the cleaning agent, substantially lower concentrations of limonene and formaldehyde were observed. Some of the oxidation product concentrations, in particular that of 4-OPA, were also reduced in line with limonene. Maximum 2 h averaged concentrations of formaldehyde, 4-AMCH, 6-MHO, and IPOH would not give rise to acute eye irritation-related symptoms in office workers; similarly, 6-AMCH, DHC and 4-OPA would not result in airflow limitation to the airways.

  2. [Lead compound optimization strategy(5) – reducing the hERG cardiac toxicity in drug development].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-bin; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The potassium channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go related gene(hERG) plays a very important role in the physiological and pathological processes in human. hERG potassium channel determines the outward currents which facilitate the repolarization of the myocardial cells. Some drugs were withdrawn from the market for the serious side effect of long QT interval and arrhythmia due to blockade of hERG channel. The strategies for lead compound optimization are to reduce inhibitory activity of hERG potassium channel and decrease cardiac toxicity. These methods include reduction of lipophilicity and basicity of amines, introduction of hydroxyl and acidic groups, and restricting conformation.

  3. Heat stabilization of blood spot samples for determination of metabolically unstable drug compounds

    PubMed Central

    Blessborn, Daniel; Sköld, Karl; Zeeberg, David; Kaewkhao, Karnrawee; Sköld, Olof; Ahnoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Sample stability is critical for accurate analysis of drug compounds in biosamples. The use of additives to eradicate the enzymatic activity causing loss of these analytes has its limitations. Results A novel technique for sample stabilization by rapid, high-temperature heating was used. The stability of six commercial drugs in blood and blood spots was investigated under various conditions with or without heat stabilization at 95°C. Oseltamivir, cefotaxime and ribavirin were successfully stabilized by heating whereas significant losses were seen in unheated samples. Amodiaquine was stable with and without heating. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin were found to be very heat sensitive and began to decompose even at 60°C. Conclusion Heat stabilization is a viable technique to maintain analytes in blood spot samples, without the use of chemical additives, by stopping the enzymatic activity that causes sample degradation. PMID:23256470

  4. Antimalarial drug discovery: screening of Brazilian medicinal plants and purified compounds.

    PubMed

    Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2009-02-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease and its control depends on specific chemotherapy, now complicated by Plasmodium falciparum that has become resistant to most commonly available antimalarials. Treatment of the disease requires quinine or drug combinations of artemisinin derivatives and other antimalarials. Further drug resistance is expected. New active compounds need to be discovered. To find new antimalarials from medicinal and randomly collected plants, crude extracts are screened against P. falciparum in cultures and in malaria animal models, following bioassays of purified fractions, and cytotoxicity tests. For antimalarial research, screening medicinal plants is more efficient than screening randomly chosen plants. Biomonitored fractionation allows selection of new active molecules identified as potential antimalarials in multidisciplinary projects in Brazil; no new molecule is available for human testing. The advantages of projects based on ethnopharmacology are discussed.

  5. Oil-in-water biocompatible microemulsion as a carrier for the antitumor drug compound methyl dihydrojasmonate

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Carlos, Iracilda Zepone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comeli; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ) has been studied because of its application as an antitumor drug compound. However, as MJ is a poorly water-soluble compound, a suitable oil-in-water microemulsion (ME) has been studied in order to provide its solubilization in an aqueous media and to allow its administration by the parenteral route. The ME used in this work was characterized on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram by dynamic light scattering and rheological measurements. Regardless of the drug presence, the droplet size was directly dependent on the oil/surfactant (O/S) ratio. Furthermore, the drug incorporation into the ME significantly increased the ME diameter, mainly at low O/S ratios. The rheological evaluation of the systems showed that in the absence of drug a Newtonian behavior was observed. On the other hand, in the presence of MJ the ME systems revealed pseudoplastic behavior, independently of the O/S ratio. The in vivo studies demonstrated that not only was the effect on the tumor inhibition inversely dependent on the MJ-loaded ME administered dose, but also it was slightly higher than the doxorubicin alone, which was used as the positive control. Additionally, a small antiangiogenic effect for MJ-loaded ME was found at doses in which it possesses antitumor activity. MJ revealed to be nontoxic at doses higher than 350 mg/kg, which was higher than the dose that provides tumor-inhibition effect in this study. Because the MJ-loaded ME was shown to have anticancer activity comparable to doxorubicin, the ME described here may be considered a suitable vehicle for parenteral administration of MJ. PMID:25609963

  6. Oil-in-water biocompatible microemulsion as a carrier for the antitumor drug compound methyl dihydrojasmonate.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Carlos, Iracilda Zepone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comeli; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ) has been studied because of its application as an antitumor drug compound. However, as MJ is a poorly water-soluble compound, a suitable oil-in-water microemulsion (ME) has been studied in order to provide its solubilization in an aqueous media and to allow its administration by the parenteral route. The ME used in this work was characterized on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram by dynamic light scattering and rheological measurements. Regardless of the drug presence, the droplet size was directly dependent on the oil/surfactant (O/S) ratio. Furthermore, the drug incorporation into the ME significantly increased the ME diameter, mainly at low O/S ratios. The rheological evaluation of the systems showed that in the absence of drug a Newtonian behavior was observed. On the other hand, in the presence of MJ the ME systems revealed pseudoplastic behavior, independently of the O/S ratio. The in vivo studies demonstrated that not only was the effect on the tumor inhibition inversely dependent on the MJ-loaded ME administered dose, but also it was slightly higher than the doxorubicin alone, which was used as the positive control. Additionally, a small antiangiogenic effect for MJ-loaded ME was found at doses in which it possesses antitumor activity. MJ revealed to be nontoxic at doses higher than 350 mg/kg, which was higher than the dose that provides tumor-inhibition effect in this study. Because the MJ-loaded ME was shown to have anticancer activity comparable to doxorubicin, the ME described here may be considered a suitable vehicle for parenteral administration of MJ.

  7. High-throughput screening of PLGA thin films utilizing hydrophobic fluorescent dyes for hydrophobic drug compounds.

    PubMed

    Steele, Terry W J; Huang, Charlotte L; Kumar, Saranya; Widjaja, Effendi; Chiang Boey, Freddy Yin; Loo, Joachim S C; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2011-10-01

    Hydrophobic, antirestenotic drugs such as paclitaxel (PCTX) and rapamycin are often incorporated into thin film coatings for local delivery using implantable medical devices and polymers such as drug-eluting stents and balloons. Selecting the optimum coating formulation through screening the release profile of these drugs in thin films is time consuming and labor intensive. We describe here a high-throughput assay utilizing three model hydrophobic fluorescent compounds: fluorescein diacetate (FDAc), coumarin-6, and rhodamine 6G that were incorporated into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA-polyethylene glycol films. Raman microscopy determined the hydrophobic fluorescent dye distribution within the PLGA thin films in comparison with that of PCTX. Their subsequent release was screened in a high-throughput assay and directly compared with HPLC quantification of PCTX release. It was observed that PCTX controlled-release kinetics could be mimicked by a hydrophobic dye that had similar octanol-water partition coefficient values and homogeneous dissolution in a PLGA matrix as the drug. In particular, FDAc was found to be the optimal hydrophobic dye at modeling the burst release as well as the total amount of PCTX released over a period of 30 days. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of Organogel Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery System for Lipophilic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Baptiste; Brouillet, Fabien; Franceschi, Sophie; Perez, Emile

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate organogel nanoparticles as a drug delivery system by investigating their stability, according to the formulation strategy, and their release profile. The gelled nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (above the gelation temperature) of an organogel in water, and cooling at room temperature. In the first step, we used DLS and DSC to select the most suitable formulations by optimizing the proportion of ingredients (HSA, PVA, castor oil) to obtain particles of the smallest size and greatest stability. Then, two lipophilic drug models, indomethacin and ketoconazole were entrapped in the nanoparticles made of castor oil gelled by 12-hydroxystearic acid. Thermal studies (DSC) confirmed that there was no significant alteration of gelling due to the entrapped drugs, even at 3% w/w. Very stable dispersions were obtained (>3 months), with gelled oil nanoparticles presenting a mean diameter between 250 and 300 nm. High encapsulation efficiency (>98%) was measured for indomethacin and ketoconazole. The release profile determined by in vitro dialysis showed an immediate release of the drug from the organogel nanoparticles, due to rapid diffusion. The study demonstrates the interest of these gelled oil nanoparticles for the encapsulation and the delivery of lipophilic active compounds.

  9. Biotransformation of geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria that are able to transform geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, isolated on -terpinene, converts geosmin to several products; the major products are keto-geosmins. This geosmin transformation ability is inducible by -terpinene. Rhodococcus wratisl...

  10. Underestimation of terpene exposure in the Nordic wood industry.

    PubMed

    Granström, Karin M

    2010-03-01

    This study determined that emission of sesquiterpenes from processed wood warrants attention in the work environment. Currently, only the monoterpenes in the terpene group are monitored in occupational hygiene studies. Terpene emissions are a work environment issue for industries that process wood, as they are known to cause respiratory difficulties and mucous membrane irritation. Fresh sawdust of the most common boreal conifers, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), was subjected to processing (drying), and the emissions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The data indicate that workers are exposed to significant amounts of sesquiterpenes, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing plants. On average, the proportion of sesquiterpenes to monoterpenes was 21 +/- 5% (STD, n = 11) for spruce and 15 +/- 5% (STD, n = 13) for pine. The composition of terpenes emitted in air from spruce wood differs from the composition in resin. The sum of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes can exceed the occupational exposure limit for turpentine for processes where monoterpene concentrations are already close to the occupational exposure limit, and for processes involving the processing of bark. Findings suggest that future studies of health effects from terpenes in air should measure monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to assess whether the current OELs are appropriate.

  11. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J.

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  12. Quantification of Terpenes by 1DGC-MS and 2DGC-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, R. M.; Perlinger, J. A.; Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic emissions are the primary source of volatile organic compounds in the global troposphere. Deciduous and coniferous forests are the principal emitters of a complex mixture of isoprene (C5H8), monoterpenes (C10H16), and sesquiterpenes (C15H24). Sesquiterpenes are readily oxidized in the atmosphere producing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) with 100% yields. The SOA are hydrophilic and scatter light, and thus, increase albedo and lead to a cooling effect. In addition, both monoterpene and sesquiterpene generated SOA are effective cloud condensation nuclei leading to an increase in the particle number concentration and to the formation of clouds that also increase albedo. To quantify the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products requires development of on-line extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques. One objective of this work was to compare one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (1DGC-MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2DGC-TOFMS) for quantifying eight monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, 3-carene, linalool, terpinolene, myrcene and ocimene) and eight sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene, humulene, alpha-cedrene, cis-nerolidol, trans-nerolidol, cedrol, camphene and farnesene) in air samples collected in Northern Michigan. Future research involves coupling thermal desorption and supercritical fluid extraction devices to a GC×2GC for routine quantification of the complex mixture of terpenes and their oxidation products in rural and urban air.

  13. Separation of attogram terpenes by the capillary zone electrophoresis with fluorometric detection.

    PubMed

    Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie; Růžička, Filip; Slais, Karel; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2010-11-12

    An original method based on capillary zone electrophoresis with fluorimetric detection has been developed for the determination of terpenic compounds. The method is based on the separation of a terpenes dynamically labeled by the non-ionogenic tenside poly(ethylene glycol) pyrenebutanoate, which was used previously for the labeling of biopolymers. The background electrolytes were composed of taurine-Tris buffer (pH 8.4). In addition to the non-ionogenic tenside aceton and poly(ethylene glycol) were used as the additives. The capillary zone electrophoresis with fluorometric detection at the excitation wavelength 335 nm and the emission wavelength 463 nm was successfully applied to the analysis of tonalid, cholesterol, vitamin A, ergosterol, estrone and farnesol at level of 10(-17) mol L(-1). Farnesol, is produced by Candida albicans as an extracellular quorum-sensing molecule that influences expression of a number of virulence factors, especially morphogenesis and biofilm formation. It enables this yeast to cause serious nosocomial infections. The sensitivity of this method was demonstrated on the separation of farnesol directly from the cultivation medium. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug-like annotation and duplicate analysis of a 23-supplier chemical database totalling 2.7 million compounds.

    PubMed

    Baurin, N; Baker, R; Richardson, C; Chen, I; Foloppe, N; Potter, A; Jordan, A; Roughley, S; Parratt, M; Greaney, P; Morley, D; Hubbard, R E

    2004-01-01

    We have implemented five drug-like filters, based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors, and applied them to characterize the drug-like properties of commercially available chemical compounds. In addition to previously published filters (Lipinski and Veber), we implemented a filter for medicinal chemistry tractability based on lists of chemical features drawn up by a panel of medicinal chemists. A filter based on the modeling of aqueous solubility (>1 microM) was derived in-house, as well as another based on the modeling of Caco-2 passive membrane permeability (>10 nm/s). A library of 2.7 million compounds was collated from the 23 compound suppliers and analyzed with these filters, highlighting a tendency toward highly lipophilic compounds. The library contains 1.6 M unique structures, of which 37% (607,223) passed all five drug-like filters. None of the 23 suppliers provides all the members of the drug-like subset, emphasizing the benefit of considering compounds from various compound suppliers as a source of diversity for drug discovery.

  15. Investigation of terpene diversification across multiple sequenced plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    Boutanaev, Alexander M.; Moses, Tessa; Zi, Jiachen; Nelson, David R.; Mugford, Sam T.; Peters, Reuben J.; Osbourn, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce an array of specialized metabolites, including chemicals that are important as medicines, flavors, fragrances, pigments and insecticides. The vast majority of this metabolic diversity is untapped. Here we take a systematic approach toward dissecting genetic components of plant specialized metabolism. Focusing on the terpenes, the largest class of plant natural products, we investigate the basis of terpene diversity through analysis of multiple sequenced plant genomes. The primary drivers of terpene diversification are terpenoid synthase (TS) “signature” enzymes (which generate scaffold diversity), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs), which modify and further diversify these scaffolds, so paving the way for further downstream modifications. Our systematic search of sequenced plant genomes for all TS and CYP genes reveals that distinct TS/CYP gene pairs are found together far more commonly than would be expected by chance, and that certain TS/CYP pairings predominate, providing signals for key events that are likely to have shaped terpene diversity. We recover TS/CYP gene pairs for previously characterized terpene metabolic gene clusters and demonstrate new functional pairing of TSs and CYPs within previously uncharacterized clusters. Unexpectedly, we find evidence for different mechanisms of pathway assembly in eudicots and monocots; in the former, microsyntenic blocks of TS/CYP gene pairs duplicate and provide templates for the evolution of new pathways, whereas in the latter, new pathways arise by mixing and matching of individual TS and CYP genes through dynamic genome rearrangements. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented observation of the unique pattern of TS and CYP assembly in eudicots and monocots. PMID:25502595

  16. Sustainable heterologous production of terpene hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Formighieri, Cinzia; Melis, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacteria can be exploited as photosynthetic platforms for heterologous generation of terpene hydrocarbons with industrial application. However, the slow catalytic activity of terpene synthases (k cat  = 4 s -1 or slower) makes them noncompetitive for the pool of available substrate, thereby limiting the rate and yield of product generation. Work in this paper applied transformation technologies in Synechocystis for the heterologous production of β-phellandrene (monoterpene) hydrocarbons. Conditions were defined whereby expression of the β-phellandrene synthase (PHLS), as a CpcB·PHLS fusion protein with the β-subunit of phycocyanin, accounted for up to 20 % of total cellular protein. Moreover, CpcB·PHLS was heterologously co-expressed with enzymes of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and geranyl-diphosphate synthase, increasing carbon flux toward the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and enhancing substrate availability. These improvements enabled yields of 10 mg of β-phellandrene per g of dry cell weight generated in the course of a 48-h incubation period, or the equivalent of 1 % β-phellandrene:biomass (w:w) carbon-partitioning ratio. The work helped to identify prerequisites for the efficient heterologous production of terpene hydrocarbons in cyanobacteria: (i) requirement for overexpression of the heterologous terpene synthase, so as to compensate for the slow catalytic turnover of the enzyme, and (ii) enhanced endogenous carbon partitioning toward the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway, e.g., upon heterologous co-expression of the MVA pathway, thereby supplementing the native metabolic flux toward the universal isopentenyl-diphosphate and dimethylallyl-diphosphate terpenoid precursors. The two prerequisites are shown to be critical determinants of yield in the photosynthetic CO 2 to terpene hydrocarbons conversion process.

  17. Perspectives on Zebrafish Models of Hallucinogenic Drugs and Related Psychotropic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs’ action. The utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans. PMID:23883191

  18. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on terpene concentrations of ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Abilleira, Eunate; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Albisu, Marta; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco José; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2011-05-01

    Terpene composition of ewes' raw milk from nine commercial flocks was analysed from February to July. Ewes' diet consisted of concentrate and conserved forage in winter (indoor feeding) and part-time grazing from spring (transition and outdoor feeding). Regardless of the feeding, limonene and β-phellandrene were the most abundant monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene showed the highest concentrations among sesquiterpenes. Terpene content increased in the milks of commercial flocks when animals were reared under grazing management. Monoterpenes were detected in the milks of all the commercial flocks throughout the season, whereas sesquiterpenes were only detected in the milks from flocks grazing on non-cultivated community-owned grasslands in which a higher biodiversity of plant species grew. These preliminary results indicated that β-caryophyllene could be a potential pasture-diet marker in the case of milks from animals grazing a higher biodiversity of plant species but in-depth studies including information on terpene composition of plants ingested by the animals are necessary to evaluate the suitability of β-caryophyllene or another terpenoid compound as pasture biomarker.

  19. Identification of Genes and Proteins Necessary for Catabolism of Acyclic Terpenes and Leucine/Isovalerate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Förster-Fromme, Karin; Höschle, Birgit; Mack, Christina; Bott, Michael; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Geranyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-carboxylase (GCase; AtuC/AtuF) and methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase (MCase; LiuB/LiuD) are characteristic enzymes of the catabolic pathway of acyclic terpenes (citronellol and geraniol) and of saturated methyl-branched compounds, such as leucine or isovalerate, respectively. Proteins encoded by two gene clusters (atuABCDEFGH and liuRABCDE) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were essential for acyclic terpene utilization (Atu) and for leucine and isovalerate utilization (Liu), respectively, as revealed by phenotype analysis of 10 insertion mutants, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, determination of GCase and MCase activities, and Western blot analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. Analysis of the genome sequences of other pseudomonads (P. putida KT2440 and P. fluorescens Pf-5) revealed candidate genes for Liu proteins for both species and candidate genes for Atu proteins in P. fluorescens. This result concurred with the finding that P. fluorescens, but not P. putida, could grow on acyclic terpenes (citronellol and citronellate), while both species were able to utilize leucine and isovalerate. A regulatory gene, atuR, was identified upstream of atuABCDEFGH and negatively regulated expression of the atu gene cluster. PMID:16820476

  20. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  1. Compulsory generic switching of antiepileptic drugs: high switchback rates to branded compounds compared with other drug classes.

    PubMed

    Andermann, Frederick; Duh, Mei Sheng; Gosselin, Antoine; Paradis, Pierre Emmanuel

    2007-03-01

    Compulsory generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may lead to adverse effects in epilepsy patients because of seizure recurrence or increased toxicity. The study objectives were (a) to quantify and compare the switchback rates from generic to brand-name AEDs versus non-AEDs, and (b) to assess clinical implications of switching from branded Lamictal to generic lamotrigine (LTG) and whether signals exist suggesting outcome worsening. By using a public-payer pharmacy-claims database from Ontario, Canada, switchback rates from generic to branded AEDs [Lamictal, Frisium (clobazam; CLB), and Depakene (VPA; divalproex)] were calculated and compared with non-AED long-term therapies, antihyperlipidemics and antidepressants, in January 2002 through March 2006. We then assessed pharmacy utilization and AED dosage among LTG patients switching back to branded Lamictal compared with those staying on generic formulation. The 1,354 patients (403 monotherapy, 951 polytherapy) were prescribed generic LTG, of whom 12.9% switched back to Lamictal (11.7% monotherapy, 13.4% polytherapy). Switchback rates of other AEDs were approximately 20% for CLB and VPA. The switchback rates for AEDs were substantially higher than for non-AEDs (1.5-2.9%). Significant increases in LTG doses were observed after generic substitution for those who did not switch back (6.2%; p<0.0001). The average number of codispensed AEDs and non-AED drugs significantly increased (p<0.0001) after LTG generic entry, especially in the generic group. These results reflect poor acceptance of switching AEDs to generic compounds. They may also indicate increased toxicity and/or loss of seizure control associated with generic AED use.

  2. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  3. 78 FR 72838 - Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... represented for use in a drug and that, when used in the manufacturing, processing, or packaging of a drug, becomes an active ingredient or a finished dosage form of the drug, but the term does not include...

  4. Kinetic Analysis of Drug Release from Compounded Slow-release Capsules of Liothyronine Sodium (T3).

    PubMed

    Bakhteyar, Hamid; Cassone, Clayton; Kohan, Hamed Gilzad; Sani, Shabnam N

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate extemporaneously compounded Liothyronine Sodium (T3) slow-release capsules and to evaluate their in vitro drug release performance. Twenty-one formulations containing T3 (7.5 µg) with various compositions of two different grades of Methocel E4M and K100M premium (30% to 90%), and/or SimpleCap/Lactose (10% to 70%) were examined. Quality assessment of the capsules was conducted by standard quality control criteria of the United States Pharmacopeia (i.e., weight variation, content uniformity) to ensure their compliance. The dissolution release profile of the formulations was evaluated using United States Pharmacopeia Apparatus type II (paddle method) at a speed of 50 rpm and temperature of 37°C in phosphate buffered saline media ( pH = 7.2 to 7.4). Aliquots from the media were taken periodically up to 24 hours and analyzed using a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The cumulative percentage of drug release for each formulation was fitted to eleven major release kinetic equations to determine the best-fit model of drug release, as well as the mechanism of release. Assay sensitivity was as low as 1 ng/mL and the optimal calibration range was found to be between 0 ng/mL and 7.5 ng/mL, which corresponded well with the average physiological plasma concentrations of T3. Liothyronine sodium with either SimpleCap (100%) or Methocel E4M (100%) exhibited slowrelease kinetic patterns of Peppas and Zero Order, respectively. The formulation with SimpleCap (100%) had a higher percentage of drug release (as compared to 100% Methocel E4M) within the first four hours; this formulation released 80% of the drug within 12 hours when the release was plateaued thereafter. The formulation with 30% Methocel E4M and 70% SimpleCap released 100% of the drug within the initial 12 hours and exhibited a Zero Order slow-release kinetic pattern. In general, the release kinetic rate of the formulations containing Methocel K100M appeared to

  5. The sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization mass spectrometry to select biogenic terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavi, Avi; Vermeuel, Michael P.; Novak, Gordon A.; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2018-06-01

    Benzene cluster cations are a sensitive and selective reagent ion for chemical ionization of select biogenic volatile organic compounds. We have previously reported the sensitivity of a field deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), using benzene cluster cation ion chemistry, for detection of dimethyl sulfide, isoprene and α-pinene. Here, we present laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the same instrument to a series of terpenes, including isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, farnesene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, and isolongifolene at atmospherically relevant mixing ratios (< 100 pptv). In addition, we determine the dependence of CI-ToFMS sensitivity on the reagent ion neutral delivery concentration and water vapor concentration. We show that isoprene is primarily detected as an adduct (C5H8 ṡ C6H6+) with a sensitivity ranging between 4 and 10 ncps ppt-1, which depends strongly on the reagent ion precursor concentration, de-clustering voltages, and specific humidity (SH). Monoterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C10H16+) with an average sensitivity, across the five measured compounds, of 14 ± 3 ncps ppt-1 for SH between 7 and 14 g kg-1, typical of the boreal forest during summer. Sesquiterpenes are detected primarily as the molecular ion (C15H24+) with an average sensitivity, across the four measured compounds, of 9.6 ± 2.3 ncps ppt-1, that is also independent of specific humidity. Comparable sensitivities across broad classes of terpenes (e.g., monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coupled to the limited dependence on specific humidity, suggest that benzene cluster cation CI-ToFMS is suitable for field studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  6. Connecting proteins with drug-like compounds: Open source drug discovery workflows with BindingDB and KNIME

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, Michael R.; Hedrick, Michael P.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Today’s large, public databases of protein–small molecule interaction data are creating important new opportunities for data mining and integration. At the same time, new graphical user interface-based workflow tools offer facile alternatives to custom scripting for informatics and data analysis. Here, we illustrate how the large protein-ligand database BindingDB may be incorporated into KNIME workflows as a step toward the integration of pharmacological data with broader biomolecular analyses. Thus, we describe a collection of KNIME workflows that access BindingDB data via RESTful webservices and, for more intensive queries, via a local distillation of the full BindingDB dataset. We focus in particular on the KNIME implementation of knowledge-based tools to generate informed hypotheses regarding protein targets of bioactive compounds, based on notions of chemical similarity. A number of variants of this basic approach are tested for seven existing drugs with relatively ill-defined therapeutic targets, leading to replication of some previously confirmed results and discovery of new, high-quality hits. Implications for future development are discussed. Database URL: www.bindingdb.org PMID:26384374

  7. A review of QSAR studies to discover new drug-like compounds actives against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Garit, Juan Alberto; Abad, Concepción; Rodríguez-Borges, J Enrique; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Torrens, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people (one-sixth of the world's population) and occur primarily in undeveloped countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Available drugs for these diseases are decades old and present an important number of limitations, especially high toxicity and, more recently, the emergence of drug resistance. In the last decade several Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been developed in order to identify new organic compounds with activity against the parasites responsible for these diseases, which are reviewed in this paper. The topics summarized in this work are: 1) QSAR studies to identify new organic compounds actives against Chaga's disease; 2) Development of QSAR studies to discover new antileishmanial drusg; 3) Computational studies to identify new drug-like compounds against human African trypanosomiasis. Each topic include the general characteristics, epidemiology and chemotherapy of the disease as well as the main QSAR approaches to discovery/identification of new actives compounds for the corresponding neglected disease. The last section is devoted to a new approach know as multi-target QSAR models developed for antiparasitic drugs specifically those actives against trypanosomatid parasites. At present, as a result of these QSAR studies several promising compounds, active against these parasites, are been indentify. However, more efforts will be required in the future to develop more selective (specific) useful drugs.

  8. Molecular structure and pronounced conformational flexibility of doxorubicin in free and conjugated state within a drug-peptide compound.

    PubMed

    Tsoneva, Yana; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Wagner, Manfred; Tadjer, Alia; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Ivanova, Anela

    2015-02-19

    The search for targeted drug delivery systems requires the design of drug-carrier complexes, which could both reach the malignant cells and preserve the therapeutic substance activity. A promising strategy aimed at enhancing the uptake and reducing the systemic toxicity is to bind covalently the drug to a cell-penetrating peptide. To understand the structure-activity relationship in such preparations, the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin was investigated by unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations, supported by NMR, which yielded its molecular geometry in aqueous environment. Furthermore, the structure and dynamics of a conjugate of the drug with a cell-penetrating peptide was obtained from molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution. The geometries of the unbound compounds were characterized at different temperatures, as well as the extent to which they change after covalent binding and whether/how they influence each other in the drug-peptide conjugate. The main structural fragments that affect the conformational ensemble of every molecule were found. The results show that the transitions between different substructures of the three compounds require a modest amount of energy. At increased temperature, either more conformations become populated as a result of the thermal fluctuations or the relative shares of the various conformers equalize at the nanosecond scale. These frequent structural interconversions suggest expressed conformational freedom of the molecules. Conjugation into the drug-peptide compound partially immobilizes the molecules of the parent compounds. Nevertheless, flexibility still exists, as well as an effective intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding that stabilizes the structures. We observe compact packing of the drug within the peptide that is also based on stacking interactions. All this outlines the drug-peptide conjugate as a prospective building block of a more complex drug-carrier system.

  9. Capture compound mass spectrometry sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of liver toxicity of two Parkinson drugs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jenny J; Michaelis, Simon; Schrey, Anna K; Graebner, Olivia Graebner nee; Glinski, Mirko; Dreger, Mathias; Kroll, Friedrich; Koester, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Capture compound mass spectrometry (CCMS) is a novel technology that helps understand the molecular mechanism of the mode of action of small molecules. The Capture Compounds are trifunctional probes: A selectivity function (the drug) interacts with the proteins in a biological sample, a reactivity function (phenylazide) irreversibly forms a covalent bond, and a sorting function (biotin) allows the captured protein(s) to be isolated for mass spectrometric analysis. Tolcapone and entacapone are potent inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. We aimed to understand the molecular basis of the difference of both drugs with respect to side effects. Using Capture Compounds with these drugs as selectivity functions, we were able to unambiguously and reproducibly isolate and identify their known target COMT. Tolcapone Capture Compounds captured five times more proteins than entacapone Capture Compounds. Moreover, tolcapone Capture Compounds isolated mitochondrial and peroxisomal proteins. The major tolcapone-protein interactions occurred with components of the respiratory chain and of the fatty acid beta-oxidation. Previously reported symptoms in tolcapone-treated rats suggested that tolcapone might act as decoupling reagent of the respiratory chain (Haasio et al., 2002b). Our results demonstrate that CCMS is an effective tool for the identification of a drug's potential off targets. It fills a gap in currently used in vitro screens for drug profiling that do not contain all the toxicologically relevant proteins. Thereby, CCMS has the potential to fill a technological need in drug safety assessment and helps reengineer or to reject drugs at an early preclinical stage.

  10. Synthetic Strategies to Terpene Quinones/Hydroquinones

    PubMed Central

    Gordaliza, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties of many natural sesquiterpene-quinones and -hydroquinones from sponges offer promising opportunities for the development of new drugs. A review dealing with different strategies for obtaining bioactive terpenyl quinones/hydroquinones is presented. The different synthetic approches for the preparation of the most relevant quinones/hydroquinones are described. PMID:22412807

  11. The effects of selected drugs and dietary compounds on proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiedrowski, Miroslaw; Mroz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Like many malignancies, the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) can be considered as an imbalance between the compromised process of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and excessive, uncontrolled proliferation. Several mutations and epigenetic alterations are acquired during colorectal carcinogenesis. These are responsible for the cell cycle regulation, cellular sensitivity to pro- and antiapoptotic factors, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, as well as metastatic potential. The molecular alterations, along with their morphological expressions, have been recognised in detail, and most of the CRC cases can be attributed to either adenoma-carcinoma or serrated neoplasia pathways: in the first, the antiapoptotic features prevail; while in the second, the proliferative activity is of the utmost importance. The aim of the work is to discuss the influence of selected drugs and dietary compounds on the proliferation and apoptosis in CRC.

  12. A Systematic Review of In vitro and In vivo Activities of Anti-Toxoplasma Drugs and Compounds (2006–2016)

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Daryani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The currently available anti-Toxoplasma agents have serious limitations. This systematic review was performed to evaluate drugs and new compounds used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Data was systematically collected from published papers on the efficacy of drugs/compounds used against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) globally during 2006–2016. The searched databases were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus. One hundred and eighteen papers were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, which were both in vitro and in vivo studies. Within this review, 80 clinically available drugs and a large number of new compounds with more than 39 mechanisms of action were evaluated. Interestingly, many of the drugs/compounds evaluated against T. gondii act on the apicoplast. Therefore, the apicoplast represents as a potential drug target for new chemotherapy. Based on the current findings, 49 drugs/compounds demonstrated in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of below 1 μM, but most of them were not evaluated further for in vivo effectiveness. However, the derivatives of the ciprofloxacin, endochin-like quinolones and 1-[4-(4-nitrophenoxy) phenyl] propane-1-one (NPPP) were significantly active against T. gondii tachyzoites both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these compounds are promising candidates for future studies. Also, compound 32 (T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 inhibitor), endochin-like quinolones, miltefosine, rolipram abolish, and guanabenz can be repurposed into an effective anti-parasitic with a unique ability to reduce brain tissue cysts (88.7, 88, 78, 74, and 69%, respectively). Additionally, no promising drugs are available for congenital toxoplasmosis. In conclusion, as current chemotherapy against toxoplasmosis is still not satisfactory, development of well-tolerated and safe specific immunoprophylaxis in relaxing the need of dependence on chemotherapeutics is a highly valuable

  13. Post processing of protein-compound docking for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD): in-silico structure-based drug screening and ligand-binding pose prediction.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    For fragment-based drug development, both hit (active) compound prediction and docking-pose (protein-ligand complex structure) prediction of the hit compound are important, since chemical modification (fragment linking, fragment evolution) subsequent to the hit discovery must be performed based on the protein-ligand complex structure. However, the naïve protein-compound docking calculation shows poor accuracy in terms of docking-pose prediction. Thus, post-processing of the protein-compound docking is necessary. Recently, several methods for the post-processing of protein-compound docking have been proposed. In FBDD, the compounds are smaller than those for conventional drug screening. This makes it difficult to perform the protein-compound docking calculation. A method to avoid this problem has been reported. Protein-ligand binding free energy estimation is useful to reduce the procedures involved in the chemical modification of the hit fragment. Several prediction methods have been proposed for high-accuracy estimation of protein-ligand binding free energy. This paper summarizes the various computational methods proposed for docking-pose prediction and their usefulness in FBDD.

  14. Text Mining for Drugs and Chemical Compounds: Methods, Tools and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Miguel; Krallinger, Martin; Leitner, Florian; Valencia, Alfonso

    2011-06-01

    Providing prior knowledge about biological properties of chemicals, such as kinetic values, protein targets, or toxic effects, can facilitate many aspects of drug development. Chemical information is rapidly accumulating in all sorts of free text documents like patents, industry reports, or scientific articles, which has motivated the development of specifically tailored text mining applications. Despite the potential gains, chemical text mining still faces significant challenges. One of the most salient is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in text. To help practitioners contribute to this area, a good portion of this review is devoted to this issue, and presents the basic concepts and principles underlying the main strategies. The technical details are introduced and accompanied by relevant bibliographic references. Other tasks discussed are retrieving relevant articles, identifying relationships between chemicals and other entities, or determining the chemical structures of chemicals mentioned in text. This review also introduces a number of published applications that can be used to build pipelines in topics like drug side effects, toxicity, and protein-disease-compound network analysis. We conclude the review with an outlook on how we expect the field to evolve, discussing its possibilities and its current limitations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Macrolide Hybrid Compounds: Drug Discovery Opportunities in Anti- Infective and Anti-inflammatory Area.

    PubMed

    Paljetak, Hana Cipcic; Tomaskovic, Linda; Matijasic, Mario; Bukvic, Mirjana; Fajdetic, Andrea; Verbanac, Donatella; Peric, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Macrolides, polyketide natural products, and their 15-membered semi-synthetic derivatives are composed of substituted macrocyclic lactone ring and used primarily as potent antibiotics. Recently their usefulness was extended to antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area. Hybrid macrolides presented in this article are the next generation semi-synthetic compounds that combine pharmacophores from antibacterial, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area with 14- and 15-membered azalide scaffolds. Antibacterial azalide hybrids with sulphonamides showed improved activity against resistant streptococci while quinolone conjugates demonstrated full coverage of respiratory pathogens including macrolide resistant strains and their efficacy was confirmed in mouse pneumonia model. Antimalarial macrolide hybrids, mainly involving (chloro)quinoline pharmacophores, showed outstanding activity against chloroquine resistant strains, favourable pharmacokinetics, promising in vivo efficacy as well as encouraging developmental potential. Anti-inflammatory hybrids were obtained by combining macrolides with corticosteroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They were found active in in vivo animal models of locally induced inflammation, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrated improved safety over parent steroid drugs. Overall, macrolide hybrids possess significant potential to be developed as potent novel medicines in therapeutic areas of utmost pharmaceutical interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Polyketide-Terpene Hybrid Metabolites from an Endolichenic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Guo, Yu-Hua; Shang, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Five new polyketide-terpene hybrid metabolites (1–5) with highly functionalized groups, together with six known derivatives (6–11), were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments including 1H, 13C, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC. The relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by analysis of coupling constants and ROESY correlations. The absolute configurations especially the secondary alcohol at C-15 in 1 and secondary alcohol at C-14 in 5 were established via the CD experiments of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex with the acetonide derivatives. These compounds were tested for their inhibition activity against six plant pathogens. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited pronounced efficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, and compounds 5 and 6 potently inhibited Fusarium gramineum with MIC value of 8 µg/mL, which revealed the plausible ecological role of endolichenic fungus in providing chemical protection for its host lichen in the fungus-plant relationship. The biosynthetic pathway of compounds 1–11 was postulated for the first time, which paved the way for its further biosynthesis research. PMID:28593175

  17. Polyketide-Terpene Hybrid Metabolites from an Endolichenic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Ding, Gang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Guo, Yu-Hua; Shang, Hai; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Five new polyketide-terpene hybrid metabolites ( 1 - 5 ) with highly functionalized groups, together with six known derivatives ( 6 - 11 ), were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments including 1 H, 13 C, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC. The relative configurations of the new compounds were determined by analysis of coupling constants and ROESY correlations. The absolute configurations especially the secondary alcohol at C-15 in 1 and secondary alcohol at C-14 in 5 were established via the CD experiments of the in situ formed [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ] complex with the acetonide derivatives. These compounds were tested for their inhibition activity against six plant pathogens. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited pronounced efficiency against Fusarium oxysporum , and compounds 5 and 6 potently inhibited Fusarium gramineum with MIC value of 8  µ g/mL, which revealed the plausible ecological role of endolichenic fungus in providing chemical protection for its host lichen in the fungus-plant relationship. The biosynthetic pathway of compounds 1 - 11 was postulated for the first time, which paved the way for its further biosynthesis research.

