Thiedke, Carolyn C; Hoeft, Katherine A; Pearson, William S
To discover how community-based family physicians notify patients of test results and whether there are differences based on sex, length of time in practice, reimbursement status, employment status,or percentage of practice in managed care. We mailed a survey to 500 randomly selected members of the South Carolina chapter of the American Academy of Family Physicians. All analyses were preformed using SASTM version 8.2. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data. A total of 367 physicians responded (73% response rate). The main outcome variable was the time each physician spent notifying patients of test results: a mean of 20.86 +/- 18.3 minutes per day(range 0-120 minutes/day). Women physicians and those with more than 75% managed care were significantly more likely to spend more than the median time notifying patients of test results. Physicians vary in the amount of time they spend notifying patients of their test results, with female physicians and those with more than 75% of their practice in managed care spending more time than do male physicians and physicians with less managed care.
Kaphingst, Kimberly A; McBride, Colleen M; Wade, Christopher; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Reid, Robert; Larson, Eric; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Brody, Lawrence C
Examination of patients' responses to direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility tests is needed to inform clinical practice. This study examined patients' recall and interpretation of, and responses to, genetic susceptibility test results provided directly by mail. This observational study had three prospective assessments (before testing, 10 days after receiving results, and 3 months later). Participants were 199 patients aged 25-40 years who received free genetic susceptibility testing for eight common health conditions. More than 80% of the patients correctly recalled their results for the eight health conditions. Patients were unlikely to interpret genetic results as deterministic of health outcomes (mean = 6.0, s.d. = 0.8 on a scale of 1-7, 1 indicating strongly deterministic). In multivariate analysis, patients with the least deterministic interpretations were white (P = 0.0098), more educated (P = 0.0093), and least confused by results (P = 0.001). Only 1% talked about their results with a provider. Findings suggest that most patients will correctly recall their results and will not interpret genetics as the sole cause of diseases. The subset of those confused by results could benefit from consultation with a health-care provider, which could emphasize that health habits currently are the best predictors of risk. Providers could leverage patients' interest in genetic tests to encourage behavior changes to reduce disease risk.
Krasowski, Matthew D.; Grieme, Caleb V.; Cassady, Brian; Dreyer, Nicholas R.; Wanat, Karolyn A.; Hightower, Maia; Nepple, Kenneth G.
Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) are commonplace in industrialized countries. Many hospitals are granting their patients access to their medical information through online patient portals. In this report, we describe a retrospective analysis of patient access to diagnostic test results released through the patient portal (MyChart; Epic, Inc.) at a state academic medical center. Methods: We analyzed 6 months of data for anatomic pathology, clinical laboratory, and radiology test results to evaluate variations in results release (automated vs. manual) and subsequent patient access to the institutional patient portal. During this period, diagnostic test results were released for all patient encounters including inpatient units, outpatient clinics, and the emergency department. Results: Manual results release by providers before automated release time occurred most commonly in the outpatient setting. The highest rates of access of diagnostic test results occurred for outpatients (about 30% overall view rate), females (two times or more compared to males in nearly every age bracket), and 20–45-year-old. Access rates of diagnostic tests in the emergency department or inpatient units were <10% across all populations. Access of diagnostic test results was very low for 12–17-year-old, likely influenced by institutional policies limiting parental proxy access within this pediatric age range. Approximately 20% of outpatient laboratory results were viewed by patients within 8 h of release from the EHR to the patient portal and 10% within 2 h of release. Conclusions: Patient accessing of diagnostic test results were generally higher for females, outpatients, and 20–45-year-old. Approximately, 20% of outpatient results were viewed quickly by patients after release to the EHR. PMID:29226008
Krasowski, Matthew D; Grieme, Caleb V; Cassady, Brian; Dreyer, Nicholas R; Wanat, Karolyn A; Hightower, Maia; Nepple, Kenneth G
Electronic health records (EHRs) are commonplace in industrialized countries. Many hospitals are granting their patients access to their medical information through online patient portals. In this report, we describe a retrospective analysis of patient access to diagnostic test results released through the patient portal (MyChart; Epic, Inc.) at a state academic medical center. We analyzed 6 months of data for anatomic pathology, clinical laboratory, and radiology test results to evaluate variations in results release (automated vs. manual) and subsequent patient access to the institutional patient portal. During this period, diagnostic test results were released for all patient encounters including inpatient units, outpatient clinics, and the emergency department. Manual results release by providers before automated release time occurred most commonly in the outpatient setting. The highest rates of access of diagnostic test results occurred for outpatients (about 30% overall view rate), females (two times or more compared to males in nearly every age bracket), and 20-45-year-old. Access rates of diagnostic tests in the emergency department or inpatient units were <10% across all populations. Access of diagnostic test results was very low for 12-17-year-old, likely influenced by institutional policies limiting parental proxy access within this pediatric age range. Approximately 20% of outpatient laboratory results were viewed by patients within 8 h of release from the EHR to the patient portal and 10% within 2 h of release. Patient accessing of diagnostic test results were generally higher for females, outpatients, and 20-45-year-old. Approximately, 20% of outpatient results were viewed quickly by patients after release to the EHR.
Landis, Megan N; Keeling, James H; Yiannias, James A; Richardson, Donna M; Nordberg Linehan, Diane L; Davis, Mark D P
Peristomal dermatitis is a common problem in patients with ostomies that is a source of considerable morbidity. Irritant contact dermatitis is most common, but allergic contact dermatitis can also occur. Because of the lack of published reports on patch testing for this indication, we undertook a retrospective study of patch testing results in patients with suspected peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. We sought to describe our patch testing experience with patients referred with peristomal dermatitis. This was a retrospective review of medical records of patients with ostomies and peristomal dermatitis who underwent patch testing in the Mayo Clinic Departments of Dermatology in Jacksonville, FL; Rochester, MN; and Scottsdale, AZ, during a 10-year period (2000-2010). Ten patients with peristomal dermatitis were referred for patch testing (6 in Minnesota, 2 in Florida, and 2 in Arizona). Patients were patch tested to the materials used in their stoma devices, to the standard series, and in some cases to supplemental series. All 10 had at least one allergic patch test reaction, most commonly to stoma paste (3 of 10 patients). Retrospective nature of study via chart review is a limitation. Patch testing is a useful tool for identification of allergens in patients with peristomal dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Giardina, Traber D; Baldwin, Jessica; Nystrom, Daniel T; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep
Online portals provide patients with access to their test results, but it is unknown how patients use these tools to manage results and what information is available to promote understanding. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore patients' experiences and preferences when accessing their test results via portals. We conducted 95 interviews (13 semistructured and 82 structured) with adults who viewed a test result in their portal between April 2015 and September 2016 at 4 large outpatient clinics in Houston, Texas. Semistructured interviews were coded using content analysis and transformed into quantitative data and integrated with the structured interview data. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the structured data. Nearly two-thirds (63%) did not receive any explanatory information or test result interpretation at the time they received the result, and 46% conducted online searches for further information about their result. Patients who received an abnormal result were more likely to experience negative emotions (56% vs 21%; P = .003) and more likely to call their physician (44% vs 15%; P = .002) compared with those who received normal results. Study findings suggest that online portals are not currently designed to present test results to patients in a meaningful way. Patients experienced negative emotions often with abnormal results, but sometimes even with normal results. Simply providing access via portals is insufficient; additional strategies are needed to help patients interpret and manage their online test results. Given the absence of national guidance, our findings could help strengthen policy and practice in this area and inform innovations that promote patient understanding of test results.
Giardina, Traber D; Baldwin, Jessica; Nystrom, Daniel T; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep
Abstract Objective Online portals provide patients with access to their test results, but it is unknown how patients use these tools to manage results and what information is available to promote understanding. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore patients’ experiences and preferences when accessing their test results via portals. Materials and Methods We conducted 95 interviews (13 semistructured and 82 structured) with adults who viewed a test result in their portal between April 2015 and September 2016 at 4 large outpatient clinics in Houston, Texas. Semistructured interviews were coded using content analysis and transformed into quantitative data and integrated with the structured interview data. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the structured data. Results Nearly two-thirds (63%) did not receive any explanatory information or test result interpretation at the time they received the result, and 46% conducted online searches for further information about their result. Patients who received an abnormal result were more likely to experience negative emotions (56% vs 21%; P = .003) and more likely to call their physician (44% vs 15%; P = .002) compared with those who received normal results. Discussion Study findings suggest that online portals are not currently designed to present test results to patients in a meaningful way. Patients experienced negative emotions often with abnormal results, but sometimes even with normal results. Simply providing access via portals is insufficient; additional strategies are needed to help patients interpret and manage their online test results. Conclusion Given the absence of national guidance, our findings could help strengthen policy and practice in this area and inform innovations that promote patient understanding of test results. PMID:29240899
Meyer, Ashley N D; Murphy, Daniel R; Al-Mutairi, Aymer; Sittig, Dean F; Wei, Li; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep
Delays in following up abnormal test results are a common problem in outpatient settings. Surveillance systems that use trigger tools to identify delayed follow-up can help reduce missed opportunities in care. To develop and test an electronic health record (EHR)-based trigger algorithm to identify instances of delayed follow-up of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) results in patients being treated for hypothyroidism. We developed an algorithm using structured EHR data to identify patients with hypothyroidism who had delayed follow-up (>60 days) after an abnormal TSH. We then retrospectively applied the algorithm to a large EHR data warehouse within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), on patient records from two large VA networks for the period from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011. Identified records were reviewed to confirm the presence of delays in follow-up. During the study period, 645,555 patients were seen in the outpatient setting within the two networks. Of 293,554 patients with at least one TSH test result, the trigger identified 1250 patients on treatment for hypothyroidism with elevated TSH. Of these patients, 271 were flagged as potentially having delayed follow-up of their test result. Chart reviews confirmed delays in 163 of the 271 flagged patients (PPV = 60.1%). An automated trigger algorithm applied to records in a large EHR data warehouse identified patients with hypothyroidism with potential delays in thyroid function test results follow-up. Future prospective application of the TSH trigger algorithm can be used by clinical teams as a surveillance and quality improvement technique to monitor and improve follow-up.
Mukherjee, Chandrama; Sweet, Kevin M; Luzum, Jasmine A; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Christman, Michael F; Kitzmiller, Joseph P
This study aimed to examine pharmacogenomic test results and patient perspectives at an academic cardiovascular medicine clinic. Test results for three common cardiovascular drug-gene tests (warfarin- CYP2C9-VKORC1 , clopidogrel- CYP2C19 and simvastatin- SLCO1B1 ) of 208 patients in the Ohio State University-Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative were examined to determine the incidence of potentially actionable test results. A post-hoc, anonymous, patient survey was also conducted. Potentially actionable test results for at least one of the three drug-gene tests were determined in 170 (82%) patients. Survey responses (n = 134) suggested that patients generally considered their test results to be important (median of 7.5 on a 10-point scale of importance) and were interested (median of 7.3 on a 10-point scale of interest) in a Clinical Pharmacogenomic Service. Attitudes toward pharmacogenomic testing were generally favorable, and potentially actionable test results were not uncommon in this cardiovascular medicine cohort.
Woolen, Sean; Kazerooni, Ella A; Wall, Amber; Parent, Kelly; Cahalan, Shannon; Alameddine, Mitchell; Davenport, Matthew S
To measure patient willingness to wait and emotional disutility of waiting for outpatient imaging test results. A prospective HIPAA-compliant multicenter outpatient quality improvement survey was administered by a trained interviewer to 218 outpatients from November 1, 2016, to February 1, 2017. The survey was vetted by patient- and family-centered care advocates with experience in survey design and underwent precognitive testing for readability. Six clinical scenarios were tested. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The response (93% [202 of 218]) and completion (93% [188 of 202]) rates were excellent. Anxiety (28% [57 of 202]), depression (26% [53 of 202]), and cancer (23% [46 of 202]) histories were common. Median stated expectations for imaging test results receipt were 3 days after a screening examination (interquartile range [IQR] 5 days); 2 days after chest x-ray for chest pain (IQR 3) or MRI or CT for back pain (IQR 2); and 1 day after chest x-ray for pneumonia (IQR 2), MRI or CT for brain tumor (IQR 2), or CT for cancer treatment (IQR 3). If imaging results are not received, the median time patients stated they would wait to call their provider was 1 to 5 days (varied by indication). Waiting for imaging results exerts an emotional change in 45% (91 of 202) of individuals, with the majority (85% [77 of 91]) experiencing anxiety (minimal 28%, mild 45%, moderate 22%, severe 4%, extreme 1%). Patients expect outpatient imaging results within 1 to 3 days and will call providers by 1 to 5 days. Waiting for test results commonly induces anxiety. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Baowen; Yang, Huaitao; Li, Zaibo; Wei, Guijian; You, Jia; Liang, Xiaoman; Zhao, Chengquan
Age-adjusted evaluations have explored the possible utility of (HPV test results in women with LSIL Pap. We investigated HPV test results and histopathologic follow-up results of LSIL patients from China's largest CAP-certified laboratory. Patients with LSIL between 2011 and 2015 from the Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics were retrospectively retrieved and their hrHPV test results and histological follow-up results were collected and analyzed. LSIL result was identified in 37,895 cases from 2,206,588 Pap tests (1.7%) including 1,513,265 liquid-based cytology and 693,323 conventional Pap tests. The average of these women was 38.4 years (15-88). The LSIL reporting rate in women <30 years was significantly higher than that in women > 30 years (2.1% vs 1.7%). The age specific reporting LSIL rates declined with increased age. 8,014 of 37,895 (21.2%) women with LSIL cytology also had HC2 HPV test results. 75.8% of women with LSIL Pap tests were hrHPV+ and the HPV+ rates declined with increased age except in patients older than 60 years. Overall histopathologic diagnoses within 6 months after LSIL were identified in 5,987 of 37,895 patients at Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics. CIN2/3 was identified in 15.2% patients, CIN1 in 66.9%, negative in 14.9% patients. No invasive carcinoma was found in all patients. Of 8014 patients with LSIL Pap test and HPV testing results, 1727 patients had histological follow-up within 6 months after Pap cytology test and HPV testing. The detection rate of CIN2/3 was significantly higher in patients with positive HPV testing result than that in patients with negative HPV testing result (17.8% vs. 8.1%). Among patients with LSIL/HPV negative tests, CIN2/3 was detected in 1 of 30 (3.3%) women aged 50 years and above, appearing lower than those in women less than 50 years (8.0%, 28/351, P=0.357). This is the largest histological follow-up study in women with LSIL Pap from China and the data are helpful in establishing a baseline for better understanding
Safari, Mojgan; Sayemiri, Hooshyar
Introduction The etiology of chronic urticaria is unknown in many cases. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of autoimmune antibodies in patients with chronic urticaria by using of the Autologous Serum Skin Test (ASST). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of autologous antibodies in the serum of 38 patients (25 females and 13 males) with idiopathic chronic urticaria who were referred to the Hamedan Allergy Clinic in 2014. All of the necessary tests for demonstrating chronic urticaria were performed, including complete blood count (CBC), thyroid and liver functionality tests, and the prick test but they did not confirm the cause of chronic urticaria. We conducted the Autologous Serum Skin Test on the patients and analyzed the results. Results In 15 patients (39%), the ASST was positive. Of the 15 patients with positive autoimmune chronic urticaria, five patients (33%) were males, and 10 patients (67%) were females. Conclusion We concluded that many patients with chronic urticaria have autoimmune urticaria. It is the reason for the lack of the response to treatment with common medications for urticaria. New ways of treatment must be considered for them. PMID:27504169
Spyridakou, Chrysa; Luxon, Linda M; Bamiou, Doris E
To compare self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and hyperacusis in adults with auditory processing disorders (APDs) and normal controls; and to compare self-reported symptoms to objective test results (speech in babble test, transient evoked otoacoustic emission [TEOAE] suppression test using contralateral noise). A prospective case-control pilot study. Twenty-two participants were recruited in the study: 10 patients with reported hearing difficulty, normal audiometry, and a clinical diagnosis of APD; and 12 normal age-matched controls with no reported hearing difficulty. All participants completed the validated Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability questionnaire, a hyperacusis questionnaire, a speech in babble test, and a TEOAE suppression test using contralateral noise. Patients had significantly worse scores than controls in all domains of the Amsterdam Inventory questionnaire (with the exception of sound detection) and the hyperacusis questionnaire (P < .005). Patients also had worse TEOAE suppression test results in both ears than controls; however, this result was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Strong correlations were observed between self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and speech in babble test results in the right ear (ρ = 0.624, P = .002), and between self-reported symptoms of hyperacusis and TEOAE suppression test results in the right ear (ρ = -0.597 P = .003). There was no significant correlation between the two tests. A strong correlation was observed between right ear speech in babble and patient-reported intelligibility of speech in noise, and right ear TEOAE suppression by contralateral noise and hyperacusis questionnaire. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
McManimen, Stephanie L; Jason, Leonard A
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized. One commonly utilized method is exercise testing, maximal or submaximal. Many patients with ME and CFS experience PEM after participating in these tests, and often show abnormal results. However, some patients still exhibit normal results after participating in the exercise testing. This study examined the differences between two patient groups with ME and CFS, those with normal results and those with abnormal results, on several PEM-related symptoms and illness characteristics. The results suggest those that displayed abnormal results following testing have more frequent and severe PEM, worse overall functioning, and are more likely to be bedbound than those that displayed normal results.
Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R
To identify states with laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories may release copies of laboratory test results and to describe how these laws may affect pharmacists' ability to obtain patient laboratory test results. Researchers examined state statutes and administrative codes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia at the University of Iowa Law Library between June and July 2007. Researchers also consulted with lawyers, state Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments officers, and law librarians. Laws relating to the study objective were analyzed. 34 jurisdictions do not restrict the release of laboratory test results, while 17 states have laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories can send copies of test results. In these states, pharmacists will have to use alternative sources, such as physician offices, to obtain test results. Pharmacists must consider state law before requesting copies of laboratory test results from clinical laboratories. This may be an issue that state pharmacy associations can address to increase pharmacist access to important patient information.
Uter, W; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Frosch, P J
Assessment of the value of patch testing patients' own perfumes, eau de toilette, deodorants and shaving lotions with regard to diagnosing contact allergy to fragrances, and an analysis of the spectrum of concurrent patch test reactions to single fragrance allergens. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; http://www.ivdk.org) regarding patch test results with above products brought in by the patient, considered as possible cause of contact dermatitis, were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2002, 1468 patients were patch tested with 2557 single products (deodorants, n = 1094; eau de toilette, n = 598; perfume, n = 530; and pre- or after-shave, n = 325; remainder not classifiable), mostly 'as is'. Positive reactions were observed in 129 patients (to 191 products). In 58 of these patients, no further patch test reactions to the fragrance mix (FM-I), Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) or 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentyl)-3-cyclohexencarboxaldehyde (e.g. Lyral(R)) were found. A strong association between contact sensitivity to the above commercial allergens and positive reactions to products was observed. Some single compounds such as ylang-ylang oil, propolis and especially oak moss absolute are important allergens in the 'perfume-positive' subgroup, but less in a subgroup positive to own deodorants. Patch testing this scope of products, brought in by the patient, can be regarded as a simple, safe and effective method to diagnose clinically relevant contact sensitization - the more so, as the composition of such products is ever-changing, and the sensitivity of established 'screening allergens' is thus insufficient.
Lokaj-Berisha, V; Berisha, N; Lumezi, B; Ahmetaj, L; Bejtullahu, G; Karahoda, N; Pupovci, H
The aim of this study was to identify the most common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis. The study enrolled 102 participants including 64 patients with respiratory allergies (among them 15 were clinically diagnosed as asthma patients, 41 with rhinitis, 8 were both) and 38 healthy controls. All of participants were subject of skin prick tests (SPT) with series of common allergenic extracts. Sera from all participants were tested for total IgE and eosinophil count. To measure airflow limitation and reversibility in asthma patients the pulmonary function testing were carried out. M/F ratio was 1:1.6 in patients and 1:0.7 in control group with mean age 28.88 year (SD 13.16; range 6 - 55 year) and 20.47 respectively (SD 1.16; range 19-23 year). The most common risk factors in these patients were total IgE more than 100 IU/ml, eosinophils above 4% and positive family history of atopy. Skin prick testing results showed prevalence rates for allergen groups in this manner: house dust mites 81.3 %, pollens 57.8 %, animal dandruff 12.5% and moulds 4.9%. Polysensitization was common in 51.6% of all sensitized patients being positive to more than one group of allergens. House dust mites are the main sensitizing allergens among our allergic patients as well as healthy controls. Next in importance, in all participants, are grasses. This pattern of prevalence was expected based on herbal geography, climate and specially lifestyle. It was also compatible with the results from studies carried out in places with the same habitat.
Nanji, Amin A.
This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845
Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna
Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997
Koch, Hèlen; van Bokhoven, Marloes A; ter Riet, Gerben; van Alphen-Jager, Jm Tineke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Bindels, Patrick J E
Unexplained fatigue is frequently encountered in general practice. Because of the low prior probability of underlying somatic pathology, the positive predictive value of abnormal (blood) test results is limited in such patients. The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between established diagnoses and the occurrence of abnormal blood test results among patients with unexplained fatigue; to survey the effects of the postponement of test ordering on this relationship; and to explore consultation-related determinants of abnormal test results. Cluster randomised trial. General practices of 91 GPs in the Netherlands. GPs were randomised to immediate or postponed blood-test ordering. Patients with new unexplained fatigue were included. Limited and expanded sets of blood tests were ordered either immediately or after 4 weeks. Diagnoses during the 1-year follow-up period were extracted from medical records. Two-by-two tables were generated. To establish independent determinants of abnormal test results, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Data of 325 patients were analysed (71% women; mean age 41 years). Eight per cent of patients had a somatic illness that was detectable by blood-test ordering. The number of false-positive test results increased in particular in the expanded test set. Patients rarely re-consulted after 4 weeks. Test postponement did not affect the distribution of patients over the two-by-two tables. No independent consultation-related determinants of abnormal test results were found. Results support restricting the number of tests ordered because of the increased risk of false-positive test results from expanded test sets. Although the number of re-consulting patients was small, the data do not refute the advice to postpone blood-test ordering for medical reasons in patients with unexplained fatigue in general practice.
Grogan, Anne; Coughlan, Michael; Prizeman, Geraldine; O'Connell, Niamh; O'Mahony, Nora; Quinn, Katherine; McKee, Gabrielle
To elicit the perceptions of patients, who self-tested their international normalized ratio and communicated their results via a text or phone messaging system, to determine their satisfaction with the education and support that they received and to establish their confidence to move to self-management. Self-testing of international normalized ratio has been shown to be reliable and is fast becoming common practice. As innovations are introduced to point of care testing, more research is needed to elicit patients' perceptions of the self-testing process. This three site study used a cross-sectional prospective descriptive survey. Three hundred and thirty patients who were prescribed warfarin and using international normalized ratio self-testing were invited to take part in the study. The anonymous survey examined patient profile, patients' usage, issues, perceptions, confidence and satisfaction with using the self-testing system and their preparedness for self-management of warfarin dosage. The response rate was 57% (n = 178). Patients' confidence in self-testing was high (90%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the support received, but expressed the need for more information on support groups, side effects of warfarin, dietary information and how to dispose of needles. When asked if they felt confident to adjust their own warfarin levels 73% agreed. Chi-squared tests for independence revealed that none of the patient profile factors examined influenced this confidence. The patients cited the greatest advantages of the service were reduced burden, more autonomy, convenience and ease of use. The main disadvantages cited were cost and communication issues. Patients were satisfied with self-testing. The majority felt they were ready to move to self-management. The introduction of innovations to remote point of care testing, such as warfarin self-testing, needs to have support at least equal to that provided in a hospital setting. © 2017 John
Torsvik, Torbjørn; Lillebo, Børge; Hertzum, Morten
Electronic health records may present laboratory test results in a variety of ways. Little is known about how the usefulness of different visualizations of laboratory test results is influenced by the complex and varied process of clinical decision making. The purpose of this study was to investigate how clinicians access and utilize laboratory test results when caring for patients with chronic illness. We interviewed 10 attending physicians about how they access and assess laboratory tests when following up patients with chronic illness. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed qualitatively. Informants preferred different visualizations of laboratory test results, depending on what aspects of the data they were interested in. As chronic patients may have laboratory test results that are permanently outside standardized reference ranges, informants would often look for significant change, rather than exact values. What constituted significant change depended on contextual information (e.g., the results of other investigations, intercurrent diseases, and medical interventions) spread across multiple locations in the electronic health record. For chronic patients, the temporal relations between data could often be of special interest. Informants struggled with finding and synthesizing fragmented information into meaningful overviews. The presentation of laboratory test results should account for the large variety of associated contextual information needed for clinical comprehension. Future research is needed to improve the integration of the different parts of the electronic health record. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.
Ireland, Graham; Brown, Simon G A; Buckley, Nicholas A; Stormer, Jeff; Currie, Bart J; White, Julian; Spain, David; Isbister, Geoffrey K
To determine which laboratory tests are first associated with severe envenoming after a snakebite, when (ie, how long after the bite) the test results become abnormal, and whether this can determine a safe observation period after suspected snakebite. Prospective cohort study of 478 patients with suspected or confirmed snakebite recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project from January 2002 to April 2009, who had at least three sets of laboratory test results and at least 12 hours of observation in hospital after the bite. Severe envenoming was defined as venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC), myotoxicity, neurotoxicity or thrombotic microangiopathy. International normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatine kinase (CK) level, and neurological examination. There were 240 patients with severe envenoming, 75 with minor envenoming and 163 non-envenomed patients. Of 206 patients with VICC, 178 had an INR > 1.2 (abnormal) on admission, and the remaining 28 had an INR > 1.2 within 12 hours of the bite. Of 33 patients with myotoxicity, a combination of CK > 250 U/L and an abnormal aPTT identified all but two cases by 12 hours; one of these two was identified within 12 hours by leukocytosis. Nine cases of isolated neurotoxicity had a median time of onset after the bite of 4 hours (range, 35 min - 12 h). The combination of serial INR, aPTT and CK tests and repeated neurological examination identified 213 of 222 severe envenoming cases (96%) by 6 hours and 238 of 240 (99%) by 12 hours. Laboratory parameters (INR, aPTT and CK) and neurological reassessments identified nearly all severe envenoming cases within 12 hours of the bite, even in this conservative analysis that assumed normal test results if the test was not done.
Richards, Elliott G; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B; Fruhman, Gary
A common concern of utilizing prenatal advanced genetic testing is that a result of uncertain clinical significance will increase patient anxiety. However, prenatal ultrasound may also yield findings of uncertain significance, such as 'soft markers' for fetal aneuploidy, or findings with variable prognosis, such as mild ventriculomegaly. In this study we compared risk perception following uncertain test results from each modality. A single survey with repeated measures design was administered to 133 pregnant women. It included 'intolerance of uncertainty' questions, two hypothetical scenarios involving prenatal ultrasound or advanced genetic testing, and response questions. The primary outcome was risk perception score. Risk perception did not vary significantly between ultrasound and genetic scenarios (p = 0.17). The genetic scenario scored a higher accuracy (p = 0.04) but lower sense of empowerment (p = 0.01). Furthermore, patients were more likely to seek additional testing after an ultrasound than after genetic testing (p = 0.05). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes including perception of life-altering consequences and hypothetical worry, anxiety, confusion, or medical care decisions. Our data suggest that uncertain findings on prenatal genetic testing do not elicit a higher perception of risk or anxiety when compared to ultrasound findings of comparable uncertainty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Leyland, Rebecca; Freedman, Danielle B
Background Lab Tests Online-UK celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2014 and to mark the occasion the first comprehensive survey of website users was undertaken. Methods A pop-up box with a link to Survey Monkey was used to offer website users the chance to participate in the survey, which was live from 4 March 2014 to 11 April 2014. Results Six hundred and sixty-one participants started the questionnaire and 338 completed all of the demographic questions. Although the website is designed and aimed at patients and the public, a significant number of respondents were health-care professionals (47%). The majority of survey participants found the Lab Tests Online-UK website via a search engine and were visiting the site for themselves. The majority of participants found what they were looking for on the website and found the information very easy or fairly easy to understand. The patient respondents were keen to see their laboratory test results (87%), but the majority did not have access (60%) at the time of the survey. Conclusions This survey provides good evidence that the Lab Tests Online-UK website is a useful resource for patients and health-care professionals alike. It comes at a poignant time as the release of results direct to patients starts with access to their medical records. The Lab Tests Online-UK website has a key role in enabling patients to understand their lab test results, and therefore empowering them to take an interest and engage in their own healthcare.
Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella
Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994
Lubin, Ira M.; Caggana, Michele; Constantin, Carolyn; Gross, Susan J.; Lyon, Elaine; Pagon, Roberta A.; Trotter, Tracy L.; Wilson, Jean Amos; McGovern, Margaret M.
Previous studies have suggested that patient care may be compromised as a consequence of poor communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals in cases in which molecular genetic test results are reported. To understand better the contributing factors to such compromised care, we investigated both pre- and postanalytical processes using cystic fibrosis mutation analysis as our model. We found that although the majority of test requisition forms requested patient/family information that was necessary for the proper interpretation of test results, in many cases, these data were not provided by the individuals filling out the forms. We found instances in which result reports for simulated diagnostic testing described individuals as carriers where only a single mutation was found with no comment pertaining to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Similarly, reports based on simulated scenarios for carrier testing were problematic when no mutations were identified, and the patient's race/ethnicity and family history were not discussed in reference to residual risk of disease. Remarkably, a pilot survey of obstetrician-gynecologists revealed that office staff, including secretaries, often helped order genetic tests and reported test results to patients, raising questions about what efforts are undertaken to ensure personnel competency. These findings are reviewed in light of what efforts should be taken to improve the quality of test-ordering and result-reporting practices. PMID:18669879
Cairns, Alyssa; Poulos, Greg; Bogan, Richard
To address some of the questions about "who" has been tested for OSA (in terms of pretest risk and study outcomes) using a leading national portable recorder (PR; "home sleep test"). This was a retrospective analysis of a large repository of de-identified test results and pretest OSA risk from 2009 to 2013. A total of 244,602 patients were referred for testing from a variety of clinical practices across North America. A total of 193,221 studies were included in the final analyses. NA. The final sample was predominately male (59%), middle-aged (53.5 ± 14.2 years), obese (BMI >30; 54%), with a large neck circumference (males = 16.9 ± 1.2 in; females = 15.0 ± 1.3 in) and a mild degree of reported sleepiness (ESS 8.7±5.3). Approximately 50% of the sample endorsed a history of hypertension. The majority of patients (89.6%) were at a high risk for OSA as assessed by the ARES screening questionnaire. Of this group, 79.9% had an AHI ≥5 (MAHI = 18.2 ± 18.1) and 98% had an RDI ≥5 (MRDI = 28.0 ± 19.6). The majority of patients (~60%) that screened at no apparent risk for OSA indeed had AHIs <5 events/h. Those with a high pretest risk for OSA but low test outcomes (AHI <5) were twice as likely to be female and approximately 20% to 30% more likely to report a history of insomnia, lung disease, and/or stroke. The majority of PR has been conducted on patients with a high degree of suspicion for OSA. These data suggest that PR has been used in patients with a high pretest probability of OSA. Patients with a history of insomnia, stroke, and/ or lung disease may especially benefit by a comprehensive evaluation by a physician trained in sleep medicine, especially if PR results are negative for OSA. Future studies should evaluate the utility of gender-appropriate screening measures. Although questionnaire-based screening is helpful in determining OSA risk, it is imperative that it be used in conjunction with clinical decision-making. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep
Turner, James M; Pattni, Sanjeev S; Appleby, Richard N; Walters, Julian Rf
Chronic diarrhoea is a common condition, resulting from a number of different disorders. Bile acid diarrhoea, occurring in about a third of these patients, is often undiagnosed. We hypothesised that a positive diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea would reduce the need for subsequent investigations for alternative diagnoses. Patients previously recruited to a study of chronic diarrhoea who had selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) testing and subsequent follow-up at our institution were identified. In a retrospective analysis, the numbers of defined investigations undertaken from the first 3 months after SeHCAT in the following 5 years were compared. 90 patients were identified with primary bile acid diarrhoea (SeHCAT retention <15%, n=36) or idiopathic diarrhoea (SeHCAT retention >15%, n=54). Follow-up had been performed on 29 and 39 subjects, respectively, with no differences in previous investigations or the last contact date. In the follow-up period, the proportions of these patients who had undergone endoscopic procedures (gastroscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) were the same. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the SeHCAT-negative group who had other investigations, including imaging, physiological tests and blood tests (p=0.037). The use of cross-sectional imaging was significantly higher in this group (p=0.015) with greater proportions having CT (0.44 vs 0.10) and MRI (0.26 vs 0.07). Ultrasound use and the number of blood tests were higher in the SeHCAT-negative group whereas the SeHCAT-positive group attended more clinic appointments (p=0.013). A positive diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea, made by a SeHCAT test, resulted in reduced use of diagnostic investigations over the subsequent 5 years.
Modrek, Sepideh; Schatzkin, Eric; De La Cruz, Anna; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Nwokolo, Ernest; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ujuju, Chinazo; Montagu, Dominic; Liu, Jenny
The World Health Organization now recommends parasitological confirmation for malaria case management. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are an accurate and simple diagnostic to confirm parasite presence in blood. However, where they have been deployed, adherence to RDT results has been poor, especially when the test result is negative. Few studies have examined adherence to RDTs distributed or purchased through the private sector. The Rapid Examination of Malaria and Evaluation of Diagnostic Information (REMEDI) study assessed the acceptability of and adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care from private sector drug retailers in two cities in Oyo State in south-west Nigeria. In total, 465 adult participants were enrolled upon exit from a participating drug shop having purchased anti-malaria drugs for themselves. Participants were given a free RDT and the appropriate treatment advice based on their RDT result. Short Message Service (SMS) text messages reiterating the treatment advice were sent to a randomly selected half of the participants one day after being tested. Participants were contacted via phone four days after the RDT was conducted to assess adherence to the RDT information and treatment advice. Adherence to RDT results was 14.3 percentage points (P-val <0.001) higher in the treatment group who were sent the SMS. The higher adherence in the treatment group was robust to several specification tests and the estimated difference in adherence ranged from 9.7 to 16.1 percentage points. Further, the higher adherence to the treatment advice was specific to the treatment advice for anti-malarial drugs and not other drugs purchased to treat malaria symptoms in the RDT-negative participants who bought both anti-malarial and symptom drugs. There was no difference in adherence for the RDT-positive participants who were sent the SMS. SMS text messages substantially increased adherence to RDT results for patients seeking care for malaria from
Jass, C M; Böhringer, D; Erb, C; Jordan, J F
Glaucoma is an ocular disease with typical progressive damage of the optic nerve. In the past it was postulated that glaucoma induces acquired colour vision disorders. Until now all studies about glaucoma and colour vision disorders did not include vascular risk factors. In the present study we determined several vascular risk factors concerning the results of the colour vision test Roth 28-hue (E) desaturated in glaucoma patients. On the basis of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) we determined the influence of several risk factors, such as arteriosclerotic and vasospastic risk factors, on the results of the colour vision test Roth 28-hue (E) desaturated in glaucoma patients. 353 glaucoma patients were included in this study. We detected a strong influence of age and mean defect in perimetry and an additional effect of arteriosclerotic and vasospastic risk factors on the results of the colour vision test Roth 28-hue (E) desaturated in glaucoma patients. We suspect that arteriosclerotic and vasospastic risk factors independently to glaucoma have an influence on colour vision. In the future attention additionally has to be given to vascular risk factors in the colour vision testing of glaucoma patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Alam, A.; Handayani, I.; Indrati, A. R.
The incidence of Dengue virus infection is increasing every year,and the progression of the disease is faster towards severe manifestations in infants than in children and adults.The clinical appearance is still challenging to make for the diagnosis of dengue fever, so routine blood examination becomes one of thefurther enforcement efforts. The gold standard isconfirmatory tests for dengue, but this examination would be difficult in remote areas and also cost more. Research on serological testing and its association with routine blood testing in infant dengue-infected patients is still less publicized. The purpose of this study was to describe theconnection between serological and routine blood test results of infant dengue infection patients in RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin. Observational design in dengue 56 infants with 2-12 months age range examined serologic test and routine blood examination. The results showed that serological testing tended to be on routine blood tests. It can be from differences in routine blood tests such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets. Also, there was also no difference in routine blood profile between reactive and non-reactive IgM groups. It suggests that routine blood examination results are still lacking for the diagnosis of dengue.
Kaur, Manreet; Singapura, Prianka; Kalakota, Neeharika; Cruz, Guillermina; Shukla, Richa; Ahsan, Sidra; Tansel, Aylin; Thrift, Aaron P; El-Serag, Hashem B
The QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) (QIAGEN Group, Hilden, Germany) test is widely used to screen for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) before treatment with a tumor necrosis factor antagonist. The test frequently produces indeterminate results, prompting additional testing. We evaluated factors associated with indeterminate results from the QFT-GIT test among patients with IBD. We conducted a case-control study among eligible adults with QFT-GIT test results and a concomitant diagnosis of IBD receiving care at a tertiary referral center from 2011 through 2013. We compared patients with IBD with indeterminate and determinate (positive or negative) results from the QFT-GIT test. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical features, laboratory parameters, and medication use from medical charts. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 400 patients with IBD (265 Crohn's disease and 135 ulcerative colitis) were included in the final analyses. Indeterminate results were noted in 11.5% of patients. At the time of testing, a higher proportion of patients with indeterminate results from the QFT-GIT test were on systemic corticosteroid therapy (60.9% vs 30.5% of patients with conclusive test results; P < .001), had levels of C-reactive protein above 0.8 mg (62.2% vs 39.9% of patients with clear test results; P = .005), had an erythrocyte sedimentation rate above 15 mm/h (55.6% vs 35.8% of patients with clear test results; P = .01), had serum levels of albumin below 3.5 g/dL (33.3% vs 6.3% of patients with clear test results; P < .001), and had low levels of hemoglobin (52.2% vs 28.3% of patients with clear test results; P = .001). In multivariable analysis, corticosteroid use (adjusted OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.44-5.88; P = .003) and serum levels of albumin below 3.5 g/dL (adjusted OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.36-9.60; P = .009) were
Myers, Ronald E; Wolf, Thomas; Shwae, Phillip; Hegarty, Sarah; Peiper, Stephen C; Waldman, Scott A
We sought to assess physician interest in molecular prognosic testing for patients with early stage colon cancer, and identify factors associated with the likelihood of test adoption. We identified physicians who care for patients with early-stage (pN0) colon cancer patients, mailed them a survey, and analyzed survey responses to assess clinician receptivity to the use of a new molecular test (GUCY2C) that identifies patients at risk for recurrence, and clinician readiness to act on abnormal test results. Of 104 eligible potential respondents, 41 completed and returned the survey. Among responding physicians, 56 % were receptive to using the new prognostic test. Multivariable analyses showed that physicians in academic medical centers were significantly more receptive to molecular test use than those in non-academic settings. Forty-one percent of respondents were ready to act on abnormal molecular test results. Physicians who viewed current staging methods as inaccurate and were confident in their capacity to incorporate molecular testing in practice were more likely to say they would act on abnormal test results. Physician receptivity to molecular diagnostic testing for early-stage colon cancer patients is likely to be influenced by practice setting and perceptions related to delivering quality care to patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01972737.
Markman, John D; Barbosa, William A; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Frazer, Maria; Rast, Shirley; Dugan, Michelle; Nandigam, Kiran; Villareal, Armando; Kwong, Tai C
To determine whether the prevailing liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy assay (LC-MS/MS) assay designed to monitor buprenorphine compliance of the sublingual formulation used in the substance abuse treatment setting can be extrapolated to the transdermal formulation used in the chronic pain treatment setting, which is 1000-fold less concentrated. Retrospective chart review. Self-reported compliant patients using the transdermal or sublingual formulations of buprenorhphine. Transdermal patch application was also visually confirmed during clinic visits. Urine drug test results from a LC-MS/MS were compared between samples from transdermal and sublingual patients. While all sublingual patients tested positive for at least one metabolite of buprenorphine, only 69% of the transdermal patients did so. In addition, the most abundant metabolite in the transdermal patients was buprenorphine-glucuronide, as compared with norbuprenorphine-glucuronide in sublingual patients. These data suggest that currently available urine drug tests for buprenorphine, including the more expensive LC-MS/MS based assays, may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect the metabolites from transdermal buprenorphine patients. This study highlights the need to evaluate the value and sensitivity of urine drug tests given the wide range of buprenorphine dosing in clinical practice. These results underscore the need for additional cost benefit analyses comparing different confirmatory drug testing techniques including many commercially available drug testing options. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dooley, Michael D; Burreal, Shay; Sweeny, Kate
Whether healthy or sick, adults undergo frequent medical testing; however, no guidelines currently exist as to how patients are informed of their medical test results. This short report provides an initial look at how healthcare professionals deliver medical test results and patient preferences regarding these procedures. We specifically focus on two options for delivery of results: (1) open-ended timing, in which patients are contacted without warning when test results become available; or (2) closed-ended timing, in which patients are provided with a specific day and time when they will learn their test results. Participants who underwent a recent medical test indicated which delivery method their healthcare professional provided and their preferred method. Findings demonstrate a large discrepancy between actual and preferred timing, stemming from a general trend towards providing open-ended timing, whereas patient preferences were evenly split between the two options. This study provides a first step in understanding the merits of two options for delivering medical test results to patients and suggests an opportunity to improve patient care. The findings from this study provide first steps toward the development of guidelines for delivering test results in ways that maximize the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fraccaro, Paolo; Vigo, Markel; Balatsoukas, Panagiotis; van der Veer, Sabine N; Hassan, Lamiece; Williams, Richard; Wood, Grahame; Sinha, Smeeta; Buchan, Iain; Peek, Niels
Patient portals are considered valuable instruments for self-management of long term conditions, however, there are concerns over how patients might interpret and act on the clinical information they access. We hypothesized that visual cues improve patients' abilities to correctly interpret laboratory test results presented through patient portals. We also assessed, by applying eye-tracking methods, the relationship between risk interpretation and visual search behaviour. We conducted a controlled study with 20 kidney transplant patients. Participants viewed three different graphical presentations in each of low, medium, and high risk clinical scenarios composed of results for 28 laboratory tests. After viewing each clinical scenario, patients were asked how they would have acted in real life if the results were their own, as a proxy of their risk interpretation. They could choose between: 1) Calling their doctor immediately (high interpreted risk); 2) Trying to arrange an appointment within the next 4 weeks (medium interpreted risk); 3) Waiting for the next appointment in 3 months (low interpreted risk). For each presentation, we assessed accuracy of patients' risk interpretation, and employed eye tracking to assess and compare visual search behaviour. Misinterpretation of risk was common, with 65% of participants underestimating the need for action across all presentations at least once. Participants found it particularly difficult to interpret medium risk clinical scenarios. Participants who consistently understood when action was needed showed a higher visual search efficiency, suggesting a better strategy to cope with information overload that helped them to focus on the laboratory tests most relevant to their condition. This study confirms patients' difficulties in interpreting laboratories test results, with many patients underestimating the need for action, even when abnormal values were highlighted or grouped together. Our findings raise patient safety
McCaughey, Euan J; Li, Julie; Badrick, Tony C; Westbrook, Johanna I; Georgiou, Andrew
To evaluate how well general practitioners (GPs) manage and respond to laboratory results for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, EBM reviews, ProQuest and Scopus. Peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2000 and 2015 that assessed GPs' management of laboratory results for patients with DM or CVD. Study design and demographics, laboratory tests and key findings relating to GP management of laboratory results were extracted from studies. Thirteen articles were included, comprising seven studies which utilized surveys, four observational studies, one cohort study and one randomized controlled trial. Findings indicate that GPs often overestimate the risk of complications associated with DM and CVD based on laboratory results and have unrealistically high expectations regarding the precision of laboratory tests. Considerable variation existed in the use of repeat testing for diagnostic confirmation and in GPs' identification of the difference between two consecutive results required to indicate a change in patient condition. GPs also often failed to initiate appropriate treatment for patients with DM and CVD based on laboratory results. Feedback to GPs about their test ordering patterns and educational messages on laboratory results improved clinical outcomes. Evidence about how well GPs manage results and its impact on patient outcomes remains weak and inconclusive. This review identified a number of areas where interventions could support GPs to improve the interpretation and management of laboratory test results, including feedback to GPs and educational messages on test result reports. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Li, Lin-Feng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Jing
Environmental contact factors in eczema were investigated in China by clinical questionnaire and patch testing patients with a modified European standard series of allergens. 217 consecutive eczema patients were studied. Contact dermatitis (CD) was clinically diagnosed in 30% of the patients. Among the patients patch tested, 46 patients had clinically diagnosed allergic CD (ACD), 20 patients clinically had non-ACD (NACD) (including 16 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, 1 case of phototoxic contact reaction and 3 cases of asteatotic eczema) and 115 patients had clinically suspected ACD. 45 patients (98%) in the ACD group went on to have relevant patch test results. The most common ACD was from metals, fragrance materials, cosmetics and rubber materials. The most common contact allergens identified were nickel, fragrance mix, para-phenylenediamine (PPD), carba mix and thimerosal. No adverse reactions were observed to patch testing, except for pruritus in patch-test-positive patients. The positive rate of patch testing in ACD was much higher than that in NACD (98% versus 15%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). 60 (28%) patients had facial dermatitis (FD). Among these, 20 (33%) were confirmed as having ACD. 48 (22%) patients had hand dermatitis (HD). Among these, 7 (15%) were confirmed as having ACD. Fewer patients were confirmed as having ACD in the HD group than in the FD (15% versus 33%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). Although the difference was not significant, the total positivity rate in the HD group (55%) was lower than in the other groups. 65 (30%) patients had unclassified endogenous eczema (UEE). The total positive rate of patch testing in the UEE group (56%) was no different from that in the FD or HD groups. However, the relevance of positive patch tests was hard to determine in UEE. These results indicate that CD is common in eczema; relatively more patients with FD have ACD, while other factors, such as irritation, may play more of a role in HD. The total positive rate
McCaslin, Devin L; Rivas, Alejandro; Jacobson, Gary P; Bennett, Marc L
We report 3 patients with Ménière's disease and describe how the combination of audiometry, video head impulse testing, and caloric results may prove helpful in the diagnosis of Ménière's disease. Three patients with "definite" Ménière's disease were evaluated in a tertiary care medical center. Each patient underwent videonystagmography, horizontal canal video head impulse testing, and audiometry. All 3 patients demonstrated moderate, flat, sensorineural hearing losses; significant caloric asymmetries; and bilaterally normal video head impulse testing. This pattern of findings suggests differential preservation of high-frequency function (video head impulse testing) with impairment of low-frequency function (unilaterally abnormal caloric test results) in these patients. Ipsilesional abnormal caloric testing in the presence of normal video head impulse testing is a pattern of findings observed in a cohort of patients who have "definite" Ménière's disease.
Huang, Chi-Hsuan; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho
The ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (o-VEMP) test results correlate significantly with caloric test results for patients with acoustic neuroma (AN), but not for patients with Meniere's disease (MD), indicating that the o-VEMP test may replace the caloric test for evaluating the vestibular nerve from which the AN arises. Conversely, the caloric, o-VEMP, and cervical VEMP (c-VEMP) tests should be performed to map lesion sites in the vestibular labyrinth. This study performed caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests on patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders to investigate their relationships. In all, 66 patients comprising 16 with unilateral AN and 50 with unilateral definite MD were enrolled. All patients underwent caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests. In the AN group, the caloric test identified canal paresis and caloric areflexia in 10 ears, while the o-VEMP and c-VEMP tests identified abnormal (absent or delayed) responses in 12 and 11 ears, respectively. A significant correlation existed between caloric and o-VEMP test results, but not between caloric and c-VEMP test results, or between o-VEMP and c-VEMP test results. For the MD group, abnormal caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP test results were obtained for 24%, 44%, and 38% of hydropic ears, respectively. No correlation existed between any two test results.
Shimoni, Zvi; Hermush, Vered; Glick, Joseph; Froom, Paul
To determine the clinical utility/disutility of canceling urine cultures in elderly patients with a negative dipstick. The cohort included consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized in internal medicine departments with an admission urinalysis and urine culture (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016). We calculated the sensitivity of the dipstick (either a trace leukocyte esterase or a positive nitrite test result) to detect patients with bacteriuria, and the decrease in urine cultures resulting from cancelation in patients with a negative dipstick. We reviewed the charts of patients with a positive culture but negative dipstick to determine if they received appropriate antibiotic therapy and if the culture results had clinical utility, defined as changes in antibiotic therapy made according to culture results in a patient who did not respond to initial antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity of the dipstick for bacteriuria was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.6-92.0%). Of the 210 patients with a positive culture but negative dipstick, 132 (62.9%) had a diagnosis clearly outside the urinary tract. Thirty-five patients (16.7%) received inappropriate differential antibiotic therapy. Urine cultures did not have clinical utility and canceling urine cultures in those with a negative dipstick would result in a 41.5% (95% CI, 40.3-42.7%) decrease in urine cultures. We conclude that canceling orders for urine cultures in the elderly patient with a negative dipstick did not have clinical disutility and would decrease inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Extrapolation to other settings is dependent on urinalysis methodology, patient selection, and physician ordering and treatment behaviors.
van der Weijden, T; van den Akker, M
The number of requests for diagnostic tests is rising. This leads to a higher chance of false test results. The false-negative proportion of a test is the proportion of negative test results among the diseased subjects. The false-positive proportion is the proportion of positive test results among the healthy subjects. The calculation of the false-positive proportion is often incorrect. For example, instead of 1 minus the specificity it is calculated as 1 minus the positive predictive value. This can lead to incorrect decision-making with respect to the application of the test. Physicians must apply diagnostic tests in such a way that the risk of false test results is minimal. The patient should be aware that a perfectly conclusive diagnostic test is rare in medical practice, and should more often be informed of the implications of false-positive and false-negative test results.
El Lakis, Mustapha; Nockel, Pavel; Gaitanidis, Apostolos; Guan, Bin; Agarwal, Sunita; Welch, James; Simonds, William F; Weinstein, Lee; Marx, Stephen; Nilubol, Naris; Patel, Dhaval; Merkel, Roxanne; Tirosh, Amit; Kebebew, Electron
Approximately 10% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have hereditary disease. Hereditary PHPT may be syndromic (MEN1, 2, and 4 and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome) or non-syndromic (familial isolated PHPT). There are limited data on the probability of testing positive for genetic mutation based on clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to determine potential associations between clinical and biochemical features and mutation in susceptibility genes for PHPT in patients with a family history of PHPT. A retrospective analysis of 657 patients who had an initial parathyroidectomy for PHPT at a tertiary referral center. Logistic regression analyses were performed in 205 patients with a family history of PHPT to identify factors associated with a positive genetic test. Of 657 patients, 205 (31.2%) had a family history of PHPT. Of those 205 patients, 123 (60%) had a germline mutation detected (91 MEN1, 14 CDC73, and 18 GCM2). In univariate analysis, younger age (45 years and younger), male sex, multigland disease, and parathyroid carcinoma were associated with positive germline mutation; biochemical cure after an initial parathyroidectomy was less frequent in patients with familial PHPT (96.2% vs 89.2%; p = 0.005). In multivariable analysis, age 45 years and younger, male sex, and multigland disease were independent factors associated with positive genetic testing. In addition to a family history of PHPT, male sex, age 45 years and younger, and presence of multigland disease, should prompt physicians to offer the opportunity for genetic counseling and testing, as it could influence the management of patients with PHPT. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Litchfield, Ian J; Bentham, Louise M; Lilford, Richard J; Greenfield, Sheila M
To understand how the results of laboratory tests are communicated to patients in primary care and perceptions on how the process may be improved. Qualitative study employing staff focus groups. Four UK primary care practices. Staff involved in the communication of test results. Five main themes emerged from the data: (i) the default method for communicating results differed between practices; (ii) clinical impact of results and patient characteristics such as anxiety level or health literacy influenced methods by which patients received their test result; (iii) which staff member had responsibility for the task was frequently unclear; (iv) barriers to communicating results existed, including there being no system or failsafe in place to determine whether results were returned to a practice or patient; (v) staff envisaged problems with a variety of test result communication methods discussed, including use of modern technologies, such as SMS messaging or online access. Communication of test results is a complex yet core primary care activity necessitating flexibility by both patients and staff. Dealing with the results from increasing numbers of tests is resource intensive and pressure on practice staff can be eased by greater utilization of electronic communication. Current systems appear vulnerable with no routine method of tracing delayed or missing results. Instead, practices only become aware of missing results following queries from patients. The creation of a test communication protocol for dissemination among patients and staff would help ensure both groups are aware of their roles and responsibilities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
Edmonds, Stephanie W; Solimeo, Samantha L; Lu, Xin; Roblin, Douglas W; Saag, Kenneth G; Cram, Peter
Purpose To use a mixed-methods approach to develop a letter that can be used to notify patients of their bone mineral density (BMD) results by mail that may activate patients in their bone-related health care. Patients and methods A multidisciplinary team developed three versions of a letter for reporting BMD results to patients. Trained interviewers presented these letters in a random order to a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older, at two different health care systems. We conducted structured interviews to examine the respondents’ preferences and comprehension among the various letters. Results A total of 142 participants completed the interview. A majority of the participants were female (64.1%) and white (76.1%). A plurality of the participants identified a specific version of the three letters as both their preferred version (45.2%; P<0.001) and as the easiest to understand (44.6%; P<0.01). A majority of participants preferred that the letters include specific next steps for improving their bone health. Conclusion Using a mixed-methods approach, we were able to develop and optimize a printed letter for communicating a complex test result (BMD) to patients. Our results may offer guidance to clinicians, administrators, and researchers who are looking for guidance on how to communicate complex health information to patients in writing. PMID:24940049
Wozniak, K D
For the diagnostics of allergic drug reactions in 2,246 patients tests of the skin and in vitro tests were carried out. As causes of the drug rashes analgetics/antipyretics, antibiotics, sulfonamides, local anaesthetics, oral anticonceptive drugs, remedies for the circulation, psychopharmaca and many others have been established. In these cases by means of skin test in 81.5%, by means of the lymphocyte transformation test in 42.9% and by means of the migration inhibition test in 35.9% of the patients a concordant result could be achieved concerning the clinical course of the disease. Relevant to practice from the results must be derived that in sensibilisation proved the avoidance of the pharmacon and of immunochemical related substances is necessary as well as principally in every anamnesis the question for drug tolerances must be asked. The possibility of the development of side effects of pharmaca when these facts are not taken into consideration is emphasized with the help of examples.
Jorgensen, James H.; Salinas, Jesse R.; Paxson, Rosemary; Magnon, Karen; Patterson, Jan E.; Patterson, Thomas F.
The Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct (MTD) test has been approved for use in the United States for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acid-fast smear-positive sputum samples since 1996. Four patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and one chronic pulmonary-disease patient seen in our institutions with abnormal chest radiographs and fluorochrome stain-positive sputa were evaluated for tuberculosis, including performance of the MTD test on expectorated sputum samples. Three of these five patients’ sputa were highly smear-positive (i.e., more than 100 bacilli per high-power field), while two patient’s sputa contained 1 to 10 bacilli per field. MTD results on sputum specimens from these patients ranged from 43,498 to 193,858 relative light units (RLU). Gen-Probe has defined values of at least 30,000 RLU as indicative of a positive test, i.e., the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA. Four of the patients’ sputum cultures yielded growth of M. kansasii within 6 to 12 days, and the fifth produced growth of M. avium only. One patient’s culture contained both M. kansasii and M. avium, but none of the initial or follow-up cultures from these five patients revealed M. tuberculosis. However, subsequent cultures from three of the patients again revealed M. kansasii. During the period of this study, in which MTD tests were performed on smear-positive sputum specimens from 82 patients, four of seven patients with culture-proven M. kansasii pulmonary infections yielded one or more false-positive MTD tests. The MTD sensitivity observed in this study was 93.8%, and the specificity was 85.3%. Five cultures of M. kansasii (including three of these patients’ isolates and M. kansasii ATCC 12478), and cultures of several other species were examined at densities of 105 to 107 viable CFU/ml by the MTD test. All five isolates of M. kansasii and three of three isolates of M. simiae yielded false-positive test
Schüle, Cornelius; Zill, Peter; Baghai, Thomas C; Eser, Daniela; Zwanzger, Peter; Wenig, Nadine; Rupprecht, Rainer; Bondy, Brigitta
Data suggest that both neurotrophic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) systems are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the non-conservative brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has an impact on HPA axis activity in depressed patients. At admission, the dexamethasone/CRH (DEX/CRH) test was performed in 187 drug-free in-patients suffering from major depression or depressed state of bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Moreover, genotyping of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was carried out using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method (FRET). Homozygous carriers of the Met/Met genotype showed a significantly higher HPA axis activity during the DEX/CRH test than patients carrying the Val/Val or Val/Met genotype (ACTH, cortisol). Our results further contribute to the hypothesized association between HPA axis dysregulation and reduced neuroplasticity in depression and are consistent with the assumption that BDNF is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying HPA axis activity.
Banko, A V; Lazarević, I B; Cupić, M D; Knezević, A M; Stevanović, G D; Krejović-Trivić, S B; Jovanović, T P
Routine laboratory diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is based on EBV serological testing, but due to problems in interpretation of results, molecular methods, especially PCR, are often necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between results of PCR and specific serological tests in diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus in patients with mononucleosis syndrome. The study comprised 68 patients with mononucleosis syndrome. Their blood samples were tested using ELISA for detection of 4 EBV specific antibodies (anti-VCA IgM and IgG, anti-EA-D IgG and anti-EBNA-1 IgG) and PCR for detection of EBV DNA. According to results of serology 42 patients had acute primary infection, 2 reactivation, 1 chronic active infection, 19 past infection, and 4 have been EBV seronegative. EBV DNA was detected in 17 patients (25%) and all of them were serologically defined as acutely infected. PCR was useful for resolving unclear serology results. Specific serology is the first step in diagnosis of IM, but PCR may serve as a useful additional diagnostic tool for clarifying serological dilemmas, reaching final diagnosis and defining status of the infection.
Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to provide an outline of how obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers can best incorporate these tests into their current practices and provide appropriate pretest and posttest counseling to patients. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should determine which tests will be offered as the standard in their practices so that similar testing strategies are made available to all patients. Practices should have procedures in place that ensure timely disclosure of test results to patients. As with any medical test, expectations regarding the performance of a genetic test should be discussed with the patient before the test is ordered. After counseling, patients should have the option to decline any or all testing. Pretest and posttest counseling should be done in a clear, objective, and nondirective fashion, which allows patients sufficient time to understand information and make informed decisions regarding testing and further evaluation or treatment. In addition to counseling each patient about her own personal risk, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should counsel patients regarding the risk for family members, including their potential to have affected offspring.
Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Scherer, Aaron M; Witteman, Holly O; Solomon, Jacob B; Exe, Nicole L; Fagerlin, Angela
Patient-facing displays of laboratory test results typically provide patients with one reference point (the "standard range"). To test the effect of including an additional harm anchor reference point in visual displays of laboratory test results, which indicates how far outside of the standard range values would need to be in order to suggest substantial patient risk. Using a demographically diverse, online sample, we compared the reactions of 1618 adults in the United States who viewed visual line displays that included both standard range and harm anchor reference points ("Many doctors are not concerned until here") to displays that included either (1) only a standard range, (2) standard range plus evaluative categories (eg, "borderline high"), or (3) a color gradient showing degree of deviation from the standard range. Providing the harm anchor reference point significantly reduced perceived urgency of close-to-normal alanine aminotransferase and creatinine results (P values <.001) but not generally for platelet count results. Notably, display type did not significantly alter perceptions of more extreme results in potentially harmful ranges. Harm anchors also substantially reduced the number of participants who wanted to contact their doctor urgently or go to the hospital about these test results. Presenting patients with evaluative cues regarding when test results become clinically concerning can reduce the perceived urgency of out-of-range results that do not require immediate clinical action. ©Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Aaron M Scherer, Holly O Witteman, Jacob B Solomon, Nicole L Exe, Angela Fagerlin. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 26.03.2018.
Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Hill, Ann; McManus, Richard J; Lilford, Richard; Greenfield, Sheila
Background The testing and result communication process in primary care is complex. Its successful completion relies on the coordinated efforts of a range of staff in primary care and external settings working together with patients. Despite the importance of diagnostic testing in provision of care, this complexity renders the process vulnerable in the face of increasing demand, stretched resources and a lack of supporting guidance. Methods We conducted a series of focus groups with patients and staff across four primary care practices using process-improvement strategies to identify and understand areas where either unnecessary delay is introduced, or the process may fail entirely. We then worked with both patients and staff to arrive at practical strategies to improve the current system. Results A total of six areas across the process were identified where improvements could be introduced. These were: (1) delay in phlebotomy, (2) lack of a fail-safe to ensure blood tests are returned to practices and patients, (3) difficulties in accessing results by telephone, (4) role of non-clinical staff in communicating results, (5) routine communication of normal results and (6) lack of a protocol for result communication. Conclusions A number of potential failures in testing and communicating results to patients were identified, and some specific ideas for improving existing systems emerged. These included same-day phlebotomy sessions, use of modern technology methods to proactively communicate routine results and targeted training for receptionists handling sensitive data. There remains an urgent need for further work to test these and other potential solutions. PMID:26251507
Devcich, Daniel A; Ellis, Christopher J; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J
Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is an advanced cardiac imaging test commonly used for diagnosing early signs of ischemic heart disease. Despite its importance in cardiology, little is known about its psychological effect on patients. The present study sought to examine these effects in relation to illness perceptions, cardiac health behavior intentions, and subsequent health behaviors. Forty-five nonacute cardiac patients who were referred for diagnostic coronary CT angiography completed questionnaires prior to testing and following the receipt of test results, at which point illness perceptions and intentions to take cardiac medication, as well as diet and exercise intentions were measured. Exercise and dietary behaviors were measured at follow-up 6 weeks later. Changes on these variables were then compared between patients diagnosed with normal arteries and patients diagnosed with diseased arteries. Compared to positive-testing patients, patients with normal test results reported significant changes toward more positive illness perceptions following testing, with improvements in emotional effect of illness, illness concern, consequences, and personal control of illness. The illness perception of treatment control was seen as more important among positive-testing patients, whereas both groups reported increases in illness coherence. Health behavior intentions (cardiac medication intentions and exercise intentions) increased for positive-testing patients only, as did physical activity at follow-up. Diagnosis-dependent psychological effects can be detected following coronary CT angiography. These effects have important implications for patient health and health care in diagnostic contexts, and the results from this study can be used to guide further research in this area.
Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to provide an outline of how obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers can best incorporate these tests into their current practices and provide appropriate pretest and posttest counseling to patients. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should determine which tests will be offered as the standard in their practices so that similar testing strategies are made available to all patients. Practices should have procedures in place that ensure timely disclosure of test results to patients. As with any medical test, expectations regarding the performance of a genetic test should be discussed with the patient before the test is ordered. After counseling, patients should have the option to decline any or all testing. Pretest and posttest counseling should be done in a clear, objective, and nondirective fashion, which allows patients sufficient time to understand information and make informed decisions regarding testing and further evaluation or treatment. In addition to counseling each patient about her own personal risk, obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should counsel patients regarding the risk for family members, including their potential to have affected offspring.
Lacagnina, Valerio; Leto-Barone, Maria S; La Piana, Simona; Seidita, Aurelio; Pingitore, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Gabriele
This article uses the logistic regression model for diagnostic decision making in patients with chronic nasal symptoms. We studied the ability of the logistic regression model, obtained by the evaluation of a database, to detect patients with positive allergy skin-prick test (SPT) and patients with negative SPT. The model developed was validated using the data set obtained from another medical institution. The analysis was performed using a database obtained from a questionnaire administered to the patients with nasal symptoms containing personal data, clinical data, and results of allergy testing (SPT). All variables found to be significantly different between patients with positive and negative SPT (p < 0.05) were selected for the logistic regression models and were analyzed with backward stepwise logistic regression, evaluated with area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve. A second set of patients from another institution was used to prove the model. The accuracy of the model in identifying, over the second set, both patients whose SPT will be positive and negative was high. The model detected 96% of patients with nasal symptoms and positive SPT and classified 94% of those with negative SPT. This study is preliminary to the creation of a software that could help the primary care doctors in a diagnostic decision making process (need of allergy testing) in patients complaining of chronic nasal symptoms.
Pina, J M; Domínguez, A; Alcaide, J; Alvarez, J; Camps, N; Díez, M; Godoy, P; Jansá, J M; Minguell, S
To determine the response of tuberculosis patients to tuberculin skin tests. The results of skin tests used for initial assessment of tuberculosis patients in Catalonia were reviewed (Multicenter Tuberculosis Research Project). Negative skin tests were those with indurations < 5 mm; positive tests were those with indurations measuring > or = 5 mm. Individuals were classed as having or not having risk factors for developing tuberculosis and those without risk factors were classified by age, location and extension of tuberculosis. Negative skin tests were seen in 1,566 patients (23%). Negative tests were more common in patients with risk factors, significantly so in those undergoing immunosuppressant therapy (50%) or with HIV infection (61%). Negative tests were less prevalent in patients with no risk factors (13%) and, among them, in children (1%), in patients between 15 and 29 years of age (10%) or in those with non-pulmonary forms (10%). Negative tests were significantly more prevalent among patients 60 to 74 years of age (27%), those over 74 (44%), and those whose disease was pulmonary and extrapulmonary (26%) or disseminated (64%). No significant differences in induration size of positive skin tests were observed for patients with and without risk factors (including HIV infection or non-infection). A normal distribution of induration size was observed in all groups. A negative tuberculin skin test for initial assessment should be interpreted in function of the presence or absence of risk factors, age, location or extension of tuberculosis. When a skin test is positive, the response will be similar whether or not an immunodepressant factor is present.
Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Hill, Ann; McManus, Richard J; Lilford, Richard; Greenfield, Sheila
The testing and result communication process in primary care is complex. Its successful completion relies on the coordinated efforts of a range of staff in primary care and external settings working together with patients. Despite the importance of diagnostic testing in provision of care, this complexity renders the process vulnerable in the face of increasing demand, stretched resources and a lack of supporting guidance. We conducted a series of focus groups with patients and staff across four primary care practices using process-improvement strategies to identify and understand areas where either unnecessary delay is introduced, or the process may fail entirely. We then worked with both patients and staff to arrive at practical strategies to improve the current system. A total of six areas across the process were identified where improvements could be introduced. These were: (1) delay in phlebotomy, (2) lack of a fail-safe to ensure blood tests are returned to practices and patients, (3) difficulties in accessing results by telephone, (4) role of non-clinical staff in communicating results, (5) routine communication of normal results and (6) lack of a protocol for result communication. A number of potential failures in testing and communicating results to patients were identified, and some specific ideas for improving existing systems emerged. These included same-day phlebotomy sessions, use of modern technology methods to proactively communicate routine results and targeted training for receptionists handling sensitive data. There remains an urgent need for further work to test these and other potential solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Garrison, Louis P; Babigumira, Joseph B; Masaquel, Anthony; Wang, Bruce C M; Lalla, Deepa; Brammer, Melissa
Patients with breast cancer whose tumors test positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are treated with HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, but limitations with HER2 testing may lead to false-positive (FP) or false-negative (FN) results. To develop a US-level model to estimate the effect of tumor misclassification on health care costs and patient quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Decision analysis was used to estimate the number of patients with early-stage breast cancer (EBC) whose HER2 status was misclassified in 2012. FP results were assumed to generate unnecessary trastuzumab costs and unnecessary cases of trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity. FN results were assumed to save money on trastuzumab, but with a loss of QALYs and greater risk of disease recurrence and its associated costs. QALYs were valued at $100,000 under a net monetary benefit approach. Among 226,870 women diagnosed with EBC in 2012, 3.12% (n = 7,070) and 2.18% (n = 4,955) were estimated to have had FP and FN test results, respectively. Approximately 8400 QALYs (discounted, lifetime) were lost among women not receiving trastuzumab because of FN results. The estimated incremental per-patient lifetime burden of FP or FN results was $58,900 and $116,000, respectively. The implied incremental losses to society were $417 million and $575 million, respectively. HER2 tests result in misclassification and nonoptimal treatment of approximately 12,025 US patients with EBC annually. The total economic societal loss of nearly $1 billion suggests that improvements in HER2 testing accuracy are needed and that further clinical and economic studies are warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamil, Wasim N; Lindberg, Magnus
Patch testing can improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To study the impact on HRQOL of elapsed time after patch testing (1-10 years), and how the outcome of testing and patients' recall affects HRQOL. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire was sent to all patients (aged 18-65 years) who were patch tested for suspected contact allergy in 2009, 2005 and 2000 at the Department of Dermatology in Örebro. The response rate was 51% (n = 256). The DLQI score was significantly lower at 10 years after patch testing (mean DLQI = 5.5) than at 1 year (mean DLQI = 7.7). Work was the most impaired aspect. A binary logistic model showed that only time (10 years after testing) was associated with no effect, a light effect or a moderate effect (DLQI < 10) on HRQOL. No such association was seen for patients with negative or positive test results concerning full recall, partial recall or no recall of diagnosed allergens. Although there was an improvement in HRQOL over time, the work aspect remained a major problem. The improvement was not affected by the outcome of testing and patients' recall of test results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ling, Sarah B; Richardson, Douglas B; Mettenbrink, Christie J; Westergaard, Benton C; Sapp-Jones, Terri D; Crane, Lori A; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; McFarlane, Mary; Kachur, Rachel; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
Notifying patients of gonorrhea and chlamydia test results using online services may improve clinic efficiency and increase receipt of test results. This study evaluated the implementation of an online results system in an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. Using the clinic's electronic medical records system to assess if and how gonorrhea and chlamydia test results were obtained, 3 time periods were examined between December 2007 and April 2009: period 1, six months before initiation of the online results system; Period 2, six months when patients could opt in for online results by creating their own access codes; and Period 3, four months when access codes were assigned. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess reasons for accepting or declining the online results system. A total of 9056 new patient visits were evaluated. During periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively 67%, 67%, and 70% patients received results either online or by telephone (NS). The proportion of patients calling the clinic for results decreased from 67% in period 1, to 51% in period 2, and 36% in period 3 (P < 0.0001). Survey results indicated that patients accepted online results primarily because of the ability to check results anytime of day. Reasons for not accepting results online included lack of Internet access or a preference to receive results via the telephone. The online results system decreased the number of phone calls to the clinic pertaining to STI test results, but had no effect on the overall proportion of patients receiving results.
Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.
Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) can be used by people with central visual acuity that does not meet the state standards to obtain an unrestricted driver’s license. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among visual and demographic factors, training hours, and the results of road testing for bioptic drivers. Methods A retrospective study of patients who received an initial daylight bioptic examination at the Ohio State University and subsequently received a bioptic license was conducted. Data were collected on vision including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field. Hours of driver training and results of Highway Patrol road testing were extracted from records. Relationships among vision, training hours, and road testing were analyzed. Results Ninety-seven patients who completed a vision examination between 2004 and 2008 and received daylight licensure with BTS were included. Results of the first Highway Patrol road test were available for 74 patients. The median interquartile range (IQR) hours of training prior to road testing was 21±17 hours, (range of 9 to 75 hours). Candidates without previous licensure were younger (p< 0.001) and had more documented training (p< 0.001). Lack of previous licensure and more training were significantly associated with having failed a portion of the Highway Patrol test and points deducted on the road test. Conclusions New bioptic drivers without previous non-bioptic driving experience required more training and performed more poorly on road testing for licensure than those who had previous non-bioptic licensure. No visual factor was predictive of road testing results after adjustment for previous experience. The hours of training received remained predictive of road testing outcome even with adjustment for previous experience. These results suggest that previous experience and trainer assessments should be investigated as potential predictors of road safety in bioptic drivers in
Arduc, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Tuna, Mazhar Muslim; Gokay, Ferhat; Tutuncu, Yasemin Ates; Isik, Serhat; Aydin, Yusuf; Peksoy, Irfan; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar
Radioactive Iodine therapy (RAIT) plays a major role in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. In addition to the thyroid gland, significant amounts of radioactive iodine are maintained in the stomach. The aim of this study was to determine if RAIT has any effect on Helicobacter pylori infection, based on the C urea breath test (UBT). The study included 85 patients with hyperthyroidism scheduled to undergo RAIT and 69 hyperthyroid subjects in whom methimazole treatment was planned. All subjects had pretreatment-positive UBT results, and the test was repeated on the first and third months after RAIT and methimazole treatment. After a mean RAIT dose of 15 mCi (range, 10-20 mCi), UBT became negative in 13 (15.3%) of 85 patients on the first month and 18 (21.2%) of 85 patients on the third month. All subjects treated with methimazole remained UBT positive on the first and third months of methimazole treatment (100%). Reduction in the number of UBT-positive patients on both the first and the third months after RAIT was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Distribution of hyperthyroidism etiologies and thyroid autoantibody levels in subjects with UBT that became negative and in subjects with UBT that remained positive were similar in the RAIT group (P > 0.05). Urea breath test negativity rates did not differ according to the radioiodine dose. Our findings indirectly showed that RAIT might have an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori. Clinical applications of this beneficial effect of RAIT on H. pylori should be further evaluated.
Cheng, Lee; DeJesus, Alma Y; Rodriguez, Maria A
Accurately estimating the life expectancy of critically ill patients with metastatic or advanced cancer is a crucial step in planning appropriate palliative or supportive care. We evaluated the results of laboratory tests performed within two days of hospital admission to predict the likelihood of death within 14 days. We retrospectively selected patients 18 years or older with metastatic or advanced cancer who were admitted to intensive care units or palliative and supportive care services in our hospital. We evaluated whether the following are independent predictors in a logistic regression model: age, sex, comorbidities, and the results of seven commonly available laboratory tests. The end point was death within 14 days in or out of the hospital. Of 901 patients in the development cohort and 45% died within 14 days. The risk of death within 14 days after admission increased with increasing age, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and white blood cell counts and decreasing albumin levels and platelet counts (P < 0.01). The model predictions were confirmed using a separate validation cohort. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.74 and 0.70 for the development and validation cohorts, respectively, indicating good discriminatory ability for the model. Our results suggest that laboratory test results performed within two days of admission are valuable in predicting death within 14 days for patients with metastatic or advanced cancer. Such results may provide an objective assessment tool for physicians and help them initiate conversations with patients and families about end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hubbell, F A; Frye, E B; Akin, B V; Rucker, L
We evaluated the usefulness of commonly ordered routine admission laboratory tests in 301 patients admitted consecutively to the internal medicine wards of a university teaching hospital. Using a consensus analysis approach, three Department of Medicine faculty members reviewed the charts of admitted patients to determine the impact of the test results on patient care. The evaluated tests were the urinalysis, hematocrit, white blood cell count, platelet count, six-factor automated multiple analysis (serum sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen), prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, chest x-ray, and electrocardiogram. Forty-five percent of the 3,684 tests were ordered for patients without recognizable medical indications. Twelve percent of these routine tests were abnormal, 5% led to additional laboratory testing, but only 0.5% led to change in the treatment of patients. We conclude that the impact of routine admission laboratory testing on patient care is very small and that there is little justification for ordering tests solely because of hospital admission.
Larrabee, Yuna C; Reisacher, William
Skin testing is a widely accepted method for identifying inhalant allergies. Intradermal (ID) testing is often performed after negative skin prick testing (SPT) when a practitioner has a high level of clinical suspicion for a particular allergen. A retrospective chart review study was performed over a 5-year period in patients with negative SPT for airborne allergens who also underwent ID testing based on a high level of suspicion for clinical allergy. Eighty-seven patients had negative SPT and went on to receive an average of 7 ID tests per patient. A total of 592 ID tests were performed after negative SPT. Of these, 20.8% (123/592) had a positive ID result with negative SPT. The allergens with the greatest percentage of positive ID results with negative SPTs were dog, cat, D. farinae, and D. pteronyssinus (33.3%, 34.3%, 39.4%, and 39.6%, respectively). The allergens least likely to test positive on ID testing after negative SPT were red maple, Cladosporium, and Alternaria (0%, 6.3%, and 6.5%, respectively). Approximately 20% of all negative results on SPT will have a positive ID test, more likely for indoor allergens. If a high suspicion for allergy exists in a patient with a negative SPT result, it may be useful to proceed with ID testing. However, the clinical significance of a positive ID test after negative SPT still needs to be elucidated. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Hopkins, D R; Florez, D
A small study comparing results of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) teardrop card test performed in the field, with results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) tests performed in the laboratory on venous blood specimens from the same suspected yaws patients was undertaken in Columbia in July 1975. The results suggest that the RPR teardrop card test may be used to screen for infectious, or potentially infectious, yaws patients under field conditions, but that it will not reliably detect patients with VDRL titres of 1:2 or less, or all patients in whom sera are reactive in the FTA-ABS test.
Hopkins, D R; Florez, D
A small study comparing results of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) teardrop card test performed in the field, with results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) tests performed in the laboratory on venous blood specimens from the same suspected yaws patients was undertaken in Columbia in July 1975. The results suggest that the RPR teardrop card test may be used to screen for infectious, or potentially infectious, yaws patients under field conditions, but that it will not reliably detect patients with VDRL titres of 1:2 or less, or all patients in whom sera are reactive in the FTA-ABS test. PMID:336143
Cordingley, Dean M; Girardin, Richard; Morissette, Marc P; Reimer, Karen; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J
To examine the safety and tolerability of clinical graded aerobic treadmill testing in recovering adolescent moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. We completed a retrospective case series of two moderate and five severe TBI patients (mean age, 17.3 years) who underwent initial Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing at a mean time of 71.6 days (range, 55-87) postinjury. Six patients completed one graded aerobic treadmill test each and one patient underwent initial and repeat testing. There were no complications. Five initial treadmill tests were completely tolerated and allowed an accurate assessment of exercise tolerance. Two initial tests were terminated early by the treatment team because of neurological and cardiorespiratory limitations. As a result of testing, two patients were cleared for aerobic exercise as tolerated and four patients were treated with individually tailored submaximal aerobic exercise programs resulting in subjective improvement in residual symptoms and/or exercise tolerance. Repeat treadmill testing in one patient performed after 1 month of treatment with submaximal aerobic exercise prescription was suggestive of improved exercise tolerance. One patient was able to tolerate aerobic exercise following surgery for posterior glottic stenosis. Preliminary results suggest that graded aerobic treadmill testing is a safe, well tolerated, and clinically useful tool to assess exercise tolerance in appropriately selected adolescent patients with TBI. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of tailored submaximal aerobic exercise prescription on exercise tolerance and patient outcomes in recovering adolescent moderate and severe TBI patients.
Karaca, M; Bayram, A; Kocoglu, M E; Gocmen, A; Eksi, F
Lower genital tract infections continue to be a problem due to the fact that the clinical diagnosis is usually inadequate, and subsequent care is suboptimal. This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of clinical diagnosis by comparing it with microbiologic test results, and to determine the causative agents of vaginal infections. Sixty-seven nonpregnant women (18-45 years of age) with the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection were enrolled in the study. Patients were not included if they had a history of vaginal infection during the previous three-month period or intrauterine device. The clinical diagnosis was based on the combinations of symptoms, direct observation of wet mount, homogeneous discharge, vaginal pH > 4.5, and detection of the amine odor after exposure of vaginal secretions to 10% KOH. Vaginal samples were taken with two cotton swabs, one was used for pH determination, and the second was utilized for microbiological tests. Gram staining and cultures with Sabouraud agar and chocolate agar were performed for microbiological diagnosis, and the results were compared. The clinical diagnoses included 26 (38.8%) candidiasis, 18 (26.8%) bacterial vaginosis, three (4.5%) trichomoniasis, and 20 (29.9%) mixed vaginal infections. Of the 26 patients with clinical diagnoses of candidiasis, 12 (46.1%) revealed Candiada albicans, nine (34.6) patients revealed microorganisms other than candida species, and five (19.2%) patients had no growth. Five (27.8%) bacterial vaginosis patients revealed Gardnarella vaginalis and 12 patients (66.6%) did not grow any microorganism. The overall rate of accurate clinical diagnoses confirmed by microbiological test results was 43.2%. Seventeen (43.6) of the 39 microbiological test results correlated with clinical diagnosis, and no growth was observed in 28 (41.8%) cultures. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of vaginal infection is inadequate and should be confirmed with microbiological testing if the resources
Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila
Background The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Results Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. Conclusions The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for
Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila
The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the
Weiss, Noel S
In recent years, a number of studies have achieved randomization of patients to alternative management strategies by blinding some patients (and their providers of medical care) to the results of tests that guide such strategies. Although this research approach has the potential to be a powerful means of measuring treatment effectiveness, the interpretation of the results may not be straightforward if the treatment received by test-positive persons is variable or not well documented, or if the analysis is not restricted to outcomes in test-positive persons. Studies in which the test results are withheld at random may face ethical issues that, to date, have received little discussion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lubin, Ira M; Caggana, Michele; Constantin, Carolyn; Gross, Susan J; Lyon, Elaine; Pagon, Roberta A; Trotter, Tracy L; Wilson, Jean Amos; McGovern, Margaret M
Previous studies have suggested that patient care may be compromised as a consequence of poor communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals in cases in which molecular genetic test results are reported. To understand better the contributing factors to such compromised care, we investigated both pre- and postanalytical processes using cystic fibrosis mutation analysis as our model. We found that although the majority of test requisition forms requested patient/family information that was necessary for the proper interpretation of test results, in many cases, these data were not provided by the individuals filling out the forms. We found instances in which result reports for simulated diagnostic testing described individuals as carriers where only a single mutation was found with no comment pertaining to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Similarly, reports based on simulated scenarios for carrier testing were problematic when no mutations were identified, and the patient's race/ethnicity and family history were not discussed in reference to residual risk of disease. Remarkably, a pilot survey of obstetrician-gynecologists revealed that office staff, including secretaries, often helped order genetic tests and reported test results to patients, raising questions about what efforts are undertaken to ensure personnel competency. These findings are reviewed in light of what efforts should be taken to improve the quality of test-ordering and result-reporting practices.
Ohtoshi, S; Kitami, Y; Sueki, H; Nakada, T
Patch testing is less dangerous than oral provocation testing for identification of the causative drug for patients with drug eruption; however, its usefulness for such identification is controversial. To clarify the rates of positive patch testing for patients with drug eruption, classified by causative drugs and clinical features. We analysed results during the period 1990-2010 for 444 patients (151 men, 293 women; mean ± SD age 49.9 ± 18.6 years) who were tested for drug eruption. In the patient group, there were 309 people (69.1%) with maculopapular eruption and 31 (6.9%) with severe drug eruption. The test materials were applied to the back and left for 2 days under occlusion, then results were assessed by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3 days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Of the 444 patients, 100 (22.4%) had a positive patch test result to a suspected drug. Positive rates were 23.6% and 20.0% for maculopapular eruption and fixed drug eruption, respectively. The class of materials to which most patients reacted positively was contrast medium (n = 53; 41.1%), followed by drugs acting on the central nervous system (n = 18; 28.6%). In the latter group, 16 of the 18 patients were positive to antiepileptics. Positive rates depend on the causative drug rather than the clinical features of the drug eruption. Patch testing is useful when contrast medium or antiepileptics are suspected to be the causative drugs. However, standardization of patch test materials and method of reading is needed, as well as guidelines regarding when testing should be performed. Although patch testing for drug eruption has significant potential, it requires further validation. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.
Tapper, Elliot B; Saini, Sameer D; Sengupta, Neil
available for most causes but it is unclear whether clinicians should order them all at once or direct testing based on how likely a given disease may be given the patient's history and physical exam. The tradeoffs of both approaches involve the money spent on testing, number of office visits needed, and false positive results generated. This study shows that if there are no clues available at the time of evaluation, testing all at once saves time and money while causing more false positives. However, if there are strong clues regarding the likelihood of a particular disease, limited testing saves time, money and prevents false positives. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Terpiłowski, Lukasz; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Wróblewski, Paweł; Rudnicki, Jerzy
The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of positive tilt testing (TT) throughout the menstrual cycle and to determine if the phase of menstrual cycle contributes to the duration of the loss of consciousness. TT results of 183 premenopausal women, aged 29.5 ± 9.8 years, were studied. The menstrual cycle was divided into four phases based on the first day of the last menstrual bleeding: perimenstrual (M), preovulatory (F), periovulatory (O) and postovulatory (L). Positive TT results were equally distributed. In patients with TT in O phase, the highest percentage of NTG provocation was needed. Patients in L phase had significantly lower incidence of cardioinhibitory reaction. The longest duration of loss of consciousness was in the M phase. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the duration of loss of consciousness during positive TT was significantly associated with higher number of syncopal events, TT performed in M phase and lower heart rate at TT termination. Cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction was more frequent during M and O phase than during L phase. The distribution of positive TT results as well as syncope and presyncope does not differ throughout the menstrual cycle. Diagnostic TT in premenopausal women with unexplained syncope could be performed irrespective of the phase of menstrual cycle. TT has similar sensitivity throughout the menstrual cycle. During the postovulatory phase, cardioinhibitory reaction is less frequent than in M and O phases. The duration of loss of consciousness is longer during the M phase of the menstrual cycle independently of the higher syncope number and lower heart rate at TT termination.
Oncogenetic consultations and predictive BRCA1/2 testing are intertwined processes and the specific impact of these genetic tests if performed alone through direct-to-consumer offers remains unknown. Noteworthy, the expectations of patients vary with their own status, whether they are affected or not by breast cancer at the time genetic testing is performed. The prescription of genetic tests for BCRA mutations has doubled in France between 2003 and 2009. There is a consensus on the fact that genetic results disclosure led to a significant increase in the knowledge and understanding that the patients have of the genetic risk and also changed the medical follow-up of these patients. Evaluating the psychological burden of tests disclosure did not reveal any major distress in patients who are followed by high-quality multidisciplinary teams. Longitudinal cohorts studies have now evaluated the perception and behaviour of these patients, and observed sociodemographic as well as geographic and psychosocial differences both in the acceptation of prophylactic strategies such as surgery, and time to surgery. © 2011 médecine/sciences - Inserm / SRMS.
Grosbois, JM; Riquier, C; Chehere, B; Coquart, J; Béhal, H; Bart, F; Wallaert, B; Chenivesse, C
Introduction Exercise tolerance testing is an integral part of the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 6-minute stepper test (6MST) is a new, well-tolerated, reproducible exercise test, which can be performed without any spatial constraints. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 6MST to those obtained during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods Ninety-one COPD patients managed by outpatient PR and assessed by 6MST, 6MWT, and CPET were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations between the number of steps on the 6MST, the distance covered on the 6MWT, oxygen consumption, and power at the ventilatory threshold and at maximum effort during CPET were analyzed before starting PR, and the improvement on the 6MST and 6MWT was compared after PR. Results The number of steps on the 6MST was significantly correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (r=0.56; P<0.0001), the power at maximum effort (r=0.46; P<0.0001), and oxygen consumption at maximum effort (r=0.39; P<0.005). Performances on the 6MST and 6MWT were significantly improved after PR (570 vs 488 steps, P=0.001 and 448 vs 406 m, respectively; P<0.0001). Improvements of the 6MST and 6MWT after PR were significantly correlated (r=0.34; P=0.03). Conclusion The results of this study show that the 6MST is a valid test to evaluate exercise tolerance in COPD patients. The use of this test in clinical practice appears to be particularly relevant for the assessment of patients managed by home PR. PMID:27099483
Assier, Haudrey; Tetart, Florence; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Barbaud, Annick; Ferrier-le Bouëdec, Marie-Christine; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Milpied, Brigitte; Amsler, Emmanuelle; Collet, Evelyne; Girardin, Pascal; Soria, Angèle; Waton, Julie; Truchetet, François; Bourrain, Jean-Luc; Gener, Gwendeline; Bernier, Claire; Raison-Peyron, Nadia
Eyelids are frequent sites of contact dermatitis. No prospective study focused on eyelid allergic contact dermatitis (EACD) has yet been published, and this topic has never been studied in French patients. To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of an eyelid series in French patients patch tested because of EACD, and to describe these patients. We prospectively analysed standardized data for all patients referred to our departments between September 2014 and August 2016 for patch testing for suspected EACD as the main reason. All patients were patch tested with an eyelid series, the European baseline series (EBS), the French additional series, and their personal products. Patch testing with additional series and repeated open application tests (ROATs) or open tests were performed if necessary. A standardized assessment of the relevance was used, and the analysis of the results was focused on patients having positive test results with a current certain relevance. Two-hundred and sixty-four patients (238 women and 26 men) were included. Three-hundred and twenty-two tests gave positive results in 167 patients, 84 of whom had currently relevant reactions: 56 had currently relevant positive test reactions to the EBS, 16 had currently relevant positive test reactions to their personal products, 8 had currently relevant positive test reactions to the French additional series, and 4 had currently relevant positive test reactions to the eyelid series. Sixty-seven per cent of all relevant cases were related to cosmetic products. The most frequent allergens with current relevance were methylisothiazolinone (10.2%), fragrance mix I (3%), nickel (2.7%), hydroxyperoxides of linalool (2.7%) and limonene (2.3%), and Myroxylon pereirae (2.3%). Current atopic dermatitis was found in 9.5% of patients. The duration of dermatitis was shorter (23.2 vs 34.2 months; P = .035) in patients with currently relevant test reactions. The percentage of currently relevant tests remained the
Altaras, Robin; Nuwa, Anthony; Agaba, Bosco; Streat, Elizabeth; Tibenderana, James K.; Martin, Sandrine; Strachan, Clare E.
Background Successful scale-up in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) requires that patients accept testing and treatment based on RDT results and that healthcare providers treat according to test results. Patient-provider communication is a key component of quality care, and leads to improved patient satisfaction, higher adherence to treatment and better health outcomes. Voiced or perceived patient expectations are also known to influence treatment decision-making among healthcare providers. While there has been a growth in literature on provider practices around rapid testing for malaria, there has been little analysis of inter-personal communication around the testing process. We investigated how healthcare providers and patients interact and engage throughout the diagnostic and treatment process, and how the testing service is experienced by patients in practice. Methods This research was conducted alongside a larger study which explored determinants of provider treatment decision-making following negative RDT results in a rural district (Kibaale) in mid-western Uganda, ten months after RDT introduction. Fifty-five patients presenting with fever were observed during routine outpatient visits at 12 low-level public health facilities. Observation captured communication practices relating to test purpose, results, diagnosis and treatment. All observed patients or caregivers were immediately followed up with in-depth interview. Analysis followed the ‘framework’ approach. A summative approach was also used to analyse observation data. Results Providers failed to consistently communicate the reasons for carrying out the test, and particularly to RDT-negative patients, a diagnostic outcome or the meaning of test results, also leading to confusion over what the test can detect. Patients appeared to value testing, but were frustrated by the lack of communication on outcomes. RDT-negative patients were dissatisfied by the absence of information on an
Haba-Rubio, José; Sforza, Emilia
To evaluate the test-to-test variability of the suggested immobilization test (SIT) in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Twenty patients with primary RLS (12 men and eight women; age: 53.3+/-11.3 years) were selected for the study. We compared the results of two SITs performed on two consecutive evenings prior to polysomnographic recordings. Overall, the periodic leg movement index during the SIT (SIT PLM) and the SIT PLM index associated with sensory manifestations (SIT PLM+) were not significantly different between tests. The number of PLM sequences per SIT, the mean PLM duration and the PLM interval did not significantly change between the two consecutive tests. The pattern of temporal evolution of motor activity across the SIT was very reproducible, SIT PLM showing a clear tendency to a progressive increase across the test, with the SIT PLM+ index decreasing in the second half of the test. Despite good reproducibility, there were marked intra-individual differences. Considering the proposed cut-off value of 12 for the SIT PLM index to confirm RLS, 11 patients were positive at the first test and four additional patients became positive at the second test. SIT PLM index changes did not correlate with age, severity of disease and polysomnographic measures. Quantitative analysis of motor activity during two consecutive SITs in RLS patients showed a significant inter-test intra-individual variability unrelated to demographic, clinical or polysomnographic parameters. SIT PLM index variability suggests that a single test would not be sensitive enough for diagnostic purposes in unclear cases and that new criteria need to be applied to increase its specificity and sensitivity.
Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Garber, Judy E.; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas
Background Although BRCA1/2 genetic testing is discouraged in minors, mothers may disclose their own results to their children. Factors affecting patients’ disclosure decisions and patient outcomes of disclosure are largely unknown. Methods Mothers (N = 221) of children ages 8-21 enrolled in this prospective study of family communication about cancer genetic testing. Patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing, and completed standardized behavioral assessments prior to and 1-month following receipt of their results. Results Most patients (62.4%) disclosed BRCA1/2 test results to their child. Patients were more likely to disclose if they received negative or uninformative vs. positive results (OR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.11 - 8.71; P = .03), their child was ≥ 13 years of age vs. younger (OR = 5.43; 95% CI = 2.18 - 13.53; P < .001), and as the ratio of patients’ perceived benefits of disclosure outweighed potential risks (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.63 - 3.54; P < .001). Post-decision satisfaction about disclosure was lowest among nondisclosing patients (P < .001) and those reporting greater decisional conflict (P < .001). Conclusions Patients commonly discuss their BRCA1/2 results with their teenage and young adult children, especially if the information is perceived as beneficial. Satisfaction with disclosure decision-making remains lowest among nondisclosing and conflicted patients. Family communication decision support adjuncts to genetic counseling are needed to help ameliorate these effects. Impact This study describes the prevalence of family communication about maternal BRCA1/2 genetic testing with minor children, and decisions and outcomes of disclosure. PMID:23825307
Warshaw, Erin M; Belsito, Donald V; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Maibach, Howard I
Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for determination of substances responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. This study reports the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends were analyzed using χ2 statistics. A total of 4308 patients were tested. Of these, 2614 (60.7%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2284 (46.3%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Four hundred twenty-seven (9.9%) patients had occupationally related skin disease. There were 6855 positive allergic reactions. As compared with the previous reporting period (2007-2008), the positive reaction rates statistically decreased for 20 allergens (nickel, neomycin, Myroxylon pereirae, cobalt, formaldehyde, quaternium 15, methydibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol, methylchlorisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, potassium dichromate, diazolidinyl urea, propolis, dimethylol dimethylhydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, glyceryl thioglycolate, dibucaine, amidoamine, clobetasol, and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea; P < 0.05) and statistically increased for 4 allergens (fragrance mix II, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, propylene glycol, and benzocaine; P < 0.05). Approximately one quarter of tested patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. Hypothetically, approximately one quarter of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been missed by TRUE TEST (SmartPractice Denmark, Hillerød, Denmark). These results affirm the value of patch testing with many allergens.
Castillo, Inmaculada; Pardo, Margarita; Bartolomé, Javier; Ortiz-Movilla, Nuria; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; de Lucas, Susana; Salas, Clara; Jiménez-Heffernan, Jose A; Pérez-Mota, Arturo; Graus, Javier; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Carreño, Vicente
There are patients in whom the etiology of long-standing abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown (ALF-EU) after exclusion of all known causes of liver diseases. We analyzed the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in liver-biopsy specimens from 100 patients who were negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA and who had ALF-EU. HCV RNA status was tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization, in liver and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HCV RNA was detected in liver-biopsy specimens from 57 of 100 patients negative for anti-HCV antibodies and for serum HCV RNA (i.e., who had occult HCV infection). HCV RNA of negative polarity was found in the liver of 48 (84.2%) of these 57 patients with occult HCV infection. Nucleotide-sequence analysis confirmed the specificity of detection of HCV RNA and that patients were infected with the HCV 1b genotype. Of these 57 patients with intrahepatic HCV RNA, 40 (70%) had viral RNA in their PBMCs. With regard to liver histology, patients with occult HCV infection were more likely to have necroinflammatory activity (P=.017) and fibrosis (P=.022) than were patients without intrahepatic HCV RNA. Patients with ALF-EU may have intrahepatic HCV RNA in the absence of anti-HCV antibodies and of serum HCV RNA.
Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen M
Patients with generalized dermatitis are common in dermatology practices. Allergic contact dermatitis is often suspected, and patients frequently undergo patch testing. When the patch testing result is negative, further evaluation and management of these patients are challenging. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society regarding the evaluation and management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis. Generalized dermatitis was the most common term identified for patch test-negative patients with diffuse dermatitis. After having negative expanded patch testing results, most physicians proceeded with additional testing including skin biopsy, complete blood cell count with differential, and liver and renal function tests. The most commonly used systemic treatment is prednisone, followed by methotrexate. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most commonly used light source. Antihistamines are frequently prescribed. Food allergy is not felt to be causative. This cohort of patients experiences significant impairment in quality of life, stress on personal relationships, and time off work. The management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis is challenging. This study provides insight into management of these complex patients. It also demonstrates practice gaps in the management of these patients, indicating a need for further studies to direct the evaluation and management of this patient population.
Alreja, Gaurav; Setia, Namrata; Nichols, James; Pantanowitz, Liron
Background: Patient identification (ID) errors in point-of-care testing (POCT) can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient's chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Materials and Methods: Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number) is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT) feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient's electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. Results: When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015%) in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319%) before implementing the new meters. Conclusion: Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT. PMID:21633490
van der Valk, J P M; Gerth van Wijk, R; Hoorn, E; Groenendijk, L; Groenendijk, I M; de Jong, N W
There are several methods to read skin prick test results in type-I allergy testing. A commonly used method is to characterize the wheal size by its 'average diameter'. A more accurate method is to scan the area of the wheal to calculate the actual size. In both methods, skin prick test (SPT) results can be corrected for histamine-sensitivity of the skin by dividing the results of the allergic reaction by the histamine control. The objectives of this study are to compare different techniques of quantifying SPT results, to determine a cut-off value for a positive SPT for histamine equivalent prick -index (HEP) area, and to study the accuracy of predicting cashew nut reactions in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) tests with the different SPT methods. Data of 172 children with cashew nut sensitisation were used for the analysis. All patients underwent a DBPCFC with cashew nut. Per patient, the average diameter and scanned area of the wheal size were recorded. In addition, the same data for the histamine-induced wheal were collected for each patient. The accuracy in predicting the outcome of the DBPCFC using four different SPT readings (i.e. average diameter, area, HEP-index diameter, HEP-index area) were compared in a Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot. Characterizing the wheal size by the average diameter method is inaccurate compared to scanning method. A wheal average diameter of 3 mm is generally considered as a positive SPT cut-off value and an equivalent HEP-index area cut-off value of 0.4 was calculated. The four SPT methods yielded a comparable area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84, 0.85, 0.83 and 0.83, respectively. The four methods showed comparable accuracy in predicting cashew nut reactions in a DBPCFC. The 'scanned area method' is theoretically more accurate in determining the wheal area than the 'average diameter method' and is recommended in academic research. A HEP-index area of 0.4 is determined as cut-off value for a
Alreja, Gaurav; Setia, Namrata; Nichols, James; Pantanowitz, Liron
Patient identification (ID) errors in point-of-care testing (POCT) can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient's chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number) is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT) feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient's electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015%) in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319%) before implementing the new meters. Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT.