  18. Co-Compartmentation of Terpene Biosynthesis and Storage via Synthetic Droplet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cheng; Kim, YongKyoung; Zeng, Yining; Li, Man; Wang, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Gorman, Connor; Dai, Susie Y; Ding, Shi-You; Yuan, Joshua S

    2018-03-16

    Traditional bioproduct engineering focuses on pathway optimization, yet is often complicated by product inhibition, downstream consumption, and the toxicity of certain products. Here, we present the co-compartmentation of biosynthesis and storage via a synthetic droplet as an effective new strategy to improve the bioproduct yield, with squalene as a model compound. A hydrophobic protein was designed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast to generate a synthetic droplet for terpene storage. Simultaneously, squalene biosynthesis enzymes were introduced to chloroplasts together with the droplet-forming protein to co-compartmentalize the biosynthesis and storage of squalene. The strategy has enabled a record yield of squalene at 2.6 mg/g fresh weight without compromising plant growth. Confocal fluorescent microscopy imaging, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, and droplet composition analysis confirmed the formation of synthetic storage droplet in chloroplast. The co-compartmentation of synthetic storage droplet with a targeted metabolic pathway engineering represents a new strategy for enhancing bioproduct yield.

  19. Drugs for Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases: From Small Molecule Compounds to Anti-TNF Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Although initially described as an anti-tumor mediator, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is generally considered as the master pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis. Consequently, anti-TNF therapy has become mainstay treatment for autoimmune diseases. Historically, anti-inflammatory agents were developed before the identification of TNF. Salicylates, the active components of Willow spp., were identified in the mid-19th century for the alleviation of pain, fever, and inflammatory responses. Study of this naturally occurring compound led to the discovery of aspirin, which was followed by the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to the chemical advances in the 19th–20th centuries. Initially, the most of NSAIDs were organic acid, but the non-acidic compounds were also identified as NSAIDs. Although effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, NSAIDs have some undesirable and adverse effect, such as ulcers, kidney injury, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past two decades, anti-TNF biologics were developed. Drugs belong to this class include soluble TNF receptor 2 fusion protein and anti-TNF antibodies. The introduction of anti-TNF therapeutics has revolutionized the management of autoimmune diseases, such as RA, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), plaque psoriasis (PP), AS, CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). Nevertheless, up to 40% of patients have no response to anti-TNF treatment. Furthermore, this treatment is associated with some adverse effects such as increased risk of infection, and even triggered the de novo development of autoimmune diseases. Such harmful effect of anti-TNF treatment is likely caused by the global inhibition of TNF biological functions. Therefore, specific inhibition of TNF receptor (TNFR1 or TNFR2) may represent a safer and more

  20. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment.

  1. Terpene Down-Regulation in Orange Reveals the Role of Fruit Aromas in Mediating Interactions with Insect Herbivores and Pathogens1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens. PMID:21525333

  2. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studying a Drug-like, RNA-Focused Small Molecule Library Identifies Compounds That Inhibit RNA Toxicity in Myotonic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Southern, Mark R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-12-18

    There are many RNA targets in the transcriptome to which small molecule chemical probes and lead therapeutics are desired. However, identifying compounds that bind and modulate RNA function in cellulo is difficult. Although rational design approaches have been developed, they are still in their infancies and leave many RNAs "undruggable". In an effort to develop a small molecule library that is biased for binding RNA, we computationally identified "drug-like" compounds from screening collections that have favorable properties for binding RNA and for suitability as lead drugs. As proof-of-concept, this collection was screened for binding to and modulating the cellular dysfunction of the expanded repeating RNA (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hit compounds bind the target in cellulo, as determined by the target identification approach Competitive Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-down (C-ChemCLIP), and selectively improve several disease-associated defects. The best compounds identified from our 320-member library are more potent in cellulo than compounds identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against this RNA. Furthermore, the compound collection has a higher hit rate (9% compared to 0.01-3%), and the bioactive compounds identified are not charged; thus, RNA can be "drugged" with compounds that have favorable pharmacological properties. Finally, this RNA-focused small molecule library may serve as a useful starting point to identify lead "drug-like" chemical probes that affect the biological (dys)function of other RNA targets by direct target engagement.

  4. Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Li, Li; Xu, Fang; Sun, Yan; Du, Feifei; Ma, Xutao; Zhong, Chenchun; Li, Xiuxue; Wang, Fengqing; Zhang, Nating; Li, Chuan

    2013-09-01

    Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley &. Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Inferences of drug responses in cancer cells from cancer genomic features and compound chemical and therapeutic properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongcui; Fang, Jianwen; Chen, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a core goal of precision medicine. Existing approaches were mainly relied primarily on genomic alterations in cancer cells that have been treated with different drugs. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on integration of the heterogeneously pharmacogenomics data from both cell and drug sides. Through a systematical approach, named as PDRCC (Predict Drug Response in Cancer Cells), the cancer genomic alterations and compound chemical and therapeutic properties were incorporated to determine the chemotherapeutic response in cancer patients. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) study as the benchmark dataset, all pharmacogenomics data exhibited their roles in inferring the relationships between cancer cells and drugs. When integrating both genomic resources and compound information, the prediction coverage was significantly increased. The validity of PDRCC was also supported by its effective in uncovering the unknown cell-drug associations with database and literature evidences. It set the stage for clinical testing of novel therapeutic strategies, such as the sensitive association between cancer cell ‘A549_LUNG’ and compound ‘Topotecan’. In conclusion, PDRCC offers the possibility for faster, safer, and cheaper the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics in the early-stage clinical trails. PMID:27645580

  6. Inferences of drug responses in cancer cells from cancer genomic features and compound chemical and therapeutic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongcui; Fang, Jianwen; Chen, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    Accurately predicting the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a core goal of precision medicine. Existing approaches were mainly relied primarily on genomic alterations in cancer cells that have been treated with different drugs. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on integration of the heterogeneously pharmacogenomics data from both cell and drug sides. Through a systematical approach, named as PDRCC (Predict Drug Response in Cancer Cells), the cancer genomic alterations and compound chemical and therapeutic properties were incorporated to determine the chemotherapeutic response in cancer patients. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) study as the benchmark dataset, all pharmacogenomics data exhibited their roles in inferring the relationships between cancer cells and drugs. When integrating both genomic resources and compound information, the prediction coverage was significantly increased. The validity of PDRCC was also supported by its effective in uncovering the unknown cell-drug associations with database and literature evidences. It set the stage for clinical testing of novel therapeutic strategies, such as the sensitive association between cancer cell ‘A549_LUNG’ and compound ‘Topotecan’. In conclusion, PDRCC offers the possibility for faster, safer, and cheaper the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics in the early-stage clinical trails.

  7. Inferences of drug responses in cancer cells from cancer genomic features and compound chemical and therapeutic properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongcui; Fang, Jianwen; Chen, Shilong

    2016-09-20

    Accurately predicting the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a core goal of precision medicine. Existing approaches were mainly relied primarily on genomic alterations in cancer cells that have been treated with different drugs. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on integration of the heterogeneously pharmacogenomics data from both cell and drug sides. Through a systematical approach, named as PDRCC (Predict Drug Response in Cancer Cells), the cancer genomic alterations and compound chemical and therapeutic properties were incorporated to determine the chemotherapeutic response in cancer patients. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) study as the benchmark dataset, all pharmacogenomics data exhibited their roles in inferring the relationships between cancer cells and drugs. When integrating both genomic resources and compound information, the prediction coverage was significantly increased. The validity of PDRCC was also supported by its effective in uncovering the unknown cell-drug associations with database and literature evidences. It set the stage for clinical testing of novel therapeutic strategies, such as the sensitive association between cancer cell 'A549_LUNG' and compound 'Topotecan'. In conclusion, PDRCC offers the possibility for faster, safer, and cheaper the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics in the early-stage clinical trails.

  8. The Influence of Tablet Formulation, Drug Concentration, and pH Modification on the Stability of Extemporaneously Compounded Levothyroxine Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Svirskis, Darren; Lin, Shao-Wei; Brown, Helen; Sangaroomthong, Annie; Shin, Daniel; Wang, Ziqi; Xu, Hongtao; Dean, Rebecca; Vareed, Preetika; Jensen, Maree; Wu, Zimei

    2018-01-01

    Three brands of levothyroxine tablets are currently available in New Zealand (Eltroxin, Mercury Pharma, Synthroid) for extemporaneous compounding into suspensions. This study aims to determine whether tablet brand (i.e., formulation), concentration, storage conditions, as well as pH, impact the stability of compounded levothyroxine suspensions. Using the three available brands of levothyroxine tablets, suspensions were compounded at concentrations of 15 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL and stored at 4°C and 22°C. Samples were withdrawn weekly for 4 weeks, and chemical stability was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Physical appearance, ease of resuspension, and pH were also monitored weekly. To evaluate the effect on drug stability, pH modifiers were added to a suspension. As demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis, the suspensions compounded from the Eltroxin and Mercury Pharma tablets were more stable (>90% remaining after 4 weeks) than Synthroid across both storage conditions and concentrations. The drug was more stable at the higher concentration of 25 µg/mL than at 15 µg/mL. Levothyroxine was stable when pH was increased to pH 8 through the addition of sodium citrate; stability was reduced at a lower pH. Storage temperature did not affect the stability of the suspensions during the 4-week study. This is the first study demonstrating the impact of tablet brand, with different excipients, and drug concentrations on stability, and thus the beyond-use date of the compounded levothyroxine liquid formulations. The pH control achieved by sodium citrate, either as an excipient in tablets or an additive during compounding, improved drug stability. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Bradykinin-related compounds as new drugs for cancer and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John M; Gera, Lajos; Chan, Daniel C; Bunn, Paul A; York, Eunice J; Simkeviciene, Vitalija; Helfrich, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) (Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg) is an important growth factor for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and prostate cancer (PC). These cancers have cells of neuroendocrine origin and express receptors for a variety of neuropeptides. BK receptors are expressed on almost all lung cancer cell lines and on many PC cells. Our very potent BK antagonist B9430 (D-Arg-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-lgl-Ser-D-Igl-Oic-Arg) (Hyp, trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline; Ig1, alpha-2-indanylglycine; Oic, octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid) is a candidate anti-inflammatory drug but does not inhibit growth of SCLC or PC. When B9430 is dimerized by N-terminal cross-linking with a suberimide linker, the product B9870 is a potent growth inhibitor for SCLC both in vitro and in vivo in athymic nude mice. Daily i.p. injection at 5 mg x kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on day 8 after SCLC SHP-77 cell implantation gave 65% inhibition of tumor growth. B9870 stimulates apoptosis in SCLC by a novel "biased agonist" action. We have also developed new small mimetic antagonists. BKM-570 (F5C-OC2Y-Atmp) (F5C, pentafluorocinnamic acid; OC2Y, O-2,6-dichlorobenzyl tyrosine; Atmp, 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) is very potent for inhibition of SHP-77 growth in nude mice. When injected daily i.p. at 5 mg x kg(-1), M-570 gave 90% suppression of tumor growth. M-570 is more potent than the well-known anticancer drug cisPlatin (60% inhibition) or the recently developed SU5416 (40% inhibition) in this model. M-570 also showed activity against various other cancer cell lines in vitro (SCLC, non-SCLC, lung, prostate, colon, cervix) and inhibited growth of prostate cell line PC3 in nude mice. M-570 and related compounds evidently act in vivo through pathways other than BK receptors. These compounds have clinical potential for treatment of human lung and prostate cancers.

  10. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais.

    PubMed

    Pizzolitto, Romina P; Herrera, Jimena M; Zaio, Yesica P; Dambolena, Jose S; Zunino, Maria P; Gallucci, Mauro N; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2015-11-12

    Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and through feeding damage, provide entry points for fungal infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioassays, the antifungal activity on F. verticillioides M3125 and repellent effects against S. zeamais of ketone terpenes. In addition, we performed Quantitative structure-activity relationship (Q-SAR) studies between physico-chemical properties of ketone terpenes and the antifungal effect. Thymoquinone was the most active compound against F. verticillioides (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 0.87) affecting the lag phase and the growth rate showing a total inhibition of growth at concentration higher than 2 mM (p < 0.05). The Q-SAR model revealed that the antifungal activity of ketone compounds is related to the electronic descriptor, Pi energy. Thymoquinone showed a strong repellent effect (-77.8 ± 8.5, p < 0.001) against S. zeamais. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds to control two stored pests of maize.

  11. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolitto, Romina P.; Herrera, Jimena M.; Zaio, Yesica P.; Dambolena, Jose S.; Zunino, Maria P.; Gallucci, Mauro N.; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and through feeding damage, provide entry points for fungal infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioassays, the antifungal activity on F. verticillioides M3125 and repellent effects against S. zeamais of ketone terpenes. In addition, we performed Quantitative structure–activity relationship (Q-SAR) studies between physico-chemical properties of ketone terpenes and the antifungal effect. Thymoquinone was the most active compound against F. verticillioides (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 0.87) affecting the lag phase and the growth rate showing a total inhibition of growth at concentration higher than 2 mM (p < 0.05). The Q-SAR model revealed that the antifungal activity of ketone compounds is related to the electronic descriptor, Pi energy. Thymoquinone showed a strong repellent effect (−77.8 ± 8.5, p < 0.001) against S. zeamais. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds to control two stored pests of maize. PMID:27682121

  12. Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Li, Li; Xu, Fang; Sun, Yan; Du, Feifei; Ma, Xutao; Zhong, Chenchun; Li, Xiuxue; Wang, Fengqing; Zhang, Nating; Li, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds’ pharmacokinetics. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. KEY RESULTS Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects. PMID:23808355

  13. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of terpene carbon skeletons in plants is formed by enzymes known as terpene synthases. This review covers the monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases presenting an up-to-date list of enzymes reported and evidence for their ability to form multiple products. The reaction mechanisms of these enzyme classes are described, and information on how terpene synthase proteins mediate catalysis is summarized. Correlations between specific amino acid motifs and terpene synthase function are described, including an analysis of the relationships between active site sequence and cyclization type and a discussion of whether specific protein features might facilitate multiple product formation.

  14. Evidence for a Terpene-Based Food Chain in the Gulf of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Button, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of 14C-terpenes was prepared from conifer seedlings and introduced into fresh seawater samples taken near Seward, Alaska. Initial rates of oxidation by the indigenous bacteria were linear and faster than the rates of toluene oxidation. Turnover times were 4 to 19 days. Autoradiographic measurements with 3H-terpenes indicated that at least 10% of the 0.6 × 109 to 2.7 × 109 bacteria per liter present could catabolize terpenes. The rate of terpene oxidation, 24 μg of terpenes per g of cells per h with 3 μg of terpenes added per liter, was a constant function of bacterial biomass. The specific affinity of the process was estimated to be between 8.1 and 81 liters/g of cells per h, indicating a high state of induction and the probable presence of terpenes. Terpene-oxidizing bacteria were grown on [14C]alanine and added to fresh seawater samples. Transfer of the bacterial radioactivity into larger particles at a rate of 146 pg/liter per h from the 2.3 × 109 organisms added indicated that any terpenes present would participate in the food chain. PMID:16346658

  15. Dual-acting of Hybrid Compounds - A New Dawn in the Discovery of Multi-target Drugs: Lead Generation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleki, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2017-01-01

    Finding high quality beginning compounds is a critical job at the start of the lead generation stage for multi-target drug discovery (MTDD). Designing hybrid compounds as selective multitarget chemical entity is a challenge, opportunity, and new idea to better act against specific multiple targets. One hybrid molecule is formed by two (or more) pharmacophore group's participation. So, these new compounds often exhibit two or more activities going about as multi-target drugs (mtdrugs) and may have superior safety or efficacy. Application of integrating a range of information and sophisticated new in silico, bioinformatics, structural biology, pharmacogenomics methods may be useful to discover/design, and synthesis of the new hybrid molecules. In this regard, many rational and screening approaches have followed by medicinal chemists for the lead generation in MTDD. Here, we review some popular lead generation approaches that have been used for designing multiple ligands (DMLs). This paper focuses on dual- acting chemical entities that incorporate a part of two drugs or bioactive compounds to compose hybrid molecules. Also, it presents some of key concepts and limitations/strengths of lead generation methods by comparing combination framework method with screening approaches. Besides, a number of examples to represent applications of hybrid molecules in the drug discovery are included. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. A ferromagnetic compound with anti-cancer proeprties for controlled drug delivery and imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko; ...

    2015-03-17

    New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)] 2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)] 2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)] 2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into themore » tails of mice using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)] 2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)] 2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.« less

  17. A ferromagnetic compound with anti-cancer proeprties for controlled drug delivery and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, Haruki; Hirata, Kunio; Kurotani, Reiko

    New anticancer agents and modalities for their use are of great interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-cancer properties in salen derivatives. We found that an iron salen derivative, i.e., [Fe(salen)] 2O, displays ferromagnetic order above room temperature and shows spontaneous field-dependent magnetization and hysteresis. Understanding of this magnetic property is provided by first-principles calculations based on structures obtained by X-ray crystallography. [Fe(salen)] 2O exhibited potent anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell types and was readily attracted by even moderate-strength permanent magnets in vitro. We demonstrated that the delivery of [Fe(salen)] 2O to melanoma tissues transplanted into themore » tails of mice using a permanent magnet leads to a robust decrease in tumor size. The local accumulation of [Fe(salen)] 2O was visualized by MRI. Thus, [Fe(salen)] 2O acted as an anti-cancer and MRI contrast compound that has a pharmacological effect that is delivered in a controlled manner, suggesting new strategies for anti-cancer drug development.« less

  18. Quantitative structure-permeability relationships at various pH values for acidic and basic drugs and drug-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Oja, M; Maran, U

    2015-01-01

    Absorption in gastrointestinal tract compartments varies and is largely influenced by pH. Therefore, considering pH in studies and analyses of membrane permeability provides an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of compounds and to obtain good permeability estimates for prediction purposes. This study concentrates on relationships between the chemical structure and membrane permeability of acidic and basic drugs and drug-like compounds. The membrane permeability of 36 acidic and 61 basic compounds was measured using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) at pH 3, 5, 7.4 and 9. Descriptive and/or predictive single-parameter quantitative structure-permeability relationships were derived for all pH values. For acidic compounds, membrane permeability is mainly influenced by hydrogen bond donor properties, as revealed by models with r(2) > 0.8 for pH 3 and pH 5. For basic compounds, the best (r(2) > 0.7) structure-permeability relationships are obtained with the octanol-water distribution coefficient for pH 7.4 and pH 9, indicating the importance of partition properties. In addition to the validation set, the prediction quality of the developed models was tested with folic acid and astemizole, showing good matches between experimental and calculated membrane permeabilities at key pHs. Selected QSAR models are available at the QsarDB repository ( http://dx.doi.org/10.15152/QDB.166 ).

  19. Chromatographic behavior of co-eluted plasma compounds and effect on screening of drugs by APCI-LC-MS(/MS): Applications to selected cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Tahboub, Yahya R

    2014-12-01

    Chromatographic behavior of co-eluted compounds from un-extracted drug-free plasma samples was studied by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS with positive APCI. Under soft gradient, total ion chromatogram (TIC) consisted of two major peaks separated by a constant lower intensity region. Early peak (0.15-0.4 min) belongs to polar plasma compounds and consisted of smaller mass ions ( m / z <250); late peak (3.6-4.6 min) belongs to thermally unstable phospholipids and consisted of fragments with m / z <300. Late peak is more sensitive to variations in chromatographic and MS parameters. Screening of most targeted cardiovascular drugs at levels lower than 50 ng/mL has been possible by LC-MS for drugs with retention factors larger than three. Matrix effects and recovery, at 20 and 200 ng/mL, were evaluated for spiked plasma samples with 15 cardiovascular drugs, by MRM-LC-MS/MS. Average recoveries were above 90% and matrix effects expressed as percent matrix factor (% MF) were above 100%, indicating enhancement character for APCI. Large uncertainties were significant for drugs with smaller masses ( m / z <250) and retention factors lower than two.

  20. Terpenes as green solvents for extraction of oil from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Ginies, Christian; Elmaataoui, Mohamed; Chemat, Farid

    2012-07-09

    Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  1. Validation of LC–TOF-MS Screening for Drugs, Metabolites, and Collateral Compounds in Forensic Toxicology Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guale, Fessessework; Shahreza, Shahriar; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Arndt, Crystal; Kelly, Anna T.; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–TOF-MS) analysis provides an expansive technique for identifying many known and unknown analytes. This study developed a screening method that utilizes automated solid-phase extraction to purify a wide array of analytes involving stimulants, benzodiazepines, opiates, muscle relaxants, hypnotics, antihistamines, antidepressants and newer synthetic “Spice/K2” cannabinoids and cathinone “bath salt” designer drugs. The extract was applied to LC–TOF-MS analysis, implementing a 13 min chromatography gradient with mobile phases of ammonium formate and methanol using positive mode electrospray. Several common drugs and metabolites can share the same mass and chemical formula among unrelated compounds, but they are structurally different. In this method, the LC–TOF-MS was able to resolve many isobaric compounds by accurate mass correlation within 15 ppm mass units and a narrow retention time interval of less than 10 s of separation. Drug recovery yields varied among spiked compounds, but resulted in overall robust area counts to deliver an average match score of 86 when compared to the retention time and mass of authentic standards. In summary, this method represents a rapid, enhanced screen for blood and urine specimens in postmortem, driving under the influence, and drug facilitated sexual assault forensic toxicology casework. PMID:23118149

  2. Validation of LC-TOF-MS screening for drugs, metabolites, and collateral compounds in forensic toxicology specimens.

    PubMed

    Guale, Fessessework; Shahreza, Shahriar; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Arndt, Crystal; Kelly, Anna T; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) analysis provides an expansive technique for identifying many known and unknown analytes. This study developed a screening method that utilizes automated solid-phase extraction to purify a wide array of analytes involving stimulants, benzodiazepines, opiates, muscle relaxants, hypnotics, antihistamines, antidepressants and newer synthetic "Spice/K2" cannabinoids and cathinone "bath salt" designer drugs. The extract was applied to LC-TOF-MS analysis, implementing a 13 min chromatography gradient with mobile phases of ammonium formate and methanol using positive mode electrospray. Several common drugs and metabolites can share the same mass and chemical formula among unrelated compounds, but they are structurally different. In this method, the LC-TOF-MS was able to resolve many isobaric compounds by accurate mass correlation within 15 ppm mass units and a narrow retention time interval of less than 10 s of separation. Drug recovery yields varied among spiked compounds, but resulted in overall robust area counts to deliver an average match score of 86 when compared to the retention time and mass of authentic standards. In summary, this method represents a rapid, enhanced screen for blood and urine specimens in postmortem, driving under the influence, and drug facilitated sexual assault forensic toxicology casework.

  3. The Maize Gene terpene synthase 1 Encodes a Sesquiterpene Synthase Catalyzing the Formation of (E)-β-Farnesene, (E)-Nerolidol, and (E,E)-Farnesol after Herbivore Damage1

    PubMed Central

    Schnee, Christiane; Köllner, Tobias G.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) emits a mixture of volatile compounds upon attack by the Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). These substances, primarily mono- and sesquiterpenes, are used by parasitic wasps to locate the lepidopteran larvae, which are their natural hosts. This interaction among plant, lepidopteran larvae, and hymenopteran parasitoids benefits the plant and has been termed indirect defense. The committed step in the biosynthesis of the different skeletal types of mono- and sesquiterpenes is catalyzed by terpene synthases, a class of enzymes that forms a large variety of mono- and sesquiterpene products from prenyl diphosphate precursors. We isolated a terpene synthase gene, terpene synthase 1 (tps1), from maize that exhibits only a low degree of sequence identity to previously identified terpene synthases. Upon expression in a bacterial system, the encoded enzyme produced the acyclic sesquiterpenes, (E)-β-farnesene, (E,E)-farnesol, and (3R)-(E)-nerolidol, the last an intermediate in the formation of (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Both (E)-β-farnesene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene are prominent compounds of the maize volatile blend that is emitted after herbivore damage. The biochemical characteristics of the encoded enzyme are similar to those of terpene synthases from both gymnosperms and dicotyledonous angiosperms, suggesting that catalysis involves a similar electrophilic reaction mechanism. The transcript level of tps1 in the maize cv B73 was elevated after herbivory, mechanical damage, and treatment with elicitors. In contrast, the increase in the transcript level of the tps1 gene or gene homolog in the maize cv Delprim after herbivory was less pronounced, suggesting that the regulation of terpene synthase expression may vary among maize varieties. PMID:12481088

  4. Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Thiago Jucá Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

  5. Effect of hydrotalcite-like compounds on the aqueous solubility of some poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Ambrogi, Valeria; Fardella, Giuseppe; Grandolini, Giuliano; Nocchetti, Morena; Perioli, Luana

    2003-07-01

    A new approach of improving drug dissolution properties is described. This method exploits the property of a carrier owing to the hydrotalcite-type anionic clays (HTlc). HTlc is an inorganic layered solid that lodges anionic compounds among its layers. As HTlc dissolves at acidic pH values (pH < 4), the anions intercalated among the layers are promptly released in the medium. In this article some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were chosen as models of poorly water-soluble drugs. They were intercalated in HTlc and solubility measurements in acidic medium were performed. A remarkable improvement of drug solubility was observed especially in the case of indomethacin. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  6. Inside the Mind of a Medicinal Chemist: The Role of Human Bias in Compound Prioritization during Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kutchukian, Peter S.; Vasilyeva, Nadya Y.; Xu, Jordan; Lindvall, Mika K.; Dillon, Michael P.; Glick, Meir; Coley, John D.; Brooijmans, Natasja

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal chemists’ “intuition” is critical for success in modern drug discovery. Early in the discovery process, chemists select a subset of compounds for further research, often from many viable candidates. These decisions determine the success of a discovery campaign, and ultimately what kind of drugs are developed and marketed to the public. Surprisingly little is known about the cognitive aspects of chemists’ decision-making when they prioritize compounds. We investigate 1) how and to what extent chemists simplify the problem of identifying promising compounds, 2) whether chemists agree with each other about the criteria used for such decisions, and 3) how accurately chemists report the criteria they use for these decisions. Chemists were surveyed and asked to select chemical fragments that they would be willing to develop into a lead compound from a set of ∼4,000 available fragments. Based on each chemist’s selections, computational classifiers were built to model each chemist’s selection strategy. Results suggest that chemists greatly simplified the problem, typically using only 1–2 of many possible parameters when making their selections. Although chemists tended to use the same parameters to select compounds, differing value preferences for these parameters led to an overall lack of consensus in compound selections. Moreover, what little agreement there was among the chemists was largely in what fragments were undesirable. Furthermore, chemists were often unaware of the parameters (such as compound size) which were statistically significant in their selections, and overestimated the number of parameters they employed. A critical evaluation of the problem space faced by medicinal chemists and cognitive models of categorization were especially useful in understanding the low consensus between chemists. PMID:23185259

  7. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of terpenes against Meloidogyne incognita and the nematicidal activity of essential oils from seven plants indigenous to Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Ferrari, Federico; Giannakou, Ioannis; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2011-03-01

    Biorational means for phytonematode control were studied within the context of an increasingly ecofriendly pest management global approach. The nematicidal activity and the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated from seven plants grown in Greece and ten selected compounds extracted from them against second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kof. & White) Chitwood were evaluated using juvenile paralysis experiments. Additionally, synergistic and antagonistic interactions between nematicidal terpenes were studied using an effect addition model, with the comparison made at one concentration level. The 96 h EC(50) values of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pimpinella anisum L., Eucalyptus meliodora A Cunn ex Schauer and Pistacia terebinthus L. were 231, 269, 807 and 1116 µg mL(-1) , respectively, in an immersion bioassay. Benzaldehyde (9 µg mL(-1) ) was the most toxic compound, followed by γ-eudesmol (50 µg mL(-1) ) and estragole (180 µg mL(-1) ), based on 96 h EC(50) values. The most potent terpene pairs between which synergistic actions were found, in decreasing order, were: trans-anethole/geraniol, trans-anethole/eugenol, carvacrol/eugenol and geraniol/carvacrol. This is the first report on the activity of F. vulgare, P. anisum, E. meliodora and P. terebinthus, and additionally on synergistic/antagonistic nematicidal terpene interactions, against M. incognita, providing alternative methods for nematode control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Profiling of the Terpene Metabolome in Carrot Fruits of Wild ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) Accessions and Characterization of a Geraniol Synthase.

    PubMed

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ibdah, Muhammad; Marzouk, Sally; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2018-03-14

    Fruits from wild carrot ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1. Recombinant WtDcTPS1 protein produces mainly geraniol, the predominant monoterpene in carrot seeds of wild accession 23727. The results suggest a role for the WtDcTPS1 gene in the biosynthesis of carrot fruit aroma and flavor compounds.

  9. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Distributed Drug Discovery, Part 3: Using D3 Methodology to Synthesize Analogs of an Anti-Melanoma Compound

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    For the successful implementation of Distributed Drug Discovery (D3) (outlined in the accompanying Perspective), students, in the course of their educational laboratories, must be able to reproducibly make new, high quality, molecules with potential for biological activity. This article reports the successful achievement of this goal. Using previously rehearsed alkylating agents, students in a second semester organic chemistry laboratory performed a solid-phase combinatorial chemistry experiment in which they made 38 new analogs of the most potent member of a class of antimelanoma compounds. All compounds were made in duplicate, purified by silica gel chromatography, and characterized by NMR and LC/MS. As a continuing part of the Distributed Drug Discovery program, a virtual D3 catalog based on this work was then enumerated and is made freely available to the global scientific community. PMID:19105723

  14. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Inspections: Guide to a Successful Outcome for 503A Sterile Compounding Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Yoch, Doug

    2017-01-01

    The reasons for which pharmaceutical compounding is the focus of intense state and federal scrutiny are now well known. Compounders are faced with an ever-increasing need to prove, by objective standards, the safety, purity, and potency of the formulations they dispense. They must also demonstrate their compliance with regulations often based on current good compounding practices designed for the pharmaceutical industry. In the U.S. today, rigorous unannounced state and federal inspections of compounding facilities are occurring more and more frequently. To achieve a successful outcome, communicating clearly and effectively with inspectors and having ready access to the information they request are as critical as proving compliance. This article describes the author's experience with an unannounced United States Food and Drug Administration inspection of his 503A compounding facility and his response to the findings. Readers will learn what to expect during such an inspection, how to prepare for that event, and how to achieve an excellent outcome. Those who would like more information about any of the topics presented are invited to contact the author at the address provided at the close of this article. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. Drug discovery for hearing loss: Phenotypic screening of chemical compounds on primary cultures of the spiral ganglion.

    PubMed

    Whitlon, Donna S

    2017-06-01

    In the United States there are, at present, no drugs that are specifically FDA approved to treat hearing loss. Although several clinical trials are ongoing, including one testing D-methionine that is supported by the US Army, none of these trials directly address the effect of noise exposure on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. We recently published the first report of a systematic chemical compound screen using primary, mammalian spiral ganglion cultures in which we were able to detect a compound and others in its class that increased neurite elongation, a critical step in restoring cochlear synapses after noise induced hearing loss. Here we discuss the issues, both pro and con, that influenced the development of our approach. These considerations may be useful for future compound screens that target the same or other attributes of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Piperazine-like compounds: a new group of designer drugs-of-abuse on the European market.

    PubMed

    de Boer, D; Bosman, I J; Hidvégi, E; Manzoni, C; Benkö, A A; dos Reys, L J; Maes, R A

    2001-09-15

    1-Aryl-piperazine compounds are, depending on their substituents, selective for certain serotonin receptors and together with their easy availability and their so-called legal status, this group of psychoactive compounds are potential designer drugs-of-abuse. Internet in that respect is an important source of information and distribution facilities. Because this development may have consequences for the interpretation of future clinical and forensic toxicological case studies, some analytical aspects of 1-benzyl-piperazine (BZP), 1-[4-methoxyphenyl]-piperazine (pMeOPP) and 1-[3-trifluoromethylphenyl]-piperazine (TFMPP) were studied. BZP was not detected by the AxSYM FPIA technology designed to determine amphetamine-like compounds, but had showed some cross reactivity with EMIT d.a.u.. The cross reactivities at 300 and 12,000ng/ml (RS)-amphetamine equivalents were 0.4 and 1.3%, respectively. Although BZP was not identified directly by the REMEDi HS Drug Profiling System, it can be detected by this HPLC/UV scanning system. Using GC/NPD without derivatisation, BZP, pMeOPP and TFMPP can be analysed for and applying GC/MS without or with acetylation or trifluoroacetylation, these compounds can be identified unambiguously. The usefulness of GC/NPD and GC/MS in this respect was demonstrated by the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the content of a capsule with the synthetic stimulant A2, which proved to contain 86.4mg of BZP.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Computationally Screened Compounds against Ascorbate Peroxidase To Combat Amphotericin B Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Rani; Kumar, Ashish; Rana, Sindhuprava; Panthi, Bhavana; Ansari, M. Yousuf; Das, Sushmita; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the host macrophages generate oxidative stress to destroy the pathogen, while Leishmania combats the harmful effect of radicals by redox homeostasis through its unique trypanothione cascade. Leishmania donovani ascorbate peroxidase (LdAPx) is a redox enzyme that regulates the trypanothione cascade and detoxifies the effect of H2O2. The absence of an LdAPx homologue in humans makes it an excellent drug target. In this study, the homology model of LdAPx was built, including heme, and diverse compounds were prefiltered (PAINS, ADMET, and Lipinski's rule of five) and thereafter screened against the LdAPx model. Compounds having good affinity in terms of the Glide XP (extra precision) score were clustered to select diverse compounds for experimental validation. A total of 26 cluster representatives were procured and tested on promastigote culture, yielding 12 compounds with good antileishmanial activity. Out of them, six compounds were safer on the BALB/c peritoneal macrophages and were also effective against disease-causing intracellular amastigotes. Three out of six compounds inhibited recombinant LdAPx in a noncompetitive manner and also demonstrated partial reversion of the resistance property in an amphotericin B (AmB)-resistant strain, which may be due to an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease of glutathione (GSH) content. However, inhibition of LdAPx in resistant parasites enhanced annexin V staining and activation of metacaspase-like protease activity, which may help in DNA fragmentation and apoptosis-like cell death. Thus, the present study will help in the search for specific hits and templates of potential therapeutic interest and therefore may facilitate the development of new drugs for combination therapy against VL. PMID:28461317

  18. Application of metabonomics in a compound ranking study in early drug development revealing drug-induced excretion of choline into urine.

    PubMed

    Dieterle, Frank; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Ross, Alfred; Niederhauser, Urs; Senn, Hans

    2006-09-01

    Selecting drug candidates based on toxicity is an important step in early drug development. In this case study, it is shown how metabonomics is applied to a ranking study, in which drug candidates with equal pharmacological activities are selected based on least toxic side effects. The metabonomic analyses were carried out on an animal study that followed an established protocol for pilot toxicology/ranking studies in rats, however, not specifically modified for a metabonomic assessment. It is shown how conditions not specificially adopted for metabonomics investigations can significantly influence the metabolic profiles recorded by NMR. Furthermore, it is shown how the multivariate analysis of the NMR spectra identified an extreme excretion of an endogenous metabolite into urine induced by two out of the five drug candidates. The subsequent structure elucidation by two-dimensional NMR experiments and a subsequent validation by spiking experiments identified the metabolite as choline. The discussion of the mechanistic background for the excretion of choline, which is usually well-conserved in the body, results in two hypotheses of either a massive degradation of cell membranes or an inhibition of the choline oxidation. Although the validation of these hypotheses needs a follow-up study, the finding of a increased excretion of the important metabolite choline warrants exclusion of these two compounds as viable drug candidates from a metabonomics point of view.

  19. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  20. Terpene Down-Regulation Triggers Defense Responses in Transgenic Orange Leading to Resistance against Fungal Pathogens1[W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores. PMID:24192451

  1. A chamber study of alkyl nitrate production formed by terpene ozonolysis in the presence of NO and alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stephen R.; Harrison, Joel C.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates are relatively long-lived species and have been shown to have a potential impact on atmospheric chemistry on local, regional, and even global scales. However, the significance of these compounds in the indoor environment remains to be seen. This work describes an impinger-based sampling and analysis technique for organic nitrate species, focusing on formation via terpene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). Experiments were conducted in a Teflon film environmental chamber to measure the formation of alkyl nitrates produced from α-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of NO and alkanes using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. For the different concentrations of NO and O3 analyzed, the concentration ratio of [O3]/[NO] around 1 was found to produce the highest organic nitrate concentration, with [O3] = 100 ppb & [NO] = 105 ppb resulting in the most organic nitrate formation, roughly 5 ppb. The experiments on α-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of NO suggest that organic nitrates have the potential to form in indoor air between infiltrated ozone/NO and terpenes from household and consumer products.

  2. Novel Compounds Line up to Combat Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    As the war on cancer has intensified and new molecular attacks on cancer cells have been developed, cancer cells have devised innovative ways of defending themselves. Many drugs have been designed or discovered and used to kill cancer cells; in response, these cells are staging new mechanisms to resist the effects of a variety of drugs, a phenomenon called multidrug resistance

  3. Mechanism of Air Oxidation of the Fragrance Terpene Geraniol.

    PubMed

    Bäcktorp, Carina; Hagvall, Lina; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Norrby, Per-Ola; Nyman, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    The fragrance terpene geraniol autoxidizes upon air exposure and forms a mixture of oxidation products, some of which are skin sensitizers. Reactions of geraniol with O2 have been studied with DFT (B3LYP) and the computational results compared to experimentally observed product ratios. The oxidation is initiated by hydrogen abstraction, forming an allylic radical which combines with an O2 molecule to yield an intermediate peroxyl radical. In the subsequent step, geraniol differs from previously studied cases, in which the radical chain reaction is propagated through intermolecular hydrogen abstraction. The hydroxy-substituted allylic peroxyl radical prefers an intramolecular rearrangement, producing observable aldehydes and the hydroperoxyl radical, which in turn can propagate the radical reaction. Secondary oxidation products like epoxides and formates were also considered, and plausible reaction pathways for formation are proposed.

  4. The impact of assay technology as applied to safety assessment in reducing compound attrition in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Craig E; Will, Yvonne

    2012-02-01

    Attrition in the drug industry due to safety findings remains high and requires a shift in the current safety testing paradigm. Many companies are now positioning safety assessment at each stage of the drug development process, including discovery, where an early perspective on potential safety issues is sought, often at chemical scaffold level, using a variety of emerging technologies. Given the lengthy development time frames of drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, the authors believe that the impact of new technologies on attrition is best measured as a function of the quality and timeliness of candidate compounds entering development. The authors provide an overview of in silico and in vitro models, as well as more complex approaches such as 'omics,' and where they are best positioned within the drug discovery process. It is important to take away that not all technologies should be applied to all projects. Technologies vary widely in their validation state, throughput and cost. A thoughtful combination of validated and emerging technologies is crucial in identifying the most promising candidates to move to proof-of-concept testing in humans. In spite of the challenges inherent in applying new technologies to drug discovery, the successes and recognition that we cannot continue to rely on safety assessment practices used for decades have led to rather dramatic strategy shifts and fostered partnerships across government agencies and industry. We are optimistic that these efforts will ultimately benefit patients by delivering effective and safe medications in a timely fashion.

  5. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Michael J; Pellegrene, Kendy A; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for "growing" the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  6. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wasko, Michael J.; Pellegrene, Kendy A.; Madura, Jeffry D.; Surratt, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for “growing” the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies. PMID:26441817

  7. Novel Compounds Line up to Combat Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    As the war on cancer has intensified and new molecular attacks on cancer cells have been developed, cancer cells have devised innovative ways of defending themselves. Many drugs have been designed or discovered and used to kill cancer cells; in response, these cells are staging new mechanisms to resist the effects of a variety of drugs, a phenomenon called multidrug resistance (MDR). One way cancer cells accomplish this is by catching the intruding drug and throwing it out of the cell before it can act. The arsenal that the cancer cell uses to accomplish this task is a collection of specialized proteins on its membrane called ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters.

  8. Nature Bank and the Queensland Compound Library: unique international resources at the Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Camp, David; Newman, Stuart; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-03-01

    The Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery is home to two unique resources, Nature Bank and the Queensland Compound Library (QCL), that differentiate it from many other academic institutes pursuing chemical biology or early phase drug discovery. Nature Bank is a comprehensive collection of plants and marine invertebrates that have been subjected to a process which aligns downstream extracts and fractions with lead- and drug-like physicochemical properties. Considerable expertise in screening natural product extracts/fractions was developed at Eskitis over the last two decades. Importantly, biodiscovery activities have been conducted from the beginning in accordance with the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to ensure compliance with all international and national legislative requirements. The QCL is a compound management and logistics facility that was established from public funds to augment previous investments in high throughput and phenotypic screening in the region. A unique intellectual property (IP) model has been developed in the case of the QCL to stimulate applied, basic and translational research in the chemical and life sciences by industry, non-profit, and academic organizations.

  9. Self-Assembly and Drug Release Capacities of Organogels via Some Amide Compounds with Aromatic Substituent Headgroups

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lexin; Jiao, Tifeng; Ma, Kai; Xing, Ruirui; Liu, Yamei; Xiao, Yong; Zhou, Jingxin; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, some amide compounds with different aromatic substituent headgroups were synthesized and their gelation self-assembly behaviors in 22 solvents were characterized as new gelators. The obtained results indicated that the size of aromatic substituent headgroups in molecular skeletons in gelators showed crucial effect in the gel formation and self-assembly behavior of all compounds in the solvents used. Larger aromatic headgroups in molecular structures in the synthesized gelator molecules are helpful to form various gel nanostructures. Morphological investigations showed that the gelator molecules can self-assembly and stack into various organized aggregates with solvent change, such as wrinkle, belt, rod, and lamella-like structures. Spectral characterizations suggested that there existed various weak interactions including π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic forces due to aromatic substituent headgroups and alkyl substituent chains in molecular structures. In addition, the drug release capacities experiments demonstrated that the drug release rate in present obtained gels can be tuned by adjusting the concentrations of dye. The present work would open up enormous insight to design and investigate new kind of soft materials with designed molecular structures and tunable drug release performance. PMID:28773663

  10. RNA sequencing on Amomum villosum Lour. induced by MeJA identifies the genes of WRKY and terpene synthases involved in terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xueying; Wang, Huan; Yang, Jinfen; Deng, Ke; Wang, Teng

    2018-02-01

    Amomum villosum Lour. is an important Chinese medicinal plant that has diverse medicinal functions, and mainly contains volatile terpenes. This study aims to explore the WRKY transcription factors (TFs) and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might be involved in terpene biosynthesis in A. villosum, and thus providing some new information on the regulation of terpenes in plants. RNA sequencing of A. villosum induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) revealed that the WRKY family was the second largest TF family in the transcriptome. Thirty-six complete WRKY domain sequences were expressed in response to MeJA. Further, six WRKY unigenes were highly correlated with eight deduced TPS unigenes. Ultimately, we combined the terpene abundance with the expression of candidate WRKY TFs and TPS unigenes to presume a possible model wherein AvWRKY61, AvWRKY28, and AvWRKY40 might coordinately trans-activate the AvNeoD promoter. We propose an approach to further investigate TF unigenes that might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, and identified four unigenes for further analyses.

  11. Machine learning-based prediction of adverse drug effects: An example of seizure-inducing compounds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengxuan; Igata, Hideyoshi; Takeuchi, Aoi; Sato, Kaoru; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2017-02-01

    Various biological factors have been implicated in convulsive seizures, involving side effects of drugs. For the preclinical safety assessment of drug development, it is difficult to predict seizure-inducing side effects. Here, we introduced a machine learning-based in vitro system designed to detect seizure-inducing side effects. We recorded local field potentials from the CA1 alveus in acute mouse neocortico-hippocampal slices, while 14 drugs were bath-perfused at 5 different concentrations each. For each experimental condition, we collected seizure-like neuronal activity and merged their waveforms as one graphic image, which was further converted into a feature vector using Caffe, an open framework for deep learning. In the space of the first two principal components, the support vector machine completely separated the vectors (i.e., doses of individual drugs) that induced seizure-like events and identified diphenhydramine, enoxacin, strychnine and theophylline as "seizure-inducing" drugs, which indeed were reported to induce seizures in clinical situations. Thus, this artificial intelligence-based classification may provide a new platform to detect the seizure-inducing side effects of preclinical drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectroscopic, structural characterizations and antioxidant capacity of the chromium (III) niacinamide compound as a diabetes mellitus drug model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hussien, M. A.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Al-Omar, Mohamed A.; Naglah, Ahmed M.; Afifi, Walid M.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2017-02-01

    New binuclear chromium (III) niacinamide compound with chemical formula [Cr2(Nic)(Cl)6(H2O)4]·H2O was obtained upon the reaction of chromium (III) chloride with niacinamide (Nic) in methanol solvent at 60 °C. The proposed structure was discussed with the help of microanalytical analyses, conductivity, spectroscopic (FT-IR and UV-vis.), magnetic calculations, thermogravimetric analyses (TG/TGA), and morphological studies (X-ray of solid powder and scan electron microscopy. The infrared spectrum of free niacinamide in comparison with its chromium (III) compound indicated that the chelation mode occurs via both nitrogen atoms of pyridine ring and primary -NH2 group. The efficiency of chromium (III) niacinamide compound in decreasing of glucose level of blood and HbA1c in case of diabetic rats was checked. The ameliorating gluconeogenic enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant defense capacities are considered as an indicator of the efficiency of new chromium (III) compound as antidiabetic drug model.

  13. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes.

    PubMed

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Giménez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. To investigate concomitant reactions between oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool in consecutive dermatitis patients. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides 0.33%) and oxidized linalool 6% (linalool hydroperoxides 1%) in petrolatum were tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. A total of 281 patients reacted to either oxidized R-limonene or oxidized linalool. Of these, 25% had concomitant reactions to both compounds, whereas 29% reacted only to oxidized R-limonene and 46% only to oxidized linalool. Of the 152 patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene, 46% reacted to oxidized linalool, whereas 35% of the 200 patients reacting to oxidized linalool also reacted to oxidized R-limonene. The majority of the patients (75%) reacted to only one of the oxidation mixtures, thus supporting the specificity of the reactions. The concomitant reactions to the two fragrance allergens suggest multiple sensitizations, which most likely reflect the exposure to the different fragrance materials in various types of consumer products. This is in accordance with what is generally seen for patch test reactions to fragrance materials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Co-Compartmentation of Terpene Biosynthesis and Storage via Synthetic Droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cheng; Kim, YongKyoung; Zeng, Yining

    Traditional bioproduct engineering focuses on pathway optimization, yet is often complicated by product inhibition, downstream consumption, and the toxicity of certain products. Here, we present the co-compartmentation of biosynthesis and storage via a synthetic droplet as an effective new strategy to improve the bioproduct yield, with squalene as a model compound. A hydrophobic protein was designed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast to generate a synthetic droplet for terpene storage. Simultaneously, squalene biosynthesis enzymes were introduced to chloroplasts together with the droplet-forming protein to co-compartmentalize the biosynthesis and storage of squalene. The strategy has enabled a record yield of squalenemore » at 2.6 mg/g fresh weight without compromising plant growth. Confocal fluorescent microscopy imaging, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, and droplet composition analysis confirmed the formation of synthetic storage droplet in chloroplast. The co-compartmentation of synthetic storage droplet with a targeted metabolic pathway engineering represents a new strategy for enhancing bioproduct yield.« less

  15. Co-Compartmentation of Terpene Biosynthesis and Storage via Synthetic Droplet

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Cheng; Kim, YongKyoung; Zeng, Yining; ...

    2018-02-13

    Traditional bioproduct engineering focuses on pathway optimization, yet is often complicated by product inhibition, downstream consumption, and the toxicity of certain products. Here, we present the co-compartmentation of biosynthesis and storage via a synthetic droplet as an effective new strategy to improve the bioproduct yield, with squalene as a model compound. A hydrophobic protein was designed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast to generate a synthetic droplet for terpene storage. Simultaneously, squalene biosynthesis enzymes were introduced to chloroplasts together with the droplet-forming protein to co-compartmentalize the biosynthesis and storage of squalene. The strategy has enabled a record yield of squalenemore » at 2.6 mg/g fresh weight without compromising plant growth. Confocal fluorescent microscopy imaging, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, and droplet composition analysis confirmed the formation of synthetic storage droplet in chloroplast. The co-compartmentation of synthetic storage droplet with a targeted metabolic pathway engineering represents a new strategy for enhancing bioproduct yield.« less

  16. The Evolution of 21 CFR Parts 210 & 211 for Drug Compounders: AN UNSPOKEN OPPORTUNITY FOR PHARMACISTS.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kenneth Chase; Bernard, Brian; Cogdill, Christopher Blake

    2015-01-01

    A high-level assessment of recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration audits of 503A facilities indicates that a regulatory paradigm shift is occurring. Data and rationale further indicates that the agency seems to be taking a proactive approach for how it monitors these facilities. The auditing practices and observations are eerily similar to those which are seen for 503B Outsourcing Facilities, as well as Current Good Manufacturing Practices Drug and Device Manufacture plants. Perhaps the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is attempting to avoid any major medical outbreaks that may stem from under-supervised drug preparation centers. This report presents the rationale that may be behind the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's motive for increased 503A scrutiny. In addition, new market incentives are also highlighted, as it seems that firms, which are able to maintain good graces with the agency, will be uniquely positioned to obtain greater market share. All signs indicate that for 503A facilities, regulatory compliance may be the key to greater market share.

  17. Copper-boosting compounds: a novel concept for antimycobacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Speer, Alexander; Shrestha, Tej B; Bossmann, Stefan H; Basaraba, Randall J; Harber, Gregory J; Michalek, Suzanne M; Niederweis, Michael; Kutsch, Olaf; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2013-02-01

    We and others recently identified copper resistance as important for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we introduce a high-throughput screening assay for agents that induce a copper hypersensitivity phenotype in M. tuberculosis and demonstrate that such copper-boosting compounds are effective against replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis strains.

  18. Quantification of terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba with a 1H NMR method.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Yang, Jinwei; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. has been used as a herbal medicine in the traditional treatment of insufficient blood flow, memory deficits, and cerebral insufficiency. The terpene trilactone components, the bioactive agents of Ginkgo biloba L., have also been reported to exhibit useful functionality such as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, in the present research, we attempted to analyze quantitatively the terpene trilactone components in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, with quantitative 1 H NMR (qNMR) and obtained almost identical results to data reported using HPLC. Application of the qNMR method for the analysis of the terpene trilactone contents in commercial Ginkgo extract products, such as soft gel capsules and tablets, produced the same levels noted in package labels. Thus, qNMR is an alternative method for quantification of the terpene trilactone components in commercial Ginkgo extract products.

  19. High-Throughput Gene Expression Profiles to Define Drug Similarity and Predict Compound Activity.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Hans; Cougnaud, Laure; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; De Bondt, An; Wegner, Joerg K; Ceulemans, Hugo; Göhlmann, Hinrich

    2018-04-01

    By adding biological information, beyond the chemical properties and desired effect of a compound, uncharted compound areas and connections can be explored. In this study, we add transcriptional information for 31K compounds of Janssen's primary screening deck, using the HT L1000 platform and assess (a) the transcriptional connection score for generating compound similarities, (b) machine learning algorithms for generating target activity predictions, and (c) the scaffold hopping potential of the resulting hits. We demonstrate that the transcriptional connection score is best computed from the significant genes only and should be interpreted within its confidence interval for which we provide the stats. These guidelines help to reduce noise, increase reproducibility, and enable the separation of specific and promiscuous compounds. The added value of machine learning is demonstrated for the NR3C1 and HSP90 targets. Support Vector Machine models yielded balanced accuracy values ≥80% when the expression values from DDIT4 & SERPINE1 and TMEM97 & SPR were used to predict the NR3C1 and HSP90 activity, respectively. Combining both models resulted in 22 new and confirmed HSP90-independent NR3C1 inhibitors, providing two scaffolds (i.e., pyrimidine and pyrazolo-pyrimidine), which could potentially be of interest in the treatment of depression (i.e., inhibiting the glucocorticoid receptor (i.e., NR3C1), while leaving its chaperone, HSP90, unaffected). As such, the initial hit rate increased by a factor 300, as less, but more specific chemistry could be screened, based on the upfront computed activity predictions.

  20. Enhancing of chemical compound and drug name recognition using representative tag scheme and fine-grained tokenization.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Lai, Po-Ting; Chang, Yung-Chun; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2015-01-01

    The functions of chemical compounds and drugs that affect biological processes and their particular effect on the onset and treatment of diseases have attracted increasing interest with the advancement of research in the life sciences. To extract knowledge from the extensive literatures on such compounds and drugs, the organizers of BioCreative IV administered the CHEMical Compound and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER) task to establish a standard dataset for evaluating state-of-the-art chemical entity recognition methods. This study introduces the approach of our CHEMDNER system. Instead of emphasizing the development of novel feature sets for machine learning, this study investigates the effect of various tag schemes on the recognition of the names of chemicals and drugs by using conditional random fields. Experiments were conducted using combinations of different tokenization strategies and tag schemes to investigate the effects of tag set selection and tokenization method on the CHEMDNER task. This study presents the performance of CHEMDNER of three more representative tag schemes-IOBE, IOBES, and IOB12E-when applied to a widely utilized IOB tag set and combined with the coarse-/fine-grained tokenization methods. The experimental results thus reveal that the fine-grained tokenization strategy performance best in terms of precision, recall and F-scores when the IOBES tag set was utilized. The IOBES model with fine-grained tokenization yielded the best-F-scores in the six chemical entity categories other than the "Multiple" entity category. Nonetheless, no significant improvement was observed when a more representative tag schemes was used with the coarse or fine-grained tokenization rules. The best F-scores that were achieved using the developed system on the test dataset of the CHEMDNER task were 0.833 and 0.815 for the chemical documents indexing and the chemical entity mention recognition tasks, respectively. The results herein highlight the importance

  1. Controlled release formulation of an anti-depression drug based on a L-phenylalanate-zinc layered hydroxide intercalation compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Norhayati; Sharif, Sharifah Norain Mohd; Isa, Illyas Md; Hamid, Shahidah Abdul; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Mamat, Mazidah

    2017-06-01

    The intercalation of L-phenylalanate (LP) into the interlayer gallery of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) has been successfully executed using a simple direct reaction method. The synthesised intercalation compound, zinc layered hydroxide-L-phenylalanate (ZLH-LP), was characterised using PXRD, FTIR, CHNS, ICP-OES, TGA/DTG, FESEM and TEM. The PXRD patterns of the intercalation compound demonstrate an intense and symmetrical peak, indicating a well-ordered crystalline layered structure. The appearance of an intercalation peak at a low angle of 2θ with a basal spacing of 16.3 Å, signifies the successful intercalation of the L-phenylalanate anion into the interlayer gallery of the host. The intercalation is also validated by FTIR spectroscopy and CHNS elemental analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the ZLH-LP intercalation compound has higher thermal stability than the pristine L-phenylalanine. The observed percentage of L-phenylalanate accumulated release varies in each release media, with 84.5%, 79.8%, 63.8% and 61.8% release in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH 4.8, deionised water, PBS solution at pH 7.4 and NaCl solution, respectively. The release behaviour of LP from its intercalation compounds in deionised water and PBS solution at pH 4.8 follows pseudo second order, whereas in NaCl solution and PBS solution at pH 7.4, it follows the parabolic diffusion model. This study shows that the synthesised ZLH-LP intercalation compound can be used for the formation of a new generation of materials for targeted drug release with controlled release properties.

  2. Essential oil terpenes: adjunctive role in the management of childhood urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Al-Mosawi, Aamir Jalal

    2010-04-01

    Essential oil preparation of the terpenic type was introduced for the first time in the 1930s for the management of urolithiasis. Although essential oil preparations are registered in 50 countries, including some developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Italy, and Japan, for use in urolithiasis, no literature has been published in a peer-reviewed English (Anglo-American) medical journal. Recently the use of these terpenes has been investigated in children with urolithiasis and underlying metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this article is to extract the useful and worthy information about the use of these terpenes in urolithiasis from the previous literature as many of these articles are now considered of poor quality for a thorough systematic scientific review. The main disadvantages of most of the old literature about terpenes are the treatment was not followed radiologically and most of these articles represent anecdotal reports of spontaneous passage of calculi and symptomatic improvement of colic in association with the use of terpenes. The other aim is to discuss the possible role of essential oil terpenes in the management of childhood urolithiasis.

  3. Molecular Diversity of Terpene Synthases in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xun; Jiang, Zuodong; Jia, Qidong; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2016-01-01

    Marchantia polymorpha is a basal terrestrial land plant, which like most liverworts accumulates structurally diverse terpenes believed to serve in deterring disease and herbivory. Previous studies have suggested that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, present in evolutionarily diverged plants, are also operative in liverworts. However, the genes and enzymes responsible for the chemical diversity of terpenes have yet to be described. In this study, we resorted to a HMMER search tool to identify 17 putative terpene synthase genes from M. polymorpha transcriptomes. Functional characterization identified four diterpene synthase genes phylogenetically related to those found in diverged plants and nine rather unusual monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase-like genes. The presence of separate monofunctional diterpene synthases for ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene biosynthesis is similar to orthologs found in vascular plants, pushing the date of the underlying gene duplication and neofunctionalization of the ancestral diterpene synthase gene family to >400 million years ago. By contrast, the mono- and sesquiterpene synthases represent a distinct class of enzymes, not related to previously described plant terpene synthases and only distantly so to microbial-type terpene synthases. The absence of a Mg2+ binding, aspartate-rich, DDXXD motif places these enzymes in a noncanonical family of terpene synthases. PMID:27650333

  4. C-SPADE: a web-tool for interactive analysis and visualization of drug screening experiments through compound-specific bioactivity dendrograms

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Zaid; Peddinti, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The advent of polypharmacology paradigm in drug discovery calls for novel chemoinformatic tools for analyzing compounds’ multi-targeting activities. Such tools should provide an intuitive representation of the chemical space through capturing and visualizing underlying patterns of compound similarities linked to their polypharmacological effects. Most of the existing compound-centric chemoinformatics tools lack interactive options and user interfaces that are critical for the real-time needs of chemical biologists carrying out compound screening experiments. Toward that end, we introduce C-SPADE, an open-source exploratory web-tool for interactive analysis and visualization of drug profiling assays (biochemical, cell-based or cell-free) using compound-centric similarity clustering. C-SPADE allows the users to visually map the chemical diversity of a screening panel, explore investigational compounds in terms of their similarity to the screening panel, perform polypharmacological analyses and guide drug-target interaction predictions. C-SPADE requires only the raw drug profiling data as input, and it automatically retrieves the structural information and constructs the compound clusters in real-time, thereby reducing the time required for manual analysis in drug development or repurposing applications. The web-tool provides a customizable visual workspace that can either be downloaded as figure or Newick tree file or shared as a hyperlink with other users. C-SPADE is freely available at http://cspade.fimm.fi/. PMID:28472495

  5. Discovery of Bioactive Compounds by the UIC-ICBG Drug Discovery Program in the 18 Years Since 1998.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Jie; Li, Wan-Fei; Fong, Harry H S; Soejarto, Djaja Doel

    2016-10-31

    The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program based at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a program aimed to address the interdependent issues of inventory and conservation of biodiversity, drug discovery and sustained economic growth in both developing and developed countries. It is an interdisciplinary program involving the extensive synergies and collaborative efforts of botanists, chemists and biologists in the countries of Vietnam, Laos and the USA. The UIC-ICBG drug discovery efforts over the past 18 years have resulted in the collection of a cumulative total of more than 5500 plant samples (representing more than 2000 species), that were evaluated for their potential biological effects against cancer, HIV, bird flu, tuberculosis and malaria. The bioassay-guided fractionation and separation of the bioactive plant leads resulted in the isolation of approximately 300 compounds of varying degrees of structural complexity and/or biological activity. The present paper summarizes the significant drug discovery achievements made by the UIC-ICBG team of multidisciplinary collaborators in the project over the period of 1998-2012 and the projects carried on in the subsequent years by involving the researchers in Hong Kong.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis separation of neutral organic compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, proteins and peptides, enantiomers, and anions

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Wei -Liang

    1999-02-12

    Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz[a]anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone. The effect ofmore » adding this new surfactant to the acidic electrolyte was also investigated. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the electrolyte is shown to dynamically coat the capillary and reverse electroosmotic flow. Chiral recognition mechanism is studied using novel synthetic surfactants as chiral selectors, which are made from amino acids reacting with alkyl chloroformates. A satisfactory separation of both inorganic and organic anions is obtained using electrolyte solutions as high as 5 M sodium chloride using direct photometric detection. The effect of various salts on electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility is further discussed. Several examples are given under high-salt conditions.« less

  7. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  8. Analysis of black pepper volatiles by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography: A comparison of terpenes profiles with hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Gracka, Anna

    2015-10-30

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is widely used in food flavor compounds analysis in majority for profiling volatile compounds. Based on such profiles conclusions are often drawn concerning the percentage composition of volatile compounds in particular food, spices or raw materials. This paper focuses on the usefulness of SPME for the profiling of volatile compounds from spices using black pepper as an example. SPME profiles obtained in different analytical conditions were compared to the profile of pepper volatiles obtained using hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. The profiles of both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes of black pepper were highly dependent on sample weight (0.1 and 1g samples were tested), and extraction time (durations from 2 to 120min were tested), regardless of the SPME fiber used (PDMS and CAR/PDMS coatings were used). The characteristic phenomenon for extraction from dry ground pepper was the decrease of monoterpenes % share in volatiles with increasing extraction times, whereas at the same time the % contents of sesquiterpenes increased. Addition of water to ground pepper substantially changed extraction kinetics and mutual proportions of mono to sesquiterpenes compared to dry samples by minimizing changes in mono- to sesquiterpenes ratio in different extraction times. Obtained results indicate that SPME can be a fast extraction method for volatiles of black pepper. Short extraction times (2-10min) in conjunction with the fast GC analysis (2.1min) proposed here may offer fast alternative to hydrodistillation allowing black pepper terpenes characterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  10. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    PubMed

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica . Aroma components of the S. officinalis , L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  11. Open Source Drug Discovery: Highly Potent Antimalarial Compounds Derived from the Tres Cantos Arylpyrroles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The development of new antimalarial compounds remains a pivotal part of the strategy for malaria elimination. Recent large-scale phenotypic screens have provided a wealth of potential starting points for hit-to-lead campaigns. One such public set is explored, employing an open source research mechanism in which all data and ideas were shared in real time, anyone was able to participate, and patents were not sought. One chemical subseries was found to exhibit oral activity but contained a labile ester that could not be replaced without loss of activity, and the original hit exhibited remarkable sensitivity to minor structural change. A second subseries displayed high potency, including activity within gametocyte and liver stage assays, but at the cost of low solubility. As an open source research project, unexplored avenues are clearly identified and may be explored further by the community; new findings may be cumulatively added to the present work. PMID:27800551

  12. Predicting the activity of drugs for a group of imidazopyridine anticoccidial compounds.

    PubMed

    Si, Hongzong; Lian, Ning; Yuan, Shuping; Fu, Aiping; Duan, Yun-Bo; Zhang, Kejun; Yao, Xiaojun

    2009-10-01

    Gene expression programming (GEP) is a novel machine learning technique. The GEP is used to build nonlinear quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the prediction of the IC(50) for the imidazopyridine anticoccidial compounds. This model is based on descriptors which are calculated from the molecular structure. Four descriptors are selected from the descriptors' pool by heuristic method (HM) to build multivariable linear model. The GEP method produced a nonlinear quantitative model with a correlation coefficient and a mean error of 0.96 and 0.24 for the training set, 0.91 and 0.52 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  13. Synthesis of compounds related to the anti-migraine drug eletriptan hydrobromide.

    PubMed

    Madasu, Suri Babu; Vekariya, Nagaji Ambabhai; Kiran, M N V D Hari; Gupta, Badarinadh; Islam, Aminul; Douglas, Paul S; Babu, Korupolu Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Eletriptan hydrobromide (1) is a selective serotonin (5-HT(1)) agonist, used for the acute treatment of the headache phase of migraine attacks. During the manufacture of eletriptan hydrobromide the formation of various impurities were observed and identified by LC-MS. To control the formation of these impurities during the preparation of active pharmaceutical ingredients, the structure of the impurities must be known. Major impurities of the eletriptan hydrobromide synthesis were prepared and characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques, i.e., mass spectroscopy, FTIR , (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR/DEPT, and further confirmed by co-injection in HPLC. The present study will be of great help in the synthesis of highly pure eletriptan hydrobromide related compounds.

  14. Synthesis of compounds related to the anti-migraine drug eletriptan hydrobromide

    PubMed Central

    Madasu, Suri Babu; Kiran, M N V D Hari; Gupta, Badarinadh; Islam, Aminul; Douglas, Paul S; Babu, Korupolu Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Eletriptan hydrobromide (1) is a selective serotonin (5-HT1) agonist, used for the acute treatment of the headache phase of migraine attacks. During the manufacture of eletriptan hydrobromide the formation of various impurities were observed and identified by LC–MS. To control the formation of these impurities during the preparation of active pharmaceutical ingredients, the structure of the impurities must be known. Major impurities of the eletriptan hydrobromide synthesis were prepared and characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques, i.e., mass spectroscopy, FTIR , 1H NMR, 13C NMR/DEPT, and further confirmed by co-injection in HPLC. The present study will be of great help in the synthesis of highly pure eletriptan hydrobromide related compounds. PMID:23019477

  15. Isoprene synthase genes form a monophyletic clade of acyclic terpene synthases in the TPS-B terpene synthase family.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Gray, Dennis W; Pell, Heather K; Breneman, Steven R; Topper, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Many plants emit significant amounts of isoprene, which is hypothesized to help leaves tolerate short episodes of high temperature. Isoprene emission is found in all major groups of land plants including mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms; however, within these groups isoprene emission is variable. The patchy distribution of isoprene emission implies an evolutionary pattern characterized by many origins or many losses. To better understand the evolution of isoprene emission, we examine the phylogenetic relationships among isoprene synthase and monoterpene synthase genes in the angiosperms. In this study we identify nine new isoprene synthases within the rosid angiosperms. We also document the capacity of a myrcene synthase in Humulus lupulus to produce isoprene. Isoprene synthases and (E)-β-ocimene synthases form a monophyletic group within the Tps-b clade of terpene synthases. No asterid genes fall within this clade. The chemistry of isoprene synthase and ocimene synthase is similar and likely affects the apparent relationships among Tps-b enzymes. The chronology of rosid evolution suggests a Cretaceous origin followed by many losses of isoprene synthase over the course of evolutionary history. The phylogenetic pattern of Tps-b genes indicates that isoprene emission from non-rosid angiosperms likely arose independently. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Frequency and Severity of Neutropenia Associated with Food and Drug Administration Approved and Compounded Formulations of Lomustine in Dogs with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Burton, J H; Stanley, S D; Knych, H K; Rodriguez, C O; Skorupski, K A; Rebhun, R B

    2016-01-01

    Compounded lomustine is used commonly in veterinary patients. However, the potential variability in these formulations is unknown and concern exists that compounded formulations of drugs may differ in potency from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products. The initial objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of neutropenia in dogs treated with compounded or FDA-approved formulations of lomustine. Subsequent analyses aimed to determine the potency of lomustine obtained from several compounding pharmacies. Thirty-seven dogs treated with FDA-approved or compounded lomustine. Dogs that received compounded or FDA-approved lomustine and had pretreatment and nadir CBCs performed were eligible for inclusion. Variables assessed included lomustine dose, neutrophil counts, and severity of neutropenia. Lomustine 5 mg capsules from 5 compounding sources were tested for potency using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Twenty-one dogs received FDA-approved lomustine and 16 dogs were treated with lomustine prescribed from a single compounding pharmacy. All dogs treated with FDA-approved lomustine were neutropenic after treatment; 15 dogs (71%) developed grade 3 or higher neutropenia. Four dogs (25%) given compounded lomustine became neutropenic, with 2 dogs (12.5%) developing grade 3 neutropenia. The potency of lomustine from 5 compounding pharmacies ranged from 50 to 115% of the labeled concentration, with 1 sample within ±10% of the labeled concentration. These data support broader investigation into the potency and consistency of compounded chemotherapy drugs and highlight the potential need for greater oversight of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Volatile emissions of scented Alstroemeria genotypes are dominated by terpenes, and a myrcene synthase gene is highly expressed in scented Alstroemeria flowers

    PubMed Central

    Aros, Danilo; Gonzalez, Veronica; Allemann, Rudolf K.; Müller, Carsten T.; Rosati, Carlo; Rogers, Hilary J.

    2012-01-01

    Native to South America, Alstroemeria flowers are known for their colourful tepals, and Alstroemeria hybrids are an important cut flower. However, in common with many commercial cut flowers, virtually all the commercial Alstroemeria hybrids are not scented. The cultivar ‘Sweet Laura’ is one of very few scented commercial Alstroemeria hybrids. Characterization of the volatile emission profile of these cut flowers revealed three major terpene compounds: (E)-caryophyllene, humulene (also known as α-caryophyllene), an ocimene-like compound, and several minor peaks, one of which was identified as myrcene. The profile is completely different from that of the parental scented species A. caryophyllaea. Volatile emission peaked at anthesis in both scented genotypes, coincident in cv. ‘Sweet Laura’ with the maximal expression of a putative terpene synthase gene AlstroTPS. This gene was preferentially expressed in floral tissues of both cv. ‘Sweet Laura’ and A. caryophyllaea. Characterization of the AlstroTPS gene structure from cv. ‘Sweet Laura’ placed it as a member of the class III terpene synthases, and the predicted 567 amino acid sequence placed it into the subfamily TPS-b. The conserved sequences R28(R)X8W and D321DXXD are the putative Mg2+-binding sites, and in vitro assay of AlstroTPS expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded enzyme possesses myrcene synthase activity, consistent with a role for AlstroTPS in scent production in Alstroemeria cv. ‘Sweet Laura’ flowers. PMID:22268153

  18. Characterization of Ocular Iontophoretic Drug Transport of Ionic and Non-ionic Compounds in Isolated Rabbit Cornea and Conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Sekijima, Hidehisa; Ehara, Junya; Hanabata, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takumi; Kimura, Soichiro; Lee, Vincent H L; Morimoto, Yasunori; Ueda, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Ocular iontophoresis (IP) in isolated rabbit cornea and conjunctiva was examined in terms of transport enhancement, tissue viability and integrity using electrophysiological parameters by the Ussing-type chamber technique. Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC, a cationic compound), sodium benzoate (BA, anionic compound), and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (molecular weight 4400 Da, FD-4, hydrophilic large compound) were used as model permeants. Direct electric current was applied at 0.5-5.0 mA/cm(2) for the cornea and 0.5-20 mA/cm(2) for the conjunctiva for 30 min. LC and BA fluxes across the cornea and conjunctiva were significantly increased by the application of electric current up to 2.3- and 2.5-fold and 4.0- and 3.4-fold, respectively, and returned to their baseline level on stopping the current. Furthermore, a much higher increase by IP application was obtained for the FD-4 transport. The increased FD-4 flux in the conjunctiva returned to baseline on stopping the current, whereas the flux in the cornea was sustained at a higher level after stopping the current. The transepithelial electric resistance of the cornea and conjunctiva was lowered by electric current application but fully recovered after stopping the current up to 2.0 mA/cm(2) for the cornea and 10 mA/cm(2) for the conjunctiva, suggesting that the corneal and conjunctival viability and integrity are maintained even after application of these current densities. These results indicate that ocular IP may be a useful non-invasive technique to achieve drug delivery of hydrophilic large molecules into the eyes.

  19. Computational predictive models for P-glycoprotein inhibition of in-house chalcone derivatives and drug-bank compounds.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Trieu-Du; Tran, Thanh-Dao; Le, Minh-Tri; Thai, Khac-Minh

    2016-11-01

    The human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump is of great interest for medicinal chemists because of its important role in multidrug resistance (MDR). Because of the high polyspecificity as well as the unavailability of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of this transmembrane protein, ligand-based, and structure-based approaches which were machine learning, homology modeling, and molecular docking were combined for this study. In ligand-based approach, individual two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed using different machine learning algorithms and subsequently combined into the Ensemble model which showed good performance on both the diverse training set and the validation sets. The applicability domain and the prediction quality of the developed models were also judged using the state-of-the-art methods and tools. In our structure-based approach, the P-gp structure and its binding region were predicted for a docking study to determine possible interactions between the ligands and the receptor. Based on these in silico tools, hit compounds for reversing MDR were discovered from the in-house and DrugBank databases through virtual screening using prediction models and molecular docking in an attempt to restore cancer cell sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs.