Ashton-Miller, J A; Yeh, M W; Richardson, J K; Galloway, T
To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface. Nonrandomized control study. Tertiary-care institution. Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with a mean (SD) age of 65 (8.2) years. Subjects were asked to transfer their weight onto their right foot, despite a rapid +/- 2 degrees or +/- 4 degrees frontal plane tilt of the support surface at 70% of weight transfer, and balance unipedally for at least 3 seconds. The efficacy of their weight transfer was evaluated over 112 consecutive randomized and blocked trials by calculating loss of balance as failure rates (%FR) with and without visual feedback, and with and without use of a cane in the nondominant (left) hand. Results were analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA) and post hoc t tests. The rm-ANOVA showed that the FR of the PN subjects (47.6% [18.1%]) was significantly higher than C (29.2% [15.2%], p = .036). Removing visual feedback, simulating the dark of night, increased the FR fourfold (p = .000). Use of a cane in the contralateral nondominant hand significantly reduced the FR (p = .000), particularly in the PN group (cane x disease interaction: p = .055). Post hoc t tests showed that with or without visual feedback, the cane reduced the FR of the PN group fourfold and enabled them to perform more reliably than matched controls not using a cane (p = .011). An inversion perturbation resulted in a higher FR than an eversion perturbation (p = .007). The PN group employed larger mean peak cane forces (21.9% BW) than C (13.6% BW) in restoring their balance (p = .000). Use of a cane by PN patients significantly reduced their risk of losing balance on unstable surfaces, especially under low
Heras, Yan Z.; Mitchell, Joyce A.; Williams, Marc S.; Brothman, Arthur R.; Huff, Stanley M.
Genetic testing is becoming increasingly important to medical practice. Integrating genetics and genomics data into electronic medical records is crucial in translating genetic discoveries into improved patient care. Information technology, especially Clinical Decision Support Systems, holds great potential to help clinical professionals take full advantage of genomic advances in their daily medical practice. However, issues relating to standard terminology and information models for exchanging genetic testing results remain relatively unexplored. This study evaluates whether the current LOINC standard is adequate to represent constitutional cytogenetic test result reports using sample result reports from ARUP Laboratories. The results demonstrate that current standard terminology is insufficient to support the needs of coding cytogenetic test results. The terminology infrastructure must be developed before clinical information systems will be able to handle the high volumes of genetic data expected in the near future. PMID:20351857
Heras, Yan Z; Mitchell, Joyce A; Williams, Marc S; Brothman, Arthur R; Huff, Stanley M
Genetic testing is becoming increasingly important to medical practice. Integrating genetics and genomics data into electronic medical records is crucial in translating genetic discoveries into improved patient care. Information technology, especially Clinical Decision Support Systems, holds great potential to help clinical professionals take full advantage of genomic advances in their daily medical practice. However, issues relating to standard terminology and information models for exchanging genetic testing results remain relatively unexplored. This study evaluates whether the current LOINC standard is adequate to represent constitutional cytogenetic test result reports using sample result reports from ARUP Laboratories. The results demonstrate that current standard terminology is insufficient to support the needs of coding cytogenetic test results. The terminology infrastructure must be developed before clinical information systems will be able to handle the high volumes of genetic data expected in the near future.
Patwardhan, Ashwin; Wilkins, Simon; Staples, Margaret; McMurrick, Paul J
Bowel cancer is the second most common internal malignancy in Australia. Bowel cancer is suited to community screening methods such as faecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy. Typical reporting of histopathology results after colonoscopy takes 3-5 days. Patients were given written instructions to call the clinician within 3-5 days to discuss the histopathology results. The objective of the study was to perform an audit whether patients call the clinician to discuss their histopathology results after undergoing a colonoscopy, gastroscopy or both. A retrospective study was performed of patients attending for gastroscopy or colonoscopy at a single colorectal clinic at Cabrini Hospital, Melbourne, between 1 January and 31 December 2014. Age, pre-scope category and compliance with written instructions to callback were analysed. A total of 176 patients met the selection criteria, of whom 32.9% did not callback to discuss their histopathology results. Age and pre-scope category were independent predictors for patients to callback after endoscopy. The mean age of the patients who called back was higher (P < 0.01). Compared with patients who had a previous polyp or resection, patients in the pre-scope category of faecal occult blood testing/screening were more likely to callback (odds ratio: 4.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-16.31). Patients undergoing a colonoscopy for the purposes of screening and older patients were more likely to callback. Patients aged 62 years and younger were less likely to callback and should be targeted. Enhancements to the way information is presented to patients (e.g. video) should be considered for future studies. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Rogers, Beverly B; Shankar, Prabhu; Jerris, Robert C; Kotzbauer, David; Anderson, Evan J; Watson, J Renee; O'Brien, Lauren A; Uwindatwa, Francine; McNamara, Kelly; Bost, James E
Evolution of polymerase chain reaction testing for infectious pathogens has occurred concurrent with a focus on value-based medicine. To determine if implementation of the FilmArray rapid respiratory panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, Utah) (hereafter RRP), with a shorter time to the test result and expanded panel, results in different outcomes for children admitted to the hospital with an acute respiratory tract illness. Patient outcomes were compared before implementation of the RRP (November 1, 2011, to January 31, 2012) versus after implementation of the RRP (November 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013). The study included inpatients 3 months or older with an acute respiratory tract illness, most admitted through the emergency department. Testing before RRP implementation used batched polymerase chain reaction analysis for respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B, with additional testing for parainfluenza 1 through 3 in approximately 11% of patients and for human metapneumovirus in less than 1% of patients. The RRP tested for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 through 4, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, and coronavirus NL62. The pre-RRP group had 365 patients, and the post-RRP group had 771 patients. After RRP implementation, the mean time to the test result was shorter (383 minutes versus 1119 minutes, P < .001), and the percentage of patients with a result in the emergency department was greater (51.6% versus 13.4%, P < .001). There was no difference in whether antibiotics were prescribed, but the duration of antibiotic use was shorter after RRP implementation (P = .003) and was dependent on receiving test results within 4 hours. If the test result was positive, the inpatient length of stay (P = .03) and the time in isolation (P = .03) were decreased after RRP implementation compared with before RRP implementation. The RRP decreases the duration of antibiotic use, the length of inpatient stay
Haxel, Boris R; Huppertz, Tilman; Boessert, Patrick; Bast, Florian; Fruth, Kai
Allergen-specific immunotherapy for house-dust mite (HDM) allergies is associated with lower success rates when compared with similar treatments for other inhalant allergens, such as grass or birch. One reason might be the greater difficulty in diagnosing patients with assumed HDM allergies because symptoms occur perennially and may differ from those of a conventional allergic rhinitis. The aim of the study was to compare the different methods of diagnosis in patients with assumed HDM allergy. We performed a retrospective analysis of nasal provocation tests (NPT) from patients (n = 161) evaluated for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (n = 127) and Dermatophagoides farinae (n = 104) allergies, and compared the results with other allergen testing methods (skin-prick test [SPT], intracutaneous test, and allergen specific immunoglobulin E levels [sIgE] to detect sensitization). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used for the analyses and the areas under the curve were calculated. For D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae, 86 and 70 complete data files, respectively, were available. For both tested HDMs, the results of the receiver operating characteristic curves showed a significant correlation for SPT and sIgE, with the results of the NPT (area under the curve, 0.742 to 0.763) but not for the intracutaneous test. In patients with a positive SPT (≥3 mm), an allergy was confirmed by the NPT in 69% of cases for D. pteronyssinus and 71% for D. farinae. A positive sIgE result (ImmunoCAP class of ≥2) was verified by the NPT in 69% of cases (D. pteronyssinus) and 70% (D. farinae). The predictability value for a positive NPT result is best for SPT and sIgE. Nevertheless, even if the results of both test systems are combined, the positive predictive value that was achieved was only 0.77 for D. pteronyssinus and 0.69 for D. farinae. Therefore, in patients eligible for immunotherapy for HDM, an NPT should be performed before the start of the therapy to verify a clinically
Predictive Genetic Testing and Alternatives to Face to Face Results Disclosure: A Retrospective Review of Patients Preference for Alternative Modes of BRCA 1 and 2 Results Disclosure in the Republic of Ireland.
O'Shea, Rosie; Meany, Marie; Carroll, Cliona; Cody, Nuala; Healy, David; Green, Andrew; Lynch, Sally Ann
The traditional model of providing cancer predictive testing services is changing. Many genetic centres are now offering a choice to patients in how they receive their results instead of the typical face-to-face disclosure. In view of this shift in practice and the increasing demand on the ROI cancer predictive testing service, a 2 year retrospective study on patient preference in how to receive a Breast Cancer (BRCA) predictive result was carried out. Results showed that 71.7 % of respondents would have liked to have the option of obtaining their results by telephone or by letter. However, when asked about their actual experience of BRCA predictive results disclosure 40.6 % did still value the face-to-face contact, while 44.9 % would still have preferred to receive results by either post or telephone. No significant difference was found between males and females (p > 0.05) and those who tested negative or positive for the BRCA mutation (p > 0.05) in wanting a choice in how their results were disclosed. While the majority expressed a wish to have a choice in how to receive their results, it is important not to underestimate the value of a face-to-face encounter in these circumstances.
Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter
Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…
Litchfield, Ian J; Bentham, Louise M; Lilford, Richard J; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila
Increasing numbers of blood tests are being ordered in primary care settings and the swift and accurate communication of test results is central to providing high quality care. The process of testing and result communication is complex and reliant on the coordinated actions of care providers, external groups in laboratory and hospital settings, and patients. This fragmentation leaves it vulnerable to error and the need to improve an apparently fallible system is apparent. However, primary care is complex and does not necessarily adopt change in a linear and prescribed manner influenced by a range of factors relating to practice staff, patients and organisational factors. To account for these competing perspectives, we worked in conjunction with both staff and patients to develop and implement strategies intended to improve patient satisfaction and increase efficiency of existing processes. The study applied the principles of 'experience-based co-design' to identify key areas of weakness and source proposals for change from staff and patients. The study was undertaken within two primary practices situated in South Birmingham (UK) of contrasting size and socio-economic environment. Senior practice staff were involved in the refinement of the interventions for introduction. We conducted focus groups singly constituted of staff and patients at each practice to determine suitability, applicability and desirability alongside the practical implications of their introduction. At each practice four of the six proposals for change were implemented these were increased access to phlebotomy, improved receptionist training, proactive communication of results, and increased patient awareness of the tests ordered and the means of their communication. All were received favourably by both patients and staff. The remaining issues around the management of telephone calls and the introduction of electronic alerts for missing results were not addressed due to constraints of time and
Birdal, Seval; Yıldırım, Ejder Akgün; Arslan Delice, Mehtap; Yavuz, Kasım Fatih; Kurt, Erhan
Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit is a widely accepted feature of schizophrenia. A number of studies have examined ToM deficits of first degree relatives of schizophrenic patients as genetic markers of schizophrenia. Examination of mentalization capacity among mothers of schizophrenia patients may improve our understanding of theory of mind impairments in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to use Reading Mind in the Eyes test to examine theory of mind capacity among mothers of schizophrenic patients. Performance during the test "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (Eyes Test) was compared between the mothers of schizophrenic patients (n=47) and mothers whose children have no psychotic mental illness (n=47). Test results were analyzed based on the categorization of test items as positive, negative, and neutral. Mothers of schizophrenic patients displayed poorer performance during the Eyes Test compare to mothers in the control group, particularly in the recognition of positive and neutral mental representations. There was no statistically significant difference in the recognition of negative mental representations between mothers of patients and the control groups. The results of this study indicate that mothers of schizophrenic patients differ in some theory of mind patterns. Theory of mind may be an important developmental or endophenotipic factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and should be further evaluated using other biological markers.
Brischetto, Anna; Gassiep, Ian; Whiley, David; Norton, Robert
There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum PCR test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemiluminescence immunoassay [CMIA], Treponema pallidum particle agglutination [TPPA] assay, and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] flocculation test). A retrospective audit of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017 was conducted; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, and results from T. pallidum PCR, syphilis serology, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 PCRs. A total of 441 T. pallidum PCR tests were performed; on average, 3 T. pallidum PCRs per month were requested in 2011, and this rate increased to 17.2 requests per month in 2017. A total of 323 patients had both T. pallidum PCR and syphilis serology performed, with 67% of swabs taken from the genitals. T. pallidum PCR gave positive results for 61/323 (19%) patients; of these 61 patients, 59 (97%) also had positive syphilis serology results ( T. pallidum PCR sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 99%; positive predictive value, 97%; negative predictive value, 89%). Syphilis serology was positive for 91/323 patients (28%); of these 91 patients, 61 (66%) were also T. pallidum PCR positive (syphilis serology sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 88%; positive predictive value, 60%; negative predictive value, 99%). The Cohen's kappa value was 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the two tests. Our results show that most patients with positive T. pallidum PCR results also had positive syphilis serology. Therefore, T. pallidum PCR adds little clinical value over serology for the diagnosis of syphilis in certain clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Menon, Shailaja; Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep; Meyer, Ashley N. D.
Summary Background Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to facilitate reliable communication and follow-up of test results. However, limitations in EHR functionality remain, leading practitioners to use workarounds while managing test results. Workarounds can lead to patient safety concerns and signify indications as to how to build better EHR systems that meet provider needs. Objective To understand why primary care practitioners (PCPs) use workarounds to manage test results by analyzing data from a previously conducted national cross-sectional survey on test result management. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a national survey of PCPs practicing in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and explored the use of workarounds in test results management. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between key sociotechnical factors that could affect test results follow-up (e.g., both technology-related and those unrelated to technology, such as organizational support for patient notification) and workaround use. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of free text survey data to examine reasons for use of workarounds. Results Of 2554 survey respondents, 1104 (43%) reported using workarounds related to test results management. Of these 1028 (93%) described the type of workaround they were using; 719 (70%) reported paper-based methods, while 230 (22%) used a combination of paper- and computer-based workarounds. Primary care practitioners who self-reported limited administrative support to help them notify patients of test results or described an instance where they personally (or a colleague) missed results, were more likely to use workarounds (p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively). Qualitative analysis identified three main reasons for workaround use: 1) as a memory aid, 2) for improved efficiency and 3) for facilitating internal and external care coordination
Narayan, Anand; Dromi, Sergio; Meeks, Adam; Gomez, Erin; Lee, Bonmyong
The practice of radiology often includes routine communication of diagnostic test results directly to patients in breast imaging and interventional radiology. There is increasing interest in expanding direct communication throughout radiology. Though these conversations can substantially affect patient well-being, there is limited evidence indicating that radiology residents are specifically taught methods to effectively convey imaging results to patients. Our purpose is to evaluate resident experience communicating imaging results to patients. An IRB-approved study with a total of 11 pilot-tested questions was used. Surveyed programs included radiology residents (PGY2-PGY5) at 2 urban residency programs. Online surveys were administered using SurveyMonkey and e-mailed to residents at both programs (starting November 20, 2015, completed March 31, 2016). Demographics were obtained with survey proportions compared using logistic regression (P < 0.05, statistically significant). A total of 73 residents responded (93.6% response rate) with similar response rates at each institution (P = 0.689). Most were male (71.2%) with 17.8% planning to go into breast imaging (21.9%, interventional radiology (IR)). Furthermore, 83.6% described no training in communicating radiology results to patients; 91.8% of residents communicated results with patients (87.7% diagnostic imaging tests and 57.5% biopsies). Residents most commonly communicated results in person (75.3%) followed by phone (64.4%), and 79.4% agreed or strongly agreed that additional training relaying results would be helpful. A large majority of radiology residents have communicated test results to patients, yet few have received training in how to communicate these results. A large majority of residents expressed interest in obtaining additional communication training. Additional research is required to determine ideal methods to educate residents on communicating test results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All
Schmiegel, Wolff; Scott, Rodney J; Dooley, Susan; Lewis, Wendy; Meldrum, Cliff J; Pockney, Peter; Draganic, Brian; Smith, Steve; Hewitt, Chelsee; Philimore, Hazel; Lucas, Amanda; Shi, Elva; Namdarian, Kateh; Chan, Timmy; Acosta, Danilo; Ping-Chang, Su; Tannapfel, Andrea; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Uhl, Waldemar; Teschendorf, Christian; Wolters, Heiner; Stern, Josef; Viebahn, Richard; Friess, Helmut; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Nitsche, Ulrich; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Pohl, Michael; Vangala, Deepak; Baraniskin, Alexander; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, Barbara; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanne; Ronga, Philippe; Edelstein, Daniel L; Jones, Frederick S; Hahn, Stephan; Fox, Stephen B
An accurate blood-based RAS mutation assay to determine eligibility of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients for anti-EGFR therapy would benefit clinical practice by better informing decisions to administer treatment independent of tissue availability. The objective of this study was to determine the level of concordance between plasma and tissue RAS mutation status in patients with mCRC to gauge whether blood-based RAS mutation testing is a viable alternative to standard-of-care RAS tumor testing. RAS testing was performed on plasma samples from newly diagnosed metastatic patients, or from recurrent mCRC patients using the highly sensitive digital PCR technology, BEAMing (beads, emulsions, amplification, and magnetics), and compared with DNA sequencing data of respective FFPE (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) tumor samples. Discordant tissue RAS results were re-examined by BEAMing, if possible. The prevalence of RAS mutations detected in plasma (51%) vs. tumor (53%) was similar, in accord with the known prevalence of RAS mutations observed in mCRC patient populations. The positive agreement between plasma and tumor RAS results was 90.4% (47/52), the negative agreement was 93.5% (43/46), and the overall agreement (concordance) was 91.8% (90/98). The high concordance of plasma and tissue results demonstrates that blood-based RAS mutation testing is a viable alternative to tissue-based RAS testing. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Menon, Shailaja; Murphy, Daniel R; Singh, Hardeep; Meyer, Ashley N D; Sittig, Dean F
Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to facilitate reliable communication and follow-up of test results. However, limitations in EHR functionality remain, leading practitioners to use workarounds while managing test results. Workarounds can lead to patient safety concerns and signify indications as to how to build better EHR systems that meet provider needs. To understand why primary care practitioners (PCPs) use workarounds to manage test results by analyzing data from a previously conducted national cross-sectional survey on test result management. We conducted a secondary data analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a national survey of PCPs practicing in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and explored the use of workarounds in test results management. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between key sociotechnical factors that could affect test results follow-up (e.g., both technology-related and those unrelated to technology, such as organizational support for patient notification) and workaround use. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of free text survey data to examine reasons for use of workarounds. Of 2554 survey respondents, 1104 (43%) reported using workarounds related to test results management. Of these 1028 (93%) described the type of workaround they were using; 719 (70%) reported paper-based methods, while 230 (22%) used a combination of paper- and computer-based workarounds. Primary care practitioners who self-reported limited administrative support to help them notify patients of test results or described an instance where they personally (or a colleague) missed results, were more likely to use workarounds (p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively). Qualitative analysis identified three main reasons for workaround use: 1) as a memory aid, 2) for improved efficiency and 3) for facilitating internal and external care coordination. Workarounds to manage EHR-based test results are
Altaras, Robin; Nuwa, Anthony; Agaba, Bosco; Streat, Elizabeth; Tibenderana, James K; Strachan, Clare E
The large-scale introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) promises to improve management of fever patients and the rational use of valuable anti-malarials. However, evidence on the impact of RDT introduction on the overprescription of anti-malarials has been mixed. This study explored determinants of provider decision-making to prescribe anti-malarials following a negative RDT result. A qualitative study was conducted in a rural district in mid-western Uganda in 2011, ten months after RDT introduction. Prescriptions for all patients with negative RDT results were first audited from outpatient registers for a two month period at all facilities using RDTs (n = 30). Facilities were then ranked according to overall prescribing performance, defined as the proportion of patients with a negative RDT result prescribed any anti-malarial. Positive and negative deviant facilities were sampled for qualitative investigation; positive deviants (n = 5) were defined ex post facto as <0.75% and negative deviants (n = 7) as >5%. All prescribing clinicians were targeted for qualitative observation and in-depth interview; 55 fever cases were observed and 22 providers interviewed. Thematic analysis followed the 'framework' approach. 8344 RDT-negative patients were recorded at the 30 facilities (prescription audit); 339 (4.06%) were prescribed an anti-malarial. Of the 55 observed patients, 38 tested negative; one of these was prescribed an anti-malarial. Treatment decision-making was influenced by providers' clinical beliefs, capacity constraints, and perception of patient demands. Although providers generally trusted the accuracy of RDTs, anti-malarial prescription was driven by perceptions of treatment failure or undetectable malaria in patients who had already taken artemisinin-based combination therapy prior to facility arrival. Patient assessment and other diagnostic practices were minimal and providers demonstrated limited ability to identify alternative causes of
Ateş, Aşkin; Kinikli, Gülay; Turgay, Murat; Aydoğan, Nergis; Duman, Murat
Skin prick testing (SPT) is widely used in the assessment of allergic disorders. Different SPT techniques are widely used. The aim of this study was to compare the response to SPT using a multiple lancet device (MLD) with the results of a single lancet (SL). Fifty patients with allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Initially, SPT was performed by a SL technique. After one week SPT was repeated using the MLD on all patients. The patients were tested with a panel containing 19 specific allergens including grass pollen, tree pollen, house dust mites, weed pollen allergen extracts, histamine and a negative control. The skin responses were recorded after 15 minutes for each device by measuring the diameter of the wheal and the erythema. The skin wheal responses for grass pollen, tree pollen, weed pollen and house dust mite allergen extracts obtained using the SL were generally significantly larger than those using the MLD. The comparison between the MLD and the SL methods revealed that SPT was positive with SL and negative with MLD in 176 tests (15.3%), and on the contrary SPT was positive with MLD and negative with SL in only 13 tests (1%). In conclusion, we claim that SPT using SL shows a higher degree of sensitivity and reproducibility.
Caetano, Ana Célia; Oliveira, Dinis; Gomes, Zaida; Mesquita, Edgar; Rolanda, Carla
Background Psychological assessment is not commonly performed nor easily accepted by coloproctological patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychological component of coloproctological disorders using uncommon tools. Methods The 21-Item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Pescatori projective test were applied to coloproctological outpatients of the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital as well as to healthy volunteers. Results Seventy patients (median age 47 years, 22 male) divided in 4 groups (functional constipation, constipated irritable bowel syndrome, benign anorectal disease and perianal Crohn’s disease) and 52 healthy volunteers (age 45 years, 18 male) completed the tests. Proctological patients showed higher scores of depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.001), and stress (P<0.001) compared to healthy participants. Compared to the control group, patients with functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and perianal Crohn’s disease maintained the highest scores in all subscales (P<0.05), while patients with benign anorectal disease only had higher anxiety and stress (P<0.001) scores. The patients’ also showed lower scores in the Pescatori projective test (P=0.012). A weak association between the projective test and the depression subscale was found (P=0.05). Conclusion Proctological patients had higher scores of depression, anxiety and stress and lower scores in the Pescatori projective test compared to healthy controls. PMID:28655980
Haga, Susanne B; Mills, Rachel; Bosworth, Hayden
Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing can provide information about a patient's likelihood to respond to a medication or experience an adverse event, and be used to inform medication selection and/or dosing. Promoting patient comprehension of PGx test results will be important to improving engagement and understanding of treatment decisions. The discussion in this paper is based on our experiences and the literature on communication of genetic test results for disease risk and broad risk communication strategies. Clinical laboratory reports often describe PGx test results using standard terminology such as 'poor metabolizer' or 'ultra-rapid metabolizer.' While this type of terminology may promote patient recall with its simple, yet descriptive nature, it may be difficult for some patients to comprehend and/or cause adverse psychological or behavioral responses. The language used to communicate results and their significance to patients will be important to consider in order to minimize confusion and potential psychological consequences such as increased anxiety that can adversely impact medication-taking behaviors. Due to patients' unfamiliarity with PGx testing and the potential for confusion, adverse psychological effects, and decreased medication adherence, health providers need to be cognizant of the language used in discussing PGx test results with patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Komori, Kazuhiko; Tsujimura, Akira; Okamoto, Yoshio; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takada, Shingo; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko
To asses the effects of seminal plasma on sperm function. Retrospective case-control study. University hospital. One hundred fourteen infertile men. Acrobeads Test scores (0-4) and measurement of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), transforming growth factor-beta I, superoxide dismutase, calcitonin, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels in seminal plasma. Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the concentrations of substances as a nonparametric test for differences among Acrobeads Test scores and a multivariable logistic regression model to find independent risk factors associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. The Acrobeads Test score was 0 for 7 samples, 1 for 20 samples, 2 for 18 samples, 3 for 28 samples, and 4 for 41 samples. Age, abstinence period, and semen parameters, except for sperm motility and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology, had no effect on the Acrobeads Test results. Concentrations of IGF-I and MIF were significantly higher in patients with abnormal Acrobeads Test results. Multivariate analysis indicated that MIF and IGF-I were significantly associated with abnormal Acrobeads Test results (scores 0 to 1). Although further studies are needed, IGF-I and MIF in seminal plasma may have negative effects on sperm function.
Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy
The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro-Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé's test were applied. The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. The respondents' sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result.
Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert J; Rees, Chris A; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff A; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H
To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected programme data. Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5293/5615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics and 49.4% (6871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71) and inadequate number of HIV counsellors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests that routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardised PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure and human resources. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miller, Katie L; Puet, Brandi L; Roberts, Ali; Hild, Cheryl; Carter, Jason; Black, David L
Urine drug testing is recommended for individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment. It provides objective information for practitioners to consider and may serve as a protective factor against drug-related mortality. The primary objective of our study was to describe urine drug testing results for patients undergoing long-term medication-assisted treatment (≥6months). The secondary objective was to provide further evidence to establish oral fluid as a reliable alternative to urine. All subjects (n=639) included in the study were enrolled in one of five treatment centers in the state of Tennessee, and all urine specimens were positive for either methadone or buprenorphine. Nicotine (87%), caffeine (70%), marijuana (15%), alcohol (14%) and gabapentin (10%) were the most prevalent substances identified through urine drug testing. The presence of non-maintenance opioids (prescription and/or heroin) may represent relapse; these drugs were present in 10% of specimens tested. Evidence of illicit drug use (cocaine, heroin, marijuana and/or methamphetamine) was detected in 19% specimens. For 126 of the 639 subjects included in the study, paired oral fluid and urine test results were compared for agreement. Of the total paired urine and oral fluid tests, approximately 7% were positive for a drug in both specimen types and 91% were negative in both, resulting in an overall agreement of 98%. The study demonstrates continued use of illicit and commercially available medications in a medication-assisted treatment population undergoing long-term treatment. The results affirm the reliability of oral fluid as an alternative specimen type for compliance testing in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... the test program. This would include the costs for a current or comparable pre-test or pre-standard... Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard Authority: 29 U.S.C... developed a series of proposed ambulance component test standards. One such standard, AMD STANDARD 004...
Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A
To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.
Turner, Judith A; Saunders, Kathleen; Shortreed, Susan M; Rapp, Suzanne E; Thielke, Stephen; LeResche, Linda; Riddell, Kim M; Von Korff, Michael
In response to epidemic levels of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and diversion, routine urine drug tests (UDTs) are recommended for patients receiving chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic pain. However, UDT ordering for COT patients is inconsistent in primary care, and little is known about how to increase UDT ordering or the impact of increased testing on rates of aberrant results. To compare rates and results of UDTs for COT patients before versus after implementation of an opioid risk reduction initiative in a large healthcare system. Pre-post observational study. Group Health patients on COT October 2008-September 2009 (N = 4,821), October 2009-September 2010 (N = 5,081), and October 2010-September 2011 (N = 5,498). Multi-faceted opioid risk reduction initiative. Annual rates of UDTs and UDT results. Half of COT patients received at least one UDT in the year after the initiative was implemented, compared to only 7 % 2 years prior. The adjusted odds of COT patients having at least one UDT in the first year of the opioid initiative were almost 16 times (adjusted OR = 15.79; 95 % CI: 13.96-17.87) those 2 years prior. The annual rate of UDT detection of marijuana and illicit drugs did not change (12.6 % after initiative implementation), and largely reflected marijuana use (detected in 11.1 % of all UDTs in the year after initiative implementation). In the year after initiative implementation, 10.7 % of UDTs were negative for opioids. The initiative appeared to dramatically increase urine drug testing of COT patients in the healthcare system without impacting rates of aberrant results. The large majority of aberrant results reflected marijuana use or absence of opioids in the urine. The utility of increased urine drug testing for COT patient safety and prevention of diversion remains uncertain.
Barnes, G D; Kong, X; Cole, D; Haymart, B; Kline-Rogers, E; Almany, S; Dahu, M; Ekola, M; Kaatz, S; Kozlowski, J; Froehlich, J B
Essentials Warfarin typically requires International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing at least every 4 weeks. We implemented extended INR testing for stable warfarin patients in six anticoagulation clinics. Use of extended INR testing increased from 41.8% to 69.3% over the 3 year study. Use of extended INR testing appeared safe and effective. Background A previous single-center randomized trial suggested that patients with stable International Normalized Ratio (INR) values could safely receive INR testing as infrequently as every 12 weeks. Objective To test the success of implementation of an extended INR testing interval for stable warfarin patients in a practice-based, multicenter collaborative of anticoagulation clinics. Methods At six anticoagulation clinics, patients were identified as being eligible for extended INR testing on the basis of prior INR value stability and minimal warfarin dose changes between 2014 and 2016. We assessed the frequency with which anticoagulation clinic providers recommended an extended INR testing interval (> 5 weeks) to eligible patients. We also explored safety outcomes for eligible patients, including next INR values, bleeding events, and emergency department visits. Results At least one eligible period for extended INR testing was identified in 890 of 3362 (26.5%) warfarin-treated patients. Overall, the use of extended INR testing in eligible patients increased from 41.8% in the first quarter of 2014 to 69.3% in the fourth quarter of 2016. The number of subsequent out-of-range next INR values were similar between eligible patients who did and did not have an extended INR testing interval (27.3% versus 28.4%, respectively). The numbers of major bleeding events were not different between the two groups, but rates of clinically relevant non-major bleeding (0.02 per 100 patient-years versus 0.09 per 100 patient-years) and emergency department visits (0.07 per 100 patient-years versus 0.19 per 100 patient-years) were lower for
van Velthuijsen, Eveline L; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Warnier, Ron M J; Ambergen, Ton; Mulder, Wubbo J; Verhey, Frans R J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M
Delirium is a common and serious complication of hospitalisation in older adults. It can lead to prolonged hospital stay, institutionalisation, and even death. However, it often remains unrecognised or is not managed adequately. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention for nursing staff on three aspects of clinical practice concerning delirium in older hospitalised patients: the frequency and correctness of screening for delirium using the 13-item Delirium Observation Screening score (DOS), and the frequency of geriatric consultations requested for older patients. The a priori expectations were that there would be an increase in all three of these outcomes. We designed an educational intervention and implemented this on two inpatient hospital units. Before providing the educational session, the nursing staff was asked to fill out two questionnaires about delirium in older hospitalised patients. The educational session was then tailored to each unit based on the results of these questionnaires. Additionally, posters and flyers with information on the screening and management of delirium were provided and participants were shown where to find additional information. Relevant data (outcomes, demographics and background patient data) were collected retrospectively from digital medical files. Data was retrospectively collected for four different time points: three pre-test and one post-test. There was a significant increase in frequency of delirium screening (P = 0.001), and both units showed an increase in the correctness of the screening. No significant effect of the educational intervention was found for the proportion of patients who received a geriatric consultation (P = 0.083). The educational intervention was fairly successful in making positive changes in clinical practice: after the educational session an improvement in the frequency and correctness of screening for delirium was observed. A trend, though not
Collins, Laura C; Marotti, Jonathan D; Baer, Heather J; Tamimi, Rulla M
We compared estrogen receptor (ER) assay results abstracted from pathology reports with ER results determined on the same specimens by a central laboratory with an immunohistochemical assay. Paraffin sections were cut from tissue microarrays containing 3093 breast cancer specimens from women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, 1851 of which had both pathology reports and tissue available for central laboratory testing. All sections were immunostained for ER at the same time. The original assays were biochemical for 1512 (81.7%) of the 1851 specimens, immunohistochemical for 336 (18.2%), and immunofluorescent for three (0.2%). ER results from pathology reports and repeat central laboratory testing were in agreement for 87.3% of specimens (1615 of the 1851 specimens; kappa statistic = 0.64, P < .001). When the comparison was restricted to the specimens for which the ER assays were originally performed by immunohistochemistry, the agreement rate increased to 92.3% of specimens (310 of the 336 specimens; kappa statistic = 0.78, P < .001). Thus, ER assay results from pathology reports appear to be a reasonable alternative to central laboratory ER testing for large, population-based studies of patients with breast cancer.
Patel, Anuj V; Abrams, Samuel M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Latkin, Carl A; Rothman, Richard E; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang
Up to 60% of patients decline routine HIV testing offer in US emergency departments (EDs). The objective of this study is to determine whether the provision of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kit would increase engagement of HIV testing among these HIV test 'Decliners'. Patients who declined a test offered in an ED-based triage nurse-driven HIV screening programme were enrolled and randomised to either the HIVST or the control group. The patients in the HIVST group received HIVST kits to take home, were encouraged to report test results to an established internet-based STI/HIV testing recruitment website 'I Want the Kit' (IWTK) and received five referral cards for their peers to request HIVST kits from IWTK. The control group received pamphlets about publicly available HIV testing sites. HIV testing from both groups after enrolment was determined via telephone follow-up at 1 month. Testing rate ratio (RR) was determined using χ 2 tests. Fifty-two patients were randomised to the HIVST group and 48 to the control group. Among all 64 patients completing any follow-up, 14/29 (48%) patients in the HIVST group tested themselves at home with the provided kit. Four of these had never had an HIV test. Only 2/35 (6%) in the control group reported having an HIV test after enrolment (RR: 8.45 (95% CI: 2.09 to 34.17)). 57% (8/14) in the HIVST group reported test results to IWTK. Provision of HIVST kits supplements ED-based screening programme and significantly improved engagement of HIV testing among those test 'Decliners' in the ED. NCT03021005, results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy
Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result
Treece, Amanda L; Gulley, Margaret L; Vasalos, Patricia; Paquette, Cherie; Lindeman, Neal I; Jennings, Lawrence J; Bartley, Angela N
- With enormous growth in the field of molecular pathology, the reporting of results gleaned from this testing is essential to guide patient care. - To examine molecular reports from laboratories participating in proficiency testing for required elements to convey molecular laboratory test results to clinicians and patients. - Molecular laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) proficiency testing program for BRAF mutation analysis were solicited to submit examples of final reports from 2 separate proficiency testing reporting cycles. Reports were reviewed for the presence or absence of relevant components. - A total of 107 evaluable reports were received (57 demonstrating a positive result for the BRAF V600E mutation and 50 negative). Methods for BRAF testing varied, with 95% (102 of 107) of reports adequately describing their assay methods and 87% (93 of 107) of reports adequately describing the target(s) of their assays. Information on the analytic sensitivity of the assay was present in 74% (79 of 107) of reports and 83% (89 of 107) reported at least 1 assay limitation, though only 34% (36 of 107) reported on variants not detected by their assays. Analytic and clinical interpretive comments were included in 99% (106 of 107) and 90% (96 of 107) of reports, respectively. Of participants that perform a laboratory-developed test, 88% (88 of 100) included language addressing the development of the assay. - Laboratories participating in BRAF proficiency testing through the CAP are including most of the required reporting elements to unambiguously convey molecular results. Laboratories should continue to strive to report these results in a concise and comprehensive manner.
Perez, Horacio, III
This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;
... profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results ... at an earlier age if you have: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke High blood pressure A strong family history ...
Howarth, Dt R; Lum, Sharon S; Esquivel, Pamela; Garberoglio, Carlos A; Senthil, Maheswari; Solomon, Naveenraj L
Multigene panel testing for hereditary cancer risk has recently become commercially available; however, the impact of its use on patient care is undefined. We sought to evaluate results from implementation of panel testing in a multidisciplinary cancer center. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing genetic testing after initiating use of multigene panel testing at Loma Linda University Medical Center. From February 13 to August 25, 2014, 92 patients were referred for genetic testing based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Testing was completed in 90 patients. Overall, nine (10%) pathogenic mutations were identified: five BRCA1/2, and four in non-BRCA loci. Single-site testing identified one BRCA1 and one BRCA2 mutation. The remaining mutations were identified by use of panel testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. There were 40 variants of uncertain significance identified in 34 patients. The use of panel testing more than doubled the identification rate of clinically significant pathogenic mutations that would have been missed with BRCA testing alone. The large number of variants of uncertain significance identified will require long-term follow-up for potential reclassification. Multigene panel testing provides additional information that may improve patient outcomes.
Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok
The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.
Bohm, Parker E; Fehlings, Michael G; Kopjar, Branko; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Anderson, Karen K; Arnold, Paul M
The timed 30-m walking test (30MWT) is used in clinical practice and in research to objectively quantify gait impairment. The psychometric properties of 30MWT have not yet been rigorously evaluated. This study aimed to determine test-retest reliability, divergent and convergent validity, and responsiveness to change of the 30MWT in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). A retrospective observational study was carried out. The sample consisted of patients with symptomatic DCM enrolled in the AOSpine North America or AOSpine International cervical spondylotic myelopathy studies at 26 sites. Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA), Nurick scale, 30MWT, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short-Form-36 (SF-36v2) physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) were the outcome measures. Data from two prospective multicenter cohort myelopathy studies were merged. Each patient was evaluated at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Of 757 total patients, 682 (90.09%) attempted to perform the 30MWT at baseline. Of these 682 patients, 602 (88.12%) performed the 30MWT at baseline. One patient was excluded, leaving601 in the analysis. At baseline, 81 of 682 (11.88%) patients were unable to perform the test, and their mJOA, NDI, and SF-36v2 PCS scores were lower compared with those who performed the test at baseline. In patients who performed the 30MWT at baseline, there was very high correlation among the three baseline 30MWT measurements (r=0.9569-0.9919). The 30MWT demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. It was moderately correlated with the Nurick (r=0.4932), mJOA (r=-0.4424), and SF-36v2 PCS (r=-0.3537) (convergent validity) and poorly correlated with the NDI (r=0.2107) and SF-36v2 MCS (r=-0.1984) (divergent validity). Overall, the 30MWT was not responsive to change (standardized response mean [SRM]=0.30). However, for patients who had a baseline time above the median value of 29 seconds, the SRM was 0.45. The 30MWT
Rijken, Noortje H; van Engelen, Baziel G; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C
To evaluate the construct validity and interrater reliability of 4 simple antigravity tests in a small group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Case-control study. University medical center. Patients with various severity levels of FSHD (n=9) and healthy control subjects (n=10) were included (N=19). Not applicable. A 4-point ordinal scale was designed to grade performance on the following 4 antigravity tests: sit to stance, stance to sit, step up, and step down. In addition, the 6-minute walk test, 10-m walking test, Berg Balance Scale, and timed Up and Go test were administered as conventional tests. Construct validity was determined by linear regression analysis using the Clinical Severity Score (CSS) as the dependent variable. Interrater agreement was tested using a κ analysis. Patients with FSHD performed worse on all 4 antigravity tests compared with the controls. Stronger correlations were found within than between test categories (antigravity vs conventional). The antigravity tests revealed the highest explained variance with regard to the CSS (R(2)=.86, P=.014). Interrater agreement was generally good. The results of this exploratory study support the construct validity and interrater reliability of the proposed antigravity tests for the assessment of functional capacity in patients with FSHD taking into account the use of compensatory strategies. Future research should further validate these results in a larger sample of patients with FSHD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu
Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129
Sugiura, M; Hayakawa, R; Kato, Y; Sugiura, K; Hashimoto, R
We report the annual results of patch testing with lavender oil for a 9-year period from 1990 to 1998 in Japan. Using Finn Chambers and Scanpor tape, we performed 2-day closed patch testing with lavender oil 20% pet. on the upper back of each patient suspected of having cosmetic contact dermatitis. We compared the frequency of positive patch tests to lavender oil each year with those to other fragrances. We diagnosed contact allergy when patch test reactions were + or <+ at 1 day after removal. The positivity rate of lavender oil was 3.7% (0-13.9%) during the 9-year period from 1990 to 1998. The positivity rate of lavender oil increased suddenly in 1997. Recently, in Japan, there has been a trend for aromatherapy using lavender oil. With this trend, placing dried lavender flowers in pillows, drawers, cabinets, or rooms has become a new fashion. We asked patients who showed a positive reaction to lavender oil about their use of dried lavender flowers. We confirmed the use of dried lavender flowers in 5 cases out of 11 positive cases in 1997 and 8 out of 15 positive cases in 1998. We concluded that the increase in patch test positivity rates to lavender oil in 1997 and 1998 was due to the above fashion, rather than due to fragrances in cosmetic products.
Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane
Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.
Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Jones, Randy A; Thomas, Christopher Y; Brenin, David R; Weiss, Geoffrey R; Schroen, Anneke T; Petroni, Gina R
Appropriate utilization of treatment is a goal for all patients undergoing cancer treatment. Proper treatment maximizes benefit and limits exposure to unnecessary measures. This report describes findings of the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a short, clinic-based decision aid and presents an in-depth clinical profile of the participants. This descriptive study used a prospective, quantitative approach to obtain the feasibility and acceptability of a decision aid (DecisionKEYS for Balancing Choices) for use in clinical settings. It combined results of trials of patients with three different common malignancies. All groups used the same decision aid series. Participants included 80 patients with solid tumors (22 with newly diagnosed breast cancer, 19 with advanced prostate cancer, and 39 with advanced lung cancer) and their 80 supporters as well as their physicians and nurses, for a total of 160 participants and 10 health professionals. The decision aid was highly acceptable to patient and supporter participants in all diagnostic groups. It was feasible for use in clinic settings; the overall value was rated highly. Of six physicians, all found the interactive format with the help of the nurse as feasible and acceptable. Nurses also rated the decision aid favorably. This intervention provides the opportunity to enhance decision making about cancer treatment and warrants further study including larger and more diverse groups. Strengths of the study included a theoretical grounding, feasibility testing of a practical clinic-based intervention, and summative evaluation of acceptability of the intervention by patient and supporter pairs. Further research also is needed to test the effectiveness of the decision aid in diverse clinical settings and to determine if this intervention can decrease overall costs.
Hooker, Gillian W.; Peay, Holly; Erby, Lori; Bayless, Theodore; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Roter, Debra L.
Background Findings from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) genome-wide association studies are being translated clinically into prognostic and diagnostic indicators of disease. Yet, patient perception and understanding of these tests and their applicability to providing risk information is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine, using hypothetical scenarios, whether patients with IBD perceive genetic testing to be useful for risk assessment, whether genetic test results impact perceived control, and whether low genetic literacy may be a barrier to patient understanding of these tests. Methods Two hundred fifty seven patients with IBD from the Johns Hopkins gastroenterology clinics were randomized to receive a vignette depicting either a genetic testing scenario or a standard blood testing scenario. Participants were asked questions about the vignette and responses were compared between groups. Results Perceptions of test utility for risk assessment were higher among participants responding to the genetic vignette (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in perceptions of control over IBD after hypothetical testing between vignettes (P = 0.24). Participant responses were modified by genetic literacy, measured using a scale developed for this study. Participants randomized to the genetic vignette who scored higher on the genetic literacy scale perceived greater utility of testing for risk assessment (P = 0.008) and more control after testing (P = 0.02). Conclusions Patients with IBD perceive utility in genetic testing for providing information relevant to family members, and this appreciation is promoted by genetic literacy. Low genetic literacy among patients poses a potential threat to effective translation of genetic and genomic tests. PMID:24691112
Mák, Geneviève; Smith Fowler, Heather; Leaver, Chad; Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer
Web-based patient access to personal health information is limited but increasing in Canada and internationally. This exploratory study aimed to increase understanding of how Web-based access to laboratory test results in British Columbia (Canada), which has been broadly available since 2010, affects patients' experiences. In November 2013, we surveyed adults in British Columbia who had had a laboratory test in the previous 12 months. Using a retrospective cohort design, we compared reported wait-time for results, test result comprehension, and anxiety levels of "service users" who had Web-based access to their test results (n=2047) with those of a general population panel that did not have Web-based access (n=1245). The vast majority of service users (83.99%, 95% CI 82.31-85.67) said they received their results within "a few days", compared to just over a third of the comparison group (37.84%, 95% CI 34.96-40.73). Most in both groups said they understood their test results, but the rate was lower for service users than the comparison group (75.55%, 95% CI 73.58-77.49 vs 84.69%, 95% CI 82.59-86.81). There was no significant difference between groups in levels of reported anxiety after receiving test results. While most patients who received their laboratory test results online reported little anxiety after receiving their results and were satisfied with the service, there may be opportunities to improve comprehension of results.
Phillips, Kathryn A.; Marshall, Deborah A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Elkin, Elena B.; Liang, Su-Ying; Hassett, Michael J.; Ferrusi, Ilia; Brock, Jane E.; Van Bebber, Stephanie L
Background Testing technologies are increasingly used to target cancer therapies. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing to target trastuzumab for patients with breast cancer provides insights into the evidence needed for emerging testing technologies. Methods We reviewed literature on HER2 test utilization and cost-effectiveness of HER2 testing for patients with breast cancer. We examined available evidence on: percentage of eligible patients tested for HER2; test methods used; concordance of test results between community and central/reference laboratories; use of trastuzumab by HER2 test result; and cost-effectiveness of testing strategies. Results Little evidence is available to determine whether all eligible patients are tested; how many are retested to confirm results; and how many with negative HER2 test results still receive trastuzumab. Studies suggest that up to 66% of eligible patients had no documentation of testing in claims records; up to 20% of patients receiving trastuzumab were not tested or had no documentation of a positive test; and 20% of HER2 results may be incorrect. Few cost-effectiveness analyses of trastuzumab explicitly considered the economic implications of various testing strategies. Conclusions There is little information about the actual use of HER2 testing in clinical practice, but evidence suggests important variations in testing practices and key gaps in knowledge exist. Given the increasing use of targeted therapies, it is critical to build an evidence base that supports informed decision-making on emerging testing technologies in cancer care. PMID:19753618
Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Illarramendi, Ximena; Teles, Rose B; Penna, Maria Lucia F; Nery, José Augusto C; Sales, Anna Maria; Oskam, Linda; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Sarno, Euzenir N
The use of the skin lesion counting classification leads to both under and over diagnosis of leprosy in many instances. Thus, there is a need to complement this classification with another simple and robust test for use in the field. Data of 202 untreated leprosy patients diagnosed at FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was analyzed. There were 90 patients classified as PB and 112 classified as MB according to the reference standard. The BI was positive in 111 (55%) patients and the ML Flow test in 116 (57.4%) patients. The ML Flow test was positive in 95 (86%) of the patients with a positive BI. The lesion counting classification was confirmed by both BI and ML Flow tests in 65% of the 92 patients with 5 or fewer lesions, and in 76% of the 110 patients with 6 or more lesions. The combination of skin lesion counting and the ML Flow test results yielded a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 87% for MB classification, and correctly classified 86% of the patients when compared to the standard reference. A considerable proportion of the patients (43.5%) with discordant test results in relation to standard classification was in reaction. The use of any classification system has limitations, especially those that oversimplify a complex disease such as leprosy. In the absence of an experienced dermatologist and slit skin smear, the ML Flow test could be used to improve treatment decisions in field conditions.
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...