  20. Modified hydrotalcite-like compounds as active fillers of biodegradable polymers for drug release and food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena; Tammaro, Loredana; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-11-01

    This review treats the recent patents and related literature, mainly from the Authors laboratories, on biomedical and food packaging applications of nano-composites constituted of biodegradable polymers filled with micro or nano crystals of organically modified Layered Double Hydroxides of Hydrotalcite type. After a brief outline of the chemical and structural aspects of Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) and of their manipulation via intercalation of functional molecular anions to obtain materials for numerous, sometime unexpected applications, the review approaches the theme in three separated parts. Part 1 deals with the synthetic method used to prepare the pristine Mg-Al and Zn-Al HTlc and with the procedures of their functionalization with anti-inflammatory (diclofenac), antibacterial (chloramphenicol hemisuccinate), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid) drugs and with benzoates with antimicrobial activity. Procedures used to form (nano) composites of polycaprolactone, used as an example of biodegradable polymer, and functionalized HTlc are also reported. Part 2 discusses a patent and related papers on the preparation and biomedical use of a controlled delivery system of the above mentioned pharmacologically active substances. After an introduction dealing with the recent progress in the field of local drug delivery systems, the chemical and structural aspects of the patented system constituted of a biodegradable polymer and HTlc loaded with the active substances will be presented together with an extensive discussion of the drug release in physiological medium. Part 3 deals with a recent patent and related papers on chemical, structural and release property of antimicrobial species of polymeric films containing antimicrobial loaded HTlc able to act as active packaging for food products prolonging their shelf life.

  1. Rhodosporidium toruloides: a new platform organism for conversion of lignocellulose into terpene biofuels and bioproducts

    DOE PAGES

    Yaegashi, Junko; Kirby, James; Ito, Masakazu; ...

    2017-10-23

    Economical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bioproducts is central to the establishment of a robust bioeconomy. This requires a conversion host that is able to both efficiently assimilate the major lignocellulose-derived carbon sources and divert their metabolites toward specific bioproducts. In this study, the carotenogenic yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was examined for its ability to convert lignocellulose into two non-native sesquiterpenes with biofuel (bisabolene) and pharmaceutical (amorphadiene) applications. We found that R. toruloides can efficiently convert a mixture of glucose and xylose from hydrolyzed lignocellulose into these bioproducts, and unlike many conventional production hosts, its growth and productivity weremore » enhanced in lignocellulosic hydrolysates relative to purified substrates. This organism was demonstrated to have superior growth in corn stover hydrolysates prepared by two different pretreatment methods, one using a novel biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) choline α-ketoglutarate, which produced 261 mg/L of bisabolene at bench scale, and the other using an alkaline pretreatment, which produced 680 mg/L of bisabolene in a high-gravity fe d-batch bioreactor. Interestingly, R. toruloides was also observed to assimilate p-coumaric acid liberated from acylated grass lignin in the IL hydrolysate, a finding we verified with purified substrates. R. toruloides was also able to consume several additional compounds with aromatic motifs similar to lignin monomers, suggesting that this organism may have the metabolic potential to convert depolymerized lignin streams alongside lignocellulosic sugars. This study highlights the natural compatibility of R. toruloides with bioprocess conditions relevant to lignocellulosic biorefineries and demonstrates its ability to produce non-native terpenes.« less

  2. Rhodosporidium toruloides: a new platform organism for conversion of lignocellulose into terpene biofuels and bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Yaegashi, Junko; Kirby, James; Ito, Masakazu

    Economical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bioproducts is central to the establishment of a robust bioeconomy. This requires a conversion host that is able to both efficiently assimilate the major lignocellulose-derived carbon sources and divert their metabolites toward specific bioproducts. In this study, the carotenogenic yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was examined for its ability to convert lignocellulose into two non-native sesquiterpenes with biofuel (bisabolene) and pharmaceutical (amorphadiene) applications. We found that R. toruloides can efficiently convert a mixture of glucose and xylose from hydrolyzed lignocellulose into these bioproducts, and unlike many conventional production hosts, its growth and productivity weremore » enhanced in lignocellulosic hydrolysates relative to purified substrates. This organism was demonstrated to have superior growth in corn stover hydrolysates prepared by two different pretreatment methods, one using a novel biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) choline α-ketoglutarate, which produced 261 mg/L of bisabolene at bench scale, and the other using an alkaline pretreatment, which produced 680 mg/L of bisabolene in a high-gravity fe d-batch bioreactor. Interestingly, R. toruloides was also observed to assimilate p-coumaric acid liberated from acylated grass lignin in the IL hydrolysate, a finding we verified with purified substrates. R. toruloides was also able to consume several additional compounds with aromatic motifs similar to lignin monomers, suggesting that this organism may have the metabolic potential to convert depolymerized lignin streams alongside lignocellulosic sugars. This study highlights the natural compatibility of R. toruloides with bioprocess conditions relevant to lignocellulosic biorefineries and demonstrates its ability to produce non-native terpenes.« less

  3. Induction of Terpene Biosynthesis in Berries of Microvine Transformed with VvDXS1 Alleles.

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Emanuelli, Francesco; Trenti, Massimiliano; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Lorenzi, Silvia; Coller, Emanuela; Moser, Sergio; Slaghenaufi, Davide; Cestaro, Alessandro; Larcher, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Costantini, Laura; Malnoy, Mickael; Grando, M Stella

    2017-01-01

    Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, are major aroma-impact compounds in grape and wine. Previous studies highlighted a key regulatory role for grapevine 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (VvDXS1), the first enzyme of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. Here, the parallel analysis of VvDXS1 genotype and terpene concentration in a germplasm collection demonstrated that VvDXS1 sequence has a very high predictive value for the accumulation of monoterpenes and also has an influence on sesquiterpene levels. A metabolic engineering approach was applied by expressing distinct VvDXS1 alleles in the grapevine model system "microvine" and assessing the effects on downstream pathways at transcriptional and metabolic level in different organs and fruit developmental stages. The underlying goal was to investigate two potential perturbation mechanisms, the former based on a significant over-expression of the wild-type (neutral) VvDXS1 allele and the latter on the ex-novo expression of an enzyme with increased catalytic efficiency from the mutated (muscat) VvDXS1 allele. The integration of the two VvDXS1 alleles in distinct microvine lines was found to alter the expression of several terpenoid biosynthetic genes, as assayed through an ad hoc developed TaqMan array based on cDNA libraries of four aromatic cultivars. In particular, enhanced transcription of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and carotenoid pathway genes was observed. The accumulation of monoterpenes in ripe berries was higher in the transformed microvines compared to control plants. This effect is predominantly attributed to the improved activity of the VvDXS1 enzyme coded by the muscat allele, whereas the up-regulation of VvDXS1 plays a secondary role in the increase of monoterpenes.

  4. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene–producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon–intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  5. Rice terpene synthase 24 (OsTPS24) encodes a jasmonate-responsive monoterpene synthase that produces an antibacterial γ-terpinene against rice pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Kayo; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Uji, Yuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops worldwide and is widely used as a model plant for molecular studies of monocotyledonous species. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in rice-pathogen interactions. In addition, volatile compounds, including terpenes, whose production is induced by JA, are known to be involved in the rice defense system. In this study, we analyzed the JA-induced terpene synthase OsTPS24 in rice. We found that OsTPS24 was localized in chloroplasts and produced a monoterpene, γ-terpinene. The amount of γ-terpinene increased after JA treatment. γ-Terpinene had significant antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo); however, it did not show significant antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. The antibacterial activity of the γ-terpinene against Xoo was caused by damage to bacterial cell membranes. These results suggest that γ-terpinene plays an important role in JA-induced resistance against Xoo, and that it functions as an antibacterial compound in rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of terpene and steroid dimers and trimers having cyclobutadienyl-Co and aromatic tethers.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Miguel A; Torres, M Rosario; Torre, María C de la; Alvaro, Elsa

    2007-05-25

    The reaction of natural product derived propargylic alcohols with CpCo(CO)2 produces three new types of natural product hybrids having two or three terpene or steroid fragments. The tether joining the natural product subunits is built during the reaction. Type 1 hybrids have two terpene or steroid moieties joined by a CpCo-cyclobutadiene tether, with the two units disposed in a 1,2-arrangement (9, 14, 22). Type 2 hybrids have a Co-cyclopentadienone tether (10). Type 3 has three units of terpene or steroid joined to a benzene ring (11, 12, 15). An unusual Co-mediated beta-carbon elimination pathway of propargylic alcohols leading to ketones (an unknown process in this chemistry) has been observed.

  7. Influence of volatile terpenes on the capacity of leaves to uptake and detoxify ozone. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, F.; Fares, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is considered the most dangerous air pollutant for plant ecosystems, and its concentration is increasing throughout the earth. Oxidative damage takes place when ozone penetrates inside the leaves through the stomata and the cuticles. The latest guidelines suggest considering the dose entering stomata to evaluate ozone risk on vegetation. We have shown that this metric may not consider important detoxification mechanisms activated by the production of volatile antioxidants, especially terpenes. We review here how volatile terpenes may increase ozone uptake by leaves yet reducing the risk of damage to internal leaf structures. We also argue that volatile terpene production by plants phases-in with episodes on high ozone whereas other detoxification mechanisms are phased-out. Our results suggests that volatile isoprenoids play a major role in determining the capacity of ozone removal and detoxification by vegetation.

  8. Compounds with species and cell type specific toxicity identified in a 2000 compound drug screen of neural stem cells and rat mixed cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nasir; Efthymiou, Anastasia G; Mather, Karly; Chester, Nathaniel; Wang, Xiantao; Nath, Avindra; Rao, Mahendra S; Steiner, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Human primary neural tissue is a vital component for the quick and simple determination of chemical compound neurotoxicity in vitro. In particular, such tissue would be ideal for high-throughput screens that can be used to identify novel neurotoxic or neurotherapeutic compounds. We have previously established a high-throughput screening platform using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and neurons. In this study, we conducted a 2000 compound screen with human NSCs and rat cortical cells to identify compounds that are selectively toxic to each group. Approximately 100 of the tested compounds showed specific toxicity to human NSCs. A secondary screen of a small subset of compounds from the primary screen on human iPSCs, NSC-derived neurons, and fetal astrocytes validated the results from >80% of these compounds with some showing cell specific toxicity. Amongst those compounds were several cardiac glycosides, all of which were selectively toxic to the human cells. As the screen was able to reliably identify neurotoxicants, many with species and cell-type specificity, this study demonstrates the feasibility of this NSC-driven platform for higher-throughput neurotoxicity screens. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  10. Molecular architecture and biomedical leads of terpenes from red sea marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Alhammady, Montaser A; Shaheen, Alaa M; Reda, Eman H; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W

    2015-05-20

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  11. Temporal effects of prescribed burning on terpene production in Mediterranean pines.

    PubMed

    Valor, Teresa; Ormeño, Elena; Casals, Pere

    2017-12-01

    Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel hazard but underburning can damage standing trees. The effect of burning on needle terpene storage, a proxy for secondary metabolism, in fire-damaged pines is poorly understood despite the protection terpenes confer against biotic and abiotic stressors. We investigated variation in needle terpene storage after burning in three Mediterranean pine species featuring different adaptations to fire regimes. In two pure-stands of Pinus halepensis Mill. and two mixed-stands of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra ssp. salzmanni (Dunal) Franco, we compared 24 h and 1 year post-burning concentrations with pre-burning concentrations in 20 trees per species, and evaluated the relative contribution of tree fire severity and physiological condition (δ13C and N concentration) on temporal terpene dynamics (for mono- sesqui- and diterpenes). Twenty-four hours post-burning, monoterpene concentrations were slightly higher in P. halepensis than at pre-burning, while values were similar in P. sylvestris. Differently, in the more fire-resistant P. nigra monoterpene concentrations were lower at 24 h, compared with pre-burning. One year post-burning, concentrations were always lower compared with pre- or 24 h post-burning, regardless of the terpene group. Mono- and sesquiterpene variations were negatively related to pre-burning δ13C, while diterpene variations were associated with fire-induced changes in needle δ13C and N concentration. At both post-burning times, mono- and diterpene concentrations increased significantly with crown scorch volume in all species. Differences in post-burning terpene contents as a function of the pine species' sensitivity to fire suggest that terpenic metabolites could have adaptive importance in fire-prone ecosystems in terms of flammability or defence against biotic agents post-burning. One year post-burning, our results suggest that in a context of fire-induced resource availability, pines likely prioritize

  12. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rani, Riveka; Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2018-03-09

    strain TES17 isolated from the rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis (tea) plant; produces potent compounds with antioxidant activity, further might be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress.

  13. Assessment of chimeric mice with humanized livers in new drug development: generation of pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity data for selecting the final candidate compound.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Chimeric mice with humanized livers are expected to be a novel tool for new drug development. This review discusses four applications where these animals can be used efficiently to collect supportive data for selecting the best compound in the final stage of drug discovery. 2. The first application is selection of the final compound based on estimated pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. Since chimeric mouse livers are highly repopulated with human hepatocytes, hepatic clearance values in vivo could be used preferentially to estimate pharmacokinetic profiles for humans. 3. The second is prediction of human-specific or disproportionate metabolites. Chimeric mice reproduce human-specific metabolites of drugs under development to conform to ICH guidance M3(R2), except for compounds that were extensively eliminated by co-existing mouse hepatocytes. 4. The third is identifying metabolites with distinct pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Slow metabolite elimination specifically in humans increases its exposure level, but if its elimination is faster in laboratory animals, the animal exposure level might not satisfy ICH guidance M3(R2). 5. Finally, two examples of reproducing acute liver toxicity in chimeric mice are introduced. Integrated pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity information are expected to assist pharmaceutical scientists in selecting the best candidate compound in new drug development.

  14. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS) genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2, and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers. PMID:26793212

  15. Emission and Accumulation of Monoterpene and the Key Terpene Synthase (TPS) Associated with Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Osmanthus fragrans Lour.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangling; Liu, Cai; Zheng, Riru; Cai, Xuan; Luo, Jing; Zou, Jingjing; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans is an ornamental and economically important plant known for its magnificent aroma, and the most important aroma-active compounds in flowers are monoterpenes, mainly β-ocimene, linalool and linalool derivatives. To understand the molecular mechanism of monoterpene production, we analyzed the emission and accumulation patterns of these compounds and the transcript levels of the genes involved in their biosynthesis in two O. fragrans cultivars during flowering stages. The results showed that both emission and accumulation of monoterpenes varied with flower development and glycosylation had an important impact on floral linalool emission during this process. Gene expression demonstrated that the transcript levels of terpene synthase (TPS) genes probably played a key role in monoterpene production, compared to the genes in the MEP pathway. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 belonged to a TPS-g subfamily, and OfTPS3 and OfTPS4 clustered into a TPS-b subfamily. Their transient and stable expression in tobacco leaves suggested that OfTPS1 and OfTPS2 exclusively produced β-linalool, and trans-β-ocimene was the sole product from OfTPS3, while OfTPS4, a predictive sesquiterpene synthase, produced α-farnesene. These results indicate that OfTPS1, OfTPS2, and OfTPS3 could account for the major floral monoterpenes, linalool and trans-β-ocimene, produced in O. fragrans flowers.

  16. Quality evaluation and pattern recognition analyses of marker compounds from five medicinal drugs of Rutaceae family by HPLC/PDA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing Tian; Kim, Eun Jung; Son, Kun Ho; Son, Jong Keun; Min, Byung Sun; Woo, Mi Hee

    2015-08-01

    To establish a standard of quality control and to identify different origins for the Rutaceae family [Citri Unshiu Peel (CU), Citri Unshiu Immature Peel (CI), Ponciri Immature Fructus (PI), Aurantii Immature Fructus (AI), and Aurantii Fructus (AU)], 13 standards including rutin (1), narirutin (2), naringin (3), hesperidin (4), neohesperidin (5), neoponcirin (6), poncirin (7), naringenin (8), isosinensetin (9), sinensetin (10), nobiletin (11), heptamethoxyflavone (12), and tangeretin (13) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photo-diode array (PDA) analysis. A YMC ODS C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column was used and the ratio of mobile phases of water (A) and acetonitrile (B) delivered to the column for gradient elution was applied. This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and robustness. The HPLC/PDA method was applied successfully to quantify 13 major compounds in the extracts of CU, CI, PI, AI, and AU. The pattern recognition analysis combined with LC chromatographic data was performed by repeated analysis of 27 reference samples in the above five Rutaceae oriental medicinal drugs. The established HPLC method was rapid and reliable for quantitative analysis and quality control of multiple components in five Rutaceae species with different origins.

  17. Stability of extemporaneous pediatric oral liquids compounded from tablets and drug substance: case of propranolol and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Muśko, Monika; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The stability of theophylline (T) and propranolol hydrochloride (P) in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions (25 mg/mL or 50 mg/mL for T and 2 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL for P) were studied. Suspension with P and T were prepared with bulk substance or tablets using three different suspending vehicles: Ora-Sweet (M1), modified Ora-Sweet (M2) and simple syrup with glycerol and sorbitol (M3). Each suspension was stored for 35 days in a dark place at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The results demonstrated that the prepared suspensions with P either from tablets or from a substance were stable in all three studied vehicles (more than 95% of initial concentration remaining). However, it is recommended that storage at 4 degrees C of suspensions prepared with M2 should be avoided because of crystallization of the buffer substances. Extemporaneous suspensions with T in an appropriate pediatric concentrations of the drug were not obtained because the problem of fast crystallization of T was not eliminated.

  18. Potential impurities in drug substances: Compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 synthetic reagents and by-products, and a class-specific toxicology limit for alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Bercu, J P; Galloway, S M; Parris, P; Teasdale, A; Masuda-Herrera, M; Dobo, K; Heard, P; Kenyon, M; Nicolette, J; Vock, E; Ku, W; Harvey, J; White, A; Glowienke, S; Martin, E A; Custer, L; Jolly, R A; Thybaud, V

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 widely used synthetic reagents and common by-products that are potential impurities in drug substances. In addition, a 15 μg/day class-specific limit was developed for monofunctional alkyl bromides, aligning this with the class-specific limit previously defined for monofunctional alkyl chlorides. Both the compound- and class-specific toxicology limits assume a lifetime chronic exposure for the general population (including sensitive subpopulations) by all routes of exposure for pharmaceuticals. Inhalation-specific toxicology limits were also derived for acrolein, formaldehyde, and methyl bromide because of their localized toxicity via that route. Mode of action was an important consideration for a compound-specific toxicology limit. Acceptable intake (AI) calculations for certain mutagenic carcinogens assumed a linear dose-response for tumor induction, and permissible daily exposure (PDE) determination assumed a non-linear dose-response. Several compounds evaluated have been previously incorrectly assumed to be mutagenic, or to be mutagenic carcinogens, but the evidence reported here for such compounds indicates a lack of mutagenicity, and a non-mutagenic mode of action for tumor induction. For non-mutagens with insufficient data to develop a toxicology limit, the ICH Q3A qualification thresholds are recommended. The compound- and class-specific toxicology limits described here may be adjusted for an individual drug substance based on treatment duration, dosing schedule, severity of the disease and therapeutic indication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Direct analysis of terpenes from biological buffer systems using SESI and IR-MALDESI.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Milad; Malico, Alexandra A; Ekelöf, Måns; Lund, Sean; Williams, Gavin J; Muddiman, David C

    2018-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest class of natural products with a wide range of applications including use as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, flavorings, and agricultural products. Terpenes are biosynthesized by the condensation of a variable number of isoprene units resulting in linear polyisoprene diphosphate units, which can then be cyclized by terpene synthases into a range of complex structures. While these cyclic structures have immense diversity and potential in different applications, their direct analysis in biological buffer systems requires intensive sample preparation steps such as salt cleanup, extraction with organic solvents, and chromatographic separations. Electrospray post-ionization can be used to circumvent many sample cleanup and desalting steps. SESI and IR-MALDESI are two examples of ionization methods that employ electrospray post-ionization at atmospheric pressure and temperature. By coupling the two techniques and doping the electrospray solvent with silver ions, olefinic terpenes of different classes and varying degrees of volatility were directly analyzed from a biological buffer system with no sample workup steps.

  1. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    PubMed

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concurrent and supercritical fluid chromatographic analysis of Terpene Lactones and ginkolic acids in Ginko biloba

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supercritical fluid chromatography was used to resolve and determine ginkgolic acids (GAs) and terpene lactones concurrently in ginkgo plant materials and commercial dietary supplements. Analysis of GAs (C13:0, C15:0, C15:1 and C17:1) was carried out by ESI (-) mass detection. The ESI (-) spectra of...

  3. Mechanism-based post-translational modification and inactivation in terpene synthases

    DOE PAGES

    Kersten, Roland D.; Diedrich, Jolene K.; Yates, III, John R.; ...

    2015-09-17

    Terpenes are ubiquitous natural chemicals with diverse biological functions spanning all three domains of life. In specialized metabolism, the active sites of terpene synthases (TPSs) evolve in shape and reactivity to direct the biosynthesis of a myriad of chemotypes for organismal fitness. As most terpene biosynthesis mechanistically involves highly reactive carbocationic intermediates, the protein surfaces catalyzing these cascade reactions possess reactive regions possibly prone to premature carbocation capture and potentially enzyme inactivation. Here, we show using proteomic and X-ray crystallographic analyses that cationic intermediates undergo capture by conserved active site residues leading to inhibitory self-alkylation. Furthermore, the level of cation-mediatedmore » inactivation increases with mutation of the active site, upon changes in the size and structure of isoprenoid diphosphate substrates, and alongside increases in reaction temperatures. TPSs that individually synthesize multiple products are less prone to self-alkylation then TPSs possessing relatively high product specificity. In total, the results presented suggest that mechanism-based alkylation represents an overlooked mechanistic pressure during the evolution of cation-derived terpene biosynthesis.« less

  4. Effectiveness of a Closed-System Transfer Device in Reducing Surface Contamination in a New Antineoplastic Drug-Compounding Unit: A Prospective, Controlled, Parallel Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinturaud, Marine; Soichot, Marion; Richeval, Camille; Humbert, Luc; Lebecque, Michèle; Sidikou, Ousseini; Barthelemy, Christine; Bonnabry, Pascal; Allorge, Delphine; Décaudin, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this randomized, prospective and controlled study was to investigate the ability of a closed-system transfer device (CSTD; BD-Phaseal) to reduce the occupational exposure of two isolators to 10 cytotoxic drugs and compare to standard compounding devices. Methods and Findings The 6-month study started with the opening of a new compounding unit. Two isolators were set up with 2 workstations each, one to compound with standard devices (needles and spikes) and the other using the Phaseal system. Drugs were alternatively compounded in each isolator. Sampling involved wiping three surfaces (gloves, window, worktop), before and after a cleaning process. Exposure to ten antineoplastic drugs (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, dacarbazine, 5-FU, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine, irinotecan, doxorubicine and ganciclovir) was assessed on wipes by LC-MS/MS analysis. Contamination rates were compared using a Chi2 test and drug amounts by a Mann-Whitney test. Significance was defined for p<0.05. Overall contamination was lower in the “Phaseal” isolator than in the “Standard” isolator (12.24% vs. 26.39%; p < 0.0001) although it differed according to drug. Indeed, the contamination rates of gemcitabine were 49.3 and 43.4% (NS) for the Standard and Phaseal isolators, respectively, whereas for ganciclovir, they were 54.2 and 2.8% (p<0.0001). Gemcitabine amounts were 220.6 and 283.6 ng for the Standard and Phaseal isolators (NS), and ganciclovir amounts were 179.9 and 2.4 ng (p<0.0001). Conclusion This study confirms that using a CSTD may significantly decrease the chemical contamination of barrier isolators compared to standard devices for some drugs, although it does not eliminate contamination totally. PMID:27391697

  5. Methyl-N-methylanthranilate, a pungent compound from Citrus reticulata Blanco leaves.

    PubMed

    Correa, Edwin; Quiñones, Winston; Echeverri, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    More analgesic compounds are needed in medicine against pain since the available drugs displayed secondary effects. Natural products are a source of molecules to develop new analgesics, using the information of plants, applied against pain, with effects such as pungency, tingling, and needle, due to their possible role in the central nervous system (NCS). Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) leaves are usually bitten to flavor the mouth and possess this type effect in lips and tongues; due to this fact the structure of the bioctive compound could be the source of other types of analgesics. The objective of this study is to determine the causal agent of the pungent effect in mandarin essential oil. Mandarin essential oil was obtained and then purified by column chromatography. Each fraction was tested and pungency was detected only in the first fraction which was pure. The compound responsible for the pungency in the essential oils of leaves from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) was purified and the structure was assigned as methyl-N-methylanthranilate, on the basis of NMR 1D and 2D and MS. This substance corresponds to another type of molecule involving an antinociceptive effect. Terpenes are compounds found in essential oils. The compound responsible for the pungency of mandarin and other citrus leaves was isolated, and surprisingly it was identified as a methyl-N-methylanthranilate. This kind of molecules with this activity could be used to discover new analgesics in human therapy against pain.

  6. Transcription factor CitERF71 activates the terpene synthase gene CitTPS16 involved in the synthesis of E-geraniol in sweet orange fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Xu, Yaying; Shen, Shuling; Yin, Xueren; Klee, Harry; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kunsong; Hancock, Robert

    2017-10-13

    The unique flavor of Citrus fruit depends on complex combinations of soluble sugars, organic acids, and volatile compounds. The monoterpene E-geraniol is an important volatile, contributing to flavor in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Moreover, antifungal activity of E-geraniol has also been observed. However, the terpene synthase (TPS) responsible for its synthesis has not been identified in sweet orange. Terpene synthase 16 (CitTPS16) was shown to catalyze synthesis of E-geraniol in vitro, and transient overexpression of CitTPS16 in fruits and leaves of Newhall sweet orange resulted in E-geraniol accumulation in vivo. Having identified the responsible enzyme, we next examined transcriptional regulation of CitTPS16 in the fruit. Among cloned members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, CitERF71 showed a similar expression pattern to CitTPS16. Moreover, CitERF71 was able to activate the CitTPS16 promoter based on results from transient dual-luciferase assays and yeast one-hybrid assays. EMSAs showed that CitERF71 directly binds to ACCCGCC and GGCGGG motifs in the CitTPS16 promoter. These results indicate an important role for CitERF71 in transcriptional regulation of CitTP16 and, therefore, in controlling production of E-geraniol in Citrus fruit. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. CCN activity of secondary aerosols from terpene ozonolysis under atmospheric relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Cheng; Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Yao, Lei; Zhou, Yaoyao; Wang, Xing; Zheng, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes is an important source of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The contribution of terpene-derived aerosols to the atmospheric cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) burden under atmospheric conditions, however, remains highly uncertain. The results obtained in previous studies under simple laboratory conditions may not be applicable to atmospheric relevant conditions. Here we present that CCN activities of aerosols from terpene ozonolysis can be significantly affected by atmospheric relevant species that can act as stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) or OH scavengers. Ozonolysis reactions of α-pinene, limonene, α-cedrene, and α-humulene were conducted in a 4.5 m3 collapsible fluoropolymer chamber at near-atmospheric concentrations in the presence of different OH scavengers (cyclohexane, 2-butanol, or CO) and SCI scavengers (CH3COOH, H2O, or SO2). The number size distribution and CCN activity of aerosol particles formed during ozonolysis were simultaneously determined. Additionally, particulate products were chemically analyzed by using a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer. Results showed that aerosol CCN activity following monoterpene ozonolysis was more sensitive to the choice of OH scavengers, while that from sesquiterpene ozonolysis was significantly affected by SCI scavengers. Combined with chemical analysis results, it was concluded that the unimolecular decomposition of CIs giving hygroscopic organic products can be largely suppressed by bimolecular reactions during sesquiterpene ozonolysis but was not significantly impacted in monoterpene ozonolysis. Our study underscores the key role of CIs in the CCN activity of terpene ozonolysis-derived aerosols. The effects of atmospheric relevant species (e.g., SO2, H2O, and CO) need to be considered when assessing the contribution of biogenic terpenes to the atmospheric CCN burden under ambient conditions.

  8. A needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards.

    PubMed

    Marks, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Today's health-system pharmacists and those in independent practice face risks, including exposure to potent cytotoxic drugs via needlesticks, that are associated with preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations for immediate use. Healthcare givers who administer such medications also risk exposure to needlesticks. Those hazards can be minimized when the pharmacist thoroughly understands and complies with current standard operating procedures for preparing intravenous compounded sterile preparations and the healthcare giver uses a needle-free system for drug reconstitution and administration. The components of an overall needlestick risk-reduction strategy to ensure safety in the preparation (and eventual administration) of intravenous compounded sterile preparations should therefore include the use of needle-free connection and administration devices as well as hand-hygiene training, aseptic technique competency evaluation and training, and the maximum use of commercially available or ready-to-use dosage forms. This article, which focuses on the pharmacist's use of a needle-free reconstitution and transfer system for compounded sterile intravenous drug solutions, uses as an example the Vial2Bag (Medimop Medical Projects, Ltd., [a subsidiary of West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc., Exton, Pennsylvania], Ra'anana, Israel), which complies with United States Pharmacopeia Chapter <797> standards. Features of that system are summarized for easy reference.

  9. The importance of a compound stimulus in conditioned drug-seeking behavior following one week of extinction from self-administered cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    See, R E; Grimm, J W; Kruzich, P J; Rustay, N

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that conditioned stimuli can increase responding on a drug-associated lever after extinction from drug self-administration. The present study investigated singular stimuli (tone or light) or a compound stimulus (tone + light) for their ability to increase extinguished responding following chronic cocaine self-administration. Rats self-administered cocaine for 2 weeks on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement, in which lever responding resulted in varied presentation of a tone, light, or tone + light combination. The rats were then exposed to 1 week of daily extinction sessions. Presentation of the tone + light on day 8 of extinction in the absence of cocaine reinforcement resulted in a significant increase in responding, while either stimulus component alone was much weaker or failed to produce any changes from extinction rates of responding. In addition, changing the duration of the single elements of the compound did not affect the magnitude of increased responding to the compound. Following three final extinction sessions, robust lever responding for cocaine infusions on day 12 of extinction was seen across all groups. These findings suggest that compound stimuli may be critical to fully activate drug-seeking behavior in conditions of craving and relapse following prolonged extinction.

  10. From Omics to Drug Metabolism and High Content Screen of Natural Product in Zebrafish: A New Model for Discovery of Neuroactive Compound

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming Wai; Zhang, Zai Jun; Li, Shang; Lei, Benson; Yuan, Shuai; Cui, Guo Zhen; Man Hoi, Pui; Chan, Kelvin; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a common model in the fields of genetics, environmental science, toxicology, and especially drug screening. Zebrafish has emerged as a biomedically relevant model for in vivo high content drug screening and the simultaneous determination of multiple efficacy parameters, including behaviour, selectivity, and toxicity in the content of the whole organism. A zebrafish behavioural assay has been demonstrated as a novel, rapid, and high-throughput approach to the discovery of neuroactive, psychoactive, and memory-modulating compounds. Recent studies found a functional similarity of drug metabolism systems in zebrafish and mammals, providing a clue with why some compounds are active in zebrafish in vivo but not in vitro, as well as providing grounds for the rationales supporting the use of a zebrafish screen to identify prodrugs. Here, we discuss the advantages of the zebrafish model for evaluating drug metabolism and the mode of pharmacological action with the emerging omics approaches. Why this model is suitable for identifying lead compounds from natural products for therapy of disorders with multifactorial etiopathogenesis and imbalance of angiogenesis, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiotoxicity, cerebral hemorrhage, dyslipidemia, and hyperlipidemia, is addressed. PMID:22919414

  11. A high throughput drug screening assay to identify compounds that promote oligodendrocyte differentiation using acutely dissociated and purified oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Lariosa-Willingham, Karen D; Rosler, Elen S; Tung, Jay S; Dugas, Jason C; Collins, Tassie L; Leonoudakis, Dmitri

    2016-09-05

    Multiple sclerosis is caused by an autoimmune response resulting in demyelination and neural degeneration. The adult central nervous system has the capacity to remyelinate axons in part through the generation of new oligodendrocytes (OLs). To identify clinical candidate compounds that may promote remyelination, we have developed a high throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify compounds that promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into OLs. Using acutely dissociated and purified rat OPCs coupled with immunofluorescent image quantification, we have developed an OL differentiation assay. We have validated this assay with a known promoter of differentiation, thyroid hormone, and subsequently used the assay to screen the NIH clinical collection library. We have identified twenty-seven hit compounds which were validated by dose response analysis and the generation of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values allowed for the ranking of efficacy. The assay identified novel promoters of OL differentiation which we attribute to (1) the incorporation of an OL toxicity pre-screen to allow lowering the concentrations of toxic compounds and (2) the utilization of freshly purified, non-passaged OPCs. These features set our assay apart from other OL differentiation assays used for drug discovery efforts. This acute primary OL-based differentiation assay should be of use to those interested in screening large compound libraries for the identification of drugs for the treatment of MS and other demyelinating diseases.

  12. Identification of small molecule lead compounds for visceral leishmaniasis using a novel ex vivo splenic explant model system.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Yaneth; Travi, Bruno L; Renslo, Adam R; Peniche, Alex G; Melby, Peter C

    2011-02-15

    New drugs are needed to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL) because the current therapies are toxic, expensive, and parasite resistance may weaken drug efficacy. We established a novel ex vivo splenic explant culture system from hamsters infected with luciferase-transfected Leishmania donovani to screen chemical compounds for anti-leishmanial activity. THIS MODEL HAS ADVANTAGES OVER IN VITRO SYSTEMS IN THAT IT: 1) includes the whole cellular population involved in the host-parasite interaction; 2) is initiated at a stage of infection when the immunosuppressive mechanisms that lead to progressive VL are evident; 3) involves the intracellular form of Leishmania; 4) supports parasite replication that can be easily quantified by detection of parasite-expressed luciferase; 5) is adaptable to a high-throughput screening format; and 6) can be used to identify compounds that have both direct and indirect anti-parasitic activity. The assay showed excellent discrimination between positive (amphotericin B) and negative (vehicle) controls with a Z' Factor >0.8. A duplicate screen of 4 chemical libraries containing 4,035 compounds identified 202 hits (5.0%) with a Z score of <-1.96 (p<0.05). Eighty-four (2.1%) of the hits were classified as lead compounds based on the in vitro therapeutic index (ratio of the compound concentration causing 50% cytotoxicity in the HepG(2) cell line to the concentration that caused 50% reduction in the parasite load). Sixty-nine (82%) of the lead compounds were previously unknown to have anti-leishmanial activity. The most frequently identified lead compounds were classified as quinoline-containing compounds (14%), alkaloids (10%), aromatics (11%), terpenes (8%), phenothiazines (7%) and furans (5%). The ex vivo splenic explant model provides a powerful approach to identify new compounds active against L. donovani within the pathophysiologic environment of the infected spleen. Further in vivo evaluation and chemical optimization of these lead

  13. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of the phenolic compounds for the crude drug of Prunus serotina subsp. capuli.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Cruz, Blanca

    2014-08-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrenb. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh (Rosaceae), commonly known as "capulin", is a native North American tree, commercialized and used in folk medicine for the treatment of the hypertension, gastrointestinal illnesses, and cough. This work developed a suitable HPLC method for quantifying the major active constituents of the infusion of P. serotina, the most important preparation consumed by populations around the world. The analytical method was performed using a Fortis-RP column (150 mm × 4.6 mm; film thickness 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of an isocratic acetate buffer solution (pH 2.7; A) and methanol (B) (65:35 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The proposed method was applied to the quantification of 1-3 in several samples of the leaves of P. serotina. The results indicated that amounts of 1-3 in the samples analyzed are uniform, and greater amounts of chlorogenic acid (2; 479.9 ± 33.6 µg g(-1), dry matter) along with hyperoside (1; 185.7 ± 55.3 µg g(-1), dry matter) were present. On the other hand, benzaldehyde (3; 118.2 ± 12.1 µg g(-1) dry matter) was found to be in lower concentration. A simple, sensitive, precise, and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of 1-3 in P. serotina was developed and validated. This is the first report on the quantification of 1-3 as active principles, and compound 1 was selected as a marker of P. serotina, which could be useful to guarantee the quality of the crude drug and herbal products.

  14. Analysis of in vitro bioactivity data extracted from drug discovery literature and patents: Ranking 1654 human protein targets by assayed compounds and molecular scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the classic Hopkins and Groom druggable genome review in 2002, there have been a number of publications updating both the hypothetical and successful human drug target statistics. However, listings of research targets that define the area between these two extremes are sparse because of the challenges of collating published information at the necessary scale. We have addressed this by interrogating databases, populated by expert curation, of bioactivity data extracted from patents and journal papers over the last 30 years. Results From a subset of just over 27,000 documents we have extracted a set of compound-to-target relationships for biochemical in vitro binding-type assay data for 1,736 human proteins and 1,654 gene identifiers. These are linked to 1,671,951 compound records derived from 823,179 unique chemical structures. The distribution showed a compounds-per-target average of 964 with a maximum of 42,869 (Factor Xa). The list includes non-targets, failed targets and cross-screening targets. The top-278 most actively pursued targets cover 90% of the compounds. We further investigated target ranking by determining the number of molecular frameworks and scaffolds. These were compared to the compound counts as alternative measures of chemical diversity on a per-target basis. Conclusions The compounds-per-protein listing generated in this work (provided as a supplementary file) represents the major proportion of the human drug target landscape defined by published data. We supplemented the simple ranking by the number of compounds assayed with additional rankings by molecular topology. These showed significant differences and provide complementary assessments of chemical tractability. PMID:21569515

  15. The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, J M; McKee, D D; Watson, M A; Willson, T M; Moore, J T; Kliewer, S A

    1998-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. Although expression of the CYP3A4 gene is known to be induced in response to a variety of compounds, the mechanism underlying this induction, which represents a basis for drug interactions in patients, has remained unclear. We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. Comparison of hPXR with the recently cloned mouse PXR reveals marked differences in their activation by certain drugs, which may account in part for the species-specific effects of compounds on CYP3A gene expression. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the ability of disparate chemicals to induce CYP3A4 levels and, furthermore, provide a basis for developing in vitro assays to aid in predicting whether drugs will interact in humans. PMID:9727070

  16. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC 50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  18. Identification and characterization of terpene synthases potentially involved in the formation of volatile terpenes in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants produce numerous volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and the aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the...