Meyer, Barbara; Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Car, Josip
As medical care becomes more complex and the ability to test for conditions grows, pressure on healthcare providers to convey increasing volumes of test results to patients is driving investigation of alternative technological solutions for their delivery. This review addresses the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients. To assess the effects of using email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients, compared to SMS/ text messaging, telephone communication or usual care, on outcomes, including harms, for health professionals, patients and caregivers, and health services. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010), and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions using email for communicating results of any diagnostic medical investigations to patients, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved citations. No studies were identified for inclusion. Consequently, no data collection or analysis was possible. No studies met the inclusion criteria, therefore there are no results to report on the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical
Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up
The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415
Auer, Michael; Ryner, Malin; Hässler, Signe; Bachelet, Delphine; Mbogning, Cyprien; Warnke, Clemens; Buck, Dorothea; Hyldgaard Jensen, Poul Erik; Sievers, Claudia; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Fissolo, Nicolas; Lindberg, Raija; Grummel, Verena; Donnellan, Naoimh; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Kieseier, Bernd; Soelberg Sørensen, Per; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Derfuss, Tobias; Lawton, Andy; Sikkema, Dan; Pallardy, Marc; Hemmer, Bernhard; Deisenhammer, Florian; Broët, Philippe; Dönnes, Pierre; Davidson, Julie; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna
Antibodies against biopharmaceuticals (anti-drug antibodies, ADA) have been a well-integrated part of the clinical care of multiple sclerosis (MS) in several European countries. ADA data generated in Europe during the more than 10 years of ADA monitoring in MS patients treated with interferon beta (IFNβ) and natalizumab have been pooled and characterized through collaboration within a European consortium. The aim of this study was to report on the clinical practice of ADA testing in Europe, considering the number of ADA tests performed and type of ADA assays used, and to determine the frequency of ADA testing against the different drug preparations in different countries. A common database platform (tranSMART) for querying, analyzing and storing retrospective data of MS cohorts was set up to harmonize the data and compare results of ADA tests between different countries. Retrospective data from six countries (Sweden, Austria, Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Denmark) on 20,695 patients and on 42,555 samples were loaded into tranSMART including data points of age, gender, treatment, samples, and ADA results. The previously observed immunogenic difference among the four IFNβ preparations was confirmed in this large dataset. Decreased usage of the more immunogenic preparations IFNβ-1a subcutaneous (s.c.) and IFNβ-1b s.c. in favor of the least immunogenic preparation IFNβ-1a intramuscular (i.m.) was observed. The median time from treatment start to first ADA test correlated with time to first positive test. Shorter times were observed for IFNβ-1b-Extavia s.c. (0.99 and 0.94 years) and natalizumab (0.25 and 0.23 years), which were introduced on the market when ADA testing was already available, as compared to IFNβ-1a i.m. (1.41 and 2.27 years), IFNβ-1b-Betaferon s.c. (2.51 and 1.96 years) and IFNβ-1a s.c. (2.11 and 2.09 years) which were available years before routine testing began. A higher rate of anti-IFNβ ADA was observed in test samples taken from older
Link, Jenny; Ramanujam, Ryan; Auer, Michael; Ryner, Malin; Hässler, Signe; Bachelet, Delphine; Mbogning, Cyprien; Warnke, Clemens; Buck, Dorothea; Hyldgaard Jensen, Poul Erik; Sievers, Claudia; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Fissolo, Nicolas; Lindberg, Raija; Grummel, Verena; Donnellan, Naoimh; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Kieseier, Bernd; Soelberg Sørensen, Per; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Derfuss, Tobias; Lawton, Andy; Sikkema, Dan; Pallardy, Marc; Hemmer, Bernhard; Deisenhammer, Florian; Broët, Philippe; Dönnes, Pierre; Davidson, Julie; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna
Antibodies against biopharmaceuticals (anti-drug antibodies, ADA) have been a well-integrated part of the clinical care of multiple sclerosis (MS) in several European countries. ADA data generated in Europe during the more than 10 years of ADA monitoring in MS patients treated with interferon beta (IFNβ) and natalizumab have been pooled and characterized through collaboration within a European consortium. The aim of this study was to report on the clinical practice of ADA testing in Europe, considering the number of ADA tests performed and type of ADA assays used, and to determine the frequency of ADA testing against the different drug preparations in different countries. A common database platform (tranSMART) for querying, analyzing and storing retrospective data of MS cohorts was set up to harmonize the data and compare results of ADA tests between different countries. Retrospective data from six countries (Sweden, Austria, Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Denmark) on 20,695 patients and on 42,555 samples were loaded into tranSMART including data points of age, gender, treatment, samples, and ADA results. The previously observed immunogenic difference among the four IFNβ preparations was confirmed in this large dataset. Decreased usage of the more immunogenic preparations IFNβ-1a subcutaneous (s.c.) and IFNβ-1b s.c. in favor of the least immunogenic preparation IFNβ-1a intramuscular (i.m.) was observed. The median time from treatment start to first ADA test correlated with time to first positive test. Shorter times were observed for IFNβ-1b-Extavia s.c. (0.99 and 0.94 years) and natalizumab (0.25 and 0.23 years), which were introduced on the market when ADA testing was already available, as compared to IFNβ-1a i.m. (1.41 and 2.27 years), IFNβ-1b-Betaferon s.c. (2.51 and 1.96 years) and IFNβ-1a s.c. (2.11 and 2.09 years) which were available years before routine testing began. A higher rate of anti-IFNβ ADA was observed in test samples taken from older
Cho, Jae Hoon; Suh, Jeffrey D; Kim, Jin Kook; Hong, Seok-Chan; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man
Allergy test results can differ based on the method used. The most common tests include skin-prick testing (SPT) and in vitro tests to detect allergen-specific IgE. This study was designed to assess allergy test results using SPT, individual specific IgE tests, and a multiallergen IgE assay (multiple allergen simultaneous test) in patients with chronic rhinitis and controls. One hundred forty total patients were prospectively enrolled in the study, including 100 patients with chronic rhinitis and 40 control patients without atopy. All eligible patients underwent SPT, serum analysis using individual specific IgE test, and multiple allergen simultaneous test against 10 common allergens. Allergy test results were then compared to identify correlation and interest agreement. There was an 81-97% agreement between SPT and individual specific IgE test in allergen detection and an 80-98% agreement between SPT and multiple allergen simultaneous test. Individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test allergy detection prevalence was generally similar to SPT in patients with chronic rhinitis. All control patients had negative SPT (0/40), but low positive results were found with both individual specific IgE test (5-12.5%) and multiple allergen simultaneous test (2.5-7.5%) to some allergens, especially cockroach, Dermatophagoides farina, and ragweed. Agreement and correlation between individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test were good to excellent for a majority of tested allergens. This study shows good agreement and correlation between SPT with individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test on a majority of the tested allergens for patients with chronic rhinitis. Comparing the two in vitro tests, individual specific IgE test agrees with SPT better than multiple allergen simultaneous test.
Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian
Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P < .0001). Overall, 6.1%, 75.5%, and 18.4% of individuals had positive, negative, and inconclusive results, respectively. The most commonly altered genes included folliculin (FLCN) and fumarate hydratase (FH), which were altered in 1.8% and 1.3% of patients, respectively. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), mesenchymal epithelial transition factor proto-oncogene (MET), and PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2) had the highest rates of variants of unknown significance, which were identified in 2.7%, 2.2%, and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Early age of onset was the only factor that was identified as predictive of a positive test on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.975; P = .0052) and may be the only identifying characteristic of low-penetrant syndromes, such as those associated with MITF (melanogenesis-associated transcription factor) mutations, which do not have singular histology or a family history of kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American
Fanshawe, Thomas R; Power, Michael; Graziadio, Sara; Ordóñez-Mena, José M; Simpson, John; Allen, Joy
Information about the performance of diagnostic tests is typically presented in the form of measures of test accuracy such as sensitivity and specificity. These measures may be difficult to translate directly into decisions about patient treatment, for which information presented in the form of probabilities of disease after a positive or a negative test result may be more useful. These probabilities depend on the prevalence of the disease, which is likely to vary between populations. This article aims to clarify the relationship between pre-test (prevalence) and post-test probabilities of disease, and presents two free, online interactive tools to illustrate this relationship. These tools allow probabilities of disease to be compared with decision thresholds above and below which different treatment decisions may be indicated. They are intended to help those involved in communicating information about diagnostic test performance and are likely to be of benefit when teaching these concepts. A substantive example is presented using C reactive protein as a diagnostic marker for bacterial infection in the older adult population. The tools may also be useful for manufacturers of clinical tests in planning product development, for authors of test evaluation studies to improve reporting and for users of test evaluations to facilitate interpretation and application of the results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Merz, Laurent; Zimmermann, Stefan; Peters, Solange; Cavassini, Matthias
Background. Although the prevalence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (non-ADCs) among people living with HIV is rising, we observed HIV testing rates below 5% at our oncology center, against a regional HIV prevalence of 0.2%–0.4%. We performed the Investigating Barriers in HIV-Testing Oncology Patients (IBITOP) study among oncology physicians and patients. Methods. Between July 1 and October 31, 2013, patients of unknown HIV status newly diagnosed with solid-organ non-ADCs referred to Lausanne University Hospital Oncology Service, Switzerland, were offered free HIV testing as part of their oncology work-up. The primary endpoints were (a) physician willingness to offer and patient acceptance of HIV testing and (b) physicians’ reasons for not offering testing. Results. Of 239 patients of unknown HIV status with a new non-ADC diagnosis, 43 (18%) were offered HIV testing, of whom 4 declined (acceptance rate: 39 of 43; 91%). Except for 21 patients tested prior to oncology consultation, 175 patients (of 239; 73%) were not offered testing. Testing rate declined among patients who were >70 years old (12% versus 30%; p = .04); no non-European patients were tested. Physicians gave reasons for not testing in 16% of cases, the main reason being patient follow-up elsewhere (10 patients; 5.7%). HIV testing during the IBITOP study increased the HIV testing rate to 18%. Conclusion. Although the IBITOP study increased HIV testing rates, most patients were not tested. Testing was low or nonexistent among individuals at risk of late HIV presentation (older patients and migrants). Barriers to testing appear to be physician-led, because patient acceptance of testing offered was very high (91%). In November 2013, the Swiss HIV testing recommendations were updated to propose testing in cancer patients. Phase II of the IBITOP study is examining the effect of these recommendations on HIV testing rates and focusing on physician-led testing barriers. Implications for Practice: Patients of
Balzer, K; Schmitt, G; Reiners, C; Goebell, H
For that reason absorption of bile acids was investigated using the 75Se-homotaurocholate (SeHCAT) in 239 patients with diarrhoea. SeHCAT retention time was measured as 7 day retention time in a whole body counter. An intact bile acid absorption (negative SeHCAT test) was confirmed in 23 healthy volunteers within the range of 11 to 50% (mean +/- double standard deviation). In 135 patients with a possible type I bile salt malabsorption the SeHCAT test was positive in 78%, thus indicating bile salt malabsorption. The test is very sensitive detecting bile salt malabsorption in Crohn's disease, identifying ileal disease more precisely than radiology. The SeHCAT test ascertained type II primary bile salt malabsorption in 7 patients, as well as type III bile salt malabsorption in patients (9 out of 28) with cholecystectomy, vagotomy, partial gastrectomy and chronic pancreatitis. In addition, a positive SeHCAT test indicating bile acid malabsorption was found in 5 out of 11 patients with irritable syndrome, diarrhoeic form, and in 4 out of 12 patients with lactose intolerance. SeHCAT retention should be measured routinely in patients with chronic diarrhoea for which the cause is not obvious.
McKinsey, David S; McKinsey, Joel P; Northcutt, Noelle; Sarria, Juan C
Histoplasma polysaccharide antigen testing is used routinely to diagnose histoplasmosis. At least 3 antigen tests are commercially available. Controversy exists about the relative accuracy of these tests. We report 2 patients with AIDS and culture-confirmed Histoplasma capsulatum meningitis from whom discrepant Histoplasma polysaccharide antigen results were obtained from different laboratories and discuss the potential clinical implications of these results.
Keller, Karsten; Stelzer, Kathrin; Munzel, Thomas; Ostad, Mir Abolfazl
Exercise echocardiography is a reliable routine test in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. However, in ∼15% of all patients, stress echocardiography leads to false-positive stress echocardiography results. We aimed to investigate the impact of hypertension on stress echocardiographic results. We performed a retrospective study of patients with suspected or known stable coronary artery disease who underwent a bicycle exercise stress echocardiography. Patients with false-positive stress results were compared with those with appropriate results. 126 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease were included in this retrospective study. 23 patients showed false-positive stress echocardiography results. Beside comparable age, gender distribution and coronary artery status, hypertension was more prevalent in patients with false-positive stress results (95.7% vs. 67.0%, p = 0.0410). Exercise peak load revealed a borderline-significance with lower loads in patients with false-positive results (100.0 (IQR 75.0/137.5) vs. 125.0 (100.0/150.0) W, p = 0.0601). Patients with false-positive stress results showed higher systolic (2.05 ± 0.69 vs. 1.67 ± 0.39 mmHg/W, p = 0.0193) and diastolic (1.03 ± 0.38 vs. 0.80 ± 0.28 mmHg/W, p = 0.0165) peak blood pressure (BP) per wattage. In a multivariate logistic regression test, hypertension (OR 17.6 [CI 95% 1.9-162.2], p = 0.0115), and systolic (OR 4.12 [1.56-10.89], p = 0.00430) and diastolic (OR 13.74 [2.46-76.83], p = 0.00285) peak BP per wattage, were associated with false-positive exercise results. ROC analysis for systolic and diastolic peak BP levels per wattage showed optimal cut-off values of 1.935mmHg/W and 0.823mmHg/W, indicating false-positive exercise echocardiographic results with AUCs of 0.660 and 0.664, respectively. Hypertension is a risk factor for false-positive stress exercise echocardiographic results in patients with known or
Bushnell, C D; Goldstein, L B
Hypercoagulable states are a recognized, albeit uncommon, etiology of ischemic stroke. It is unclear how often the results of specialized coagulation tests affect management. Using data compiled from a systematic review of available studies, we employed quantitative methodology to assess the diagnostic yield of coagulation tests for identification of coagulopathies in ischemic stroke patients. We performed a MEDLINE search to identify controlled studies published during 1966-1999 that reported the prevalence of deficiencies of protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, plasminogen, activated protein C resistance (APCR)/factor V Leiden mutation (FVL), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACL), or lupus anticoagulant (LA) in patients with ischemic stroke. The cumulative prevalence rates (pretest probabilities) and positive likelihood ratios for all studies and for those including only patients aged =50 years were used to calculate posttest probabilities for each coagulopathy, reflecting diagnostic yield. The cumulative pretest probabilities of coagulation defects in ischemic stroke patients are as follows: LA, 3% (8% for those aged =50 years); ACL, 17% (21% for those aged =50 years); APCR/FVL, 7% (11% for those aged =50 years); and prothrombin mutation, 4.5% (5.7% for those aged =50 years). The posttest probabilities of ACL, LA, and APCR increased with increasing pretest probability, the specificity of the tests, and features of the patients' history and clinical presentation. The pretest probabilities of coagulation defects in ischemic stroke patients are low. The diagnostic yield of coagulation tests may be increased by using tests with the highest specificities and by targeting patients with clinical or historical features that increase pretest probability. Consideration of these data might lead to more rational ordering of tests and an associated cost savings.
van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Pleunis-van Empel, Marjolein C H; Koch, Hèlen; Grol, Richard P T M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van der Weijden, Trudy
General practitioners often take their impression of patients' expectations into account in their decision to have blood tests done. It is commonly recommended to involve patients in decision-making during consultations. The study aimed to obtain detailed information on patients' expectations about blood tests. Qualitative study among patients in waiting rooms of general practices. Each patient was presented with a short questionnaire about their preferences in terms of diagnostics. Patients who would like blood tests to be done were interviewed. Fifty-seven (26%) of the 224 respondents wanted blood tests. Twenty-two were interviewed. Patients overestimated the qualities of blood tests. Favourable test results were regarded as proof of good health. Patients regarded blood tests as a useful instrument to screen for serious disorders, and were confirmed in this belief by people in their social environment and by the media. Many patients expected their GP to take an active test ordering approach, though some indicated that they might be convinced if their GP proposed a wait-and-see policy. GPs' perceptions about patient expectations seem justified: patients appear to have high hopes for testing as a diagnostic tool. They expect diagnostic certainty without mistakes and a proof of good health. The question is whether it would be desirable to remove patients' misconceptions, allowing them to participate in policy decisions on the basis of sound information, or whether it would be better to leave the misconceptions uncontested, in order to retain the 'magic' of additional tests and reassure patients. We expect that clarifying the precise nature of patients' expectations by the GP may be helpful in creating a diagnostic strategy that satisfies both patients and GPs. GPs will have to balance the benefits of reassuring their patients by means of blood tests which may be unnecessary against the benefits of avoiding unnecessary tests. Further research is needed into the
Goldberg, Arnon; Confino-Cohen, Ronit
Penicillin administration is usually contraindicated in penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test results. To examine whether penicillin oral challenge for patients with a history of remote non-life-threatening allergic reaction to penicillin can be well tolerated irrespective of skin test results. In a prospective open-label trial, 8,702 individuals were screened between November 1998 and January 2000. Of 687 patients with a non-life-threatening allergic reaction to penicillin, occurring longer than 3 years earlier, 169 were enrolled. Regardless of the response to penicillin skin testing, patients received the usual 1-day dosage of penicillin and amoxicillin, on 2 separate occasions. Two to 6 years later, a follow-up was conducted to assess the outcomes of further penicillin administration. A total of 272 combined skin tests and oral challenges were performed on 169 patients. Among 137 challenges with a positive skin test result and 135 patients with a negative skin test result, 9 (6.6%) and 5 (3.7%) (P = .29), respectively, developed a mild rash to oral challenge. At follow-up, 2 to 6 years afterward, 3 of 55 patients (5.5%) who were given a full treatment course of penicillin developed a mild skin eruption. Positive penicillin skin test results for patients with a remote history of non-life-threatening allergic reaction to penicillin were not associated with a greater prevalence of adverse reactions to oral challenge with penicillin than negative results. Because skin testing is considered the gold standard and the safest method for predicting tolerance to penicillin administration, oral penicillin challenge may be used as a diagnostic method only in these specific patients when skin testing is not feasible.
Sherafat, H; Spry, P G D; Waldock, A; Sparrow, J M; Diamond, J P
Aims: To evaluate the effect of a visual field test educational video on the reliability of the first automated visual field test of new patients. Methods: A prospective, randomised, controlled trial of an educational video on visual field test reliability of patients referred to the hospital eye service for suspected glaucoma was undertaken. Patients were randomised to either watch an educational video or a control group with no video. The video group was shown a 4.5 minute audiovisual presentation to familiarise them with the various aspects of visual field examination with particular emphasis on sources of unreliability. Reliability was determined using standard criteria of fixation loss rate less than 20%, false positive responses less than 33%, and false negative responses less than 33%. Results: 244 patients were recruited; 112 in the video group and 132 in the control group with no significant between group difference in age, sex, and density of field defects. A significant improvement in reliability (p=0.015) was observed in the group exposed to the video with 85 (75.9%) patients having reliable results compared to 81 (61.4%) in the control group. The difference was not significant for the right (first tested) eye with 93 (83.0%) of the visual fields reliable in the video group compared to 106 (80.0%) in the control group (p = 0.583), but was significant for the left (second tested) eye with 97 (86.6 %) of the video group reliable versus 97 (73.5%) of the control group (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The use of a brief, audiovisual patient information guide on taking the visual field test produced an improvement in patient reliability for individuals tested for the first time. In this trial the use of the video had most of its impact by reducing the number of unreliable fields from the second tested eye. PMID:12543740
Krock, Kevin; Pesce, Amadeo; Ritz, Dennis; Thomas, Richard; Cua, Agnes; Rogers, Ryan; Lipnick, Phil; Kilbourn, Kristen
Urine drug testing is used by health care providers to determine a patient's compliance to their prescribed regimen and to detect non-prescribed medications and illicit drugs. However, the cutoff levels used by clinical labs are often arbitrarily set and may not reflect the urine drug concentrations of compliant patients. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that commonly used cutoffs for many prescribed and illicit drugs were set too high, and methods using these cutoffs may yield a considerable number of false-negative results. The goals of this study were to outline the way to analyze patient results and estimate a more appropriate cutoff, develop and validate a high sensitivity analytical method capable of quantitating drugs and metabolites at lower than the commonly used cutoffs, and determine the number of true positive results that would have been missed when using the common cutoffs. This was a retrospective study of urine specimens submitted for urine drug testing as part of the monitoring of prescription drug compliance described in chronic opioid therapy treatment guidelines. The study was set in a clinical toxicology laboratory, using specimens submitted for routine analysis by health care providers in the normal course of business. Lognormal distributions of test results were generated and fitted with a trendline to estimate the required cutoff level necessary to capture the normal distributions of each drug for the patient population study. A validated laboratory derived liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis capable of achieving the required cutoff levels was developed for each drug and/or metabolite. The study shows that a lognormal distribution of patient urine test results fitted with a trendline is appropriate for estimating the required cutoff levels needed to assess medication adherence. The study showed a wide variation in the false-negative rate, ranging from 1.5% to 94.3% across a range of prescribed and illicit
Habesoğlu, M A; Torun, D; Demiroglu, Y Z; Karatasli, M; Sen, N; Ermis, H; Ozdemir, Nurhan; Eyuboglu, F O
Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for tuberculosis, and a tuberculin skin test (TST) is not usually helpful in detecting tuberculosis infection because of anergic reactions. Prophylactic therapy against tuberculosis in dialysis patients is important to enhance transplantation success. Herein we evaluated the value of TST in screening for tuberculosis and analyzed any compounding factors that might affect the results of the test in hemodialysis patients in an endemic area of Turkey. A total of 187 (96 female, 91 male) patients were screened using a 2-step TST. Test results were compared with clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data. None of the patients had active tuberculosis during the study and 55% had been vaccinated against tuberculosis. After the first purified protein derivative (PPD) test, 55.1% of the patients showed a positive reaction, ultimately reaching a total of 68.4% following the second test. Cumulative positive TST results were significantly correlated with male gender (P=.001, r=.352), previous tuberculosis history (P=.013, r=.183) positively, whereas with the ferritin level (P=.001, r=-.233) negatively; but there were no significant relationships between TST results and other data. Impairment of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction is frequent in dialysis patients, but we observed high rates of positivity with the two-step TST which could be attributed to tuberculosis being endemic in Turkey. Further comparative studies with more specific diagnostic methods will be helpful to evaluate the importance of TST positivity in identifying tuberculosis-infected HD patients.
Callen, Joanne; Giardina, Traber Davis; Singh, Hardeep; Li, Ling; Paoloni, Richard; Georgiou, Andrew; Runciman, William B; Westbrook, Johanna I
Patients are increasingly using the Internet to communicate with health care providers and access general and personal health information. Missed test results have been identified as a critical safety issue with studies showing up to 75% of tests for emergency department (ED) patients not being followed-up. One strategy that could reduce the likelihood of important results being missed is for ED patients to have direct access to their test results. This could be achieved electronically using a patient portal tied to the hospital's electronic medical record or accessed from the relevant laboratory information system. Patients have expressed interest in accessing test results directly, but there have been no reported studies on emergency physicians' opinions. The aim was to explore emergency physicians' current practices of test result notification and attitudes to direct patient notification of clinically significant abnormal and normal test results. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by senior emergency physicians (site A: n=50; site B: n=39) at 2 large public metropolitan teaching hospitals in Australia. Outcome measures included current practices for notification of results (timing, methods, and responsibilities) and concerns with direct notification. The response rate was 69% (61/89). More than half of the emergency physicians (54%, 33/61) were uncomfortable with patients receiving direct notification of abnormal test results. A similar proportion (57%, 35/61) was comfortable with direct notification of normal test results. Physicians were more likely to agree with direct notification of normal test results if they believed it would reduce their workload (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.14-39.76). Main concerns were that patients could be anxious (85%, 52/61), confused (92%, 56/61), and lacking in the necessary expertise to interpret their results (90%, 55/61). Although patients' direct access to test results could serve as a safety net reducing the likelihood of
Korngiebel, Diane M; West, Kathleen M; Burke, Wylie
Test results for genetic conditions, such as Lynch Syndrome (LS), have traditionally been returned by genetic counselors or other providers who can explain results implications and provide psychosocial support. Returning genetic results through an Electronic Health Record's patient portal may increase the efficiency of returning results and could activate patient follow-up; however, stakeholder input is necessary to determine acceptability and appropriate implementation for LS. Twenty interviews were conducted with clinicians from six specialties involved in LS screening that represent a range of settings. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis and thematic analysis across content categories. Participants felt that patient portals could supplement personal calls, but the potential sensitive nature of LS screening results indicated the need for caution. Others felt that LS results could be returned through portals if there were clear explanations of the result, reputable additional information available within the portal, urging follow up confirmatory testing, and a referral to a genetics specialist. Patient portals were seen as helpful for prompting patient follow-up and providing resources to notify at-risk family members. There is potential for patient portals to return LS screening and other genetic results, however we raise several issues to resolve before implementation is warranted.
Braun, M.; Traue, H.C.; Frisch, S.; Deighton, R.M.; Kessler, H.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a stroke event on people's ability to recognize basic emotions. In particular, the hypothesis that right brain-damaged (RBD) patients would show less of emotion recognition ability compared with left brain-damaged (LBD) patients and healthy controls, was tested. To investigate this the FEEL…
Mattsson, Johanna; Minaya, Maria Teresa; Monegro, Milka; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Green, Peter HR; Stenberg, Reidun
Aim: The aim was to investigate breath test outcomes in patients with suspected SIBO and indicative symptoms of SIBO, diagnosed by breath testing. Background: Breath testing is used to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by measuring hydrogen and methane produced by intestinal bacteria. Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study included 311 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent the breath test for evaluation of SIBO at Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, in 2014-2015. The patients were divided into two groups based on the physician’s choice: lactulose breath test group (72%) and glucose breath test group (28%). Among them, 38% had a history of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Results: In total, 46% had a positive breath test: 18% were positive for methane, 24 % positive for hydrogen and 4% positive for both gases (p=0.014). Also, 50% had a positive lactulose breath result and 37% had a positive glucose breath result (p=0.036). The most common symptom for performing the breath test was bloating and the only clinical symptom that significantly showed a positive glucose breath test was increased gas (p=0.028). Conclusion: Lactulose breath test was more often positive than glucose breath test. Positivity for hydrogen was more common than methane. Bloating was the most frequently perceived symptom of the patients undergoing the breath test but the only statistically significant clinical symptom for a positive glucose breath test was increased gas. Furthermore, the results showed that there was no significant association between positive breath test result and gender, age, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. PMID:29118931
Background Patients are increasingly using the Internet to communicate with health care providers and access general and personal health information. Missed test results have been identified as a critical safety issue with studies showing up to 75% of tests for emergency department (ED) patients not being followed-up. One strategy that could reduce the likelihood of important results being missed is for ED patients to have direct access to their test results. This could be achieved electronically using a patient portal tied to the hospital’s electronic medical record or accessed from the relevant laboratory information system. Patients have expressed interest in accessing test results directly, but there have been no reported studies on emergency physicians’ opinions. Objective The aim was to explore emergency physicians’ current practices of test result notification and attitudes to direct patient notification of clinically significant abnormal and normal test results. Methods A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by senior emergency physicians (site A: n=50; site B: n=39) at 2 large public metropolitan teaching hospitals in Australia. Outcome measures included current practices for notification of results (timing, methods, and responsibilities) and concerns with direct notification. Results The response rate was 69% (61/89). More than half of the emergency physicians (54%, 33/61) were uncomfortable with patients receiving direct notification of abnormal test results. A similar proportion (57%, 35/61) was comfortable with direct notification of normal test results. Physicians were more likely to agree with direct notification of normal test results if they believed it would reduce their workload (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.14-39.76). Main concerns were that patients could be anxious (85%, 52/61), confused (92%, 56/61), and lacking in the necessary expertise to interpret their results (90%, 55/61). Conclusions Although patients’ direct access to test
Bovin, Ann; Klausen, Ib C; Petersen, Lars J
To investigate the added value of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy imaging (MPI) in consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and a recent, normal exercise electrocardiography (ECG). This study was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients referred for MPI during a 2-year period from 2006-2007 at one clinic. All eligible patients were suspected of suffering from CAD, and had performed a satisfactory bicycle exercise test (i.e., peak heart rate > 85% of the expected, age-predicted maximum) within 6 mo of referral, their exercise ECG was had no signs of ischemia, there was no exercise-limiting angina, and no cardiac events occurred between the exercise test and referral. The patients subsequently underwent a standard 2-d, stress-rest exercise MPI. Ischemia was defined based on visual scoring supported by quantitative segmental analysis (i.e., sum of stress score > 3). The results of cardiac catheterization were analyzed, and clinical follow up was performed by review of electronic medical files. A total of 56 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most patients had a low or intermediate ATPIII pre-test risk of CAD (6 patients had a high pre-test risk). The referral exercise test showed a mean Duke score of 5 (range: 2 to 11), which translated to a low post-exercise risk in 66% and intermediate risk in 34%. A total of seven patients were reported with ischemia by MPI. Three of these patients had high ATPIII pre-test risk scores. Six of these seven patients underwent cardiac catheterization, which showed significant stenosis in one patient with a high pre-test risk of CAD, and indeterminate lesions in three patients (two of whom had high pre-test risk scores). With MPI as a gate keeper for catheterization, no significant, epicardial stenosis was observed in any of the 50 patients (0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0 to 7.1) with low to intermediate pre-test risk of CAD and a negative exercise test. No cardiac events occurred in any
Wang, Sihe; Ho, Virginia
The recently released reports by the Institute of Medicine, To Err Is Human and Patient Safety, have received national attention because of their focus on the problem of medical errors. Although a small number of studies have reported on errors in general clinical laboratories, there are, to our knowledge, no reported studies that focus on errors in pediatric clinical laboratory testing. To characterize the errors that have caused corrections to have to be made in pediatric clinical chemistry results in the laboratory information system, Misys. To provide initial data on the errors detected in pediatric clinical chemistry laboratories in order to improve patient safety in pediatric health care. All clinical chemistry staff members were informed of the study and were requested to report in writing when a correction was made in the laboratory information system, Misys. Errors were detected either by the clinicians (the results did not fit the patients' clinical conditions) or by the laboratory technologists (the results were double-checked, and the worksheets were carefully examined twice a day). No incident that was discovered before or during the final validation was included. On each Monday of the study, we generated a report from Misys that listed all of the corrections made during the previous week. We then categorized the corrections according to the types and stages of the incidents that led to the corrections. A total of 187 incidents were detected during the 10-month study, representing a 0.26% error detection rate per requisition. The distribution of the detected incidents included 31 (17%) preanalytic incidents, 46 (25%) analytic incidents, and 110 (59%) postanalytic incidents. The errors related to noninterfaced tests accounted for 50% of the total incidents and for 37% of the affected tests and orderable panels, while the noninterfaced tests and panels accounted for 17% of the total test volume in our laboratory. This pilot study provided the rate and
Lin, Kuei-You; Young, Yi-Ho
This study adopted an inner ear test battery comprising audiometry, caloric test, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) test and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) test to find the factors related to the occurrence of vertigo in patients with otosclerosis. Fifty otosclerosis patients comprising 27 patients with vertigo (Group A) and 23 patients without vertigo/dizziness (Group B) were enrolled. Each patient underwent otoscopy, image study, audiometry, caloric test, and oVEMP and cVEMP tests via bone vibration stimuli. The sequence of inner ear deficits in Group A was in the order from oVEMP test (84%), cVEMP test (51%), caloric test (38%) and mean bone-conducted (BC) hearing threshold (14%), exhibiting a significantly declining trend (p<0.001). The rate of inner ear dysfunction in Group B also declined significantly but in a different order - cVEMP test (55%), oVEMP test (52%), mean BC hearing threshold (33%), and caloric test (18%). Comparison between the two groups revealed a significant difference in the oVEMP test results (p<0.01), but not in the results of the BC hearing threshold, caloric test or cVEMP test (p>0.05). Further, no significant differences existed between the BC hearing threshold and vestibular function test results. Otosclerosis patients with vertigo have more frequent abnormalities of oVEMPs to impulsive stimulation than do those without, consistent with more frequent abnormalities of the utricle. Abnormalities of oVEMPs and cVEMPs are more frequent than for caloric testing and BC hearing thresholds. The relative frequency of abnormalities may reflect the degree of pathological involvement of the utricle, saccule, semicircular canals and cochlea in otosclerosis patients with vertigo. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blonigen, Daniel M; Timko, Christine; Jacob, Theodore; Moos, Rudolf H
Patient-centered models of assessment have shown considerable promise for increasing patients' readiness for mental health treatment in general, but have not been used to facilitate patients' engagement in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We developed a brief patient-centered intervention using assessment and feedback of personality data and examined its acceptability and efficacy to increase early engagement in residential SUD treatment. Thirty patients entering a 90-day residential SUD treatment program were randomly assigned to a feedback (n = 17) or control (n = 13; assessment-only) condition. Normal-range personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R). Patients were re-interviewed one month after treatment entry to obtain information on their satisfaction with the intervention, as well as their adjustment to the residential milieu. Electronic medical records were reviewed to obtain information on patients' length of stay in the program and discharge status. Univariate ANOVAs and chi-square tests were conducted to examine group differences on outcomes. Patients' ratings indicated strong satisfaction with the feedback intervention and expectations that it would have a positive impact on their treatment experiences. Among patients who had not previously been treated in the residential program, the feedback intervention was associated with more positive relationships with other residents in treatment and a stronger alliance with the treatment program one month after treatment entry. The feedback intervention was also associated with a longer length of stay in treatment, although this effect did not reach statistical significance. The findings highlight the clinical utility of providing SUD patients with patient-centered feedback based on the results of personality testing, and provide preliminary support for the acceptability and efficacy of this intervention to facilitate early engagement in residential SUD treatment.
Charest, Mathieu; Bélair, Marc-André
Helicobacter pylori infection is the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease. The purpose of this study was, first, to assess the difference in the distribution of negative versus positive results between the older 14 C-urea breath test and the newer 13 C-urea breath test and, second, to determine whether use of an indeterminate-results category is still meaningful and what type of results should trigger repeated testing. Methods: A retrospective survey was performed of all consecutive patients referred to our service for urea breath testing. We analyzed 562 patients who had undergone testing with 14 C-urea and 454 patients who had undergone testing with 13 C-urea. Results: In comparison with the wide distribution of negative 14 C results, negative 13 C results were distributed farther from the cutoff and were grouped more tightly around the mean negative value. Distribution analysis of the negative results for 13 C testing, compared with those for 14 C testing, revealed a statistically significant difference between the two. Within the 13 C group, only 1 patient could have been classified as having indeterminate results using the same indeterminate zone as was used for the 14 C group. This is significantly less frequent than what was found for the 14 C group. Discussion: Borderline-negative results do occur with 13 C-urea breath testing, although less frequently than with 14 C-urea breath testing, and we will be carefully monitoring differences falling between 3.0 and 3.5 %Δ. 13 C-urea breath testing is safe and simple for the patient and, in most cases, provides clearer positive or negative results for the clinician. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...
Sampson, Maureen L; Gounden, Verena; van Deventer, Hendrik E; Remaley, Alan T
The main drawback of the periodic analysis of quality control (QC) material is that test performance is not monitored in time periods between QC analyses, potentially leading to the reporting of faulty test results. The objective of this study was to develop a patient based QC procedure for the more timely detection of test errors. Results from a Chem-14 panel measured on the Beckman LX20 analyzer were used to develop the model. Each test result was predicted from the other 13 members of the panel by multiple regression, which resulted in correlation coefficients between the predicted and measured result of >0.7 for 8 of the 14 tests. A logistic regression model, which utilized the measured test result, the predicted test result, the day of the week and time of day, was then developed for predicting test errors. The output of the logistic regression was tallied by a daily CUSUM approach and used to predict test errors, with a fixed specificity of 90%. The mean average run length (ARL) before error detection by CUSUM-Logistic Regression (CSLR) was 20 with a mean sensitivity of 97%, which was considerably shorter than the mean ARL of 53 (sensitivity 87.5%) for a simple prediction model that only used the measured result for error detection. A CUSUM-Logistic Regression analysis of patient laboratory data can be an effective approach for the rapid and sensitive detection of clinical laboratory errors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rivas Rios, Jose R; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H; Angiolillo, Dominick J
Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered: The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert commentary: The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or...
Gyntelberg, F.; Vesterhauge, S.; Fog, P.
Among 160 consecutive patients referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Rigshospitalet, for symptoms connected with exposure to organic solvents, 20 exhibited symptoms of acquired intolerance to minor amounts of organic solvents. Later, an additional 30 consecutive patients with symptoms of acquired intolerance were included, yielding a total of 43 men and 7 women. The characteristics of the clinical syndrome described are complaints of dizziness, nausea, and weakness after exposure to minimal solvent vapor concentrations. After having tolerated long-term occupational exposure to moderate or high air concentrations of various organic solvents, the patients became intolerant within a short period ofmore » time. Since dizziness was a frequent complaint, we tried to obtain a measure of the patients' complaints using vestibular tests. As a diagnostic test the combined vestibular tests had a sensitivity of 0.55 and a specificity of 0.87. No differences between patients with and without intolerance could be detected by the vestibular tests used. We conclude that acquired intolerance to organic solvents is a new but characteristic and easily recognizable syndrome, often with severe consequences for the patient's working ability.« less
Hashim, Hashim; Abrams, Paul
To find a practical way of detecting urinary tract infection (UTI) before invasive urodynamic testing, as UTIs after urodynamics are well documented, but there are no standard guidelines about when urine should be analysed before urodynamics. Before urodynamics all patients are asked to provide a free urine flow; the patient is then catheterized to obtain a catheter-specimen of urine that is tested for infection by a urine dipstick. If the dipstick is found positive for nitrites and/or leukocytes, the test is abandoned and the sample sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. In the present study, patients were asked to provide a free urine flow into the flowmeter as usual. Between patients, the flowmeter was washed with soap and water and dried, so that there would be no cross-contamination between patients' urine results. Urine was collected as usual and tested using a dipstick, the patient was then catheterized and another dipstick test done on the catheter specimen of urine (CSU), to compare results. Pairs of urine samples, when positive for nitrite were 100% consistent, and 89% of pairs positive for leukocytes were the same before and after catheterization. The remaining 11% (all women) of the positive leukocyte group had leukocytosis on testing the flowmeter urine but not on the CSU, possibly due to contamination from the vagina. Testing urine by dipstick in the sample from the flowmeter is a feasible option, thus saving the patient an inappropriate catheterization, with the risk of bacteraemia during urodynamics, and allowing the flowrate to be measured.
Bianchi, Matt T; Alexander, Brian M; Cash, Sydney S
The utility of diagnostic tests derives from the ability to translate the population concepts of sensitivity and specificity into information that will be useful for the individual patient: the predictive value of the result. As the array of available diagnostic testing broadens, there is a temptation to de-emphasize history and physical findings and defer to the objective rigor of technology. However, diagnostic test interpretation is not always straightforward. One significant barrier to routine use of probability-based test interpretation is the uncertainty inherent in pretest probability estimation, the critical first step of Bayesian reasoning. The context in which this uncertainty presents the greatest challenge is when test results oppose clinical judgment. It is this situation when decision support would be most helpful. The authors propose a simple graphical approach that incorporates uncertainty in pretest probability and has specific application to the interpretation of unexpected results. This method quantitatively demonstrates how uncertainty in disease probability may be amplified when test results are unexpected (opposing clinical judgment), even for tests with high sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide a simple nomogram for determining whether an unexpected test result suggests that one should "switch diagnostic sides.'' This graphical framework overcomes the limitation of pretest probability uncertainty in Bayesian analysis and guides decision making when it is most challenging: interpretation of unexpected test results.
del Real, Gonzalo Alvarez; Rose, Mark E; Ramirez-Atamoros, Maria T; Hammel, Jeffrey; Gordon, Steven M; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Arroliga, Mercedes E
Vancomycin and fluoroquinolones are commonly used in patients with a history of penicillin allergy. To determine the safety and utility of penicillin skin testing (PST). Retrospective study of patients with a history of penicillin allergy between April 1, 1999, and September 30, 2004. Penicillin skin testing was performed by means of standard methods using benzylpenicilloyl-polysine, penicillin G, and histamine and saline controls. Of 596 patients studied, 25.3% were outpatients, 50.3% were inpatients, and 24.3% were intensive care unit patients. The most common antibiotics used during the time of PST were vancomycin and fluoroquinolones. Results of PST were negative in 88.4% of patients, positive in 8.2%, and indeterminate in 3.4%. One patient (0.17%) developed urticaria immediately after PST. Fifty-five percent of patients with negative PST results were changed to a beta-lactam drug, more frequently in the intensive care unit vs the outpatient setting (70.3% vs 8.6%; P < .001) and in adults vs patients younger than 18 years (58.6% vs 8.1%; P < .001). A beta-lactam antibiotic was used in 290 patients with negative PST results. Of the patients given beta-lactam antibiotics, 5 (1.7%) had adverse reactions: 2 had hives after 16 and 20 days of therapy, 1 had a nonspecific rash after 17 days of therapy, 1 had flushing and urticaria 3 hours after a test dose of piperacillin-tazobactam, and 1 had a pruritic rash after 12 hours of therapy. Patients with a history of penicillin allergy can safely use beta-lactam drugs if negative PST results.
Campens, Laurence; Callewaert, Bert; Muiño Mosquera, Laura; Renard, Marjolijn; Symoens, Sofie; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; De Backer, Julie
Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disorders (H-TAD) may present clinically as part of a syndromic entity or as an isolated (nonsyndromic) manifestation. About one dozen genes are now available for clinical molecular testing. Targeted single gene testing is hampered by significant clinical overlap between syndromic H-TAD entities and the absence of discriminating features in isolated cases. Therefore panel testing of multiple genes has now emerged as the preferred approach. So far, no data on mutation detection rate with this technique have been reported. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) based screening of the seven currently most prevalent H-TAD-associated genes (FBN1, TGFBR1/2, TGFB2, SMAD3, ACTA2 and COL3A1) on 264 samples from unrelated probands referred for H-TAD and related entities. Patients fulfilling the criteria for Marfan syndrome (MFS) were only included if targeted FBN1 sequencing and MLPA analysis were negative. A mutation was identified in 34 patients (13%): 12 FBN1, one TGFBR1, two TGFBR2, three TGFB2, nine SMAD3, four ACTA2 and three COL3A1 mutations. We found mutations in FBN1 (N = 3), TGFBR2 (N = 1) and COL3A1 (N = 2) in patients without characteristic clinical features of syndromal H-TAD. Six TAD patients harboring a mutation in SMAD3 and one TAD patient with a TGFB2 mutation fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MFS. NGS based H-TAD panel testing efficiently reveals a mutation in 13% of patients. Our observations emphasize the clinical overlap between patients harboring mutations in syndromic and nonsyndromic H-TAD related genes as well as within syndromic H-TAD entities, justifying a widespread application of this technique.
Dahm, Maria R; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I; Greenfield, David; Horvath, Andrea R; Wakefield, Denis; Li, Ling; Hillman, Ken; Bolton, Patrick; Brown, Anthony; Jones, Graham; Herkes, Robert; Lindeman, Robert; Legg, Michael; Makeham, Meredith; Moses, Daniel; Badmus, Dauda; Campbell, Craig; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Li, Julie; McCaughey, Euan; Sezgin, Gorkem; Thomas, Judith; Wabe, Nasir
The failure to follow-up pathology and medical imaging test results poses patient-safety risks which threaten the effectiveness, quality and safety of patient care. The objective of this project is to: (1) improve the effectiveness and safety of test-result management through the establishment of clear governance processes of communication, responsibility and accountability; (2) harness health information technology (IT) to inform and monitor test-result management; (3) enhance the contribution of consumers to the establishment of safe and effective test-result management systems. This convergent mixed-methods project triangulates three multistage studies at seven adult hospitals and one paediatric hospital in Australia.Study 1 adopts qualitative research approaches including semistructured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic observations to gain a better understanding of test-result communication and management practices in hospitals, and to identify patient-safety risks which require quality-improvement interventions.Study 2 analyses linked sets of routinely collected healthcare data to examine critical test-result thresholds and test-result notification processes. A controlled before-and-after study across three emergency departments will measure the impact of interventions (including the use of IT) developed to improve the safety and quality of test-result communication and management processes.Study 3 adopts a consumer-driven approach, including semistructured interviews, and the convening of consumer-reference groups and community forums. The qualitative data will identify mechanisms to enhance the role of consumers in test-management governance processes, and inform the direction of the research and the interpretation of findings. Ethical approval has been granted by the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee and Macquarie University. Findings will be disseminated in academic, industry and consumer journals
Bowen, Michael E; Merchant, Zahra; Abdullah, Kazeen; Bhat, Deepa; Fish, Jason; Halm, Ethan A
Although elevated glucose values are strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes, they are frequently overlooked. Patient, provider, and system factors associated with failure to follow-up elevated glucose values in electronic medical records (EMRs) are not well described. We conducted a chart review in a comprehensive EMR with a patient portal and results management features. Established primary care patients with no known diagnosis of diabetes and ≥ 1 glucose value >125 mg/dL were included. Follow-up failure was defined as (1) no documented comment on the glucose value or result communication to the patient within 30 days or (2) no hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) ordered within 30 days or resulted within 12 months. Associations were examined using Wilcoxon and χ 2 tests. Of 150 charts reviewed, 97 met inclusion criteria. The median glucose was 133 mg/dL, and 20% of patients had multiple values >125 mg/dL. Only 36% of elevated glucose values were followed up. No associations were observed between patient characteristics, diabetes risk factors, or provider characteristics and follow-up failures. Automated flagging of glucose values ≥140 mg/dL by highlighting them red in the EMR was not associated with improved follow-up (46% vs 32%; P = .19). Even when follow-up occurred (n = 35), only 31% completed gold standard diabetes testing (HbA 1c ) within 12 months. Of the resulted HbA 1c tests (n = 11), 55% were in the prediabetes range (5.7%-6.4%). Two-thirds of elevated glucose values were not followed up, despite EMR features facilitating results management. Greater understanding of the results management process and improved EMR functionalities to support results management are needed.
Şen, Nazlı Pınar Karahan; Bekiş, Recep; Ceylan, Ali; Derebek, Erkan
Objective: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a diagnostic test which is frequently used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). MPS is generally interpreted as ischemia present or absent; however, it has a power in predicting the disease, similar to other diagnostic tests. In this study, we aimed to assist in directing the high-risk patients to undergo coronary angiography (CA) primarily by evaluating patients without prior CHD history with pre-test and post-test probabilities. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective study. Between January 2008 and July 2011, 139 patients with positive MPS results and followed by CA recently (<6 months) were evaluated from patient files. Patients’ pre-test probabilities based on the Diamond and Forrester method and the likelihood ratios that were obtained from the literature were used to calculate the patients’ post-exercise and post-MPS probabilities. Patients were evaluated in risk groups as low, intermediate, and high, and an ROC curve analysis was performed for the post-MPS probabilities. Results: Coronary artery stenosis (CAS) was determined in 59 patients (42.4%). A significant difference was determined between the risk groups according to CAS, both for the pre-test and post-test probabilities (p<0.001, p=0.024). The ROC analysis provided a cut-off value of 80.4% for post-MPS probability in predicting CAS with 67.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. Conclusion: When the post-MPS probability is ≥80% in patients who have reversible perfusion defects on MPS, we suggest interpreting the MPS as “high probability positive” to improve the selection of true-positive patients to undergo CA, and these patients should be primarily recommended CA. PMID:27004704
Bak, Eunoo; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min
The Worth four dot test uses red and green glasses for binocular dissociation, and although it has been believed that patients with red-green color vision defects cannot accurately perform the Worth four dot test, this has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the validity of the Worth four dot test in patients with congenital red-green color vision defects who have normal or abnormal binocular vision. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 30 consecutive congenital red-green color vision defect patients who underwent the Worth four dot test. The type of color vision anomaly was determined by the Hardy Rand and Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic plate test, Ishihara color test, anomaloscope, and/or the 100 hue test. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Binocular sensory status was evaluated with the Worth four dot test and Randot stereotest. The results were interpreted according to the presence of strabismus or amblyopia. Among the 30 patients, 24 had normal visual acuity without strabismus nor amblyopia and 6 patients had strabismus and/or amblyopia. The 24 patients without strabismus nor amblyopia all showed binocular fusional responses by seeing four dots of the Worth four dot test. Meanwhile, the six patients with strabismus or amblyopia showed various results of fusion, suppression, and diplopia. Congenital red-green color vision defect patients of different types and variable degree of binocularity could successfully perform the Worth four dot test. They showed reliable results that were in accordance with their estimated binocular sensory status.
Neumann, Denise; Mau, Wilfried; Girndt, Matthias
Background and objectives Cognitive testing is only valid in individuals with sufficient visual and motor skills and motivation to participate. Patients on dialysis usually suffer from limitations, such as impaired vision, motor difficulties, and depression. Hence, it is doubtful that the true value of cognitive functioning can be measured without bias. Consequently, many patients are excluded from cognitive testing. We focused on reasons for exclusion and analyzed characteristics of nontestable patients. Design, setting, participants & measurements Within the Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Project (baseline survey: May 2014 to May 2015), n=767 patients on peritoneal dialysis (n=240) or hemodialysis (n=527) were tested with the Trail Making Test-B and the German d2-Revision Test and completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form cognition subscale. We divided the sample into patients with missing cognitive testing data and patients with full cognitive testing data, analyzed reasons for nonfeasibility, and compared subsamples with regard to psychosocial and physical metrics. The exclusion categories were linked to patient characteristics potentially associated with missing data (age, comorbidity, depression, and education level) by calculation of λ-coefficient. Results The subsamples consisted of n=366 (48%) patients with missing data (peritoneal dialysis =62, hemodialysis =304) and n=401 patients with full cognitive testing data (peritoneal dialysis =178, hemodialysis =223). Patients were excluded due to visual impairment (49%), lack of motivation (31%), and motor impairment (13%). The remaining 8% did not follow instructions, suffered from medical incidents, or had language difficulties. Compared with patients with full cognitive testing data, they were more likely to have depression; be treated with hemodialysis; be older, nonworking, or more comorbid; and experience poorer shared decision making. Reasons for exclusion were not related to levels of
Stuard, S; Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Ledda, A; Cornelli, U; Di Renzo, A; Grossi, M G; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Vinciguerra, G; Dugall, M; Corsi, M; Ippolito, E; Di Palma, T; Zulli, C; Del Boccio, G
NPT tests in the pharmacy. Blood testing can be made with NPT (near patient testing) directly in the pharmacy. Most tests can be made with a single drop of blood (i.e. from a finger) and results are comparable with results from blood test obtained with standard vein blood samples. NPT is basically used for: 1 - evaluating the risk of a disease. 2 evaluating or confirming the presence of a disease. 3 to manage and monitor treatments. The social role of the pharmacy in NPT (particularly in cardiovascular screening) is very important as the pharmacy is an institution with capillary diffusion in the territory. The pharmacy often constitutes an important, first-level consultancy point for the population, particularly where health institutions are far away (small villages) or not easily accessible. Rules for NPT. Guidelines for NPT testing in the pharmacy have been proposed and discussed in a consensus meeting (Spoleto, 2007). NPT guidelines suggest operating management and technical procedures and indicate prospective lines of action defining new roles for the pharmacy. Coagulation tests can be now made in the pharmacy at a very low cost and with an efficacy comparable to blood tests obtained with a vein sample. Results can be read in seconds. This test is also available for personal use and home testing. NPT: The Clinical Study. The evaluation of the results of a clinical study (patients with venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolisation, patients with fibrillation and patients with artificial cardiac valves) indicates that costing is very favourable for NPT which may reduce costs and improve management of many clinical conditions and their monitoring. Training and control systems help NPT testing to be reliable and useful to screen and manage most clinical and risk conditions. The clinical study also shows the positive correlation between NPT tests and standard' tests. In conclusion NPT tests are now very reliable and cost-effective and can be used for screening, diagnosis
Nilsson, Martin P; Törngren, Therese; Henriksson, Karin; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Kvist, Anders; Silfverberg, Barbro; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas
To evaluate a simplified method of pre-test information and germline BRCA1/2 mutation testing. In a prospective, single-arm study, comprehensive BRCA1/2 testing was offered to unselected patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer at three hospitals in south Sweden (BRCAsearch, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02557776). Pre-test information was provided by a standardized invitation letter, but the patients could contact a genetic counselor for telephone genetic counseling if they felt a need for that. Noncarriers were informed about the test result through a letter. Mutation carriers were contacted and offered an appointment for in-person post-test genetic counseling. During the period Feb 2, 2015-Aug 26, 2016, eight hundred and eighteen patients were invited to participate in the study. Through Jan 31, 2017, five hundred and forty-two (66.2%) of them consented to analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven pathogenic mutations were found (BRCA1, n = 2; BRCA2, n = 9), corresponding to a mutation prevalence of 2.0%. Six out of 11 fulfilled the Swedish BRCA testing criteria, and 9 out of 11 fulfilled the NCCN testing criteria. None of the BRCA-associated tumors were of the luminal A-like subtype. Very few patients contacted us for telephone genetic counseling or practical questions, suggesting that a majority felt that the written pre-test information was sufficient for them to make a decision on testing. Streamlining the process of pre-test information, genetic testing, and delivery of test results was feasible and was associated with an uptake of genetic testing in 2/3 of the breast cancer patients.
Sundquist, Britta K; Bowen, Brady J; Otabor, Uwa; Celestin, Jocelyn; Sorum, Paul C
To promote penicillin allergy testing in an outpatient setting in patients labeled as penicillin allergic, to determine the number of those who are truly allergic, evaluate patient satisfaction with the testing, and educate both patients and clinicians about testing. Patients with a history of penicillin allergy listed in their EHR were screened and recruited by their primary care office and referred for penicillin allergy testing. The results of allergy testing and patient satisfaction after testing were the main outcomes. We also surveyed the primary care physicians about perceived barriers to recruitment. A total of 82 patients were recruited, although only 37 actually underwent testing. None of these 37 had a positive skin test, and none of 36 had a positive oral challenge (1 refused it). Following testing, 2 patients (5%) had subjective reactions within 24 h. Thirty-one patients (84%) responded to a post-testing follow-up questionnaire; 3 (10%) were subsequently treated with a beta-lactam, and all reported that testing provided important information to their medical history. Providers identified time constraints, either their or their patients lack of time, as the major barrier to recruitment. Penicillin allergy testing safely evaluates patients labeled as penicillin allergic. It is well tolerated, and embraced by the patients who undergo testing. In our study, none of the patients tested had an allergic reaction, but we identified multiple barriers to developing a protocol for testing patients from the primary care setting.
Cowan, J; Michel, C; Manhiça, I; Mutaquiha, C; Monivo, C; Saize, D; Beste, J; Creswell, J; Codlin, A J; Gloyd, S
Electronic diagnostic tests, such as the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, are being implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, timely information from these tests available via remote monitoring is underutilized. The failure to transmit real-time, actionable data to key individuals such as clinicians, patients, and national monitoring and evaluation teams may negatively impact patient care. To describe recently developed applications that allow for real-time, remote monitoring of Xpert results, and initial implementation of one of these products in central Mozambique. In partnership with the Mozambican National Tuberculosis Program, we compared three different remote monitoring tools for Xpert and selected one, GxAlert, to pilot and evaluate at five public health centers in Mozambique. GxAlert software was successfully installed on all five Xpert computers, and test results are now uploaded daily via a USB internet modem to a secure online database. A password-protected web-based interface allows real-time analysis of test results, and 1200 positive tests for tuberculosis generated 8000 SMS result notifications to key individuals. Remote monitoring of diagnostic platforms is feasible in LMICs. While promising, this effort needs to address issues around patient data ownership, confidentiality, interoperability, unique patient identifiers, and data security.
Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang
Patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis often need to be patch tested in order to detect possible contact sensitization. However, it is unknown whether immunologic or other peculiarities of atopic skin are related to altered patch-test reaction patterns. Our study was aimed at answering this question, because patch-test reaction patterns are of considerable practical importance in the reading and interpretation of patch tests. Therefore, we compared patterns of patch-test reactions in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis and in control patients matched for sex, age, reason for testing and test centre. Patch-test results from 9 centres (2322 patients with a disposition to atopic dermatitis and 2126 matched controls) were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were tested with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, potassium dichromate, lanolin alcohol, formaldehyde and mercury ammonium chloride. Patch tests applied for 1 day with readings on days 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated in order to cover the early phase of the reactions. Not unexpectedly, we found that, compared to the matched controls, patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis tended to have more doubtful and irritant reactions on day 1. As a new observation, it turned out that they had less reactions of crescendo pattern and more strong reactions on day 3. All these differences were slight/insignificant. A higher skin irritability in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis is a likely explanation. In conclusion, standard methods for patch testing can be applied in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but minor differences in reaction patterns should be considered.
Kubo, Shoji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Sakata, Chikaharu; Urata, Yorihisa; Nishioka, Takayoshi; Nozawa, Akinori; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Hamano, Genya; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Endo, Ginji
A cholangiocarcinoma outbreak among workers of an offset color proof-printing department in a printing company was recently reported. It is important to understand the clinical course leading to occupational cholangiocarcinoma development for investigation of the carcinogenesis process and for surveillance and early detection. We evaluated the changes in laboratory test results and diagnostic imaging presentation before the detection of cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated the changes in laboratory test results and diagnostic imaging presentation before the detection of cholangiocarcinoma in 2 patients because the data were available. Results The clinical courses observed in the 2 participating patients showed persistent elevation of serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels with or without elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase before cholangiocarcinoma detection. Dilatation of the bile ducts without tumor-induced stenosis was observed several years before cholangiocarcinoma detection and progressed gradually in both patients. The serum concentration of carbohydrate 19-9 also increased prior to cholangiocarcinoma detection in both patients. Eventually, observation of stenosis of the bile duct and a space-occupying lesion strongly suggested cholangiocarcinoma. Pathological examination of the resected specimens showed chronic bile duct injury and neoplastic lesions, such as "biliary intraepithelial neoplasia" and "intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct" in various sites of the bile ducts, particularly in the dilated bile ducts. The changes in laboratory test results and diagnostic imaging might be related to the development of cholangiocarcinoma. It is important to monitor diagnostic imaging presentation and laboratory test results in workers with extended exposure to organic solvents.
Purrucker, Jan C; Haas, Kirsten; Rizos, Timolaos; Khan, Shujah; Poli, Sven; Kraft, Peter; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Dziewas, Rainer; Binder, Andreas; Palm, Frederick; Jander, Sebastian; Soda, Hassan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Veltkamp, Roland
In patients who present with acute ischemic stroke while on treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), coagulation testing is necessary to confirm the eligibility for thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated the current use of coagulation testing in routine clinical practice in patients who were on NOAC treatment at the time of acute ischemic stroke. Prospective multicenter observational RASUNOA registry (Registry of Acute Stroke Under New Oral Anticoagulants; February 2012-2015). Results of locally performed nonspecific (international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time) and specific (antifactor Xa tests, hemoclot assay) coagulation tests were documented. The implications of test results for thrombolysis decision-making were explored. In the 290 patients enrolled, nonspecific coagulation tests were performed in ≥95% and specific coagulation tests in 26.9% of patients. Normal values of activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio did not reliably rule out peak drug levels at the time of the diagnostic tests (false-negative rates 11%-44% [95% confidence interval 1%-69%]). Twelve percent of patients apparently failed to take the prescribed NOAC prior to the acute event. Only 5.7% (9/159) of patients in the 4.5-hour time window received thrombolysis, and NOAC treatment was documented as main reason for not administering thrombolysis in 52.7% (79/150) of patients. NOAC treatment currently poses a significant barrier to thrombolysis in ischemic stroke. Because nonspecific coagulation test results within normal range have a high false-negative rate for detection of relevant drug concentrations, rapid drug-specific tests for thrombolysis decision-making should be established. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01850797. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rios, Jose R. Rivas; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H.; Angiolillo, Dominick J.
Introduction Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert Commentary The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:28689434
Atlas, Steven J; McDermott, Steven M; Mannone, Carol; Barry, Michael J
Background There is no consensus favoring a particular strategy for evaluating patients with pharyngitis. Objective To compare a clinical decision aid and a rapid office-based point of care (POC) test with routine culture for group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). Design Prospective observational study. Participants Among 179 patients enrolled, 150 were eligible and 148 had POC testing and cultures initially performed. Measurements An encounter form included eligibility criteria, clinical information based upon the Centor rule, and treatment provided. Sensitivity and specificity of POC test compared to routine culture for GAS. Results Thirty-eight patients (25.7%) had a positive GAS culture. The POC test was 92.1% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI] 80% to 98%) and 100% specific (95% CI 97% to 100%). Although the Centor rule did not adequately discriminate among symptomatic patients with or without GAS (receiver operating curve area 0.63), the 3 patients with a false-negative POC test had a Centor score of less than 2. Among patients with a negative POC test, 26% initially received antibiotics. Conclusions For patients with a Centor score of ≥2, a POC test was highly sensitive for GAS. Future studies should confirm these results and assess whether implementation of POC testing as part of a local practice guideline can decrease variability in testing and treatment. PMID:16050888
Martinez-Hervás, Sergio; Mendez, Mercedes Molina; Folgado, José; Tormos, Carmen; Ascaso, Pilar; Peiró, Marta; Real, Jose T; Ascaso, Juan F
Different lines of evidence suggest that oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) test is an efficient tool for evaluating diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic foot. In this study, we analyzed the association between OS markers and altered SWM test results in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Seventy T2DM patients were studied and 34 showed altered SWM results. The clinical and biochemical parameters were determined using standardized methods. Levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in circulating mononuclear cells using high-performance liquid chromatography. We found that T2DM patients with altered SWM test results had significantly higher GSSG (3.53 ± 0.31 vs. 3.31 ± 0.35 mmol/ml, p < 0.05) and MDA (1.88 ± 0.16 vs. 1.75 ± 0.19 nmol/ml, p < 0.01) values compared to diabetic patients with normal SWM test outcomes. Moreover, altered SWM test results were independently related to age, glycosylated hemoglobin, and GSSG levels, but there was no association between OS markers and altered neuropathy sensitivity score (NSS) values. Alteration of the glutathione system and MDA values in T2DM patients are associated with loss of proprioceptive (pressure) sensitivity, but not with symptomatic polyneuropathy (as evaluated by NSS). This finding may be important for understanding how OS affects distal symmetric polyneuropathy in diabetic patients.
Doganer, Y C; Rohrer, J E; Aydogan, U; Agerter, D C; Cayci, T; Barcin, C
Elevated aminotransferase levels indicating liver function, even in the normal range, have attracted great concern as potential novel markers of cardiovascular risk assessment. We hypothesized the possibility that liver function test variations in the normal range might be meaningfully associated to coronary artery disease (CAD). Eighty-eight patients were randomly selected from those who underwent coronary angiography from June 2010 to June 2011 after applying to the outpatient cardiology clinic in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. According to the results of angiographies, patients were classified into three groups as normal, non-critical (< 50% involvement in coronaries), and critical (≥ 50% involvement in coronaries). In addition to angiographic intervention, measurements of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, albumin and the other serum parameters were performed in all patients. The patient groups of CAD were balanced (28 critical cases, 30 non-critical cases and 30 normal cases). Mean age was 51.93 ± 9.3 (range 32-65) years and 19.3 per cent (n = 17) were females. Multiple linear regression analysis of all three liver function tests explained a significant portion of the variance, but adjusted r-squares were small (AST = 0.174, ALT = 0.242, albumin = 0.124). Albumin was significantly higher for patients with critical CAD than for patients with no CAD (beta = 3.205, p = 0.002). Non-critical CAD was not significantly different from no CAD for any of the dependent variables. Mean AST was significantly higher for patients taking aspirin (beta = 0.218, p = 0.049), as was mean ALT (beta = 0.264, p = 0.015). Alanine aminotransferase and AST may not be associated with angiographically determined coronary atherosclerosis. Albumin may be more sensitive to demonstrate the burden of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that the association between the liver function tests and coronary atherosclerosis may be more
Hatanaka, N; Yamamoto, Y; Ichihara, K; Mastuo, S; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, M; Iwatani, Y
Various scales have been devised to predict development of pressure ulcers on the basis of clinical and laboratory data, such as the Braden Scale (Braden score), which is used to monitor activity and skin conditions of bedridden patients. However, none of these scales facilitates clinically reliable prediction. To develop a clinical laboratory data-based predictive equation for the development of pressure ulcers. Subjects were 149 hospitalised patients with respiratory disorders who were monitored for the development of pressure ulcers over a 3-month period. The proportional hazards model (Cox regression) was used to analyse the results of 12 basic laboratory tests on the day of hospitalisation in comparison with Braden score. Pressure ulcers developed in 38 patients within the study period. A Cox regression model consisting solely of Braden scale items showed that none of these items contributed to significantly predicting pressure ulcers. Rather, a combination of haemoglobin (Hb), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin (Alb), age, and gender produced the best model for prediction. Using the set of explanatory variables, we created a new indicator based on a multiple logistic regression equation. The new indicator showed high sensitivity (0.73) and specificity (0.70), and its diagnostic power was higher than that of Alb, Hb, CRP, or the Braden score alone. The new indicator may become a more useful clinical tool for predicting presser ulcers than Braden score. The new indicator warrants verification studies to facilitate its clinical implementation in the future.
Serologic and skin-testing data on a group of patients having cat scratch disease are presented to demonstrate a possible relationship to the psitt...indicate that the incidence of positive serologic reactions with the psitt-LGV group antigen is consistently higher in patients with cat scratch disease...patients, 2 of 5 did not respond with positive skin reactions when tested with cat scratch antigen, and at least 2 of the remaining 3 responded in a manner difficult to interpret.
Warshaw, Erin M; Maibach, Howard I; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Belsito, Donald V
Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for assessment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch-testing results from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends analyzed using χ statistics. Four thousand two hundred thirty-eight patients were tested; of these, 2705 patients (63.8%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2029 (48.0%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of ACD. Four hundred eight patients (9.6%) had occupationally related skin disease. There were 7532 positive allergic reactions. As compared with previous reporting periods (2009-2010 and 2000-2010), positive reaction rates statistically increased for 6 allergens: methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (5.0%; risk ratios [RRs]: 2.01 [1.60-2.52], 1.87 [1.61-2.18]), lanolin alcohol (4.6%; RRs 1.83 [1.45-2.30], 2.10 [1.79-2.47]), cinnamic aldehyde (3.9%; 1.69 [1.32-2.15], 1.53 [1.28-1.82]), glutaral (1.5%; 1.67 [1.13-2.48], 1.31 [1.00-1.71]), paraben mix (1.4%; 1.77 [1.16-2.69], 1.44 [1.09-1.92]), and fragrance mix I (12.1%; RRs 1.42 [1.25-1.61], 1.24 [1.14-1.36]). Compared with the previous decade, positivity rates for all formaldehyde-releasing preservatives significantly decreased (formaldehyde 6.6%; RR, 0.82 [0.73, 0.93]; quaternium-15 6.4% RR 0.75 [0.66, 0.85]; diazolidinyl urea 2.1%; RR, 0.67 [0.54, 0.84]; imidazolidinyl urea 1.6%, 0.60 [0.47, 0.77]; bronopol 1.6%; RR, 0.60 [0.46, 0.77]; DMDM hydantoin 1.6%; RR, 0.59 [0.54, 0.84]). Approximately a quarter of patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. In addition, approximately one-fourth to one-third of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been hypothetically missed by T
Krautheim, Andrea; Uter, Wolfgang; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes
The fragrance mix (FM I), established in 1977, detects the majority, but not all cases of contact allergy to fragrances. Based on European research 2002/2003, fragrance mix II (FM II) was developed to supplement FM I. In 2005, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) added FM II to their baseline series. To evaluate reactions to FM II and its constituents in routine patch testing. Retrospective data analysis of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 2005-2008, of patch test results with FM II and its constituents. A total of 35 633 patients were patch tested with FM II as part of the DKG baseline series. Of these, 1742 (4.9%) reacted positively. Concomitant reactions to FM I were observed in 41.9% of the patients reacting to FM II. In 367 FM II-positive patients, a full breakdown test of the mix was performed. Of these, 47.7% reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, 16.1% to citral, 11.4% to farnesol, 3.8% to hexyl cinnamal, 2.7% to coumarin, and 2.5% to citronellol. FM II is an important screening and diagnostic tool to detect fragrance allergy. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde is the most important fragrance allergen in FM II. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Richeldi, Luca; Losi, Monica; D'Amico, Roberto; Luppi, Mario; Ferrari, Angela; Mussini, Cristina; Codeluppi, Mauro; Cocchi, Stefania; Prati, Francesca; Paci, Valentina; Meacci, Marisa; Meccugni, Barbara; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Roversi, Pietro; Cerri, Stefania; Luppi, Fabrizio; Ferrara, Giovanni; Latorre, Irene; Gerunda, Giorgio E; Torelli, Giuseppe; Esposito, Roberto; Fabbri, Leonardo M
Immunocompromised persons infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) have increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, but their management is hampered by the occurrence of false-negative results of the tuberculin skin test (TST). The T-cell interferon (IFN)-gamma release blood assays T-SPOT.TB (TS.TB) [Oxford Immunotec; Abingdon, UK] and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) [Cellestis Ltd; Carnegie, VIC, Australia] might improve diagnostic accuracy for latent TB infection (LTBI) in high-risk persons, although their performance in different groups of immunocompromised patients is largely unknown. Over a 1-year period, we prospectively enrolled patients in three different immunosuppressed groups, as follows: 120 liver transplantation candidates (LTCs); 116 chronically HIV-infected persons; and 95 patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). TST, TS.TB, and QFT-IT were simultaneously performed, their results were compared, and intertest agreement was evaluated. Overall, TST provided fewer positive results (10.9%) than TS.TB (18.4%; p < 0.001) and QFT-IT (15.1%; p = 0.033). Significantly fewer HIV-infected individuals had at least one positive test (9.5%) compared with LTCs (35.8%; p < 0.001) and patients with HMs (29.5%; p < 0.001). Diagnostic agreement between tests was moderate (kappa = 0.40 to 0.65) and decreased in the HIV-infected group when the results of the TS.TB were compared with either TST (kappa = 0.16) or QFT-IT (kappa = 0.19). Indeterminate blood test results due to low positive control values were significantly more frequent with QFT-IT (7.2%) than with TS.TB (0.6%; p < 0.001). Blood tests identified significantly more patients as being infected with MTB than TST, although diagnostic agreement varied across groups. Based on these results, we recommend tailoring application of the new blood IFN-gamma assays for LTBI in different high-risk groups and advise caution in their current use in immunosuppressed patients.
Sataloff, Robert T; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Mandel, Heidi; Zwislewski, Amy B; Armour, Jonathan; Mandel, Steven
The complexities of the balance system create difficulties for professionals interested in testing equilibrium function objectively. Traditionally, electronystagmography (ENG) has been used for this purpose, but it provides information on only a limited portion of the equilibrium system. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is less specific than ENG, but it provides more global insight into a patient's ability to maintain equilibrium under more challenging environmental circumstances. CD Palso appears to be valuable in obtaining objective confirmation of an abnormality in some dizzy patients whose ENG findings are normal. Our review of 33 patients with normal ENG results and abnormal CDP findings suggests that posturography is useful for confirming or quantifying a balance abnormality in some patients whose complaints cannot be confirmed by other tests frequently used by otologists.
Gaydos, Charlotte A; Solis, Melissa; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Nour, Samah; Rothman, Richard E
Despite successes in efforts to integrate HIV testing into routine care in emergency departments, challenges remain. Kiosk-facilitated, directed HIV self-testing offers one novel approach to address logistical challenges. Emergency department patients, 18-64 years, were recruited to evaluate use of tablet-based-kiosks to guide patients to conduct their own point-of-care HIV tests followed by standard-of-care HIV tests by healthcare workers. Both tests were OraQuick Advance tests. Of 955 patients approached, 473 (49.5%) consented; 467 completed the test, and 100% had concordant results with healthcare workers. Median age was 41 years, 59.6% were female, 74.8% were African-American, and 19.6% were White. In all, 99.8% of patients believed the self-test was "definitely" or "probably" correct; 91.7% of patients "trusted their results very much"; 99.8% reported "overall" self-testing was "easy or somewhat easy" to perform. Further, 96.9% indicated they would "probably" or "definitely" test themselves at home were the HIV test available for purchase; 25.9% preferred self-testing versus 34.4% who preferred healthcare professional testing (p>0.05). Tablet-based kiosk testing proved to be highly feasible, acceptable, and an accurate method of conducting rapid HIV self-testing in this study; however, rates of engagement were moderate. More research will be required to ascertain barriers to increased engagement for self-testing.
... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...
Background Despite high rates of patient satisfaction with emergency department (ED) HIV testing, acceptance varies widely. It is thought that patients who decline may be at higher risk for HIV infection, thus we sought to better understand patient acceptance and refusal of ED HIV testing. Methods In-depth interviews with fifty ED patients (28 accepters and 22 decliners of HIV testing) in three ED HIV testing programs that serve vulnerable urban populations in northern California. Results Many factors influenced the decision to accept ED HIV testing, including curiosity, reassurance of negative status, convenience, and opportunity. Similarly, a number of factors influenced the decision to decline HIV testing, including having been tested recently, the perception of being at low risk for HIV infection due to monogamy, abstinence or condom use, and wanting to focus on the medical reason for the ED visit. Both accepters and decliners viewed ED HIV testing favorably and nearly all participants felt comfortable with the testing experience, including the absence of counseling. While many participants who declined an ED HIV test had logical reasons, some participants also made clear that they would prefer not to know their HIV status rather than face psychosocial consequences such as loss of trust in a relationship or disclosure of status in hospital or public health records. Conclusions Testing for HIV in the ED as for any other health problem reduces barriers to testing for some but not all patients. Patients who decline ED HIV testing may have rational reasons, but there are some patients who avoid HIV testing because of psychosocial ramifications. While ED HIV testing is generally acceptable, more targeted approaches to testing are necessary for this subgroup. PMID:22214543
Thompson, Jess L; Sundt, Thoralf M; Sarano, Maurice E; Santrach, Paula J; Schaff, Hartzell V
Patient self-testing of the international normalized ratio (INR) has been shown to improve management of anticoagulation with warfarin and reduce risks of thromboembolism and bleeding. Self-testing instruction usually begins several weeks after hospital discharge. We evaluated the feasibility of in-hospital INR self-testing instruction in patients recovering from valve replacement. We instituted an education program on a self-testing device before hospital discharge in 50 adult patients (median age, 54 years; 66% men) undergoing cardiac valve replacement with mechanical prostheses. Patients were monitored for 1 month to assess their ability to self-test and the accuracy of the INR measurements. Self-testing instruction began on postoperative day 4 (range, 1 to 8 days). Each patient had an average of 3.5 teaching sessions; each session lasted approximately 20 minutes. One month after discharge, all patients (98%) but 1 were able to self-test. No patient required interval instruction. One bleeding episode occurred in a patient whose INR exceeded the therapeutic range. Once warfarin doses were stabilized, 5 patients had subtherapeutic INR values on self-testing. The mean INR test result obtained from the coagulometer correlated well with values obtained by laboratory determination (r = 0.79). This evaluation of an in-hospital education program demonstrates that patients are able to learn INR self-testing and that most will continue to use the method without the need for interval instruction. Improved anticoagulation management by early introduction of INR self-testing should reduce thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications after valve replacement.
Gray, Stacy W.; Hicks-Courant, Katherine; Lathan, Christopher S.; Garraway, Levi; Park, Elyse R.; Weeks, Jane C.
Purpose: Dramatic advances in genomic technology stand to revolutionize cancer care; however, little is known about patients' understanding and acceptance of personalized medicine and widespread genetic testing (GT). Patients and Methods: We conducted a formative, semi-structured interview study with a random sample of patients with lung, colorectal, and breast cancers to assess awareness of personalized medicine and GT and attitudes about somatic GT. Willingness to undergo GT was elicited through hypothetic scenarios. Results: Sixty-nine patients participated; 71% were women; 42% were black; median age was 59 years; and 42% had an education level ≥ college. We found that a majority of patients either were not aware of the term “personalized medicine” or defined it in unexpected ways. Although many patients identified relevant benefits of somatic testing (eg, informs treatment), many patients also expressed significant concerns (ie, psychological harm and discrimination). A majority of patients expressed a willingness to undergo somatic (predictive, 96%, prognostic, 93%) and germline (cancer risk without incidental information, 87%; cancer risk with incidental information, 81%; pharmacogenetic, 91%) testing; however, far fewer patients expressed a willingness to undergo full genome sequencing (62%). Reluctance was attributed to concerns over incidental findings, information overload, and the lack of a clear benefit. Conclusion: Many patients relayed misunderstandings about somatic testing and a reluctance to undergo full sequencing; oncologists must carefully consider how they present testing to patients so that concerns over discrimination and psychological harm do not hinder test uptake. More work is needed to identify effective ways to communicate complex genomic concepts to patients and research participants. PMID:23598841
Bragg, B. J.
Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.
Shirasawa, Shinichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi
To investigate fear in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury before and after reconstruction, a forced knee extension (FKE) test was performed. The correlation of the test results was evaluated with the subjective function, sports performance and objective parameters. The study included 102 patients with unilateral ACL reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon with full clinical evaluation. This study was retrospective and determined the longitudinal results of the FKE test and investigated the effects on the subjective and objective outcomes at 2years. Preoperatively, 47% of patients showed positive FKE tests. The number of positive FKE tests was 31% at six months and 15% at 24months after ACL reconstruction. At two years, there were statistically significant differences between the FKE test positives and negatives regarding both subjective knee recovery (P=0.0095) and sports performance (P=0.0006). A new manual test, called the forced knee extension test, for fear in patients with ACL injury before and after reconstruction was introduced. The apprehension remained positive in 15% of the patients two years after ACL reconstruction, which affected subjective recovery of knee function and sports performance. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Partin, Melissa R; Gravely, Amy A; Burgess, James F; Haggstrom, David A; Lillie, Sarah E; Nelson, David B; Nugent, Sean M; Shaukat, Aasma; Sultan, Shahnaz; Walter, Louise C; Burgess, Diana J
Patient, physician, and environmental factors were identified, and the authors examined the contribution of these factors to demographic and health variation in colonoscopy follow-up after a positive fecal occult blood test/fecal immunochemical test (FOBT/FIT) screening. In total, 76,243 FOBT/FIT-positive patients were identified from 120 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities between August 16, 2009 and March 20, 2011 and were followed for 6 months. Patient demographic (race/ethnicity, sex, age, marital status) and health characteristics (comorbidities), physician characteristics (training level, whether primary care provider) and behaviors (inappropriate FOBT/FIT screening), and environmental factors (geographic access, facility type) were identified from VHA administrative records. Patient behaviors (refusal, private sector colonoscopy use) were estimated with statistical text mining conducted on clinic notes, and follow-up predictors and adjusted rates were estimated using hierarchical logistic regression. Roughly 50% of individuals completed a colonoscopy at a VHA facility within 6 months. Age and comorbidity score were negatively associated with follow-up. Blacks were more likely to receive follow-up than whites. Environmental factors attenuated but did not fully account for these differences. Patient behaviors (refusal, private sector colonoscopy use) and physician behaviors (inappropriate screening) fully accounted for the small reverse race disparity and attenuated variation by age and comorbidity score. Patient behaviors (refusal and private sector colonoscopy use) contributed more to variation in follow-up rates than physician behaviors (inappropriate screening). In the VHA, blacks are more likely to receive colonoscopy follow-up for positive FOBT/FIT results than whites, and follow-up rates markedly decline with advancing age and comorbidity burden. Patient and physician behaviors explain race variation in follow-up rates and contribute to
Bifano, W. J.
Test results are presented for a nine couple (3 x 3 array) thermoelectric panel of hybrid thermocouples. In the hybrid couple, a hollow cylinder of p-type Si-Ge is used to encapsulate a segmented PbTe/Si-Ge n-leg. The hybrid couple is predicted to offer a 10- to 15-percent improvement in performance relative to all Si-Ge couples. The efficiency, output power, and internal resistance of the panel as well as the resistances of the individual hybrid couples are presented as a function of test time covering a period of more than 2600 hours. Initial test results indicated hybrid couple performance consistent with design predictions. Extraneous resistance ranged from 20 to 25% of the hybrid couple thermoelectric resistance.
Kuba, Sayaka; Fujiyama, Rie; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Morita, Michi; Sakimura, Chika; Hatachi, Toshiko; Matsumoto, Megumi; Yano, Hiroshi; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hayashida, Naomi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Eguchi, Susumu
We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX). The results of the two gustatory tests and clinicopathological factors were compared between the chemotherapy and control groups and between patients with and without awareness of dysgeusia in the chemotherapy group. In the chemotherapy group, 19 (44%) patients were aware of dysgeusia and 8 (19%) had hypogeusia using the instillation method. Although more patients had parageusia in the chemotherapy than control group, no significant differences in the results of the two gustatory tests were observed. Patients with dysgeusia awareness had a higher threshold at cranial nerve IX using the electrogustometry method than those without dysgeusia awareness; no significant differences in hypogeusia were observed using the instillation method. In fact, 74% (14/19) of patients with dysgeusia awareness could identify the four tastes accurately using the instillation method. Similar results were observed for the instillation and electrogustometry methods at cranial nerve VII. While approximately half of the chemotherapy patients were aware of dysgeusia, 81% (35/43) of them could accurately identify the four basic tastes using the instillation method.
Mukuno, K; Ishikawa, S; Okamura, R
Thirty cases of Minamata disease caused by methyl mercury poisoning with the lesion mainly at the occipital cortex were selected and their spatial contrast sensitivity of vision was examined by the Arden grating chart. At the same time their visual acuity, visual field, and visual evoked cortical potential (VECP) were also investigated. In all cases the results of the Arden test indicated abnormality. Poor results were obtained at higher frequencies of the gratings. VECP elicited by grating pattern reversal stimulus was undertaken in 12 cases out of the 30. The results revealed abnormality almost equal to that shown by the Arden test. Seven out of the 12 cases showed no VECP response. The other 5, giving a response, showed abnormality: when the size of the grating became smaller at higher frequencies, the VECP paused or was not recorded, whereas at low frequencies it was recorded. This finding was in good agreement or was not recorded, whereas at low frequencies it was recorded. This finding was in good agreement with the results of the Arden test. Visual acuity and visual field tests were less sensitive in detecting abnormality. The Arden chart is a sensitive clinical tool for patients with lesions at the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the test can be used for screening patients who may have come in contrast with organic mercury. PMID:7236573
Hobbs, S D; Jones, A; Wilmink, A B; Bradbury, A W
To assess the bias, precision and utility of the Bioscanner 2000 for near patient testing of total cholesterol (NPTC) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). One hundred consecutive patients attending a hospital-based clinic with symptomatic PAD underwent non-fasting NPTC using finger prick blood sample and a laboratory total cholesterol (TC) using blood drawn from an antecubital fossa vein. The Bioscanner 2000 showed good precision with a coefficient of variation of 1.8-3.8%. NPTC was significantly lower than laboratory TC (mean (S.D.) 4.67 (1.1) vs. 5.12 (1.2) mmol/l), p < or = 0.01, paired Student's t-test. Comparing the two methods using Deming regression revealed a 15% negative bias for the Bioscanner 2000 compared to laboratory testing, which was demonstrated to be a systematic bias using a Bland-Altman plot. Almost half (46%) of the readings differed by > 0.5 mmol/l, 16% by > 1.0 mmol/l and 3% by > 2 mmol/l. This means that if the cut-off for statin treatment were taken as a TC of 5.0 or 3.5 mmol/l then, based on NPTC, alone 18 and 6% of patients, respectively, would not have received a statin. In the present study, NPTC significantly under-estimated TC when compared to laboratory testing. However, in the majority of cases, this would not have affected the decision to prescribe a statin and NPTC testing allows the immediate institution or titration of statin treatment.
Birmingham, Wendy C; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kohlmann, Wendy; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Wang, Mary; Bishoff, Jay; Dechet, Christopher; Kinney, Anita Y
The strong association between family history and prostate cancer (PCa) suggests a significant genetic contribution, yet specific highly penetrant PCa susceptibility genes have not been identified. Certain single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been found to correlate with PCa risk; however uncertainty remains regarding their clinical utility and how to best incorporate this information into clinical decision-making. Genetic testing is available directly to consumers and both patients and healthcare providers are becoming more aware of this technology. Purchasing online allows patients to bypass their healthcare provider yet patients may have difficulty interpreting test results and providers may be called upon to interpret results. Determining optimal ways to educate both patients and providers, and strategies for appropriately incorporating this information into clinical decision-making are needed. A mixed-method study was conducted in Utah between October 2011 and December 2011. Eleven focus group discussions were held and surveys were administered to 23 first-degree relatives of PCa patients living in Utah and 24 primary-care physicians and urologists practicing in Utah to present specific information about these assessments and determine knowledge and attitudes regarding health implications of using these assessments. Data was independently coded by two researchers (relative Kappa = .88; provider Kappa = .77) and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results indicated differences in attitudes and behavioral intentions between patient and provider. Despite the test's limitations relatives indicated interest in genetic testing (52%) while most providers indicated they would not recommend the test for their patients (79%). Relatives expected providers to interpret genetic test results and use results to provide personalized healthcare recommendations while the majority of providers did not think the information would be useful in patient care (92%) and
Mendlewicz, L; Nef, F; Simon, Y
Several studies have been carried out using the Stroop test in eating disorders. Some of these studies have brought to light the existence of cognitive and attention deficits linked principally to weight and to food in anorexic and bulimic patients. The aim of the current study is to replicate and to clarify the existence of cognitive and attention deficits in anorexic patients using the Stroop test and a word recognition test. The recognition test is made up of 160 words; 80 words from the previous Stroop experiment mixed at random and matched from a semantic point of view to 80 distractions. The recognition word test is carried out 2 or 3 days after the Stroop test. Thirty-two subjects took part in the study: 16 female patients hospitalised for anorexia nervosa and 16 normal females as controls. Our results do not enable us to confirm the existence of specific cognitive deficits in anorexic patients. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
Karahan Şen, Nazlı Pınar; Bekiş, Recep; Ceylan, Ali; Derebek, Erkan
Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a diagnostic test which is frequently used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). MPS is generally interpreted as ischemia present or absent; however, it has a power in predicting the disease, similar to other diagnostic tests. In this study, we aimed to assist in directing the high-risk patients to undergo coronary angiography (CA) primarily by evaluating patients without prior CHD history with pre-test and post-test probabilities. The study was designed as a retrospective study. Between January 2008 and July 2011, 139 patients with positive MPS results and followed by CA recently (<6 months) were evaluated from patient files. Patients' pre-test probabilities based on the Diamond and Forrester method and the likelihood ratios that were obtained from the literature were used to calculate the patients' post exercise and post-MPS probabilities. Patients were evaluated in risk groups as low, intermediate, and high, and an ROC curve analysis was performed for the post-MPS probabilities. Coronary artery stenosis (CAS) was determined in 59 patients (42.4%). A significant difference was determined between the risk groups according to CAS, both for the pre-test and post-test probabilities (p<0.001, p=0.024). The ROC analysis provided a cut-off value of 80.4% for post- MPS probability in predicting CAS with 67.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity. When the post-MPS probability is ≥80% in patients who have reversible perfusion defects on MPS, we suggest interpreting the MPS as "high probability positive" to improve the selection of true-positive patients to undergo CA, and these patients should be primarily recommended CA.
Rusk, B; Fontenot, J
Purpose: To report the results of a customer acceptance test (CAT) for VMAT treatments for two matched Elekta linear accelerators. Methods: The CAT tests were performed on two clinically matched Elekta linear accelerators equipped with a 160-leaf MLC. Functional tests included performance checks of the control system during dynamic movements of the diaphragms, MLC, and gantry. Dosimetric tests included MLC picket fence tests at static and variable dose rates and a diaphragm alignment test, all performed using the on-board EPID. Additionally, beam symmetry during arc delivery was measured at the four cardinal angles for high and low dose rate modesmore » using a 2D detector array. Results of the dosimetric tests were analyzed using the VMAT CAT analysis tool. Results: Linear accelerator 1 (LN1) met all stated CAT tolerances. Linear accelerator 2 (LN2) passed the geometric, beam symmetry, and MLC position error tests but failed the relative dose average test for the diaphragm abutment and all three picket fence fields. Though peak doses in the abutment regions were consistent, the average dose was below the stated tolerance corresponding to a leaf junction that was too narrow. Despite this, no significant differences in patient specific VMAT quality assurance measured were observed between the accelerators and both passed monthly MLC quality assurance performed with the Hancock test. Conclusion: Results from the CAT showed LN2 with relative dose averages in the abutment regions of the diaphragm and MLC tests outside the tolerances resulting from differences in leaf gap distances. Tolerances of the dose average tests from the CAT may be small enough to detect MLC errors which do not significantly affect patient QA or the routine MLC tests.« less
Tienken, Christopher H.
Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…
Ho, Chiung-Fang; Maa, Suh-Hwa
Exercise training improves the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients benefit from exercise training programs in terms of improved VO2 peak values and decreased dyspnea, fatigue, hospital admissions, and rates of mortality, increasing exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). COPD is often associated with impairment in exercise tolerance. About 51% of patients have a limited capacity for normal activity, which often further degrades exercise capacity, creating a vicious circle. Exercise testing is highly recommended to assess a patient's individualized functions and limitations in order to determine the optimal level of training intensity prior to initiating an exercise-training regimen. The outcomes of exercise testing provide a powerful indicator of prognosis in COPD patients. The six-minute walking test (6MWT) and the incremental shuttle-walking test (ISWT) are widely used in exercise testing to measure a patient's exercise ability by walking distances. While nursing-related articles published in Taiwan frequently cite and use the 6MWT to assess exercise capacity in COPD patients, the ISWT is rarely used. This paper introduces the testing method, strengths and weaknesses, and application of the two tests in order to provide clinical guidelines for assessing the current exercise capacity of COPD patients.
Sherafat, H; Spry, P G D; Waldock, A; Sparrow, J M; Diamond, J P
To evaluate the effect of a visual field test educational video on the reliability of the first automated visual field test of new patients. A prospective, randomised, controlled trial of an educational video on visual field test reliability of patients referred to the hospital eye service for suspected glaucoma was undertaken. Patients were randomised to either watch an educational video or a control group with no video. The video group was shown a 4.5 minute audiovisual presentation to familiarize them with the various aspects of visual field examination with particular emphasis on sources of unreliability. Reliability was determined using standard criteria of fixation loss rate less than 20%, false positive responses less than 33%, and false negative responses less than 33%. 244 patients were recruited; 112 in the video group and 132 in the control group with no significant between group difference in age, sex, and density of field defects. A significant improvement in reliability (p=0.015) was observed in the group exposed to the video with 85 (75.9%) patients having reliable results compared to 81 (61.4%) in the control group. The difference was not significant for the right (first tested) eye with 93 (83.0%) of the visual fields reliable in the video group compared to 106 (80.0%) in the control group (p = 0.583), but was significant for the left (second tested) eye with 97 (86.6 %) of the video group reliable versus 97 (73.5%) of the control group (p = 0.011). The use of a brief, audiovisual patient information guide on taking the visual field test produced an improvement in patient reliability for individuals tested for the first time. In this trial the use of the video had most of its impact by reducing the number of unreliable fields from the second tested eye.
Walz, Stacy E; Smith, Maureen; Cox, Elizabeth; Sattin, Justin; Kind, Amy J H
Previous studies have noted a high (41%) prevalence and poor discharge summary communication of pending laboratory (lab) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e., skilled nursing, rehabilitation, long-term care), remains unknown. To determine the prevalence and nature of lab tests pending at hospital discharge and their inclusion within hospital discharge summaries, for common sub-acute care populations. Retrospective cohort study. Stroke, hip fracture, and cancer patients discharged from a single large academic medical center to sub-acute care, 2003-2005 (N = 564) Pending lab tests were abstracted from the laboratory information system (LIS) and from each patient's discharge summary, then grouped into 14 categories and compared. Microbiology tests were sub-divided by culture type and number of days pending prior to discharge. Of sub-acute care patients, 32% (181/564) were discharged with pending lab tests per the LIS; however, only 11% (20/181) of discharge summaries documented these. Patients most often left the hospital with pending microbiology tests (83% [150/181]), particularly blood and urine cultures, and reference lab tests (17% [30/181]). However, 82% (61/74) of patients' pending urine cultures did not have 24-hour preliminary results, and 19% (13/70) of patients' pending blood cultures did not have 48-hour preliminary results available at the time of hospital discharge. Approximately one-third of the sub-acute care patients in this study had labs pending at discharge, but few were documented within hospital discharge summaries. Even after considering the availability of preliminary microbiology results, these omissions remain common. Future studies should focus on improving the communication of pending lab tests at discharge and evaluating the impact that this improved
Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon; Chung, Yoon Yung; Lee, Yang Woon; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Paik, Chang-Nyol
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which has recently been diagnosed with the glucose breath test is characterized by excessive colonic bacteria in the small bowel, and results in gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to estimate the positivity of the glucose breath test and investigate its clinical role in inflammatory bowel disease. Patients aged > 18 years with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. All patients completed symptom questionnaires. Fecal calprotectin level was measured to evaluate the disease activity. Thirty historical healthy controls were used to determine normal glucose breath test values. A total of 107 patients, 64 with ulcerative colitis and 43 with Crohn's disease, were included. Twenty-two patients (20.6%) were positive for the glucose breath test (30.2%, Crohn's disease; 14.1%, ulcerative colitis). Positive rate of the glucose breath test was significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy controls (30.2% vs 6.7%, P=0.014). Bloating, flatus, and satiety were higher in glucose breath test-positive patients than glucose breath test-negative patients (P=0.021, 0.014, and 0.049, respectively). The positivity was not correlated with the fecal calprotectin level. The positive rate of the glucose breath test was higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease than in healthy controls; gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were correlated with this positivity. Glucose breath test can be used to manage intestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Kessler, Maya E; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Hickey, Branden C; Scheitel, Marianne R; Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Liu, Hongfang; Kremers, Walter K; Chaudhry, Rajeev
A clinical decision support system (CDSS) for cervical cancer screening identifies patients due for routine cervical cancer screening. Yet, high-risk patients who require more frequent screening or earlier follow-up to address past abnormal results are not identified. We aimed to assess the effect of a complex CDSS, incorporating national guidelines for high-risk patient screening and abnormal result management, its implementation to identify patients overdue for testing, and the outcome of sending a targeted recommendation for follow-up. At three primary care clinics affiliated with an academic medical center, a reminder recommending an appointment for Papanicolaou (Pap) testing or Pap and human papillomavirus cotesting was sent to high-risk women aged 18 through 65 years (intervention group) identified by CDSS as overdue for testing. Historical control patients, who did not receive a reminder, were identified by CDSS 1 year before the date when reminders were sent to the intervention group. Test completion rates were compared between the intervention and control groups through a generalized estimating equation extension. Across the three sites, the average completion rate of recommended follow-up testing was significantly higher in the intervention group at 23.7% (61/257) than the completion rate at 3.3% (17/516) in the control group (p < 0.001). A CDSS with enhanced capabilities to identify high-risk women due for cervical cancer testing beyond routine screening intervals, with subsequent patient notification, has the potential to decrease cervical precancer and cancer by improving adherence to guideline-compliant follow-up and needed treatment.
Davies, Stephen C; Koh, Andrew; Lindsay, Heather E; Fulton, Richard B; Fernando, Suran L
An inner Sydney sexual health service introduced the option to gay and bisexual men of receiving a negative HIV result by SMS to mobile phone one business day after venipuncture (rapid SMS). Men could also choose one of the other options: a point-of-care-test (POCT), by phone, or in-person (clinicians could also require in-person). We followed-up patients choosing the rapid SMS method to ascertain their satisfaction. During 12 months, 473 men had 591 HIV tests. Of these tests, 5.4% were POCTs, 9.1% were in-person, 24% were by phone, and 62% were rapid SMS. HIV POCTs declined from being 22% of result methods in the pre-study period to 5.4% during the rapid SMS intervention period (odds ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.32, P < 0.0001). Phone/in-person results declined from 78% to 33% (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.10-0.20, P < 0.0001). SMS was sent by the next business day in 95% of cases; 96% of men were satisfied; and 95% would choose this method for their next test. Of 77 men who previously had an HIV POCT, 56 (73%) elected a rapid SMS result rather than having another POCT. The higher accuracy of conventional serology was commonly expressed as the reason for choosing rapid SMS for results.
Caetano, Ana Célia; Oliveira, Dinis; Gomes, Zaida; Mesquita, Edgar; Rolanda, Carla
Psychological assessment is not commonly performed nor easily accepted by coloproctological patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychological component of coloproctological disorders using uncommon tools. The 21-Item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Pescatori projective test were applied to coloproctological outpatients of the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital as well as to healthy volunteers. Seventy patients (median age 47 years, 22 male) divided in 4 groups (functional constipation, constipated irritable bowel syndrome, benign anorectal disease and perianal Crohn's disease) and 52 healthy volunteers (age 45 years, 18 male) completed the tests. Proctological patients showed higher scores of depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.001), and stress (P<0.001) compared to healthy participants. Compared to the control group, patients with functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and perianal Crohn's disease maintained the highest scores in all subscales (P<0.05), while patients with benign anorectal disease only had higher anxiety and stress (P<0.001) scores. The patients' also showed lower scores in the Pescatori projective test (P=0.012). A weak association between the projective test and the depression subscale was found (P=0.05). Proctological patients had higher scores of depression, anxiety and stress and lower scores in the Pescatori projective test compared to healthy controls.
Özkarata, Emre; Özkarataş, Emre; Özbek, Ö Alpay; Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Sayıner, A Arzu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common important viral infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Diagnostic tests for detecting CMV replication are widely used for this group of patients, however there is no clear agreement on the cut-off levels for interpretation of clinical decisions especially when the low level of viral load is detected. In this study, CMV pp65 antigenemia test results were compared with plasma CMV-DNA levels detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples of kidney and liver transplant recipients in the Central Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between 2011 and 2013, and the correlation between these two tests and viral load equivalent to antigenemia positivity were determined. In the study, pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR results were evaluated retrospectively. The samples from the same patients were included if the time between antigenemia and CMV-DNA qPCR tests were less than 48 hours. SPSS v15.0 was used for correlation, regression and ROC curve analysis. The results of the 217 samples collected from 100 patients (59 male, 41 female; age range: 16-71, mean age: 46 ± 13 years), 36 liver and 64 kidney recipients were evaluated in the study. Of the patients 80% were CMV IgM negative, IgG positive; 1% was CMV IgG and IgM positive; 2% were CMV IgM and IgG negative, while for 17 patients serological results could not be reached. CMV pp65 antigenemia and CMV-DNA were both negative in 102 (47%) samples, while both were positive in 37 (17%) samples. The single sample from a case with CMV IgM and IgG positivity yielded negative results for both antigenemia and CMV-DNA tests. In 78 samples antigenemia were negative and CMV-DNA qPCR were positive, while there were no samples with antigenemia positive and qPCR negative. Mean values of antigenemia and qPCR tests were 23 positive cells/200.000 leukocytes (range: 1 to 230 positive cells) and 12.595 copies/ml (range: 180 to 106
Müller-von Aschwege, Frerk; Workowski, Anke; Willemsen, Detlev; Müller, Sebastian M; Hein, Andreas
This paper describes the results of a pilot study with cardiac patients based on information that can be derived from a smartphone. The idea behind the study is to design a model for estimating the heart rate of a patient before an outdoor walking session for track planning, as well as using the model for guidance during an outdoor session. The model allows estimation of the heart rate several minutes in advance to guide the patient and avoid overstrain before its occurrence. This paper describes the first results of the clinical pilot study with cardiac patients taking β-blockers. 9 patients have been tested on a treadmill and during three outdoor sessions each. The results have been derived and three levels of improvement have been tested by cross validation. The overall result is an average Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) of 4.26 BPM between measured heart rate and smartphone sensor based model estimation.
Sánchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia R; Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Cárdenas-Velázquez, Francisco; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Avila-Casado, Carmen
To determine the validity of screening tests for Sjogren's syndrome (SS) in ambulatory patients with chronic diseases. Three hundred randomly selected patients from the rheumatology and internal medicine clinics of a tertiary care center were assessed for SS according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria. During the screening phase, an interview, the European questionnaire for sicca symptoms, Schirmer-I test, and the wafer test were carried out in all patients. Patients with positive screening had confirmatory tests including fluorescein staining test, nonstimulated whole salivary flow, and autoantibody testing. Confirmatory tests were also done in 13 patients with negative screening. During the last phase, lip biopsy was proposed to patients who met preestablished criteria. Women made up 79% of the study population. Mean age of subjects was 42.8+/-15.7 years. Two hundred twenty patients (73%) had positive screening. The distribution of positive test results was: xerophthalmia 118 (39%), xerostomia 103 (34%), Schirmer-I test 101 (34%), and wafer test 187 (62%) patients. Forty (13%) patients met criteria for SS. All screening tests were useful for identifying patients with SS; however, the model composed of at least one positive response to the European questionnaire (EQ1), Schirmer-I test, and wafer test showed the best performance. Use of the European questionnaire, Schirmer-I test, and wafer test in parallel was useful for identifying patients with SS among ambulatory patients with chronic diseases.
Prasertvit, Piyatida; Chareonyingwattana, Angkana; Wattanakrai, Penpun
Antiretroviral drug hypersensitivity in HIV patients is common. Publications have shown that Abacavir (ABC) patch testing is useful in confirming ABC hypersensitivity in 24-50% of cases with a 100% sensitivity of HLA-B*5701 in patch test positive cases. However, Nevirapine (NVP) patch testing has not been reported. (1) To evaluate the usefulness and safety of NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity. (2) To assess the correlation of positive patch tests with HLA-B*3505. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) study group of 20 HIV NVP hypersensitivity patients and (2) control group of 15 volunteers without NVP hypersensitivity. Both groups were patch tested with purified and commercialized form of NVP in various vehicles. Two HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity were patch test positive. All controls tested negative. Three HIV patients were positive for HLA-B*3505 and the two patients with positive patch testing were both HLA-B*3505 positive. NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients is safe and can be used to help confirm the association between NVP and hypersensitivity skin reactions. NVP patch test results significantly correlated with HLA-B*3505. The sensitivity of HLA-B*3505 for positive patch test was 100%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Melosky, B.; Blais, N.; Cheema, P.; Couture, C.; Juergens, R.; Kamel-Reid, S.; Tsao, M.-S.; Wheatley-Price, P.; Xu, Z.; Ionescu, D.N.
Background The development and approval of both targeted and immune therapies for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (nsclc) has significantly improved patient survival rates and quality of life. Biomarker testing for patients newly diagnosed with nsclc, as well as for patients progressing after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, is the standard of care in Canada and many parts of the world. Methods A group of thoracic oncology experts in the field of thoracic oncology met to describe the standard for biomarker testing for lung cancer in the Canadian context, focusing on evidence-based recommendations for standard-of-care testing for EGFR, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, BRAF V600 and programmed death-ligand (PD-L1) at the time of diagnosis of advanced disease and EGFR T790M upon progression. As well, additional exploratory molecules and targets are likely to impact future patient care, including MET exon 14 skipping mutations and whole gene amplification, RET translocations, HER2 (ERBB2) mutations, NTRK, RAS (KRAS and NRAS), as well as TP53. Results The standard of care must include the incorporation of testing for novel biomarkers as they become available, as it will be difficult for national guidelines to keep pace with technological advances in this area. Conclusions Canadian patients with nsclc should be treated equally; the minimum standard of care is defined in this paper. PMID:29507487
Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B.; Oldham, Helen M.; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H.
In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 and 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with exception of IOS (81.8%–18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including > 95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38–44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory volume total (72.8 ± 6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5 ± 16.5 Degrees), %Rib Cage (41.6 ± 12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in one second/forced expiratory volume total (110.0 ± 3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs
Tamaro, Giorgio; Donato, Michela; Princi, Tanja; Parco, Sergio
A symptom-based diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is not sufficiently accurate, since some clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are also detected in other virally induced diseases. Moreover, not all patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis show circulating atypical lymphocytes, which are considered characteristic of this disease. Therefore, when this disorder is suspected, serum analyses are carried out to detect the presence of certain immunoglobulins associated with infectious mononucleosis in the patient's blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of a rapid test detecting heterophil antibodies in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in a paediatric population. We considered 163 paediatric patients with suspected infectious mononucleosis and we tested their serums to detect heterophil antibodies (using an inexpensive and rapid test) and specific immunoglobulins directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (these assays are known to be characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, but are more expensive and time-consuming). By comparing the results of the rapid test with those of the other assays, we found that the sensitivity of the first test was 61.8%, whereas its specificity was sufficiently high (about 90%). We show that, in paediatric patients, the detection of heterophil antibodies is not a very sensitive test, therefore the determination of immunoglobulins against specific antigens of EBV is recommended.
Fransway, Anthony F; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Deleo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Maibach, Howard I; Marks, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D; Rietschel, Robert L; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J; Taylor, James S; Warshaw, Erin M; Dekoven, Joel; Zirwas, Matthew
The North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) tests patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis to a broad series of screening allergens and publishes periodic reports. The aims of this study were to report the NACDG patch-testing results from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2008, and to compare results to pooled test data from the previous 2 and 10 years to analyze trends in allergen sensitivity. Standardized patch testing with 65 allergens was used at 13 centers in North America. χ analysis was used for comparisons. A total of 5085 patients were tested; 11.8% (598) had an occupationally related skin condition, and 65.3% (3319) had at least 1 allergic patch test reaction, which is identical to the NACDG data from 2005 to 2006. The top 15 most frequently positive allergens were nickel sulfate (19.5%), Myroxylon pereirae (11.0%), neomycin (10.1%), fragrance mix I (9.4%), quaternium-15 (8.6%), cobalt chloride (8.4%), bacitracin (7.9%), formaldehyde (7.7%), methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (5.5%), p-phenylenediamine (5.3%), propolis (4.9%), carba mix (4.5%), potassium dichromate (4.1%), fragrance mix II (3.6%), and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (3.6%). There were significant increases in positivity rates to nickel, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, and benzophenone-3. During the same period of study, there were significant decreases in positivity rates to neomycin, fragrance mix I, formaldehyde, thiuram mix, cinnamic aldehyde, propylene glycol, epoxy resin, diazolidinyl urea, amidoamine, ethylenediamine, benzocaine, p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin, dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin, cocamidopropyl betaine, glutaraldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole, tosylamide formaldehyde resin, budesonide, disperse blue 106, mercapto mix, and chloroxylenol. Twenty-four percent (1221) had a relevant positive reaction to a non-NACDG supplementary allergen; and 180 of these reactions were occupationally relevant. Periodic
Taylor, Darlene; Durigon, Monica; Davis, Heather; Archibald, Chris; Konrad, Bernhard; Coombs, Daniel; Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Krajden, Mel; Wong, Tom; Ogilvie, Gina
Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (interquartile range) window period for third-generation tests was 22 days (19-25) and 18 days (16-24) for fourth-generation tests. The probability of a false-negative result is 0.01 at 80 days' post-exposure for third-generation tests and at 42 days for fourth-generation tests. The table of probabilities of falsely-negative HIV test results may be useful during pre- and post-test HIV counselling to inform co-decision making regarding the ideal time to test for HIV. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Toure, N O; Dia, Y; Diatta, A; Ndiaye, E H M; Thiam, K; Niang, A; Fall, N; Kane, M; Mbae, F; Cisse, A; Hane, A A
Many studies have underlined the theorical and practical role of Skin Tuberculin Test (STT) as an important tool for the diagnosis and for the screening of tuberculosis in the population. This prospective study evaluated STT in 51 smear positive tuberculosis patients and 108 contacts tuberculosis patients apparently in a good health condition. Twenty seven patients have disappeared before the end of the study and 7 patients were excluded for non suitable results. So we analysed only 73 cases. The mean age was 34 years, with extreme of 1 and 77 years. There were 33 male and 40 female patients for a sex-ratio of 0,8. BCG vaccination scar was found in 64% of patients. We calculated the Body-Mass-Index and we found a proteinocaloric malnutrition (BMI<18,5) in 30%. The mean diameter of STT induration was 12,3mm with extremes of 7 and 20mm. Considering a STT < 7 mm as negative, 4 patients (5%) had a negative STT and 69 (95%) a positive STT. 13 of these 69 patients had a STT > 15mm. The age group of the 10 to 50 years had more positive STT. Meanwhile, according to the sexe and to the nutritional status, there was no statistical difference. All patients with a negative STT received BCG vaccination after 2 months of follow-up. Those with STT>15mm were examinated and had a chest X-ray the day of their enrolment, at the second month and at the sixth month and we didn't find any evolutive tuberculosis. According to these results, we can conclude that STT is not an important test for the screening of pulmonary tuberculosis in contact patients. Clinical examination, chest X-ray and sputum smear remain very important for the diagnosis. Despite these results, STT remain the only validated technic between the different tuberculin tests. Its interest was twofold: the research of an acquired immunity against tuberculosis after BCG immunisation and it is clinical test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.
Background Point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices simplify warfarin management by allowing selected patients to monitor their own therapy in their homes. Patient self-testing (PST) has been shown to improve the clinical outcomes of warfarin therapy compared to usual care. Objective To compare management of warfarin therapy using PST combined with online supervision by physicians via a custom system with usual warfarin management, which involved laboratory testing and physician dosing. Methods Interested patients were recruited via community pharmacies to participate in a warfarin PST training program. Participants were required to have a long-term indication for warfarin, have been taking warfarin for at least 6 months, and have Internet access in their home. The training involved two sessions covering theoretical aspects of warfarin therapy, use of the CoaguChek XS, and the study website. Following training, patients monitored their INR once weekly for up to 3 months. Patients and physicians utilized a secure website to communicate INR values, dosage recommendations, and clinical incidents. Physicians provided a 6-12 month history of INR results for comparison with study results. The percentage of time spent within the therapeutic INR range (TTR) was the primary outcome, with participants acting as their own historical controls. The percentage of INR tests in range and participant satisfaction were secondary outcomes. Results Sixteen patients completed training requirements. The mean age of participants was 69.8 (SD 10.1) years. TTR improved significantly from 66.4% to 78.4% during PST (P=.01), and the number of tests within the target range also improved significantly (from 66.0% at prior to the study to 75.9% during PST; P=.04). Patients and physicians expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the monitoring strategy and online system. Conclusions PST supported by an online system for supervision was associated with improved INR
Cheema, P.K.; Raphael, S.; El-Maraghi, R.; Li, J.; McClure, R.; Zibdawi, L.; Chan, A.; Victor, J.C.; Dolley, A.; Dziarmaga, A.
Background Testing for mutation of the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) gene is a standard of care for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). To improve timely access to EGFR results, a few centres implemented reflex testing, defined as a request for EGFR testing by the pathologist at the time of a nonsquamous nsclc diagnosis. We evaluated the impact of reflex testing on EGFR testing rates. Methods A retrospective observational review of the Web-based AstraZeneca Canada EGFR Database from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014 found centres within Ontario that had requested EGFR testing through the database and that had implemented reflex testing (with at least 2 years’ worth of data, including the pre- and post-implementation period). Results The 7 included centres had requested EGFR tests for 2214 patients. The proportion of pathologists requesting EGFR tests increased after implementation of reflex testing (53% vs. 4%); conversely, the proportion of medical oncologists requesting tests decreased (46% vs. 95%, p < 0.001). After implementation of reflex testing, the mean number of patients having EGFR testing per centre per month increased significantly [12.6 vs. 4.9 (range: 4.5–14.9), p < 0.001]. Before reflex testing, EGFR testing rates showed a significant monthly increase over time (1.37 more tests per month; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.55 tests; p < 0.001). That trend could not account for the observed increase with reflex testing, because an immediate increase in EGFR test requests was observed with the introduction of reflex testing (p = 0.003), and the overall trend was sustained throughout the post–reflex testing period (p < 0.001). Conclusions Reflex EGFR testing for patients with nonsquamous nsclc was successfully implemented at multiple centres and was associated with an increase in EGFR testing. PMID:28270720
González-Rodríguez, A J; Gutiérrez-Paredes, E M; Revert Fernández, Á; Jordá-Cuevas, E
Local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, and adverse effects are not uncommon. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are among the most common effects, but immediate-type reactions may also occur. Patch testing should be considered in patients with hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine that was detected incidentally by patch testing and highlight the importance of correctly interpreting patch test results when there are concomitant positive reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Okuda, Yoshinari; Maekura, Ryoji; Hirotani, Atsusi; Kitada, Seigo; Yoshimura, Kenji; Hiraga, Touru; Yamamoto, Yuoko; Itou, Masami; Ogura, Takeshi; Ogihara, Toshio
We have prospectively analyzed three antigens for serodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). These antigens were tuberculous glycolipid antigen, lypoarabinomannan polysaccharide antigen, and antigen 60 (A60), which was derived from purified protein derivatives. Of the 131 patients with active pulmonary TB, 57 were both smear and culture negative and 14 had chronic active pulmonary TB that remained smear positive for >12 months of chemotherapy. One hundred twenty healthy adults were controls. The percentages of patients positive in all three tests were 58.8% for smear-positive active pulmonary TB and 71.4% for chronic active pulmonary TB. When the results of the three serodiagnostic tests were evaluated in combination, the sensitivity increased to 91.5% in patients with active pulmonary TB and to 86.0% in smear- and culture-negative patients. The false-positive rate of the three-test combination was 12.5% in the healthy control groups. In conclusion, it was not possible to detect all of the antibodies against antigenic substances in the cell walls of the tuberculous bacilli in the sera of all TB patients by using available serodiagnostic tests. However, the combined use of tests with three separate antigens maximizes the effectiveness of serodiagnosis. PMID:15004065
Arnold, David T; Bentham, Louise M; Jacob, Ruth P; Lilford, Richard J; Girling, Alan J
Liver function tests (LFTs) are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS) study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. The aim was to inform a strategy for identification of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C). The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal) was less efficient (more expensive per case detected) than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. Based on this analysis and on widely accepted clinical principles, a "fast and frugal" heuristic was produced to guide general practitioners with respect to diagnosing cases of viral hepatitis in asymptomatic patients with abnormal LFTs. It recommends testing all patients where a clear clinical indication of
Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F =2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F =3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Awungafac, George; Amin, Elvis T; Fualefac, Akemfua; Takah, Noah F; Agyingi, Lucy A; Nwobegahay, Julius; Ondoa, Pascale; Njukeng, Patrick A
The viral load (VL) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the best predictor of treatment outcome. The anticipated benefits of VL monitoring depend on the actual uptake of VL test results for clinical decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake and utilization of VL test results for clinical decisions on HIV treatment in Cameroon, from 2013 to 2017. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data from files of patients receiving ART at Buea, Limbe, Bamenda and Bafoussam regional hospital HIV treatment centers. A simple random pick of six file blocks was performed in each shelf that corresponded to a year of initiation, and the contents of all selected files were reviewed and the information needed for the study entered a structured questionnaire. The data collected was recorded in Epi Info (version 22.214.171.124), and analyzed using SATA (version 12.1; StataCorp LP). Eight hundred and thirty files were reviewed. The mean duration on ART was 39.4±12 months. Viral load testing uptake was 24.33% and only one VL test had been done by all patients. Approximately 65% of the patients did the first VL after more than 24 months on ART. The median turnaround (TAT) time for VL testing was 6 days (Interquartile range (IQR) 3-7days). Among 201 patients who did a VL test, 94.55% had VL suppression (≤1000copies/mm3). Approximately 54% of the patients with virologic failure were switched to a second-line regimen. The uptake of viral load testing is low in North West, South West and West Regions of Cameroon. The current TAT for VL testing is plausible. The rate of switch to second line regimen is low. It is time to strengthen the scale up of VL testing and improve the rate of switch to second-line regimen in Cameroon.
Wludarski, Sheila Cristina Lordelo; Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Duarte, Ivison Xavier; Carvalho, Filomena Marino; Weiss, Lawrence; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo
Breast cancer accounts for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females. Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing has become an essential part of the clinical evaluation of breast carcinoma patients, and accurate results are critical in identifying patients who may benefit from hormone therapy. The present study had the aim of investigating the concordance of the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and local (or community) laboratories in Brazil. Retrospective study at a reference pathology laboratory. The concordance in the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and 146 local laboratories in Brazil was compared in relation to 500 invasive breast carcinoma cases, using immunohistochemistry. There was concordance in 89.4% (447/500 cases) and 85.0% (425/500 cases) of the results from estrogen (κ = 0.744, P < 0.001) and progesterone (κ = 0.688, P < 0.001) receptor tests, respectively, between local and reference laboratories. This was similar to findings in other countries. The false negative rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 8.7% and 14.4%, respectively. The false positive rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 15.5% and 16.0%, respectively. Technical and result interpretation issues may explain most of the discordances in hormone receptor testing in local laboratories. Validation of estrogen and progesterone receptor tests at local laboratories, with rigorous quality control measures, is strongly recommended in order to avoid erroneous treatment of breast cancer patients.
Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Sharpe, E. L.
The radiative, actively cooled panel designed to withstand a uniform incident heat flux of 136 kW/sq m to a 444 K surface temperature was evaluated. The test program consisted of preliminary static thermal mechanical loading and aerothermal flow tests. Test results are briefly discussed.
Mahl, T C
Patients with abnormal liver blood tests are frequently encountered by primary care practitioners. An understanding of the cellular implications of these abnormalities is helpful in determining the etiology of liver injury. Elevated serum aminotransferases suggest injury of hepatocytes. Elevations in alkaline phosphatase suggest injury to any part of the biliary tree. Neither of these enzymes measures liver function. Serum bilirubin and albumin levels, as well as prothrombin time, do measure function and can be used in conjunction with the physical examination and the specific etiology of the patient's disorder to determine a patient's prognosis. Many diverse disorders result in similar biochemical patterns of liver injury. The history, physical examination, and use of specific disease markers (hepatitis serology, autoimmune markers, and so forth) help to narrow the differential diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis of all liver diseases usually rests on histology: the liver biopsy is the gold standard. With the advent of treatments for liver disease, identifying and accurately diagnosing patients with liver disorders will result in improved quality of life and survival.
Prieto, L; Juyol, M; Paricio, A; Martínez, M A; Palop, J; Castro, J
Oral challenge tests were carried out with sodium metabisulfite solution doses of 0.5, 1, 10, 25, 50 mg and encapsulated doses of 100 and 200 mg, as well as with lactose-placebo, on 44 non-atopic patients with steroid-dependent bronchial asthma, without clinical evidence of intolerance to these agents. Only those patients with an acceptable and not very labile pulmonary function were tested. A single-blind challenge protocol was performed in 22 patients (sodium metabisulfite solutions at pH 2.2 to 2.6) and the positive responses were confirmed by double-blind challenge. The other 22 were tested directly in a double-blind manner (pH4). Initially, 6/44 presented a positive reaction. However, a careful analysis and the confirmation by double-blind challenge of the positive responses obtained with the single-blind test, allowed us to identify 4 false positive responses. Thus, the true prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in our population is 4.5%. A patient with intolerance to sulfite agents also suffered aspirin-induced asthma. The labile tendency of the pulmonary function of the asthmatic patients may have contributed to some false positive reactions and probably explain the very high prevalence found in some studies. It does not appear that the variations of pH decisively influence the result of the challenge test.
Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Henao Roldan, Catherine; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María; Ruiz Navas, Patricia
Prolonged Total Parental Nutrition (TPN) is associated with life-threatening complications in the pediatric population, being cholestasis one of the most important ones. The source of fatty acids, the amount of phytosterols and the dose of lipids in the nutritional support, have been linked to the development of this complication. To describe the behavior of liver function tests in pediatric patients with TPN where lipid based omega 3 fatty acids (OmegavenR) were used. A retrospective research was made in a population of children under 18 years old where omega 3 fatty acids were used for a minimum of 8 days. Patients were initially classified into two groups: cholestasis and abnormal liver tests. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) before and after treatment with OmegavenR was evaluated. 33 patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment with OmegavenR, 82.4% of patients who initially presented cholestasis showed resolution or improvement. The group of patients with abnormal liver tests 18.8% progressed to cholestasis. Our study suggests that the use of OmegavenR in pediatric patients with TPN and DB ≥ 2 mg/dL, seem to reverse or improve cholestasis while in patients with abnormal liver tests we still don't have clear effect. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Bungo, M. W.; Leland, O. S., Jr.
Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study.
Solar, Miroslav; Malirova, Eva; Ballon, Marek; Pelouch, Radek; Ceral, Jiri
Objective Confirmatory testing of suspected primary aldosteronism (PA) requires an extensive medication switch that can be difficult for patients with severe complicated hypertension and/or refractory hypokalemia. For this reason, we investigated the effect of chronic antihypertensive medication on confirmatory testing results. To allow the results to be interpreted, the reproducibility of confirmatory testing was also evaluated. Design and methods The study enrolled 114 individuals with suspected PA who underwent two confirmatory tests. The patients were divided into two groups. In Group A, both tests were performed on the guidelines-recommended therapy, i.e. not interfering with the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. In Group B, the first test was performed on chronic therapy with the exclusion of thiazides, loop diuretics, and aldosterone antagonists; and the second test was performed on guidelines-recommended therapy. Saline infusion, preceded by oral sodium loading, was used to suppress aldosterone secretion. Results Agreement in the interpretation of the two confirmatory tests was observed in 84 and 66% of patients in Groups A and B respectively. For all 20 individuals in Group A who ever had end-test serum aldosterone levels ≥240 pmol/l, aldosterone was concordantly nonsuppressible during the other test. Similarly, for all 16 individuals in Group B who had end-test serum aldosterone levels ≥240 pmol/l on modified chronic therapy, aldosterone remained nonsuppressible with guidelines-recommended therapy. Conclusion Confirmatory testing performed while the patient is on chronic therapy without diuretics and aldosterone antagonists can confirm the diagnosis of PA, provided serum aldosterone remains markedly elevated at the end of saline infusion. PMID:22253400
Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Okçelik, Sezgin; Çırakoğlu, Abdullah; Yılmaz, İsmail; Malkoç, Ercan; Karademir, Kenan
Objective To evaluate the clinical and histopathological results of adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients. Material and methods Data from adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients that underwent orchiectomy in our clinic between between January 2004 and March 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups as intra-abdominal, inguinal canal and superficial inguinal region according to the location of the undescended testes. Patients were also grouped according to their testicular volume (<4 cc, 4.1–12 cc, and >12 cc). Histopathology results of orchiectomy specimens were classified as follows: 1. Sertoli cells only, testicular atrophy and vanished testis (anorchia) 2. Hypospermatogenesis, and 3. Maturation arrest. Patients were grouped as normospermia, azoospermia and oligo/astheno/teratospermia groups according to semen analysis results. Correlations between testicular localization, testicular size, semen analysis and pathology results were evaluated. Incidental tumor detection rates were also calculated. Results Two hundred and forty-four adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients underwent orchiectomy in our clinic. There was no a significant relationship between location of the testis and testicular pathology results (p=0.707). Most common semen analysis results was normospermia in patients with high testicular volume group however azoospermia and oligoasthenospermia observed commonly in patients with low testicular volume group. There was a significant relationship between testicular volume and semen analysis results (p=0.023). No significant relationship was observed between semen analysis and pathological results (p=0.929). After an evaluation of all factors with possible effects on the semen analysis results, only testicular volume (p=0.036) was found to have a significant impact. Only one case (0.4%) was incidentally diagnosed seminoma after a review of 233 patients with available histopathological results on record
Zdrenghea, D; Beudean, Maria; Pop, Dana; Zdrenghea, V
The best evaluation of the severity and prognosis of heart failure patients is obtained by the maximal exercise stress testing, but for the very large number of HF patients and for evaluation of their daily effort capacity submaximal stress testing, mainly 6 minutes walking test are used. The limit of 6mWT is that during it the patients are not motivated to walk and also, the periphery, so important for heart failure patients, is not equally involved. To compare a new fixed walking test-400m walking test with 6MWT and maximal exercise testing. There were investigated 20 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The patients were included in the study after the relief of the congestive syndrome. Each patient was submitted in three consecutive days to a maximal symptom-limited exercise stress test on cycloergometer, a six minutes walking test, a 400 meters walking test. The last one consisted of walking on a corridor 40 meters long, at a speed chosen by the patient himself. The results were expressed in seconds representing the necessary time to cover the established 400 meters of distance. During cycloergometer exercise stress test the calculated mean peak VO2 was 15.2 +/- 1.4 mlO2/kg/min (4.32 METs). The mean distance walked during 6MWT was 350 +/- 34m and the mean time needed to walk 400m (400mWT) was 300 +/- 27 seconds. The correlation between peak VO2 and distance walked during 6MWT was -0.40, a similar but negative value (r = -0.42) being registered between peak VO2 and time registered during 400mWT. Only weak correlation was registered between LVEF and all the three tests. In turn the correlation between distance registered during 6MWT and time registered during 400mWT was excellent: r = -0.60. 400mWT is a useful tool for the evaluation of submaximal effort capacity of CHF patients. Its value to evaluate exercise capacity is similar with that of the 6 MWT, but 400mWT can assure a better evaluation of peripheral involvement.
Swan, John Shannon; Kong, Chung Yin; Lee, Janie M.; Akinyemi, Omosalewa; Halpern, Elkan F.; Lee, Pablo; Vavinskiy, Sergey; Williams, Olubunmi; Zoltick, Emilie S.; Donelan, Karen
Background We developed preference-based and summated scale scoring for the Testing Morbidities Index (TMI) classification, which addresses short-term effects on quality of life from diagnostic testing before, during and after a testing procedure. Methods The two TMI value functions utilize multiattribute value techniques; one is patient-based and the other has a societal perspective. 206 breast biopsy patients and 466 (societal) subjects informed the models. Due to a lack of standard short-term methods for this application, we utilized the visual analog scale (VAS). Waiting trade-off (WTO) tolls provided an additional option for linear transformation of the TMI. We randomized participants to one of three surveys: the first derived weights for generic testing morbidity attributes and levels of severity with the VAS; a second developed VAS values and WTO tolls for linear transformation of the TMI to a death-healthy scale; the third addressed initial validation in a specific test (breast biopsy). 188 patients and 425 community subjects participated in initial validation, comparing direct VAS and WTO values to the TMI. Alternative TMI scoring as a non-preference summated scale was included, given evidence of construct and content validity. Results The patient model can use an additive function, while the societal model is multiplicative. Direct VAS and the VAS-scaled TMI were correlated across modeling groups (r=0.45 to 0.62) and agreement was comparable to the value function validation of the Health Utilities Index 2. Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) calculations showed a range of 0.07–0.10 in patients and 0.11–0.17 in subjects. MAD for direct WTO tolls compared to the WTO-scaled TMI varied closely around one quality-adjusted life day. Conclusions The TMI shows initial promise in measuring short-term testing-related health states. PMID:23689044
Pollard, Alex; Miners, Alec; Richardson, Daniel; Fisher, Martin; Cairns, John; Smith, Helen
Objectives To establish which aspects of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing services are important to STI testing service users. Methods 10 focus groups consisting of previous or existing users of STI testing services were conducted in community settings in the south east of England. Groups were quota sampled based on age, gender and sexual orientation. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Results 65 respondents (58% men) participated. Perceived expertise of staff was the key reason for attendance at genitourinary medicine services rather than general practice. Although some respondents voiced a willingness to test for STIs within general practice, the apparent limited range of tests available in general practice and the perceived lack of expertise around sexual health appeared to discourage attendance at general practice. The decision of where to test for STIs was also influenced by past experience of testing, existing relationships with general practice, method of receiving test results and whether the patient had other medical conditions such as HIV. Conclusions No one type of STI testing service is suitable for all patients. This is recognised by policymakers, and it now requires commissioners and providers to make services outside of genitourinary medicine clinics more acceptable and attractive to patients, in particular to address the perceived lack of expertise and limited range of STIs tests available at alternative testing sites. PMID:22628665
Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. Methods We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. Results All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. Conclusions The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to
Zeman, P; Cibulková, J; Nepraš, P; Koudela, K; Matějka, J
The study presents a retrospective evaluation of clinical data and arthroscopic findings in a group of our patients with symptomatic knee instability due to a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The group included 31 patients diagnosed with symptomatic partial ACL tears, i.e. an isolated tear of the posterolateral (PL) or the anteromedial (AM) bundle. The patients' average age was 26.5 years. A side-to-side difference in ventral knee laxity was assessed using the anterior drawer test and the Lachman test under general anaesthesia before arthroscopy was commenced; rotational knee laxity was evaluated by the pivot shift test. An objective evaluation of side-to-side ventral laxity differences in both knees was performed on the GNRB® arthrometer with an applied pressure of 134 N and 250 N in the conscious patient. During arthroscopic examination, findings on the two ACL bundles were recorded. All 31 patients were diagnosed with symptomatic partial ACL tears, of them 22 had a PL bundle lesion and nine had an AM bundle tear. All patients with PL bundle lesions only reported problems in association with pivot sports, and all patients with AM bundle tears had problems regardless of any sports activities. In all patients with isolated AM bundle tears, the lesion was located close to its femoral attachment. In the patients with PL bundle tears, femoral location was found in 68% and tibial location in 32% of the patients. In the patients with partial PL bundle lesions, + and ++ results in the pivot shift test were recorded in 32% and 68% of the treated patients, respectively. The Lachman test showed + and ++ results in 71% and 9% of the patients, respectively. The anterior drawer test had negative results in 87% and positive + results in 13% of the patients. The side-to-side difference on the GNRB arthrometer ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 mm at a pressure of 134 N and from 1.2 to 4.2 mm at 250 N in the patients with isolated PL bundle lesions. In the patients with
Jang, Dasom; Shin, Soo-Yong; Seo, Dong-Woo; Joo, Segyeong; Huh, Soo-Jin
Managing test results is an important issue in hospitals because of the increasing use of point-of-care testing (POCT). Here, we propose a smartphone-based system for automatically managing POCT test results. We developed the system to provide convenience to the medical staffs. The system recognizes the patient identification or prescription number of the test by reading barcodes and provides a countdown to indicate when the results will be ready. When the countdown in finished, a picture of the test result is transferred to the electronic medical record server using the Health Level 7 protocol. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) kits were selected in this research because HIV is a life-threatening infectious virus, especially for the medical staff who treat undiagnosed patients. The performance of the system was verified from a survey of the users. The performance of the system was tested at the emergency room (ER) for 10 months using commercially available POCT kits for detecting HIV. The survey showed that, in total, 80% and 0% of users reported positive or negative feedback, respectively. The staff also reported that the system reduced total processing time by approximately 32 min, in addition to reducing workload. The developed automated management system was successfully tested at an ER for 10 months. The survey results show that the system is effective and that medical staff members who used the system are satisfied with using the system at the ER.
Maceneaney, P M; Malone, D E
To design a spreadsheet program to: (a) analyse rapidly diagnostic test result data produced in local research or reported in the literature; (b) correct reported predictive values for disease prevalence in any population; (c) estimate the post-test probability of disease in individual patients. Microsoft Excel(TM)was used. Section A: a contingency (2 x 2) table was incorporated into the spreadsheet. Formulae for standard calculations [sample size, disease prevalence, sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals, predictive values and likelihood ratios (LRs)] were linked to this table. The results change automatically when the data in the true or false negative and positive cells are changed. Section B: this estimates predictive values in any population, compensating for altered disease prevalence. Sections C-F: Bayes' theorem was incorporated to generate individual post-test probabilities. The spreadsheet generates 95% confidence intervals, LRs and a table and graph of conditional probabilities once the sensitivity and specificity of the test are entered. The latter shows the expected post-test probability of disease for any pre-test probability when a test of known sensitivity and specificity is positive or negative. This spreadsheet can be used on desktop and palmtop computers. The MS Excel(TM)version can be downloaded via the Internet from the URL ftp://radiography.com/pub/Rad-data99.xls A spreadsheet is useful for contingency table data analysis and assessment of the clinical meaning of diagnostic test results. Copyright 2000 The Royal College of Radiologists.
Pikto-Pietkiewicz, Witold; Przewłocka, Monika; Chybowska, Barbara; Cyciwa, Alona; Pasierski, Tomasz
Type 2 diabetes markedly increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and screening for CHD is suggested by the guidelines. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic usefulness of the simple exercise test score, incorporating the clinical data and cardiac stress test results, with the standard stress test in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 62 consecutive patients (aged 65.4 ±8.5 years; 32 men) with type 2 diabetes and clinical symptoms suggesting CHD underwent a stress test followed by coronary angiography. The simple score was calculated for all patients. Significant coronary stenosis was observed in 41 patients (66.1%). Stress test results were positive in 36 patients (58.1%). The mean simple score was high (65.5 ±14.3 points). A positive linear relationship was observed between the score and the prevalence of CHD (R2 = 0.19; P <0.001) as well as its severity (R² = 0.23; P <0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the simple score was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.86). At the original cut-off value of 60 points, the score had a similar prognostic value to that of the standard stress test. However, in a multivariate analysis, only the simple score (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.94; P <0.01 for an increase in the score by 1 point) and male sex (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24-1.98; P <0.001) remained independent predictors of CHD. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the simple score correlated with the prevalence and severity of CHD. However, the cut-off value of 60 points was inadequate in the population of diabetic patients with high risk of CHD. The simple score used instead of or together with the stress test was a better predictor of CHD than the stress test alone.
Steele, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Sutton, B. J.
Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during the testing.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Manchukonda, Rajeev; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Brandon, Doris E; Cash, Kim A; McManus, Carla D
Prescription drug abuse and illicit drug use are common in chronic pain patients. Adherence monitoring with screening tests, and urine drug testing, periodic monitoring with prescription monitoring programs, has become a common practice in recent years. Random drug testing for appropriate use of opioids and use of illicit drugs is often used in pain management practices. Thus, it is expected that random urine drug testing will deter use of illicit drugs, and also improve compliance. To study the prevalence of illicit drug use in patients receiving opioids for chronic pain management and to compare the results of illicit drug use with the results from a previous study. A prospective, consecutive study. Interventional pain management practice setting in the United States. A total of 500 consecutive patients on opioids, considered to be receiving stable doses of opioids supplemental to their interventional techniques, were studied by random drug testing. Testing was performed by rapid drug screen. Results were considered positive if one or more of the monitored illicit drugs including cocaine, marijuana (THC), methamphetamine or amphetamines were present. Illicit drug use was evident in 80 patients, or 16%, with marijuana in 11%, cocaine in 5%, and methamphetamine and/or amphetamines in 2%. When compared with previous data, the overall illicit drug use was significantly less. Illicit drug use in elderly patients was absent. The prevalence of illicit drug abuse in patients with chronic pain receiving opioids continues to be a common occurence. This study showed significant reductions in overall illicit drug use with adherence monitoring combined with random urine drug testing.
Screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the cobas 4800 PCR system do not require a second test to confirm: an audit of patients issued with equivocal results at a sexual health clinic in the Northwest of England, U.K.
Hopkins, Mark J; Smith, Godfrey; Hart, Ian J; Alloba, Fath
To assess the clinical utility of supplementary PCRs following a positive cobas 4800 CT/NG PCR screening test result. Laboratory reports, for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, issued to genitourinary medicine patients between April 2010 and April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Positive reports were routinely confirmed by supplementary PCRs and N gonorrhoeae culture. Clinical records of patients with unconfirmed positive (equivocal) reports were retrieved to determine if the infection was confirmed by a second sample obtained at patient recall and the impact of this process on antibiotic management. Over 15 000 patients were tested during the study period. The prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 972 (5.75%) and 76 (0.50%), respectively. A further 78 chlamydia and 2 gonorrhoea equivocal reports were issued. Only 56 (72%) patients with an equivocal chlamydia report returned to the clinic, and of these, only 41 (73%) gave a second sample to retest. Positive predictive value (PPV) of the PCR screening test was calculated at 98.0% and 97.5% for detection of chlamydia infection from urine and rectal swabs, respectively. Most patients accepted antibiotic treatment before their infection status had been confirmed. Prevalence of gonorrhoea infection was low but the PPV of the screening PCR in urine specimens remained high (98.75%). Equivocal reports introduce delays to patient management, while the risk of unnecessary antibiotic therapy appears acceptable to most patients. The cobas 4800 CT/NG PCR screening assay can achieve UK testing standards (PPV >90%) for chlamydia, and low prevalence gonorrhoea in urine without supplementary tests. A patient-led confirmation algorithm is proposed.
Meng, Juan; Thursfield, David; Lukawska, Joanna J
Penicillin allergy is associated with increased antibiotic resistance and health care costs. However, most patients with self-reported penicillin allergy are not truly allergic. To summarize our experience with allergy tests in patients with a history of penicillin allergy and to compare them with the results of other groups. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a suspected clinical history of penicillin allergy referred to the Drug Allergy Unit at University College London Hospital between March 2013 and June 2015. In total, 84 patients were reviewed. The index drugs included: unidentified penicillin (n = 44), amoxicillin (n = 17), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 13), flucloxacillin (n = 4), and other penicillins (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam; n = 7). Allergy diagnoses were confirmed in 24 patients (28.6%) (16 to penicillin, 3 to flucloxacillin, 5 to clavulanic acid). Twenty-two patients (91.7%) had allergy diagnosed by positive skin test results. Two patients (8.3%) developed IgE-mediated allergic symptoms during oral challenge (although the skin test results were negative). In vitro specific IgE test results for penicilloyl V, penicilloyl G, and amoxicilloyl were positive in 3 of 16 patients (18.8%). Moreover, reactions to cefuroxime were observed in 3 of 15 patients with penicillin allergy (20%). Selective clavulanic acid and flucloxacillin responders tolerated amoxicillin challenge. The interval between the index reaction and evaluation was shorter (P < .001), and the proportion of patients who could recall the name of the culprit drug was higher (P = .009) in the allergic group. Furthermore, histories of anaphylaxis (33.3%), urticaria, and/or angioedema (58.3%) were more common in the allergic group. Unspecified rashes (35.0%) and nonspecific symptoms (28.3%) predominated in the nonallergic group. Only 28.6% of patients with self-reported penicillin allergy were confirmed to be allergic. Importantly, when the index
Merz, Laurent; Zimmermann, Stefan; Peters, Solange; Cavassini, Matthias; Darling, Katharine E A
Although the prevalence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (non-ADCs) among people living with HIV is rising, we observed HIV testing rates below 5% at our oncology center, against a regional HIV prevalence of 0.2%-0.4%. We performed the Investigating Barriers in HIV-Testing Oncology Patients (IBITOP) study among oncology physicians and patients. Between July 1 and October 31, 2013, patients of unknown HIV status newly diagnosed with solid-organ non-ADCs referred to Lausanne University Hospital Oncology Service, Switzerland, were offered free HIV testing as part of their oncology work-up. The primary endpoints were (a) physician willingness to offer and patient acceptance of HIV testing and (b) physicians' reasons for not offering testing. Of 239 patients of unknown HIV status with a new non-ADC diagnosis, 43 (18%) were offered HIV testing, of whom 4 declined (acceptance rate: 39 of 43; 91%). Except for 21 patients tested prior to oncology consultation, 175 patients (of 239; 73%) were not offered testing. Testing rate declined among patients who were >70 years old (12% versus 30%; p = .04); no non-European patients were tested. Physicians gave reasons for not testing in 16% of cases, the main reason being patient follow-up elsewhere (10 patients; 5.7%). HIV testing during the IBITOP study increased the HIV testing rate to 18%. Although the IBITOP study increased HIV testing rates, most patients were not tested. Testing was low or nonexistent among individuals at risk of late HIV presentation (older patients and migrants). Barriers to testing appear to be physician-led, because patient acceptance of testing offered was very high (91%). In November 2013, the Swiss HIV testing recommendations were updated to propose testing in cancer patients. Phase II of the IBITOP study is examining the effect of these recommendations on HIV testing rates and focusing on physician-led testing barriers. Patients of unknown HIV status newly diagnosed with solid-organ non
Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit
Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p < 0.01). ID test has a fair to moderate correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.
Li, L; Qiu, L; Wu, M
Objective: To analyze patients' tendency towards genetics counseling and tests based on a prospective cohort study on hereditary ovarian cancer. Methods: From February 2017 to June 2017, among 220 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, we collected epidemiological, pathological and tendency towards genetics counseling and tests via medical records and questionnaire.All patients would get education about hereditary ovarian cancer by pamphlets and WeChat.If they would receive further counseling, a face to face interview and tests will be given. Results: Among all 220 patients, 10 (4.5%) denied further counseling.For 210 patients receiving genetic counseling, 170 (81%) accepted genetic tests.In multivariate analysis, risk factors relevant to acceptance of genetic tests included: being charged by physicians of gynecologic oncology for diagnosis and treatment, receiving counseling in genetic counseling clinics, and having family history of breast cancer.For patients denying genetic tests, there were many subjective reasons, among which, "still not understanding genetic tests" (25%) and "unable bear following expensive targeting medicine" . Conclusions: High proportion patients of epithelial ovarian cancer would accept genetic counseling and tests.Genetic counseling clinics for gynecologic oncology would further improve genetic tests for patients.
Heckerling, P S; Verp, M S; Albert, N
The choice between amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal genetic testing involves tradeoffs of the benefits and risks of the tests. Decision analysis is a method of explicitly weighing such tradeoffs. The authors examined the relationship between prenatal test choices made by patients and the choices prescribed by decision-analytic models based on their preferences, and separate models based on the preferences of their physicians. Preferences were assessed using written scenarios describing prenatal testing outcomes, and were recorded on linear rating scales. After adjustment for sociodemographic and obstetric confounders, test choice was significantly associated with the choice of decision models based on patient preferences (odds ratio 4.44; Cl, 2.53 to 7.78), but not with the choice of models based on the preferences of the physicians (odds ratio 1.60; Cl, 0.79 to 3.26). Agreement between decision analyses based on patient preferences and on physician preferences was little better than chance (kappa = 0.085+/-0.063). These results were robust both to changes in the decision-analytic probabilities and to changes in the model structure itself to simulate non-expected utility decision rules. The authors conclude that patient but not physician preferences, incorporated in decision models, correspond to the choice of amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling made by the patient. Nevertheless, because patient preferences were assessed after referral for genetic testing, prospective preference-assessment studies will be necessary to confirm this association.
The most common tests for allergen sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis are the skin-prick test(SPT) and an in vitro test to detect serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE). However, in vitro allergen test results were interpreted dichotomically as positive or negative at a threshold of 0.35kU/L of sIgE, regardless of the patient characteristics or antigen types. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff value for sIgE in house-dust mites and animal dander, and to analyze differences in cutoff value according to age and gender. A total of 16,209 patients with more than one allergic rhinitis symptom who underwent both SPT and serum sIgE testing were retrospectively evaluated between March 2008 and May 2012. There were 9374 male (57.8%) and 6835 female (42.2%) patients. The mean age was 31.8 years (range, 2-89 years). The criterion standard for allergen sensitization was defined as a wheal of > 3 mm or an allergen-to-histamine ratio of greater than or equal to 1 in SPT results. The Youden index was used to calculate the cutoff value of sIgE. Cutoff values of sIgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, and dog were 0.69, 1.16, 0.13, and 0.45 kU/L, respectively. The cutoff value of sIgE changed according to age for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae but not for cat and dog allergens. When categorizingaccording to age group, the cutoff values of sIgE for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae had a tendency to decrease with age. There was no significant difference in cutoff value according to gender. The cutoff value for sIgE differed for each antigen and changed with age. Physicians should select the proper cutoff value for sIgE for appropriate criteria according to antigen and patient age rather than using a uniform cutoff value.
Hong, Sang Duk; Ryu, Gwanghui; Seo, Min Young; Jeong, Jong In; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Dhong, Hun-Jong
The most common tests for allergen sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis are the skin-prick test (SPT) and an in vitro test to detect serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE). However, in vitro allergen test results were interpreted dichotomically as positive or negative at a threshold of 0.35 kU/L of sIgE, regardless of the patient characteristics or antigen types. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff value for sIgE in house-dust mites and animal dander, and to analyze differences in cutoff value according to age and gender. A total of 16,209 patients with more than one allergic rhinitis symptom who underwent both SPT and serum sIgE testing were retrospectively evaluated between March 2008 and May 2012. There were 9374 male (57.8%) and 6835 female (42.2%) patients. The mean age was 31.8 years (range, 2-89 years). The criterion standard for allergen sensitization was defined as a wheal of >3 mm or an allergen-to-histamine ratio of ≥1 in SPT results. The Youden index was used to calculate the cutoff value of sIgE. Cutoff values of sIgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, and dog were 0.69, 1.16, 0.13, and 0.45 kU/L, respectively. The cutoff value of sIgE changed according to age for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae but not for cat and dog allergens. When categorizing according to age group, the cutoff values of sIgE for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae had a tendency to decrease with age. There was no significant difference in cutoff value according to gender. The cutoff value for sIgE differed for each antigen and changed with age. Physicians should select the proper cutoff value for sIgE for appropriate criteria according to antigen and patient age rather than using a uniform cutoff value.
Berti, A; Della-Torre, E; Yacoub, Mr; Tombetti, E; Canti, V; Sabbadini, M G; Colombo, G
The term "breakthrough reactions" designates repeated hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) despite premedication with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the rate of positive skin test (STs) in our cohort of patients with previous breakthrough reactions to different ICMs. A series of 35 patients, who experienced at least one breakthrough reaction to ICM and who underwent STs within 6 months from the reaction were studied, and results were compared to a control group of patients with a first hypersensitivity reaction occurred without premedication. Skin prick tests (SPT), intradermal tests (IDT) and patch tests (PT) at different dilutions, with a set of three to four ICM were performed. Of the 35 patients with prior breakthrough reactions, 57% had an immediate reaction (IR) and 43% had a non-immediate reaction (NIR). Patients who experienced the first hypersensitivity IR or NIR, later had one or more breakthrough IR or NIR, respectively. Overall, 29% (10/35) of patients with prior breakthrough reactions resulted positive to STs compared to 57% (16/28) of the control group (p < 0.05). No significant difference in allergy history, age, sex, other clinical / demographic features nor chronic use of ACE-inhibitor, beta-blockers or NSAIDs was observed. This preliminary finding suggests that patients with prior breakthrough reactions have significantly lower immunologically proven ICM reactions (positive STs) if compared to non-breakthrough patients. According to that, a considerable number of breakthrough reactions seems to be non-allergic hypersensitivity reactions or reactions which could be mostly prevented by a proper, well-timed skin testing. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results, with a more careful analysis of patients' risk factors, a laboratory assessment that includes an in vitro allergy diagnostics, and hopefully a drug provocation test for selected cases.
Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study. PMID:21569233
Inductionless or limited shock testing is possible in most patients with implantable cardioverter- defibrillators/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: results of the multicenter ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations).