  19. Biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile.

    PubMed

    Préndez, Margarita; Carvajal, Virginia; Corada, Karina; Morales, Johanna; Alarcón, Francis; Peralta, Hugo

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant whose primary sources are volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. The national standard is exceeded on a third of summer days in some areas of the Chilean Metropolitan Region (MR). This study reports normalized springtime experimental emissions factors (EF) for biogenic volatile organic compounds from tree species corresponding to approximately 31% of urban trees in the MR. A Photochemical Ozone Creation Index (POCI) was calculated using Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential of quantified terpenes. Ten species, natives and exotics, were analysed using static enclosure technique. Terpene quantification was performed using GC-FID, thermal desorption, cryogenic concentration and automatic injection. Observed EF and POCI values for terpenes from exotic species were 78 times greater than native values; within the same family, exotic EF and POCI values were 28 and 26 times greater than natives. These results support reforestation with native species for improved urban pollution management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Novel Compounds against an R294K Substitution of Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Using Ensemble Based Drug Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhut; Van, Thanh; Nguyen, Hieu; Le, Ly

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus H7N9 foremost emerged in China in 2013 and killed hundreds of people in Asia since they possessed all mutations that enable them to resist to all existing influenza drugs, resulting in high mortality to human. In the effort to identify novel inhibitors combat resistant strains of influenza virus H7N9; we performed virtual screening targeting the Neuraminidase (NA) protein against natural compounds of traditional Chinese medicine database (TCM) and ZINC natural products. Compounds expressed high binding affinity to the target protein was then evaluated for molecular properties to determine drug-like molecules. 4 compounds showed their binding energy less than -11Kcal/mol were selected for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to capture intermolecular interactions of ligand-protein complexes. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method was utilized to estimate binding free energy of the complex. In term of stability, NA-7181 (IUPAC namely {9-Hydroxy-10-[3-(trifluoromrthyl) cyclohexyl]-4.8-diazatricyclo [6.4.0.02,6]dodec-4-yl}(perhydro-1H-inden-5-yl)formaldehyde) achieved stable conformation after 20ns and 27ns for ligand and protein root mean square deviation, respectively. In term of binding free energy, 7181 gave the negative value of -30.031 (KJ/mol) indicating the compound obtained a favourable state in the active site of the protein. PMID:25589893

  1. Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of Two Main Extractable Compounds Present in Aqueous Extracts of Laminated Aluminum Foil Used for Protecting LDPE-Filled Drug Vials

    PubMed Central

    Akapo, Samuel O.; Syed, Sajid; Mamangun, Anicia; Skinner, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Laminated aluminum foils are increasingly being used to protect drug products packaged in semipermeable containers (e.g., low-density polyethylene (LDPE)) from degradation and/or evaporation. The direct contact of such materials with primary packaging containers may potentially lead to adulteration of the drug product by extractable or leachable compounds present in the closure system. In this paper, we described a simple and reliable HPLC method for analysis of an aqueous extract of laminated aluminum foil overwrap used for packaging LDPE vials filled with aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. By means of combined HPLC-UV, GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, the two major compounds detected in the aqueous extracts of the representative commercial overwraps were identified as cyclic oligomers with molecular weights of 452 and 472 and are possibly formed from poly-condensation of the adhesive components, namely, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, and diethylene glycol. Lower molecular weight compounds that might be associated with the “building blocks” of these compounds were not detected in the aqueous extracts. PMID:20140083

  2. The effect of terpene enhancer lipophilicity on the percutaneous permeation of hydrocortisone formulated in HPMC gel systems.

    PubMed

    El-Kattan, A F; Asbill, C S; Michniak, B B

    2000-04-05

    The percutaneous permeation of hydrocortisone (HC) was investigated in hairless mouse skin after application of an alcoholic hydrogel using a diffusion cell technique. The formulations contained one of 12 terpenes, the selection of which was based on an increase in their lipophilicity (log P 1.06-5.36). Flux, cumulative receptor concentrations, skin content, and lag time of HC were measured over 24 h and compared with control gels (containing no terpene). Furthermore, HC skin content and the solubility of HC in the alcoholic hydrogel solvent mixture in the presence of terpene were determined, and correlated to the enhancing activity of terpenes. The in vitro permeation experiments with hairless mouse skin revealed that the terpene enhancers varied in their ability to enhance the flux of HC. Nerolidol which possessed the highest lipophilicity (log P = 5.36+/-0.38) provided the greatest enhancement for HC flux (35.3-fold over control). Fenchone (log P = 2.13+/-0.30) exhibited the lowest enhancement of HC flux (10.1-fold over control). In addition, a linear relationship was established between the log P of terpenes and the cumulative amount of HC in the receptor after 24 h (Q(24)). Nerolidol, provided the highest Q(24) (1733+/-93 microg/cm(2)), whereas verbenone produced the lowest Q(24) (653+/-105 microg/cm(2)). Thymol provided the lowest HC skin content (1151+/-293 microg/g), while cineole produced the highest HC skin content (18999+/-5666 microg/g). No correlation was established between the log P of enhancers and HC skin content. A correlation however, existed between the log P of terpenes and the lag time. As log P increased, a linear decrease in lag time was observed. Cymene yielded the shortest HC lag time, while fenchone produced the longest lag time. Also, the increase in the log P of terpenes resulted in a proportional increase in HC solubility in the formulation solvent mixture.

  3. A combined Fisher and Laplacian score for feature selection in QSAR based drug design using compounds with known and unknown activities.

    PubMed

    Valizade Hasanloei, Mohammad Amin; Sheikhpour, Razieh; Sarram, Mehdi Agha; Sheikhpour, Elnaz; Sharifi, Hamdollah

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an effective computational technique for drug design that relates the chemical structures of compounds to their biological activities. Feature selection is an important step in QSAR based drug design to select the most relevant descriptors. One of the most popular feature selection methods for classification problems is Fisher score which aim is to minimize the within-class distance and maximize the between-class distance. In this study, the properties of Fisher criterion were extended for QSAR models to define the new distance metrics based on the continuous activity values of compounds with known activities. Then, a semi-supervised feature selection method was proposed based on the combination of Fisher and Laplacian criteria which exploits both compounds with known and unknown activities to select the relevant descriptors. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed semi-supervised feature selection method in selecting the relevant descriptors, we applied the method and other feature selection methods on three QSAR data sets such as serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK3 inhibitors, ROCK inhibitors and phenol compounds. The results demonstrated that the QSAR models built on the selected descriptors by the proposed semi-supervised method have better performance than other models. This indicates the efficiency of the proposed method in selecting the relevant descriptors using the compounds with known and unknown activities. The results of this study showed that the compounds with known and unknown activities can be helpful to improve the performance of the combined Fisher and Laplacian based feature selection methods.

  4. A combined Fisher and Laplacian score for feature selection in QSAR based drug design using compounds with known and unknown activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizade Hasanloei, Mohammad Amin; Sheikhpour, Razieh; Sarram, Mehdi Agha; Sheikhpour, Elnaz; Sharifi, Hamdollah

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an effective computational technique for drug design that relates the chemical structures of compounds to their biological activities. Feature selection is an important step in QSAR based drug design to select the most relevant descriptors. One of the most popular feature selection methods for classification problems is Fisher score which aim is to minimize the within-class distance and maximize the between-class distance. In this study, the properties of Fisher criterion were extended for QSAR models to define the new distance metrics based on the continuous activity values of compounds with known activities. Then, a semi-supervised feature selection method was proposed based on the combination of Fisher and Laplacian criteria which exploits both compounds with known and unknown activities to select the relevant descriptors. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed semi-supervised feature selection method in selecting the relevant descriptors, we applied the method and other feature selection methods on three QSAR data sets such as serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK3 inhibitors, ROCK inhibitors and phenol compounds. The results demonstrated that the QSAR models built on the selected descriptors by the proposed semi-supervised method have better performance than other models. This indicates the efficiency of the proposed method in selecting the relevant descriptors using the compounds with known and unknown activities. The results of this study showed that the compounds with known and unknown activities can be helpful to improve the performance of the combined Fisher and Laplacian based feature selection methods.

  5. Evidence-based selection of training compounds for use in the mechanism-based integrated prediction of drug-induced liver injury in man.

    PubMed

    Dragovic, Sanja; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Gerets, Helga H; Hewitt, Philip G; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Park, B Kevin; Juhila, Satu; Snoeys, Jan; Weaver, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    The current test systems employed by pharmaceutical industry are poorly predictive for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The 'MIP-DILI' project addresses this situation by the development of innovative preclinical test systems which are both mechanism-based and of physiological, pharmacological and pathological relevance to DILI in humans. An iterative, tiered approach with respect to test compounds, test systems, bioanalysis and systems analysis is adopted to evaluate existing models and develop new models that can provide validated test systems with respect to the prediction of specific forms of DILI and further elucidation of mechanisms. An essential component of this effort is the choice of compound training set that will be used to inform refinement and/or development of new model systems that allow prediction based on knowledge of mechanisms, in a tiered fashion. In this review, we focus on the selection of MIP-DILI training compounds for mechanism-based evaluation of non-clinical prediction of DILI. The selected compounds address both hepatocellular and cholestatic DILI patterns in man, covering a broad range of pharmacologies and chemistries, and taking into account available data on potential DILI mechanisms (e.g. mitochondrial injury, reactive metabolites, biliary transport inhibition, and immune responses). Known mechanisms by which these compounds are believed to cause liver injury have been described, where many if not all drugs in this review appear to exhibit multiple toxicological mechanisms. Thus, the training compounds selection offered a valuable tool to profile DILI mechanisms and to interrogate existing and novel in vitro systems for the prediction of human DILI.

  6. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Drug-Induced Thrombophilic or Prothrombotic States: An Underestimated Clinical Problem That Involves Both Legal and Illegal Compounds.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Cosi, E; Tasinato, V; Santarossa, C; Ferrari, S; Girolami, B

    2017-10-01

    Vascular thrombosis, both arterial and venous, is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are multiple risk factors for thrombosis, both congenital and acquired, and in the majority of cases, these risk factors are not modifiable. Over the past 2 decades, multiple drugs (both illegal and legal) have been associated with increased risk of thrombosis. However, due to limited scientific literature regarding the prothrombotic tendencies of these drugs, there is a concomitant limited understanding of the pathophysiology of drug-induced thrombosis. As drugs are one of the few modifiable risk factors for thrombosis, further study and dissemination of knowledge regarding drug-associated and drug-induced thrombosis are essential and have the potential to lead to decreased future incidence of thrombosis. The mechanisms at the basis of the thrombophilic activity of these drugs are variable and sometimes still ill recognized. Increased levels of clotting factors, reduction in coagulation natural inhibitors, decreased fibrinolysis, activated clotting factors, increased blood viscosity, endothelial damage, and increased platelet number and activation are the most frequent causes. Arterial steal or coronary arteries no flow has also been implicated. In some cases due to the intake of several drugs, more than one mechanism is present in a given patient. The purpose of the present review is to analyze all the drugs demonstrated to be potentially thrombotic. It is hoped that a prudent use or nonuse of these drugs might result in a reduction of thrombosis-associated diseases.

  8. Effects of grinding and humidification on the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound in optically active drugs.

    PubMed

    Piyarom, S; Yonemochi, E; Oguchi, T; Yamamoto, K

    1997-04-01

    The effects of grinding and humidification on the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy for leucine, norleucine, valine, serine, tartaric acid and malic acid. Racemic physical mixtures were prepared by physical mixing of equimolar quantities of D and I. crystals using a mortar and pestle. Ground mixtures were obtained by grinding the physical mixtures with a vibrational mill. Humidification was performed by storing the physical mixtures and the ground mixtures in a desiccator containing saturated aqueous salt solutions at 40 degrees C. When physical mixtures of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine were ground, the XPD peaks of the racemic compounds were observed. The XPD patterns of humidified physical mixtures of these compounds also showed the formation of the racemic compounds. This indicated that grinding or humidification of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine induced the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound crystals. When, on the other hand, the physical mixtures of valine, leucine and norleucine were ground, peaks of racemic compounds were not detected in the XPD pattern. After humidification of the ground mixtures of valine, leucine and norleucine, however, the XPD peaks of racemic compounds were observed. DSC and IR studies revealed consistent results. We concluded that grinding or humidification of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine could induce the transformation of a conglomerate to racemic compound. In contrast, humidifying after grinding was needed to bring about the transformation in leucine, norleucine and valine.

  9. Engineering terpene biosynthesis in Streptomyces for production of the advanced biofuel precursor bisabolene.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Ryan M; Sekurova, Olga N; Keasling, Jay D; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2015-04-17

    The past decade has witnessed a large influx of research toward the creation of sustainable, biologically derived fuels. While significant effort has been exerted to improve production capacity in common hosts, such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, studies concerning alternate microbes comparatively lag. In an effort to expand the breadth of characterized hosts for fuel production, we map the terpene biosynthetic pathway in a model actinobacterium, Streptomyces venezuelae, and further alter secondary metabolism to afford the advanced biofuel precursor bisabolene. Leveraging information gained from study of the native isoprenoid pathway, we were able to increase bisabolene titer nearly 5-fold over the base production strain, more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the combined terpene yield in the wild-type host. We also explored production on carbon sources of varying complexity to, notably, define this host as one able to perform consolidated bioprocessing.

  10. Seasonal Terpene Variation in Needles of Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) Trees Attacked by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and the Effect of Limonene on Beetle Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Romón, Pedro; Aparicio, Domitila; Palacios, Francisco; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Hance, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Concentrations of four monoterpenes were determined in needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) (Pinales: Pinaceae) trees that were attacked or nonattacked by Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The mean ambient temperature was obtained using climate-recording data loggers. The effect of limonene on field aggregation was also evaluated at three limonene release rates using Lindgren attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Attacked trees produced less α-pinene in March, July, and November than nonattacked trees, less β-pinene in July and November, and less limonene from May to November. Limonene reduced the attraction of T. piniperda to attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Results were linked to better responses to high temperatures, with respect to terpene contents, by the nonattacked trees after the spring attack. PMID:29117373

  11. Seasonal Terpene Variation in Needles of Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) Trees Attacked by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and the Effect of Limonene on Beetle Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Aparicio, Domitila; Palacios, Francisco; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Hance, Thierry; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Concentrations of four monoterpenes were determined in needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) (Pinales: Pinaceae) trees that were attacked or nonattacked by Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean ambient temperature was obtained using climate-recording data loggers. The effect of limonene on field aggregation was also evaluated at three limonene release rates using Lindgren attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Attacked trees produced less α-pinene in March, July, and November than nonattacked trees, less β-pinene in July and November, and less limonene from May to November. Limonene reduced the attraction of T. piniperda to attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Results were linked to better responses to high temperatures, with respect to terpene contents, by the nonattacked trees after the spring attack. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Development and Application of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Stability-Indicating Assay for Beyond-Use Date Determination of Compounded Topical Gels Containing Multiple Active Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Gregory; Sokom, Simara; Coward, Lori; Arnold, John J

    2017-01-01

    Topical gels compounded by pharmacists are important clinical tools for the management of pain. Nevertheless, there is often a dearth of information about the chemical stability of drugs included in these topical formulations, complicating the assignment of beyond-use dating. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array-based stability-indicating assay that could simultaneously resolve six drugs (amitriptyline, baclofen, clonidine, gabapentin, ketoprofen, lidocaine) commonly included in topical gels for pain management and their potential degradation products. Furthermore, this method was applied to the determination of beyond-use dating of combinations of these drugs prepared in commonly utilized bases (Lipobase, Lipoderm, Pluronic organogel). Gabapentin was determined to be the least stable component in all formulations tested. Measured stability ranged between 7 to 49 days depending on the base and other active drugs present in the formulation. In the absence of gabapentin, baclofen was the next least stable component, lasting for 120 days, regardless of the type of formulating base used. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  13. Effect of menthone and related compounds on skin permeation of drugs with different lipophilicity and molecular organization of stratum corneum lipids.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yi; Wang, Jingyan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Yanyan; Zhao, Bochen; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the enhancing effect of menthone, menthol and pulegone on the transdermal absorption of drugs with different lipophilicity and probe their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Five model drugs, namely osthole, tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid, puerarin and geniposide, which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which Franz diffusion cells and rat skin were employed. Infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulation were used to investigate the effect of these enhancers on the stratum corneum (SC) lipids, respectively. Three compounds could effectively promote the transdermal absorption of drugs with different lipophilicity, and the overall promoting capacities were in the following increasing order: pulegone < menthol < menthone. The penetration enhancement ratio was roughly in parabolic curve relationships with the drug lipophilicity after treatment with menthol or menthone, while the penetration enhancement effect of pulegone hardly changed with the alteration of the drug lipophilicity. The molecular mechanism studies suggested that menthone and menthol enhanced the skin permeability by disordering the ordered organization of SC lipids and extracted part of SC lipids, while pulegone appeared to promote drug transport across the skin only by extracting part of SC lipids.

  14. Membrane anchoring γ-secretase modulators with terpene-derived moieties.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Eva Christine; Göring, Stefan; Ogorek, Isabella; Weggen, Sascha; Schmidt, Boris

    2013-07-01

    Modulation of γ-secretase activity is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Herein we report on the synthesis of carprofen- and tocopherol-derived small-molecule modulators carrying terpene moieties as lipophilic membrane anchors. Additionally, these modulators are equipped with an acidic moiety, which contributes to the desired modulatory effect on the γ-secretase with decreased formation of Aβ42 and increased Aβ38 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selected terpenes from leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. induce hemoglobin accumulation in human K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Marchetti, Nicola; Costa, Valentina; Torricelli, Piera; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2018-06-01

    Re-expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for β-haemoglobinopathies. Although several inducers of HbF were tested in clinical trials, only hydroxyurea (HU) received FDA approval. Despite it produced adequate HbF levels only in half of HU-treated SCD patients, and was ineffective at all in β-thalassemia patients, beneficial effects of this approach suggested to continue in this direction identifying further molecules capable of inducing HbF. We tested the potential of essential oil isolated from Ocimum basilicum L. leaves (ObEO) in inducing hemoglobin biosynthesis. Initially, dose-dependent effect and kinetics of hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells after treatment with ObEO were evaluated. ObEO induced dose-dependent hemoglobin accumulation superior to hydroxyurea and rapamycin and a strongest γ-globin mRNA expression. Terpenes composition of ObEO was studied by GC-MS. Three main constituents, linalool, eugenol and eucalyptol, represented about 75% of total. A blend of these three terpenes fully replicated the ObEO's biological effect, thus indicating that one of them or all together could be the active ingredients. When terpenes were tested individually, eugenol was the only one inducing stable hemoglobin accumulation, while eucalyptol and linalool produced only a small transient response. However, eugenol potential was strongly enhanced in the presence of eucalyptol and linalool, suggesting a synergistic effect on hemoglobin accumulation. By these results, the discovery of a new inducer and the interesting activity of a blend of major terpenes from ObOE on Hb accumulation could have positive fallouts on β-thalassemia and sickle cells anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Terpene profile of one-seed juniper saplings explains differential herbivory by small ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted in central New Mexico to examine the relationship between terpene profile and one-seed juniper sapling herbivory by sheep and goats. Fifteen does (47.9 ± 1.1 kg) and four ewes (69.2 ± 0.9 kg) were allotted to 16 paddocks (20 x 30m) for 6 days in summer 2006 and spring 2007. Lea...

  17. Variation of Herbivore-Induced Volatile Terpenes among Arabidopsis Ecotypes Depends on Allelic Differences and Subcellular Targeting of Two Terpene Synthases, TPS02 and TPS031[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mengsu; Abel, Christian; Sohrabi, Reza; Petri, Jana; Haupt, Ina; Cosimano, John; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tholl, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    When attacked by insects, plants release mixtures of volatile compounds that are beneficial for direct or indirect defense. Natural variation of volatile emissions frequently occurs between and within plant species, but knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is limited. We investigated intraspecific differences of volatile emissions induced from rosette leaves of 27 accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) upon treatment with coronalon, a jasmonate mimic eliciting responses similar to those caused by insect feeding. Quantitative variation was found for the emission of the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene, the irregular homoterpene 4,8,12-trimethyltridecatetra-1,3,7,11-ene, and the benzenoid compound methyl salicylate. Differences in the relative emissions of (E)-β-ocimene and (E,E)-α-farnesene from accession Wassilewskija (Ws), a high-(E)-β-ocimene emitter, and accession Columbia (Col-0), a trace-(E)-β-ocimene emitter, were attributed to allelic variation of two closely related, tandem-duplicated terpene synthase genes, TPS02 and TPS03. The Ws genome contains a functional allele of TPS02 but not of TPS03, while the opposite is the case for Col-0. Recombinant proteins of the functional Ws TPS02 and Col-0 TPS03 genes both showed (E)-β-ocimene and (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase activities. However, differential subcellular compartmentalization of the two enzymes in plastids and the cytosol was found to be responsible for the ecotype-specific differences in (E)-β-ocimene/(E,E)-α-farnesene emission. Expression of the functional TPS02 and TPS03 alleles is induced in leaves by elicitor and insect treatment and occurs constitutively in floral tissues. Our studies show that both pseudogenization in the TPS family and subcellular segregation of functional TPS enzymes control the variation and plasticity of induced volatile emissions in wild plant species. PMID:20463089

  18. Effects of soldier-derived terpenes on soldier caste differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Schmelz, Eric A; Rocca, James R; Scharf, Michael E

    2009-02-01

    Primer pheromones play key roles in regulating division of labor, which is a fundamental and defining aspect of insect sociality. Primer pheromones are chemical messengers that transmit hormone-like messages among colony members; in recipients, these messages can either induce or suppress phenotypic caste differentiation. Here, we investigated soldier caste-derived chemicals as possible primer pheromones in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, a species for which no primer pheromones have yet been identified. We determined that soldier head extracts (SHE), when provided to totipotent workers along with the insect morphogenetic juvenile hormone (JH), significantly enhanced soldier caste differentiation. When applied alone, however, SHE had no impacts on caste differentiation, survivorship, or any other aspect of worker biology. These findings support a function of soldier chemicals as primer pheromones that enhance the action of the endogenous JH. In accord with previous studies, gamma-cadinene and the corresponding aldehyde, gamma-cadinenal, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses as the two most abundant components of R. flavipes SHE. Validative bioassays with commercially available cadinene confirmed activity. Several other terpenes, previously identified in R. flavipes soldiers, also were found to be active. These findings reveal a novel primer pheromone-like function for soldier-derived terpenes in termites and further suggest convergent evolution of terpene functions in enhancing JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation.

  19. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; de la Peña, Marcos; Peña, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS) family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z)-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays. PMID:28883829

  20. Insights into molecular architecture of terpenes using small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Annamraju, Aparna; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Mewalal, Ritesh; Gunter, Lee E.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    Understanding macromolecular architectures is vital to engineering prospective terpene candidates for advanced biofuels. Eucalyptus plants store terpenes in specialized cavity-like structures in the leaves called oil glands, which comprises of volatile (VTs) and non-volatile (NVTs) terpenes. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we have investigated the structure and phase behavior of the supramolecular assembly formed by Geranyl beta-D-glucoside (GDG), a NVT and compare the results with that of beta-octyl glucoside (BOG). The formation of micellar structures was observed in the concentration range of 0.5-5 v/v% in water using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) where Schultz sphere model was used in quantifying structural parameters of micelles. SANS studies determine that GDG and BOG behave like amphiphiles forming micellar structures in aqueous solution. The micelles swell upon addition of alpha-Pinene (AP) indicating partition to the core region of the micelles. The general behavior of the micellar growth after partitioning of AP to form thermodynamically stable sizes varies with the NVT concentration. Our studies reveal that the presence of steric hindrance in the GDG via the unsaturated bonds could help stabilize VTs inside the oil glands. LDRD project LOIS ID 7428, SNS, CSMB, HFIR, ORNL, DOE Office of Science User Facilities.

  1. [Determination of terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba leaves in different ages by UPLC-TQ-MS].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Qian, Ye-Fei; Shang, Er-Xin; Su, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-02-01

    To establish an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass (UPLC-TQ-MS) for determination of four terpene lactones. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) with isocratic elution of 70% methanol at a flow rate of 0.4 mL x min(-1), the column temperature was set at 30 degrees C; Waters Xevo TQ worked in multiple reaction monitoring mode. All calibration curves were linear (r > 0.990 3) over the tested ranges. The average recoveries ranged from 98.83% to 103.9% with RSD value below 3.0%. The contents of total terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba leaves were significantly different in different ages. The contents in the leaves of young ginkgo tree were higher than that in old tree. The method was simple and fast with high precision, sensitivity and repeatability, which can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of terpene lactones in G. biloba leaves.

  2. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  3. Microtubules are an intracellular target of the plant terpene citral.

    PubMed

    Chaimovitsh, David; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Belausov, Eduard; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ; Sadot, Einat

    2010-02-01

    Citral is a component of plant essential oils that possesses several biological activities. It has known medicinal traits, and is used as a food additive and in cosmetics. Citral has been suggested to have potential in weed management, but its precise mode of action at the cellular level is unknown. Here we investigated the immediate response of plant cells to citral at micromolar concentrations. It was found that microtubules of Arabidopsis seedlings were disrupted within minutes after exposure to citral in the gaseous phase, whereas actin filaments remained intact. The effect of citral on plant microtubules was both time- and dose-dependent, and recovery only occurred many hours after a short exposure of several minutes to citral. Citral was also able to disrupt animal microtubules, albeit less efficiently. In addition, polymerization of microtubules in vitro was inhibited in the presence of citral. Taken together, our results suggest that citral is a potent, volatile, anti-microtubule compound.

  4. Bond-based bilinear indices for computational discovery of novel trypanosomicidal drug-like compounds through virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Garit, Juan Alberto; del Toro-Cortés, Oremia; Vega, Maria C; Rolón, Miriam; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo M; Escario, José A; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Torrens, Francisco; Abad, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional bond-based bilinear indices and linear discriminant analysis are used in this report to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship study to identify new trypanosomicidal compounds. A data set of 440 organic chemicals, 143 with antitrypanosomal activity and 297 having other clinical uses, is used to develop the theoretical models. Two discriminant models, computed using bond-based bilinear indices, are developed and both show accuracies higher than 86% for training and test sets. The stochastic model correctly indentifies nine out of eleven compounds of a set of organic chemicals obtained from our synthetic collaborators. The in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of this set against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi is assayed. Both models show a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results. Three compounds showed IC50 values for epimastigote elimination (AE) lower than 50 μM, while for the benznidazole the IC50 = 54.7 μM which was used as reference compound. The value of IC50 for cytotoxicity of these compounds is at least 5 times greater than their value of IC50 for AE. Finally, we can say that, the present algorithm constitutes a step forward in the search for efficient ways of discovering new antitrypanosomal compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. LimTox: a web tool for applied text mining of adverse event and toxicity associations of compounds, drugs and genes.

    PubMed

    Cañada, Andres; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin

    2017-07-03

    A considerable effort has been devoted to retrieve systematically information for genes and proteins as well as relationships between them. Despite the importance of chemical compounds and drugs as a central bio-entity in pharmacological and biological research, only a limited number of freely available chemical text-mining/search engine technologies are currently accessible. Here we present LimTox (Literature Mining for Toxicology), a web-based online biomedical search tool with special focus on adverse hepatobiliary reactions. It integrates a range of text mining, named entity recognition and information extraction components. LimTox relies on machine-learning, rule-based, pattern-based and term lookup strategies. This system processes scientific abstracts, a set of full text articles and medical agency assessment reports. Although the main focus of LimTox is on adverse liver events, it enables also basic searches for other organ level toxicity associations (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, thyrotoxicity and phospholipidosis). This tool supports specialized search queries for: chemical compounds/drugs, genes (with additional emphasis on key enzymes in drug metabolism, namely P450 cytochromes-CYPs) and biochemical liver markers. The LimTox website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. LimTox can be accessed at: http://limtox.bioinfo.cnio.es. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. LimTox: a web tool for applied text mining of adverse event and toxicity associations of compounds, drugs and genes

    PubMed Central

    Cañada, Andres; Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A considerable effort has been devoted to retrieve systematically information for genes and proteins as well as relationships between them. Despite the importance of chemical compounds and drugs as a central bio-entity in pharmacological and biological research, only a limited number of freely available chemical text-mining/search engine technologies are currently accessible. Here we present LimTox (Literature Mining for Toxicology), a web-based online biomedical search tool with special focus on adverse hepatobiliary reactions. It integrates a range of text mining, named entity recognition and information extraction components. LimTox relies on machine-learning, rule-based, pattern-based and term lookup strategies. This system processes scientific abstracts, a set of full text articles and medical agency assessment reports. Although the main focus of LimTox is on adverse liver events, it enables also basic searches for other organ level toxicity associations (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, thyrotoxicity and phospholipidosis). This tool supports specialized search queries for: chemical compounds/drugs, genes (with additional emphasis on key enzymes in drug metabolism, namely P450 cytochromes—CYPs) and biochemical liver markers. The LimTox website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. LimTox can be accessed at: http://limtox.bioinfo.cnio.es PMID:28531339

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Trypanocidal Effects of the Cyclopalladated Compound 7a, a Drug Candidate for Treatment of Chagas' Disease ▿

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Alisson L.; Silva, Luis S.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Pascoalino, Bruno S.; Ramos, Thiago C.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Schenkman, Sergio; Caires, Antonio C. F.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2010-01-01

    Chagas' disease, a neglected tropical infection, affects about 18 million people, and 100 million are at risk. The only drug available, benznidazole, is effective in the acute form and in the early chronic form, but its efficacy and tolerance are inversely related to the age of the patients. Side effects are frequent in elderly patients. The search for new drugs is thus warranted. In the present study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effect of a cyclopalladated compound (7a) against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. The 7a compound inhibits trypomastigote cell invasion, decreases intracellular amastigote proliferation, and is very effective as a trypanocidal drug in vivo, even at very low dosages. It was 340-fold more cytotoxic to parasites than to mammalian cells and was more effective than benznidazole in all in vitro and in vivo experiments. The 7a cyclopalladate complex exerts an apoptosis-like death in T. cruzi trypomastigote forms and causes mitochondrion disruption seen by electron microscopy. PMID:20479201

  8. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or a pharmacist on the order of a... pharmacist or veterinarian within the scope of a professional practice; (4) Adequate procedures and processes...

  9. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or a pharmacist on the order of a... pharmacist or veterinarian within the scope of a professional practice; (4) Adequate procedures and processes...

  10. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or a pharmacist on the order of a... pharmacist or veterinarian within the scope of a professional practice; (4) Adequate procedures and processes...

  11. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or a pharmacist on the order of a... pharmacist or veterinarian within the scope of a professional practice; (4) Adequate procedures and processes...

  12. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or a pharmacist on the order of a... pharmacist or veterinarian within the scope of a professional practice; (4) Adequate procedures and processes...

  13. Evaluation of drug content (potency) for compounded and FDA-approved formulations of doxycycline on receipt and after 21 days of storage.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, Kate; KuKanich, Butch; Slead, Tanner; Warner, Matt

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine drug content (potency) of compounded doxycycline formulations for veterinary use and of US FDA-approved doxycycline formulations for human use < 24 hours after receipt (day 1) and after 21 days of storage under recommended conditions (day 21). DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE FDA-approved doxycycline tablets (100 mg), capsules (100 mg), and liquid suspension (10 mg/mL) and compounded doxycycline formulations from 3 pharmacies (tablets [25, 100, and 150 mg; 1 product/source], chews [100 mg; 1 product/source], and liquid suspensions or solution [6 mg/mL {2 sources} and 50 mg/mL {1 source}]). PROCEDURES Doxycycline content was measured in 5 samples of each tablet, chew, or capsule formulation and 5 replicates/bottle of liquid formulation on days 1 and 21 by liquid chromatography and compared with US Pharmacopeia acceptable ranges. RESULTS All FDA-approved formulations had acceptable content on days 1 and 21. On day 1, mean doxycycline content for the 3 compounded tablet formulations was 89%, 98%, and 116% (3/5, 5/5, and 1/5 samples within acceptable ranges); day 21 content range was 86% to 112% (1/5, 5/5, and 4/5 samples within acceptable ranges). Day 1 content of chews was 81%, 78%, and 98% (0/5, 0/5, and 5/5 samples within acceptable ranges), and that of compounded liquids was 50%, 52%, and 85% (no results within acceptable ranges). No chews or compounded liquid formulations met USP standards on day 21. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE FDA-approved doxycycline should be prescribed when possible. Whole tablets yielded the most consistent doxycycline content for compounded formulations.

  14. Synthesis of reference compounds related to Chemical Weapons Convention for verification and drug development purposes – a Brazilian endeavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, S. F. A.; de Paula, R. L.; Kitagawa, D. A. S.; Barcellos, M. C.; Simas, A. B. C.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with challenges that Brazilian Army Organic Synthesis Laboratory has been going through to access reference compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in order to support verification analysis and for research of novel antidotes. Some synthetic procedures to produce the chemicals, as well as Quality Assurance issues and a brief introduction of international agreements banning chemical weapons are also presented.

  15. Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-02-26

    The evolution of major cannabinoids and terpenes during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants was studied. In this work, seven different plants were selected: three each from chemotypes I and III and one from chemotype II. Fifty clones of each mother plant were grown indoors under controlled conditions. Every week, three plants from each variety were cut and dried, and the leaves and flowers were analyzed separately. Eight major cannabinoids were analyzed via HPLC-DAD, and 28 terpenes were quantified using GC-FID and verified via GC-MS. The chemotypes of the plants, as defined by the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid/cannabidiolic acid (THCA/CBDA) ratio, were clear from the beginning and stable during growth. The concentrations of the major cannabinoids and terpenes were determined, and different patterns were found among the chemotypes. In particular, the plants from chemotypes II and III needed more time to reach peak production of THCA, CBDA, and monoterpenes. Differences in the cannabigerolic acid development among the different chemotypes and between monoterpene and sesquiterpene evolution patterns were also observed. Plants of different chemotypes were clearly differentiated by their terpene content, and characteristic terpenes of each chemotype were identified.

  16. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction for Foliar Terpene Traits in Eucalyptus polybractea.

    PubMed

    Kainer, David; Stone, Eric A; Padovan, Amanda; Foley, William J; Külheim, Carsten

    2018-06-11

    Unlike agricultural crops, most forest species have not had millennia of improvement through phenotypic selection, but can contribute energy and material resources and possibly help alleviate climate change. Yield gains similar to those achieved in agricultural crops over millennia could be made in forestry species with the use of genomic methods in a much shorter time frame. Here we compare various methods of genomic prediction for eight traits related to foliar terpene yield in Eucalyptus polybractea , a tree grown predominantly for the production of Eucalyptus oil. The genomic markers used in this study are derived from shallow whole genome sequencing of a population of 480 trees. We compare the traditional pedigree-based additive best linear unbiased predictors (ABLUP), genomic BLUP (GBLUP), BayesB genomic prediction model, and a form of GBLUP based on weighting markers according to their influence on traits (BLUP|GA). Predictive ability is assessed under varying marker densities of 10,000, 100,000 and 500,000 SNPs. Our results show that BayesB and BLUP|GA perform best across the eight traits. Predictive ability was higher for individual terpene traits, such as foliar α-pinene and 1,8-cineole concentration (0.59 and 0.73, respectively), than aggregate traits such as total foliar oil concentration (0.38). This is likely a function of the trait architecture and markers used. BLUP|GA was the best model for the two biomass related traits, height and 1 year change in height (0.25 and 0.19, respectively). Predictive ability increased with marker density for most traits, but with diminishing returns. The results of this study are a solid foundation for yield improvement of essential oil producing eucalypts. New markets such as biopolymers and terpene-derived biofuels could benefit from rapid yield increases in undomesticated oil-producing species. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  18. In search of new lead compounds for trypanosomiasis drug design: A protein structure-based linked-fragment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Rudenko, Gabrielle; Hol, Wim G. J.

    1992-04-01

    A modular method for pursuing structure-based inhibitor design in the framework of a design cycle is presented. The approach entails four stages: (1) a design pathway is defined in the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; (2) this pathway is divided into subregions; (3) complementary building blocks, also called fragments, are designed in each subregion; complementarity is defined in terms of shape, hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond properties and electrostatics; and (4) fragments from different subregions are linked into potential lead compounds. Stages (3) and (4) are qualitatively guided by force-field calculations. In addition, the designed fragments serve as entries for retrieving existing compounds from chemical databases. This linked-fragment approach has been applied in the design of potentially selective inhibitors of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  19. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diane M; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-08-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from unripe fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhehao; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Lee, Ah-Reum; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Kim, Soo-Un

    2018-01-15

    To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo. PnTPS1 produced β-caryophyllene as a main product and humulene as a minor compound, and thus was named caryophyllene synthase (PnCPS). Likewise, PnTPS2 and PnTPS3 were, respectively, named cadinol/cadinene synthase (PnCO/CDS) and germacrene D synthase (PnGDS). PnGDS expression in yeast yielded β-cadinene and α-copaene, the rearrangement products of germacrene D. Their k cat /K m values (20-37.7 s -1  mM -1 ) were comparable to those of other sesqui-TPSs. Among three PnTPSs, the transcript level of PnCPS was the highest, correlating with the predominant β-caryophyllene biosynthesis in the peppercorn. The products and rearranged products of three PnTPSs could account for about a half of the sesquiterpenes in number found in unripe peppercorn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sangita; Pundhir, Sachin; Priya, Piyush; Jeena, Ganga; Punetha, Ankita; Chawla, Konika; Firdos Jafaree, Zohra; Mondal, Subhasish; Yadav, Gitanjali

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds, which play indispensable roles in the environment, for the plant itself, as well as for humans. The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction. In order to decipher volatile profile patterns from a global perspective, we have developed the ESSential OIL DataBase (EssOilDB), a continually updated, freely available electronic database designed to provide knowledge resource for plant essential oils, that enables one to address a multitude of queries on volatile profiles of native, invasive, normal or stressed plants, across taxonomic clades, geographical locations and several other biotic and abiotic influences. To our knowledge, EssOilDB is the only database in the public domain providing an opportunity for context based scientific research on volatile patterns in plants. EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe. We hope that this huge repository of VOCs will facilitate unraveling of the true significance of volatiles in plants, along with creating potential avenues for industrial applications of essential oils. We also illustrate the use of this database in terpene biology and show how EssOilDB can be used to complement data from computational genomics to gain insights into the diversity and variability of terpenoids in the plant kingdom. EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs—the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics

  2. Targeting natural compounds against HER2 kinase domain as potential anticancer drugs applying pharmacophore based molecular modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Rampogu, Shailima; Son, Minky; Baek, Ayoung; Park, Chanin; Rana, Rabia Mukthar; Zeb, Amir; Parameswaran, Saravanan; Lee, Keun Woo

    2018-04-20

    Human epidermal growth factor receptors are implicated in several types of cancers characterized by aberrant signal transduction. This family comprises of EGFR (ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2, HER2/neu), HER3 (ErbB3), and HER4 (ErbB4). Amongst them, HER2 is associated with breast cancer and is one of the most valuable targets in addressing the breast cancer incidences. For the current investigation, we have performed 3D-QSAR based pharmacophore search for the identification of potential inhibitors against the kinase domain of HER2 protein. Correspondingly, a pharmacophore model, Hypo1, with four features was generated and was validated employing Fischer's randomization, test set method and the decoy test method. The validated pharmacophore was allowed to screen the colossal natural compounds database (UNPD). Subsequently, the identified 33 compounds were docked into the proteins active site along with the reference after subjecting them to ADMET and Lipinski's Rule of Five (RoF) employing the CDOCKER implemented on the Discovery Studio. The compounds that have displayed higher dock scores than the reference compound were scrutinized for interactions with the key residues and were escalated to MD simulations. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations performed by GROMACS have rendered stable root mean square deviation values, radius of gyration and potential energy values. Eventually, based upon the molecular dock score, interactions between the ligands and the active site residues and the stable MD results, the number of Hits was culled to two identifying Hit1 and Hit2 has potential leads against HER2 breast cancers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: To evaluate natural terpene compounds for antimicrobial activities and determine if these compounds could be used to control microbial activities and pathogens in production animal facilities. Methods and Results: Thymol, geraniol, glydox, linalool, pine oil, plinol, and terpineol were teste...

  4. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-04-01

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative tryptophan modification by terpene- and squalene-hydroperoxides and a possible link to cross-reactions in diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Badertscher, Remo P; Brunner, Gerhard; Granier, Thierry; Kern, Susanne; Ellis, Graham

    2015-06-15

    Hydroperoxides can act as specific haptens and oxidatively modify proteins. Terpene hydroperoxides trigger unusually high frequencies of positive skin reactions in human patients if tested at high concentrations. It is unknown whether this is due to specific hapten formation. Here, we show that both terpene hydroperoxides and the endogenous hydroperoxide formed from squalene can oxidatively modify tryptophan. Oxidative modifications of Trp were recently postulated to explain cross-sensitization between unrelated photosensitizers. Current observations may extend this hypothesis: Oxidative events triggered by endogenous hydroperoxides and hydroperoxides/oxidants derived from xenobiotics might lead to a sensitized state detected by patch tests with high concentrations of hydroperoxides.

  7. Genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of terpene synthases in pineapple.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoe; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Liqin; Wu, Xianmiao; Cheng, Tian; Li, Guanglin

    2017-10-01

    Terpene synthases (TPSs) are vital for the biosynthesis of active terpenoids, which have important physiological, ecological and medicinal value. Although terpenoids have been reported in pineapple (Ananas comosus), genome-wide investigations of the TPS genes responsible for pineapple terpenoid synthesis are still lacking. By integrating pineapple genome and proteome data, twenty-one putative terpene synthase genes were found in pineapple and divided into five subfamilies. Tandem duplication is the cause of TPS gene family duplication. Furthermore, functional differentiation between each TPS subfamily may have occurred for several reasons. Sixty-two key amino acid sites were identified as being type-II functionally divergence between TPS-a and TPS-c subfamily. Finally, coevolution analysis indicated that multiple amino acid residues are involved in coevolutionary processes. In addition, the enzyme activity of two TPSs were tested. This genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of pineapple TPS genes provide a new insight into understanding the roles of TPS family and lay the basis for further characterizing the function and evolution of TPS gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Drug-drug interaction predictions with PBPK models and optimal multiresponse sampling time designs: application to midazolam and a phase I compound. Part 2: clinical trial results.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Marylore; Bouzom, François; Cazade, Fanny; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon; Mentré, France

    2008-12-01

    To compare results of population PK analyses obtained with a full empirical design (FD) and an optimal sparse design (MD) in a Drug-Drug Interaction (DDI) study aiming to evaluate the potential CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of a drug in development, SX, on a reference substrate, midazolam (MDZ). Secondary aim was to evaluate the interaction of SX on MDZ in the in vivo study. Methods To compare designs, real data were analysed by population PK modelling technique using either FD or MD with NONMEM FOCEI for SX and with NONMEM FOCEI and MONOLIX SAEM for MDZ. When applicable a Wald test was performed to compare model parameter estimates, such as apparent clearance (CL/F), across designs. To conclude on the potential interaction of SX on MDZ PK, a Student paired test was applied to compare the individual PK parameters (i.e. log(AUC) and log(C(max))) obtained either by a non-compartmental approach (NCA) using FD or from empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) obtained after fitting the model separately on each treatment group using either FD or MD. For SX, whatever the design, CL/F was well estimated and no statistical differences were found between CL/F estimated values obtained with FD (CL/F = 8.2 l/h) and MD (CL/F = 8.2 l/h). For MDZ, only MONOLIX was able to estimate CL/F and to provide its standard error of estimation with MD. With MONOLIX, whatever the design and the administration setting, MDZ CL/F was well estimated and there were no statistical differences between CL/F estimated values obtained with FD (72 l/h and 40 l/h for MDZ alone and for MDZ with SX, respectively) and MD (77 l/h and 45 l/h for MDZ alone and for MDZ with SX, respectively). Whatever the approach, NCA or population PK modelling, and for the latter approach, whatever the design, MD or FD, comparison tests showed that there was a statistical difference (P < 0.0001) between individual MDZ log(AUC) obtained after MDZ administration alone and co-administered with SX. Regarding C(max), there was a statistical

  10. Drug-drug interaction predictions with PBPK models and optimal multiresponse sampling time designs: application to midazolam and a phase I compound. Part 2: clinical trial results

    PubMed Central

    Chenel, Marylore; Bouzom, François; Cazade, Fanny; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon; Mentré, France

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare results of population PK analyses obtained with a full empirical design (FD) and an optimal sparse design (MD) in a Drug-Drug Interaction (DDI) study aiming to evaluate the potential CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of a drug in development, SX, on a reference substrate, midazolam (MDZ). Secondary aim was to evaluate the interaction of SX on MDZ in the in vivo study. Methods To compare designs, real data were analysed by population PK modelling using either FD or MD with NONMEM FOCEI for SX and with NONMEM FOCEI and MONOLIX SAEM for MDZ. When applicable a Wald’s test was performed to compare model parameter estimates, such as apparent clearance (CL/F), across designs. To conclude on the potential interaction of SX on MDZ PK, a Student paired test was applied to compare the individual PK parameters (i.e. log(AUC) and log(Cmax)) obtained either by a non-compartmental approach (NCA) using FD or from empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) obtained after fitting the model separately on each treatment group using either FD or MD. Results For SX, whatever the design, CL/F was well estimated and no statistical differences were found between CL/F estimated values obtained with FD (CL/F = 8.2 L/h) and MD (CL/F = 8.2 L/h). For MDZ, only MONOLIX was able to estimate CL/F and to provide its standard error of estimation with MD. With MONOLIX, whatever the design and the administration setting, MDZ CL/F was well estimated and there were no statistical differences between CL/F estimated values obtained with FD (72 L/h and 40 L/h for MDZ alone and for MDZ with SX, respectively) and MD (77 L/h and 45 L/h for MDZ alone and for MDZ with SX, respectively). Whatever the approach, NCA or population PK modelling, and for the latter approach, whatever the design, MD or FD, comparison tests showed that there was a statistical difference (p<0.0001) between individual MDZ log(AUC) obtained after MDZ administration alone and co-administered with SX. Regarding Cmax, there was a

  11. Stochastic voyages into uncharted chemical space produce a representative library of all possible drug-like compounds

    PubMed Central

    Virshup, Aaron M.; Contreras-García, Julia; Wipf, Peter; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The “small molecule universe” (SMU), the set of all synthetically feasible organic molecules of 500 Daltons molecular weight or less, is estimated to contain over 1060 structures, making exhaustive searches for structures of interest impractical. Here, we describe the construction of a “representative universal library” spanning the SMU that samples the full extent of feasible small molecule chemistries. This library was generated using the newly developed Algorithm for Chemical Space Exploration with Stochastic Search (ACSESS). ACSESS makes two important contributions to chemical space exploration: it allows the systematic search of the unexplored regions of the small molecule universe, and it facilitates the mining of chemical libraries that do not yet exist, providing a near-infinite source of diverse novel compounds. PMID:23548177

  12. Effects of Vernonia cinerea Compounds on Drug-metabolizing Cytochrome P450s in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Pouyfung, Phisit; Sarapusit, Songklod; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2017-12-01

    Vernonia cinerea has been widely used in traditional medicines for various diseases and shown to aid in smoking abstinence and has anticancer properties. V. cinerea bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, have shown an inhibition effect on the nicotine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme and hirsutinolides reported suppressing cancer growth. In this study, V. cinerea ethanol extract and its bioactive compounds, including four flavonoids and four hirsutinolides, were investigated for an inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 using cocktail inhibition assays combined with LC-MS/MS analysis. Among tested flavonoids, chrysoeriol was more potent in inhibition on CYP2A6 and CYP1A2 than other liver CYPs, with better binding efficiency toward CYP2A6 than CYP1A2 (K i values in competitive mode of 1.93 ± 0.05 versus 3.39 ± 0.21 μM, respectively). Hirsutinolides were prominent inhibitors of CYP2A6 and CYP2D6, with IC 50 values of 12-23 and 15-41 μM, respectively. These hirsutinolides demonstrated time-dependent inhibition, an indication of mechanism-based inactivation, toward CYP2A6. Quantitative prediction of microsomal metabolism of these flavonoids and hirsutinolides, including half-lives and hepatic clearance rate, was examined. These findings may have implications for further in vivo studies of V. cinerea. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. In vivo occupancy of dopamine D2 receptors by antipsychotic drugs and novel compounds in the mouse striatum and olfactory tubercles.

    PubMed

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Dominguez, Hélène; Consul-Denjean, Nathalie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-09-01

    Interaction with dopamine D2-like receptors plays a major role in the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drugs. We examined in vivo dopamine D2 receptor occupancy of various established and potential antipsychotics in mouse striatum and olfactory tubercles 1 h after administration of the compound, using [3H]nemonapride as a ligand. All the compounds reduced in vivo binding of [3H]nemonapride in the striatum. When administered systemically, conventional antipsychotics, D2 antagonists, nemonapride (ID50: 0.034 mg/kg), eticlopride (0.047), haloperidol (0.11) and raclopride (0.11) potently inhibited [3H]nemonapride binding. The 'atypical' antipsychotics, risperidone (0.18), ziprasidone (0.38), aripiprazole (1.6), olanzapine (0.99), and clozapine (11.1) were less potent for occupying D2-like receptors. New compounds, displaying marked agonism at 5-HT1A receptors in addition to D2 receptor affinity, exhibited varying D2 receptor occupancy: bifeprunox (0.25), SLV313 (0.78), SSR181507 (1.6) and sarizotan (6.7). ID50 values for inhibition of [3H]nemonapride binding in the striatum correlated with those in the olfactory tubercles (r=0.95, P<0.0001). These values also correlated with previously-reported in vitro affinity of the compounds at rat D2 receptors (r=0.85, P=0.0001) and with inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing in mice (r=0.79 P=0.0005). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between ID50 values herein and previously-reported ED50 values for catalepsy in mice. These data indicate that: (1) there is no difference in D2 receptor occupancy in limbic versus striatal regions between most classical and atypical or potential antipsychotics; and (2) high occupancy of D2 receptors can be dissociated from catalepsy, if the drugs also activate 5-HT1A receptors. Taken together, these data support the strategy of simultaneously targeting D2 receptor blockade and 5-HT1A receptor activation for new antipsychotics.

  14. Analysis of adverse events of renal impairment related to platinum-based compounds using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Misa; Motooka, Yumi; Sasaoka, Sayaka; Hatahira, Haruna; Hasegawa, Shiori; Fukuda, Akiho; Nakao, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuyo; Hirade, Koseki; Mori, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Kato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Platinum compounds cause several adverse events, such as nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. We evaluated the incidence of renal impairment as adverse events are related to the administration of platinum compounds using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. We analyzed adverse events associated with the use of platinum compounds reported from April 2004 to November 2016. The reporting odds ratio at 95% confidence interval was used to detect the signal for each renal impairment incidence. We evaluated the time-to-onset profile of renal impairment and assessed the hazard type using Weibull shape parameter and used the applied association rule mining technique to discover undetected relationships such as possible risk factor. In total, 430,587 reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database were analyzed. The reporting odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for renal impairment resulting from the use of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and nedaplatin were 2.7 (2.5-3.0), 0.6 (0.5-0.7), 0.8 (0.7-1.0), and 1.3 (0.8-2.1), respectively. The lower limit of the reporting odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cisplatin was >1. The median (lower-upper quartile) onset time of renal impairment following the use of platinum-based compounds was 6.0-8.0 days. The Weibull shape parameter β and 95% confidence interval upper limit of oxaliplatin were <1. In the association rule mining, the score of lift for patients who were treated with cisplatin and co-administered furosemide, loxoprofen, or pemetrexed was high. Similarly, the scores for patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus were high. Our findings suggest a potential risk of renal impairment during cisplatin use in real-world setting. The present findings demonstrate that the incidence of renal impairment following cisplatin use should be closely monitored when patients are hypertensive or diabetic, or when they are co

  15. Drug-drug interaction predictions with PBPK models and optimal multiresponse sampling time designs: application to midazolam and a phase I compound. Part 1: comparison of uniresponse and multiresponse designs using PopDes.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Marylore; Bouzom, François; Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2008-12-01

    To determine the optimal sampling time design of a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study for the estimation of apparent clearances (CL/F) of two co-administered drugs (SX, a phase I compound, potentially a CYP3A4 inhibitor, and MDZ, a reference CYP3A4 substrate) without any in vivo data using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) predictions, population PK modelling and multiresponse optimal design. PBPK models were developed with AcslXtreme using only in vitro data to simulate PK profiles of both drugs when they were co-administered. Then, using simulated data, population PK models were developed with NONMEM and optimal sampling times were determined by optimizing the determinant of the population Fisher information matrix with PopDes using either two uniresponse designs (UD) or a multiresponse design (MD) with joint sampling times for both drugs. Finally, the D-optimal sampling time designs were evaluated by simulation and re-estimation with NONMEM by computing the relative root mean squared error (RMSE) and empirical relative standard errors (RSE) of CL/F. There were four and five optimal sampling times (=nine different sampling times) in the UDs for SX and MDZ, respectively, whereas there were only five sampling times in the MD. Whatever design and compound, CL/F was well estimated (RSE < 20% for MDZ and <25% for SX) and expected RSEs from PopDes were in the same range as empirical RSEs. Moreover, there was no bias in CL/F estimation. Since MD required only five sampling times compared to the two UDs, D-optimal sampling times of the MD were included into a full empirical design for the proposed clinical trial. A joint paper compares the designs with real data. This global approach including PBPK simulations, population PK modelling and multiresponse optimal design allowed, without any in vivo data, the design of a clinical trial, using sparse sampling, capable of estimating CL/F of the CYP3A4 substrate and potential inhibitor when co-administered together.

  16. Terpenes tell different tales at different scales: glimpses into the Chemical Ecology of conifer - bark beetle - microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-01-01

    Chemical signaling mediates nearly all aspects of species interactions. Our knowledge of these signals has progressed dramatically, and now includes good characterizations of the bioactivities, modes of action, biosynthesis, and genetic programming of numerous compounds affecting a wide range of species. A major challenge now is to integrate this information so as to better understand actual selective pressures under natural conditions, make meaningful predictions about how organisms and ecosystems will respond to a changing environment, and provide useful guidance to managers who must contend with difficult trade-offs among competing socioeconomic values. One approach is to place stronger emphasis on cross-scale interactions, an understanding of which can help us better connect pattern with process, and improve our ability to make mechanistically grounded predictions over large areas and time frames. The opportunity to achieve such progress has been heightened by the rapid development of new scientific and technological tools. There are significant difficulties, however: Attempts to extend arrays of lower-scale processes into higher scale functioning can generate overly diffuse patterns. Conversely, attempts to infer process from pattern can miss critically important lower-scale drivers in systems where their biological and statistical significance is negated after critical thresholds are breached. Chemical signaling in bark beetle - conifer interactions has been explored for several decades, including by the two pioneers after whom this award is named. The strong knowledge base developed by many researchers, the importance of bark beetles in ecosystem functioning, and the socioeconomic challenges they pose, establish these insects as an ideal model for studying chemical signaling within a cross-scale context. This report describes our recent work at three levels of scale: interactions of bacteria with host plant compounds and symbiotic fungi (tree level

  17. The effects of drugs, other foreign compounds, and cigarette smoke on the synthesis of protein by lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Hellstern, K.; Curtis, C.G.; Powell, G.M.

    1990-04-01

    The incorporation of {sup 14}C-leucine into rabbit lung slices was monitored in the absence and presence of selected drugs and chemicals relevant to the perturbation of lung function and the development of lung disease. Known inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide and ricin) inhibited the incorporation of {sup 14}C-leucine. Marked inhibition was also recorded with the lung toxins paraquat and 4-ipomeanol. By contrast, orciprenaline, salbutamol, and terbutaline were without effect although some response was recorded with isoprenaline. The filtered gas phase of cigarette smoke and acrolein, one of its components, were inhibitory but protection was afforded by N-acetylcysteine. It is suggestedmore » that the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke may be due to its acrolein content. It is further suggested that the use of lung slices and measurements of {sup 14}C-leucine incorporation provide valuable means for monitoring potential pulmonary toxins.« less

  18. Density functional theory calculations in stereochemical determination of terpecurcumins J-W, cytotoxic terpene-conjugated curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Ni; Dong, Yinhui; Huang, Yun; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2013-12-06

    Fourteen novel terpene-conjugated curcuminoids, terpecurcumins J-W (1-14), have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. Among them, terpecurcumins J-Q and V represent four unprecedented skeletons featuring an unusual core of hydrobenzannulated[6,6]-spiroketal (1 and 2), bicyclo[2.2.2]octene (3-7), bicyclo[3.1.3]octene (8), and spiroepoxide (13), respectively. The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were established by electronic circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, and (13)C NMR spectroscopic data analysis, together with density functional theory calculations. The structure and configuration of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα). The biogenetic pathways of 1-14 were proposed, involving Michael addition, condensation, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and electrophilic substitution reactions. Terpecurcumins showed more potent cytotoxic activities than curcumin and ar-/β-turmerone. Among them, terpecurcumin Q (8) exhibited IC50 of 3.9 μM against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis played an important role in the overall growth inhibition. Finally, LC/MS/MS quantitative analysis of five representative terpecurcumins indicated these novel compounds were present in C. longa at parts per million level.

  19. Enhancement of SMN protein levels in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy using novel drug-like compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Jonathan J; Osman, Erkan Y; Evans, Matthew C; Choi, Sungwoon; Xing, Xuechao; Cuny, Gregory D; Glicksman, Marcie A; Lorson, Christian L; Androphy, Elliot J

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscle weakness, which primarily targets proximal muscles. About 95% of SMA cases are caused by the loss of both copies of the SMN1 gene. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy of SMN1, which expresses much less functional SMN protein. SMN2 is unable to fully compensate for the loss of SMN1 in motor neurons but does provide an excellent target for therapeutic intervention. Increased expression of functional full-length SMN protein from the endogenous SMN2 gene should lessen disease severity. We have developed and implemented a new high-throughput screening assay to identify small molecules that increase the expression of full-length SMN from a SMN2 reporter gene. Here, we characterize two novel compounds that increased SMN protein levels in both reporter cells and SMA fibroblasts and show that one increases lifespan, motor function, and SMN protein levels in a severe mouse model of SMA. PMID:23740718

  20. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components.

    PubMed

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Ferrari, Federico; Giannakou, Ioannis; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2010-07-14

    Eight essential oils (EOs) as well as 13 single terpenes were studied for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , for three immersion periods (24, 48, and 96 h). The EOs were isolated from eight Greek Lamiaceae species: Melissa officinalis , Sideritis clandestina , Origanum dictamnus , Ocimum basilicum , Mentha pulegium , Origanum vulgare , Vitex agnus castus , and Salvia officinalis . The EOs nematicidal activity was correlated to their chemical composition as well as to the pure terpenes' activity tested individually. Clear dose and time response relationships were established. The EOs of O. vulgare, O. dictamnus, M. pulegium, and M. officinalis exhibited high nematicidal activity against M. incognita, and the EC(50) values (96 h) were calculated at 1.55, 1.72, 3.15, and 6.15 muL/mL, respectively. The activity of the nematicidal terpenes was found to decrease in the order l-carvone, pulegone, trans-anethole, geraniol, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, and the respective EC(50) values (24 h) were calculated in the range of 115-392 mug/mL. Terpenes tested individually were more active than as components in EO, implementing antagonistic action.

  1. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficient for SAMPL5 drug-like compounds with the QMPFF3 and ARROW polarizable force fields.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh; Kurnikov, Igor; Fain, Boris; Leontyev, Igor; Illarionov, Alexey; Butin, Oleg; Olevanov, Michael; Pereyaslavets, Leonid

    2016-11-01

    We present the performance of blind predictions of water-cyclohexane distribution coefficients for 53 drug-like compounds in the SAMPL5 challenge by three methods currently in use within our group. Two of them utilize QMPFF3 and ARROW, polarizable force-fields of varying complexity, and the third uses the General Amber Force-Field (GAFF). The polarizable FF's are implemented in an in-house MD package, Arbalest. We find that when we had time to parametrize the functional groups with care (batch 0), the polarizable force-fields outperformed the non-polarizable one. Conversely, on the full set of 53 compounds, GAFF performed better than both QMPFF3 and ARROW. We also describe the torsion-restrain method we used to improve sampling of molecular conformational space and thus the overall accuracy of prediction. The SAMPL5 challenge highlighted several drawbacks of our force-fields, such as our significant systematic over-estimation of hydrophobic interactions, specifically for alkanes and aromatic rings.

  2. Understanding of Relationship between Phospholipid Membrane Permeability and Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Some Drugs and Biologically Active Compounds in Model Solvents.

    PubMed

    Blokhina, Svetlana V; Volkova, Tatyana V; Golubev, Vasiliy A; Perlovich, German L

    2017-10-02

    In this work we measured self-diffusion coefficients of 5 drugs (aspirin, caffeine, ethionamide, salicylic acid, and paracetamol) and 11 biologically active compounds of similar structure in deuterated water and 1-octanol by NMR. It has been found that an increase in the van der Waals volume of the molecules of the studied substances result in reduction of their diffusion mobility in both solvents. The analysis of the experimental data showed the influence of chemical nature and structural isomerization of the molecules on the diffusion mobility. Apparent permeability coefficients of the studied compounds were determined using an artificial phospholipid membrane made of egg lecithin as a model of in vivo absorption. Distribution coefficients in 1-octanol/buffer pH 7.4 system were measured. For the first time the model of the passive diffusion through the phospholipid membrane was validated based on the experimental data. To this end, the passive diffusion was considered as an additive process of molecule passage through the aqueous boundary layer before the membrane and 1-octanol barrier simulating the lipid layer of the membrane.

  3. Phenol and terpene quenching of singlet- and triplet-excited states of riboflavin in relation to light-struck flavor formation in beer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Daniel R; Olsen, Karsten; Møller, Jens K S; Skibsted, Leif H

    2006-07-26

    Phenolic compounds present in beer were shown by fluorescence spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis to deactivate both singlet- and triplet-excited states of riboflavin with bimolecular rate constants close to the diffusion control ranging from 2.8x10(9) to 1.1x10(10) M-1 s-1 and from 1.1x10(9) to 2.6x10(9) M-1 s-1, respectively. Enthalpies of activation were low (up to 33.2 kJ mol-1), and entropies of activation were positive, ranging from 17 to 92 J mol-1 K-1, as derived from temperature dependence, indicating a compensation effect. From a Stern-Volmer analysis of the singlet-excited riboflavin quenching by phenols it was found that high amounts of phenolic compounds (>0.3 M) would be needed to hinder triplet-excited riboflavin generation. On the other hand, a phenolic content of 0.36 mM is likely to quench 90% of the triplet-excited state. Phenol photodegradation was found to be complex, and using ESI-MS analysis it was not possible to identify specific photooxidation products of the phenolic compounds; only the photoproducts of riboflavin could be detected and structurally assigned. The rate of reaction of triplet-excited riboflavin with phenolic compounds in acetonitrile/citrate buffer (pH 4.6, 10 mM) is 550 times faster than the reaction with iso-alpha-acids from hops, indicating that triplet-excited quenchers such as phenols may be involved in the early steps in light-struck flavor formation in beer through radical formation. Terpenes present in herb-flavored beers were found to be nonreactive toward singlet- and triplet-excited-state riboflavin, and any protection depends on other mechanisms.

  4. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  5. Identification and microbial production of a terpene-based advanced biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Ouellet, Mario; Chan, Rossana; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon

    2011-01-01

    Rising petroleum costs, trade imbalances and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts to advance the microbial production of fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we identify a novel biosynthetic alternative to D2 diesel fuel, bisabolane, and engineer microbial platforms for the production of its immediate precursor, bisabolene. First, we identify bisabolane as an alternative to D2 diesel by measuring the fuel properties of chemically hydrogenated commercial bisabolene. Then, via a combination of enzyme screening and metabolic engineering, we obtain a more than tenfold increase in bisabolene titers in Escherichia coli to >900 mg l−1. We produce bisabolene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (>900 mg l−1), a widely used platform for the production of ethanol. Finally, we chemically hydrogenate biosynthetic bisabolene into bisabolane. This work presents a framework for the identification of novel terpene-based advanced biofuels and the rapid engineering of microbial farnesyl diphosphate-overproducing platforms for the production of biofuels. PMID:21952217

  6. The impacts of reactive terpene emissions from plants on air quality in Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiez, Maria R.; Potosnak, Mark J.; Goliff, Wendy S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Stockwell, William R.

    A three-part study was conducted to quantify the impact of landscaped vegetation on air quality in a rapidly expanding urban area in the arid southeastern United States. The study combines in situ, plant-level measurements, a spatial emissions inventory, and a photochemical box model. Maximum plant-level basal emission rates were moderate: 18.1 μgC gdw -1 h -1 ( Washingtonia spp., palms) for isoprene and 9.56 μgC gdw -1 h -1 ( Fraxinus velutina, Arizona ash) for monoterpenes. Sesquiterpene emission rates were low for plant species selected in this study, with no measurement exceeding 0.1 μgC gdw -1 h -1. The high ambient temperatures combined with moderate plant-level emission factors resulted in landscape emission factors that were low (250-640 μgC m -2 h -1) compared to more mesic environments (e.g., the southeastern United States). The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM) was modified to include a new reaction pathway for ocimene. Using measured concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and other reactive air pollutants (NO x, ozone), the box model employing the RACM mechanism revealed that these modest emissions could have a significant impact on air quality. For a suburban location that was downwind of the urban core (high NO x; low anthropogenic hydrocarbons), biogenic terpenes increased time-dependent ozone production rates by a factor of 50. Our study demonstrates that low-biomass density landscapes emit sufficient biogenic terpenes to have a significant impact on regional air quality.

  7. Biochemical characterization of microbial type terpene synthases in two closely related species of hornworts, Anthoceros punctatus and Anthoceros agrestis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wangdan; Fu, Jianyu; Köllner, Tobias G; Chen, Xinlu; Jia, Qidong; Guo, Haobo; Qian, Ping; Guo, Hong; Wu, Guojiang; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) genes are a type of terpene synthase genes only recently identified in plants. In contrast to typical plant terpene synthase genes, which are ubiquitous in land plants, MTPSL genes appear to occur only in nonseed plants. Our knowledge of catalytic functions of MTPSLs is very limited. Here we report biochemical characterization of the enzymes encoded by MTPSL genes from two closely related species of hornworts, Anthoceros punctatus and Anthoceros agrestis. Seven full-length MTPSL genes were identified in A. punctatus (ApMTPSL1-7) based on the analysis of its genome sequence. Using homology-based cloning, the apparent orthologs for six of the ApMTPSL genes, except ApMTPSL2, were cloned from A. agrestis. They were designated AaMTPSL1, 3-7. The coding sequences for each of the 13 Anthoceros MTPSL genes were cloned into a protein expression vector. Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant MTPSLs from hornworts were assayed for terpene synthase activities. Six ApMTPSLs and five AaMTPSLs, except for ApMTPSL5 and AaMTPSL5, showed catalytic activities with one or more isoprenyl diphosphate substrates. All functional MTPSLs exhibited sesquiterpene synthase activities. In contrast, only ApMTPSL7 and AaMTPSL7 showed monoterpene synthase activity and only ApMTPSL2, ApMTPSL6 and AaMTPSL6 showed diterpene synthase activity. Most MTPSLs from Anthoceros contain uncanonical aspartate-rich motif in the form of either 'DDxxxD' or 'DDxxx'. Homology-based structural modeling analysis of ApMTPSL1 and ApMTPSL7, which contain 'DDxxxD' and 'DDxxx' motif, respectively, showed that 'DDxxxD' and 'DDxxx' motifs are localized in the similar positions as the canonical 'DDxxD' motif in known terpene synthases. To further understand the role of individual aspartate residues in the motifs, ApMTPSL1 and ApMTPSL7 were selected as two representatives for site-directed mutagenesis studies. No activities were detected when any of the conserved aspartic acid was

  8. Sandalwood fragrance biosynthesis involves sesquiterpene synthases of both the terpene synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b subfamilies, including santalene synthases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher G; Moniodis, Jessie; Zulak, Katherine G; Scaffidi, Adrian; Plummer, Julie A; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-05-20

    Sandalwood oil is one of the worlds most highly prized fragrances. To identify the genes and encoded enzymes responsible for santalene biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized three orthologous terpene synthase (TPS) genes SaSSy, SauSSy, and SspiSSy from three divergent sandalwood species; Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, and S. spicatum, respectively. The encoded enzymes catalyze the formation of α-, β-, epi-β-santalene, and α-exo-bergamotene from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate (E,E-FPP). Recombinant SaSSy was additionally tested with (Z,Z)-farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP) and remarkably, found to produce a mixture of α-endo-bergamotene, α-santalene, (Z)-β-farnesene, epi-β-santalene, and β-santalene. Additional cDNAs that encode bisabolene/bisabolol synthases were also cloned and functionally characterized from these three species. Both the santalene synthases and the bisabolene/bisabolol synthases reside in the TPS-b phylogenetic clade, which is more commonly associated with angiosperm monoterpene synthases. An orthologous set of TPS-a synthases responsible for formation of macrocyclic and bicyclic sesquiterpenes were characterized. Strict functionality and limited sequence divergence in the santalene and bisabolene synthases are in contrast to the TPS-a synthases, suggesting these compounds have played a significant role in the evolution of the Santalum genus. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Sandalwood Fragrance Biosynthesis Involves Sesquiterpene Synthases of Both the Terpene Synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b Subfamilies, including Santalene Synthases*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher G.; Moniodis, Jessie; Zulak, Katherine G.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Plummer, Julie A.; Ghisalberti, Emilio L.; Barbour, Elizabeth L.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Sandalwood oil is one of the worlds most highly prized fragrances. To identify the genes and encoded enzymes responsible for santalene biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized three orthologous terpene synthase (TPS) genes SaSSy, SauSSy, and SspiSSy from three divergent sandalwood species; Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, and S. spicatum, respectively. The encoded enzymes catalyze the formation of α-, β-, epi-β-santalene, and α-exo-bergamotene from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate (E,E-FPP). Recombinant SaSSy was additionally tested with (Z,Z)-farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP) and remarkably, found to produce a mixture of α-endo-bergamotene, α-santalene, (Z)-β-farnesene, epi-β-santalene, and β-santalene. Additional cDNAs that encode bisabolene/bisabolol synthases were also cloned and functionally characterized from these three species. Both the santalene synthases and the bisabolene/bisabolol synthases reside in the TPS-b phylogenetic clade, which is more commonly associated with angiosperm monoterpene synthases. An orthologous set of TPS-a synthases responsible for formation of macrocyclic and bicyclic sesquiterpenes were characterized. Strict functionality and limited sequence divergence in the santalene and bisabolene synthases are in contrast to the TPS-a synthases, suggesting these compounds have played a significant role in the evolution of the Santalum genus. PMID:21454632

  10. CitAP2.10 activation of the terpene synthase CsTPS1 is associated with the synthesis of (+)-valencene in ‘Newhall’ orange

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Xiu-lan; Jiang, Qian; Grierson, Donald; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is a vital characteristic that determines the quality and commercial value of citrus fruits, and characteristic volatiles have been analyzed in different citrus species. In sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene is a key volatile compound in the fruit peel. Valencene synthesis is catalyzed by the terpene synthase CsTPS1, but the transcriptional mechanisms controlling its gene expression are unknown. Here, the AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene response factor) transcription factor, CitAP2.10, is characterized as a regulator of (+)-valencene synthesis. The expression pattern of CitAP2.10 was positively correlated with (+)-valencene content and CsTPS1 expression. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that CitAP2.10 could trans-activate the CsTPS1 promoter. Ethylene enhanced expression of CitAP2.10 and this effect was abolished by the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene. The role and function of CitAP2.10 in (+)-valencene biosynthesis were confirmed using the Arabidopsis homolog (AtWRI1), which also transiently activated the CsTPS1 promoter. Furthermore, transient over-expression of CitAP2.10 triggered (+)-valencene biosynthesis in sweet orange fruit. These results indicate that CitAP2.10 regulates (+)-valencene synthesis via induction of CsTPS1 mRNA accumulation. PMID:27194737

  11. Increased Survivorship and Altered Cytokine Profile from Treatment of Influenza A H1N1-Infected Mice with Ekybion: A Drug Complex of Natural Extracts and Inorganic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lupfer, Christopher; Besnouin, Didier; Tepper, Samuel E.; Maselko, Maciej; Patton, Kristin M.; Pastey, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Ekybion is a drug complex of 16 natural extracts and inorganic compounds designed to treat a variety of respiratory pathogens of bacterial and viral origin. It is licensed throughout Europe for the treatment of respiratory tract infections from equine parainfluenza type 3 and equine herpes virus type 1 in equine stables. The purpose of this paper was to test the efficacy of Ekybion on a well-developed animal model of influenza A infection and determine a mode of action. Experiments were performed with Balb/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus and treated with nebulized Ekybion every 8 h in a time-dependant or dose-dependant fashion. These experiments showed that mice treated prior to infection with Ekybion had a higher survival rates (~46%) compared with untreated animals (~0%). Paradoxically, these mice showed no significant difference in lung virus titer or weight loss. There was, however, a decrease in the level of GM-CSF, IL-6, and G-CSF cytokines in the lungs of Ekybion-treated, infected mice. It is possible that decreases in proinflammatory cytokines may have contributed to increased survivorship in Ekybion-treated influenza-infected mice. PMID:20981272

  12. Drug-induced parkinsonism in relation to choline-containing compounds measured by 1H-MR spectroscopy in putamen of chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukui, Tsunehiro; Fukuda, Rin; Kasai, Kiyoto; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Tadafumi

    2003-12-01

    Extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS), the most frequent and severe side-effects of antipsychotics, sometimes become irreversible and cause severe psychosocial disturbance in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis of EPS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, neurochemical correlates of EPS were examined by 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Sixteen medicated patients with schizophrenia and 15 age-, gender- and parental-socioeconomic-status-matched normal controls were examined using single-voxel 1H-MRS. Absolute concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine/phosphocreatine, myo-inositol, and Glx (glutamate and glutamine) in the left putamen were evaluated. The patient group showed mild EPS and no significant metabolic abnormalities in this region. The more severe drug-induced parkinsonism assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale, however, significantly correlated with the higher Cho concentration and tended to be correlated with the higher NAA concentration in the patient group. These results suggest a potential of 1H-MRS as a non-invasive monitoring method of neurobiological correlates of EPS associated with neuroleptic treatments in patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  14. Microbial-type terpene synthase genes occur widely in nonseed land plants, but not in seed plants

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Qidong; Li, Guanglin; Köllner, Tobias G.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Here, the vast abundance of terpene natural products in nature is due to enzymes known as terpene synthases (TPSs) that convert acyclic prenyl diphosphate precursors into a multitude of cyclic and acyclic carbon skeletons. Yet the evolution of TPSs is not well understood at higher levels of classification. Microbial TPSs from bacteria and fungi are only distantly related to typical plant TPSs, whereas genes similar to microbial TPS genes have been recently identified in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution, evolution, and biochemical functions of microbial terpene synthase-like ( MTPSL) genes inmore » other plants. By analyzing the transcriptomes of 1,103 plant species ranging from green algae to flowering plants, putative MTPSL genes were identified predominantly from nonseed plants, including liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes, and monilophytes. Directed searching for MTPSL genes in the sequenced genomes of a wide range of seed plants confirmed their general absence in this group. Among themselves, MTPSL proteins from nonseed plants form four major groups, with two of these more closely related to bacterial TPSs and the other two to fungal TPSs. Two of the four groups contain a canonical aspartate-rich “DDxxD” motif. The third group has a “DDxxxD” motif, and the fourth group has only the first two “DD” conserved in this motif. Upon heterologous expression, representative members from each of the four groups displayed diverse catalytic functions as monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases, suggesting these are important for terpene formation in nonseed plants.« less

  15. Microbial-type terpene synthase genes occur widely in nonseed land plants, but not in seed plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Qidong; Li, Guanglin; Köllner, Tobias G.

    Here, the vast abundance of terpene natural products in nature is due to enzymes known as terpene synthases (TPSs) that convert acyclic prenyl diphosphate precursors into a multitude of cyclic and acyclic carbon skeletons. Yet the evolution of TPSs is not well understood at higher levels of classification. Microbial TPSs from bacteria and fungi are only distantly related to typical plant TPSs, whereas genes similar to microbial TPS genes have been recently identified in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution, evolution, and biochemical functions of microbial terpene synthase-like ( MTPSL) genes inmore » other plants. By analyzing the transcriptomes of 1,103 plant species ranging from green algae to flowering plants, putative MTPSL genes were identified predominantly from nonseed plants, including liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes, and monilophytes. Directed searching for MTPSL genes in the sequenced genomes of a wide range of seed plants confirmed their general absence in this group. Among themselves, MTPSL proteins from nonseed plants form four major groups, with two of these more closely related to bacterial TPSs and the other two to fungal TPSs. Two of the four groups contain a canonical aspartate-rich “DDxxD” motif. The third group has a “DDxxxD” motif, and the fourth group has only the first two “DD” conserved in this motif. Upon heterologous expression, representative members from each of the four groups displayed diverse catalytic functions as monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases, suggesting these are important for terpene formation in nonseed plants.« less

  16. hERGCentral: a large database to store, retrieve, and analyze compound-human Ether-à-go-go related gene channel interactions to facilitate cardiotoxicity assessment in drug development.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Babcock, Joseph; Long, Shunyou; Li, Min

    2011-12-01

    The unintended and often promiscous inhibition of the cardiac human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel is a common cause for either delay or removal of therapeutic compounds from development and withdrawal of marketed drugs. The clinical manifestion is prolongation of the duration between QRS complex and T-wave measured by surface electrocardiogram (ECG)-hence Long QT Syndrome. There are several useful online resources documenting hERG inhibition by known drugs and bioactives. However, their utilities remain somewhat limited because they are biased toward well-studied compounds and their number of data points tends to be much smaller than many commercial compound libraries. The hERGCentral ( www.hergcentral.org ) is mainly based on experimental data obtained from a primary screen by electrophysiology against more than 300,000 structurally diverse compounds. The system is aimed to display and combine three resources: primary electrophysiological data, literature, as well as online reports and chemical library collections. Currently, hERGCentral has annotated datasets of more than 300,000 compounds including structures and chemophysiological properties of compounds, raw traces, and biophysical properties. The system enables a variety of query formats, including searches for hERG effects according to either chemical structure or properties, and alternatively according to the specific biophysical properties of current changes caused by a compound. Therefore, the hERGCentral, as a unique and evolving resource, will facilitate investigation of chemically induced hERG inhibition and therefore drug development. © MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC.

  17. hERGCentral: A Large Database to Store, Retrieve, and Analyze Compound-Human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene Channel Interactions to Facilitate Cardiotoxicity Assessment in Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fang; Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Babcock, Joseph; Long, Shunyou

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The unintended and often promiscous inhibition of the cardiac human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel is a common cause for either delay or removal of therapeutic compounds from development and withdrawal of marketed drugs. The clinical manifestion is prolongation of the duration between QRS complex and T-wave measured by surface electrocardiogram (ECG)—hence Long QT Syndrome. There are several useful online resources documenting hERG inhibition by known drugs and bioactives. However, their utilities remain somewhat limited because they are biased toward well-studied compounds and their number of data points tends to be much smaller than many commercial compound libraries. The hERGCentral (www.hergcentral.org) is mainly based on experimental data obtained from a primary screen by electrophysiology against more than 300,000 structurally diverse compounds. The system is aimed to display and combine three resources: primary electrophysiological data, literature, as well as online reports and chemical library collections. Currently, hERGCentral has annotated datasets of more than 300,000 compounds including structures and chemophysiological properties of compounds, raw traces, and biophysical properties. The system enables a variety of query formats, including searches for hERG effects according to either chemical structure or properties, and alternatively according to the specific biophysical properties of current changes caused by a compound. Therefore, the hERGCentral, as a unique and evolving resource, will facilitate investigation of chemically induced hERG inhibition and therefore drug development. PMID:22149888

  18. Development and Validation of a Reliable and Robust Method for the Analysis of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Giese, Matthew W; Lewis, Mark A; Giese, Laura; Smith, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The requirements for an acceptable cannabis assay have changed dramatically over the years resulting in a large number of laboratories using a diverse array of analytical methodologies that have not been properly validated. Due to the lack of sufficiently validated methods, we conducted a single- laboratory validation study for the determination of cannabinoids and terpenes in a variety of commonly occurring cultivars. The procedure involves high- throughput homogenization to prepare sample extract, which is then profiled for cannabinoids and terpenes by HPLC-diode array detector and GC-flame ionization detector, respectively. Spike recovery studies for terpenes in the range of 0.03-1.5% were carried out with analytical standards, while recovery studies for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, cannabidiolic acid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid, and cannabigerolic acid and their neutral counterparts in the range of 0.3-35% were carried out using cannabis extracts. In general, accuracy at all levels was within 5%, and RSDs were less than 3%. The interday and intraday repeatabilities of the procedure were evaluated with five different cultivars of varying chemotype, again resulting in acceptable RSDs. As an example of the application of this assay, it was used to illustrate the variability seen in cannabis coming from very advanced indoor cultivation operations.

  19. Comparative analysis and validation of the malachite green assay for the high throughput biochemical characterization of terpene synthases

    PubMed Central

    Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; Faraldos, Juan A.; O’Maille, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest group of natural products with important and diverse biological roles, while of tremendous economic value as fragrances, flavours and pharmaceutical agents. Class-I terpene synthases (TPSs), the dominant type of TPS enzymes, catalyze the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to often structurally diverse bioactive terpene hydrocarbons, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). To measure their kinetic properties, current bio-analytical methods typically rely on the direct detection of hydrocarbon products by radioactivity measurements or gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). In this study we employed an established, rapid colorimetric assay, the pyrophosphate/malachite green assay (MG), as an alternative means for the biochemical characterization of class I TPSs activity.•We describe the adaptation of the MG assay for turnover and catalytic efficiency measurements of TPSs.•We validate the method by direct comparison with established assays. The agreement of kcat/KM among methods makes this adaptation optimal for rapid evaluation of TPSs.•We demonstrate the application of the MG assay for the high-throughput screening of TPS gene libraries. PMID:26150952

  20. Comparative analysis and validation of the malachite green assay for the high throughput biochemical characterization of terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest group of natural products with important and diverse biological roles, while of tremendous economic value as fragrances, flavours and pharmaceutical agents. Class-I terpene synthases (TPSs), the dominant type of TPS enzymes, catalyze the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to often structurally diverse bioactive terpene hydrocarbons, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). To measure their kinetic properties, current bio-analytical methods typically rely on the direct detection of hydrocarbon products by radioactivity measurements or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study we employed an established, rapid colorimetric assay, the pyrophosphate/malachite green assay (MG), as an alternative means for the biochemical characterization of class I TPSs activity.•We describe the adaptation of the MG assay for turnover and catalytic efficiency measurements of TPSs.•We validate the method by direct comparison with established assays. The agreement of k cat/K M among methods makes this adaptation optimal for rapid evaluation of TPSs.•We demonstrate the application of the MG assay for the high-throughput screening of TPS gene libraries.

  1. The effect of bleaching on the terpene chemistry of Plexaurella fusifera: evidence that zooxanthellae are not responsible for sesquiterpene production.

    PubMed

    Frenz-Ross, Jamie L; Enticknap, Julie J; Kerr, Russell G

    2008-01-01

    The close association between marine invertebrates, zooxanthellae, and numerous bacteria gives rise to the question of the identity of the actual producer of secondary metabolites. In fall of 2005, a widespread bleaching event occurred throughout the Caribbean Sea in which some colonies of the gorgonian coral Plexaurella fusifera bleached. This study investigated whether zooxanthellae play a key role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite terpenes from P. fusifera. The extent of bleaching was examined by chlorophyll A analysis and also by zooxanthellae isolation and cell counting. The bleached and unbleached colonies were found to contain similar concentrations of eremophilene as the major terpene, and both exhibited similar biosynthetic capability as evaluated by the transformation of [C(1)-(3)H]-farnesyl diphosphate to the sesquiterpenes. Differences in bacterial communities between the bleached and unbleached colonies were analyzed using molecular techniques, and preliminary indications are that unbleached and bleached corals are dominated by low G + C firmicutes and gammaproteobacteria, respectively. It therefore appears that terpene biosynthesis can proceed independently of the zooxanthellae in P. fusifera, suggesting that the coral or a bacterium is the biosynthetic source.

  2. Fungal volatile compounds induce production of the secondary metabolite Sodorifen in Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ruth; Jager, Victor de; Zühlke, Daniela; Wolff, Christian; Bernhardt, Jörg; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Ijcken, Wilfred van; Sleutels, Frank; Boer, Wietse de; Riedel, Katharina; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-04-13

    The ability of bacteria and fungi to communicate with each other is a remarkable aspect of the microbial world. It is recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as communication signals, however the molecular responses by bacteria to fungal VOCs remain unknown. Here we perform transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of Serratia plymuthica PRI-2C exposed to VOCs emitted by the fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum. We find that the bacterium responds to fungal VOCs with changes in gene and protein expression related to motility, signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, and secondary metabolite production. Metabolomic analysis of the bacterium exposed to the fungal VOCs, gene cluster comparison, and heterologous co-expression of a terpene synthase and a methyltransferase revealed the production of the unusual terpene sodorifen in response to fungal VOCs. These results strongly suggest that VOCs are not only a metabolic waste but important compounds in the long-distance communication between fungi and bacteria.

  3. The α-Terpineol to 1,8-Cineole Cyclization Reaction of Tobacco Terpene Synthases1

    PubMed Central

    Piechulla, Birgit; Bartelt, Richard; Brosemann, Anne; Bouwmeester, Harro; Hippauf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Flowers of Nicotiana species emit a characteristic blend including the cineole cassette monoterpenes. This set of terpenes is synthesized by multiproduct enzymes, with either 1,8-cineole or α-terpineol contributing most to the volatile spectrum, thus referring to cineole or terpineol synthase, respectively. To understand the molecular and structural requirements of the enzymes that favor the biochemical formation of α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole, site-directed mutagenesis, in silico modeling, and semiempiric calculations were performed. Our results indicate the formation of α-terpineol by a nucleophilic attack of water. During this attack, the α-terpinyl cation is stabilized by π-stacking with a tryptophan side chain (tryptophan-253). The hypothesized catalytic mechanism of α-terpineol-to-1,8-cineole conversion is initiated by a catalytic dyad (histidine-502 and glutamate-249), acting as a base, and a threonine (threonine-278) providing the subsequent rearrangement from terpineol to cineol by catalyzing the autoprotonation of (S)-(−)-α-terpineol, which is the favored enantiomer product of the recombinant enzymes. Furthermore, by site-directed mutagenesis, we were able to identify amino acids at positions 147, 148, and 266 that determine the different terpineol-cineole ratios in Nicotiana suaveolens cineole synthase and Nicotiana langsdorffii terpineol synthase. Since amino acid 266 is more than 10 Å away from the active site, an indirect effect of this amino acid exchange on the catalysis is discussed. PMID:27729471

  4. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting similar behavior to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established, reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10-400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1-2.0 μm) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM 1.1) ranged from 10 to >300 μg m -3 and yields ranged from 5% to 37%. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were ˜10 cm -3 s -1 and ˜10 μg m -3 min -1, respectively.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particlemore » sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.« less

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).

    PubMed

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Festner, Maria; Dregus, Márta; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-09-15

    The essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Using a homology-based PCR strategy, two monoterpene synthases (LaLIMS and LaLINS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (LaBERS) were cloned from lavender leaves and flowers. LaLIMS catalyzed the formation of (R)-(+)-limonene, terpinolene, (1R,5S)-(+)-camphene, (1R,5R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene and traces of alpha-phellandrene. The proportions of these products changed significantly when Mn(2+) was supplied as the cofactor instead of Mg(2+). The second enzyme LaLINS produced exclusively (R)-(-)-linalool, the main component of lavender essential oil. LaBERS transformed farnesyl diphosphate and represents the first reported trans-alpha-bergamotene synthase. It accepted geranyl diphosphate with higher affinity than farnesyl diphosphate and also produced monoterpenes, albeit at low rates. LaBERS is probably derived from a parental monoterpene synthase by the loss of the plastidial signal peptide and by broadening its substrate acceptance spectrum. The identification and description of the first terpene synthases from L. angustifolia forms the basis for the biotechnological modification of essential oil composition in lavender.

  7. Parallel screening of drug-like natural compounds using Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain, lipophilic ligand efficiency index and shape property: A case study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rikin D.; Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Chirag N.; Shankar, Shetty Shilpa; Pandya, Himanshu A.; Solanki, Hitesh A.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional drug design strategy centrally focuses on optimizing binding affinity with the receptor target and evaluates pharmacokinetic properties at a later stage which causes high rate of attrition in clinical trials. Alternatively, parallel screening allows evaluation of these properties and affinity simultaneously. In a case study to identify leads from natural compounds with experimental HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition, we integrated various computational approaches including Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain (AD) to recognize drug-like natural compounds, molecular docking to study HIV-1 RT interactions and shape similarity analysis with known crystal inhibitors having characteristic butterfly-like model. Further, the lipophilic properties of the compounds refined from the process with best scores were examined using lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) index. Seven natural compound hits viz. baicalien, (+)-calanolide A, mniopetal F, fagaronine chloride, 3,5,8-trihydroxy-4-quinolone methyl ether derivative, nitidine chloride and palmatine, were prioritized based on LLE score which demonstrated Caco-2 well absorption labeling, encompassment in AD structural coverage, better receptor affinity, shape adaptation and permissible AlogP value. We showed that this integrative approach is successful in lead exploration of natural compounds targeted against HIV-1 RT enzyme.

  8. The prediction of drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability of 50 structurally diverse compounds in rat using mechanism-based absorption, distribution, and metabolism prediction tools.

    PubMed

    De Buck, Stefan S; Sinha, Vikash K; Fenu, Luca A; Gilissen, Ron A; Mackie, Claire E; Nijsen, Marjoleen J

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a physiologically based modeling approach for predicting drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability in rat for a structurally diverse set of neutral and moderate-to-strong basic compounds (n = 50). Hepatic blood clearance (CL(h)) was projected using microsomal data and shown to be well predicted, irrespective of the type of hepatic extraction model (80% within 2-fold). Best predictions of CL(h) were obtained disregarding both plasma and microsomal protein binding, whereas strong bias was seen using either blood binding only or both plasma and microsomal protein binding. Two mechanistic tissue composition-based equations were evaluated for predicting volume of distribution (V(dss)) and tissue-to-plasma partitioning (P(tp)). A first approach, which accounted for ionic interactions with acidic phospholipids, resulted in accurate predictions of V(dss) (80% within 2-fold). In contrast, a second approach, which disregarded ionic interactions, was a poor predictor of V(dss) (60% within 2-fold). The first approach also yielded accurate predictions of P(tp) in muscle, heart, and kidney (80% within 3-fold), whereas in lung, liver, and brain, predictions ranged from 47% to 62% within 3-fold. Using the second approach, P(tp) prediction accuracy in muscle, heart, and kidney was on average 70% within 3-fold, and ranged from 24% to 54% in all other tissues. Combining all methods for predicting V(dss) and CL(h) resulted in accurate predictions of the in vivo half-life (70% within 2-fold). Oral bioavailability was well predicted using CL(h) data and Gastroplus Software (80% within 2-fold). These results illustrate that physiologically based prediction tools can provide accurate predictions of rat pharmacokinetics.

  9. A comparison of the chemical constituents of Barbadian medicinal plants within their respective plant families with established drug compounds and phytochemicals used to treat communicable and non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Cohall, D; Carrington, S

    2012-01-01

    Barbados has a strong base in the practice of folklore botanical medicines. Consistent with the rest of the Caribbean region, the practice is criticized due to lack of evidence on the efficacy and safety testing. The objectives of this review article are i) to categorize and identify plants by their possible indications and their scientific classification and ii) to determine if the chemical constituents of the plants will be able to provide some insight into their possible uses in folklore medicine based on existing scientific research on their chemical constituents and also by their classification. A review of the folklore botanical medicines of Barbados was done. Plants were primarily grouped based on their use to treat particular communicable and non-communicable diseases. Plants were then secondarily grouped based on their families. The chemical profiles of the plants were then compared to established drug compounds currently approved for the conventional treatment of illnesses and also to established phytochemicals. The extensive literature review identified phytochemical compounds in particular plants used in Barbadian folklore medicine. Sixty-six per cent of reputed medicinal plants contain pharmacologically active phytochemicals; fifty-one per cent of these medicinal plants contain phytochemicals with activities consistent with their reported use. Folklore botanical medicine is well grounded on investigation of the scientific rationale. The research showed that fifty-one per cent of the identified medicinal plants have chemical compounds which have been identified to be responsible for its associated medicinal activity. To a lesser extent, approved drug compounds from drug regulatory bodies with similar chemical structure to the bioactive compounds in the plants proved to validate the use of some of these plants to treat illnesses.

  10. Antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and diametrical tensile strength of an interim cement modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles and terpenes: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Verónica; Martínez, Alejandra; Rojas, Ninón; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Flores, Paulo; Sánchez-Sanhueza, Gabriela; Catalán, Alfonso

    2018-05-01

    Interim restorations are occasionally left in the mouth for extended periods and are susceptible to bacterial infiltration. Thus, dental interim cements with antibacterial properties are required. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine in vitro antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to compare the diametrical tensile strength (DTSs) of dental interim cement modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) with that of cement modified with terpenes. Antibacterial properties of ZnO-NPs, terpenes, and dental interim cement modified with ZnO-NPs and cement modified with terpenes against S mutans were tested according to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and direct contact inhibition (DCI). Tensile strength levels were evaluated using DTS. Results were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, and Tamhane tests (α=.05). The MICs of ZnO-NPs and terpenes against S mutans were 61.94 μg/g and 0.25% v/v, respectively. The DCI assay under the cylinders of cement (area of contact with the agar surface) revealed significant bacterial growth inhibition on Temp-Bond NE specimens with ZnO-NPs at MIC of 495.2 μg/g (8× MIC) and with terpenes at MIC 0.999% v/v (4× MIC) (P<.05). The Temp-Bond NE cement cylinder (control group) showed the lowest DTS (1.05 ±0.27 MPa) of all other test groups. In the Zn-NPs group, the greatest increase occurred in the NP8 (8× MIC; 495.2 μg/g) group with a value of 1.50 ±0.23 MPa, a significant increase in DTS compared with the control and terpene groups (P<.05). In the terpene group, the highest increase corresponded to group T2 (2× MIC; 0.4995% v/v) with a value of 1.29 ±0.18 MPa. The addition of terpenes and ZnO-NPs to interim cement showed antibacterial activity when in contact with S. mutans ATCC 25175. Both terpenes and ZnO-NPs antimicrobial agents increased diametral tensile strength. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones in the extract of Ginkgo biloba and evaluation of their inhibitory activity towards fibril formation of β-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-10

    The standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761) is used clinically in Europe for the symptomatic treatment of impaired cerebral function in primary degenerative dementia syndromes, and the results of numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have supported such clinical use. The abnormal production and aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the deposition of fibrils in the brain are regarded as key steps in the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and the inhibition of Aβ aggregation and destabilization of the preformed fibrils represent viable approaches for the prevention and treatment of AD. Flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones (TTLs) are the two main components of EGb761 which represent 24 and 6% of the overall content, respectively. In our research, seven abundant flavonoid glycosides 1-7 were isolated from the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was established for the simultaneous quantification of these seven flavonoids. The inhibitory activities of these flavonoids, as well as four TTLs, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, and C and bilobalide (compounds 8-11), were evaluated towards Aβ42 fibril formation using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. It was found that three flavonoids 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities, whereas the other four flavonoids 2, 5, 6 and 7, as well as the four terpene trilactones, showed poor activity. This is the first report of the inhibition of Aβ fibril formation of two characteristic acylated flavonoid glycosides 6, 7 in Ginkgo leaves, on the basis of which the structure-activity relationship of these flavonoids 1-7 was discussed.

  12. [Impacts of the different frequencies of electroacupunctrue on cognitive function in patients after abdominal operation under compound anesthesia of acupuncture and drugs].

    PubMed

    Lin, Shun-Yan; Gao, Ju; Yin, Zheng-Lu; Zhou, Luo-Jing; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    To observe the impacts of different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) on post-operative cognitive function and the change in serum S-100beta protein under the compound anesthesia of acupuncture and drugs. One hundred and twenty-four patients of abdominal operation at selective time were randomized into a routine drug anesthesia group (group A, 24 cases), a meridian point 2 Hz group (group B, 26 cases), a me ridian point 2 Hz/100 Hz group (group C, 25 cases), a meridian point 100 Hz group (group D, 24 cases) and a transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation 2 Hz/100 Hz group (group E, 25 cases). In group A, the endotrachea-lgeneral anesthesia was applied. In the rest groups, the acupuncture anesthesia was induced for 30 min before the endotracheal general anesthesia, at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 29) and Neiguan (PC 6), with G6805-2 electric acupuncture apparatus used. In group B, the continuous wave and 2Hz in frequency were selected. In group C, the disperse-dense wave and 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency were selected. In group D, the continuous wave and 100 Hz in frequency were selected. In group E, the disperse-dense wave and 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency were selected, and the electrode pads were stick on the acupoints and connected with the electric stimulation till the end of operation. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adopted to evaluate and record the changes in cognitive function 1 day before operation and on the 3rd day after operation. The conditions of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in the patients and the changes in serum S-100beta protein were monitored before and at the end of operation. The incidence rate of POCD on the 3rd day after operation was 41.7% (10/24) in group A. The incidence rates of POCD were 26.9% (7/26), 16.0% (4/25), 33.3% (8/24) and 16.0% (4/25) in group B, C, D and E separately. Compared with group A, the incidence rate of PCOD in group B, C, D and E were reduced (all P<0.05), the incidence rate in group C and E

  13. Isolation of cDNAs and functional characterisation of two multi-product terpene synthase enzymes from sandalwood, Santalum album L.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher G; Keeling, Christopher I; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Plummer, Julie A; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Sandalwood, Santalum album (Santalaceae) is a small hemi-parasitic tropical tree of great economic value. Sandalwood timber contains resins and essential oils, particularly the santalols, santalenes and dozens of other minor sesquiterpenoids. These sesquiterpenoids provide the unique sandalwood fragrance. The research described in this paper set out to identify genes involved in essential oil biosynthesis, particularly terpene synthases (TPS) in S. album, with the long-term aim of better understanding heartwood oil production. Degenerate TPS primers amplified two genomic TPS fragments from S. album, one of which enabled the isolation of two TPS cDNAs, SamonoTPS1 (1731bp) and SasesquiTPS1 (1680bp). Both translated protein sequences shared highest similarity with known TPS from grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli produced catalytically active proteins. SamonoTPS1 was identified as a monoterpene synthase which produced a mixture of (+)-alpha-terpineol and (-)-limonene, along with small quantities of linalool, myrcene, (-)-alpha-pinene, (+)-sabinene and geraniol when assayed with geranyl diphosphate. Sesquiterpene synthase SasesquiTPS1 produced the monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol germacrene D-4-ol and helminthogermacrene, when incubated with farnesyl diphosphate. Also present were alpha-bulnesene, gamma-muurolene, alpha- and beta-selinenes, as well as several other minor bicyclic compounds. Although these sesquiterpenes are present in only minute quantities in the distilled sandalwood oil, the genes and their encoded enzymes described here represent the first TPS isolated and characterised from a member of the Santalaceae plant family and they may enable the future discovery of additional TPS genes in sandalwood.

  14. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism.

  15. Estimation of terpene content in loblolly pine biomass using a hybrid fast-GC and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry method

    SciTech Connect

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Davis, Mark F.; Peter, Gary F.

    Terpenes can be used as renewable fuels and chemicals and quantifying their presence in biomass is becoming increasingly important. A novel method was developed to rapidly quantify total diterpenoid resin acids using pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS). Pine sapling monoterpenes and diterpenoids were extracted from wood using a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of hexane and acetone and analyses were performed before and after extraction to determine the extraction efficiency of the solvent system. The resulting extract was analyzed for total diterpenoid content using py-MBMS and was combined with total monoterpene content that was determined using a low thermal mass modular acceleratedmore » column heater (LTM MACH) fast-GC/FID to measure the terpene content present in pine saplings. Oleoresin extruded from larger pine trees was used to validate mass balance closure of the terpene content in the extract solvent.« less

  16. Estimation of terpene content in loblolly pine biomass using a hybrid fast-GC and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry method

    DOE PAGES

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Davis, Mark F.; Peter, Gary F.; ...

    2017-01-16

    Terpenes can be used as renewable fuels and chemicals and quantifying their presence in biomass is becoming increasingly important. A novel method was developed to rapidly quantify total diterpenoid resin acids using pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS). Pine sapling monoterpenes and diterpenoids were extracted from wood using a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of hexane and acetone and analyses were performed before and after extraction to determine the extraction efficiency of the solvent system. The resulting extract was analyzed for total diterpenoid content using py-MBMS and was combined with total monoterpene content that was determined using a low thermal mass modular acceleratedmore » column heater (LTM MACH) fast-GC/FID to measure the terpene content present in pine saplings. Oleoresin extruded from larger pine trees was used to validate mass balance closure of the terpene content in the extract solvent.« less

  17. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and its Major Terpenes of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martínez, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Ríos-Chávez, Patricia; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Garciglia, Rafael Salgado

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant effectiveness of essential oil and its major terpenes of S. macrostema was examined by three different radical scavenging methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The concentrations tested were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL. The major volatile compounds were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone, and thymol. S. macrostema essential oil showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with DPPH and ABTS methods (53.10% and 92.12%, respectively) at 1 mg/mL and 98% with TAC method at 0.1 mg/mL. Thymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with 0.1 mg/mL, reaching 83.38%, 96.96%, and 98.57% by DPPH, ABTS, and TAC methods. Caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, and menthone exhibited an antioxidant capacity <25% with the DPPH and ABTS methods; however, limonene showed a TAC of 85.41% with 0.01 mg/mL. The essential oil of S. macrostema and thymol showed a free radical scavenging activity close to that of the synthetic butylated hydroxytoluene. The major volatile compounds of essential oil of Satureja macrostema were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone and thymolThe essential oil of S. macrostema showed a high free radical scavengingThymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS and TAC methods. Abbreviations used: GC: Gas Chromatography; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; TAC: Total

  18. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and its Major Terpenes of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq.

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Martínez, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Ríos-Chávez, Patricia; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Garciglia, Rafael Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant effectiveness of essential oil and its major terpenes of S. macrostema was examined by three different radical scavenging methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The concentrations tested were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL. Results: The major volatile compounds were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone, and thymol. S. macrostema essential oil showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with DPPH and ABTS methods (53.10% and 92.12%, respectively) at 1 mg/mL and 98% with TAC method at 0.1 mg/mL. Thymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with 0.1 mg/mL, reaching 83.38%, 96.96%, and 98.57% by DPPH, ABTS, and TAC methods. Caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, and menthone exhibited an antioxidant capacity <25% with the DPPH and ABTS methods; however, limonene showed a TAC of 85.41% with 0.01 mg/mL. Conclusion: The essential oil of S. macrostema and thymol showed a free radical scavenging activity close to that of the synthetic butylated hydroxytoluene. SUMMARY The major volatile compounds of essential oil of Satureja macrostema were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone and thymolThe essential oil of S. macrostema showed a high free radical scavengingThymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS and TAC methods. Abbreviations used: GC: Gas Chromatography; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2

  19. Structure-activity relationship of chemical penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kanikkannan, N; Kandimalla, K; Lamba, S S; Singh, M

    2000-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is the administration of therapeutic agents through intact skin for systemic effect. TDD offers several advantages over the conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and injections. Currently there are about eight drugs marketed as transdermal patches. Examples of such products include nitroglycerin (angina pectoris), clonidine (hypertension), scopolamine (motion sickness), nicotine (smoking cessation), fentanil (pain) and estradiol (estrogen deficiency). Since skin is an excellent barrier for drug transport, only potent drugs with appropriate physicochemical properties (low molecular weight, adequate solubility in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, etc) are suitable candidates for transdermal delivery. Penetration enhancement technology is a challenging development that would increase significantly the number of drugs available for transdermal administration. The permeation of drugs through skin can be enhanced by physical methods such as iontophoresis (application of low level electric current) and phonophoresis (use of ultra sound energy) and by chemical penetration enhancers (CPE). In this review, we have discussed about the CPE which have been investigated for TDD. CPE are compounds that enhance the permeation of drugs across the skin. The CPE increase skin permeability by reversibly altering the physicochemical nature of the stratum corneum, the outer most layer of skin, to reduce its diffusional resistance. These compounds increase skin permeability also by increasing the partition coefficient of the drug into the skin and by increasing the thermodynamic activity of the drug in the vehicle. This review compiles the various CPE used for the enhancement of TDD, the mechanism of action of different chemical enhancers and the structure-activity relationship of selected and extensively studied enhancers such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols and terpenes. Based on the chemical structure of penetration enhancers (such as chain

  20. The Variability of Sesquiterpenes Emitted from Two Zea mays Cultivars Is Controlled by Allelic Variation of Two Terpene Synthase Genes Encoding Stereoselective Multiple Product Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Tobias G.; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes. PMID:15075399

  1. The variability of sesquiterpenes emitted from two Zea mays cultivars is controlled by allelic variation of two terpene synthase genes encoding stereoselective multiple product enzymes.

    PubMed

    Köllner, Tobias G; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-05-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes.

  2. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  3. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty. PMID:26760934

  4. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

  5. Examinations of the matrix isolation fourier transform infrared spectra of organic compounds: Part XII

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, W. M., III; Gordon, B. M.; Lawrence, B. M.

    1989-02-01

    Matrix isolation Fourier transform infrared spectra (MI/FT-IR), massspectra (MS), carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (/sup 13/C-NMR) spectra,condensed-phase infrared spectra, and vapor-phase infrared (IR)spectra are presented for a series of terpene compounds. Subtle differencesin positional and configurational isomers commonly found withterpenes could be easily detected by the MI/FT-IR spectra. The resultsare comparable in some aspects to those obtainable from /sup 13/C-NMR andthin-film IR; however, most importantly, they are acquired at the lownanogram level for MI/FT-IR, as compared to the milligram level forthe other techniques. These results represent an advance in the technologyavailable for the analysis of complex mixtures such as essential oilscontainingmore » terpene-like molecules.« less

  6. Characterization of the first naturally thermostable terpene synthases and development of strategies to improve thermostability in this family of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Styles, Matthew Q; Nesbitt, Edward A; Marr, Scott; Hutchby, Marc; Leak, David J

    2017-06-01

    The terpenoid family of natural products is being targeted for heterologous microbial production as a cheaper and more reliable alternative to extraction from plants. The key enzyme responsible for diversification of terpene structure is the class-I terpene synthase (TS), and these often require engineering to improve properties such as thermostability, robustness and catalytic activity before they are suitable for industrial use. Improving thermostability typically relies on screening a large number of mutants, as there are no naturally thermostable TSs described upon which to base rational design decisions. We have characterized the first examples of natural TSs exhibiting thermostability, which catalyse the formation of the sesquiterpene τ-muurolol at temperatures up to 78 °C. We also report an enzyme with a k cat value of 0.95 s -1 at 65 °C, the highest k cat recorded for a bacterial sesquiterpene synthase. In turn, these thermostable enzymes were used as a model to inform the rational engineering of another TS, with the same specificity but low sequence identity to the model. The newly engineered variant displayed increased thermostability and turnover. Given the high structural homology of the class-I TS domain, this approach could be generally applicable to improving the properties of other enzymes in this class. Model data are available in the PMDB database under the accession number PM0080780. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. REVIEW: Epistasis and dominance in the emergence of catalytic function as exemplified by the evolution of plant terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Jitender; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2017-02-01

    Epistasis, the interaction between mutations and the genetic background, is a pervasive force in evolution that is difficult to predict yet derives from a simple principle - biological systems are interconnected. Therefore, one effect may be intimately linked to another, hence interdependent. Untangling epistatic interactions between and within genes is a vibrant area of research. Deriving a mechanistic understanding of epistasis is a major challenge. Particularly, elucidating how epistasis can attenuate the effects of otherwise dominant mutations that control phenotypes. Using the emergence of terpene cyclization in specialized metabolism as an excellent example, this review describes the process of discovery and interpretation of dominance and epistasis in relation to current efforts. Specifically, we outline experimental approaches to isolating epistatic networks of mutations in protein structure, formally quantifying epistatic interactions, then building biochemical models with chemical mechanisms in efforts to achieve an understanding of the physical basis for epistasis. From these models we describe informed conjectures about past evolutionary events that underlie the emergence, divergence and specialization of terpene synthases to illustrate key principles of the constraining forces of epistasis in enzyme function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    PubMed

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Potent inhibitors of human LAT1 (SLC7A5) transporter based on dithiazole and dithiazine compounds for development of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Lara; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Koyioni, Maria; Koutentis, Panayiotis; Catto, Marco; Eberini, Ivano; Parravicini, Chiara; Palazzolo, Luca; Pisani, Leonardo; Galluccio, Michele; Console, Lara; Carotti, Angelo; Indiveri, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    The LAT1 transporter is acknowledged as a pharmacological target of tumours since it is strongly overexpressed in many human cancers. The purpose of this work was to find novel compounds exhibiting potent and prolonged inhibition of the transporter. To this aim, compounds based on dithiazole and dithiazine scaffold have been screened in the proteoliposome experimental model. Inhibition was tested on the antiport catalysed by hLAT1 as transport of extraliposomal [ 3 H]histidine in exchange with intraliposomal histidine. Out of 59 compounds tested, 8 compounds, showing an inhibition higher than 90% at 100µM concentration, were subjected to dose-response analysis. Two of them exhibited IC 50 lower than 1µM. Inhibition kinetics, performed on the two best inhibitors, indicated a mixed type of inhibition with respect to the substrate. Furthermore, inhibition of the transporter was still present after removal of the compounds from the reaction mixture, but was reversed on addition of dithioerythritol, a S-S reducing agent, indicating the formation of disulfide(s) between the compounds and the protein. Molecular docking of the two best inhibitors on the hLAT1 homology structural model, highlighted interaction with the substrate binding site and formation of a covalent bond with the residue C407. Indeed, the inhibition was impaired in the hLAT1 mutant C407A confirming the involvement of that Cys residue. Treatment of SiHa cells expressing hLAT1 at relatively high level, with the two most potent inhibitors led to cell death which was not observed after treatment with a compound exhibiting very poor inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective 5-Hydroxytrytamine 2C Receptor Agonists Derived from the Lead Compound Tranylcypromine – Identification of Drugs with Antidepressant-Like Action

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Jin; Jensen, Niels H.; Kurome, Toru; Kadari, Sudhakar; Manzano, Michael L.; Malberg, Jessica E.; Caldarone, Barbara; Roth, Bryan L.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and pharmacological properties of a series of compounds related to tranylcypromine (9), which itself was discovered as a lead compound in a high-throughput screening campaign. Starting from 9, which shows modest activity as a 5-HT2C agonist, a series of 1-aminomethyl-2-phenylcyclopropanes was investigated as 5-HT2C agonists through iterative structural modifications. Key pharmacophore feature of this new class of ligands is a 2-aminomethyl-trans-cyclopropyl side chain attached to a substituted benzene ring. Among the tested compounds, several were potent and efficacious 5-HT2C receptor agonists with selectivity over both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in functional assays. The most promising compound is 37 with 120- and 14-fold selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B, respectively (EC50 = 585, 65, and 4.8 nM at the 2A, 2B, and 2C subtypes, respectively). In animal studies, compound 37 (10–60 mg/kg) decreased immobility time in the mouse forced swim test. PMID:19284718

  11. A charged aerosol detector/chemiluminescent nitrogen detector/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for regular and fragment compound analysis in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yutao; Hascall, Daniel; Li, Delia; Pease, Joseph H

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we introduce a high throughput LCMS/UV/CAD/CLND system that improves upon previously reported systems by increasing both the quantitation accuracy and the range of compounds amenable to testing, in particular, low molecular weight "fragment" compounds. This system consists of a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) added to a LCMS/UV system. Our results show that the addition of CAD and CLND to LCMS/UV is more reliable for concentration determination for a wider range of compounds than either detector alone. Our setup also allows for the parallel analysis of each sample by all four detectors and so does not significantly increase run time per sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid: An atmospheric tracer for terpene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmigielski, Rafal; Surratt, Jason D.; Gómez-González, Yadian; Van der Veken, Pieter; Kourtchev, Ivan; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Blockhuys, Frank; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H.; Edney, Edward O.; Seinfeld, John H.; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda

    2007-12-01

    Highly oxygenated compounds assigned to be oxidation products of α-pinene have recently been observed in substantial concentrations in ambient aerosols. Here, we confirm the unknown α-pinene tracer compound with molecular weight (MW) 204 as the C8-tricarboxylic acid 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid. Its gas and liquid chromatographic behaviors and its mass spectral characteristics in electron ionization and negative ion electrospray ionization perfectly agree with those of a synthesized reference compound. The formation of this compound is explained by further reaction of cis-pinonic acid involving participation of the OH radical. This study illustrates that complex, multi-generation chemistry holds for the photooxidation of α-pinene in the presence of NOx.

  13. Preparation of sulfonated graphene/polypyrrole solid-phase microextraction coating by in situ electrochemical polymerization for analysis of trace terpenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke

    2014-06-13

    In this study, a novel sulfonated graphene/polypyrrole (SG/PPy) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating was prepared and fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a one-step in situ electrochemical polymerization method. Crucial preparation conditions were optimized as polymerization time of 15min and SG doping amount of 1.5mg/mL. SG/PPy coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifespan of more than 200 stable replicate extractions. SG/PPy coating demonstrated higher extraction selectivity and capacity to volatile terpenes than commonly-used commercial coatings. Finally, SG/PPy coating was practically applied for the analysis of volatile components from star anise and fennel samples. The majority of volatile components identified were terpenes, which suggested the ultra-high extraction selectivity of SG/PPy coating to terpenes during real analytical projects. Four typical volatile terpenes were further quantified to be 0.2-27.4μg/g from star anise samples with good recoveries of 76.4-97.8% and 0.1-1.6μg/g from fennel samples with good recoveries of 80.0-93.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Volatile and within-needle terpene changes to Douglas-fir trees associated with Douglas-fir beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack

    Treesearch

    A. D. Giunta; Justin Runyon; M. J. Jenkins; M. Teich

    2016-01-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with...

  15. Volatile compounds in the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) possess antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Njume, C; Afolayan, A J; Green, E; Ndip, R N

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify phytochemicals with anti-Helicobacter pylori activity from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea. The plant crude extract was fractionated by silica gel column and thin layer chromatography techniques, initially with ethyl acetate (EA) and subsequently with a combination of ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). Further fractionation and identification of the phytoconstituents was achieved by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the fractions and compounds was evaluated against five metronidazole- and clarithromycin-resistant strains of H. pylori as well as a reference strain ATCC 43526 using the microbroth dilution technique. Amoxicillin was included in the experiments as a positive control antibiotic. Of the 18 fractions collected, 16 demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(50)) values ranging from 310 μg/mL to 2500 μg/mL. Two of the fractions (EMW fraction 6 and EA fraction 1) revealed the presence of 5 and 24 compounds, respectively, representing 40.5% and 86.57% of the total composition. Most of the compounds were essential oils, with terpinen-4-ol being the most abundant agent (35.83%), followed by pyrrolidine (32.15%), aromadendrene (13.63%) and α-gurjunene (8.77%). MIC(50) ranges for amoxicillin, terpinen-4-ol and pyrrolidine were 0.0003-0.06 μg/mL, 0.004-0.06 μg/mL and 0.005-6.3 μg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activities of terpinen-4-ol and pyrrolidine were similar to amoxicillin (P>0.05). Most of these compounds are being reported in this plant for the first time and may represent new sources of therapeutically useful compounds against H. pylori. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening the receptorome to discover the molecular targets for plant-derived psychoactive compounds: a novel approach for CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bryan L; Lopez, Estela; Beischel, Scott; Westkaemper, Richard B; Evans, Jon M

    2004-05-01

    Because psychoactive plants exert profound effects on human perception, emotion, and cognition, discovering the molecular mechanisms responsible for psychoactive plant actions will likely yield insights into the molecular underpinnings of human consciousness. Additionally, it is likely that elucidation of the molecular targets responsible for psychoactive drug actions will yield validated targets for CNS drug discovery. This review article focuses on an unbiased, discovery-based approach aimed at uncovering the molecular targets responsible for psychoactive drug actions wherein the main active ingredients of psychoactive plants are screened at the "receptorome" (that portion of the proteome encoding receptors). An overview of the receptorome is given and various in silico, public-domain resources are described. Newly developed tools for the in silico mining of data derived from the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program's (NIMH-PDSP) K(i) Database (K(i) DB) are described in detail. Additionally, three case studies aimed at discovering the molecular targets responsible for Hypericum perforatum, Salvia divinorum, and Ephedra sinica actions are presented. Finally, recommendations are made for future studies.

  17. Analysis of Relative Concentration of Ethanol and Other Odorous Compounds (OCs) Emitted from the Working Surface at a Landfill in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Lu, Wenjing; Liu, Yanjun; Guo, Hanwen; Xu, Sai; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    Estimating odor emissions from landfill sites is a complicated task because of the various chemical and biological species that exist in landfill gases. In this study, the relative concentration of ethanol and other odorous compounds emitted from the working surface at a landfill in China was analyzed. Gas sampling was conducted at the landfill on a number of selected days from March 2012 to March 2014, which represented different periods throughout the two years. A total of 41, 59, 66, 54, 63, 54, 41, and 42 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified in eight sampling activities, respectively; a number of 86 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified all together in the study. The measured odorous compounds were classified into six different categories (Oxygenated compounds, Halogenated compounds, Terpenes, Sulfur compounds, Aromatics, and Hydrocarbons). The total average concentrations of the oxygenated compounds, sulfur compounds, aromatics, halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, and terpenes were 2.450 mg/m3, 0.246 mg/m3, 0.203 mg/m3, 0.319 mg/m3, 0.530 mg/m3, and 0.217 mg/m3, respectively. The relative concentrations of 59 odorous compounds with respect to the concentration of ethyl alcohol (1000 ppm) were determined. The dominant contaminants that cause odor pollution around the landfill are ethyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide; dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl sulfide also contribute to the pollution to a certain degree. PMID:25769100

  18. Terpene and lignan glycosides from the twigs and leaves of an endangered conifer, Cathaya argyrophylla.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Jun; Fu, Zhao-Hui; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Han, Hong-Jin; Yan, He; Ji, Chang-Jiu; Chu, Hong-Biao; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Labdane diterpene glycosides cathargyroside A and cathargyroside B, monoterpene glycosides vervenone-10-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and vervenone-10-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1″→6')-β-D-glucopyranoside, as well as lignan glycosides cedrusinin-4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and (+)-cyclo-olivil-9'-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, along with 39 known compounds, were obtained from the methanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Cathaya argyrophylla. These compounds were identified mainly by analyzing their NMR and MS data. Almost all of these compounds were hitherto unknown in this genus. The isolated compounds were screened against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus for antimicrobial assay, and against K562, HT-29, BEL-7402, SGC-7901, B16, BGC-823, U251 and A549 cancer cell lines for cytotoxic activities. One compound showed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans, and four of them displayed cytotoxicity. Similarity analysis on the chemical constituents of the genera Cathaya, Picea and Pinus supported their close phylogenetic relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CRISPR-Cas9-modified pfmdr1 protects Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages and gametocytes against a class of piperazine-containing compounds but potentiates artemisinin-based combination therapy partner drugs.

    PubMed

    Ng, Caroline L; Siciliano, Giulia; Lee, Marcus C S; de Almeida, Mariana J; Corey, Victoria C; Bopp, Selina E; Bertuccini, Lucia; Wittlin, Sergio; Kasdin, Rachel G; Le Bihan, Amélie; Clozel, Martine; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Alano, Pietro; Fidock, David A

    2016-08-01

    Emerging resistance to first-line antimalarial combination therapies threatens malaria treatment and the global elimination campaign. Improved therapeutic strategies are required to protect existing drugs and enhance treatment efficacy. We report that the piperazine-containing compound ACT-451840 exhibits single-digit nanomolar inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages and transmissible gametocyte forms. Genome sequence analyses of in vitro-derived ACT-451840-resistant parasites revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfmdr1, which encodes a digestive vacuole membrane-bound ATP-binding cassette transporter known to alter P. falciparum susceptibility to multiple first-line antimalarials. CRISPR-Cas9 based gene editing confirmed that PfMDR1 point mutations mediated ACT-451840 resistance. Resistant parasites demonstrated increased susceptibility to the clinical drugs lumefantrine, mefloquine, quinine and amodiaquine. Stage V gametocytes harboring Cas9-introduced pfmdr1 mutations also acquired ACT-451840 resistance. These findings reveal that PfMDR1 mutations can impart resistance to compounds active against asexual blood stages and mature gametocytes. Exploiting PfMDR1 resistance mechanisms provides new opportunities for developing disease-relieving and transmission-blocking antimalarials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Limonene dehydrogenase hydroxylates the allylic methyl group of cyclic monoterpenes in the anaerobic terpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    PubMed

    Puentes-Cala, Edinson; Liebeke, Manuel; Markert, Stephanie; Harder, Jens

    2018-05-01

    The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprene and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen. The purified limonene:ferrocenium oxidoreductase activity hydroxylated the methyl group of limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohex-1-ene) yielding perillyl alcohol ([4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]methanol). The enzyme had a dithiothreitol:perillyl alcohol oxidoreductase activity yielding limonene. Mass spectrometry and molecular size determinations revealed a heterodimeric enzyme comprising CtmA and CtmB. Recently the two proteins had been identified by transposon mutagenesis and proteomics as part of the cyclic terpene metabolism ( ctm ) in Castellaniella defragrans and were annotated as FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the protein domain family phytoene dehydrogenases and related proteins (COG1233). CtmAB is the first heterodimeric enzyme in this protein superfamily. Flavins in the purified CtmAB are oxidized by ferrocenium and are reduced by limonene. Heterologous expression of CtmA, CtmB and CtmAB in E. coli demonstrated that limonene dehydrogenase activity required both subunits carrying each a flavin cofactor. Native CtmAB oxidized a wide range of monocyclic monoterpenes containing the allylic methyl group motif (1-methyl-cyclohex-1-ene). In conclusion, we have identified CtmAB as a hydroxylating limonene dehydrogenase and the first heteromer in a family of FAD-dependent dehydrogenases acting on allylic methylene or methyl CH-bonds. We suggest a placement in EC 1

  1. Compound matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

    2009-02-01

    This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

  2. Application of a simple column-switching ion chromatography technique for removal of matrix interferences and sensitive fluorescence determination of acidic compounds (pharmaceutical drugs) in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nadeem; Subhani, Qamar; Wang, Fenglian; Guo, Dandan; Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan

    2017-09-15

    This work illustrates the introduction of a simple, rugged and flexible column-switching ion chromatography (IC) technique for an automated on-line QuEChERS extracted samples extracts washing followed by sensitive fluorescence (FLD) determination of five acidic pharmaceutical drugs namely; clofibric acid (CLO), ibuprofen (IBU), aspirin (ASP), naproxen (NAP) and flurobrofen (FLU) in three complex samples (spinach, apple and hospital sewage sludge). An old anion exchange column IonPac ® AS11-HC was utilized as a pre-treatment column for on-line washing of inorganic and organic interferences followed by isocratic separation of five acidic drugs with another anion exchange IonPac ® AS12A analytical column by exploiting the column-switching technique. This novel method exhibited good linearity with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for all drugs were in the range 0.976-0.996. The limit of detection and quantification of all five acidic drugs were in the range 0.024μg/kg to 8.70μg/kg and 0.082μg/kg to 0.029mg/kg, respectively, and better recoveries in the range 81.17-112.5% with percentage relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 17.8% were obtained. This on-line sample pre-treatment method showed minimum matrix effect in the range of 0.87-1.25 except for aspirin. This simple rugged and flexible column-switching system required only 28min for maximum elimination of matrices and interferences in three complex samples extracts, isocratic separation of five acidic drugs and for the continuous regeneration of pre-treatment column prior to every subsequent analysis. Finally, this simple automated IC system was appeared so rugged and flexible, which can eliminate and wash out most of interference, impurities and matrices in complex samples, simply by adjusting the NaOH and acetonitrile concentration in washing mobile phase with maximum recoveries of acidic analytes of interest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Characterization of aroma compounds in apple cider using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

    2007-04-18

    The aroma-active compounds in two apple ciders were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in the two apple cider samples were 2-phenylethanol, butanoic acid, octanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-phenylethyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, and 4-vinylphenol. Sulfur-containing compounds, terpene derivatives, and lactones were also detected in ciders. Although most of the aroma compounds were common in both ciders, the aroma intensities were different. Comparison of extraction techniques showed that the SAFE technique had a higher recovery for acids and hydroxy-containing compounds, whereas the HS-SPME technique had a higher recovery for esters and highly volatile compounds.

  4. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana.

  5. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  6. Combined in Vitro Cell-Based/in Silico Screening of Naturally Occurring Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Espargaró, Alba; Ginex, Tiziana; Vadell, Maria Del Mar; Busquets, Maria A; Estelrich, Joan; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Luque, F Javier; Sabate, Raimon

    2017-02-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in people over 65 years. One of the major culprits in AD is the self-aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which has stimulated the search for small molecules able to inhibit Aβ aggregation. In this context, we recently reported a simple, but effective in vitro cell-based assay to evaluate the potential antiaggregation activity of putative Aβ aggregation inhibitors. In this work this assay was used together with docking and molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the anti-Aβ aggregation activity of several naturally occurring flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The results showed that rosmarinic acid, melatonin, and o-vanillin displayed zero or low inhibitory capacity, curcumin was found to have an intermediate inhibitory potency, and apigenin and quercetin showed potent antiaggregation activity. Finally, the suitability of the combined in vitro cell-based/in silico approach to distinguish between active and inactive compounds was further assessed for an additional set of flavonols and dihydroflavonols.

  7. Changes in volatile compound composition of Antrodia camphorata during solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongjun; Zhang, Baorong; Li, Weijiang; Xu, Ganrong

    2011-10-01

    Although the volatiles present in mushrooms and fungi have been investigated by many researchers, including Antrodia camphorata in submerged fermentation, there are few data available regarding changes in volatile compounds during fermentation. Our research has revealed that solid state fermentation of A. camphorata is highly odiferous compared with submerged cultures and the odor changed with increasing culture time. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in volatile compound composition of A. camphorata during solid state fermentation. Altogether, 124 major volatile compounds were identified. The volatile compounds produced by A. camphorata during growth in solid state fermentation were quite different. Oct-1-en-3-ol, octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate were predominant in exponential growth phase production, while the dominant volatiles produced in stationary phase were octan-3-one and methyl 2-phenylacetate. In stationary phase, lactone compounds in A. camphorata, such as 5-butyloxolan-2-one, 5-heptyloxolan-2-one, 6-heptyloxan-2-one, contributed greatly to peach and fruit-like flavor. Terpene and terpene alcohol compounds, such as 1-terpineol, L-linalool, T-cadinol, (E, E)-farnesol, β-elemene, cis-α-bisabolene and α-muurolene, made different contributions to herbal fresh aroma in A. camphorata. Nineteen volatile sesquiterpenes were detected from solid state fermentation of A. camphorata. The compounds 5-n-butyl-5H-furan-2-one, β-ionone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, aromadendrene oxide, diepi-α-cedrene epoxide, β-elemene, α-selinene, α-muurolene, azulene, germacrene D, γ-cadinene and 2-methylpyrazine have not hitherto been reported in A. camphorata. The preliminary results suggest that the aroma-active compounds produced by A camphorata in solid state fermentation might serve as an important source of natural aroma compounds for the food and cosmetic industries or antibiotic activity compounds. The sesquiterpenes could be

  8. Drug discovery in jeopardy

    PubMed Central

    Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Despite striking advances in the biomedical sciences, the flow of new drugs has slowed to a trickle, impairing therapeutic advances as well as the commercial success of drug companies. Reduced productivity in the drug industry is caused mainly by corporate policies that discourage innovation. This is compounded by various consequences of mega-mergers, the obsession for blockbuster drugs, the shift of control of research from scientists to marketers, the need for fast sales growth, and the discontinuation of development compounds for nontechnical reasons. Lessons from the past indicate that these problems can be overcome, and herein, new and improved directions for drug discovery are suggested. PMID:17080187

  9. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    PubMed

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  10. Effects of buspirone and the dopamine D3 receptor compound PG619 on cocaine and methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys using a food-drug choice paradigm.

    PubMed

    John, William S; Banala, Ashwini K; Newman, Amy H; Nader, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The dopamine (DA) D2 and D3 receptors have been associated with cocaine abuse. A recent study with the D3 receptor (D3R) partial agonist PG619 found that it attenuated cocaine-induced reinstatement and the D2-like receptor antagonist buspirone has shown positive outcomes in two studies of cocaine abuse in monkeys. However, a recent clinical trial indicated that buspirone did not improve abstinence in treatment-seeking cocaine abusers. The objective of the study was to examine PG619 and buspirone under a food-drug choice paradigm in order to better model the clinical findings. In addition, we extended the characterization of both compounds to include methamphetamine (MA) self-administration (SA). Six adult male rhesus monkeys were trained to respond under a concurrent food (1.0-g pellets) and drug (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/injection cocaine or MA) choice paradigm in which complete SA dose-response curves were determined each session (N = 3/group). Monkeys received 5 days of treatment with either PG619 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg, i.v.) or buspirone (0.01-1.0 mg/kg, i.m.). In a follow-up study, the SA doses were reduced (0.003-0.1 mg/kg/injection) to increase reinforcement frequency and buspirone was retested. PG619 did not affect cocaine or MA choice, while buspirone increased low-dose cocaine choice. Changing the SA doses increased the number of reinforcers received each session, but buspirone did not decrease drug choice. Consistent with clinical findings, these results do not support the use of buspirone for psychostimulant abuse and suggest that food-drug choice paradigms may have greater predictive validity than the use of other schedules of reinforcement.

  11. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee Soong; Lim, Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. PMID:25421245

  12. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  13. Virtual Dual inhibition of COX-2 / 5-LOX enzymes based on binding properties of alpha-amyrins, the anti-inflammatory compound as a promising anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi; Assadolahi, Vahideh; Yazdani, Mohsen; Nikaein, Donya; Rashidieh, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Cordia myxa was considerably effective on curing acute inflammation in mouse model. Previous studies suggested significant anti-inflammatory activities as well as potential anticancer agent of α-amyrins in seeds. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is significant in cancer prevention and therapeutics although this inhibition with chemo-drugs has its own side-effects. It is shown that these enzymes pathways are related to several cancers including colon, breast and lung cancer. This study was conducted based on Cordia species' α-amyrins as a safer natural anti-cancer compound for inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes by molecular docking. The X-ray crystal structure of COX2 / 5-LOX enzymes and α-amyrins was retrieved and energetically minimized respectively. The binding site and surface of enzymes were detected. Docking studies were performed by AutoDock 4.2 using Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA). Finally drug likeness, molecular pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of α-amyrins was calculated. Molecular Docking revealed hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions between α-amyrins with both active sites of COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Interestingly, it covalently bonded to Fe cofactor of 5-LOX enzyme and chelated this molecule. Base on binding energies (∆G) α-amyrin has more inhibitory effects on 5-LOX (-10.45 Kcal/mol) than COX-2 (-8.02 Kcal/mol). Analysis of molecular pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that α-amyrins complied with most sets of Lipinski's rules, and so it could be a suitable ligand for docking studies. Eventually, bioactivity score showed α-amyrins possess considerable biological activities as nuclear receptor, enzyme inhibitor, GPCR and protease inhibitor ligand. These results clearly demonstrate that α-amyrins could act as potential highly selective COX-/5-LOX inhibitor. Also, it is a safe compound in comparison with classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs

  14. Structural characterization of drug-like compounds by ion mobility mass spectrometry: comparison of theoretical and experimentally derived nitrogen collision cross sections.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Iain; Bush, Matthew F; Robinson, Carol V; Beaumont, Claire; Richardson, Keith; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Hugh I

    2012-01-17

    We present the use of drug-like molecules as a traveling wave (T-wave) ion mobility (IM) calibration sample set, covering the m/z range of 122.1-609.3, the nitrogen collision cross-section (Ω(N(2))) range of 124.5-254.3 Å(2) and the helium collision cross-section (Ω(He)) range of 63.0-178.8 Å(2). Absolute Ω(N(2)) and Ω(He) values for the drug-like calibrants and two diastereomers were measured using a drift-tube instrument with radio frequency (RF) ion confinement. T-wave drift-times for the protonated diastereomers betamethasone and dexamethasone are reproducibly different. Calibration of these drift-times yields T-wave Ω(N(2)) values of 189.4 and 190.4 Å(2), respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of T-wave IM spectrometry to differentiate diastereomers differing in Ω(N(2)) value by only 1 Å(2), even though the resolution of these IM experiments were ∼40 (Ω/ΔΩ). Demonstrated through density functional theory optimized geometries and ionic electrostatic surface potential analysis, the small but measurable mobility difference between the two diastereomers is mainly due to short-range van der Waals interactions with the neutral buffer gas and not long-range charge-induced dipole interactions. The experimental RF-confining drift-tube and T-wave Ω(N(2)) values were also evaluated using a nitrogen based trajectory method, optimized for T-wave operating temperature and pressures, incorporating additional scaling factors to the Lennard-Jones potentials. Experimental Ω(He) values were also compared to the original and optimized helium based trajectory methods.

  15. [Speed drugs].

    PubMed

    Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Until recently "speed drugs" have not awake higher social emotions. Usually they associate with Red Bull, allowed driving long time, and workaholic from modern enterprise to regenerate before next task. Currently on the base of new regulation on the list of controlled substances benzylpyperazine, its related compounds and 17 plants products were added. The article discussed the sources and biological action of these psychoactive substances, which are illegal in Poland.

  16. Multivariate optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of terpenes in Nicotiana langsdorffii.

    PubMed

    Ardini, Francisco; Carro, Marina Di; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Grotti, Marco; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of five terpenes (α-pinene, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, and geraniol) in the leaves of Nicotiana langsdorffii. The microextraction conditions (extraction temperature, equilibration time, and extraction time) were optimized by means of a Doehlert design. The experimental design showed that, for α-pinene and limonene, a low temperature and a long extraction time were needed for optimal extraction, while linalool, α-terpineol, and geraniol required a high temperature and a long extraction time. The chosen compromise conditions were temperature 60°C, equilibration time 15 min and extraction time 50 min. The main analytical figures of the optimized method were evaluated; LODs ranged from 0.07 ng/g (α-pinene) to 8.0 ng/g (geraniol), while intraday and interday repeatability were in the range 10-17% and 9-13%, respectively. Finally, the procedure was applied to in vitro wild-type and transgenic specimens of N. langsdorffii subjected to abiotic stresses (chemical and heat stress). With the exception of geraniol (75-374 ng/g), low concentration levels of terpenes were measured (ng/g level or lower); some interesting variations in terpene concentration induced by abiotic stress were observed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dendrite Suppression by Synergistic Combination of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Crosslinked with Natural Terpenes and Lithium-Powder Anode for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Lee, Jae Won; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2017-05-22

    Lithium-metal anode has fundamental problems concerning formation and growth of lithium dendrites, which prevents practical applications of next generation of high-capacity lithium-metal batteries. The synergistic combination of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) crosslinked with naturally occurring terpenes and lithium-powder anode is promising solution to resolve the dendrite issues by substituting conventional liquid electrolyte/separator and lithium-foil anode system. A series of SPEs based on polysiloxane crosslinked with natural terpenes are prepared by facile thiol-ene click reaction under mild condition and the structural effect of terpene crosslinkers on electrochemical properties is studied. Lithium powder with large surface area is prepared by droplet emulsion technique (DET) and used as anode material. The effect of the physical state of electrolyte (solid/liquid) and morphology of lithium-metal anode (powder/foil) on dendrite growth behavior is systematically studied. The synergistic combination of SPE and lithium-powder anode suggests an effective solution to suppress the dendrite growth owing to the formation of a stable solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and delocalized current density. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  19. Construction of a chiral central nervous system (CNS)-active aminotetralin drug compound based on a synthesis strategy using multitasking properties of (S)-1-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen; Hedberg, Martin; Qvarnström, Fredrik R; Sjögren, Magnus P T; Tian, Wei

    2007-12-01

    This Account describes the design and development of a scalable synthesis for the drug molecule AR-A2 (1) starting from the discovery route originating in medicinal chemistry. Special emphasis is placed on the introduction of the correct (R) stereochemistry on C2, which was ultimately achieved in a diastereoselective imine-reducing step applying NaBH4. After optimization, this transformation was operated on a large pilot-plant scale (2000 L), offering the desired product (11) in 55% yield and 96% diastereomeric excess at a 100 kg batch size. From a synthesis strategy point of view, the choice of (S)-1-phenylethylamine (9) was crucial not only for its role as a provider of the NH2 functionality and the stereo-directing abilities but also as an excellent protecting group in the subsequent N-arylation reaction, according to the Buchwald-Hartwig protocol. As one of the very first examples in its kind, the latter step was scaled up to pilot manufacturing (125 kg in 2500 L vessel size), delivering an outstanding isolated yield of 95%. This consecutive series of chemical transformations was completed with an environmentally friendly removal of the phenethyl appendage. In addition, an elegant method to synthesize the tetralone substrate 6, as well as a novel and robust procedure to use imidazole as a buffer for the selective formation of the mono-HBr salt of AR-A2, will be briefly described.

  20. How a microbial drug transporter became essential for crop cultivation on acid soils: aluminium tolerance conferred by the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family

    PubMed Central

    Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major agricultural constraint for crop cultivation on acid soils, which comprise a large portion of the world's arable land. One of the most widely accepted mechanisms of Al tolerance in plants is based on Al-activated organic acid release into the rhizosphere, with organic acids forming stable, non-toxic complexes with Al. This mechanism has recently been validated by the isolation of bona-fide Al-tolerance genes in crop species, which encode membrane transporters that mediate Al-activated organic acid release leading to Al exclusion from root apices. In crop species such as sorghum and barley, members in the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family underlie Al tolerance by a mechanism based on Al-activated citrate release. Scope and Conclusions The study of Al tolerance in plants as conferred by MATE family members is in its infancy. Therefore, much is yet to be discovered about the functional diversity and evolutionary dynamics that led MATE proteins to acquire transport properties conducive to Al tolerance in plants. In this paper we review the major characteristics of transporters in the MATE family and will relate this knowledge to Al tolerance in plants. The MATE family is clearly extremely flexible with respect to substrate specificity, which raises the possibility that Al tolerance as encoded by MATE proteins may not be restricted to Al-activated citrate release in plant species. There are also indications that regulatory loci may be of pivotal importance to fully explore the potential for Al-tolerance improvement based on MATE genes. PMID:20511585

  1. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Jones, Michael G [Chubbuck, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Trowbridge, Tammy L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  2. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  3. [The biochemical mechanisms of the action of N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas. The possible reasons for drug resistance to these compounds].

    PubMed

    Syrkin, A B; Gorbacheva, L B

    1996-01-01

    N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas exhibit a wide spectrum of antitumor activity. They react as alkylating agents at nucleophilic sites in purine and pyrimidine moieties of DNA. The predominant site of this alkylation is N7 of guanine, which is followed by the site N3 of adenine and 06 of guanine. The formation and persistence of 0(6)-alkylguanine (0(6)-AG) may be of primary importance in cytotoxicity of the nitrosoureas. 0(6)-AG adducts of DNA of the tumor cells are repaired by protein 0(6)-alkylguanine-DNA transferase (0(6)-AGT) which transfers the alkyl group to internal cysteine residue being the acceptor protein for the alkyl group in an irreversible transfer reaction. 0(6)-AGT can protect the tumor cells against 0(6)-AG adducts by the way of inhibiting the formation of the DNA interstrand cross-links 0(6)-AGT plays an important role in the drug resistance because it repairs the DNA alkyl adducts at the 0(6) position of guanine. The 0(6)-AGT activity inversely correlates with the cytotoxic effect of the nitrosoureas. The agents like 0(6)-methylguanosine, 0(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine, and some 0(6)-benzylated guanine derivatives are effective inactivators of 0(6)-AGT, and thus can be used to enhance the cytotoxicity of N-nitrosoureas. The activation of 0(6)-AGT and other repairing enzymes such as alpha and beta DNA-polymerases as well as an increase in the level of reduced glutathione may be used in developing the resistance to the nitrosoureas.

  4. One-pot bioconversion of algae biomass into terpenes for advanced biofuels and bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Wu, Weihua

    In this study, rising demand for transportation fuels, diminishing reserved of fossil oil, and the concerns with fossil fuel derived environmental pollution as well as the green-house gas emission derived climate change have resulted in the compelling need for alternative, sustainable new energy sources(1). Algae-based biofuels have been considered one of the promising alternatives to fossil fuels as they can overcome some of these issues (2-4). The current state-of-art of algal biofuel technologies have primarily focused on biodiesel production through prompting high algal lipid yields under the nutrient stress conditions. There are less interests of using algae-based carbohydrate and proteinsmore » as carbon sources for the fermentative production of liquid fuel compounds or other high-value bioproducts(5-7).« less

  5. One-pot bioconversion of algae biomass into terpenes for advanced biofuels and bioproducts

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Wu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rising demand for transportation fuels, diminishing reserved of fossil oil, and the concerns with fossil fuel derived environmental pollution as well as the green-house gas emission derived climate change have resulted in the compelling need for alternative, sustainable new energy sources(1). Algae-based biofuels have been considered one of the promising alternatives to fossil fuels as they can overcome some of these issues (2-4). The current state-of-art of algal biofuel technologies have primarily focused on biodiesel production through prompting high algal lipid yields under the nutrient stress conditions. There are less interests of using algae-based carbohydrate and proteinsmore » as carbon sources for the fermentative production of liquid fuel compounds or other high-value bioproducts(5-7).« less

  6. [Advances in metabolic engineering for the microbial production of naturally occurring terpenes-limonene and bisabolene: a mini review].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yaru; Hu, Zhihui; Xiao, Dongguang; Yu, Aiqun

    2018-01-25

    Limonene (C₁₀H₁₆) and bisabolene (C₁₅H₂₄) are both naturally occurring terpenes in plants. Depending on the number of C₅ units, limonene and bisabolene are recognized as representative monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. Limonene and bisabolene are important pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products used in the prevention and treatment of cancer and many other diseases. In addition, they can be used as starting materials to produce a range of commercially valuable products, such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and biofuels. The low abundance or yield of limonene and bisabolene in plants renders their isolation from plant sources non-economically viable. Isolation of limonene and bisabolene from plants also suffers from low efficiency and often requires harsh reaction conditions, prolonged reaction times, and expensive equipment cost. Recently, the rapid developments in metabolic engineering of microbes provide a promising alternative route for producing these plant natural products. Therefore, producing limonene and bisabolene by engineering microbial cells into microbial factories is becoming an attractive alternative approach that can overcome the bottlenecks, making it more sustainable, environmentally friendly and economically competitive. Here, we reviewed the status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce limonene and bisabolene including microbial hosts, key enzymes, metabolic pathways and engineering of limonene/bisabolene biosynthesis. Furthermore, key challenges and future perspectives were discussed.

  7. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D

    2013-08-01

    The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  9. When to Compound Medications for Veterinary Patients.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Lauren Eichstadt

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as a brief discussion about some of the restrictions applicable to compounding medications for veterinary patients based on U. S. Food and Drug Administration compliance policy guidelines and provides a brief summary of when it is appropriate to compound medications for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds using systematic single-ion chromatograms

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Yoshio; Kanabus-Kaminska, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In order to determine the background level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Canadian indoor air, a method of identification and quantification at a level of 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} using systematic single-ion chromatograms (SICs) has been developed. The compounds selected for measurement included several halogenated compounds, oxygen compounds, terpenes, and C8 to C16 n-alkanes. Air samples were taken in 3-layered sorbent tubes and trapped compounds were thermally desorbed into the helium stream of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analytical system. Total quantities of volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID). Individual compounds were analyzed bymore » a GC/MS. For the identification of compounds in the main stream GC effluent, both the specific GC retention and mass spectra were used. About 50 selected SICs were routinely extracted from a total ion chromatogram (TIC) to detect and quantify compounds. For each compound, a single representative ion was selected. The specific retention was calculated from the elution time on the SIC. For quantification, ion counts under a peak in the SIC were measured. The single-ion MS response factor for some of the compounds was experimentally determined using a dynamic reference procedure.« less

  11. Compound Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a new one-step liquid-liquid extraction technique which cuts processing time, reduces costs and eliminates much of the equipment required. Technique employs disposable extraction columns, originally developed as an aid to the Los Angeles Police Department, which allow more rapid detection of drugs as part of the department's drug abuse program. Applications include medical treatment, pharmaceutical preparation and forensic chemistry. NASA waived title to Caltech, and Analytichem International is producing Extubes under Caltech license.

  12. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  13. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Two Naturally Occurring Terpenes, Dehydrocostuslactone and Costunolide, Decrease Intracellular GSH Content and Inhibit STAT3 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action ofdehydrocostuslactone (DCE) andcostunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC50 of 10 µM with concomitantdown-regulation ofthe phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an α-β-unsatured carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the α-β-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

  15. Segmental dependent transport of low permeability compounds along the small intestine due to P-glycoprotein: the role of efflux transport in the oral absorption of BCS class III drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of P-gp efflux in the in vivo intestinal absorption process of BCS class III P-gp substrates, i.e. high-solubility low-permeability drugs. The in vivo permeability of two H (2)-antagonists, cimetidine and famotidine, was determined by the single-pass intestinal perfusion model in different regions of the rat small intestine, in the presence or absence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. The apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and the BL-AP transport of the compounds in the presence or absence of various efflux transporters inhibitors (verapamil, erythromycin, quinidine, MK-571 and fumitremorgin C) was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers. P-gp expression levels in the different intestinal segments were confirmed by immunoblotting. Cimetidine and famotidine exhibited segmental dependent permeability through the gut wall, with decreased P(eff) in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal regions of the intestine. Coperfusion of verapamil with the drugs significantly increased the permeability in the ileum, while no significant change in the jejunal permeability was observed. Both drugs exhibited significantly greater BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Concentration dependent decrease of this secretion was obtained by the P-gp inhibitors verapamil, erythromycin and quinidine, while no effect was evident by the MRP2 inhibitor MK-571 and the BCRP inhibitor FTC, indicating that P-gp is the transporter mediates the intestinal efflux of cimetidine and famotidine. P-gp levels throughout the intestine were inversely related to the in vivo permeability of the drugs from the different segments. The data demonstrate that for these high-solubility low-permeability P-gp substrates, P-gp limits in vivo intestinal absorption in the distal segments of the small intestine; however P-gp plays a minimal role in the proximal intestinal segments due to significant lower P-gp expression levels

  16. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  17. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  18. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  19. Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J Egea; Vidal, José L