Day, John D; Doshi, Rahul N; Belott, Peter; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Behboodikhah, Mahnaz; Ott, Peter; Glatter, Kathryn A; Tobias, Serge; Frumin, Howard; Lee, Byron K; Merillat, John; Wiener, Isaac; Wang, Samuel; Grogin, Harlan; Chun, Sung; Patrawalla, Rob; Crandall, Brian; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Weiss, J Peter; Lappe, Donald L; Neuman, Stacey
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators have relied on multiple ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction/defibrillation tests at implantation to ensure that the device can reliably sense, detect, and convert VF. The ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations) is the first large, multicenter, prospective trial comparing vulnerability safety margin testing versus defibrillation safety margin testing with a single VF induction/defibrillation. A total of 426 patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator underwent vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety margin screening at 14 J in a randomized order. After this, patients underwent confirmatory testing, which required 2 VF conversions without failure at < or = 21 J. Patients who passed their first 14-J and confirmatory tests, irrespective of the results of their second 14-J test, had their devices programmed to a 21-J shock for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or VF > or = 200 bpm and were followed up for 1 year. Of 420 patients who underwent 14-J vulnerability safety margin screening, 322 (76.7%) passed. Of these, 317 (98.4%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Of 416 patients who underwent 14-J defibrillation safety margin screening, 343 (82.5%) passed, and 338 (98.5%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Most clinical VT/VF episodes (32 of 37, or 86%) were terminated by the first shock, with no difference in first shock success. In all observed cases in which the first shock was unsuccessful, subsequent shocks terminated VT/VF without complication. Although spontaneous episodes of fast VT/VF were limited, there was no difference in the odds of first shock efficacy between groups. Screening with vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety
Chazouillères, O; Marteau, P; Haniche, M; Jian, R; Poupon, R
The effect of cholestasis on ileal bile acid absorption is controversial in animal models (up- or down-regulation) and unknown in humans. We therefore studied values of the selena homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) test before and after long-term administration (>3 months, 13-15 mg/kg/day) of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 27 patients with chronic cholestatic liver diseases (24 women, 3 men; mean age, 50 years; 24 primary biliary cirrhosis, 2 secondary biliary cirrhosis, 2 others). The control group consisted of 14 healthy volunteers. Seven-day SeHCAT percentage retention was identical in the 12 untreated cholestatic patients (serum bilirubin, 75+/-42 micromol/L, alkaline phosphatase, 4.2+/-1.0 N; mean+/-SEM) and in the control group (43.6+/-2.9 and 43.8+/-4.2%, respectively). In the 22 patients treated by UDCA for 38+/-8 months, SeHCAT percentage retention was 20.3+/-3.0%. In the seven patients with the SeHCAT test done before and after UDCA treatment (16+/-5 months), SeHCAT percentage retention decreased significantly under UDCA therapy (42.0+/-4.4 vs 19.4+/-4.1%; P < 0.02). We conclude that, in patients with chronic cholestasis (1) SeHCAT percentage retention is not altered-taken together with the known defect of biliary excretion, this lack of increase in SeHCAT percentage retention argues against up-regulation of bile acid ileal transport; and (2) UDCA treatment induces a decrease in the SeHCAT percentage retention-this effect may be related primarily to a decreased bile acid ileal absorption.
Peeters, G G; Aufdemkampe, G; Oostendorp, R A
To examine whether there is a significant difference in gnostic sensibility between affected and unaffected legs of patients suffering from lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) resulting from a disc herniation and to determine the validity of the sensibility test for detecting a disc herniation. Observer blind study of sensibility testing. Four general hospitals (neurology department) and one practice of physical and manual therapy. Fifty-one patients with radicular pain in the lumbosacral nerve roots for at least 4 wk and/or neurological deficits. The gnostic sensibility of 51 patients with a unilateral LRS was tested using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments for the L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Gnostic hypoesthetic impairments in the L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes were found in 84.6% of the 43 patients in which the presence of disc herniation was confirmed by CT. There was significant difference in gnostic sensibility between the affected and unaffected legs in the L4, L5, and S1 dermatomes for disc herniation at the L4-L5 level and for the L5 and S1 dermatomes for a disc herniation at the L5-S1 level. There was no significant difference in gnostic sensibility in the L4 dermatome for a disc herniation at the L5-S1 level. The gnostic sensibility of the affected leg is hypoesthetic compared with the unaffected leg. The specificity of the sensibility test using monofilaments is acceptable, but the sensitivity is not. The monofilament test is a useful and practical tool for excluding the presence of a disc herniation at dermatomes L4, L5 and S1 and disc herniations at the L4-L5, L5-S1 level.
Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Haring, Robin; Krebs, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Alte, Dietrich; Nauck, Matthias; Kohlmann, Thomas; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Wallaschofski, Henri
Studies from iodine-sufficient areas have shown that a high proportion of patients taking medication for thyroid diseases have thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels outside the reference range. Next to patient compliance, inadequate dosing adjustment resulting in under- and over-treatment of thyroid disease is a major cause of poor therapy outcomes. Using thyroid function tests, we aim to measure the proportions of subjects, who are under- or over-treated with thyroid medication in a previously iodine-deficient area. Data from 266 subjects participating in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analysed. All subjects were taking thyroid medication. Serum TSH levels were measured using immunochemiluminescent procedures. TSH levels of < 0.27 or > 2.15 mIU/L in subjects younger than 50 years and < 0.19 or > 2.09 mIU/L in subjects 50 years and older, were defined as decreased or elevated, according to the established reference range for the specific study area. Our analysis revealed that 56 of 190 (29.5%) subjects treated with thyroxine had TSH levels outside the reference range (10.0% elevated, 19.5% decreased). Of the 31 subjects taking antithyroid drugs, 12 (38.7%) had TSH levels outside the reference range (9.7% elevated, 29.0% decreased). These proportions were lower in the 45 subjects receiving iodine supplementation (2.2% elevated, 8.9% decreased). Among the 3,974 SHIP participants not taking thyroid medication, TSH levels outside the reference range (2.8% elevated, 5.9% decreased) were less frequent. In concordance with previous studies in iodine-sufficient areas, our results indicate that a considerable number of patients taking thyroid medication are either under- or over-treated. Improved monitoring of these patients' TSH levels, compared to the local reference range, is recommended.
Wan, Jin; Li, Qi-yi; Wang, Guang-yao; Sun, Yi-qiu; Fang, Zhu-yuan; Tang, Shu-hua; Yang, Zong-mei; Zhang, Ya-cheng
To observe treadmill exercise test (TET) characteristics in patients with myocardial bridging (MB). TET results from January 2003 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed in 156 patients with confirmed MB diagnosis. MB patients were divided into smoking group (68 cases) and non-smoking group (88 cases). Coronary angiography results were used to analyze the relations between MB length, myocardial ischemia and exercising duration. (1) MB was documented on two coronary arteries in 2 patients (1%), MB was detected in single artery in 154 patients (99%), of whom 146 cases were located at left anterior descending artery, 8 cases were located at right coronary artery. The degree of narrowing of MB was graded 1 (less than 50%) in 16 patients (10%), grade 2 (50% to 75%) in 108 patients (69%) and grade 3 (greater than 75%) in 32 patients (21%). The length of MB ranged between 4 to 40 mm, MB length was less than 10 mm in 40 patients (26%), between 11 to 20 mm in 48 patients (31%), between 21 to 30 mm in 44 patients (28%), greater than 31 mm in 24 patients (15%). (2) TET positive rate was 41% (64/156) and the TET positive rate was significantly higher in smoking group than in non-smoking group [57% (39/68) vs. 28% (25/88, P < 0.01)]. (3) The length of MB was positively related to the ST-segment depression (r = 0.723, P < 0.01) and negatively related to exercising duration (r = -0.828, P < 0.01). Heart rate was positively related to the ST-segment depression (r = 0.368, P < 0.01). TET may serve as a good test to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with MB. The length of MB is positively related with myocardial ischemia and negatively related with exercising duration. Smoking might increase myocardial ischemic incidence in MB patients, MB patients should be advised to stop smoking.
Yang, Y; Li, P; Ye, H C
To explore personality test and brainstem auditory potentials (BAEPs) in patients with migraine. BAEPs and eysenck personality scale were recorded in 30 patients with migraine. The abnormal rate of BAEPs was 53%. The latency of individual wave I, III and V were prolonged, so did the interval of the wave III and wave V. The results of personality test showed that 3 patients(10%) manifested introvert personality, 12 patients (40%) extravert personality, and 17 patients (56%) the intermediate personality. It is indicated that migraine may be related to the disturbance of brainstem disfunction and personality of patients.
Lear, Aaron; Huber, Merritt; Canada, Amy; Robertson, Jessica; Bosman, Evan; Zyzanski, Stephen
To determine whether admission, and provocative stress testing of patients who have ruled out for acute coronary syndrome put patients with low-risk category for coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for false-positive provocative stress testing and unnecessary coronary angiogram/imaging. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients between 30 and 70 years old, with no pre-existing diagnosis of CAD, admitted to observation or inpatient status chest pain or related complaints. Included patients were categorized based on Duke Clinical Score for pretest probability for CAD into either low-risk group, or moderate/high-risk group. The inpatient course was compared including whether provocative stress testing was performed; results of stress testing; whether patients underwent further coronary imaging; and what the results of the further imaging showed. 543 patients were eligible: 305 low pretest probability, and 238 moderate/high pretest probability. No difference was found in rate of stress testing relative risk (RR) = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.852 to 1.192; P = 0); rate of positive or equivocal stress tests between the 2 groups: RR = 0.653 (95% CI, 0.415 to 1.028; P = .07,). Low-pretest-probability patients had a lower likelihood of positive coronary imaging after stress test, RR = 0.061 (95% CI, 0.004 to 0.957; P = .001). Follow-up provocative testing of all patients admitted/observed after emergency department presentation with chest pain is unlikely to find CAD in patients with low pretest probability. Testing all low-probability patients puts them at increased risk for unnecessary invasive confirmatory testing. Further prospective testing is needed to confirm these retrospective results. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Gorchakov, Iu L
Passive hemagglutination test was carried out at several incubation temperatures: 4, 21, 37, and 56 degrees C. Blood sera of donors, salmonellosis enteritidis patients, and specific nonadsorbed sera were used in the study. The least fluctuations of the results were seen in tests with the sera with the least manifest immune properties. The optimal incubation temperatures were found 4 and 21 degrees C, and in 1/3 of cases cold incubation was found preferable. The relationship between antibody titers and incubation temperature may be described by the formula: T4 > or = T21 > or = T37 > or = T56, with Tn representing the reverse value of antibody titer in certain incubation temperature.
Kim, James A; Ptolemy, Adam S; Melanson, Stacy E F; Janfaza, David R; Ross, Edgar L
The urine of a patient admitted for chest and epigastric pain tested positive for cocaine using an immunoassay-based drug screening method (positive/negative cutoff concentration 150 ng/mL). Despite the patient's denial of recent cocaine use, this positive cocaine screening result in conjunction with a remote history of drug misuse impacted the patient's recommended pain therapy. Specifically, these factors prompted the clinical team to question the appropriateness of opioids and other potentially addictive therapeutics during the treatment of cancer pain from previously undetected advanced pancreatic carcinoma. After pain management and clinical pathology consultation, it was decided that the positive cocaine screening result should be confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing. This more sensitive and specific analytical technique revealed that both cocaine and its primary metabolite benzoylecgonine were undetectable (i.e., less than the assay detection limit of 50 ng/mL), thus indicating that the positive urine screening result was falsely positive. With this confirmation, the pain management service team was reassured in offering intrathecal pump (ITP) therapy for pain control. ITP implantation was well tolerated, and the patient eventually achieved excellent pain relief. However, ITP therapy most likely would not have been utilized without the GC-MS confirmation testing unless alternative options failed and extensive vigilant monitoring was initiated. As exemplified in this case, confirmatory drug testing should be performed on specimens with unexpected immunoassay-based drug screening results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a false-positive urine cocaine screening result and its impact on patient management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Sutton, B.J.
Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during themore » testing.« less
Mahon, Suzanne M
Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT), individuals can order a genetic test, collect and submit a saliva sample, and obtain results about their genetic risk for a variety of traits and health conditions without involving a healthcare provider. Potential benefits of DTCGT include personal control over genetic information and health management decisions, whereas potential risks include misinterpretation of results, psychosocial distress, and lack of informed consent. Oncology nurses can provide education, support, and advocacy to enable patients to truly understand the positives and negatives associated with DTCGT. .
Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.
A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed bymore » the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed.« less
Musshoff, F; Driever, F; Lachenmeier, K; Lachenmeier, D W; Banger, M; Madea, B
Urine as well as head and pubic hair samples from drug abusers were analysed for opiates, cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamines, methadone and cannabinoids. Urine immunoassay results and the results of hair tests by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were compared to the self-reported data of the patients in an interview protocol. With regard to the study group, opiate abuse was claimed from the majority in self-reports (89%), followed by cannabinoids (55%), cocaine (38%), and methadone (32%). Except for opiates the comparison between self-reported drug use and urinalysis at admission showed a low correlation. In contrast to urinalysis, hair tests revealed consumption in more cases. There was also a good agreement between self-reports of patients taking part in an official methadone maintenance program and urine test results concerning methadone. However, hair test results demonstrated that methadone abuse in general was under-reported by people who did not participate in a substitution program. Comparing self-reports and the results of hair analyses drug use was dramatically under-reported, especially cocaine. Cocaine hair tests appeared to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying past cocaine use even in settings of negative urine tests. In contrast to cocaine, hair lacks sensitivity as a detection agent for cannabinoids and a proof of cannabis use by means of hair analysis should include the sensitive detection of the metabolite THC carboxylic acid in the lower picogram range.
Minder, Elisabeth I; Schibli, Adrian; Mahrer, Dagmar; Nesic, Predrag; Plüer, Kathrin
The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.
Portnoy, David B
Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal.
Deleo, Vincent Anthony; Alexis, Andrew; Warshaw, Erin M; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; DeKoven, Joel; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D; Rietschel, Robert L; Storrs, Frances J; Taylor, James S; Zirwas, Matthew
The North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch tests patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to a broad series of screening allergens and publishes periodic reports. We have previously reported on the association of race and ethnicity with the rates of positive responses to standard patch test allergens. This report extends those observations. The aim of the study was to report the North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch testing results from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2006, comparing the frequency of positive reactions between white and black subjects. Standardized patch testing with 45 allergens was used at 13 centers in North America. χ analysis of results in black subjects as compared with whites was examined. A total of 19,457 patients were tested; 92.9% (17,803) were white and 7.1% (1,360) were black. The final diagnoses of ACD (whites, 45.9%; blacks, 43.6%) and irritant contact dermatitis (13.0%/13.3%) were similar in the 2 groups. The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was less common in the white patients (8.9%) as compared with the black patients (13.3%). Positive patch test reactions rates were similar for most allergens. However, statistically, blacks reacted more frequently to p-phenylenediamine (7.0% vs 4.4%, P < 0.001), bacitracin (11.6% vs 8.3%, P = 0.0004), as well as specific rubber accelerators mercaptobenzothiazole (2.7% vs 1.8%), thiuram (6.2% vs 4.3%), and mercapto mix (1.9% vs 0.8%, P < 0.001). Whites had an increase in positive reactions to fragrances (12.12% vs 6.77%, P < 0.0001), formaldehyde (9.25% vs 5.45%, P < 0.0001), and some formaldehyde releaser preservatives used in personal care products and textile resins (9.80% vs 6.18%, P < 0.0001). There were statistically different rates of positive patch test reactions to specific allergens between black and white patients suspected of having ACD. The etiology of these differences is unclear but probably relates to culturally determined exposure patterns rather
Caine, Chip; Deshmukh, Snehal; Gondi, Vinai; Mehta, Minesh; Tomé, Wolfgang; Corn, Benjamin W; Kanner, Andrew; Rowley, Howard; Kundapur, Vijayananda; DeNittis, Albert; Greenspoon, Jeffrey Noah; Konski, Andre A; Bauman, Glenn S; Raben, Adam; Shi, Wenyin; Wendland, Merideth; Kachnic, Lisa
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is associated with memory dysfunction. As part of NRG Oncology RTOG 0933, a phase II study of WBRT for brain metastases that conformally avoided the hippocampal stem cell compartment (HA-WBRT), memory was assessed pre- and post-HA-WBRT using both traditional and computerized memory tests. We examined whether the computerized tests yielded similar findings and might serve as possible alternatives for assessment of memory in multi-institution clinical trials. Adult patients with brain metastases received HA-WBRT to 30 Gy in ten fractions and completed Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), CogState International Shopping List Test (ISLT) and One Card Learning Test (OCLT), at baseline, 2 and 4 months. Tests' completion rates were 52-53 % at 2 months and 34-42 % at 4 months. All baseline correlations between HVLT-R and CogState tests were significant (p ≤ 0.003). At baseline, both CogState tests and one component of HVLT-R differentiated those who were alive at 6 months and those who had died (p ≤ 0.01). At 4 months, mean relative decline was 7.0 % for HVLT-R Delayed Recall and 18.0 % for ISLT Delayed Recall. OCLT showed an 8.0 % increase. A reliable change index found no significant changes from baseline to 2 and 4 months for ISLT Delayed Recall (z = -0.40, p = 0.34; z = -0.68, p = 0.25) or OCLT (z = 0.15, p = 0.56; z = 0.41, p = 0.66). Study findings support the possibility that hippocampal avoidance may be associated with preservation of memory test performance, and that these computerized tests also may be useful and valid memory assessments in multi-institution adult brain tumor trials.
Wagner, Karin N; Nagaraja, Haikady; Allain, Dawn C; Quick, Adam; Kolb, Stephen; Roggenbuck, Jennifer
Although genetic testing for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is widely available, it is unknown what proportion of patients with ALS have access to genetic counseling and testing, and patient attitudes towards ALS genetic testing have not been studied. We conducted a national survey of ALS patients enrolled in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, which consisted of multiple choice questions and two 12 item Likert scale series assessing respondents' experience with and attitude toward genetic testing. The survey had an 8 % response rate, with 449 completed responses. Genetic testing was offered to 33.4 % and completed by 67.1 % of those offered. A minority of respondents (12.5 %) saw a genetic counselor, and were much more likely to be offered genetic testing (p = 0.0001). Respondents with a family history of ALS (8.4 %) were more likely to be offered testing (p = 0.0001) and complete testing (p = 0.05). Respondents with a family history of ALS were more likely to report a favorable attitude towards genetic testing (p = 0.0003), as were respondents who saw a genetic counselor (p = 0.02). The majority of respondents (82.7 %) felt that genetic testing should be offered to all patients with ALS. Our results indicate that ALS patients may have limited access to genetic testing, but perceive benefit from this service. Development of practice guidelines for genetic testing in ALS, to include the routine offer of genetic counseling, may result in broader and more consistent access to these services.
Richards, Doug; Meshkat, Nazanin; Chu, Jaqueline; Eva, Kevin; Worster, Andrew
Numerous patients are assessed in the emergency department (ED) for chest pain suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and subsequently discharged if found to be at low risk. Exercise stress testing is frequently advised as a follow-up investigation for low-risk patients; however, compliance with such recommendations is poorly understood. We sought to determine if compliance with follow-up for exercise stress testing is higher in patients for whom the investigation is ordered at the time of ED discharge, compared with patients who are advised to arrange testing through their family physician (FP). Low-risk chest pain patients being discharged from the ED for outpatient exercise stress test and FP follow-up were randomized into 2 groups. ED staff ordered an exercise stress test for the intervention group, and the control group was advised to contact their FP to arrange testing. The primary outcome was completion of an exercise stress test at 30 days, confirmed through both patient contact and stress test results. Patients were unaware that our primary interest was their compliance with the exercise stress testing recommendations. Two-hundred and thirty-one patients were enrolled and baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Completion of an exercise stress test at 30 days occurred in 87 out of 120 (72.5%) patients in the intervention group and 60 out of 107 (56.1%) patients in the control group. The difference in compliance rates (16.4%) between the 2 groups was statistically significant (Chi(2) = 6.69, p < 0.001) with a relative risk of 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.40), and the results remained significant after a "worst case" sensitivity analysis involving 4 control group cases lost to follow-up. When subjects were contacted by telephone 30 days after the ED visit, 60% of those who were noncompliant patients felt they did not have a heart problem and that further testing was unnecessary. When ED staff order an outpatient exercise
Mata-Miranda, María del Pilar; Cano-Matus, Norberto; Rodriguez-Murrieta, Margarita; Guarneros-Zapata, Idalia; Ortiz, Mario
To question the usefulness of the lab analysis considered routine testing for the identification of abnormalities in the surgical care. To determine the percentage of unnecessary laboratory tests in the preoperative assessment as well as to estimate the unnecessary expenses. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients referred for surgical evaluation between January 1st and March 31st 2013. The database of laboratory testing and electronic files were reviewed. Reference criteria from surgical services were compared with the tests requested by the family doctor. In 65% of the patients (n=175) unnecessary examinations were requested, 25% (n=68) were not requested the tests that they required, and only 10% of the patients were requested laboratory tests in accordance with the reference criteria (n=27). The estimated cost in unnecessary examinations was $1,129,552 in a year. The results were similar to others related to this theme, however, they had not been revised from the perspective of the first level of attention regarding the importance of adherence to the reference criteria which could prevent major expenditures. It is a priority for leaders and operational consultants in medical units to establish strategies and lines of action that ensure compliance with institutional policies so as to contain spending on comprehensive services, and which in turn can improve the medical care. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Tavares, Isabel; Oliveira, João Paulo; Pinho, Ana; Moreira, Luciana; Rocha, Liliana; Santos, Josefina; Pinheiro, Joaquim; Costa, Paulo Pinho; Lobato, Luísa
Fibrinogen A α-chain (AFib) amyloidosis results from autosomal-dominant mutations in the gene encoding AFib (FGA). Patients with this disorder typically present with proteinuria. Isolated cases of AFib amyloidosis, carrying the FGA p.Glu545Val variant, were identified in the district of Braga, in northwest Portugal. This observation led us to hypothesize that this disorder might be an unrecognized cause of kidney disease in that region and prompted us to carry out targeted genetic testing for the p.Glu545Val variant in the local hemodialysis population and family members of identified cases. Case series. 3 groups of participants: (1) kidney biopsy registry, n=4; (2) hemodialysis facility, n=122 of 267 patients; and (3) genetically at-risk individuals; n=69 of 167 family members. Kidney disease, kidney disease progression, and survival. The p.Glu545Val variant was identified in all 4 patients of the biopsy registry, 12 of 122 (9.8%) hemodialysis patients tested, and 34 of 69 (49%) relatives tested. These 50 cases belonged to 13 unrelated families with kidney disease or amyloidosis identified in 61% of probands. 35 individuals presented with hypertension at a mean of 51.0±10.4 years. Of these, 30 developed kidney disease at a mean of 56.7±12.0 years, and 21 initiated dialysis therapy at a mean of 61.4±11.3 years. Heart, liver, spleen, colon, and ileum were involved along the progression of the disease. Kidney disease was formerly attributed to hypertension in 25% of patients with AFib amyloidosis undergoing hemodialysis. Retrospective data collection for patients with amyloidosis previously diagnosed. AFib amyloidosis appears to be an under-recognized disorder in Braga, Portugal, where we found a high frequency of the FGA p.Glu545Val variant. Due to the nonspecific nature of its major clinical features, the diagnosis of AFib amyloidosis should have a high index of suspicion, particularly in populations in which hypertension is prevalent. Copyright © 2017
Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe
Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.
Okayama, Masanobu; Takeshima, Taro; Harada, Masanori; Ae, Ryusuke; Kajii, Eiji
Disclosing genetic testing results may contribute to the prevention and management of many common diseases. However, whether the presence of a disease influences these effects is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference in the effects of disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for developing salt-sensitive hypertension on the behavioral modifications with respect to salt intake in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted for outpatients aged >20 years (N=2,237) at six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. The main factors assessed were medical histories of hypertension, salt preferences, reduced salt intakes, and behavior modifications for reducing salt intake. Behavioral modifications of participants were assessed using their behavior stages before and after disclosure of the hypothetical genetic testing results. Of the 2,237 participants, 1,644 (73.5%) responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 558 (33.9%) patients were hypertensive and 1,086 (66.1%) were nonhypertensive. After being notified of the result "If with genetic risk", the nonhypertensive participants were more likely to make positive behavioral modifications compared to the hypertensive patients among all participants and in those aged <65 years (adjusted relative ratio [ad-RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.76 and ad-RR, 1.99; 1.11-3.57, respectively). In contrast, no difference in negative behavioral modifications between hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients was detected after being notified of the result "If without genetic risk" (ad-RR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.57). The behavior of modifying salt intake after disclosure of the genetic testing results differed between hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. Disclosing a genetic risk for salt-sensitive hypertension was likely to cause nonhypertensive patients, especially those aged <65 years, to improve their
Giorgini, S; Martinelli, C; Tognetti, L; Carocci, A; Giuntini, R; Mastronardi, V; Torricelli, F; Leoncini, F; Lotti, T
The use of antiretroviral drug abacavir (ABC) has been often associated with cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions, the majority being severe. The present study discusses the issues of patch testing associated with pharmacogenetic screening in light of the development of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). The present authors classified 100 patients into three groups: 20 patients (group A) had experienced a hypersensitivity reaction when treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including ABC; 60 HIV-positive patients (group B) were receiving HAART scheme including ABC; 20 HIV-negative patients acted as control group (group C). Patients of group A and B were patch tested with ABC as such, then with an ABC extract diluted to 1 and 10% in petrolatum. Group C patients underwent patches with petrolatum only. A biopsy of the lesion was performed in those patients who showed a positive skin reaction. All patients had been tested for HLA-B5701. A correlation between positive ABC-patch testing and HLA-B5701 was found in 50% of patients enrolled in group A, while in group B and C, all patients tested negative for both genetic marker and ABC-patch testing. Histopathology findings confirmed a vigorous CD4+ and CD8+ cellular response that is compatible with HSR. Patch testing is a safe and sensitive method that can be used for to confirm or exclude any correlation between abacavir and hypersensitivity skin reactions in patients who have been previously treated with abacavir during HAART. Correlation between patch test, immunohistochimical, and genetic tests results shows that genetic testing increases the possibility to identify patients with a true reaction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Zwieten, Myra; Willems, Dick; Knegt, Lia; Leschot, Nico
While generally two phases of prenatal genetic counseling are distinguished, i.e. pre- and post-test counseling, we revealed a third form of communication during the testing procedure. The content of this intermediate communication was explored. A secondary analysis was performed on data obtained in another observational study, which was focussed on how indefinite testing results are clarified. Thirteen testing trajectories in which communication with parents took place during the testing procedure were further analysed. In the majority of cases the content of intermediate communication was similar to the content of pre-test counseling. In four cases the content was different, because the communication involved the parents in decision-making about a testing result, which was still being processed. Communication in (prenatal) genetic testing is not always restricted to separate phases, but can be an ongoing process occurring parallel to, and sometimes even intertwined with, the testing process. The advocated model of shared decision-making might work better once it is determined if the decision concerns the area wherein the provider is the expert, or the patient. Further research into the process of continuing decision-making could clarify how providers' and patients' responsibilities regarding the diagnostic process are distributed. Meanwhile, the possible occurrence of continuous decision-making should be mentioned in (prenatal) genetic counseling.
Grazzini, G; Castiglione, G; Ciabattoni, C; Franceschini, F; Giorgi, D; Gozzi, S; Mantellini, P; Lopane, P; Perco, M; Rubeca, T; Salvadori, P; Visioli, C B; Zappa, M
Screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. Tuscany was the first region in Italy in which a screening programme for colorectal cancer by FOBT was initiated region-wide. The aim of the paper was to describe organizational aspects, a quality control model and the results of this experience. From June 2000 to December 2001, 192583 subjects aged 50-70 were invited to undergo a 1-day immunochemical test without any dietary restriction. A total of 78505 subjects (41%) performed the screening test, of whom 4537 responders had a positive test result (5.8%). Among them, 1122 refused any form of assessment or underwent a colonoscopy outside the screening referral centres, with an overall assessment compliance of 75.3%. Malignancies were found in 193 patients and at least a high-risk adenomatous polyp in 692 patients. In about a quarter of the positive subjects who underwent assessment, cancer or high-risk adenoma was detected. In conclusion, data from this experience supported the feasibility of biennial colorectal screening programme by FOBT, particularly regarding invitation compliance and positivity rate. Further efforts are necessary to implement screening extension and to improve data collection.
Pfaller, M A; Hazen, K C; Messer, S A; Boyken, L; Tendolkar, S; Hollis, R J; Diekema, D J
The accuracy of antifungal susceptibility tests is important for accurate resistance surveillance and for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. Our main objective was to compare the results of fluconazole disk diffusion testing of Candida spp. performed by ARTEMIS participating centers with disk diffusion and MIC results obtained by the central reference laboratory. A total of 2,949 isolates of Candida spp. were tested by NCCLS disk diffusion and reference broth microdilution methods in the central reference laboratory. These results were compared to the results of disk diffusion testing performed in the 54 participating centers. All tests were performed and interpreted following NCCLS recommendations. Overall categorical agreement between participant disk diffusion test results and reference laboratory MIC results was 87.4%, with 0.2% very major errors (VME) and 3.3% major errors (ME). The categorical agreement between the disk diffusion test results obtained in the reference laboratory with the MIC test results was similar: 92.8%. Likewise, good agreement was observed between participant disk diffusion test results and reference laboratory disk diffusion test results: 90.4%, 0.4% VME, and 3.4% ME. The disk diffusion test was especially reliable in detecting those isolates of Candida spp. that were characterized as resistant by reference MIC testing. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program ensure the generation of useful surveillance data and result in the continued improvement of antifungal susceptibility testing practices.
Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico
Failure in the timely follow-up of test results has been widely documented, contributing to delayed medical care. Yet, the impact of delay in reviewing test results on hospital length of stay (LOS) has not been studied. We examine the relationship between laboratory tests review time and hospital LOS. A retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, between 2011 and 2012 (n = 5804). Generalized linear models were developed to examine the relationship between hospital LOS and cumulative clinician read time (CRT), defined as the time taken by clinicians to review laboratory test results performed during an inpatient stay after they were reported in the computerized test reporting system. The models were adjusted for patients' age, sex, and disease severity (measured by the Charlson Comorbidity index), the number of test panels performed, the number of unreviewed tests pre-discharge, and the cumulative laboratory turnaround time (LTAT) of tests performed during an inpatient stay. Cumulative CRT is significantly associated with prolonged LOS, with each day of delay in reviewing test results increasing the likelihood of prolonged LOS by 13.2% (p < 0.0001). Restricting the analysis to tests with abnormal results strengthened the relationship between cumulative CRT and prolonged LOS, with each day of delay in reviewing test results increasing the likelihood of delayed discharge by 33.6% (p < 0.0001). Increasing age, disease severity and total number of tests were also significantly associated with prolonged LOS. Increasing number of unreviewed tests was negatively associated with prolonged LOS. Reducing unnecessary hospital LOS has become a critical health policy goal as healthcare costs escalate. Preventing delay in reviewing test results represents an important opportunity to address potentially avoidable hospital stays and unnecessary resource utilization.
Mateti, Uday Venkat; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Attur, Ravindra Prabhu; Bairy, Manohar; Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad; Mallayasamy, Surulivelrajan; Vilakkathala, Rajesh; Guddattu, Vasudev; Balkrishnan, Rajesh
Patient information leaflets are universally-accepted resources to educate the patients/users about their medications, disease and lifestyle modification. The objective of the study was to prepare, validate and perform user-testing of pictogram-based patient information leaflets (P-PILs) among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The P-PILs are prepared by referring to the primary, secondary and tertiary resources. The content and pictograms of the leaflet have been validated by an expert committee consisting of three nephrologists and two academic pharmacists. The Baker Able Leaflet Design has been applied to develop the layout and design of the P-PILs. Quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design without control group was conducted on 81 HD patients for user-testing of P-PILs. The mean Baker Able Leaflet Design assessment score for English version of the leaflet was 28, and 26 for Kannada version. The overall user-testing knowledge assessment mean scores were observed to have significantly improved from 44.25 to 69.62 with p value <0.001. The overall user opinion of content and legibility of the leaflets was good. Pictogram-based patient information leaflets can be considered an effective educational tool for HD patients.
Marshall, Joanne Gard; Sollenberger, Julia; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Morgan, Lynn Kasner; Klem, Mary Lou; Cavanaugh, Susan K.; Oliver, Kathleen Burr; Thompson, Cheryl A.; Romanosky, Neil; Hunter, Sue
Objective: The research conducted a large-scale, multisite study on the value and impact of library and information services on patient care. Methods: The study used: (1) 2 initial focus groups of librarians; (2) a web-based survey of physicians, residents, and nurses at 56 library sites serving 118 hospitals; and (3) 24 follow-up telephone interviews. Survey respondents were asked to base their responses on a recent incident in which they had sought information for patient care. Results: Of the 16,122 survey respondents, 3/4 said that they had definitely or probably handled aspects of the patient care situation differently as a result of the information. Among the reported changes were advice given to the patient (48%), diagnosis (25%), and choice of drugs (33%), other treatment (31%), and tests (23%). Almost all of the respondents (95%) said the information resulted in a better informed clinical decision. Respondents reported that the information allowed them to avoid the following adverse events: patient misunderstanding of the disease (23%), additional tests (19%), misdiagnosis (13%), adverse drug reactions (13%), medication errors (12%), and patient mortality (6%). Conclusions: Library and information resources were perceived as valuable, and the information obtained was seen as having an impact on patient care. PMID:23418404
Chan-Smutko, Gayun; Patel, Devanshi; Shannon, Kristen M; Ryan, Paula D
In the genetic counseling setting, the health care provider can be challenged by opposing duties to members of the same family: protecting the privacy of the patient identified with a gene mutation and the ethical obligation to warn at-risk relatives. In a situation of nondisclosure between members of a family with a known disease-predisposing mutation, this type of dilemma can present in acute form for the provider who cares for different members of the family. This can hinder effective medical decision making. To minimize this effect, we recommend detailed pretest genetic counseling steps to empower the patient to communicate with their at-risk relatives their intent to pursue testing and willingness to share information. In addition, post-test counseling should reiterate the implications of a positive result for at-risk relatives and conclude with a written summary that patients can share with their family.
N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing improves the management of patients with suspected acute heart failure: primary results of the Canadian prospective randomized multicenter IMPROVE-CHF study.
Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan; Januzzi, James L; Zowall, Hanna
The diagnostic utility of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure has been documented. However, most of the data were derived from countries with high healthcare resource use, and randomized evidence for utility of NT-proBNP was lacking. We tested the hypothesis that NT-proBNP testing improves the management of patients presenting with dyspnea to emergency departments in Canada by prospectively comparing the clinical and economic impact of a randomized management strategy either guided by NT-proBNP results or without knowledge of NT-proBNP concentrations. Five hundred patients presenting with dyspnea to 7 emergency departments were studied. The median NT-proBNP level among the 230 subjects with a final diagnosis of heart failure was 3697 compared with 212 pg/mL in those without heart failure (P<0.00001). Knowledge of NT-proBNP results reduced the duration of ED visit by 21% (6.3 to 5.6 hours; P=0.031), the number of patients rehospitalized over 60 days by 35% (51 to 33; P=0.046), and direct medical costs of all ED visits, hospitalizations, and subsequent outpatient services (US $6129 to US $5180 per patient; P=0.023) over 60 days from enrollment. Adding NT-proBNP to clinical judgment enhanced the accuracy of a diagnosis; the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve increased from 0.83 to 0.90 (P<0.00001). In a universal health coverage system mandating judicious use of healthcare resources, inclusion of NT-proBNP testing improves the management of patients presenting to emergency departments with dyspnea through improved diagnosis, cost savings, and improvement in selected outcomes.
Parth, P.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Ordy, J. M.; Lane, N. E.
Assessment of cognitive and motor performance of bone marrow transplant patients prior to, during, and following intensive toxic chemoradiotherapy may provide an important adjunct to measures of physiological and medical status. The present study is an attempt to assess whether, as side-effects, these aggressive treatments result in cognitive performance deficits, and if so, whether such changes recover posttreatment. Measurement of cognitive ability in this situation presents special problems not encountered with one-time tests intended for healthy adults. Such tests must be sensitive to changes within a single individual, which emphasizes the crucial importance of high reliability, stability across repeated-measures, and resistance to confounding factors such as motivation and fatigue. The present research makes use of a microbased portable test battery developed to have reliable and sensitive tests which were adapted to study the special requirements of transplant patients who may suffer cognitive deficits as a result of treatment. The results showed slight but significant changes in neuropsychological capacity when compared to baseline levels and controls, particularly near the beginning of treatment. The sensitivity of the battery in detecting such subtle temporary changes is discussed in terms of past research showing effects of other stressors, such as stimulated high altitude and ingestion of alcohol, on these measures.
Shaikh, Talha; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Meyer, Joshua E; Hall, Michael J; Esnaola, Nestor F
Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency of DNA has been observed in up to 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and is a characteristic feature of Lynch syndrome, which has a higher incidence in young adults (age, <50 years) with CRC. Mismatch repair deficiency can be due to germline mutations or epigenetic inactivation, affects prognosis and response to systemic therapy, and results in unrepaired repetitive DNA sequences, which increases the risk of multiple malignant tumors. To evaluate the utilization of MMR deficiency testing in adults with CRC and analyze nonadherence to long-standing testing guidelines in younger adults using a contemporary national data set to help identify potential risk factors for nonadherence to newly implemented universal testing guidelines. Adult (age, <30 to ≥70 years) and, of these, younger adult (<30 to 49 years) patients with invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 and known MMR deficiency testing status were identified using the National Cancer Database. The study was conducted from March 16, 2016, to March 1, 2017. Patient sociodemographic, facility, tumor, and treatment characteristics. The primary outcome of interest was receipt of MMR deficiency testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of testing in adult and/or young adult patients. A total of 152 993 adults with CRC were included in the study (78 579 [51.4%] men; mean [SD] age, 66.9 [13.9] years). Of these patients, only 43 143 (28.2%) underwent MMR deficiency testing; the proportion of patients tested increased between 2010 and 2012 (22.3% vs 33.1%; P<.001). Among 17 218 younger adult patients with CRC, only 7422 (43.1%) underwent MMR deficiency testing; the proportion tested increased between 2010 and 2012 (36.1% vs 48.0%; P < .001). Irrespective of age, higher educational level (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.66), later diagnosis year (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.65-1.98), early stage disease (OR, 1
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...
Grant, R W; Hivert, M; Pandiscio, J C; Florez, J C; Nathan, D M; Meigs, J B
Advances in type 2 diabetes genetics have raised hopes that genetic testing will improve disease prediction, prevention and treatment. Little is known about current physician and patient views regarding type 2 diabetes genetic testing. We hypothesised that physician and patient views would differ regarding the impact of genetic testing on motivation and adherence. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of US primary care physicians and endocrinologists (n = 304), a random sample of non-diabetic primary care patients (n = 152) and patients enrolled in a diabetes pharmacogenetics study (n = 89). Physicians and patients favoured genetic testing for diabetes risk prediction (79% of physicians vs 80% of non-diabetic patients would be somewhat/very likely to order/request testing, p = 0.7). More patients than physicians (71% vs 23%, p < 0.01) indicated that a 'high risk' result would be very likely to improve motivation to adopt preventive lifestyle changes. Patients favoured genetic testing to guide therapy (78% of patients vs 48% of physicians very likely to request/recommend testing, p < 0.01) and reported that genetic testing would make them 'much more motivated' to adhere to medications (72% vs 18% of physicians, p < 0.01). Many physicians (39%) would be somewhat/very likely to order genetic testing before published evidence of clinical efficacy. Despite the paucity of current data, physicians and patients reported high expectations that genetic testing would improve patient motivation to adopt key behaviours for the prevention or control of type 2 diabetes. This suggests the testable hypothesis that 'genetic' risk information might have greater value to motivate behaviour change compared with standard risk information.
Setse, Rosanna W; Maxwell, Celia J
Opt-out HIV screening is recommended by the CDC for patients in all healthcare settings. We examined correlates of HIV testing refusal among urban emergency department (ED) patients. Confidential free HIV screening was offered to 32,633 ED patients in an urban tertiary care facility in Washington, DC, during May 2007-December 2011. Demographic differences in testing refusals were examined using χ(2) tests and generalized linear models. HIV testing refusal rates were 47.7 % 95 % CI (46.7-48.7), 11.7 % (11.0-12.4), 10.7 % (10.0-11.4), 16.9 % (15.9-17.9) and 26.9 % (25.6-28.2) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Persons 33-54 years of age [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.42, (1.36-1.48)] and those ≥ 55 years [APR 1.39 (1.31-1.47)], versus 33-54 years; and females versus males [APR 1.07 (1.02-1.11)] were more likely to refuse testing. Opt-out HIV testing is feasible and sustainable in urban ED settings. Efforts are needed to encourage testing among older patients and women.
Srinivas, Melpakkam; Basumani, Pandurangan; Podmore, Geoff; Shrimpton, Anna; Bardhan, Karna Dev
Celiac disease shares features of other disorders. It can be diagnosed conclusively only based on duodenal histology analysis, which is not practical for screening purposes. Serologic analysis might be used to identify candidates for biopsy analysis. We aimed to develop a simple diagnostic approach that all clinicians could follow to increase the percentage of patients accurately diagnosed with celiac disease at initial presentation. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 752 patients (88 with celiac disease, none were IgA deficient) who attended a UK district general hospital from January 2007 through December 2008 and underwent biopsy analysis and serologic tests to measure endomyseal antibodies and IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG). Patients avoiding gluten in their diet were excluded. Patients were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: high-risk (based on presence of anemia, chronic diarrhea, unintentional weight loss, or dermatitis herpetiformis), low-risk (based on such factors as dyspepsia, abnormal liver function, ataxia, or chronic cough), nutrient deficiency (based on levels of iron, vitamins B12 and D, or folate), or screening (because they had type 1 diabetes or a family history of celiac disease). Patients with celiac disease were identified using the modified Marsh criteria (grades 1-3) for interpreting duodenal histology. We compared clinical category, serology profiles, and biopsy results between patients with and without celiac disease. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 64 of 565 patients in the high-risk group (11%), 14 of 156 patients in the low-risk group (9%; P = .47 compared with high-risk group), 7 of 28 patients in the nutrient-deficiency group, and 3 of 3 patients in the screening group. Among 71 patients who tested positive for both antibodies (tTG and endomyseal antibodies), the positive predictive value for celiac disease was 97%; a negative test result for tTG had a negative predictive value of 98%. Among 708 patients
Wright, Steven A.
Both NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, or for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. Although open Brayton cycles are in use for many applications (combined cycle power plants, aircraft engines), only a few closed Brayton cycles have been tested. Experience with closed Brayton cycles coupled to nuclear reactors is even more limited and current projections of Brayton cycle performance are based on analytic models. This report describes and compares experimental results with model predictions from a series of non-nuclear tests using a small scale closed loop Brayton cycle available at Sandia National Laboratories. A substantial amount of testing has been performed, and the information is being used to help validate models. In this report we summarize the results from three kinds of tests. These tests include: 1) test results that are useful for validating the characteristic flow curves of the turbomachinery for various gases ranging from ideal gases (Ar or Ar/He) to non-ideal gases such as CO2, 2) test results that represent shut down transients and decay heat removal capability of Brayton loops after reactor shut down, and 3) tests that map a range of operating power versus shaft speed curve and turbine inlet temperature that are useful for predicting stable operating conditions during both normal and off-normal operating behavior. These tests reveal significant interactions between the reactor and balance of plant. Specifically these results predict limited speed up behavior of the turbomachinery caused by loss of load, the conditions for stable operation, and for direct cooled reactors, the tests reveal that the coast down behavior during loss of power events can extend for hours provided the ultimate heat sink remains available.
Chang, Clarence T.; Holdeman, James D.
The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept for HSR applications. This test program was in support of the Pratt & Whitney and GE Aircraft Engines HSR low-NOx Combustor Program. Collaborative programs with Parker Hannifin Corporation and Textron Fuel Systems resulted in the development and testing of the high-flow low-NOx rich-burn zone fuel-to-air ratio research fuel nozzles used in this test program. Based on the results obtained in this test program, several conclusions can be made: (1) The RQL tests gave low NOx and CO emissions results at conditions corresponding to HSR cruise. (2) The Textron fuel nozzle design with optimal multiple partitioning of fuel and air circuits shows potential of providing an acceptable uniform local fuel-rich region in the rich burner. (3) For the parameters studied in this test series, the tests have shown T3 is the dominant factor in the NOx formation for RQL combustors. As T3 increases from 600 to 1100 F, EI(NOx) increases approximately three fold. (4) Factors which appear to have secondary influence on NOx formation are P4, T4, infinity(sub rb), V(sub ref,ov). (5) Low smoke numbers were measured for infinity(sub rb) of 2.0 at P4 of 120 psia.
Zanolli, Mario T; Khetan, Vikas; Dotan, Gad; Pizzi, Laura; Levin, Alex V
To discuss the risks, benefits and value of genetic testing for ocular genetic disease. Testing for ocular genetics diseases is becoming more available and successful gene therapy is being reported. Clinicians must prepare for this trend by considering diagnostic genetic testing for their patients. As advances continually occur in genetic testing for ocular genetic disorders, clinicians must develop an understanding of the potential risks and benefits for their patients.
Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chen, Chung-Jueng; Chen, Teng-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Tzu-Ming; Liu, Yao-Chi
AIM: To investigate whether the non-invasive real-time Indocynine green (ICG) clearance is a sensitive index of liver viability in patients before, during, and after liver transplantation. METHODS: Thirteen patients were studied, two before, three during, and eight following liver transplantation, with two patients suffering acute rejection. The conventional invasive ICG clearance test and ICG pulse spectrophotometry non-invasive real-time ICG clearance test were performed simultaneously. Using linear regression analysis we tested the correlation between these two methods. The transplantation condition of these patients and serum total bilirubin (T. Bil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and platelet count were also evaluated. RESULTS: The correlation between these two methods was excellent (r2 = 0.977). CONCLUSION: ICG pulse spectrophotometry clearance is a quick, non-invasive, and reliable liver function test in transplantation patients. PMID:15285026
Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…
Lindbaek, Morten; Høiby, Ernst Arne; Lermark, Gro; Steinsholt, Inger Marie; Hjortdahl, Per
To compare an antigen detection test (GAS antigen test) with the results from combinations of two various bacteriological test media in general practice patients with sore throat. Furthermore to assess the diagnostic properties of the chosen GAS antigen test and to compare semi-quantitative results of this test with the bacterial load found in the throat culture. Two Norwegian general practices in Stokke and Kongsberg communities. 306 patients with sore throat lasting less than 7 days; 244 were adults, 62 were children under 10 years old, mean age 23.9 years (SD 15.0), 40% were men. Results from GAS antigen test, and distribution of bacteriological findings in throat cultures, compared with the results of our GAS antigen test; semi-quantitative results of the GAS antigen test compared with the bacterial load by culture. In the primary culture 110 patients harboured group A streptococci (GAS) infection, while the second culture identified another 17, giving a total of 127 patients. Some 33 patients harboured large-colony groups C and G. The GAS antigen test used had a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 95% regarding GAS when compared with the two cultures. We found a significant correlation between the bacterial loads by culture and the semi-quantitative results of the GAS antigen test. By using a second, different set of bacteriological media, we identified an additional 17 patients with GAS infections. This raises the question of validity of frequently used reference standards in studies related to streptococcal infections. Compared with the combined results of the two throat cultures, the GAS antigen test used showed high sensitivity and specificity. Semi-quantitative evaluations of the rapid immunological test may also be of clinical value.
There were two objectives for this test. First, was to assess the reasons why there is approximately 1.5 drag counts (cts) discrepancy between measured and computed drag improvement of the Non-linear Cruise Validation (NCV) over the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) wing body (WB) configurations. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) pre-test predictions from Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG) show 4.5 drag cts of improvement for NCV over TCA at a lift coefficient (CL) of 0. I at Mach 2.4. The pre-test predictions from Boeing Phantom Works - Long Beach, BPW-LB, show 3.75 drag cts of improvement. BCAG used OVERFLOW and BPW-LB used CFL3D. The first test entry to validate the improvement was held at the NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) UPV;T, test number 1687. The experimental results showed that the drag improvement was only 2.6 cts, not accounting for laminar run and trip drag. This is approximately 1.5 cts less than predicted computationally. In addition to the low Reynolds Number (RN) test, there was a high RN test in the Boeing Supersonic Wind Tunnel (BSWT) of NCV and TCA. BSV@T test 647 showed that the drag improvement of NCV over TCA was also 2.6 cts, but this did account for laminar run and trip drag. Every effort needed to be done to assess if the improvement measured in LaRC UPWT and BSWT was correct. The second objective, once the first objective was met, was to assess the performance increment of NCV over TCA accounting for the associated laminar run and trip drag corrections in LaRC UPWT. We know that the configurations tested have laminar flow on portions of the wing and have trip drag due to the mechanisms used to force the flow to go from laminar to turbulent aft of the transition location.
Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Ajumobi, Olufemi O; Ntadom, Godwin N; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T; Roberts, Alero A; Agomo, Chimere O; Edozieh, Kate U; Okafor, Henrietta U; Wammanda, Robinson D; Odey, Friday A; Maikore, Ibrahim K; Abikoye, Olatayo O; Alabi, Adekunle D; Amajoh, Chiomah; Audu, Bala M
Nigeria commenced a phased programmatic deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at the primary health care (PHC) facility levels since 2011. Despite various efforts, the national testing rate for malaria is still very low. The uptake of RDT has been variable. This study was undertaken to determine the provider and patient perceptions to RDT use at the PHC level in Nigeria with their implications for improving uptake and compliance. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 120 randomly selected PHCs across six states, across the six-geopolitical zones of Nigeria in January 2013. Health facility staff interviews were conducted to assess health workers (HW) perception, prescription practices and determinants of RDT use. Patient exit interviews were conducted to assess patient perception of RDT from ten patients/caregivers who met the eligibility criterion and were consecutively selected in each PHC, and to determine HW's compliance with RDT test results indirectly. Community members, each selected by their ward development committees in each Local Government Area were recruited for focus group discussion on their perceptions to RDT use. Health workers would use RDT results because of confidence in RDT results (95.4%) and its reduction in irrational use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (87.2%). However, in Enugu state, RDT was not used by health workers because of the pervasive notion RDT that results were inaccurate. Among the 1207 exit interviews conducted, 549 (45.5%) had received RDT test. Compliance rate (administering ACT to positive patients and withholding ACT from negative patients) from patient exit interviews was 90.2%. Among caregivers/patients who had RDT done, over 95% knew that RDT tested for malaria, felt it was necessary and liked the test. Age of patients less than 5 years (p = 0.04) and "high" educational status (p = 0.0006) were factors influencing HW's prescription of ACT to RDT negative patients. The study demonstrated
Patscheke, Jochen Henrik; Plenz, Pauline; Ernst, Stephan; Klußmann, Jens-Peter
Video-head impulse test (V-HIT) is more and more becoming a routine test in patients with vertigo, contributing information about the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). According to Ewald's second law, the unilateral pathological test points to this side's peripheral organ as being diseased. The value in clinical routine is still unclear. 171 consecutive patients with vertigo that had received a V-HIT and caloric testing at presentation in an academic ENT-department were included. By chart-review, they were categorized in different groups with unilateral peripheral, central and other etiology of vertigo, irrespective of their V-HIT result. Then the latter was analyzed within the different groups with respect to Gain, Gain-Asymmetry (GA) and Catch-up Saccades (CS). Canal Paresis (CP) from caloric testing was compared to GA. In patients with unilateral peripheral disease, 31 % showed a pathological gain (< 0.8), the mean GA was 4.53 % (± 16.72 %) and 60 % had CSs. In patients with presumed or assured central etiology, these data were 28 %, -1,56 % (± 17,89 %) and 45 %. Isolated CS occurred only sporadically. CP was not correlated with GA in all groups (p = 0,114). In this study V-HIT showed little diagnostic use, especially in separating peripheral from central disease. The lacking correlation between asymmetry in caloric testing and asymmetry of V-HIT gain challenges current pathophysiological concepts of impaired VOR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Heymann, Petra; Gienger, Regine; Hett, Andreas; Müller, Stephan; Laske, Christoph; Robens, Sibylle; Ostermann, Thomas; Elbing, Ulrich
Based on the knowledge of art therapy, we developed a new neuropsychological drawing test in order to identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as dementia patients and healthy controls (HC). By observing a variety of drawing characteristics of 92 participants with a mean age of 67.7, art therapy and dementia experts discriminate HC from MCI, early dementia of the Alzheimer-type (eDAT), and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer-type (mDAT) by the process analysis of tree drawings on a digitizing tablet. The art therapist's average categorical rating of healthy and MCI or demented individuals matched the clinical diagnosis by 88%. In a first small study, we analyzed interrater reliability, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predicted values of our tree drawing test (TDT) in comparison with the clock drawing test (CDT). Similar values of moderate interrater reliability were found for the TDT (0.56) as well as for the CDT (0.54). A significant high sensitivity of 0.9 within this binary impairment scale (HC versus impaired or demented) can be demonstrated. Substantial values for the specificity (0.67) could be obtained that however remain under a perfect value of the CDT (1.0). Considering 31 individuals that received the clinical diagnosis "impaired or demented" the TDT shows a higher recognition rate for the MCI group than the CDT. Furthermore in 8 of 12 borderline cases of clinical diagnosis, the outcome of the TDT diagnosis was consistent with the final clinical result.
Penfornis, A; Personeni, E; Tiv, M; Monnier, C; Meillet, L; Combes, J; Mouret, C; Picard, S
Although the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing, little is known of its quality of care. Thus, our survey was designed to retrospectively evaluate this issue in French patients. Patients with T1D living in northeastern France were identified thanks to the healthcare system (CPAM) database, and the resulting list reviewed by local diabetes specialists. All of the listed patients and their primary physicians were asked to fill in a questionnaire including clinical data, laboratory results and follow-up habits. The 'optimized results' included CPAM-based results plus any specialized care provided during hospitalizations in diabetes and non-diabetes units, according to questionnaire data. A total of 227 individuals, for whom CPAM data were available, were identified as having T1D. From these patients, 174 questionnaires were answered, and optimized results (having both CPAM data and a completely filled-in questionnaire) were available for 149 patients. Of the 169 patients who responded, 71.3% reported at least a yearly visit with a diabetologist. This number reached 77.9% when optimized results were considered. Patients who received specialized care were younger, underwent HbA(1c) tests more often and were more frequently on optimal treatment; however, there was no difference in HbA(1c) values or in the prevalence of complications. Eye examinations and kidney tests had been performed at least once over the 2-year period in more than 87% of the patients, whereas around 30%, 21% and 23% had an eye exam, creatinine test and urinary albumin excretion measurement, respectively, only once over the same time period. This is the first large-scale study of the quality of care in patients with T1DM in France, and it could serve as a preliminary survey for a national study. Although the follow-up was better than previously reported, there is still considerable room for improvement. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Meer, David W.; Hill, Dennis; Ursic, Joseph J.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. This sequence includes testing at workmanship and flight acceptance levels interspersed with periods of extended operation to simulate prefueling and post fueling. The final step in the test sequence utilizes additional testing at flight acceptance levels to simulate launch. To better replicate the acceleration profile seen by an ASC incorporated into an ASRG, the input spectra used in testing the convertors was modified based on dynamic testing of the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG EU) at LM. This paper outlines the overall test approach, summarizes the test results from the ASRG EU, describes the incorporation of those results into the test approach, and presents the results of applying the test approach to the ASC-1 #3 and #4 convertors. The test results include data from several accelerometers mounted on the convertors as well as the piston position and output power variables.
Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to detect. The study demonstrates the
Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena
Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.
Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Lívia Rocha
Pre- and post-HIV test counseling has singular importance in adolescence, since it is a phase of great changes, and AIDS is an incurable chronic disease. In order to comprehend the perception of young people with AIDS diagnosed in adolescence regarding the counseling received upon testing, we conducted 39 in-depth interviews, with 23 in female patients and 16 male patients, and then analyzed the data with extensive reading, categorization and interpretation on a comprehensive basis. The results revealed that less than one third received pre-test counseling (30.8%), which often was limited to the explanation of the reason of the test, and 51.2% were counseled post-test. We found that most patients were unaccompanied when receiving the communication of their seropositivity, some of which were later informed by the adolescent's guardian. Some patients felt secure after counseling, realizing that the disease is something that would not change their lives, if they properly followed the guidelines. On the other hand, the feelings of desperation and suicide expressed by some of the patients may have been influenced by the lack of adequate counseling. We have concluded that, for the improved management of the epidemic, there is a need to enhance the communications of health professionals, especially those that are in primary care, pre-natal services, gynecology and family health strategy.
Singh, Hardeep; Thomas, Eric J.; Sittig, Dean F.; Wilson, Lindsey; Espadas, Donna; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.
Background: Follow-up of abnormal outpatient laboratory test results is a major patient safety concern. Electronic medical records can potentially address this concern through automated notification. We examined whether automated notifications of abnormal laboratory results (alerts) in an integrated electronic medical record resulted in timely follow-up actions. Methods: We studied four alerts: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥15%, positive hepatitis C antibody (HCV), prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥15 ng/mL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥ 15 mIU/L. An alert tracking system determined whether the alert was acknowledged (i.e. provider clicked on and opened the message) within two weeks of transmission; acknowledged alerts were considered read. Within 30 days of result transmission, record review and provider contact determined follow-up actions (e.g. patient contact, treatment etc.). Multivariable logistic regression models analyzed predictors for lack of timely follow-up. Results: Between May 2008 and December 2008, 78,158 tests (HbA1c, HCV, TSH and PSA) were performed, of which 1163 (1.48%) were transmitted as alerts; 10.2% of these (119/1163) were unacknowledged. Timely follow-up was lacking in 79 (6.8%) and was statistically not different for acknowledged and unacknowledged alerts (6.4% vs. 10.1%; p =.13). Two-hundred two alerts (17.4% of 1163) arose from unnecessarily ordered (redundant) tests. Alerts for a new versus known diagnosis were more likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 7.35; 95% CI: 4.16-12.97) whereas alerts related to redundant tests were less likely to lack timely follow-up (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.84). Conclusions: Safety concerns related to timely patient follow-up remain despite automated notification of non-life threatening abnormal laboratory results in the outpatient setting. PMID:20193832
Martín Palmero, Ángela; Serrano Pérez, Andra; Chinchetru Ranedo, Mª José; Cámara Balda, Alejandro; Martínez de Salinas Santamarí, Mª Ángeles; Villar García, Gonzalo; Marín Lizárraga, Mª Del Mar
There is a high malnutrition prevalence in hospitalized patients. To determine the malnutrition prevalence in hospitalized patients of La Rioja Community (Spain) when evaluated with different screening/ evaluation tools and its relationship with hospital stay and mortality. Cross sectional observational study of hospitalized adult patients (age > 18 years old) from medical and surgical departments that underwent within 72 h of their admission a nutritional screening with Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) y Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). 384 patients (273 medical and 111 surgical) were evaluated. Almost fifty percent of them were considered malnourished independently of the screening/assessment tool used. High concordance was found between SGA and NRS-2002 (k = 0.758). Malnourished patients had a longer hospital stay than those well-nourished (9.29 vs. 7.10 days; p = 0.002), used a greater number of medicines (9.2 vs. 7.4; p = 0.001) and underwent a higher number of diagnostic tests (16.4 vs. 12.5; p = 0,002). Half of the hospitalized patients in the medical and surgical department of La Rioja are malnourished. This is associated with a longer hospital stay, higher use of medicines, diagnostics tests and greater mortality. Malnutrition could be detected with easy screening tools to treat it appropriately.
Hylind, Robyn; Smith, Maureen; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Aufox, Sharon
The management of secondary findings is a challenge to health-care providers relaying clinical genomic-sequencing results to patients. Understanding patients' expectations from non-diagnostic genomic sequencing could help guide this management. This study interviewed 14 individuals enrolled in the eMERGE (Electronic Medical Records and Genomics) study. Participants in eMERGE consent to undergo non-diagnostic genomic sequencing, receive results, and have results returned to their physicians. The interviews assessed expectations and intended use of results. The majority of interviewees were male (64%) and 43% identified as non-Caucasian. A unique theme identified was that many participants expressed uncertainty about the type of diseases they expected to receive results on, what results they wanted to learn about, and how they intended to use results. Participant uncertainty highlights the complex nature of deciding to undergo genomic testing and a deficiency in genomic knowledge. These results could help improve how genomic sequencing and secondary findings are discussed with patients.
Dede, Fuat; Civen, Hüseyin; Dane, Faysal; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Turhal, Serdar; Turoglu, Halil Turgut; Inanir, Sabahat
The diagnostic value of Carbon-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) in the detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in non-operated patients has been proved. However, the efficacy of C-14 UBT in patients with partial gastric resection (PGR) has not been evaluated yet. Herein, the results of the C-14 UBT and H. pylori stool antigen test (HpSAT) in this patient group were compared with the endoscopic findings. Multi-breath samples C-14 UBT and HpSAT were performed in all patients on the same day. Histology was used as a gold standard for testing C-14 UBT and HpSAT diagnostic efficacies. 30 patients (mean age: 54.6 ± 11 year) with PGR were included. The sensitivity and specificity of standard C-14 UBT were 29 and 100 %, respectively. When breath samples were collected at 20th min, and >35 CPM was selected as radioactivity threshold, the sensitivity raised to 86 % without any loss of specificity. The specificity and sensitivity of the HpSAT were 71 and 96 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the standard C-14 UBT was very poor for patients with PGR, and results of HpSAT were superior in this population. Certain modifications are needed if C-14 UBT is to be used in PGR patients.
Helmstaedter, Christoph; Wietzke, Jennifer; Lutz, Martin T
This study was set-up to evaluate the construct validity of three verbal memory tests in epilepsy patients. Sixty-one consecutively evaluated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or extra-temporal epilepsy (E-TLE) underwent testing with the verbal learning and memory test (VLMT, the German equivalent of the Rey auditory verbal learning test, RAVLT); the California verbal learning test (CVLT); the logical memory and digit span subtests of the Wechsler memory scale, revised (WMS-R); and testing of intelligence, attention, speech and executive functions. Factor analysis of the memory tests resulted in test-specific rather than test over-spanning factors. Parameters of the CVLT and WMS-R, and to a much lesser degree of the VLMT, were highly correlated with attention, language function and vocabulary. Delayed recall measures of logical memory and the VLMT differentiated TLE from E-TLE. Learning and memory scores off all three tests differentiated mesial temporal sclerosis from other pathologies. A lateralization of the epilepsy was possible only for a subsample of 15 patients with mesial TLE. Although the three tests provide overlapping indicators for a temporal lobe epilepsy or a mesial pathology, they can hardly be taken in exchange. The tests have different demands on semantic processing and memory organization, and they appear differentially sensitive to performance in non-memory domains. The tests capability to lateralize appears to be poor. The findings encourage the further discussion of the dependency of memory outcomes on test selection.
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...
The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1997 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1997. The report covers testing results for the following drug type...
Carlesso, Lisa C; Gross, Anita R; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M; Santaguida, P Lina
Examination of practice patterns compared to existing evidence identifies knowledge to practice gaps. To describe the utilization of pharmacological, patient education, primary psychological interventions and relaxation therapies in patients with neck pain by clinicians. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the use of these interventions amongst 326 clinicians treating patients with neck pain. Nineteen countries participated. Results were analyzed by usage amongst physical therapists (39%) and chiropractors (35%), as they were the predominant respondents. Patient education (95%) and relaxation therapies (59%) were the most utilized interventions. Tests of subgroup differences determined that physical therapists used patient education significantly more than chiropractors. Use of medications and primary psychological interventions were reported by most to be outside of scope of practice. The high rate of patient education is consistent with supporting evidence. However, usage of relaxation therapies is contrary to evidence suggesting no benefit for improved pain or function for chronic neck pain. This survey indicates that patient education and relaxation therapies are common treatments provided by chiropractors and physical therapists for patients with neck pain. Future research should address gaps associated with variable practice patterns and knowledge translation to reduce usage of interventions shown to be ineffective.
Birk-Urovitz, Elizabeth; Elisabeth Del Giudice, M; Meaney, Christopher; Grewal, Karan
To assess the use of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) tests for identifying primary hypothyroidism in 2 academic family medicine settings. Descriptive study involving a retrospective electronic chart review of family medicine patients who underwent TSH testing. Two academic family practice sites: one site is within a tertiary hospital in Toronto, Ont, and the other is within a community hospital in Newmarket, Ont. A random sample of 205 adult family medicine patients who had 1 or more TSH tests for identifying potential primary hypothyroidism between July 1, 2009, and September 15, 2013. Exclusion criteria included a previous diagnosis of any thyroid condition or abnormality, as well as pregnancy or recent pregnancy within the year preceding the study period. The proportion of normal TSH test results and the proportion of TSH tests that did not conform to test-ordering guidelines. Of the 205 TSH test results, 200 (97.6%, 95% CI 94.4% to 99.2%) showed TSH levels within the normal range. All 5 patients with abnormal TSH test results had TSH levels above the upper reference limits. Nearly one-quarter (22.4%, 95% CI 16.9% to 28.8%) of tests did not conform to test-ordering guidelines. All TSH tests classified as not conforming to test-ordering guidelines showed TSH levels within normal limits. There was a significant difference ( P < .001) between the proportions of nonconforming TSH tests at the tertiary site (14.3%, 95% CI 8.2% to 22.5%) and the community site (31.0%, 95% CI 22.1% to 41.0%). Preliminary analyses examining which variables might be associated with abnormal TSH levels showed that only muscle cramps or myalgia ( P = .0286) and a history of an autoimmune disorder ( P = .0623) met or approached statistical significance. In this study, the proportion of normal TSH test results in the context of primary hypothyroidism case finding and screening was high, and the overall proportion of TSH tests that did not conform to test-ordering guidelines was relatively
He, Liye; Tang, Jing; Andersson, Emma I; Timonen, Sanna; Koschmieder, Steffen; Wennerberg, Krister; Mustjoki, Satu; Aittokallio, Tero
The molecular pathways that drive cancer progression and treatment resistance are highly redundant and variable between individual patients with the same cancer type. To tackle this complex rewiring of pathway cross-talk, personalized combination treatments targeting multiple cancer growth and survival pathways are required. Here we implemented a computational-experimental drug combination prediction and testing (DCPT) platform for efficient in silico prioritization and ex vivo testing in patient-derived samples to identify customized synergistic combinations for individual cancer patients. DCPT used drug-target interaction networks to traverse the massive combinatorial search spaces among 218 compounds (a total of 23,653 pairwise combinations) and identified cancer-selective synergies by using differential single-compound sensitivity profiles between patient cells and healthy controls, hence reducing the likelihood of toxic combination effects. A polypharmacology-based machine learning modeling and network visualization made use of baseline genomic and molecular profiles to guide patient-specific combination testing and clinical translation phases. Using T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) as a first case study, we show how the DCPT platform successfully predicted distinct synergistic combinations for each of the three T-PLL patients, each presenting with different resistance patterns and synergy mechanisms. In total, 10 of 24 (42%) of selective combination predictions were experimentally confirmed to show synergy in patient-derived samples ex vivo The identified selective synergies among approved drugs, including tacrolimus and temsirolimus combined with BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, may offer novel drug repurposing opportunities for treating T-PLL. Significance: An integrated use of functional drug screening combined with genomic and molecular profiling enables patient-customized prediction and testing of drug combination synergies for T-PLL patients. Cancer
Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope
Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling. © The Author(s) 2014.
de Azevedo, Eliza Regina Ferreira Braga Machado; Maria, Renata Manzano; Alonso, Karina Cristina; Cliquet, Alberto
The study aims to investigate the influence of different postures on spasticity results by pendulum test in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The setting was at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Five individuals with SCI and five individuals in the control group were included. All individuals went through the pendulum test in three different positions: supine, semi-supine at an angle of 30°, and sitting up at an angle of 60°. An electrogoniometer was attached to the right leg for measurement of knee joint angles. All situations were performed five times. Blood pressure was monitored during tests. Relaxation index (RI), normalized relaxation index (RIn), test duration in seconds, initial flexion angle, and resting angle were analyzed at three different positions. Results were compared between different positions, and statistically no differences were found. In individuals with SCI, RI (1.83 ± 0.2), RIn (1.14 ± 0.13), and test duration values (13.95 ± 4.14), in sitting up position, were similar to the control group results. In sitting up position, patients showed spasticity reduction. However, the other two postures produce pain and increase blood pressure in patients with tetraplegia. Therefore, these postures should be avoided in patients with lesions above T6, due to possible autonomic dysreflexia symptoms. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ali, Mahesheema; Dowlin, Michael; Suo, Liye; Ward, Tabitha; Ruiz, Fadel; Devaraj, Sridevi
Recent sweat chloride guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation changed the intermediate sweat chloride concentration range from 40-59 mmol/L to 30-59 mmol/L for age > 6 months. We wanted to know how this new guideline would impact detection of cystic fibrosis among patients who previously had sweat tests done at Texas Children's Hospital. We revisited sweat chloride test results (n = 3012) in the last 5 years at Texas Children's Hospital based on the new guidelines on diagnosis of cystic fibrosis from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. We identified 125 patients that would be reclassified in the intermediate sweat chloride value with the new guidelines that were classified as "unlikely to have CF" in the previous guidelines. 8 (32%) patients with CFTR gene testing were positive for CFTR gene mutation(s). 4 (50%) of these patients were identified to have 2 CFTR mutations. One had variant combination that was reported to cause CF but all were diagnosed with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome. Our findings concur with the new CF diagnosis guidelines that changing the intermediate cut-off to 30-59 mmol/L sweat chloride concentration in combination with CFTR genetic analysis enhances the probability of identifying individuals that have risk of developing CF or have CF and enables for earlier therapeutic intervention.
da Silva, Mauro Roberto Biá; Brandão, Natália Alberto Alves; Colovati, Marco; de Sousa, Margella Marconcine Pinheiro; de Lima, Larissa Coelho; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli
Because of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) urbanization and spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to rural areas, coinfection has become more common. Here, we compared the accuracy of Kalazar Detect® (KD), an rK39-based immunochromatographic (IC) test, and OrangeLife® (OL), an rK39 + rK28 IC test, for diagnosing VL in patients coinfected with HIV in an endemic area in Brazil. Seventy-six VL patients and 40 patients with other diseases, of which 31 and 21 patients, respectively, were infected with HIV, were examined. The sensitivity of OL and KD tests was 88.89 and 95.45%, respectively, in patients without HIV. The sensitivity dropped to 67.74 and 61.29%, respectively, in coinfected patients. The decrease in sensitivity was not related to a decrease in the production of Leishmania-specific IgG. Because of the low sensitivity of rk39 test in HIV-infected patients, we suggest that patients with negative rK39 results should undergo further investigation with additional serological tests that are not based only on the rK39 antigen and examination of bone marrow aspirates.
Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John
As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.
Vegni, Elena; Leone, Daniela; Graffigna, Guendalina; Faioni, Elena M; Moja, Egidio A
The literature on the psychological effects of thrombophilia testing is unclear. Little is known about the complex world of significance subjects construct around the test. The study explored the peculiar network of implicit meanings that may be linked to the experience of being tested. The research was designed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). 19 patients were interviewed. Integral verbatim reports of the interviews were analyzed through an inductive process aimed at gaining a holistic understanding of the narratives. Two main issues were identified, each with sub-issues: (1) the clinical problem: (1.1) unhealthy blood and (1.2) the family issue; (2) the test: (2.1) knowing for the sake of knowing; (2.2) knowing for the sake of doing; (2.3) not knowing. The thrombophilia test is part of a larger network of meanings, where information about the test and its results seem to be lost. The study suggests the importance of paying greater attention to the process of doctor-patient communication at the time of the test. The theme of being informed is important for patients, yet often they are not able to understand or retain the information they receive, increasing the risk of misunderstandings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...
Wildt, S; Nørby Rasmussen, S; Lysgård Madsen, J; Rumessen, J J
Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a cause of chronic diarrhoea, can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SeHCAT testing by assessing the extent of BAM and describing the clinical characteristics in a group of patients with chronic diarrhoea. Clinical outcome after treatment with cholestyramine was also evaluated. During a 5-year period (1997-2001) the SeHCAT test was performed in 135 patients in whom a primary programme for diagnostic evaluation of chronic diarrhoea had not revealed a cause. File data from 133 patients could be evaluated. In 44% of patients, bile acid absorption was normal with SeHCAT retention > or = 15%. Impaired SeHCAT retention was found in 56%. All patients with ileocaecal resections had retention values < 10%. Patients with microscopic colitis presented with BAM in 39%. Only one patient with idiopathic BAM presented with steatorrhoea as opposed to 11 patients with type 1 and 3 BAM. Patients with idiopathic BAM and/or SeHCAT retention values < 5% had the best response to treatment with cholestyramine. The SeHCAT test is of value in evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhoea as a second-line investigation with a high diagnostic yield. The only a priori parameter to predict BAM was the existence of ileocaecal resections. The result of the SeHCAT test seems to predict the benefit of treatment with cholestyramine.
Ohlsson, A; Steinhaus, D; Kjellström, B; Ryden, L; Bennett, T
Exercise testing is commonly used in patients with congestive heart failure for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Such testing may be even more valuable if invasive hemodynamics are acquired. However, this will make the test more complex and expensive and only provides information from isolated moments. We studied serial exercise tests in heart failure patients with implanted hemodynamic monitors allowing recording of central hemodynamics. Twenty-one NYHA Class II-III heart failure patients underwent maximal exercise tests and submaximal bike or 6-min hall walk tests to quantify their hemodynamic responses and to study the feasibility of conducting exercise tests in patients with such devices. Patients were followed for 2-3 years with serial exercise tests. During maximal tests (n=70), heart rate increased by 52+/-19 bpm while S(v)O(2) decreased by 35+/-10% saturation units. RV systolic and diastolic pressure increased 29+/-11 and 11+/-6 mmHg, respectively, while pulmonary artery diastolic pressure increased 21+/-8 mmHg. Submaximal bike (n=196) and hall walk tests (n=172) resulted in S(v)O(2) changes of 80 and 91% of the maximal tests, while RV pressures ranged from 72 to 79% of maximal responses. An added potential value of implantable hemodynamic monitors in heart failure patients may be to quantitatively determine the true hemodynamic profile during standard non-invasive clinical exercise tests and to compare that to hemodynamic effects of regular exercise during daily living. It would be of interest to study whether such information could improve the ability to predict changes in a patient's clinical condition and to improve tailoring patient management.
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...
Ganiyu-Dada, Z; Bowcock, S
Repeating normal laboratory tests can waste resources. This study aimed to quantify unnecessary repeat haematinic tests taken from the elderly in a district general hospital. Haematinic tests (ferritin, B12, serum folate) from patients age ≥ 70 years were reviewed for repeat tests during an 8-week period. Questionnaires were given to doctors to establish when the considered repeating a 'borderline low normal' result to be clinically justifiable. 7.7% of all haematinic tests were repeat tests and of these, the majority (83%) was performed following a previously normal result. Thirteen of 24 doctors believed repeating a normal result at the bottom of the normal range ('borderline low normal') was justifiable. After excluding 'borderline low normal' results, 6.0% (at minimum) of repeat tests were done following a previous normal result and were unnecessary. This audit showed that there are a significant number of unnecessary repeat haematinic tests being performed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 MUC3 MUC4 STEMS 15,285 INFLECTED FORMS 14,56 1 TOTALS est at 10,000...34 . As an indication of system development during MUC4 , we can compare our TST3 results with our results on th e MUC-4 interim test (TST2) . The relevant... MUC4 Interim Test) Summary Scores SLOT POS ACT COR PAR INC ICR IPA SPU MIS NON REC PRE OVG inc-total 529 1189 160 63 24 0 23 942 282 718 36 16 79 perp
Wilkinson, A E; Scrimgeour, G; Rodin, P
Screening tests-absorbed fluorescent treponemal (FTA-ABS), the Reiter protein complement-fixation (RPCFT), VDRL slide test, automated reagin-and cardiolipin Wassermann reaction-were carried out on 1922 consecutive new patients attending the Whitechapel Clinic over a three-month period.Taking the FTA-ABS test results as an index, the most efficient combination of conventional tests was found to be the RPCFT and automated reagin test. The cardiolipin WR proved to be under-sensitive and of little value compared with the other tests.Forty-two per cent of the 107 sera reactive in the FTA-ABS test were not detected by the RPCFT or ART tests. An assessment based on the TPI test results and clinical findings in these patients is presented. The scope and limitations of the FTA-ABS test as a screening procedure are discussed.
Heratizadeh, Annice; Killig, Claudia; Worm, Margitta; Soost, Stephanie; Simon, Dagmar; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; Schuster, Christian; Szliska, Christiane; Frambach, Yvonne; Eben, Ricarda; Werfel, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel
While the use of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) in leave-on products is clearly associated with high sensitization or elicitation risk, such a clear-cut relation could be questioned with regard to rinse-off products. The objective of this study was to find a maximum non-eliciting concentration for rinse-off products in MDBGN patch test-positive patients. We performed a use-related test [repeated open application test (ROAT)] in patients sensitized to MDBGN with a liquid soap containing three concentrations of MDBGN (50, 200, and 400 p.p.m. MDBGN, respectively). The soap at 50 p.p.m. was used twice daily for 4 weeks. If no reaction of the skin was observed, the product with the next higher concentration was used for another 4 weeks, etc. In total, 32/37 evaluated cases [86.5%; lower exact one-sided 95% confidence limit (CL): 73.7%] did not react to any of the preparations. The remaining reacted as follows: 1/37 reacted to 50 p.p.m., 3/37 to 200 p.p.m., and 1/37 to 400 p.p.m. The cumulative non-response to 50 p.p.m. was 97.3% (lower CL: 87.8%). The majority of subjects sensitized to MDBGN-tolerated rinse-off products containing a maximum concentration of 400 p.p.m. A concentration in rinse-off products in the range of 50 p.p.m. could be regarded as safe for most individuals already sensitized. These concentrations will presumably prevent induction (sensitization) also.
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with this part shall be recorded on forms provided by...
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with this part shall be recorded on forms provided by...
Roberts, Barry C.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Dubiel, Melissa Y.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Perry, Jay L.; Whitley, Ken M.
During 1989, phase III testing of Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) began at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with the Simplified Integrated Test. This test, conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), was the first time the four baseline air revitalization subsystems were integrated together. This paper details the results and lessons learned from the phase III SIT. Future plans for testing at the MSFC CMIF are also discussed.
Hendrick, D J; Davies, R J; D'Souza, M F; Pepys, J
Of 656 asthmatic patients referred specifically for allergy assessments, 544 (84 percent) gave positive immediate skin prick tests to at least one of 22 common allergens used routinely. Comparison of these skin test positive patients with the 102 (16 percent) who were skin test negative showed a number of significant differences. The majority of the skin test positive patients (52 percent) were less than 10 years old at the time of onset of the asthma, whereas, of the skin test negative patients, 56 percent were aged over 30 years at the time of onset. Seventy per cent report rhinitis compared with 48 per cent of the skin test negative patients, and 29 per cent reported infantile eczema compared with 9 per cent. Symptoms attributed to house dust, pollens, and animals were noted two to three times more frequently by the skin test positive patients, while corticosteroid drugs had been used more commonly by the skin test negative patients (45 percent compared with 35 percent). No significant differences were observed with the other factors studied, namely, history of urticaria or angio-oedema, family history of "allergic" disease, and awareness of sensitivity to foods, aspirin or penicillin. Prick test reactions in the skin test positive patients were most commonly seen to house dust or the acarine mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (82 percent), followed by pollens (66 percent), animal danders (38 percent), foods (16 percent), Aspergillus fumigatus (16 percent), and other moulds (21 percent). There was a highly significant association of positive history with positive prick test for all allergens studied. Images PMID:1168378
Hendrick, D J; Davies, R J; D'Souza, M F; Pepys, J
Of 656 asthmatic patients referred specifically for allergy assessments, 544 (84 percent) gave positive immediate skin prick tests to at least one of 22 common allergens used routinely. Comparison of these skin test positive patients with the 102 (16 percent) who were skin test negative showed a number of significant differences. The majority of the skin test positive patients (52 percent) were less than 10 years old at the time of onset of the asthma, whereas, of the skin test negative patients, 56 percent were aged over 30 years at the time of onset. Seventy per cent report rhinitis compared with 48 per cent of the skin test negative patients, and 29 per cent reported infantile eczema compared with 9 per cent. Symptoms attributed to house dust, pollens, and animals were noted two to three times more frequently by the skin test positive patients, while corticosteroid drugs had been used more commonly by the skin test negative patients (45 percent compared with 35 percent). No significant differences were observed with the other factors studied, namely, history of urticaria or angio-oedema, family history of "allergic" disease, and awareness of sensitivity to foods, aspirin or penicillin. Prick test reactions in the skin test positive patients were most commonly seen to house dust or the acarine mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (82 percent), followed by pollens (66 percent), animal danders (38 percent), foods (16 percent), Aspergillus fumigatus (16 percent), and other moulds (21 percent). There was a highly significant association of positive history with positive prick test for all allergens studied.
Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges
Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.
Balaguer García, Ramón; Pitarch Corresa, Salvador; Baydal Bertomeu, José María; Morales Suárez-Varela, María M
Posturography allows evaluating postural control. This study showed the posturographic parameters that were useful for assessing the functional ability to maintain balance in our sample of vestibular patients. Of a total of 89 patients, 59 were healthy subjects and 30 had a peripheral vestibular disorder. The subjects were studied using the posturographic NedSVE/IBV system, combining static (Romberg) and dynamic (stability limits and rhythmic weight shifts) tests. We then compared the measurements found in the groups. Normal subjects showed significantly lower oscillations than our patients in all of the posturographic parameters studied (except the displacement angle). In testing the limits of stability, although normal subjects achieved maximum displacements greater than the subjects with the disorder, the differences found were not significant. In rhythmic weight shift tests, normal subjects showed more favourable results than did the vestibular patients, with significant differences in 3 of the 4 parameters studied: 1) anteroposterior ability, 2) mediolateral ability, and 3) anteroposterior control and efficiency. Rhythmic weight shift tests and the static posturography test parameters used were useful in discriminating among the normal and pathological subjects in this study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar
Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined
Wahls, Terry; Haugen, Thomas; Cram, Peter
Missed results can cause needless treatment delays. However, there is little data about the magnitude of this problem and the systems that clinics use to manage test results. Surveys about potential problems related to test results management were developed and administered to clinical staff in a regional Veterans Administration (VA) health care network. The provider survey, conducted four times between May 2005 and October 2006, sampling VA staff physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and internal medicine trainees, asked questions about the frequency of missed results and diagnosis or treatment delays seen in the antecedent two weeks in their clinics, or if a trainee, the antecedent month. Clinical staff survey response rate was 39% (143 of 370), with 40% using standard operating procedures to manage test results. Forty-four percent routinely reported all results to patients. The provider survey response rate was 50% (441 of 884) overall, with responses often (37% overall; range 29% to 46%) indicating they had seen patients with diagnosis or treatment delays attributed to a missed result; 15% reported two or more such encounters. Even in an integrated health system with an advanced electronic medical record, missed test results and associated diagnosis or treatment delays are common. Additional study and measures of missed results and associated treatment delays are needed.
Wirth, S; Klodt, C; Wintermeyer, P; Berrang, J; Hensel, K; Langer, T; Heusch, A
To perform a prospective, blinded, randomized interventional trial in patients with recurrent abdominal pain. The primary endpoint was to determine the abdominal pain intensity after 2 weeks of fructose restricted diet. Secondary endpoints were changes of pain frequency and a secondary symptom score (SSS). 103 individuals with recurrent abdominal pain for more than 3 months were randomized. 51 patients were allocated to group A (diet) and 52 to group B (no diet). 2 weeks later the patients underwent hydrogen breath test and were assigned to the test positive or negative group to identify patients with fructose malabsorption. 2 weeks after intervention the pain score decreased significantly from a median 5.5 in group A to 4 and did not change significantly in group B (5.3 to 5). In group A both patients with positive and negative breath tests had a significant lower pain score (-2 and -1.75, respectively). Frequency of abdominal pain decreased in both groups but without significant difference, SSS improved only in group A from median 6 to 3.5. Positive breath test was no predicting factor, neither was abdominal pain during the test. Fructose restricted diet in children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain may be of benefit to improve both abdominal pain symptoms and other secondary symptoms. Since a negative breath test result does not exclude a positive response to fructose restriction, the hydrogen breath test does not seem to be the appropriate diagnostic mean to predict the response to the diet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pirker, Robert; Herth, Felix J F; Kerr, Keith M; Filipits, Martin; Taron, Miquel; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Grunenwald, Dominique; Popper, Helmut; Smit, Egbert; Dietel, Manfred; Marchetti, Antonio; Manegold, Christian; Schirmacher, Peter; Thomas, Michael; Rosell, Rafael; Cappuzzo, Federico; Stahel, Rolf
Activating somatic mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have recently been characterized in a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients harboring these mutations in their tumors show excellent response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The EGFR-TKI gefitinib has been approved in Europe for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with activating mutations of the EGFR TK. Because EGFR mutation testing is not yet well established across Europe, biomarker-directed therapy only slowly emerges for the subset of NSCLC patients most likely to benefit: those with EGFR mutations. The "EGFR testing in NSCLC: from biology to clinical practice" International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer-European Thoracic Oncology Platform multidisciplinary workshop aimed at facilitating the implementation of EGFR mutation testing. Recommendations for high-quality EGFR mutation testing were formulated based on the opinion of the workshop expert group. Co-operation and communication flow between the various disciplines was considered to be of most importance. Participants agreed that the decision to request EGFR mutation testing should be made by the treating physician, and results should be available within 7 working days. There was agreement on the importance of appropriate sampling techniques and the necessity for the standardization of tumor specimen handling including fixation. Although there was no consensus on which laboratory test should be preferred for clinical decision making, all stressed the importance of standardization and validation of these tests. The recommendations of the workshop will help implement EGFR mutation testing in Europe and, thereby, optimize the use of EGFR-TKIs in clinical practice.
MENDES-FILHO, Antonio Moreira; MORAES-FILHO, Joaquim Prado Pinto; NASI, Ary; EISIG, Jaime Natan; RODRIGUES, Tomas Navarro; BARBUTTI, Ricardo Correa; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; CHINZON, Décio
Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a worldwide prevalent condition that exhibits a large variety of signs and symptoms of esophageal or extra-esophageal nature and can be related to the esophagic adenocarcinoma. In the last few years, greater importance has been given to the influence of physical exercises on it. Some recent investigations, though showing conflicting results, point to an exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux during physical exercises. Aim To evaluate the influence of physical activities in patients presenting with erosive and non erosive disease by ergometric stress testing and influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and body mass index during this situation. Methods Twenty-nine patients with erosive disease (group I) and 10 patients with non-erosive disease (group II) were prospectively evaluated. All the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, followed by upper digestive endoscopy, manometry and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. An ergometric testing was performed 1 h before removing the esophageal pH probe. During the ergometric stress testing, the following variables were analyzed: test efficacy, maximum oxygen uptake, acid reflux duration, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and influence of body mass index in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux during these physical stress. Results Maximum oxigen consumption or VO 2 max, showed significant correlation when it was 70% or higher only in the erosive disease group, evaluating the patients with or without acid reflux during the ergometric testing (p=0,032). The other considered variables didn't show significant correlations between gastroesophageal reflux and physical activity (p>0,05). Conclusions 1) Highly intensive physical activity can predispose the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux episodes in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with erosive disease; 2) light or short sessions of physical activity have
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under § 252.144 to the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under section 252.144...
Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William
A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.
Chen, Justin R; Tarver, Scott A; Alvarez, Kristin S; Tran, Trang; Khan, David A
Penicillin allergy testing is underutilized in inpatients despite its potential to immediately impact antibiotic treatment. Although most tested patients are able to tolerate penicillin, limited availability and awareness of this tool leads to the use of costly and harmful substitutes. We established an inpatient service at a large academic hospital to identify and test patients with a history of penicillin allergy with the goals of removing inaccurate diagnoses, reducing the use of beta-lactam alternatives, and educating patients and clinicians about the procedure. Eligible inpatients were flagged daily through the electronic medical record and prioritized via a specialized algorithm. A trained clinical pharmacist performed penicillin skin tests and challenges preemptively or by provider request. Clinical characteristics and antibiotic use were analyzed in tested patients. A total of 1203 applicable charts were detected by our system leading to 252 direct evaluations over 18 months. Overall, 228 subjects (90.5%) had their penicillin allergy removed. Of these, 223 were cleared via testing and 5 by discovery of prior penicillin tolerance. Among patients testing negative, 85 (38%) subsequently received beta-lactams, preventing 504 inpatient days and 648 outpatient days on alternative agents. Penicillin allergy testing using a physician-pharmacist team model effectively removes reported allergies in hospitalized patients. The electronic medical record is a valuable asset for locating and stratifying individuals who benefit most from intervention. Proactive testing substantially reduces unnecessary inpatient and outpatient use of beta-lactam alternatives that may otherwise go unaddressed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1998 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1998. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...
The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2000 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United State during 2000. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana (...
The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1999 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1999. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...
O, Ibrahim; M, Oteh; A, A Syukur; HH, Che Hassan; W, S Fadilah; Rahman, MM
Objectives: To evaluate Aspirin and Clopidogrel resistance/non-responders in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by using adenosine diposphate and aspirin tests. Methodology: In the study patients with ACS loaded with 300 mg of clopidogrel and 300 mg aspirin and patients on stable daily dose of 75 mg of clopidogrel (more than 3 days) underwent PCI. Response to clopidogrel and Aspirin was assessed by Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Test (20 µmol/L) and Aspirin Test (Acetyl Acid) (ASP) 20 µmol/L, respectively, using the Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (Dynabyte Medical, Munich, Germany). Results: Sixty four patients were included in this study out of which 57 were with ACS and 7 scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) electively. The proportion of Aspirin good responders and adequate responders were 76.56% and 18.75%, respectively while adequate response and good response to Clopidogrel accounted for 29.7 and 48.4%, respectively Hyperlipidaemia was only co-morbidity associated with higher AUC ADP value (p: 0.046). Hypertriglyceridaemia and serum calcium were weakly correlated with higher AUC ADP serum calcium r=0.08, triglyceride r=0.12. Patients admitted for scheduled PCI and on stable dose of 75mg clopidogrel exhibited lower AUC ADP value as compared to those admitted with acute coronary syndrome given loading dose of 300mg of Clopidogrel. Post loading dose measurement of anti-platelet therapy among ACS patients using the Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer showed comparable results with other methods. Conclusions : As determined by Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer, Aspirin resistance/non-responders in this study in acute coronary syndrome patients accounted for 4.69% while Non-responders in Clopidogrel was 21.9%. PMID:24353516
The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are... may call the appropriate Science and Technology laboratory for interim or final results prior to...
Neumann, Denise; Robinski, Maxi; Mau, Wilfried; Girndt, Matthias
Cognitive testing is only valid in individuals with sufficient visual and motor skills and motivation to participate. Patients on dialysis usually suffer from limitations, such as impaired vision, motor difficulties, and depression. Hence, it is doubtful that the true value of cognitive functioning can be measured without bias. Consequently, many patients are excluded from cognitive testing. We focused on reasons for exclusion and analyzed characteristics of nontestable patients. Within the Choice of Renal Replacement Therapy Project (baseline survey: May 2014 to May 2015), n =767 patients on peritoneal dialysis ( n =240) or hemodialysis ( n =527) were tested with the Trail Making Test-B and the German d2-Revision Test and completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form cognition subscale. We divided the sample into patients with missing cognitive testing data and patients with full cognitive testing data, analyzed reasons for nonfeasibility, and compared subsamples with regard to psychosocial and physical metrics. The exclusion categories were linked to patient characteristics potentially associated with missing data (age, comorbidity, depression, and education level) by calculation of λ -coefficient. The subsamples consisted of n =366 (48%) patients with missing data (peritoneal dialysis =62, hemodialysis =304) and n =401 patients with full cognitive testing data (peritoneal dialysis =178, hemodialysis =223). Patients were excluded due to visual impairment (49%), lack of motivation (31%), and motor impairment (13%). The remaining 8% did not follow instructions, suffered from medical incidents, or had language difficulties. Compared with patients with full cognitive testing data, they were more likely to have depression; be treated with hemodialysis; be older, nonworking, or more comorbid; and experience poorer shared decision making. Reasons for exclusion were not related to levels of age, comorbidity score, depression score, or education level. We
Gielerak, Grzegorz; Makowski, Karol; Kramarz, Elzbieta; Cholewa, Marian; Dłuzniewska, Ewa; Roszczyk, Anna; Bogaj, Agnieszka
Analysis of pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for vaso-vagal reaction reveals a close relationship between neurocardiogenic syncope and the preceding abnormalities of autonomic nervous system (ANS). Therefore, the interest in the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) for detecting and establishing therapy in patients with syncope due to vaso-vagal mechanism is not surprising. To assess ANS changes during tilt testing in patients with syncope of unknown origin. Forty patients (18 males, mean age 34.8+/-15.8 years) with a history of at least two syncopal episodes during the last 6 months and 24 healthy controls underwent tilt testing. Spectral HRV analysis was performed from ECG recorded 5 min before tilting (period A), 5 min after tilting (period B), and 5 min before syncope (or 20-25 min of tilt test when syncope did not occur) (period C). Tilt test was positive in 23 (58%) patients; 12 (30%) had mixed response, 10 (25%) - vasodepressive, and 1 (3%) - cardioinhibitory reaction. The mean time from tilt to syncope was 22.3 minutes. One (4%) control subject developed syncope. In all groups a decrease of LF and HF power, as well as an increase in the LF/HF ratio in response to tilting were observed. The LF/HF values were significantly different between patients with mixed vaso-vagal reaction and controls (1.9 vs 4.2; p=0.04). In the C-B periods the highest decrease in the HF spectra was found in patients with mixed reaction and was significantly greater than in other patients or controls. Also, patients with mixed reaction had the highest increase in LF values which was significantly more pronounced than in patients with vasodepressive reaction (10139.3 vs 466.9; p=0.003). As a result, the change in LF/HF ratio was positive in patients with mixed reaction, controls and patients with negative result of tilt test, and negative - in patients with vaso-depressive syncope, reaching statistical significance between patients with mixed and vaso
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...
Kurien, Regi; Chrisolyte, Shipra; Rupa, V
To assess eustachian tubal function (ETF) preoperatively in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with central perforation by performing the inflation-deflation test. To correlate the results of the inflation-deflation test with the finding of aditus patency or block in patients with CSOM STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort Tertiary care hospital Eighty adult patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and central perforation were recruited into the study. There were 45 males and 35 females. All patients underwent preoperative inflation-deflation test followed by cortical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. The patency of the aditus was assessed intraoperatively. Equalization of pressure on inflation-deflation test and intraoperative assessment of aditus patency Of a total of 80 patients, 49 patients were found to have discharging ears and 31 had dry ears at the time of surgery. In dry ears the inflation-deflation test had a sensitivity of 93% in predicting aditus patency although the specificity was lower at 67%. In discharging ears the sensitivity in predicting aditus patency was 72% and the specificity was 67%. The eustachian tube inflation-deflation test is a sensitive test for predicting aditus patency in patients with dry ears but less so in patients with discharging ears. Hence, it could be used in the former to avoid unnecessary exploration of the mastoid.
Elstein, Deborah; Guedalia, Judith; Doniger, Glen M; Simon, Ely S; Antebi, Vered; Arnon, Yael; Zimran, Ari
Because of concern for drug-induced cognitive dysfunction during clinical trials using substrate reduction therapy (miglustat) in type 1 Gaucher disease and because it has been suggested that some patients with type 1 Gaucher disease may develop neurocognitive impairment as part of the natural history, two different batteries of neuropsychological tests were devised to examine these issues. Using these tests, cognitive function was assessed in patients treated with miglustat, in patients receiving enzyme replacement (standard care for symptomatic patients), and in untreated (milder) patients. For this study, 55/60 patients exposed to miglustat in Israel participated in psychologist-administered testing; 36/55 participated in computerized testing. Of these, 31 enzyme-treated patients and 22 untreated patients participated in the psychologist-administered testing, and 15 enzyme-treated patients and 18 untreated patients participated in computerized testing. The psychologist-administered battery consisted of 18 standard neuropsychological subtests specific to executive and visuospatial functioning. The computerized battery (Mindstreams, NeuroTrax Corp., New York, NY) consisted of 10 subtests tapping multiple cognitive domains. Between-group analyses for each modality compared cognitive performance. In the psychologist-administered testing, patients exposed to miglustat performed significantly less well than the other groups in 5/18 subtests. On the computerized tests, all patients performed comparably to normal controls. Scores in patients exposed to miglustat were higher than in untreated patients, particularly in visuospatial function, whereas enzyme-treated patients performed less well. However, with the exception of visuospatial function, these results were not statistically significant. It is unclear why different testing methods yielded discordant results. Any dysfunction suggested by the current study is apparently subtle and of doubtful clinical relevance
Rahman, Tariq; Sample, Whitney; Seliktar, Rahamim; Scavina, Mena T; Clark, Alisa L; Moran, Kacy; Alexander, Michael A
The objective of this study was to determine the utility of a passive gravity-balanced arm orthosis, the Wilmington robotic exoskeleton (WREX), for patients with neuromuscular diseases. The WREX, a four-degrees-of-freedom functional orthosis, is energized by rubber bands to eliminate gravity and is attached to the wheelchair. The development and clinical testing of WREX is described in this report. Seventeen patients (14 boys and 3 girls) with muscular disabilities participated in the study. Ages ranged from 4 to 20 years. Criteria for inclusion included a weakened arm, use of a wheelchair, the ability to grasp and release objects, and the ability to provide feedback on device use. Testing consisted of administering the Jebsen test of hand function without WREX and then testing again after approximately two weeks of wearing the WREX orthosis. The timed results of each task within the test then were compared. Specific tasks related to vertical movement required less time to perform with the WREX. A large number of subjects were able to perform the Jebsen tasks with the WREX, where they were unable to perform the task without the WREX. Patients can benefit from WREX because it increases their performance in daily living activities and makes many tasks possible. The range-of-motion in the patients' arms increased considerably, while the time required to complete some of the Jebsen test tasks decreased. Most patients were very receptive to WREX, although a few were ambivalent.
Marshall, Joanne Gard; Sollenberger, Julia; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Morgan, Lynn Kasner; Klem, Mary Lou; Cavanaugh, Susan K; Oliver, Kathleen Burr; Thompson, Cheryl A; Romanosky, Neil; Hunter, Sue
The research conducted a large-scale, multisite study on the value and impact of library and information services on patient care. THE STUDY USED: (1) 2 initial focus groups of librarians; (2) a web-based survey of physicians, residents, and nurses at 56 library sites serving 118 hospitals; and (3) 24 follow-up telephone interviews. Survey respondents were asked to base their responses on a recent incident in which they had sought information for patient care. Of the 16,122 survey respondents, 3/4 said that they had definitely or probably handled aspects of the patient care situation differently as a result of the information. Among the reported changes were advice given to the patient (48%), diagnosis (25%), and choice of drugs (33%), other treatment (31%), and tests (23%). Almost all of the respondents (95%) said the information resulted in a better informed clinical decision. Respondents reported that the information allowed them to avoid the following adverse events: patient misunderstanding of the disease (23%), additional tests (19%), misdiagnosis (13%), adverse drug reactions (13%), medication errors (12%), and patient mortality (6%). Library and information resources were perceived as valuable, and the information obtained was seen as having an impact on patient care.
Wijdenes-Pijl, Miranda; Dondorp, Wybo J; Timmermans, Danielle Rm; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing