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Sample records for testicular hydrocele

  1. Results of fibrin glue application therapy in testicular hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Sirpa, A; Martti, A O

    1998-01-01

    Nine patients, mean age 55 years, with testicular hydroceles, were treated by aspiration and two-component fibrin glue injection. One patient was treated twice. The glue contains 70-110 mg fibrinogen and 500 IU human thrombin in 0.5- and 2-ml injections, respectively (Tisseel duo quick, Immune AB). The smaller glue volume was used in 4 cases and the larger volume in 6 cases. The average volume of hydrocele fluid was 77 (range 60-120) ml. Treatment caused no pain or discomfort other than puncture of the skin and no pain-relieving medication was required afterwards. In this series there were no infections but one conservatively treated hematoma. The hydrocele of that patient disappeared. Although the hydroceles recurred in 9 cases during the mean follow-up of 3.5 months, in 2 patients the hydroceles were clinically smaller than the original one and symptoms were milder subjectively. Our findings suggest that fibrin-adhesive glue is not sufficiently effective in treatment of testicular hydroceles.

  2. [Sclerosing therapy of testicular hydrocele with tetracycline].

    PubMed

    Losada Guerra, J L; Hernández Navarro, E

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-six patients, aged 38 to 78 years, with testicular hydrocele were treated by aspiration, punction and tetracycline instillation. The cure rate was 79%. Inflammation of the scrotum was observed in all of the cases. Due to recurrence two patients underwent surgery, which revealed a hematocele.

  3. Sclerotherapy of testicular hydroceles with 3% aqueous phenol.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E

    1996-06-01

    With the evolution of minimally invasive approaches in medicine, phenol has regained its popularity for the sclerotherapy of testicular hydroceles. Together with reported efficiency and safety of 2.5% phenol in the literature, the recently proved safety of 3% phenol in esophageal variceal sclerotherapy has led us to perform a prospective study to lessen the number of sessions. Sclerotherapy with 3% aqueous phenol was applied on an ambulatory basis to 23 patients with 31 hydroceles, who were over 40 years old and who had no fertility problems. The over-all cure rate was 96% with an average follow-up of 3 years, and 58% of the hydroceles required only one session of treatment. The average number of treatment sessions was 2.2 (range; 1-7). One patient with a history of herniorraphy 10 years earlier, was treated surgically following failure of seven sclerotherapy sessions. Phenol, a sclerosant superior to other conventional agents including tetracyclines, requires neither anesthetics nor prophylactic antibiotics. Our findings indicate that sclerotherapy with 3% phenol is an effective, economical and safe form of therapy for patients with hydrocele.

  4. Concurrent Male Gynecomastia and Testicular Hydrocele after Imatinib Mesylate Treatment of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hawk; Chang, Heung-Moon; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Tae-Won; Sohn, Hee-Jung; Kim, So-Eun; Kang, Hye-Jin; Park, Sarah; Lee, Jung-Shin

    2005-01-01

    We report a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patient with male gynecomastia and testicular hydrocele after treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 42 yr-old male patient presented for management of hepatic masses. Two years earlier, he had undergone a small bowel resection to remove an intraabdominal mass later shown to be a GIST, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. At presentation, CT scan revealed multiple hepatic masses, which were compatible with metastatic GIST, and he was prescribed imatinib 400 mg/day. During treatment, he experienced painful enlargement of the left breast and scrotal swelling. Three months after cessation of imatinib treatment, the tumors recurred, and, upon recommencing imatinib, he experienced painful enlargement of the right breast and scrotal swelling. He was diagnosed with male gynecomastia caused by decreased testosterone and non-communicative testicular hydrocele. He was given androgen support and a hydrocelectomy, which improved his gynecomastia. The mechanism by which imatinib induces gynecomastia and hydrocele is thought to be associated with an inhibition of c-KIT and platelet-derive growth factor. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing concurrent male gynecomastia and testicular hydrocele after imatinib treatment of a patient with GIST. PMID:15953881

  5. Comparison of polidocanol and tetracycline in the sclerotherapy of testicular hydrocele and epididymal cyst.

    PubMed

    Daehlin, L; Tønder, B; Kapstad, L

    1997-09-01

    To compare the effects and side-effects of polidocanol and tetracycline when used as sclerosants for testicular hydrocele and epididymal cyst. Forty-five men (median age 67 years, range 42-81) with 46 hydroceles or epididymal cysts were assessed. After puncture and aspiration, the empty sac was instilled with either polidocanol or tetracycline, assigned randomly. Patients recorded any treatment-associated pain on a visual analogue scale. At 9 months of follow-up, nine of 17 men were cured after sclerotherapy with polidocanol compared with 17 of 20 men treated with tetracycline (P < 0.05). Tetracycline produced some pain for 3 days after treatment while polidocanol therapy was almost pain-free. Re-instillation should be considered for recurrences. At the follow-up after 35 months, 16 of 18 men treated with polidocanol and 20 of 22 men treated with tetracycline were satisfied with the outcome. Both polidocanol and tetracycline are useful sclerosants for treating testicular hydrocele and epididymal cyst. We prefer polidocanol as a first choice in older patients because there were few short-term side-effects.

  6. A new sclerosant therapy for testicular hydrocele with aspiration and injection of OK-432.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Hibi, H; Miyake, K

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with testicular hydrocele were treated with a new sclerosing therapy consisting of intrascrotal injection of OK-432 (group A Streptococcus pyogenes of human origin). The median observation period after treatment was 6 months (range 2-13 months). Eighteen patients required only one treatment. Two patients had recurrences and received repeat injection. There have been no serious side effects except for fever of 2-3 days' duration and local inflammatory reaction. Sclerotherapy with OK-432 is an efficient and easy method which can be recommended as a primary treatment for hydrocele.

  7. Tetracycline sclerotherapy for testicular hydroceles in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Shokeir, A A; Eraky, I; Hassan, N; Wafa, E W; Mohsen, T; Ghoneim, M A

    1994-07-01

    To study the efficacy of tetracycline sclerotherapy in renal transplant recipients with symptomatic hydroceles. A total of 21 patients with symptomatic hydroceles following renal transplantation underwent aspiration of hydrocele and injection of tetracycline hydrochloride. Sclerosant solution was prepared by dissolving 1 g tetracycline hydrochloride powder in 10 mL 1% lidocaine. The amount of sclerosant used depended on the volume of the sac: 5 mL for a sac containing up to 100 mL and 2.5 mL of sclerosant was added for each increase of 100 mL in sac volume. Twelve patients (57%) required only one treatment and 9 patients (43%) had up to 3 injections. The larger the hydrocele, the more treatments were required. The resolution of hydrocele was complete in 12 patients (57%) and partial in 7 (33%) with 2 (10%) failures. Pain at injection was observed in one third of the patients. No major complications (fever, hematoma, infections, abscess, or scrotal necrosis) occurred in any patient. No changes in the structure or size of the testicles were found by ultrasound during an average follow-up period of 35 months. Tetracycline sclerotherapy is a safe, effective, and economical form of out-patient therapy that can be recommended as primary treatment for hydroceles in patients who have undergone renal transplantation.

  8. [Sclerotherapy of idiopatic hydrocele with polidocanol: a study about 190 cases].

    PubMed

    Sallami, Sataa; Binous, Mohamed Yassine; Ben Rhouma, Sami; Chelif, Mohamed; Hmidi, Mohamed; Nouira, Yasssine; Ben Rais, Nawfel; Horchani, Ali

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of Polidocanol used as sclerosing agent for testicular hydrocele. One hundred and ninety men, with a median age of 55,9 years (40-89), treated for idiopatic hydrocele were assessed. After puncture and aspiration, the empty sac was instilled with 3% Polidocanol. We recorded recurrence, complications and associated pain on a visual analogue scale. With a median follow-up of 19 months, The cure rate of hydroceles after one sclerotherapy session was 62,1%, and the overall cure rate using the procedure was 82,6%. Re-instillation was done for recurrences in 41% of patients. Polidocanol therapy was almost pain-free. A low rate of complications was observed. Polidocanol is a useful sclerosing agent for treating testicular hydrocele. Due to its ease of administration, low frequency of complications, high rate of effectiveness, and excellent tolerability; we recommend sclerotherapy with polidocanol as the primary treatment for hydroceles.

  9. Lymphography prior to laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy to prevent postoperative hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Salvatore F; D'Agostino, Sergio; Scarpa, Mariagrazia; Fabbro, Mariangelica; Costa, Lorenzo; Musi, Luciano

    2006-08-01

    We report our experience with preoperative lymphography to identify and perioperatively preserve the ligature of the lymphatic vessels to reduce the incidence of postoperative testicular hydrocele in patients undergoing laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy for adolescent varicocele. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with varicocele had preoperative lymphography. The mean age was 13.5 years (range, 8-18 years) and the mean grade of varicocele was III. We performed lymphography with intrascrotal isosulfan blue. The laparoscopic Palomo procedure was successfully carried out in all patients. In 17 patients (63%) we were able to identify and conserve the lymphatic vessels by lymphography. Mean follow-up was 9.5 months (range, 6-24 months). None of the 27 patients had a recurrence. None of the 17 patients with positive lymphography had a testicular hydrocele. One of the 10 remaining patients developed a sizable hydrocele. Preoperative lymphography prior to laparoscopic Palomo varicocelectomy is a simple and feasible method for preventing testicular hydrocele. However, the method should be standardized to identify the exact site, the correct level of injection of blue dye, and to determine the optimal time to perform lymphography prior to the procedure.

  10. [Testicular hydrocele: therapy with sclerosing solutions].

    PubMed

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; Santiago González de Garibay, A; Marcotegui Ros, F; Yurs Arruga, J I; Sebastián Borruel, J L

    1989-03-01

    Twelve adult patients with acquired hydrocele of the testis were submitted to treatment with aspiration and injection of an acrine derivative (quinacrine) guided by ultrasonography. A 12 month follow up of all patients showed good results were achieved by sclerotherapy with quinacrine.

  11. Sclerotherapy with tetracycline for hydroceles in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Sankari, B R; Boullier, J A; Garvin, P J; Parra, R O

    1992-10-01

    A total of 17 patients with hydroceles following renal transplantation underwent sclerotherapy with tetracycline hydrochloride (10 ml. of a 5% solution of tetracycline in 1% lidocaine). A successful outcome was obtained in 15 patients (88%). Post-sclerotherapy hydrocelectomy was necessary in 2 patients (12%). No major complications (testicular loss, scrotal abscess or necrosis) occurred in any patient. Pain at injection was the only adverse effect. Tetracycline sclerotherapy for hydroceles appears to be an effective and safe procedure in the renal transplant population. We recommend this procedure as the initial treatment modality for hydroceles in patients with a renal allograft.

  12. [Experimental surgical model of hydrocele for the use of sclerotherapy].

    PubMed

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; Santiago, A M; Sebastián, J L; Ruiz, J L; Pérez Unzu, A; Puras, A; Marcotegui, F

    1990-10-01

    Sclerosant therapy for different pathological conditions (testicular hydrocele, pneumothorax) is a little known and scantily used procedure in the clinical setting. We have developed a surgical procedure in the dog that permits reproducing adult hydrocele. This experimental model is useful for morphometric assessment of the sclerosant effects of the commonly used agents (magnesium silicate hydrate, carbolic acid, ethanolamine oleate, hydroxytetracycline chlorhydrate and quinacrine chlorhydrate). Our results show that the degree of sclerosis achieved with quinacrine and hydrotetracycline is significantly superior to that obtained with other agents.

  13. Treatment of testicular hydrocele with tetracycline sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, S; Bircan, K; Ozen, H

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen patients with primary hydrocele of the testis were treated by aspiration and injection of tetracycline. Only 5 patients (33.3%) were cured by a single injection of tetracycline. Furthermore, 46.6% of our patients experienced severe scrotal pain, three of whom required open surgery. We do not recommend single injection tetracycline therapy, and further injections were not performed due to severe side effects.

  14. Long-term experience with sclerotherapy for treatment of epididymal cyst and hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Braslis, K G; Moss, D I

    1996-04-01

    Symptomatic testicular hydrocele and cyst of the epididymis may be treated with either operation or sclerotherapy. The current report presents the experience of a 9 year prospective study using sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STD) sclerotherapy for the treatment of symptomatic hydrocele and/or epididymal cyst. A total of 102 lesions were treated during the study period, with an initial success rate of 76% which improved to 94% with multiple treatments. The overall median follow up during the study was 30 months (range 2-100). Sclerotherapy offers a cost-effective outpatient method for the treatment of symptomatic scrotal cysts.

  15. Hydrocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms to save the testicle. Causes Baby boys A hydrocele can develop before birth. Normally, the ... at birth. At least 5 percent of newborn boys have a hydrocele. Babies who are born prematurely ...

  16. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  17. Aspiration and sclerotherapy: a nonsurgical treatment option for hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Francis, John J; Levine, Laurence A

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated that hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy with doxycycline is an effective and safe nonsurgical treatment option for hydrocele correction. The medical records of patients who underwent hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study for success rates as well as improvement in scrotal size and discomfort after a single hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy treatment. Patients who reported decreased scrotal size, improved physical symptoms and satisfaction with the procedure were considered as having success with hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy. A total of 29 patients (mean age 52.8 years) presenting with 32 nonseptated hydroceles underwent hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy with doxycycline between 2005 and 2012. Of the hydroceles 27 (84%) were successfully treated with a single aspiration and sclerotherapy procedure. Overall mean followup was 20.8 months. Three patients reported moderate pain which resolved in 2 to 3 days. Of those patients in whom hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy failed, 1 had hydrocele successfully resolved with a second aspiration and sclerotherapy treatment, 3 did not have success with a second procedure and underwent hydrocelectomy, and 1 wanted immediate surgical correction. Hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy was successful in correcting 84% of simple nonseptated hydroceles with a single treatment. This result is an increase from previously reported success rates involving a single hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy procedure with tetracycline (75%). The success rate of a single hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy procedure is similar to the reported success rates involving hydrocelectomy while avoiding the hospital expense and many other complications. We conclude that the hydrocele aspiration and sclerotherapy procedure is a reasonable, nonsurgical and underused treatment option for nonseptated simple hydroceles. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  18. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Levine, L A; DeWolf, W C

    1988-05-01

    Aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles have been considered an effective outpatient procedure. We report on our experience with modification of this procedure in the treatment of 28 hydroceles. A 10 per cent solution of tetracycline hydrochloride was used as the sclerosant. In this series the mean followup was 15 months and there was an over-all 93 per cent success rate. A single treatment was successful in 75 per cent of the hydroceles. Complications included a hematoma in 2 patients and epididymitis in 1. We consider aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles to be a reasonable alternative to an operation.

  19. [Partial gangrene of the scrotum and penis. A complication of sclerotherapy of testicular hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Dahl, B H

    1993-04-20

    Localized gangrene of the scrotum and penis as a complication to tetracycline sclerotherapy for hydrocele has not been reported before. I describe the complication in a 56 year-old man who was admitted to our plastic surgery unit for excision and reconstruction four days after sclerotherapy. The procedure of tapping and injection, and how to avoid this type of complication, are discussed.

  20. Cost-effective hydrocele ablation.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, J A; Armenakas, N A; Kohan, A D

    1998-03-01

    The surgical repair of hydroceles can be relatively expensive in some cases in terms of costs and initial limitation of activity. We ascertain whether aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles is a safe, efficient, cost-effective treatment modality in select patients. In 47 patients 51 hydroceles were treated in the office with aspiration and instillation of a sclerosing solution based on a sodium tetradecyl sulfate preparation. One treatment was done in 14 cases and 2 in the remainder. Medicare data for 1995 were used for charge analysis. The overall success rate was 61% (34 of 51 cases) with success defined as no perceptible ipsilateral scrotal fluid reaccumulation on palpation by a physician and complete patient satisfaction. The failure rate was 39% (17 cases) with failure defined as perceptible ipsilateral scrotal fluid reaccumulation on palpation by a physician and/or patient dissatisfaction. The charge differential of surgery versus aspiration and sclerotherapy was greater than 9:1. The aspiration and sclerotherapy technique that we used appears to be an efficacious, safe, cost-effective treatment modality in select patients with idiopathic hydroceles.

  1. [Sclerotherapy with 3% polidocanol for hydrocele testis].

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, H; Imagawa, M; Fukunaga, Y; Nomura, Y; Kubota, M; Okita, J

    1995-12-01

    We studied the clinical efficacy of sclerotherapy with injection of 3% polidocanol for hydrocele testis. From July, 1992 to March, 1995 sclerotherapy with single injection of polidocanol was performed for 11 patients with 12 hydrocele testis on an outpatient basis. We instilled 3 or 5ml of 3% polidocanol after complete removal of fluid in the hydrocele testis. Complete disappearance on ultrasonography was observed in 75% of the hydrocele testis 6 months after this sclerotherapy. There was neither pain during instillation of 3% polidocanol nor any other complication. Two patients with fluid reaccumulation underwent hydrocelectomy 16 and 6 months after sclerotherapy, respectively. This procedure seems to be a safe and useful technique as primary treatment for hydrocele testis.

  2. Hydrocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 346. Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 545. Ferri FF. Hydrocele. In: Ferri ...

  3. Sclerotherapy for hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Rencken, R K; Bornman, M S; Reif, S; Olivier, I

    1990-05-01

    Sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate and 3.5% rolitetracycline on an outpatient basis was applied to 55 hydroceles. The over-all cure rate was 96% with an average followup of 13 months. Of the patients 64% were cured after only 1 sclerosant instillation. A post-sclerotherapy operation was necessary in 4% of the patients. Pain of a significant degree occurred after sclerotherapy in only 29% of the patients. Sclerotherapy appears to be an effective, economical and safe form of outpatient therapy for hydroceles.

  4. Marriage, sex, and hydrocele: an ethnographic study on the effect of filarial hydrocele on conjugal life and marriageability from Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bontha V; Mishra, Suchismita; Nayak, Abhaya N

    2009-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a leading cause of permanent and long-term disability, affects 120 million people globally. Hydrocele, one of the chronic manifestations of LF among 27 million people worldwide, causes economic and psychological burdens on patients and their families. The present study explores and describes the impact of hydrocele on sexual and marital life as well as on marriageability of hydrocele patients from rural areas of Orissa, an eastern state of India. This paper is based on ethnographic data collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with hydrocele patients, wives of hydrocele patients, and other participants from the community. The most worrisome effect of hydrocele for patients and their wives was the inability to have a satisfactory sexual life. The majority of patients (94%) expressed their incapacity during sexual intercourse, and some (87%) reported pain in the scrotum during intercourse. A majority of hydrocele patients' wives (94%) reported dissatisfaction in their sexual life. As a result of sexual dissatisfaction and physical/economic burden, communication has deteriorated between the couples and they are not living happily. This study also highlights the impact on marriageability. The wives of hydrocele patients said that a hydrocele patient is the "last choice" and that girls show reluctance to marry hydrocele patients. In some cases, the patients were persuaded by their wives to remove hydrocele by surgery (hydrocelectomy). The objective of the morbidity management arm of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF should be to increase access to hydrocelectomy, as hydrocelectomy is the recommended intervention. Though the study area is covered by the programme, like in other endemic areas, hydrocelectomy has not been emphasised by the national LF elimination programme. The policy makers and programme managers should be sensitised by utilising this type of research finding.

  5. Sclerotherapy of hydroceles with polidocanol.

    PubMed

    Fuse, H; Sakamoto, M; Fujishiro, Y; Katayama, T

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hydroceles of the testis or spermatic cord were treated by aspiration and injection of the sclerosant solution polidocanol. The cure rate of hydroceles after one sclerotherapy session was 73%, and the overall cure rate using the procedure was 87%. No patient experienced pain during or after the procedure, which was conducted without anaesthesia. No complications were observed. It is concluded that sclerotherapy of hydroceles with polidocanol may be a useful alternative to open operation, due to its ease of administration, low frequency of complications, and high rate of effectiveness, and that this agent is preferable to certain other drugs in that it causes no pain during or after the injection.

  6. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Viktor X.; Wallen, Jared J.; Martinez, Danny R.; Carrion, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery. PMID:26793551

  7. Sclerotherapy with tetracycline solution for hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Hu, K N; Khan, A S; Gonder, M

    1984-12-01

    A study of sclerotherapy for hydrocele using different concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%) for tetracycline solution was done on 24 patients, 23 patients were cured. The effectiveness of sclerotherapy was the same for the three groups of patients with use of each different concentration of the solution. Pain was the only adverse effect. Nonspecific cellular foreign body reaction and fibrin strand proliferation were observed in the hydrocele fluid after this procedure. We consider sclerotherapy for hydrocele with tetracycline solution safe and the procedure of choice for patients in whom surgery or anesthesia is contraindicated, for patients who refuse surgery, and for economic reasons.

  8. Hydrocele (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides, which feels like a water-filled balloon. Hydroceles are usually not dangerous, and they are usually only treated when they cause discomfort or embarrassment, or they get so large that they threaten the blood supply of the testicle.

  9. Phenol sclerotherapy for hydrocele: a study in 55 patients.

    PubMed

    Savion, M; Wolloch, Y; Savir, A

    1989-12-01

    Sclerotherapy with 2.5% phenol solution was used to treat 63 hydroceles in 55 patients with a mean age of 69 years. In 51.6% of the patients (32 hydroceles) 1 treatment was sufficient, while 2 treatments were necessary in 25.8% (16 hydroceles), 3 in 13% (8 hydroceles) and 4 in 8% (5 hydroceles). One patient required 7 injections. Treatment was unsuccessful in 1 patient in whom a local allergic reaction developed. Only 1 patient complained of pain, and other complications were rare and mild. On the basis of this experience we concluded that sclerotherapy with phenol 2.5% is a painless, highly effective, safe and economical procedure that permits one to avoid an operation, anesthesia and hospitalization. Its use is warranted in adults and particularly in the elderly.

  10. Aspiration sclerotherapy for hydroceles in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Musa, M T; Fahal, A H; el Arabi, Y E

    1995-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of aspiration sclerotherapy in the treatment of hydroceles in the tropics. This prospective study included 82 patients with 94 primary vaginal hydroceles of which 62 hydroceles were treated by aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride sclerotherapy as an outpatient procedure (mean age of patients 56.5 years, range 40-82) and 28 were treated surgically and included as controls (mean age 52.4 years, range 40-70). All patients were followed for a year. In the sclerotherapy group, the overall cure rate after a year was 95%. Few complications were encountered in this group: six patients (10%) experienced pain during the procedure, seven patients (12%) had local infection and three patients (5%) developed haematoma. No recurrence was encountered in the surgical group, seven patients (25%) had infection and two patients (7%) developed haematoma. The mean hospital stay for the surgical group was 3.4 +/- 1.3 days (range 1-7). Four patients with thick-walled hydroceles had persistent swelling after sclerotherapy, the recurrence of which dissatisfied the patients. Aspiration sclerotherapy for thin-walled hydroceles proved to be a curative, simple, safe and cost-effective out-patient procedure. It can be an alternative to surgery in developing countries where resources are limited.

  11. Initial experience with percutaneous selective embolization: A truly minimally invasive treatment of the adolescent varicocele with no risk of hydrocele development.

    PubMed

    Storm, Douglas W; Hogan, Mark J; Jayanthi, Venkata R

    2010-12-01

    Postoperative hydrocele development is a frustrating complication of varicocele surgical repair. To avoid this complication, we began to offer percutaneous embolization as a treatment option. We present our initial experience with this technique. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent percutaneous embolization and sclerotherapy of a varicocele at our institution was performed. There were 27 patients with a mean age of 16 years (range 13-19 years). Indications included pain (48%), varicocele size (30%) and persistent testicular asymmetry (22%). Four patients had experienced failure of a previous surgical repair. Follow-up data were available for 21 patients (mean 9 months). The varicocele resolved in 19 patients (91%) with no evidence of hydrocele formation in any of the boys. There was resolution of pain in all patients for whom this was the indication for the procedure. In the two failures, access to the lower spermatic vein was not possible owing to the number and tortuosity of the vessels. Percutaneous embolization and sclerotherapy represent a truly minimally invasive treatment with low morbidity, minimal pain and rapid recovery. In our early experience, since lymphatic channels are completely avoided, there appears to be no risk of hydrocele formation. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, T; Johansson, J E; Jahnson, S; Helgesen, F; Andersson, S O

    1994-04-01

    A total of 87 patients with 63 hydroceles and 29 epididymal cysts underwent injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol on an outpatient basis. In the hydrocele group the cure rate after 1 treatment was 67% and the overall cure rate was 87% after a median followup of 14 months. In the group treated for epididymal cyst the corresponding cure rates were 46% and 64%, respectively, with a median followup of 12 months. A low rate of complications was observed. Of 86 evaluable patients 81 (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and the treatment results. Therefore, we recommend injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol as primary treatment for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in patients older than 40 years.

  13. Comparative trial of sclerotherapy for hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Rencken, R K; Bornman, M S; Reif, S; Olivier, I

    1990-04-01

    We present a prospective single-blind trial of sclerotherapy for hydroceles with tetradecyl sulphate and rolitetracycline as sclerosants. Twenty-seven hydroceles were treated with tetradecyl sulphate and 28 with rolitetracycline. The median follow-up was 13 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 drugs in respect of cure rate and complications. The overall cure rate for both drugs was 96%. Complications were rare and common to both drugs. Tetradecyl sulphate and rolitetracycline were found to be equally effective as sclerosants.

  14. Hydrocele repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery usually completely corrects the defect, and the long-term prognosis is quite excellent. Hydrocele repair is done on an outpatient basis and recovery is usually brief. Most children can return to ...

  15. Aspiration and sclerotherapy versus hydrocelectomy for treatment of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Beiko, Darren T; Kim, Dennis; Morales, Alvaro

    2003-04-01

    To compare aspiration and sclerotherapy using sodium tetradecylsulfate (STDS) with open hydrocelectomy in the treatment of hydroceles with regard to safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Patients with symptomatic hydroceles were prospectively enrolled in an aspiration and sclerotherapy protocol between October 1998 and June 2000. Patients in this group underwent percutaneous aspiration followed by sclerotherapy with an STDS-based solution. This group was compared with a group of patients chosen consecutively who underwent hydrocelectomy between December 1996 and August 1999. Primary outcome measures included patient satisfaction and procedural success. Secondary outcome measures included complications and comparative costs. A total of 27 patients with 28 hydroceles were enrolled in the aspiration and sclerotherapy protocol and compared with 24 patients with 25 hydroceles in the hydrocelectomy group. Mean follow-up for the aspiration and sclerotherapy group and hydrocelectomy group was 8.9 and 16.4 months, respectively. Patient satisfaction was 75% for aspiration and sclerotherapy and 88% for hydrocelectomy. The overall success rate for aspiration and sclerotherapy was 76% compared with 84% for hydrocelectomy. The complication rate was only 8% in the aspiration and sclerotherapy group, but 40% in the hydrocelectomy group. Comparative costs per procedure demonstrated that hydrocelectomy was almost ninefold more expensive than aspiration and sclerotherapy. In the treatment of hydroceles, aspiration and sclerotherapy with STDS represents a minimally invasive approach that is simple, inexpensive, and safe but less effective than hydrocelectomy. Aspiration and sclerotherapy is a viable first-line therapeutic option in the management of hydroceles.

  16. [Anesthetic infiltration of the spermatic cord in surgery for voluminous hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Reale, C; Corinti, R; Galullo, B; Borgonuovo, P; Borgonuovo, P

    1998-06-01

    The use of a new technique in spermatic cord block in surgical treatment of large hydroceles is reported. Identification of the cord in these cases is often difficult due to the presence of the hydrocele. The reported technique consists in the percutaneous drainage of the hydrocele prior to the block, in order to allow an easier identification of the cord. The block is then performed by the usual method. 108 patients with large hydroceles (above 250 mls) underwent surgical repair employing this approach. In only one case the cord was not identified even after drainage due to the effects of a previous hernioplasty. In the remaining 107 patients the cord was easily identified and blocked. The excellent results obtained with this approach, show that cord block is possible in all patients, even when a large hydrocele is present.

  17. The association between giant hydrocele and depression in a rural clinic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dienye, Paul O; Gbeneol, Precious K; Akani, Alexander B

    2011-09-01

    One of the dreaded disfiguring disease conditions among the Andoni tribesmen in the Nigerian Niger delta region is hydrocele, especially when its size is large (giant hydrocele) and it cannot be concealed. This case-control study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of depression among patients with giant hydrocele presenting to Bethesda Clinic Ngo, Andoni, Nigeria. A total of 52 patients were recruited into this study: 26 in the giant hydrocele group and 26 in the control group. Their age range was 23 to 78 years, with a mean age of 53.4 ± 15.5 years for the giant hydrocele group and 53.6 ± 14.2 years for the control group. The difference between the prevalence of depression among patients that presented with giant hydrocele (61.54%) and the controls (15.38%) was statistically significant (p = .0015). The authors conclude that depression is common among patients with giant hydrocele when compared with patients with other disease conditions.

  18. [Acquired hydrocele in the adult: sclerotherapy].

    PubMed

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; González de Garibay, A S; Sebastían Borruel, J L; Valdivia Uría, J G

    1991-06-01

    We report our experience in the treatment of hydrocele using sclerosant therapy in 50 patients with adult acquired hydrocele (AAH) or cord cyst (CC). The sclerosing agent utilized in all of the patients was quinacrine dihydrochloride (quinacrine) at a dose of 13.3 mg 50 cc aspirated volume. The results were assessed clinically, ultrasonographically and thermographically. The presence of multilocular cysts or incomplete aspiration of the liquid was the most frequent cause of failure. The results show a success rate of 85%; however, 18% required more than one treatment.

  19. Gene expression profile during testicular development in patients with SRY-negative 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kentaro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Nishio, Hidenori; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate alternative pathways in testicular development, we attempted to clarify the genetic characteristics of SRY-negative XX testes. We previously reported 5 cases of SRY-negative 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development and demonstrated that coordinated expression of genes such as SOX9, SOX3, and DAX1 was associated with testicular development. We performed a case-control study between the aforementioned boy with 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development and an age-matched patient with hydrocele testis (46,XY). During their consecutive surgeries, testicular biopsy specimens were obtained. Genes with differential expression compared with XY testis were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based subtractive hybridization and sequencing. For validation of differential gene expression, real-time RT-PCR was performed using gene-specific primers. The distribution of candidate proteins in the testicular tissue was clarified by immunohistochemistry in human and rodent specimens. Moreover, in vitro inhibitory assays were performed. We identified 13 upregulated and 7 downregulated genes in XX testis. Among the candidate genes, we focused on ROCK1 (Rho-associated, coiled-coil protein kinase 1) in the upregulated gene group, because high expression in XX testis was validated by real-time RT-PCR. ROCK1 protein was detected in germ cells, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the addition of specific ROCK1 inhibitor to Sertoli cells decreased SOX9 gene expression. On the basis of in vitro inhibitory assay, it is suggested that ROCK1 phosphorylates and activates SOX9 in Sertoli cells. Testes formation might be initiated by an alternative signaling pathway attributed to ROCK1, not SRY, activation in XX testes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sonographic follow-up of ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy for hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Mattila, S I; Tammela, T L; Mäkäräinen, H P; Hellström, P A

    1993-06-01

    Sclerotherapy has gained increasing popularity during the last few years as a treatment for hydrocele. Little is known of the natural course of intrascrotal changes, however, nor of their timetable after therapy. In the present trial scrotal ultrasonography was performed before the sclerotherapy and during the follow-up examination in the case of 70 symptomatic consecutive outpatients ranging in age from 19 to 85 years (mean, 58 years) with 71 hydroceles treated by ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy. Posttreatment sonographic findings typically included heterogeneously echogenic extratesticular masses, cystic areas with peritesticular hyperechoic lines, and a thickened scrotal wall. All the lesions showed improvement. Sonography proved to be useful for differentiating hydroceles from spermatoceles and for evaluating the need for a renewed treatment during follow-up. Ethanolamine oleate was effective as a sclerosant, as 86% of cases were cured or significantly improved. Complications were mild and uncommon, and no intratesticular or epididymal changes were observed. Ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy can be recommended as a treatment of choice for hydrocele.

  1. Comparative study of sclerotherapy with phenol and surgical treatment for hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chen Jen; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Arap, Sami

    2003-03-01

    We compared the efficiency, side effects and effects on spermatogenesis of sclerotherapy with phenol and surgical treatment for hydrocele. A total of 67 patients (80 hydroceles) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 40 hydroceles each. One group underwent phenol sclerotherapy and the other underwent hydrocelectomy. Spermiograms were done before, 6 and 12 months after treatment in patients able to ejaculate. In the sclerotherapy group 47.5%, 30%, 12.5%, 5% and 2.5% of the hydroceles were cured with 1 to 5 injections, respectively, but 2.5% were not cured even with 6 injections. There were no complaints of localized pain or infection in these cases. All patients returned to normal activity on the same day. In the hydrocelectomy group 97.5% and 2.5% of hydroceles were cured with 1 and 2 operations, respectively. There was pain postoperatively in 73.5% of the patients and localized infection in 5%, while 62.5% required an average of 4.5 days of rest and were absent from work for 10 days. There was no significant statistical alteration in spermatozoid concentration in the preoperative, and 6 and 12-month postoperative counts in the groups (p = 0.385). Sclerotherapy for hydrocele with phenol is as efficacious as hydrocelectomy, while causing less morbidity and similar effects on spermatogenesis.

  2. Treatment of hydroceles by aspirations and tetracycline instillations.

    PubMed

    Suwan, P

    1994-08-01

    In conclusion, tetracycline hydrochloride is an effective and safe sclerosant for the treatment of hydrocele with entailing minimal side effects and low recurrence rate. However, it should not be recommended for the treatment of spermatocele in younger men who still wish to have children, because of the danger of drug epididymitis and resulting infertility. Hydrocele treatment can be performed in younger men who still wish to have children.

  3. [Sclerosing treatment of hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Saladié Roig, J M; Blasco Casares, F J; Areal Calama, J

    1991-11-01

    We present the results of treatment with aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of 24 cases of hydrocele with a follow-up of 9 months. Only minor complications were observed and the cure rate was less than 50%. The indications of this therapeutic modality versus surgery are discussed.

  4. Biochemical analysis of tunica vaginalis fluid in patients with or without idiopathic hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Madlala, T S; Rencken, R K; Bornman, M S; Reif, S; Joubert, H F; Van der Merwe, C A

    1994-10-01

    To establish the differences, if any, between the biochemical composition of idiopathic hydrocele fluid and the fluid normally present in the tunica vaginalis. Aspiration and sclerotherapy of 37 idiopathic hydroceles from patients who presented to this urology clinic were performed. The biochemical content of the fluid was compared with that of the tunica vaginalis fluid from a small group of controls (n = 8), taken from patients undergoing orchidectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. Differences in several measurements were recorded; in particular, there were significantly higher concentrations of calcium, albumin, total protein and creatine-kinase in the hydrocele group. The levels of potassium, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in the hydrocele group. Whether these differences have a role in the causation of an idiopathic hydrocele is, at this stage, speculative. A similar study on a larger scale would probably be more conclusive.

  5. The use of TPA in combination with alcohol in the treatment of the recurrent complex hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Michael J; Spouge, Rebecca J; Spouge, David J; Hoag, Chris C

    2014-05-01

    A hydrocele is an abnormal collection of serous fluid in the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Hydrocele is the most common cause of painless scrotal swelling which affects about 1% of men. Generally, adult hydroceles are idiopathic in origin; however, inguinal surgery, varicocelectomy, infection, trauma and a patent processus vaginalis are each associated with the subsequent development of a hydrocele. Surgical removal of hydroceles is the gold standard of care. However, multiple cases have reported high success rates (ranging from 85% to 96%) using a combination of aspiration and sclerotherapy. We present a case of a patient with recurring complex hydrocele and effective treatment utilizing a combination of thrombolytic therapy, catheter drainage and subsequent alcohol ablation.

  6. The use of TPA in combination with alcohol in the treatment of the recurrent complex hydrocele

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Michael J.; Spouge, Rebecca J.; Spouge, David J.; Hoag, Chris C.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrocele is an abnormal collection of serous fluid in the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Hydrocele is the most common cause of painless scrotal swelling which affects about 1% of men. Generally, adult hydroceles are idiopathic in origin; however, inguinal surgery, varicocelectomy, infection, trauma and a patent processus vaginalis are each associated with the subsequent development of a hydrocele. Surgical removal of hydroceles is the gold standard of care. However, multiple cases have reported high success rates (ranging from 85% to 96%) using a combination of aspiration and sclerotherapy. We present a case of a patient with recurring complex hydrocele and effective treatment utilizing a combination of thrombolytic therapy, catheter drainage and subsequent alcohol ablation. PMID:25024803

  7. [Treatment of adult hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Tariel, E; Mongiat-Artus, P

    2004-08-01

    Surgery is the gold standard of hydrocele treatment; it is indicated in case of functional disorders. The two principal techniques are Lord's plication procedure, and excision. Main complications consist in potential haematoma and injury to epididymis, vas deferens or cord structures. Two other techniques exist, but with limited indications: fenestration which puts in contact the sac with lymph-rich subcutaneous tissues, and sclerotherapy.

  8. [Treatment of hydrocele with evacuation and percutaneous sclerosis with polidocanol].

    PubMed

    Fariña, L A; Villavicencio, H

    1994-06-01

    Twenty male patients aged 26-79 years old, with symptomatic unilateral hydrocele, were treated by evacuation puncture and intracavitary instillation of 2 ml of a 3% polydocanol solution. In 13 cases, treatment was done ambulatory and only in the first few cases sperm cord anaesthetics was used. Regular follow-up of at least 6 months was made. No complications were encountered and only one third of patients complained of mild pain. In 12 cases (60%) hydrocele cure was achieved and 6 relapsed (another 2 were lost to follow-up). Testes ultrasound performed 1 month later showed that 4 patients had non-symptomatic multicystic relapse, which disappeared spontaneously within 6 months in three cases. The advantages of this substance in hydrocele non-surgical treatment versus other therapies used until now are reviewed, concluding by recommending other groups to test it clinically.

  9. A new approach in the management of the hydrocele with a silicone catheter.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mehmet; Kilinç, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Kadir; Oztürk, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    To describe a new alternative technique to overcome several disadvantages of previous techniques to repair idiopathic hydrocele. Idiopathic hydrocele, which causes scrotal enlargement and discomfort for patients, is an abnormal fluid collection between the parietal and visceral layers of tunica vaginalis of the testis. Surgical and sclerotherapy treatments have previously been used to treat this problem. Forty-five patients with hydrocele (aged 19 to 67 years) underwent an alternative procedure using a silicone catheter 15 to 20 cm in length in which holes had been made to enable flow of the hydrocele fluid from the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis to the surrounding scrotal tissue. After an incision of approximately 5 mm on the scrotal wall with a scalpel knife, a cannula was pushed through the hydrocele sac with a gentle rotation until reaching the upper scrotal wall. A silicone catheter with holes was passed through the cannula to the point of the incision by way of the cannula. At the end, both tips of the catheter were sutured. During the procedure, the hydrocele fluid was emptied using an angiocatheter before the cannula was removed. The results of this study indicate that this procedure does not require dissection, incision, or manipulation of the scrotal contents during treatment. It also resulted in a low rate of recurrence during the 1 to 3 years of follow-up. Additionally, the procedure has minimal complications and requires a short time, only about 15 minutes.

  10. A comparison of aspiration, antazoline sclerotherapy and surgery in the treatment of hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Roosen, J U; Larsen, T; Iversen, E; Berg, J B

    1991-10-01

    Of 98 hydroceles (mean volume 125 ml) in a consecutive series of 92 patients, treated initially by aspiration, 14% (mean volume 70 ml) were cured. The 76 recurring hydroceles (mean volume 146 ml) were then randomised to either antazoline sclerotherapy on an out-patient basis or surgery. Cure rates were 89 and 100%, respectively, at follow-up 6 months later. Operated patients were admitted for a mean duration of 2.5 days. The results indicated that aspiration alone was inadequate, and sclerotherapy is advocated as the first choice of treatment for hydrocele.

  11. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  12. Painless treatment of hydrocele: EMLA cream anaesthesia and fibrin adhesive sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, M; Sepich, C A; Pagni, G; Ippolito, C; Minervini, R; Fiorentini, L

    1997-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for hydroceles was performed in 18 patients. Cutaneous anaesthesia was induced with an anaesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine, EMLA cream) and a fibrin sealant (Tissucol) was injected into the sac after fluid aspiration. Patients experienced no pain during needle insertion and sclerosant procedure; 2 recurrences were observed during follow-up. EMLA cream anaesthesia and fibrin adhesive sclerotherapy represent a useful alternative to surgical treatment of hydroceles.

  13. Sclerotherapy for hydrocele revisited: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, M S; Yadav, H; Upadhyay, A; Jaiman, R; Singhal, J; Singh, A K

    2009-02-01

    A prospective randomised trial to study the efficacy and safety of hydrocele sclerotherapy with phenol and polidocanol. Eighty-six patients with unilateral primary vaginal hydroceles were randomised into three groups: group 1 (phenol sclerotherapy) - 29 patients, group 2 (polidocanol sclerotherapy) - 29 patients and group 3 (operative treatment) - 28 patients. Sclerotherapy was performed on outpatient basis using either 5-10 ml of 5% phenol or 2-4 ml of 1% polidocanol, while patients in group 3 underwent surgical repair of hydrocele (Jaboulay's procedure). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. The cure rates in group 1, 2 and 3 were 96.5%, 51.7% and 100%, respectively. The pain scores (visual analogue scale) in group 1, 2 and 3 at 1 week and 1 month were 14.5 and 1.8; 10.1 and 1.3; 64.0 and 10.6, respectively. There was significant difference among the three groups in mean hospital stay (1.8, 1.5 and 9.7 hours, respectively) and time to work resumption (1.3, 1.1 and 12.7 days, respectively). Statistically significant differences in pain scores and complications were observed between sclerotherapy and operative groups. Five percent phenol is a better sclerosant than 1% polidocanol and is as efficacious as operative treatment, with lesser morbidity and similar safety profile.

  14. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Fuse, H; Nishikawa, Y; Shimazaki, J; Katayama, T

    1991-01-01

    Seventeen patients with hydrocele of the testis were treated by aspiration of fluid and substitution with tetracycline supplemented with 1% lidocaine. In 15 patients (88%) symptoms disappeared by sclerotherapy. After sclerotherapy scrotal ultrasonography was useful to diagnose either relapse or thickened tunica vaginalis. No side effect was noticed.

  15. Classifying Hydroceles of the Pelvis and Groin: An Overview of Etiology, Secondary Complications, Evaluation, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Gandhi, Jason; Suh, Yiji; Weissbart, Steven; Sheynkin, Yefim R.; Smith, Noel L.; Joshi, Gargi; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A hydrocele is defined as the pathological buildup of serous fluid in the pelvis and groin due to various etiologies such as diseases or trauma. It has distinct clinical manifestations, particularly discomfort and psychosocial distress. Understanding the anatomy, embryology, and physiology associated with hydrocele formation is crucial to understand its onset and progression. Materials and Methods A MEDLINE® search was conducted using keywords for the relevant classification of hydrocele and its etiology, complications, sexual barriers, evaluation, and management. Results Appropriately classifying the hydrocele as primary, secondary communicating, secondary noncommunicating, microbe-induced, inflammatory, iatrogenic, trauma-induced, tumor-induced, canal of Nuck, congenital, and giant is important for identifying the underlying etiology. Often this process is overlooked when the classification or etiology is too rare. A focused evaluation is important for this, so that timely management can be provided. We comprehensively review the classifications, etiology, and secondary complications of hydrocele. Pitfalls of current diagnostic techniques are explored along with recommended methods for accurate diagnosis and current treatment options. Conclusion Due to the range of classifications and etiologies of hydrocele in the pelvis and groin, a deliberate differential diagnosis is essential to avoiding imminent life-threatening complications as well as providing the appropriate treatment. PMID:28559772

  16. A randomized trial comparing 2 doses of polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydrocele or spermatocele.

    PubMed

    Jahnson, Staffan; Sandblom, Dag; Holmäng, Sten

    2011-10-01

    Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydrocele or spermatocele combines high efficiency with low morbidity, but the optimal dose is not known. We compared the efficacy and morbidity of 2 or 4 ml polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydrocele or spermatocele. From 1993 to 2005 a double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted using 2 or 4 ml polidocanol (30 mg/ml) for sclerotherapy of hydrocele/spermatocele in 224 evaluable patients at 3 university hospitals. Fluid was evacuated and 2 or 4 ml polidocanol was administered by a nurse, with the amount injected concealed from others present. At 3-month followup morbidity was ascertained using a questionnaire completed by the patients. Fluid recurrence was determined clinically and generally re-treated. After the first treatment, cure was observed in 59% and 47% in the 4 and the 2 ml group, respectively (p = 0.04). More patients in the 4 ml group had complications (31% vs 18%, p = 0.04). Complications were mostly of low or moderate intensity and seldom required medication. After 1 to 4 treatments 200 of 224 patients (89%) were cured and another 10 (5%) had small amounts of residual fluid, with no difference between the groups. Of the patients with hydroceles/spermatoceles larger than 175 ml, 58% and 34% were cured after the first treatment in the 4 and 2 ml groups, respectively (p = 0.012), with no differences in complications between the groups. Polidocanol sclerotherapy was effective for the treatment of hydrocele or spermatocele in our patients, with 94% satisfactory results after 1 to 4 treatments. A dose of 4 ml was superior to 2 ml, particularly for larger hydroceles/spermatoceles. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multicystic recurrence of hydrocele testis after sclerosing with polidocanol followed by spontaneous cure.

    PubMed

    Fariña, L A; Villavicencio, H

    1995-01-01

    Scrotal ultrasound has been used to confirm the resolution of hydrocele testis after sclerosing with different solutions, and so, early recurrences with a multicystic appearance were occasionally observed. This finding was considered a complication of the sclerosant treatment needing a surgical option [1]. We have observed that a multilocular recurrence of hydrocele after percutaneous sclerosing with polidocanol is frequently followed by spontaneous cure.

  18. Ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy for hydroceles and spermatoceles: a survey of 158 patients with ultrasound followup.

    PubMed

    Tammela, T L; Hellström, P A; Mattila, S I; Ottelin, P J; Malinen, L J; Mäkäräinen, H P

    1992-06-01

    Sclerotherapy with 5% ethanolamine oleate was used to treat 102 hydroceles in 100 patients and 63 spermatoceles in 58 patients. Scrotal ultrasound examination was performed before the sclerotherapy and at each followup visit. Of the hydroceles 98% were cured completely and 68% were cured after only 1 sclerosant instillation, while 60% of the spermatoceles resolved completely and 33% partially, with 7% failures. No hydroceles recurred during an average followup of 43 months, whereas spermatocele recurred in 4 patients more than 1 year after successful treatment, with a mean followup of 46 months. Approximately half of the patients experienced pain after treatment, 3 had infection and 2 had hematoma. No changes in the structure or size of the testicles were found by ultrasound during followup. Ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and economical form of outpatient therapy that can be recommended as primary treatment for hydroceles in adults and as an alternative to surgery for spermatoceles with 1 to 3 cysts in elderly men in whom fertility is not important.

  19. Treatment of hydrocele: randomised prospective study of simple aspiration and sclerotherapy with tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Breda, G; Giunta, A; Gherardi, L; Xausa, D; Silvestre, P; Tamai, A

    1992-07-01

    Following reports in the literature on the efficacy of tetracycline sclerotherapy in the treatment of hydroceles, we carried out a randomised prospective study of 45 patients (50 hydroceles), comparing simple evacuation with tetracycline sclerotherapy. The results revealed no statistically significant difference in the percentage of success between the 2 groups, but complications were more common in the patients treated with tetracycline. The good results reported by other authors in non-randomised studies are, therefore, not confirmed.

  20. [Sclerotherapy of hydrocele and cord cyst with polidocanol. Efficiency study].

    PubMed

    Merenciano Cortina, F J; Rafie Mazketli, W; Amat Cecilia, M; Romero Pérez, P

    2001-01-01

    Checking the efficiency (cost/benefit) of the sclerotherapy with polidocanol in our country for the treatment of hydrocele and epididymal cyst. We studies 86 patients with this diagnosis from may of 1995, until april of 2000. We have applied the costs for process according to the indicators of administration-cost our hospital in the year 1999. 79 patient completed the protocol. The overall cure rate was 83.87% with sclerotherapy; 42.3% with first one treatment. Only a 4.5% of the patients had significant pain and a 7.4% others complications. There were necessaries 1.5 sclerotherapies of mean for curation, resulting this treatment 4.78 more cheaper than surgery. The sclerotherapy with polidocanol of the hydrocele or epididymal cyst are an effective treatment, sure, simple, reasonably comfortable and fundamentally, economical.

  1. Adolescent varicocele: Tauber antegrade sclerotherapy versus Palomo repair.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, G; Spagnoli, A; Lucchetti, M C; Villa, M; Capitanucci, M L; Ferro, F

    2001-10-01

    There is general agreement on treatment for varicocele in pediatric patients. Randomized prospective studies have shown that anatomical and functional lesions may be corrected. Due to the impossibility of seminal examination patients with moderate to large varicocele or ipsilateral testicular hypertrophy, characterized by a change in testicular consistency or symptoms, should undergo surgical correction. The best therapeutic approach is still under discussion. At 2 centers 2 therapeutic approaches to varicocele treatment in pediatric patients were compared, namely the Palomo repair and antegrade sclerotherapy according to Tauber. The 89 patients from the same geographical area elected 1 procedure after an explanation. From the medical records we retrospectively evaluated operative time, postoperative analgesics, postoperative fever onset, complications, convalescence, recurrence and postoperative hydrocele. After Palomo repair in 45 patients there were 2 recurrences (4.4%) and 2 postoperative hydroceles (4.4%). Of 44 antegrade sclerotherapy cases 1 was converted to Palomo repair, there was no hydrocele formation and recurrence developed in 2 (4.5%). Testicular atrophy was not observed in any patient regardless of the method used. The cost of the procedure was lower in the sclerotherapy group. These data suggest that the failure rate was similar in both groups. The principal advantages of sclerotherapy are simplicity, decreased cost and lack of hydrocele formation.

  2. The absorption of chlortetracycline following transscrotal instillation for the treatment of primary hydrocele testis.

    PubMed

    Bødker, A; Rasmussen, T B; Christensen, M B

    1991-04-01

    We describe the absorption of chlortetracycline from the emptied hydrocele sac, which was instilled to treat a primary hydrocele of the testis. The study included 7 patients and 2 control subjects who were given 500 mg. chlortetracycline. Plasma concentration was determined at 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after instillation, and in 2 patients plasma levels also were determined at 48 and 72 hours. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC1) was calculated in each case by using the trapezoidal rule. In the control group the plasma level was determined at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours after instillation. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC2) was calculated by the formula AUC2 = Co/Kc. The fraction F of absorption can be expressed as F = AUC1/AUC2; median F = 0.67 (range 0.41 to 0.92). We conclude that chlortetracycline passes readily and almost completely through the tunica vaginalis lining the hydrocele sac.

  3. Is two-port laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (T-LESS) feasible for pediatric hydroceles? Single-center experience with the initial 59 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Furan; Shou, Tiejun; Zhong, Hongji

    2018-02-01

    Although T-LESS is increasingly being used to treat pediatric inguinal hernia, there is no study regarding T-LESS for pediatric hydrocele. To further evaluate the feasibility of T-LESS and present our single-center experience for repair of pediatric hydroceles. From January 2016 to July 2016, all boys undergoing T-LESS for hydrocele in our institute were retrospectively reviewed. A laparoscope and a needle-holding forceps were introduced at umbilicus. A round needle with silk suture was stabbed through the abdominal wall. The peritoneum around the internal ring was sutured continuously in a clockwise direction. After a complete purse-string suture, a triple knot was performed by using a single-instrument tie technique. The contralateral patent processus vaginalis (PPV) was repaired simultaneously if present. Overall, 59 boys with hydrocele were included (22 on the left side, 32 on the right side, and 5 bilaterally) (Table). During the procedure, all hydroceles were observed with a PPV but the fluid needed to be aspired in 39 boys. A contralateral PPV was present in 24 boys with unilateral hydrocele, and finally 88 repairs were performed. Mean operative time was 18.3 min for unilateral repair and 27.5 min for bilateral repair, respectively. All procedures were uneventful besides a minor injury to the inferior epigastric vessels. After a mean follow-up of 10.7 months, neither recurrence nor other postoperative complication was observed. There were no visible scars on the abdominal wall. Compared with open repair of pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele, laparoscopic surgery had several advantages, such as exploration of contralateral PPV, identification of rare hernias, diminished postoperative pain, improved cosmesis, faster recovery, and fewer complications. Differing from the laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach, T-LESS included no subcutaneous tissue in the ligature, and its knot was completely in the peritoneal cavity which could radically prevent the

  4. [Sclerotherapy of hydroceles and spermatoceles with oxytetracyclines].

    PubMed

    López Laur, J D; Parisi, J

    1989-01-01

    We present a sclerosing treatment with oxytetracycline in 23 patients with hydrocele and 8 with spermatocele. We injected 250 mg of the drug in cases with less than 250 cc of liquid extracted and 500 mg in the others. The cure rate with the first injection reaches 69.5% and absolute failure 13.04%. Complications were 26.08%, consisting of a chemical febrile orchiepididymitis. It is a method for elderly and high-risk patients. It is economical, simple, repeatable and is carried out on an out-patient basis without any need for hospitalization.

  5. Treatment of hydrocele testis by injection of tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, J; Christensen, A B

    1988-01-01

    In a prospective study 27 hydroceles were treated with single aspiration and injection of 500 mg tetracycline. The median observation period was 6 months (range 3-15 months). One month after therapy 9 recurrences were observed; but 5 disappeared spontaneously during the next 2 months, giving an overall success rate of 85% (95% confidence limits 66-96%). No serious complications occurred. Dilution of tetracycline in lidocaine prevented acute scrotal pain. Sclerotherapy with tetracycline is efficient, easy and inexpensive and, therefore, economical and beneficial for the patient.

  6. Sclerotherapy of hydroceles and spermatoceles with alcohol: results and effects on the semen analysis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chen Jen; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pagani, Rodrigo; Srougi, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the success rates of sclerotherapy of the tunica vaginalis with alcohol for the treatment of hydroceles and/or spermatoceles, as well as, evaluation of pain, formation of hematomas, infection and its effects in spermatogenesis. A total of 69 patients, with offsprings and diagnosis of hydrocele and/or spermatocele, were treated during the period from April 2003 to June 2007. Semen analysis was obtained from patients who were able to provide us with samples. The sclerotherapy with alcohol at 99.5% was undertaken as outpatient procedure. The average volume drained pre-sclerotherapy was 279.82 mL (27 to 1145). The median follow-up was 43 months (9 to 80). A total of 114 procedures were performed on 84 units, with an average of 1.35 procedures/unit and an overall success rate of 97.62%. Of the 69 patients, 7 (10.14%) reported minor pain immediately after the procedure, 3 (4.35%) moderate pain and 2 (2.89%) intense pain. Post-Sclerotherapy spermograms revealed reduction of the parameters regarding: concentration, motility and morphology up to 6 months post procedure, with return to normal parameters 12th months after procedure. Sclerotherapy of hydroceles and spermatoceles with 99.5% alcohol is an efficient procedure that can be performed without difficulties, cost-effectiveness, with few side effects and which may be performed in patients who wish fertility.

  7. Is aspiration and sclerotherapy treatment for hydroceles in the aging male an evidence-based treatment?

    PubMed

    Taylor, W St J; Cobley, J; Mahmalji, W

    2018-01-16

    Symptomatic hydroceles are commonly treated with surgical repair. They are associated with sexual dysfunction in the aging male. Patients who are not fit for surgery often undergo aspiration and sclerotherapy of the hydrocele. There is a range of sclerosing agents used in the literature. I performed a literature search to assess whether one sclerosant was better than the others. STDS is the sclerosing agent with the best cure rate after a single injection and low side effect rates. The cure rates of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STDS) after a single aspiration and injection were 76%. After multiple treatments 94% achieved a cure. Patient satisfaction rates at mean 40 months were 95%. Complication rates were generally low and much lower than surgical repair. Aspiration and sclerotherapy have a role in treating symptomatic hydroceles. This literature review shows that this is over and above its current use in the UK, where it is used for patients unfit for general anaesthetic. If the patients are carefully selected for this procedure, they can have a good outcome and avoid the higher complication rate and longer recovery rates of surgical repair. Patients should be counselled about aspiration and sclerotherapy as part of the informed consent process.

  8. Peno-scrotal limphedema with giant hydrocele - surgical treatment particularities

    PubMed Central

    Mischianu, Dan; Florescu, Ioan; Madan, Victor; Iatagan, Cristian; Bratu, Ovidiu; Oporan, Anca; Giublea, C

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The necessity for complex and multidisciplinary approach of “border” surgical pathology has unanimously been agreed upon for such a long period of time, its advantages becoming even more obvious in rare, particular cases. Patients and methods: We report the case of a 39 year-old man diagnosed with lymphangiomatosis back in his childhood. He is admitted with a giant pseudotumoral scrotal mass presenting an important scrotal enlargement (40/35 cm). Physical examination, blood tests, ultrasound, IVP, abdominal and chest CT, psychiatric and plastic surgery evaluation established the diagnosis: peno-scrotal lymphedema with gigantic hydrocele and depressive disorder. Taking into account the important enlargement of the scrotum associated with the alteration of the local skin, we decided to form a mixed surgical team: urology - plastic and reconstructive surgery. We performed bilateral surgical therapy of hydrocele with partial excision and eversion of sac edges, excision of peno-scrotal skin and subcutaneous tissue surplus. At the end we made a reconstruction by using a partial-thickness graft from the normal skin of the left thigh. Results: Spinal anaesthesia was sufficient in order to perform a qualitative complex surgery. Intra and postoperative course was uneventful with minimal blood loss. Conclusion: Rare cases like this one clearly reveal the advantages of a multidisciplinary surgical team by combining usual surgical procedures from different specialities that could lead to spectacular results. PMID:20108494

  9. Long-term outcome of patients treated for hydrocele with the sclerosant agent sodium tetradecyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Stattin, P; Karlberg, L; Damber, J E

    1996-04-01

    The long-term outcome of 106 patients treated for hydrocele with the sclerosing agent sodium tetradecyl sulphate was examined. In a questionnaire distributed at a mean time of 40 months after therapy 83/86 (96%) of the eligible patients responded and 95% of them were satisfied with the treatment and its long term results. The treatment associated pain was evaluated on a visual analogue scale (0-10) the mean pain score was found to be 1.8 and the mean duration of the pain 2.4 days. When all hydroceles were considered the overall success rate was 88%. Side-effects were minor apart from two patients (1.9%) with diabetes mellitus who had an intense inflammatory reaction necessitating orchidectomy after sclerotherapy.

  10. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals ...

  11. Endometriosis-associated hydrocele of the canal of Nuck with immunohistochemical confirmation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Mizumoto, Masaki; Kinoshita, Koichi

    2017-12-21

    The canal of Nuck is an embryological vestige of the processus vaginalis, and presents a potential site for endometriosis seeding. Hydroceles in this region are a rare cause of inguinal swelling in females. In addition, endometriosis localized to the canal of Nuck is exceedingly rare. A 44-year-old Japanese woman presented with a painful mass overlying her right pubis. She underwent surgery to completely excise the mass. During surgery, division of the external oblique aponeurosis revealed a cyst that occupied the inguinal canal and it adhered to the transverse fascia, inguinal ligament, and pubic bone. The cyst was dissected from the round ligament, and the defect in the internal inguinal ring was repaired and reinforced with mesh. On macroscopic examination, the cyst had a heterogeneous fibrous aspect with dark brown inclusions. Microscopic examination revealed that the cyst was tortuous, lined by mesothelial-like cells, and accompanied by partial subcapsular hemorrhage. Endometrium-like tissue was observed in the cystic wall. Immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin confirmed the mesothelial origin of the cyst-lining cells. The epithelial cells and stromal cells were positive for estrogen receptors. In this case of an endometriosis-associated hydrocele of the canal of Nuck, the mesothelial origin of the cyst-lining cells and endometriosis were confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin and estrogen receptors, respectively. We determined that hydrocele resection and reinforcement of the anterior inguinal canal wall (if necessary) are appropriate treatments for this condition.

  12. Does pleurodesis for pleural effusions give bright ideas about the agents for hydrocele sclerotherapy?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, U; Ekmekçioğlu, O; Tatlişen, A; Demirci, D

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of rifampicin and some agents used in the pleurodesis of pleural effusions, such as autologous blood and purified mineral talc. A total of 56 hydroceles were treated by sclerotherapy, in a random fashion, using purified mineral talc, rifampicin and autologous blood as sclerosant agents. The control group of patients were handled with aspiration only. The cohort of patients in the blood group had a success rate comparable to the control group (p > 0.05). the rifampicin group did better than both control and blood groups (p < 0.05) but not better than the talc group (p < 0.01). Success rate was highest in the talc group of patients who needed no re-sclerotherapy procedures. Purified mineral talc was shown to be potentially the best sclerosant for the sclerotherapy of hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

  13. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik; Vedsted, Peter; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2016-07-01

    To perform a systematic literature review to assess whether the occurrence of testicular microlithiasis (TML) in conjunction with other risk factors is associated with testicular cancer. A systematic literature search was performed of original articles in English published 1998 to 2015. Relevant studies were selected by reading the title and abstract by two of the authors. Studies were included if TML was diagnosed by ultrasonography and a risk condition was reported. Studies were only eligible if the particular risk condition was reported in more than one article. In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular cancer. Data support the conclusion that TML is not an independent risk factor for testicular cancer but associated with testicular cancer through other conditions. In male infertility, TML appears to be related to an increased risk of testicular cancer possibly as part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

  14. [A comparative evaluation of surgical methods for treating hydrocele].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia L; Gorokhov, M E

    1990-01-01

    The authors analysed the results of the surgical treatment of 167 patients with hydrocele who were operated on with the use of Winkelmann's or Bergmann's technique (group I), the same but modified by Grebenshchikov-Shevtsov's (group II), and Lord's method (group III). Sclerotherapy was employed in the group IV patients. A high percentage of complications was associated with Winkelmann and Bergmann's techniques (scrotal edema, hematoma, wound purulence) when the hydropic sac was isolated from the adjacent tissues. Postsurgical staying-in-bed time for those operated on with Winkelmann's and Bergmann's technique was mean 8.6 +/- 1.2 days and 9.4 +/- 1.3 days, respectively. When the same surgery was performed according to the Grebenshchikov-Shevtsov's modification a mean staying-in-bed time reduced to 7.2 +/- 0.9 days due to a lower incidence of postsurgical complications. Analysis of 42 surgeries performed with the Lord's method which avoided the isolation of the hydropic sac from the adjacent tissues demonstrated its efficacy and simplicity. No hematomas, suppurations or relapses were documented. The staying-in-bed time was 3.4 +/- 0.6 days. The pronounced changes in tunica propria and the multilocular character of hydrocele were the contradictions to this pattern of the treatment. In case the performance of the surgery was impossible, sclerotherapy with administration of 2-10 ml of 2.5 per cent of tetracycline solution was performed for the sclerosing and antibacterial effect. A mean staying-in-bed time was 2.1 +/- 0.9 days. Seven out of 8 patients recovered after 1-3 sessions of sclerotherapy.

  15. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  16. Sonography in patients with gunshot wounds of the scrotum: imaging findings and their value.

    PubMed

    Learch, T J; Hansch, L P; Ralls, P W

    1995-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterize sonographic findings in patients with scrotal injuries caused by gunshot wounds and to determine if sonography can be used to detect and differentiate various scrotal abnormalities. If patients are managed conservatively, less serious injuries (hydroceles, hematoceles, and scrotal hematomas) must be separated from those requiring urgent surgical repair (testicular rupture). Sonograms obtained in 19 patients to evaluate gunshot wounds to the scrotum were studied for evidence of testicular rupture, extratesticular soft-tissue abnormalities, and the presence and location of foreign bodies. The results were compared with clinical (19 patients) and surgical (six patients) findings. Retrospective review of the sonograms showed normal testicles without evidence of rupture in 11 patients, eight of whom had scrotal hematomas, hydroceles, or hematoceles. Nine of the 11 patients were treated conservatively, and their symptoms resolved. In one of the other two patients, a prominent vessel was initially mistaken for a fracture plane; the testicle was found to be intact at surgery. The other patient was taken to surgery to remove a bullet in the peritesticular soft tissues; surgery demonstrated intact, viable testicles bilaterally, but both epididymides had through-and-through tracts from the bullet. Two patients had sonolucent tracks from missile pathways in otherwise normal appearing testicles. Testicular rupture was sonographically detected in six patients. Sonograms in all patients with surgically confirmed testicular rupture showed heterogeneous echogenicity and loss of smooth oval contour. In one patient, the sonogram showed a fracture plane. Sonograms showed foreign bodies in five patients and localized them to the testicular parenchyma (one patient) and to extratesticular soft tissues (four patients). Sonography can distinguish various scrotal abnormalities caused by ballistic trauma, information that can be useful to the

  17. The Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio in Cryptorchidism: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hawook; Jo, Hyun Wook; Yun, Bongju; Kim, Taewoo; Yu, Daeseon; Park, Jinsung; Kim, Dae Kyeng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The homeobox (Hox) genes a and d controlling limb and genital development influence the digit ratio and the fetal production of testicular androgen, which may result in testicular descent in boys. To assess whether the digit ratio reflects disease status, we investigated the second and fourth finger lengths in children with cryptorchidism, in children with hydrocele as a disease control, and in healthy controls (boys and girls). Materials and Methods One hundred ninety-six children (46 with cryptorchidism, 50 with hydrocele, 50 healthy boys, and 50 healthy girls) who were 6 to 23 months of age were prospectively enrolled. Digit lengths were measured by 2 investigators, and the mean value was recorded. Results The second-to-fourth digit ratios (2D:4Ds) of the left hand in the cryptorchidism group, hydrocele group, healthy boys, and healthy girls were 0.958, 0.956, 0.950, and 0.956, respectively. The 2D:4D values of the right hand were 0.946, 0.945, 0.952, and 0.969, respectively. The right and left 2D:4D ratios were not significantly different among groups. The 2D:4D of both hands was not related to age, weight, or height. Conclusions According to these results, the 2D:4D was not significantly different in boys with cryptorchidism than in boys with hydrocele or in healthy controls (boys and girls) and failed to reflect disease conditions in the infant period. PMID:24578812

  18. Testicular Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... work the way it should. Having testicular carcinoma in situ . Being white. Having a personal or family history ... testicle that is not normal, or testicular carcinoma in situ have an increased risk of testicular cancer in ...

  19. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed during a testicular ultrasound — in which small clusters of calcium form in the testicles. A number ... 48:1079. Wang T, et al. A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence ...

  20. The long-term efficacy of hydrocele treatment with aspiration and sclerotherapy with polidocanol compared to placebo: a prospective, double-blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Lund, L; Kloster, A; Cao, T

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate whether aspiration and sclerosing of hydrocele testis is an effective treatment. Men with symptomatic hydrocele testis were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized study with polidocanol and placebo. Patients were randomized to active treatment or placebo at the first treatment. Depending on hydrocele testis size (less than 100, 100 to 200 and greater than 200 ml), the patients were treated with 1, 3 or 4 ml polidocanol after aspiration. Patients with recurrence at the 5-week followup received active treatment. A total of 77 patients were included in the study. In group 1 (active treatment) there were 36 patients with a median age of 63 years (range 34 to 92). In group 2, comprised of 41 patients, the median age was 59 years (range 26 to 82). Median followup was 72 months. A significant difference between the groups was observed after the first and second treatments. Recurrence after the first treatment was seen in 16 (44%) patients from group 1 and in 32 (78%) from group 2 (p <0.05). Recurrence after re-treatment with the active drug in both groups was seen in 4 (25%) patients in group 1 and in 14 (44%) in the former placebo group (p <0.05). The overall success rate of treatment in the active group was 89%. There was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of volume of fluid aspirated, symptoms or complications. This long-term efficacy randomized study with placebo showed that polidocanol is effective for the treatment of hydrocele testis with a low recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydroceles and epididymal cysts. Long-term results.

    PubMed

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Krogh, J

    1990-01-01

    Fourty patients with 32 hydroceles and 11 epididymal cysts were treated by aspiration and instillation of tetracycline. After a follow up period of 24-39 months the cure rate was 77%. Most of the early recurrences were the results of chemical inflammation and vanished spontaneously. This group should therefore not be operated on until three months after their initial treatment. As aspiration of the fluid had allowed palpation of the testis and cytological examination, only a small proportion of patients with recurrences wanted further treatment. We therefore recommend tetracycline sclerotherapy because it is quick, easy, safe, and effective in the long as well as the short term.

  2. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testicular failure occurs when the testicles cannot produce sperm or male hormones, such as testosterone. Causes Testicular ... semen analysis to examine the number of healthy sperm you are producing. Sometimes, an ultrasound of the ...

  3. Testicular cancer and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cancer and infertility affect a similar age group of patients and have common biologic, epidemiologic, and environmental backgrounds. In this review, we provide current literature on links between infertility and testicular cancer, and new developments in the management of testicular cancer aimed at improving quality of life in men with testicular cancer. In-utero environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors modulates the genetically determined fate of primitive gonad and results in testicular dysgenesis syndrome, which may result in infertility and testicular cancer. Excellent response of testicular cancer to radiation and chemotherapy results in over 90% of survival and quality of life--fertility and sexual function--is of significant concern to patients and clinicians. The testicular-sparing management of testicular masses emerges as a sound alternative to radical orchiectomy and allows for preservation of spermatogenesis and hormonal function, and at the same time achieving similar survival rates. Secondary malignancies, pulmonary, and cardiovascular complications are recognized as late complications of treatment for testicular cancer. Better understanding of common mechanisms involved in infertility and testicular cancer, and scientifically driven evidence-based treatment options should improve quality of life in young men faced with this potentially life-threatening disease.

  4. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  5. MICRODISSECTION TESTICULAR SPERM EXTRACTION IN MEN WITH SERTOLI CELL ONLY TESTICULAR HISTOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Berookhim, Boback M.; Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Zaninovic, Nikica; Rosenwaks, Zev; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the outcomes of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) among men with pure Sertoli cell only histology on diagnostic testicular biopsy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients 640 patients with pure Sertoli cell only histology on testicular biopsy who underwent microTESE by a single surgeon. Intervention MicroTESE. Main Outcome Measure Sperm retrieval rates. Results Overall, 44.5% of patients with Sertoli cell-only had sperm retrieved with microTESE. No difference was noted in sperm retrieval rates based on testis volume (≥ 15cc versus <15cc, 35.3% versus 46.1%, respectively). Patients with ≥ 15cc testicular volume and FSH 10-15 mU/mL had the worst prognosis, with a sperm retrieval rate of 6.7%. Conclusions Patients with previous testicular biopsy demonstrating Sertoli cell only histology can be counseled that they have a reasonable likelihood of sperm retrieval with the contemporary delivery of microTESE. Given this finding, the utility of testicular biopsy prior to microTESE is further questioned. PMID:25441063

  6. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with preservation of testicular artery and lymphatic vessels by using intracorporeal knot-tying technique: five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Wu, Chia-Chang; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yang, Stephen Shei Dei; Tsai, Yao-Chou

    2011-08-01

    In this study we present our experience using minilaparoscopic intracorporeal knot tying to ligate internal spermatic veins (ISV) while sparing the spermatic artery and lymphatics. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomies were performed in 87 patients between January 2004 and January 2009. All varicoceles were detected clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and confirmed by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography. The surgical indications were scrotal symptoms in 71, infertility in 16, and both conditions in 2. Three 3.5 mm minilaparoscopic ports were used for the operation. The ISVs were dissected and then ligated with intracorporeal knot-tying. The testicular artery and lymphatic vessels were carefully preserved to minimize procedure-related complications. Unilateral laparoscopic varicocelectomy was performed in 21 (24.2%) patients and bilateral in 66 (75.8%). Mean operative time was 71.1 ± 29.2 and 46.8 ± 12.6 min for bilateral and unilateral varicocelectomies, respectively. All patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Neither immediate major nor late procedure-related complications were noted. Of the 71 patients with scrotal symptoms, the symptoms completely subsided in 55 (77.5%) and partially subsided in 10 (14.1%). Only one (1.2%) recurrent varicocele was detected within a mean follow-up of 21 months (range = 3-42). Neither hydrocele formation nor testicular atrophy was found during the follow-up period. Our 5-year experience revealed that minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with sparing of artery and lymphatic vessels could safely and effectively ligate all spermatic veins and preserve spermatic arteries and lymphatic channels without leading to a high varicocele persistence or recurrence.

  7. Testicular Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage. Start here to find information on testicular cancer treatment, screening, and statistics.

  8. Testicular cancer update.

    PubMed

    Adra, Nabil; Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2017-05-01

    The advances seen in the treatment of testicular cancer are among the great achievements in modern medicine. These advances were made possible by the collaborative efforts of cancer researchers around the world. Investigators have been able to address many questions regarding the treatment of patients with disease limited to the testis, those with metastasis to the retroperitoneum only, and those with advanced metastatic disease. Questions answered include the chemotherapeutic agents to be used and in what combinations, the proper intensity of treatment and appropriate dosing, the optimal number of cycles of chemotherapy according to validated risk stratification, appropriate surgical approaches that preserve sexual function, the treatment of relapsed disease, what supportive care measures to take, and survivorship issues following treatment of testicular cancer. Today, cure is achievable in 95% of all patients with testicular cancer and 80% of those who have metastatic disease. Despite remarkable results with frontline and salvage combination chemotherapy, metastatic testicular cancer remains incurable in approximately 10% of patients, and novel treatment approaches are warranted. This review highlights past and recent discoveries in the treatment of patients with testicular cancer.

  9. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Dohle, Gert R; Elzanaty, Saad; van Casteren, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy. Ultrasonographic abnormalities, such as testicular microlithiasis, inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes, further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men. For an accurate histological classification, proper tissue handling, fixation, preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed. A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended. In addition, approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory. In this mini-review, we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility. PMID:22157985

  10. Testicular self-examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... doihavetesticularcancer/do-i-have-testicular-cancer-self-exam . Updated May 23, 2016. Accessed October 9, 2017. Friedlander ... cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/testicular/Patient/page3 . Updated March 10, 2017. Accessed October 9, 2017. US ...

  11. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Sclerotherapy of spermatoceles and hydroceles. Long-term results of polidocanol use].

    PubMed

    Andersen, M; Bentsen, G

    1993-10-20

    Treatment of hydroceles and spermatoceles with evacuation, followed by injection of the sclerosing agent Polidocanol 3% (Aetoxysklerol), is a simple, low cost alternative to surgery. For the patient, it is also less painful compared to sclerotherapy using tetracycline. This article shows that the long term results are very promising. 28 patients, of whom two were treated for bilateral celes, gave us a total of 30 treatments. We interviewed the patients 62 months (52-67 months) after treatment, and found that in 24 of the 30 treatments there were no sign of relapse. In three cases the patient had noticed a small relapse, but had no pain. Three have later been treated with surgery.

  13. Circulating filarial antigen in the hydrocele fluid from individuals living in a bancroftian filariasis area - Recife, Brazil: detected by the monoclonal antibody Og4C3-assay.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Abraham; Lima, Guilherme; Medeiros, Zulma; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Alves, Sandra; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Oliveira, Paula; Béliz, Fátima; Netto, Maria José; Furtado, André

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detected by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Og4C3-ELISA in paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 104 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti. Nocturnal blood specimens were filtered and examined for microfilariae (MF) and ultrasound was used in order to identify the presence of adult worms (the filaria dance sign - FDS) in the lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area. Four groups were selected according to their parasitological status: group I - 71 MF- and FDS-; group II - 21 MF+ and FDS+; group III - 10 MF- and FDS+ and group IV- 2 MF+ and FDS-. CFA was identified simultaneously (fluid and serum) in 11 (15.5%), 21 (100%), 3 (30%), and 1 (50%) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In despite of high CFA+ level (antigen Og4C3) units/ml, the Geometrical Mean (GM) = 2696) in the sera of these 36/104 paired samples, when compared to the hydrocele fluid, (GM = 1079), showed a very good correlation between the CFA level in the serum and CFA level in the fluid (r = 0.731). CFA level in the serum of the 23 microfilaremics (groups II and IV) was extremely high (GM = 4189) and was correlated with MF density (r = 0.442). These findings report for the first time the potential alternative use of the hydrocele fluid to investigate CFA using the mAb Og4C3-ELISA.

  14. [Sclerotherapy and hydrocelectomy for the management of hydrocele in outpatient and day-surgery setting].

    PubMed

    Erdas, Enrico; Pisano, Giuseppe; Pomata, Mariano; Pinna, Giovanni; Secci, Lucia; Licheri, Sergio; Daniele, Giovanni Maria

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to compare two different procedures in the treatment of idiopathic hydrocele, namely, hydrocelectomy and percutaneous sclerotherapy, both of which performed in the outpatient or day surgery setting. A detailed description of the technical local anaesthesia steps is reported together with the sclerotherapy method. The study was conducted in 71 patients with a total of 77 hydroceles treated from 1993 to 2004. Surgery was carried out in 53 cases and sclerotherapy in 24. The latter was more frequently opted for elderly subjects as well as in those patients who requested it. Local or locoregional anaesthesia was reserved to patients treated surgically. The two treatments were compared on the basis of the following parameters: age, operative time, length of hospital stay, success rate and complications. The efficacy of the two procedures was comparable (sclerotherapy 95.8% vs surgery 100%), but sclerotherapy proved more favourable in terms of simplicity, rapidity of execution, shortness of hospital stay and risk of complications. However, 41.7% of patients required more than one treatment to obtain a radical cure, whereas surgery was effective in all cases in just one step. Hospital stay and morbidity were almost the same when surgery was performed under local anaesthesia. Sclerotherapy is an efficient alternative to the classic hydrocelectomy. The choice between the two treatment modalities should be made, taking into account above all the patient's individual preference.

  15. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  16. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Testicular Microlithiasis and Incidence of Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, LuHao; Luo, JinTai; Liu, TaiSheng; Wei, AnYang

    2015-04-29

    There are many recent observational studies on testicular microlithiasis (TM) and risk of testicular cancer. Whether TM increases the risk of testicular cancer is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis was to synthesize evidence from clinical observational studies that evaluated the association between TM and testicular cancer. We identified eligible studies by searching the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library before March 2014. Adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-or fixed-model. A total of 14 studies involving 35,578 participants were included in the meta-analysis. On the basis of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale systematic review, eleven studies were identified as relatively high-quality. TM was strong association with an increased incidence of testicular cancer (RR = 12.70, 95% CI: 8.18-19.71, P < .001), with significant evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (P for heterogeneity < .001, I2 = 82.1%). The subgroup and sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the results and no publication bias was detected. The present meta-analysis suggests that TM is significantly associated with risk of testicular cancer. More researches are warranted to clarify an understanding of the association between TM and risk of testicular cancer.

  17. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular ... 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  18. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage.

  19. Epidemiology of testicular cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Garner, Michael J; Turner, Michelle C; Ghadirian, Parviz; Krewski, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, accounting for 1.1% of all malignant neoplasms in Canadian males. Despite the low overall incidence of testicular cancer, it is the most common malignancy among young men. The incidence rate of testicular cancer has been increasing since the middle of the 20th century in many western countries. However, the etiology of testicular cancer is not well understood. A search of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify important articles for review and inclusion in this overview of the epidemiology of testicular cancer. Most of the established risk factors are related to early life events, including cryptorchidism, carcinoma in situ and in utero exposure to estrogens. Occupational, lifestyle, socioeconomic and other risk factors have demonstrated mixed associations with testicular cancer. Although there are few established risk factors for testicular cancer, some appear to be related to hormonal balance at various life stages. Lifestyle and occupational exposures occurring later in life may play a role in promoting the disease, although they are not likely involved in cancer initiation. In addition to summarizing the current epidemiologic evidence on risk factors for testicular cancer, we suggest future research directions that may elucidate the etiology of testicular cancer.

  20. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds.

  1. Clinical management of chronic testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priyadarshi; Mehta, Vivek; Nargund, Vinod H

    2010-01-01

    To review the causes and principles and recent concepts in the management of testicular pain. Chronic testicular pain is a common presenting symptom in genitourinary surgery. Due to increased awareness of testicular cancer and in men's health more cases are likely to be referred. A literature search was made for abstracts, original papers and review articles in the Cochrane Database, Medline and medical textbooks using the words 'testicular pain' and orchialgia to find the causes and mechanisms of testicular pain. The management and algorithm have been structured on evidence-based management strategies. The management of chronic testicular pain remains essentially based on clinical assessment. In recent years there have been advances in the non-surgical management of testicular pain mainly because of the emergence of pain relief as a specialty. However, in some cases pain control is a problem and may ultimately conclude with orchiectomy. The management of chronic testicular pain includes a careful assessment of testicular and extratesticular causes. Relief of symptoms is not always possible and gaining an insight into the patient's concerns and empathizing with their condition is paramount in helping them cope with their symptoms. Surgery should not be undertaken lightly for there is no guarantee that there will always be resolution of symptoms and the patient should be counseled accordingly. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Surgical retroperitoneoscopic and transperitoneoscopic access in varicocelectomy: duplex scan results in pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Stefano; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Molinaro, Francesco; Ferrara, Francesco; Tommasino, Giulio; Messina, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This is a retrospective study to compare duplex scan results of laparoscopic Palomo's technique through retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approach for varicocelectomy in children. We statistically analyzed recurrence, testicular volume growth and complications. Surgical intervention was performed utilizing transperitoneoscopic (group A) or retroperitoneoscopic access (group B). Duplex scan control was performed after 12 months (T1), after 2 years (T2) and the last one at 18 years old in most patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for parametric data. Differences in proportions were evaluated using χ2 or Fisher's exact test. We treated 120 children (age range 10-17 years) who presented an asymptomatic IV grade of reflux, Coolsaet 1, associated with a left testicular hypotrophy in 36.6% of the cases (44 patients). No post-operative complications were verified. Duplex scan exam showed an increase of left testicular growth in both groups, with complete hypotrophy disappear in patients in both groups after 24 months. Hydrocele, diagnosed clinically and confirmed with duplex scan, was the most frequent post-operative complication (22/120 cases; 18.3%). This study showed the importance of duplex scan at all steps of this vascular pathology in children, and that there is no significantly difference in results between the two surgical techniques except for hydrocele in transperitoneoscopic access. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Testicular microlithiasis: recent advances in understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Tan, Min-Han; Eng, Charis

    2011-03-01

    Testicular microlithiasis is an infrequent but well recognized condition, which is usually incidentally identified on testicular ultrasound scan. Interest in testicular microlithiasis has increased over the past few years, owing to an observed association with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) and intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type (ITGCNU). This association has added to evidence that testicular microlithiasis is a feature of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which is postulated to underpin disorders of male reproduction such as subfertility, testicular atrophy, cryptorchidism, TGCT and other abnormalities of sexual development. Although the genetic and environmental components of TDS remain unclear, studies of the molecular basis of TGCT support a genetic component for testicular microlithiasis and have identified multiple genes that are associated with TGCT. These advances in the biological understanding of testicular microlithiasis and TGCT have not, however, resolved key clinical dilemmas in the management of patients with these diseases. The role of testicular microlithiasis in the clinical consideration of testicular biopsy is discussed in the context of the apparently healthy individual, the individual with TGCT and the individual with TDS.

  4. Acute testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Orth, Robert C; Towbin, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    Acute testicular ischemia caused by an incarcerated inguinal hernia usually affects infants. There are few reports of diagnosis using US, and the effect of long-standing reducible hernias on testicular growth in infants and children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of testicular ischemia secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia at scrotal sonography and to determine the effect on testicular size at diagnosis. A hospital database was used to locate scrotal sonography examinations documenting an inguinal hernia, and images were reviewed for signs of testicular ischemia. Testicular volumes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 147 patients were identified with an inguinal hernia (age 1 day to 23 years, average 6 years). Ten patients (6.8%) had associated testicular ischemia (age 3 weeks to 6 months, average 9 weeks) and showed a statistically significant increase in ipsilateral testicular size compared to the contralateral testicle (P = 0.012). Patients without testicular ischemia did not show a significant difference in testicular size, regardless of patient age. An incarcerated inguinal hernia should be considered as a cause of acute testicular ischemia in infants younger than 6 months of age.

  5. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  6. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without

  7. Association of Torsion With Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Uguz, Sami; Yilmaz, Sercan; Guragac, Ali; Topuz, Bahadır; Aydur, Emin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported in association with torsion in surgical specimens. However, the published data remain scant on the association between torsion and the presence of testicular tumors. The present retrospective study explored the association between torsion and testicular cancer in patients with testicular torsion undergoing orchiectomy during scrotal exploration. A medical record review was performed of patients who had had a diagnosis of testicular torsion from January 2003 to February 2015. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were recorded. A total of 32 patients were identified. Their mean age was 21.1 years (range, 7-39 years). All the patients had unilateral testicular torsion, which affected the left side in 17 and the right side in 15. Manual detorsion was successful in 6 patients, and 26 patients underwent emergency surgery with testicular detorsion (6 fixation surgery and 20 orchiectomy). The type of incision was scrotal in 6, inguinal in 10, and unspecified in 4. Pathologic examination of the orchiectomy specimens showed malignancy in 2 cases (seminoma and malign mixed germ cell tumor). To the best of our knowledge, the present single-center case series is the largest case series to date of

  8. Metachronous Testicular Cancer After Orchiectomy: A Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Arda, Ersan; Cakiroglu, Basri; Cetin, Gizem; Yuksel, Ilkan

    2017-11-09

    Testicular cancer represents approximately 1% of all cancers diagnosed in males. The prevalence of bilateral testicular germ cell tumor cases varies from 1% to 5%. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor for almost all testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and is one of the highest risks of developing contralateral testicular cancer. The radical orchiectomy is still preferred for the treatment of testicular cancer. However, in some cases like solitary testis, bilateral cancer or if the tumor size is under 30% percent of the testicular extent, organ-sparing surgery can be an option. There are just a few published reports of metachronous contralateral testicular cancer, developed after orchiectomy with the histopathology of the intratubular germ cell neoplasia.

  9. Intravenous methylene blue venography during laparoscopic paediatric varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J B; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2014-02-01

    One of the challenges of varicocele surgery is to prevent hydrocele formation while still ensuring success. Methylene blue has been used to identify and preserve lymphatic vessels, and venography has been a standard component of sclerotherapy and percutaneous retrograde techniques. The authors have combined both approaches during laparoscopic varicocelectomy and report their experience. A prospective study was performed of adolescents with idiopathic varicocele and spontaneous venous reflux on Doppler ultrasound. A pampiniform plexus vein was cannulated via scrotal incision before creating the pneumoperitoneum. A mixture of methylene blue and Omnipaque™ was injected into the pampiniform plexus with fluoroscopic screening. Laparoscopic selective vein ligation was then performed using 5mm endoscopic clips or a bipolar vessel sealing device such as Plasmakinetic™ or Ligasure™. Venography was repeated to confirm complete ligation of the internal testicular veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery with clinical examination and Doppler ultrasound. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic selective vein ligation with venography and methylene blue injection. The median age was 14.7 (14.6-15.7) years. The recurrence rate was 12%. No patients developed a hydrocele. The length of surgery was 120 (100-126) minutes. Intra-operative intra-venous methylene blue injection and venography helps to identify venous duplications of the internal testicular veins and enhances the success rate of laparoscopic selective vein ligation. This approach prevents hydrocele formation but has a 12% recurrence rate, which appears to be higher than some techniques described in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Results and complications of adolescent varicocele repair with intraoperative sodium morrhuate sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebed, Brett; Packer, Michael; Husmann, Douglas; Zaontz, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent varicocele has been shown to affect spermatogenesis and correlate with decreased ipsilateral testicular volume, prompting treatment in a select population. We report our experience with 3 varicocele ligation procedures in concordance with sclerotherapy in adolescent patients. A total of 120 males underwent varicocele surgery at our institutions during an 8-year period. Sodium morrhuate sclerotherapy was used in 91 patients and 73 adolescent males fulfilled the 6-month followup criteria. The 73 males who were 9 to 17 years old underwent a total of 75 (bilateral in 2) procedures for varicocele treatment. Of the patients 23 underwent subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy (group 1), 9 underwent loupe assisted subinguinal varicocelectomy (group 2) and 41 underwent loupe assisted inguinal varicocelectomy (group 3). All patients received intraoperative sclerotherapy using sodium morrhuate injection. Outcome measures included recurrence, complications and catch-up growth at a minimum of 6 months of followup. The varicocele recurrence rate was 2.7% in patients receiving combined surgical ligation and sclerotherapy ablation. Group 1 had 2 recurrent varicoceles and no hydrocele formation, group 2 had no varicocele recurrence and no hydrocele formation, and group 3 had no varicocele recurrence and 2 postoperative hydroceles. Catch-up growth in the ipsilateral testis was seen in 85% of patients. No atrophy or testicular loss was noted. This preliminary experience with combined surgical ligation and sclerotherapy ablation in the adolescent population resulted in low varicocele recurrence with minimal morbidity. Outcomes of loupe assisted varicocelectomy appear to be improved compared to those in previous studies, alluding to an advantage in the addition of sclerotherapy.

  11. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center How to Do a Testicular Self Examination: For men over the age of 14, a ... the body and thus enabling the detection of testicular cancer at an early -- and very curable -- stage. Why ...

  12. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  13. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Testicular Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Testicular Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Most testicular cancers are germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. Find evidence-based information on testicular cancer treatment, screening, and statistics.

  15. An Uncommon Presentation of a Metachronous Testicular Primary Nonseminoma and Seminoma Separated by Two Decades and a Testicular Cancer Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Buck, Dennis Andrew; Smith, Tristan Dean; Montana, Wilbur Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-40 years [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Its incidence comprises 0.8% of all male cancers worldwide, with a mortality rate of 0.1%. The incidence has nearly doubled from 1975 to 2007 leading to the concern of environmental causes [Thomas: Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178: 1240-1245]. Testicular cancer presents as a painless testicular mass without transillumination. Testicular cancer is subcategorized under germ cell testicular cancer or sex cord-stromal tumors. Of the germ cell tumors, approximately 90% originate in the testis, with the other 10% being extragonadal [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Typically, if a patient presents with a testicular mass and is 50 years old or older, the diagnosis of a primary lymphoma is considered until proven otherwise [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Germ cell testicular cancer is further divided into the subtypes of seminomatous and nonseminomatous; each presents with a unique histology and differing treatment implications. Given the uniqueness of our patient's metachronous second testicular primary, we sought to compare our case findings to available historic publications. We sought to address the issues of the incidence of a second primary testicular malignancy with regard to varying histology, age of incidence, and timing of a second primary testicular cancer, the presence of bowel involvement, and finally a brief discussion of testosterone replacement therapy. A review of our case presents several unique factors. The above varying literature has shown our patient to have met the odds of a contralateral testicular primary development in that he had a nonseminomatous primary, followed by a second testicular primary seminoma. Our patient exceeded the 15-year cumulative risk of contralateral metachronous testicular cancer of 1

  16. Evaluation of the Role of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate as a Sclerosant in the Treatment of Primary Hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Musa, Osman; Roy, Arijit; Ansari, Nisar Ahmad; Sharan, Jagadamba

    2015-12-01

    The present study was carried out with an aim to perform a prospective study to establish the role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (3 %) (STDS) as a safe and effective sclerosant in the management of primary hydrocele. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3 % STDS on an outdoor basis. The amount of sclerosant injected depended on the amount of fluid drained. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics. Patients were clinically reassessed at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months and earlier if complications occur. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. The data have been represented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the data. A total of 57 patients with primary vaginal hydrocele gave consent for being enrolled in the study. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean age of 35.72 ± 13.18 years. The success rate at the end of the study was observed to be 84.2 %. As regards patient satisfaction, in present study, in a limited time period of follow up, all the patients who had a successful procedure were satisfied. Overall, sclerotherapy was observed to be a relatively cost-effective (including both direct and indirect costs) procedure with low complications, high satisfaction, and a high success rate within the limited period of follow-up.

  17. Hypothesis: does ochratoxin A cause testicular cancer?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the etiology of testicular cancer, which is the most common cancer among young men. Epidemiologic data point to a carcinogenic exposure in early life or in utero, but the nature of the exposure is unknown. We hypothesize that the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, is a cause of testicular cancer. Ochratoxin A is a naturally occurring contaminant of cereals, pigmeat, and other foods and is a known genotoxic carcinogen in animals. The major features of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer (a high incidence in northern Europe, increasing incidence over time, and associations with high socioeconomic status, and with poor semen quality) are all associated with exposure to ochratoxin A. Exposure of animals to ochratoxin A via the diet or via in utero transfer induces adducts in testicular DNA. We hypothesize that consumption of foods contaminated with ochratoxin A during pregnancy and/or childhood induces lesions in testicular DNA and that puberty promotes these lesions to testicular cancer. We tested the ochratoxin A hypothesis using ecologic data on the per-capita consumption of cereals, coffee, and pigmeat, the principal dietary sources of ochratoxin A. Incidence rates for testicular cancer in 20 countries were significantly correlated with the per-capita consumption of coffee and pigmeat (r = 0.49 and 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.01). The ochratoxin A hypothesis offers a coherent explanation for much of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer and suggests new avenues for analytic research.

  18. Gynaecomastia: an endocrine manifestation of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H C; Cullen, I M; Casey, R G; Rogers, E

    2008-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy affecting young men in their third or fourth decade with an incidence of three to six new cases per 100,000 males each year. When diagnosed and treated in its early stages, it has an excellent cure rate. 7-11% of patients with testicular cancer present initially with gynaecomastia. This may precede the presence of a palpable testicular tumour or hormonal abnormalities. This article evaluates the association between gynaecomastia and testicular cancer and recommends appropriate management for patients presenting with gynaecomastia.

  19. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E.; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high, thus the long term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991 – 2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3,323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Results Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24% increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1,000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Conclusions Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. Implications for Cancer Survivors While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low. PMID:27169992

  1. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-12-01

    Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high; thus, the long-term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991-2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24 % increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility, and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low.

  2. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testicular Cancer and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lydia; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of testicular descent or cryptorchidism is the most common defect in newborn boys. The descent of the testes during development is controlled by insulin-like 3 peptide and steroid hormones produced in testicular Leydig cells, as well as by various genetic and developmental factors. While in some cases the association with genetic abnormalities and environmental causes has been shown, the etiology of cryptorchidism remains uncertain. Cryptorchidism is an established risk factor for infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Experimental animal models suggest a causative role for an abnormal testicular position on the disruption of spermatogenesis however the link between cryptorchidism and TGCT is less clear. The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchid testes is seminoma, believed to be derived from pluripotent prenatal germ cells. Recent studies have shown that seminoma cells and their precursor carcinoma in situ cells express a number of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers suggesting that TGCTs might originate from adult stem cells. We review here the data on changes in the SSC somatic cell niche observed in cryptorchid testes of mouse models and in human patients. We propose that the misregulation of growth factors’ expression may alter the balance between SSC self-renewal and differentiation and shift stem cells toward neoplastic transformation. PMID:23519268

  4. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue before long-term testicular cell culture does not alter in vitro cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Baert, Yoni; Braye, Aude; Struijk, Robin B; van Pelt, Ans M M; Goossens, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether testicular cell dynamics are altered during long-term culture after testicular tissue cryopreservation. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis was obtained from six donors. None. Detection and comparison of testicular cells from fresh and frozen tissues during long-term culture. Human testicular cells derived from fresh (n = 3) and cryopreserved (n = 3) tissues were cultured for 2 months and analyzed with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were reliably detected by combining VASA, a germ cell marker, with UCHL1, a marker expressed by spermatogonia. The established markers STAR, ACTA2, and SOX9 were used to analyze the presence of Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, and Sertoli cells, respectively. No obvious differences were found between the cultures initiated from fresh or cryopreserved tissues. Single or small groups of SSCs (VASA(+)/UCHL1(+)) were detected in considerable amounts up to 1 month of culture, but infrequently after 2 months. SSCs were found attached to the feeder monolayer, which expressed markers for Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular myoid cells. In addition, VASA(-)/UCHL1(+) cells, most likely originating from the interstitium, also contributed to this monolayer. Apart from Sertoli cells, all somatic cell types could be detected throughout the culture period. Testicular tissue can be cryopreserved before long-term culture without modifying its outcome, which encourages implementation of testicular tissue banking for fertility preservation. However, because of the limited numbers of SSCs available after 2 months, further exploration and optimization of the culture system is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence. © 2013 UICC.

  6. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testicular torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 545. Ferri FF. Testicular torsion. In: ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1255-1255. Kryger JV. Acute and chronic ...

  9. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status.

  10. Testicular volume measurement: comparison of ultrasonography, orchidometry, and water displacement.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideo; Saito, Katsuyuki; Oohta, Michiya; Inoue, Katuki; Ogawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of orchidometry and ultrasonography for measuring the testicular volume by comparing the resultant measurements with the actual testicular volume in humans. The testicular volume of 40 testes from 20 patients with prostate cancer (mean age +/- SD 74.5 +/- 7.5 years) was measured using the Prader orchidometer and ultrasonography before therapeutic bilateral orchiectomy. The ultrasound measurements of testicular volume were calculated using three formulas: length (L) x width (W) x height (H) x 0.52, L x W2 x 0.52, and L x W x H x 0.71. The actual testicular volumes were determined by water displacement of the surgical specimen. The mean actual testicular volume of the 40 testes was 9.3 cm3 (range 2.5 to 23.0). A strong correlation was found between the testicular volume calculated by the three ultrasound formulas and the actual volume (r = 0.910 to 0.965, P <0.0001) and was stronger than the correlation with the Prader orchidometer (r = 0.818, P <0.0001). The smallest mean difference from the actual testicular volume was observed with the formula L x W x H x 0.71, which overestimated the actual volume by 0.80 cm3 (7.42%). The measurements using the Prader orchidometer correlated with the actual testicular volume and with the testicular volume calculated using the three ultrasound formulas (r = 0.801 to 0.816, P <0.0001). However, the orchidometer measurements had the largest mean difference from the actual testicular volume (6.68 cm3, 81.7%). The results of this study have shown that measuring the testicular volume by ultrasonography is more accurate than by the Prader orchidometer, and the formula L x W x H x 0.71 was the most accurate for calculating the testicular volume.

  11. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  12. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a...

  14. Association of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, K P; Rübe, C; Henke, R P

    1997-05-01

    We present additional clinical evidence for the suspected association of Down's syndrome and testicular germ cell tumors. Four cases of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer are reported. The literature was reviewed for previous cases and analysis regarding common features. The 4 patients were 29 to 35 years old and had clinical stage I seminoma of the testis. Two patients received prophylactic abdominal radiotherapy, 1 is being followed and 1 received adjuvant carboplatin treatment. There was no relapse at followup of 1 to 8 years. One patient also had contralateral cryptorchidism. A total of 16 cases with the association of Down's syndrome and testicular germ cell cancer was documented previously. Evidence for the suspected association of Down's syndrome and testicular cancer is now accumulating. Etiologically it is suspected that, along with genetically determined malformations in many other organs in trisomy 21, the gonads also undergo maldevelopment, thus creating the conditions for step 1 of germ cell tumor oncogenesis in utero. Physicians caring for patients with Down's syndrome should be aware of the possible association with testicular neoplasms.

  15. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  16. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  17. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  18. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Testicular torsion repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fertility. Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Images Male reproductive anatomy Testicular torsion repair - series References Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies of the scrotal contents. In: ...

  1. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - testicle Images Endocrine glands Male reproductive anatomy Testicular biopsy References Garibaldi LR, Chematilly W. Disorders of pubertal development. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  2. Surviving testicular cancer: the Lebanese lived experience.

    PubMed

    Saab, Mohammad; Noureddine, Samar; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Dejong, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is thought to have a great impact on its survivors, yet there has been limited literature on the topic globally and no literature on the topic in Lebanon and the Arab region. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors and gain an in-depth understanding of the psychosexual aspect of their experience. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach with semistructured digitally recorded interviews and observational field notes was utilized. A purposive sample of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors, aged between 18 and 50 years, in remission for at least 3 years, and willing to share personal information was recruited. Interviews were transcribed verbatim in Arabic. Data saturation was achieved at the seventh interview; a total of eight informants were recruited. The opening question was, "Tell me about your life since you got treated for testicular cancer," and was followed by probing questions. Two to three weeks after the initial interview, informants were called to validate the investigators' primary analysis. Six core themes emerged: cancer perception in the Lebanese culture; "do not show, do not tell"; cancer experience is a turning point; fertility, manhood, and relationships; coping with cancer; and preserved aspects of life. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors with a focus on the psychosexual aspect of this experience. The results suggest the need to educate patients about testicular cancer and its effect on their fertility.

  3. Testicular descent related to growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Fountzoula, Ioanna; Grigoriadou, Despina; Christianakis, Stratos; Tzortzatou, Georgia

    2003-01-01

    An 8.7 year-old boy with cryptorchidism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to septooptic dysplasia presented testicular descent related to the commencement of hGH treatment. This case suggests a role for GH in testicular descent.

  4. GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH AND RISK OF TESTICULAR CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sieh, Weiva; Sundquist, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Most testicular germ cell tumors originate from carcinoma in situ cells in fetal life, possibly related to sex hormone imbalances in early pregnancy. Previous studies of association between gestational age at birth and testicular cancer have yielded discrepant results and have not examined extreme preterm birth. Our objective was to determine whether low gestational age at birth is independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. We conducted a national cohort study of 354,860 men born in Sweden in 1973–1979, including 19,214 born preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) of whom 1,279 were born extremely preterm (22–29 weeks), followed for testicular cancer incidence through 2008. A total of 767 testicular cancers (296 seminomas and 471 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors) were identified in 11.2 million person-years of follow-up. Extreme preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard ratio 3.95; 95% CI, 1.67–9.34) after adjusting for other perinatal factors, family history of testicular cancer, and cryptorchidism. Only five cases (three seminomas and two nonseminomas) occurred among men born extremely preterm, limiting the precision of risk estimates. No association was found between later preterm birth, post-term birth, or low or high fetal growth and testicular cancer. These findings suggest that extreme but not later preterm birth may be independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. They are based on a small number of cases and will need confirmation in other large cohorts. Elucidation of the key prenatal etiologic factors may potentially lead to preventive interventions in early life. PMID:22314417

  5. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases.

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Rachid; Ahmed, Yosra Ben; Jlidi, Said; Nouira, Faouzi; Fdhila, Faten; Charieg, Awatef; Ghorbel, Sofiene; Barsaoui, Sihem; Chaouachi, Béji

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases), epidermoid cyst (one case) and immature teratoma (one case). Two patients (25%) had a malignant tumour: yolk-sac tumour (two cases). All this children underwent surgery. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was performed in six cases and conservative surgery was performed in two cases. One patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was uneventfully three years after primary surgery. In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  6. Familial risks in testicular cancer as aetiological clues.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-02-01

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk for testicular cancer in offspring through parental and sibling probands. Among 0 to 70-year-old offspring, 4,586 patients had testicular cancer. Standardized incidence ratios for familial risk were 3.8-fold when a father and 7.6-fold when a brother had testicular cancer. Testicular cancer was associated with leukaemia, distal colon and kidney cancer, melanoma, connective tissue tumours and lung cancer in families. Non-seminoma was associated with maternal lung cancer but the risk was highest for the late-onset cases, providing no support to the theory of the in utero effect of maternal smoking on the son's risk of testicular cancer. However, the theory cannot be excluded but should be taken up for study when further data are available on maternal smoking. The high familial risk may be the product of shared childhood environment and heritable causes.

  7. Testicular Cancer in U.S. Navy Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    34 FO6i L MEuN 44 L.0. 1 1.2 11111h.6 111WII*Z MIIIII-; S0irIO TSTCHR &L. TESTICULAR CANCER IN U.S. NAVY PERSONNEL (o ’- F. C. GARLAND SE.0. GORIHAM o...CALIFORNIA 92138-9174 * ~NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND L, BETHESDA, MARYLAND Mir’ I, Testicular Cancer in U.S. Navy Personnel Frank...development of testicular cancer is greatest in white men aged 20-29. The U.S. Navy is one of the largest defined populations available of men in this

  8. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  9. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Testicular cancer screening has not been shown to decrease the chance of dying from the disease. It is usually found by men themselves or during a regular physical exam. Learn more about testicular cancer screening in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  11. Testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Nisotakis, Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Testicular atrophy is a rare but distressing complication of inguinal hernia repair. Apart from the postsurgical etiology, ischemic orchitis and subsequent testicular atrophy may occur secondary to compression of the testicular vessels by chronically incarcerated hernias. We present a rare case of testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia of 2-decade duration in a 79-year-old man. Testicular atrophy should be always considered in long standing incarcerated inguinal hernias and patients should be adequately informed of this possibility during the preoperative work-up. Preoperative scrotal ultrasonography can be used to determine testicular status in this specific group of patients.

  12. Testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Salemis, Nikolaos S.; Nisotakis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Testicular atrophy is a rare but distressing complication of inguinal hernia repair. Apart from the postsurgical etiology, ischemic orchitis and subsequent testicular atrophy may occur secondary to compression of the testicular vessels by chronically incarcerated hernias. We present a rare case of testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia of 2-decade duration in a 79-year-old man. Testicular atrophy should be always considered in long standing incarcerated inguinal hernias and patients should be adequately informed of this possibility during the preoperative work-up. Preoperative scrotal ultrasonography can be used to determine testicular status in this specific group of patients. PMID:24765329

  13. Studies of the hormonal control of postnatal testicular descent in the rat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J R; Vaughan, E D; Imperato-McGinley, J

    1993-03-01

    Dihydrotestosterone is believed to control the transinguinal phase of testicular descent based on hormonal manipulation studies performed in postnatal rats. In the present study, these hormonal manipulation experiments were repeated, and the results were compared with those obtained using the antiandrogens flutamide and cyproterone acetate. 17 beta-estradiol completely blocked testicular descent, but testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were equally effective in reversing this inhibition. Neither flutamide nor cyproterone acetate prevented testicular descent in postnatal rats despite marked peripheral antiandrogenic action. Further analysis of the data revealed a correlation between testicular size and descent. Androgen receptor blockade did not produce a marked reduction in testicular size and consequently did not prevent testicular descent, whereas estradiol alone caused marked testicular atrophy and testicular maldescent. Reduction of the estradiol dosage or concomitant administration of androgens or human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in both increased testicular size and degree of descent. These data suggest that growth of the neonatal rat testis may contribute to its passage into the scrotum.

  14. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  15. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  16. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  17. Color-coded duplex sonography for diagnosis of testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, G; Ringert, R H

    1991-11-01

    By color-coded duplex sonography moving structures are visualized as red or blue colors within a normal gray-scale B-mode ultrasound image. Thus, blood flow even within small vessels can be visualized clearly. Color-coded duplex sonographic examination was performed in 11 patients who presented with scrotal pain. This method proved to be reliable to differentiate between testicular torsion and testicular inflammation. By clearly demonstrating a lack of intratesticular blood flow in testicular torsion, while avoiding flow in scrotal skin vessels being misinterpreted as intratesticular blood flow, this method significantly decreases the number of patients in whom surgical evaluation is necessary to exclude testicular torsion.

  18. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Testicular cancer treatment options depend upon tumor type, stage, and risk group and include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and surveillance. Get detailed treatment information about for newly diagnosed and recurrent testicular cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  20. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: A focus on contralateral testicular cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961–1989 and 1996–2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970–2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups. PMID:24407180

  1. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Development and clinical application of a new testicular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Ye; Cai, Zhikang; Chen, Huixing; Ping, Ping; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhong; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type of testicular prosthesis made of silastic with an elliptical shape to mimic a normal testis was developed by our team and submitted for patenting in China. The prosthesis was produced in different sizes to imitate the normal testis of the patient. To investigate the effects and safety of the testicular prosthesis, 20 patients receiving testicular prosthesis implantation were recruited for this study. Follow-up after 6 months revealed no complications in the patients. All the patients answered that they were satisfied with their body image and the position of the implants, 19 patients were satisfied with the size and 16 patients were satisfied with the weight. These results show that the testicular prosthesis used in this study can meet patient's expectations. Patients undergoing orchiectomy should be offered the option to receive a testicular prosthesis implantation. The dimensions and weight of the available prosthetic implants should be further addressed to improve patient satisfaction. PMID:21927041

  3. Relationship between Testicular Volume and Conventional or Nonconventional Sperm Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita; Calogero, Aldo E.; La Vignera, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background. Reduced testicular volume (TV) (<12 cm3) is associated with lower testicular function. Several studies explored the conventional sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) and the endocrine function (gonadotropins and testosterone serum concentrations) in the patients with reduction of TV. No other parameters have been examined. Aim. This study aims at evaluating some biofunctional sperm parameters by flow cytometry in the semen of men with reduced TV compared with that of subjects with normal TV. Methods. 78 patients without primary scrotal disease were submitted to ultrasound evaluation of the testis. They were divided into two groups according to testicular volume: A Group, including 40 patients with normal testicular volume (TV > 15 cm3) and B Group, including 38 patients with reduced testicular volume (TV ≤ 12 cm3). All patients underwent serum hormone concentration, conventional and biofunctional (flow cytometry) sperm parameters evaluation. Results. With regard to biofunctional sperm parameters, all values (mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation) were strongly negatively correlated with testicular volume (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. This study for the first time in the literature states that the biofunctional sperm parameters worsen and with near linear correlation, with decreasing testicular volume. PMID:24089610

  4. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  6. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyse whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio (RR) for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41–8.87) when a father, 8.30(95% CI: 3.81–18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35–20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared with no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and oesophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine. PMID:21207375

  7. GPER Signaling in Spermatogenesis and Testicular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Casaburi, Ivan; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play important roles in the regulation of testis development and spermatogenesis. Moreover, several evidences suggest that estrogen signaling can be involved in testicular tumorigenesis. The physiological effects of estrogen are mediated by the classical nuclear estrogen receptors ESR1 and 2, which regulate both genomic and rapid signaling events. In the recent years, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, GPR30 (GPER), has been identified to promote estrogen action in target cells including testicular cells. Ours and other studies reported that GPER is expressed in normal germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids), somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig cells), and it is also involved in mediating estrogen action during spermatogenesis and testis development. In addition, GPER seems to be involved in modulating estrogen-dependent testicular cancer cell growth. However, in this context, the effects of GPER stimulation on cell survival and proliferation appear to be cell type specific. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions regulated by estrogens and mediated by GPER in normal and tumor testicular cells.

  8. GPER Signaling in Spermatogenesis and Testicular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Casaburi, Ivan; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play important roles in the regulation of testis development and spermatogenesis. Moreover, several evidences suggest that estrogen signaling can be involved in testicular tumorigenesis. The physiological effects of estrogen are mediated by the classical nuclear estrogen receptors ESR1 and 2, which regulate both genomic and rapid signaling events. In the recent years, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, GPR30 (GPER), has been identified to promote estrogen action in target cells including testicular cells. Ours and other studies reported that GPER is expressed in normal germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids), somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig cells), and it is also involved in mediating estrogen action during spermatogenesis and testis development. In addition, GPER seems to be involved in modulating estrogen-dependent testicular cancer cell growth. However, in this context, the effects of GPER stimulation on cell survival and proliferation appear to be cell type specific. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions regulated by estrogens and mediated by GPER in normal and tumor testicular cells. PMID:24639669

  9. Low temperature-induced circulating triiodothyronine accelerates seasonal testicular regression.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression.

  10. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  11. Testicular and spermatotoxic effects of quinalphos in rats.

    PubMed

    Pant, N; Srivastava, S P

    2003-01-01

    Testicular and spermatotoxic effects were investigated in rats exposed to technical-grade quinalphos (70%) at dose levels of 0.52 mg kg(-1) (1/50th ld(50)) or 1.04 mg kg(-1) body weight (1/25th ld(50)) for 5 days a week for 60 days. The activities of marker testicular enzymes such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase were significantly decreased but those of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and beta-glucuronidase were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. This particular pattern in the activity of testicular-cell-specific enzymes, a decrease in sperm motility and total epididymal sperm count and an increase in abnormal sperm suggest damage to germ cells and Sertoli cells. The testicular and spermatotoxic effects observed in rats may be due to the pesticide quinalphos or its metabolites. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Protective effect of lipoic acid on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Elangovan; Prahalathan, Chidambaram; Sudharsan, Periyasamy Thandavan; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2006-05-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a widely used anticancer and immunosuppressive drug causes severe testicular toxicity. We investigated the protective effect of lipoic acid in CP-induced testicular toxicity. Two groups of male Wistar rats (140+/-20 g) were administered CP (15 mg/kg body weight, oral gavage) once a week for 10 weeks to induce testicular toxicity; one of these groups received lipoic acid treatment (35 mg/kg body weight, i.p., 24 h prior to CP administration) once a week for 10 weeks. A vehicle treated control and a lipoic acid control groups were also included. The untreated CP exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, along with a significant decrease in cellular thiol levels. The activities of testicular marker enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transferase, beta-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were increased whereas the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase-X were decreased significantly in the animals treated with CP. In contrast, rats pretreated with lipoic acid showed normal marker enzymic patterns and normal levels of ROS and thiols. Testicular protection by lipoic acid is further substantiated by the normal histologic findings as against shrunken seminiferous tubules with impaired spermatogenesis in the CP administered rats. By the reversal of biochemical and morphological changes towards normalcy, the cytoprotective role of lipoic acid is illuminated in CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  13. Testicular cancer in twins: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, R E; Carrière, P; Murphy, M F G; Baade, P D

    2008-01-15

    In a meta-analysis of testicular cancer in twins, twins had a 30% increased risk (estimate 1.31, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), providing indirect support for the hypothesis that in utero hormone variations influence risk of testicular cancer. The summary-estimate for dizygotic twins was 1.3 (1.0-1.7) and for monozygotic or same sex twins 1.4 (1.2-1.8).

  14. Diagnosis and management of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Jin-Rui; Huang, Yu-Meng; Wang, Long; Liu, Long-Fei; Wei, Yong-Bao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Zeng, Ming-Qiang; Tang, Zheng-Yan

    2016-12-01

    Testicular rupture, one of the most common complications in blunt scrotal trauma, is the rupture of tunica albuginea and extrusion of seminiferous tubules. Testicular rupture is more inclined to young men, and injury mechanisms are associated with sports and motor accidents. After history taking and essential physical examination, scrotal ultrasound is the first-line auxiliary examination. MRI is also one of the vital complementary examinations to evaluate testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Surgical exploration and repair may be necessary when the diagnosis of testicular rupture is definite or suspicious. Postoperative follow-up is to monitor the relief of local symptoms and changes of testicular functions. This review sums up the literatures about testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma in recent 16 years and also refers some new advantages and perspectives on diagnosis and management of testicular rupture.

  15. Effects of flutamide and finasteride on rat testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J R; Torrado, T; Sanchez, R S; Vaughan, E D; Imperato-McGinley, J

    1991-08-01

    The endocrine control of descent of the testis in mammalian species is poorly understood. The androgen dependency of testicular descent was studied in the rat using an antiandrogen (flutamide) and an inhibitor of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (finasteride). Androgen receptor blockade inhibited testicular descent more effectively than inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity. Moreover, its inhibitory effect was limited to the outgrowth phase of the gubernaculum testis, particularly the earliest stages of outgrowth. Gubernacular size was also significantly reduced in fetuses exposed to flutamide during the outgrowth period. In contrast, androgen receptor blockade or 5 alpha-reductase inhibition applied after the initiation of gubernacular outgrowth or during the regression phase did not affect testicular descent. Successful inhibition of the development of epididymis and vas by prenatal flutamide did not correlate with ipsilateral testicular maldescent, suggesting that an intact epididymis is not required for descent of the testis. Plasma androgen assays confirmed significant inhibition of dihydrotestosterone formation in finasteride-treated rats. These data suggest that androgens, primarily testosterone, are required during the early phases of gubernacular outgrowth for subsequent successful completion of testicular descent.

  16. Testicular effects of acrylonitrile in mice.

    PubMed

    Tandon, R; Saxena, D K; Chandra, S V; Seth, P K; Srivastava, S P

    1988-07-01

    Daily oral administration of acrylonitrile (10 mg/kg body weight) to mice for a period of 60 days caused a significant decrease in the activity of testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase, and an increase in that of lactate dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase. Histopathological studies revealed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. A decrease in the sperm counts of the epididymal spermatozoa was also observed in the animals of the acrylonitrile-exposed group. These observations suggest that acrylonitrile may affect the male reproductive function by causing testicular injury.

  17. Hereditary association between testicular cancer and familial ovarian cancer: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    PubMed

    Etter, John Lewis; Eng, Kevin; Cannioto, Rikki; Kaur, Jasmine; Almohanna, Hani; Alqassim, Emad; Szender, J Brian; Joseph, Janine M; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-04-01

    Although family history of testicular cancer is well-established as a risk factor for testicular cancer, it is unknown whether family history of ovarian cancer is associated with risk of testicular cancer. Using data from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry on 2636 families with multiple cases of ovarian cancer, we systematically compared relative frequencies of ovarian cancer among relatives of men with testicular and non-testicular cancers. Thirty-one families with cases of both ovarian and testicular cancer were identified. We observed that, among men with cancer, those with testicular cancer were more likely to have a mother with ovarian cancer than those with non-testicular cancers (OR = 3.32, p = 0.004). Zero paternal grandmothers of men with testicular cancer had ovarian cancer. These observations provide compelling preliminary evidence for a familial association between ovarian and testicular cancers Future studies should be designed to further investigate this association and evaluate X-linkage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Color Doppler ultrasound evaluation of testicular blood flow in stallions.

    PubMed

    Pozor, M A; McDonnell, S M

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential use of color Doppler ultrasound to characterize blood flow to the stallion testis, and to establish reference values for Doppler measures of blood flow in the testicular artery of the stallion. Both testes from each of 52 horses were examined using a pulsed-wave color Doppler ultrasound with a sector array 5/7.5 MHz transducer with a 1mm gate setting. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the testicular artery were measured in each of two locations, the convoluted aspect (spermatic cord) and the marginal aspect of the artery (on the epididymal edge of testis). We found that: (1) all measures were obtainable; (2) except for EDV, the majority of the measures were higher at the cord location than at the marginal aspect of the artery (P < 0.05); and (3) measures for left and right testes were similar (P > 0.10). Resulting measures from 41 of these stallions (82 testes) that appeared free of testicular pathology provide useful reference values for clinical evaluation. Evaluation of 11 cases with testicular pathology suggested further investigation of possible effects of these various conditions on testicular blood flow and testicular function.

  19. [Testicular cancer--self-awareness and testicular self-examination in soldiers and physicians in the Israeli army].

    PubMed

    Tichler, T; Weitzen, R; Feinstone, A; Orvieto, R; Moskovitz, M; Singer, A

    2000-08-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men. To evaluate knowledge and awareness of that cancer, and of the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE), we developed a questionnaire which was distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 of their military physicians. 21% of the soldiers had received some explanation of the importance of TSE, but only 16% were actually instructed how to perform TSE, and only 2% practiced it regularly. 24% had never examined their testicles before, 185 only rarely, and 6% often. With increased age, TSE frequency increased, but previous education, type of military unit, and ethnic origin had no affect. 99% of military physicians had been taught how to examine breasts, but only 70% had been taught routine testicular examination. 22% performed it, but 27% never did. 84% had never taught their soldiers the importance of TSE, although 51% taught female soldiers breast self-examination. There was a significant lack of awareness of the importance of regular practice of TSE among both soldiers and their army physicians.

  20. Testicular cancer in twins: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neale, R E; Carrière, P; Murphy, M F G; Baade, P D

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of testicular cancer in twins, twins had a 30% increased risk (estimate 1.31, 95% CI 1.1–1.6), providing indirect support for the hypothesis that in utero hormone variations influence risk of testicular cancer. The summary-estimate for dizygotic twins was 1.3 (1.0–1.7) and for monozygotic or same sex twins 1.4 (1.2–1.8). PMID:18071360

  1. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (<1.0%). ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in Testicular Cancer Survival: A Large Population-based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wilson; Morrow, David C; Bermejo, Carlos E; Hellenthal, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether discrepancies in testicular cancer outcomes between Caucasians and non-Caucasians are changing over time. Although testicular cancer is more common in Caucasians, studies have shown that other races have worse outcomes. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, we identified 29,803 patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed testicular cancer between 1983 and 2011. Of these, 12,650 patients (42%) had 10-year follow-up data. We stratified the patients by age group, stage, race, and year of diagnosis and assessed 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival in each cohort. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the relative contributions of each stratum to cancer-specific survival. Predicted overall 10-year survival of Caucasian patients with testicular cancer increased slightly from 88% to 89% over the period studied, whereas predicted cancer-specific 10-year survival dropped slightly from 94% to 93%. In contrast, non-Caucasian men demonstrated larger changes in 10-year overall (84%-86%) and cancer-specific (88%-91%) survival. On univariate analysis, race was significantly associated with testicular cancer death, with non-Caucasian men being 1.69 times more likely to die of testicular cancer than Caucasians (hazard ratio, 1.33-2.16; 95% confidence interval, <.001). Historically, non-Caucasian race has been associated with poorer outcomes from testicular cancer. These data show a convergence in cancer-specific survival between racial groups over time, suggesting that diagnostic and treatment discrepancies may be improving for non-Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adult testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data.

    PubMed

    Abomelha, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding testicular cancer among Saudis as well as the nonexistent of published national data. Furthermore, a substantial increase of the incidence of testicular cancer among Saudis was lately noted. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among adult Saudis using national data over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) on testicular cancer over the last two decades was studied including epidemiological and histological patterns. The 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis reported by the SCR will be the subject of this study. From 1994 to 2013, 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis were reported to the SCR, with a steadily significant increase in incidence rate reaching an annual rate of 94 cases in 2013. Age of the patients ranged 15-93 years with a mean of 34.5 years. The most affected age group was 20-34 years, where 51% of all testicular cancer accumulated. Around 85% of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, while paratesticular and gonadal stromal tumors represent 15%. Of all testicular cancer, seminomas were seen in 40.7%, nonseminomas in 44.6%. Notably, 70.4% of the cases in the first decade were seminomas, while in the second decade 65.9% of the cases were nonseminomas. The subtypes of the nonseminomas were a mixed tumor in 51.6%, embryonal carcinoma in 19.9%, yolk sac tumor in 12.3%, germinomas in 6.7%, teratomas in 6%, and choriocarcinomas in 3.6%. Lymphomas (34.7%) and rhabdomyosarcomas (23.6%) are on the top of the paratesticular tumor group. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results summary stage of seminomas was localized in 61.6%, regional in 19.8%, and distant in 12.6%, while of nonseminomas was 48%, 15.5%, and 28.5%, respectively. Localized and distant status of seminomas improved over the studied period by 12% and 4% respectively, while this trend was not seen in nonseminomas. The incidence rate is on rising

  4. Adult testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data

    PubMed Central

    Abomelha, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding testicular cancer among Saudis as well as the nonexistent of published national data. Furthermore, a substantial increase of the incidence of testicular cancer among Saudis was lately noted. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among adult Saudis using national data over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) on testicular cancer over the last two decades was studied including epidemiological and histological patterns. The 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis reported by the SCR will be the subject of this study. From 1994 to 2013, 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis were reported to the SCR, with a steadily significant increase in incidence rate reaching an annual rate of 94 cases in 2013. Age of the patients ranged 15–93 years with a mean of 34.5 years. The most affected age group was 20–34 years, where 51% of all testicular cancer accumulated. Around 85% of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, while paratesticular and gonadal stromal tumors represent 15%. Of all testicular cancer, seminomas were seen in 40.7%, nonseminomas in 44.6%. Notably, 70.4% of the cases in the first decade were seminomas, while in the second decade 65.9% of the cases were nonseminomas. The subtypes of the nonseminomas were a mixed tumor in 51.6%, embryonal carcinoma in 19.9%, yolk sac tumor in 12.3%, germinomas in 6.7%, teratomas in 6%, and choriocarcinomas in 3.6%. Lymphomas (34.7%) and rhabdomyosarcomas (23.6%) are on the top of the paratesticular tumor group. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results summary stage of seminomas was localized in 61.6%, regional in 19.8%, and distant in 12.6%, while of nonseminomas was 48%, 15.5%, and 28.5%, respectively. Localized and distant status of seminomas improved over the studied period by 12% and 4% respectively, while this trend was not seen in nonseminomas. The incidence rate is on

  5. Fertility in patients treated for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Matos, Erika; Skrbinc, Breda; Zakotnik, Branko

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer affects men mostly in their reproductive age with a cure rate over 90% and fertility is one of the main concerns of survivors. To further elucidate the question of fertility after treatment for testicular cancer, we performed a survey in patients treated in our institution. We sent a questionnaire to patients treated for testicular cancer at our institute from 1976 to 2002 (n = 490) of whom 297 (60.6%) responded. We considered the patients to have conserved fertility if they had children after treatment without assisted reproductive technologies. Before treatment 119/297 (40.1%) of patients and after treatment 150/297 (50.5%) of patients tried to have children (p = 0.019). Of 119 patients who tried to have children before treatment for testicular cancer 98 (82.4%) succeeded and 74/150 (49.3%) were successful after treatment (p < 0.001). After treatment patients had 1-3 (median 1) children. The median time to birth of first child from diagnosis was 12 years. The post-treatment fatherhood in patients treated with surgery only (orchidectomy +/- retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection-RPLND) was 59%, in those with additional radiotherapy 68%, and chemotherapy 50% (p = 0.233). Fertility rate in patients where a non nerve sparing RPLND was performed was only 37%, 62% in patients with nerve sapring RPLND, and 77% in patients where RPLND was not performed (p < 0.0001). Fertility rate after treatment for testicular cancer is reduced. From our data, the most important treatment modality that influences fertility is non nerve sparing RPLND that should be avoided whenever possible in order improve the quality of life our patients.

  6. A 55-Year-Old Man with Right Testicular Pain: Too Old for Torsion?

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Ho; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Peggy Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wai

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion is predominantly a disease of adolescence, but age itself should not be an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis. A lack of suspicion for testicular torsion in older patients may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis which jeopardizes the chance of testicular salvage. In this article, we report a case of testicular torsion in a 55-year-old Chinese man.

  7. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than fourmore » years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.« less

  8. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2001-06-01

    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  9. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  10. Cutaneous and systematic metastasis of testicular choriocarcinoma: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Weijin, Fu; Jinjin, Zeng; Jiwen, Cheng

    2018-06-01

    Cutaneous metastasis of testicular choriocarcinoma is exceptionally uncommon. To our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported in the past 10 years in the pubmed. We have an uncommon case of testicular choriocarcinoma who has metastasized to the adjacent skin and organ systems. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed with initial presentation of cutaneous mass at the left back. Followly,biopsy was performed under local anesthesia.Histopathological examination was consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic choriocarcinoma. The histopathological assessment of the biopsied tissue, in combination with elevated serum β-HCG levels and presentation of testicular mass, indicated primary testicular choriocarcinoma with cutaneous and systemic metastasis. Subsequently radical orchiectomy was performed. Despite the case completed one cycle of cisplatin-based regimen chemotherapy, he died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 2 months after surgery. In this report, cutaneous metastasis with testicular choriocarcinoma is extremely rare. It is important to recognize that this unusual variant of testicular choriocarcinoma has the potential to behave aggressively and to metastasize.

  11. Testicular Cancer Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... letter you can mail out to increase testicular cancer awareness. NOTE: The information contained herein is NOT a substitute for professional medical attention! Hosted by: Last updated Jan 15, 2013 Copyright ©1997 - 2013 TCRC All Rights Reserved

  12. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  13. Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rachel Kathryn; Casson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness. PMID:27645516

  14. Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rachel Kathryn; Casson, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.

  15. Neonatal testicular infarction--possibly due to compression of the umbilical cord?

    PubMed

    Eifinger, Frank; Ahrens, Ulrike; Wille, Sebastian; Roth, Bernhard; Engelmann, Udo

    2010-06-01

    Neonatal testicular infarction is a rare occurrence. We report on a newborn infant with bilateral testicular infarction. At birth, the uncut umbilical cord ran taut between the thighs making a complete loop around the genitals, compressing the testes. At the age of 6 hours, because of increasing agitation and the beginnings of scrotal discoloration, the infant was operated on, showing a bilateral testicular infarction potentially induced by strangulation of the twisted umbilical cord. Here, we discuss the clinical findings of neonatal testicular infarction and give advice as to the management of this serious complication with regard to the available published data. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... collapse boxes. Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  17. Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, T; Andersen, P K; Pedersen, J B; Frisch, M; Olsen, J H; Melbye, M

    1998-04-01

    The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence.

  18. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicularmore » function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  19. Perspectives on testicular germ cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Lyu, Bingjian; Roth, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of testicular germ cell neoplasms has progressed in the last few decades due to the description of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and a variety of specific forms of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the discovery of isochromosome 12p and its importance in the development of invasiveness in germ cell tumors (GCTs), the identification of specific transcription factors for GCTs, and the recognition that a teratomatous component in mixed GCT represents terminal differentiation. Isochromosome 12p and 12p overrepresentation, collectively referred to as 12p amplification, are fundamental abnormalities that account for many types of malignant GCTs of the testis. Embryonal carcinoma is common in the testis but rare in the ovary, whereas the converse is true for mature cystic teratoma. Spermatocytic tumor occurs only in the testis; it has not been described in the ovary or extragonadal sites. The origin of ovarian mature cystic teratoma is similar to that of prepubertal-type testicular teratoma and dermoid cyst at any age in that it arises from a nontransformed germ cell, whereas postpubertal-type testicular teratoma arises from a malignant germ cell, most commonly through the intermediary of GCNIS. Somatic neoplasms, often referred to as monodermal teratomas, arise not infrequently from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary, whereas such neoplasms are rare in testicular teratoma with the exception of carcinoid. Integration of classical morphologic observations and emerging novel molecular studies will result in better understanding of the pathogenesis of GCTs and will optimize patient therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mannitol has a protective effect on testicular torsion: An experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Omer; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Erboga, Mustafa; Turan, Cuneyt; Bozdemir, Yeliz; Akbas, Alpaslan; Turker, Polat; Aktas, Cevat; Aydin, Murat; Yesildag, Ebru

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion is an emergency condition that causes testicular injury. Any treatment opportunity reducing the destructive effect of testicular torsion is important for the future life of patients. In this experimental study we investigated the protective effect of mannitol on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat testes torsion model. In total, 32 male Sprague Dawley rats were included. Four experimental groups included eight rats each. Group A was a sham group in which the right testis was brought out through a scrotal incision and then replaced in the scrotum without torsion. In Group B, the right testis was torsioned, by rotating 720° clockwise and fixed to the scrotum with no treatment. In Group C, the same testicular torsion process was performed with saline infusion just after testicular torsion. In group D, mannitol infusion was used just after testicular torsion. Testicles were detorsioned after 3 h and left inside for more than 2 h before orchiectomy. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. Testicular architecture was disturbed significantly in the torsion groups without mannitol infusion. However, testicular tissue structure was significantly better in the mannitol-treated group, demonstrating a protective effect. Similar findings were also shown for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and antioxidant activity; both were higher in the mannitol group than in the no-treatment and saline groups (p < 0.01). The apoptotic index was also significantly lower in the mannitol-treated group compared with the no treatment and saline groups (p < 0.01). The seminiferous tubule structure in testicular torsion without mannitol treatment was significantly disturbed, whereas the structural disruption was considerably less in the mannitol group. Mannitol treatment also decreased reactive oxygen radical levels significantly and was able to decrease apoptosis. These results were consistent with other

  1. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Male infertility: a risk factor for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Walsh, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    Male infertility lies at the crossroads of genetic determinants and environmental effects. Although the exact genetic mechanisms of male infertility are still unclear, this disorder is associated with a host of medical diseases, including testicular cancer. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, the Hiwi protein and chromosome 12 aneuploidy, DNA mismatch repair, and Y-chromosome instability have been postulated as possible connections between male infertility and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). The advent of assisted reproductive technology has allowed men to bypass evaluation by a urologist with expertise in infertility at a time when semen quality seems to be decreasing in parallel with an increasing incidence of TGCT in industrialized nations. Advances in epigenetics, the sequencing of the human genome and maturation of large datasets from countries with centralized medical records are heralding a new era of genetic medicine in this field. The exquisite sensitivity of the germinal epithelium to changes in the external environment and the internal metabolic profile present an excellent opportunity to explore the interaction between infertility and TGCT. The elucidation of the pathways underlying this association will enable development of appropriate tests that will identify men susceptible to development of TGCT and other testicular pathologies.

  3. Aetiology of testicular cancer: association with congenital abnormalities, age at puberty, infertility, and exercise. United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the risk of testicular cancer associated with undescended testis, inguinal hernia, age at puberty, marital status, infertility, vasectomy, and amount of exercise. DESIGN--A population based case-control study with a questionnaire administered by an interviewer and with relevant supplementary data extracted from general practitioners' notes. SETTING--Nine health regions within England and Wales. SUBJECTS--794 men, aged 15-49 years, with a testicular germ cell tumour diagnosed between 1 January 1984 and 1 January 1987; each had an age matched (within one year) control selected from the list of their general practitioner. RESULTS--There was a significant association of testicular cancer with undescended testis (odds ratio 3.82; 95% confidence interval 2.24 to 6.52) and inguinal hernia (1.91; 1.12 to 3.23). The excess risk associated with undescended testis was eliminated in men who had had an orchidopexy before the age of 10 years. There were positive associations with early age at voice breaking, early age at starting to shave, and infertility. There was a significant association with a sedentary lifestyle and a moderate protective effect of exercise. There was no association with vasectomy. CONCLUSION--This study confirms previous reports that developmental urogenital abnormalities result in an increased risk of testicular cancer. The trend to perform orchidopexy at younger ages may reduce the risk associated with undescended testis. The increased risks associated with early age at puberty and low amounts of exercise may be related to effects of exposure to endogenous hormones. Changes in both of these factors may partly contribute to the increasing rates of testicular cancer observed in the past few decades. PMID:7912596

  4. Histology-specific risks in testicular cancer in immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Brandt, Andreas; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The changes of cancer incidence upon immigration have been used as an estimator of environmental influence on cancer risk. The previous immigrant studies have indicated that the origins of testicular cancer are at an early age in life, probably in the intrauterine period. We wanted to reexamine the critical periods on histology-specific testicular cancer in sons of immigrants to Sweden. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for testicular cancer in sons of parents immigrating to Sweden from low- and high-risk countries compared with the native Swedes. Among the large immigrant groups, the SIRs for sons of two Finnish and Asian parents were decreased if the sons were born outside Sweden. The sons of a Danish immigrant couple showed an increased risk of testicular cancer. The changes in SIR were most systematic for seminoma. The present patterns of testicular cancer risk among sons of immigrants point to the early environmental risk factors, which influence the risk probably after the intrauterine period. These factors appear to influence seminoma risk in a more enduring way than they influence non-seminoma.

  5. Hypogonadism and fertility issues following primary treatment for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The majority of testicular cancer (TC) patients are cured and expected to live for decades after treatment, such that knowledge about hypogonadism and fertility issues is particularly important for the group of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). Hypogonadism and fertility issues are related to treatment intensity. In order to give an overview about hypogonadism in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) the literature was reviewed. Testicular dysfunction was defined as inadequate spermatogenesis, as reflected by increased levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and reduced fertility and/with or without insufficient testosterone (T) production with or without compensatory increased Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels. Hypogonadism may lead to reduced sexual functioning and well-being, fertility problems, muscle weakness, loss of energy, and depression. Furthermore, hypogonadism also increases the risk of osteoporosis and is associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesized "Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome" comprising low sperm counts, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and finally TC, probably contributes to hypogonadism independent of applied TC treatment. Recently, an increased risk of accelerated hormonal ageing has been reported in TCSs in the very long term, i.e. 20 years after TC treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effectsmore » were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.« less

  7. Thallium-induced testicular toxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Formigli, L; Scelsi, R; Poggi, P; Gregotti, C; Di Nucci, A; Sabbioni, E; Gottardi, L; Manzo, L

    1986-08-01

    Reproductive tract functions were studied in adult male Wistar rats given 10 ppm thallium as thallium sulfate in the drinking water. After 60 days of treatment, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymides and vas deferens showed reduced motility and immature germ cells were found in the tubular lumen. Histological examination of testes in thallium-treated animals revealed disarrangement of the tubular epithelium and ultrastructural changes in the Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and distension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of testicular beta-glucuronidase was significantly reduced whereas acid phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were unchanged. Plasma testosterone levels were within normal limits. No abnormalities in testicular morphology and biochemistry were seen in animals sacrificed at the end of the first month of thallium exposure. These findings indicate that the male reproductive system is a susceptible target site to toxic effects of thallium under chronic exposure. They also suggest a major involvement of Sertoli cells in the mechanism underlying thallium-induced testicular damage.

  8. Time-specific androgen blockade with flutamide inhibits testicular descent in the rat.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; McPhaul, M J

    1991-09-01

    Inhibition of androgen action by flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, blocked testicular descent in 40% of the testes exposed to this agent continuously from gestational day 13 through postpartal day 28. By contrast, only 11% of the testes failed to descend when blocked by 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors during the same period. Flutamide administration over narrower time intervals (gestational day 13-15, 16-17, or 18-19) revealed maximal interference with testicular descent after androgen inhibition during gestational days 16-17. No significant differences in testicular or epididymal weights were evident between descended and undescended testes; furthermore, no correlation was detected between the presence of epididymal abnormalities and testicular descent. These findings indicate that androgen inhibition during a brief period of embryonic development can block testicular descent. The mechanism through which this inhibition occurs remains to be elucidated.

  9. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    PubMed

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39-50) vs. 46 (40-53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7-19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers. © 2017 American

  10. Risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-control study in twins.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; De Stavola, B L; Swanwick, M A; Mangtani, P; Maconochie, N E

    1999-06-01

    Early life and anthropometric risk factors for testicular cancer were examined in a case-control study in England and Wales in which affected male twins were compared with their unaffected male co-twins. Questionnaire data was obtained for 60 twin pairs. Significantly raised risk of testicular cancer occurred in twins who had longer arms and legs than their co-twin. There was a significant excess of testicular cancer reported in non-twin brothers, as well as in twin brothers, of cases. Risk was also significantly raised in relation to cryptorchidism. The results on limb length suggest that factors, perhaps nutritional, affecting growth before puberty, may be causes of testicular cancer. The results on risk in brothers add to evidence of a large genetic component in aetiology of the tumour. The risk associated with cryptorchidism in the twins accords with the hypothesis that cryptorchidism is causally associated with testicular cancer because it is a cause of the malignancy, rather than because the same maternal factors experienced in utero cause both conditions.

  11. Optical monitoring of testicular torsion using a miniaturized near infrared spectroscopy sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Nigro, Mark; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: Testicular torsion is an acute urological emergency occurring in children and adolescents. Accurate and fast diagnosis is important as the resulting ischemia can destroy the testis. Currently, Doppler ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic method. Ultrasound is not readily available in all centers which may delay surgical treatment. In this study, a rat model was used to examine the feasibility and sensitivity of using spatially-resolved near infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) with a custom-made miniaturized optical sensor probe to detect and study changes in testicular hemodynamics and oxygenation during three degrees of induced testicular torsion, and after detorsion. Methods: Eight anesthetized rats (16 testes) were studied using SR-NIRS with the miniaturized optical probe applied directly onto the surface of the surgically exposed testis during 360, 720 and 1080 degrees of torsion followed by detorsion. Oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and TOI% were studied pre-and post-manipulations. Results: NIRS monitoring reflected acute testicular ischemia and hypoxia on induction of torsion, and tissue reperfusionreoxygenation after detorsion. Testicular torsion at 720 degrees induced the maximum observed degree of hypoxic changes. In all cases, rhythmic changes were observed in the NIRS signals before inducing torsion; these disappeared after applying 360 degrees of torsion and did not reappear after detorsion. Conclusion: This animal study indicates that SR-NIRS monitoring of the testes using a directly applied miniature sensor is a feasible and sensitive method to detect testicular ischemia and hypoxia immediately after torsion occurs, and testicular reperfusion upon detorsion. This study offers the potential for a SR-NIRS system with a miniaturized sensor to be explored further as a rapid, noninvasive, optical method for detecting testicular torsion in children.

  12. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer--birth cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, A; Akre, O

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer is rising in most Western populations. A collaborative study between nine population-based cancer registries in countries around the Baltic Sea was utilized in order to analyze in detail geographic variations and temporal trends in the occurrence of testicular cancer. There were 34,309 cases registered up until 1989 starting in Denmark in 1942 and most recently in Latvia in 1977. From the descriptive epidemiology it was obvious that there was a substantial variation in the age-standardized incidence amounting to about a 10-fold difference between the different countries ranging from 0.8 per 100,000 person-years in Lithuania to 7.6 per 100,000 person-years in Denmark. Previous studies have indicated that this increase is due to birth cohort effects. A more detailed analysis was therefore performed in those six countries with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration; Poland, former East Germany, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden. This analysis showed that birth cohort is a more important determinant of testicular cancer risk than year of diagnosis. In Poland, former East Germany and Finland, there was an increasing risk for all birth cohorts. Among men born in Denmark, Norway or Sweden between 1930 and 1945, this increasing trend in risk was interrupted in these birth cohorts but followed thereafter by an uninterrupted increase by birth cohort. In conclusion, life time exposure to environmental factors which are associated with the incidence of testicular cancer appear to be more related to birth cohort than to year of diagnosis. Because testicular cancer typically occurs at an early age, major etiological factors therefore need to operate early in life, perhaps even in utero.

  13. Testicular cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C; Miaskowski, C

    1996-09-01

    To describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms, histologic and clinical staging, diagnosis, and medical and nursing management of testicular cancer. Published studies, review articles, and Physician Data Query database. Testicular cancer is a complex disease resulting from transformation of gonadal tissues. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involve damage to tissue in utero and after birth. Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Orchiectomy can have profound physiologic and psychological consequences for young males. Subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy also may have severe side effects including azoospermia, bone marrow suppression, nephrotoxicity, and pulmonary toxicity. Early detection of this disease results in improved patient outcomes. Patients treated with radical inguinal orchiectomy and radiation therapy have fewer long-term side effects and toxicities than patients who require more extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Nursing care must focus not only on relieving the patient's physical symptoms but on helping him deal with the psychosexual issues associated with the disease and its treatment.

  14. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  15. Influence of Altered Mass Loading on Testosterone Levels and Testicular Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tommy J.; Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Effects of altered load on testosterone levels and testicular mass in mammals are not well defined. Two separate studies (loading;centrifuged; +2G(sub z) and unloading;hindlimb suspension;HLS) were conducted to provide a better understanding of the effects of mass loading on testosterone levels and testicular mass. Daily urine samples were collected, and testicular mass measured at the end of the study. +2G(sub z): Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were centrifuged for 12 days at +2G(sub z): 8 centrifuged (EC) and 8 off centrifuge controls (OCC). EC had lower body mass, however relative testicular mass was greater. EC exhibited an increase in excreted testosterone levels between days 2 (T2) and 6 (T6), and returned to baseline at T9. HLS: To assess the effects of unloading Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were studied for 12 days: 10 suspended (Exp) and 10 ambulatory (Ctl). Exp had lower body mass during the study, with reduced absolute and relative testicular mass. Exp demonstrated lower excreted testosterone levels from T5-T12. Conclusions: Loading appears to stimulate anabolism, as opposed to unloading, as indicated by greater relative testicular mass and excreted testosterone levels. Reported changes in muscle mass during loading and unloading coincide with similar changes in excreted testosterone levels.

  16. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  17. Postnatal risk factors for testicular cancer: The EPSAM case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moirano, Giovenale; Zugna, Daniela; Grasso, Chiara; Mirabelli, Dario; Lista, Patrizia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Testicular cancer is considered to originate from an impaired differentiation of fetal germ cells, but puberty could represent another time window of susceptibility. Our study aimed at investigating the association between environmental exposures acting during puberty/adolescence (13-19 years of age) and the risk of testicular cancer. We used data of the EPSAM study, a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer conducted in the province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 255) and controls (n = 459) completed a postal questionnaire focusing in particular on the pubertal period (namely age 13 years) with questions on physical activity (competitive sports, gardening), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking), occupational history and medical conditions. All analyses were adjusted for the matching variables, cryptorchidism and educational level. Having done at least one competitive sport during puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.00), gardening activities during puberty (OR: 0.62, 0.42-0.94) and having a lower weight than peers during puberty (OR: 0.64, 0.42-0.97) were all inversely associated with the risk of testicular cancer. No evidence of association between smoking or alcohol consumption during puberty and the risk of testicular cancer was observed. Regarding agriculture-related occupations, we found an association with the risk of testicular cancer both for occasional jobs during puberty (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.08-5.29) and ever employment in adolescence (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.83-8.10). Our results suggest that postnatal exposures could play a role in testicular cancer aetiology, at least when acting in puberty or adolescence. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Autophagy-associated proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Georg; Jennewein, Lukas; Harter, Patrick N; Antonietti, Patrick; Blaheta, Roman A; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Kögel, Donat; Haferkamp, Axel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Mani, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the most common malignant tumor group in the age group of 20 to 40-years old men. The potentially curable effect of cytotoxic therapy in TGCT is mediated mainly by the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy has been discussed as an alternative mechanism of cell death but also of treatment resistance in various types of tumors. However, in TGCT the expression and role of core autophagy-associated factors is hitherto unknown. We designed the study in order to evaluate the potential role of autophagy-associated factors in the development and progression of testicular cancers. Eighty-four patients were assessed for autophagy (BAG3, p62) and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) markers using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue micro- arrays. In addition, western blot analyses of frozen tissue of seminoma and non-seminoma were performed. Our findings show that BAG3 was significantly upregulated in seminoma as compared to non-seminoma but not to normal testicular tissue. No significant difference of p62 expression was detected between neoplastic and normal tissue or between seminoma and non-seminoma. BAG3 and p62 showed distinct loco‑regional expression patterns in normal and neoplastic human testicular tissues. In contrast to the autophagic markers, apoptosis rate was significantly higher in testicular tumors as compared to normal testicular tissue, but not between different TGCT subtypes. The present study, for the first time, examined the expression of central autophagy proteins BAG3 and p62 in testicular cancer. Our findings imply that in general apoptosis but not autophagy induction differs between normal and neoplastic testis tissue.

  19. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Engholm, Gerda; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2017-04-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop testicular cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk. We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow-up new immunohistochemical staining indicated ITGCN in two of the 16 cancer cases at reevaluation of the original biopsies from time of prepubertal/pubertal surgery. One had syndromic cryptorchid and developed seminoma, and another showed nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and developed embryonic teratocarcinoma. Totally, ITGCN was diagnosed in 0.5% (7/1403) of prepubertal cryptorchid boys, whereof 57% (4/7) in syndromic-cryptorchidism. ITGCN is predominantly observed prepubertally in boys with syndromic-cryptorchidism. In nonsyndromic cryptorchidism testicular cancer develops postpubertally, generally not based on dormant germ cells of ITGCN caused by an early fetal maldevelopment. LEVEL I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testicular cancer in two brothers of a quadruplet: a case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ulytė, Agnė; Ulys, Albertas; Sužiedėlis, Kęstutis; Patašius, Aušvydas; Smailytė, Giedrė

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Testicular cancer and a multiple birth are both rare events, and the risk of testicular cancer is increased in twins. In Lithuania, only five quadruplets have been recorded since the middle of the 20th century. In this report, we present two rare events in one family: testicular cancer in two brothers of a quadruplet (three brothers and a sister). Case description. Both patients were diagnosed at 21 years of age and died within two years from the diagnosis despite treatment. The third symptomless brother did not have testicular pathology. We also review the risk factors associated with testicular cancer, and the proposed hypotheses how a multiple birth results in an increased risk. The most consistent risk factors for testicular cancer are cryptorchidism, prior history of testicular cancer, and a positive familial history. According to different studies, the risk of testicular cancer in twins is higher from 22% to 30%, compared to the general population. Conclusions. To our knowledge, we have presented the first case of testicular teratoblastoma in brothers of a quadruplet.

  1. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  2. Prospectively Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D; Loud, Jennifer T; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R; Greene, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR = 11.9; 95% CI, 5.1-23.4; excess absolute risk = 7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR = 13.4; 95% CI, 1.6-48.6). Our data are the first to indicate that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subfertility Increases Risk of Testicular Cancer: Evidence from Population-Based Semen Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk using well-defined semen parameters. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Subfertility Heath and Assisted Reproduction (SHARE) study in Utah from 1994 to 2011. Patients 20,433 men from that underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile controls matched on age and birth year Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures Risk of all cancers, as well as site-specific results for prostate, testicular, and melanoma. Results Relative to fertile men, men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer (Hazard Rate Ratio (HR) =3.3). When the characterization of infertility is refined using individual semen parameters, we find that oligozoospermic men have an increased risk of cancer relative to fertile controls. This association is particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR=11.9) and sperm count (HR=10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR=4.1), viability (HR=6.6), morphology (HR=4.2) or total motile count (HR=6.9) have higher risk of testicular compared to fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentile of the distribution (≥178 M/ml and ≥579, respectively) and total motile count (TMC) have an increased risk of melanoma (HRConcentration=2.1; HRCount=2.7; HRTMC=2.0). We find no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Conclusions Men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. Unlike prior work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. Capsule Subfertile men have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. We did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. PMID:26604070

  5. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Chiara; Zugna, Daniela; Fiano, Valentina; Robles Rodriguez, Nena; Maule, Milena; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG), whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis. The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls. Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.04) and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88). When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.64), but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer. This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other indicators of subfertility.

  6. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  7. Development of a Testicular Self-Examination Program for College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Sharon Kay; Rothenberger, James

    1985-01-01

    Personal responsibility for health is dependent upon accurate knowledge and skill in self-care. Testicular cancer incidence is the leading cancer in young adult males. This article describes the development and evaluation of a testicular cancer education program which is now available nationwide to college health services. (Author/MT)

  8. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  9. Methamphetamine use can mimic testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael H; Gerscovich, Eugenio O; Corwin, Michael T; Wilkendorf, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a patient presenting with the classic clinical appearance of testicular torsion. Ultrasound showed testicular ischemia supporting the clinical diagnosis, but the lack of visualization of spermatic cord torsion was of concern. An attempt of clinical detorsion was considered unsuccessful and the patient was explored. No torsion was found. On postoperative review of the patient's medical history, we found methamphetamine use, with a positive urine test at the time of his emergent consultation for the scrotal pain episode. The use of amphetamines has been previously reported as the cause of ischemia of multiple organs, but we could not find previous reports of involvement of the testis mimicking torsion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Developing a Clinical-Grade Cryopreservation Protocol for Human Testicular Tissue and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Jason; Ramos, Thomas; Howerton, Kyle; Greilach, Scott; Zaragoza, Karina; Olmstead, Marnie; Izadyar, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Recent work in preservation of female fertility as well as new information on the nature of spermatogonial stem cells has prompted an investigation into the possibility of an effective clinical-grade procedure for the cryopreservation of testicular cells and/or tissue. Clinical-grade reagents, validated equipment, and protocols consistent with cGTP/cGMP standards were used in developing a procedure suitable for the safe and effective cryopreservation of human testicular cells and tissues. These procedures were designed to be compliant with the relevant FDA regulations. The procedure proved to effectively cryopreserve both testicular cells and tissue. The cryopreservation of testicular tissue was comparable in most aspects we measured to the cryopreservation of isolated cells, except that the viability of the cells from cryopreserved testicular tissue was found to be significantly higher. On the other hand, cryopreservation of cells is preferred for cell analysis, quality control, and sterility testing. This study demonstrates that testicular tissue and cells from sexual reassignment patients can be successfully cryopreserved with a clinical-grade procedure and important cell populations are not only preserved but also enriched by the process. Further studies will determine whether these findings from hormone-treated patients can be generalized to other patients. PMID:23509810

  11. Raman spectroscopic analysis identifies testicular microlithiasis as intratubular hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    De Jong, B W D; De Gouveia Brazao, C A; Stoop, H; Wolffenbuttel, K P; Oosterhuis, J W; Puppels, G J; Weber, R F A; Looijenga, L H J; Kok, D J

    2004-01-01

    As diagnosed by ultrasonography, testicular microlithiasis is associated with various benign and malignant conditions. The molecular constitution of these microliths is largely unknown. Raman spectroscopy provides detailed in situ information about the molecular composition of tissues and to our knowledge it has not been applied to gonadal microliths. We analyzed the molecular composition of gonadal microlithiasis and its surrounding region using Raman spectroscopy in malignant and benign conditions. Multiple microliths from 6 independent samples diagnosed with gonadal microlithiasis by ultrasound and histologically confirmed were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The samples included 4 testicular parenchyma samples adjacent to a germ cell tumor (4 seminomas), a gonadoblastoma of a dysgenetic gonad and testicular biopsy of a subfertile male without malignancy. Raman spectroscopic mapping demonstrated that testicular microliths were located within the seminiferous tubule. Glycogen surrounded all microliths in the samples associated with germ cell neoplasm but not in the benign case. The molecular composition of the 26 microliths in all 6 conditions was pure hydroxyapatite. Microliths in the testis are located in the seminiferous tubules and composed of hydroxyapatite. In cases of germ cell neoplasm they co-localize with glycogen deposits.

  12. Wistar rats immature testicular tissue vitrification and heterotopic grafting.

    PubMed

    Benvenutti, Larissa; Salvador, Rafael Alonso; Til, David; Senn, Alfred Paul; Tames, David Rivero; Amaral, Nicole Louise Lângaro; Amaral, Vera Lúcia Lângaro

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the efficiency of two vitrification protocols for rat immature testicular tissue and heterotopic transplantation. Twenty-four pre-pubertal Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8). After orchiectomy, testicular fragments (3mm) from Groups 1 and 2 were vitrified with different cryoprotectant concentration solutions, using sterile inoculation loops as support. After warming up, the fragments were submitted to cell viability assessment by Trypan blue and histological evaluation. Vitrified (Groups 1 and 2) and fresh (Group 3) fragments were grafted to the animals periauricular region. After 8 weeks of grafting, the implant site was histologically analyzed. The viability recovery rate from Group 1 (72.09%) was higher (p=0.02) than that from Group 2 (59.19%). Histological analysis showed similar tubular integrity between fresh fragments from Groups 1 and 3. Group 2 samples presented lower tubular integrity. We ran histological analyses in the grafts from the Groups. In all groups, it was possible to see the implant site, however, no fragment of testicular tissue or signs of inflammation were histologically found in most samples from Groups 1 and 3. In one sample from Group 2, we found degenerated seminiferous tubules with necrosis and signs of an inflammatory process. In another sample from Group 2, we found seminiferous tubules in the implant site. The vitrification of pre-pubertal testicular tissue of rats showed little damage to cell viability through histological analysis when we used cryoprotectants in a lower concentration. Heterotopic transplantation could not preserve the structural organization of the testicular tissue.

  13. The role of the benomyl metabolite carbendazim in benomyl-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Miller, M G

    1997-02-01

    The present study has investigated the role of benomyl (BNL) vs carbendazim (CBZ) in BNL-induced testicular toxicity. Equivalent molar concentrations of BNL and CBZ were administered to rats intraperitoneally (859 mumol/kg) or by direct injection into the testis (1.37 mumol/testis). Whereas no significant testicular damage was observed both 1 and 2 hr after BNL administration by the ip route, CBZ administration resulted in sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium after 1 hr, which increased in severity at the 2-hr time point. Intratesticular treatment of BNL caused little testicular damage after 1 hr whereas an equimolar amount of CBZ elicited severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium. Testicular levels of CBZ and BNL were measured at various times after both routes of administration. The AUC from the concentration of CBZ in the testis vs time plot showed an excellent relationship to the number of tubules which exhibited slouging. The BNL AUC also showed a straight-line relationship to severity of lesion. However, when the contribution of CBZ to the BNL response was subtracted, no effect of BNL was discernible. The effect of BNL and CBZ on testicular microtubule assembly was then investigated. IC50 for CBZ was 5 microM and that for BNL was 75 microM. Again, the effect of BNL on microtubule assembly could be largely accounted for by the presence of the CBZ breakdown product. These results strongly suggest that the BNL metabolite CBZ, and not BNL itself, is the mediator of BNL-induced testicular toxicity and inhibitor of testicular microtubule assembly.

  14. Relative blood volume measurements by magnetic resonance imaging facilitate detection of testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H C; Khan, M A; Bogdanov, A; Kwong, K; Weissleder, R

    1997-12-01

    The authors determine the utility of relative blood volume measurements (rBV) using a blood pool marker for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of early testicular torsion. Testicular torsion was induced in rats by counterclockwise 720 degrees rotation and fixation of the testis in the scrotum. MPEG-PL-DTPA-Gd enhanced MRI (30 mumol Gd/kg bolus injection) was performed 1 hour after torsion at 1.5 T using fat-suppressed three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-recalled sequence for relative blood volume measurement and three-dimensional time-of-flight sequence for MR angiography (MRA). The rBV of the torqued testes was significantly lower (13.3% +/- 13.5%) than that of testes with sham operation (97.7% +/- 5.3%; P < 0.05). Rats with testicular torsion showed larger regions of ischemia than did animals with sham operation (63.4% +/- 13.0% versus 4.0% +/- 2.8% of all pixels in testis; P < 0.01). The MRA of testicular torsion showed engorgement of the distal testicular vein as a sign of venous compression or total disappearance of the testicular vein, indicating arterial insufficiency. The authors conclude that MPEG-PL-DTPA-Gd can be used to obtain functional (rBV), morphologic (tunica enhancement), and angiographic (venous engorgement, arterial compromise) findings that should improve the diagnosis of testicular torsion in the acute setting.

  15. [Scrotal masses in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Markku; Ala-Lipasti, Mika; Marttila, Timo; Paaso, Ilkka; Raitanen, Mika

    2009-01-01

    GPs often encounter patients with scrotal masses. Most of these are easily diagnosed by means of palpation and transillumination. Scrotal ultrasound is the primary radiological investigation, and should be done in cases of uncertain clinical diagnosis or when a solid mass in the scrotum is suspected. Benign processes such as hydrocele, spermatocele and varicocele are the most common causes for scrotal abnormalities. Symptomatic cases are treated with surgery or percutaneous sclerotherapy/embolization. Malignant testicular tumours, although less frequently seen, need prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Radical orchidectomy is the primary treatment, followed by radiochemotherpy in selected cases.

  16. More Cases of Benign Testicular Teratomas are Detected in Adults than in Children. A Clinicopathological Study of 543 Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Cases.

    PubMed

    David, Semjén; András, Farkas; Endre, Kalman; Balint, Kaszas; Árpad, Kovács; Csaba, Pusztai; Karoly, Szuhai; Tamás, Tornóczky

    2017-07-01

    Benign testicular teratomas are always thought to be pediatric neoplasms and previously all the teratoid tumors in the adult testis regarded as malignant. Recently, three publications reported benign testicular teratomas in adulthood and the latest WHO classification refers them as "prepubertal type of teratomas" which rarely appear in adulthood. These neoplasms behave benign and seemingly analogous independently whether they appear in pre- or postpubertal patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of benign testicular teratomas both in children and adults. 593 cases of testicular neoplasms were found in a period of 17 years ranging from 1998 to 2014 in the archive of our department (Department of Pathology, Medical Center, Pécs University). 543 cases diagnosed as germ cell tumor which have all been further evaluated in conjunction with the clinical data available. Of all germ cell tumor cases 14 (2.5 %) were pure teratomas. Ten out of 14 were the WHO-defined "conventional" teratoma, 4 of the 14 were the "benign or the so called prepubertal type" from which three occurred in adult patients. Only one of the 14 occurred in childhood, indicating that benign prepubertal type teratomas -which are regarded generally as childhood tumors- are more frequently detected in adults than in children. Benign adult testicular teratomas comprised 21 % of all pure teratoma cases in our series. Practicioners in the field have to be aware of its existence also in adulthood to avoid overtreatment and not to expose their patients to unnecessary chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RLA) and the potential complications of these interventions.

  17. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  18. Xenotransplantation of testicular tissue into nude mice can be used for detecting leukemic cell contamination.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mi; Andersson, Margareta; Eksborg, Staffan; Söder, Olle; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2007-07-01

    Xeno-grafting of testicular tissue may allow viable gamete maturation. This would be beneficial for prepubertal cancer patients in that it may allow restoration of fertility without the risk of a cancer relapse. However it is unknown whether cancer cells in the testicular graft can transmit the malignancy into the host animal and also if gametes can be retrieved from testicular grafts that are contaminated with malignant cells. Rat T-cell leukemia was employed as the source of leukemic lymphoblasts and testicular tissue. This was injected i.p. (lymphoblasts) or grafted s.c. (fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue) into the back skin of intact nude mice. To simulate clinical autografting, testicular tissue was also transplanted into healthy piebald variegated (PVG) rats. 50-70% of the mice, receiving 200 or 6000 leukemic lymphoblasts, developed terminal leukemia. All mice, grafted with either fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue from leukemic donor, developed generalized leukemia and/or local tumors. All syngenic PVG rats, treated in the same manner, died of generalized leukemia. In all of the retrieved leukemic grafts, rat spermatogenesis was destroyed and only leukemic infiltration was detected. Grafting testicular tissue contaminated with leukemic cells led to tumor growth at the injection site without potential to differentiate germline stem cells into gametes. Xenografting could provide a novel functional strategy for simultaneous detection of malignant cell contamination and spermatogonial potential in testicular xenografts collected for fertility preservation.

  19. Risk factors in past histories and familial episodes related to development of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kanto, Satoru; Hiramatsu, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Satoh, Makoto; Saito, Seiichi; Fukuzaki, Atsushi; Arai, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the host factors of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients. This study was performed to address a new theory proposed by Skakkebaek called testicular dysgenesis syndrome which claims that cryptorchism, hypospadias, poor semen quality and testicular germ cell tumors are symptoms of an underlying testicular dysgenesis in uterus. The past health histories and familial episodes of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients were examined. The past health histories included cryptorchism, hypospadias, infertility, atrophic testis and inguinal hernia. Of the 240 patients, 13 (5.4%) had a history of cryptorchism or orchidopexy. Two (0.8%) showed existence of hypospadias or had experienced urethroplasty. Among 129 married couples, 104 (80.6%) couples were fertile. Three (1.3%) patients developed testicular tumors after they were diagnosed as infertile or came to the hospital with the complaints of infertility. Four (1.7%) had contralateral atrophic testis. 19 (7.9%) had experienced inguinal herniorrhaphy before age 15. Three (1.3%) had testicular germ cell tumor patients among their family or relatives. The testicular germ cell tumor patients showed a considerable incidence of complications such as cryptorchism, hypospadias and incomplete closure of processus vaginalis. Cryptorchism, perinatal factors and familial factors could be risks for developing testicular germ cell tumors.

  20. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2011-04-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially to our understanding of the hormonal control of testicular descent. Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased risk of infertility and testicular cancer in adulthood. Although some cases of isolated cryptorchidism in humans can be ascribed to known genetic defects, such as mutations in INSL3 or RXFP2, the cause of cryptorchidism remains unknown in most patients. Several animal and human studies are currently underway to test the hypothesis that in utero factors, including environmental and maternal lifestyle factors, may be involved in the etiology of cryptorchidism. Overall, the etiology of isolated cryptorchidism seems to be complex and multifactorial, involving both genetic and nongenetic components.

  1. Testicular trauma secondary to less-lethal kinetic energy munitions.

    PubMed

    Kavoussi, Parviz K; Hermans, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    Many cases of testicular trauma secondary to munitions have been reported. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who suffered testicular trauma as a result of a less-lethal munition projectile. With the advent, and increased use, of less-lethal munitions by the military and law enforcement agencies, more of these new subsets of genitourinary trauma patients who will require care are sure to result.

  2. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. [Acute myeloid leukemia possibly originating from the same clone of testicular germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Suyama, Takuya; Obara, Naoshi; Kawai, Koji; Yamada, Kenji; Kusakabe, Manabu; Kurita, Naoki; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-08-01

    This report describes a 30-year-old man with a testicular germ cell tumor, which later developed into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a common chromosomal abnormality. Testicular germ cell tumors had developed at the age of 26. He was successfully treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy.Four years after the onset of the germ cell tumor, he developed pancytopenia with elevated serum LDH. More than 95% of the bone marrow was occupied by blastic cells. These cells were CD13+, CD34+ but CD45- and MPO-. Amplification of the short arm of chromosome 12 was recognized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the blastic cells in the bone marrow and the previous testicular tumor specimen. Because testicular germ cell tumor recurrence and other malignant tumors could be ruled out pathologically, he was diagnosed as having AML.Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a HLA-matched sibling donor was performed after chemotherapy. As of 19 months after the transplantation, recurrence of neither AML nor testicular tumors has been observed. Because the same genetic abnormality was observed in the testicular germ cell tumor and AML in this case, the possibility of AML having a common origin with the testicular germ cell tumor is indicated.

  5. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zugna, Daniela; Fiano, Valentina; Robles Rodriguez, Nena; Maule, Milena; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG), whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis. Methods The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls. Results Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58–1.04) and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66–0.88). When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26–2.64), but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer. Conclusion This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other

  6. Review: Testicular vascular cone development and its association with scrotal thermoregulation, semen quality and sperm production in bulls.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P; Rizzoto, G; Thundathil, J

    2018-06-01

    Several structural and functional features keep bull testes 2°C to 6°C below body temperature, essential for the production of morphologically normal, motile and fertile sperm. The testicular vascular cone (TVC), located above the testis, consists of a highly coiled testicular artery surrounded by a complex network of small veins (pampiniform plexus). The TVC functions as a counter-current heat exchanger to transfer heat from the testicular artery to the testicular vein, cooling blood before it enters the testis. Bulls with increased TVC diameter or decreased distance between arterial and venous blood, have a greater percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Both the scrotum and testes are warmest at the origin of their blood supply (top of scrotum and bottom of testis), but they are cooler distal to that point. In situ, these opposing temperature gradients result in a nearly uniform testicular temperature (top to bottom), cooler than body temperature. The major source of testicular heat is blood flow, not testicular metabolism. High ambient temperatures have less deleterious effects on spermatogenesis in Bos indicus v. Bos taurus bulls; differences in TVC morphology in B. indicus bulls confer a better testicular blood supply and promote heat transfer. There is a long-standing paradigm that testes operate on the brink of hypoxia, increased testicular temperature does not increase blood flow, and the resulting hypoxia reduces morphologically normal and motile sperm following testicular hyperthermia. However, in recent studies in rams, either systemic hypoxia or increased testicular temperature increased testicular blood flow and there were sufficient increases in oxygen uptake to prevent tissue hypoxia. Therefore, effects of increased testicular temperature were attributed to testicular temperature per se and not to secondary hypoxia. There are many causes of increased testicular temperature, including high ambient temperatures, fever, increased recumbency, high

  7. Maternal smoking and testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Zhang, Yawei; Sakoda, Lori C; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men ages 15 to 35 years in the United States. The well-established TGCT risk factors cryptorchism, prior diagnosis of TGCT, and family history of testicular cancer indicate that exposures in early life and/or in the familial setting may be critical to determining risk. Previous reports of familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and testicular cancers in sons suggest that passive smoking in childhood may be such an exposure. To clarify the relationship of passive smoking exposure to TGCT risk, data from 754 cases and 928 controls enrolled in the Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Data from 1,086 mothers of the cases and controls were also examined. Overall, there was no relationship between maternal [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.3] or paternal smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) and TGCT risk. Although living with a non-parent smoker was marginally related to risk (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), there was no relationship with number of smokers, amount smoked, or duration of smoking. Responses from both case-control participants and mothers also revealed no relationship between either maternal smoking while pregnant or while breast-feeding. Results did not differ by TGCT histology (seminoma, non-seminoma). These results do not support the hypothesis that passive smoking, either in utero or in childhood, is related to risk of TGCT. Other early life exposures, however, may explain the familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and TGCT in sons.

  8. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Garcia-Fernandez, Maria; Puche, Juan Enrique; Diaz-Sanchez, Matias; Casares, Amelia Diaz; Aliaga-Montilla, M Aurelia; Rodriguez-Borrajo, Coronación; Gonzalez-Barón, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT) without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week) during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT) were divided into two groups (n = 10 each): untreated rats (AT) receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc.) for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10) were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, plasma IGF-I did not augment in rats with testicular atrophy treated with IGF-I, while IGFBP3 levels, that reduces IGF-I availability, was increased in this group (p < 0.05). Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis). PMID:16504030

  9. A giant testicular mixed germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Reekhaye, A; Harris, A; Nagarajan, S; Chadwick, D

    2016-11-01

    We present a case that we believe to be the largest mixed germ cell testicular tumour reported in the United Kingdom. A 23-year-old male was admitted to our urology department with a large scrotal swelling. The patient was found to have a giant left testicular tumour and a solitary lung metastasis at presentation. He underwent an emergency radical orchidectomy and subsequently received four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy. Four months after starting treatment, the tumour markers had normalised and a repeat staging computed tomography showed no active disease. The tumour reached that size because of the patient's failure to seek medical attention due to fear and embarrassment.

  10. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Leone, Luca; Fulvi, Paola; Sbrollini, Giulia; Filosa, Alessandra; Caraceni, Enrico; Marronaro, Angelo; Galosi, Andrea B

    2016-12-30

    Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%). Testicular Angiofibroma (AF) is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  11. Testicular immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural changes associated with chronic cholestasis in rats: Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2015-09-01

    Testicular atrophy has been commonly reported in patients with chronic liver diseases. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most widely used drug for the treatment of many liver diseases. However, its effect on testicular ultrastructure associated with chronic cholestasis has never been studied. Thus, this study aimed to assess how chronic obstructive jaundice affects the testicular ultrastructure and whether it affects the androgen receptor or the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The role of ursodeoxycholic acid was also investigated. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. Samples were collected 4weeks postoperative. Testicular changes were assessed using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Chronic cholestasis resulted in testicular atrophy evidenced by shrinkage and deformation of seminiferous tubules, thickening of peritubular boundaries, vacuolation, disorganization of germ cells, and maturation arrest. This was accompanied by decreased immunoreactivity of androgen receptors and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid improved the testicular morphology and reversed cholestasis-induced immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes. Ursodeoxycholic acid can improve the testicular ultrastructure and restore the spermatogenic process in rats with chronic cholestasis. These findings support the clinical application of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic patients especially those with hypogonadism. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Wu, Hao; Xin, Ying; Bai, Yang; Kong, Lili; Tan, Yi; Liu, Feng; Cai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN) via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  13. Ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate synergistically aggravates testicular dysfunction in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Olaniyi S; Christianah, Oyewopo I; Oyetunji, Oyewopo A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the concomitant use of sodium benzoate (NaB) and ascorbic acid on human health remains controversial. Therefore, the current study is designed to investigate the effect of NaB and ascorbic acid on the testicular function of adult Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were randomly allotted into Control (vehicle; received 1 ml of distilled water), NaB-treated (SB-treated; received 100 mg/kg body weight; b.w ), ascorbic acid-treated (AA-treated; received 150 mg/kg b.w ) and NaB+ ascorbic acid-treated (SB+AA-treated) groups. The treatment lasted for 28 days and the administration was given orally. The body weight change was monitored. Semen analysis, biochemical assay and histological examination were performed. Treatment with NaB significantly altered the cytoarchitecture of testicular tissue, sperm quality, testicular endocrine function and oxidative stress status without any alteration in body weight gain compared to control. In addition, treatment with NaB+ ascorbic acid exacerbated testicular tissue disruption, impaired sperm quality and testicular endocrine impairment with significant reduction in oxidative stress and unaltered body weight gain when compared with NaB-treated group. This study suggests that ascorbic acid and NaB synergistically aggravates testicular dysfunction. This is independent of oxidative stress status.

  14. Testicular carcinoma: a study of knowledge, awareness, and practice of testicular self-examination in male soldiers and military physicians.

    PubMed

    Singer, A J; Tichler, T; Orvieto, R; Finestone, A; Moskovitz, M

    1993-10-01

    Multiple-choice questionnaires devised to evaluate knowledge and awareness of testicular carcinoma and the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) were distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 military physicians in the Israeli army. Twenty-one percent of the soldiers had received explanations about the importance of TSE; 16% actually received instruction on TSE; yet only 2% practiced TSE regularly. Seventy percent of physicians had been taught how to examine testicles, but only 10% of physicians examined testicles in their routine physical exams. TSE was practiced most frequently among soldiers who had received instruction in the technique. Physicians should encourage their young male patients to practice TSE.

  15. Do ethnic patterns in cryptorchidism reflect those found in testicular cancer?

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jason; Sarfati, Diana; Stanley, James; Studd, Rodney

    2013-11-01

    There are established variations in testicular cancer incidence between ethnic groups within countries. It is currently unclear whether the occurrence of cryptorchidism-a known risk factor for testicular cancer-follows similar patterns. In New Zealand Māori have unusually high rates of testicular cancer compared to individuals of European ancestry. We hypothesized that ethnic trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism would reflect those for testicular cancer in this setting. We followed 318,441 eligible male neonates born in New Zealand between 2000 and 2010 for the incidence of orchiopexy confirmed cryptorchidism and the incidence of known risk factors for cryptorchidism (low birth weight, short gestation, small size for gestational age) using routine maternity, hospitalization and mortality records. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the presence of known risk factors for cryptorchidism by ethnic group. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risk of cryptorchidism by ethnicity, adjusted for risk factors. Ethnic patterns of cryptorchidism incidence in New Zealand closely mirrored those previously observed for testicular cancer. Māori had higher rates of cryptorchidism than all other ethnic groups (adjusted RR 1.2 [95% CI 1.11-1.3]), with Pacific (0.89 [0.8-0.99]) and Asian groups (0.68 [0.59-0.79]) having the lowest rates (European/other, referent). Since the principal risk factors for cryptorchidism are present in utero, the results of the current study strengthen the likelihood that the ethnic patterning of testicular cancer is at least partly due to prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates spinal cord hemisection-induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; Wei, Li-Hua; Du, Chang-Qing; Song, Guo-Hua; Xue, Ya-Zhuo; Shi, Hao-Shen; Yang, Ming; Yin, Xin-Xin; Li, Run-Ting; Wang, Xue-Er; Wang, Zhen; Song, Wen-Gang

    2017-06-27

    To study how hydrogen-rich saline (HS) promotes the recovery of testicular biological function in a hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) rat model, a right hemisection was performed at the T11-T12 of the spinal cord in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: normal group; vehicle group: sham-operated rats administered saline; hSCI group: subjected to hSCI and administered saline; HRST group: subjected to hSCI and administered HS. Hind limb neurological function, testis index, testicular morphology, mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and seminiferous epithelial thickness (MSET), the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), mitofusin-2 (MFN-2), and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), cell ultrastructure, and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells were studied. The results indicated that hSCI significantly decreased the hind limb neurological function, testis index, MSTD, and MSET, and induced severe testicular morphological injury. The MFN-2 level was decreased, and HO-1 and HMGB-1 were overexpressed in testicular tissues. In addition, hSCI accelerated the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and the ultrastructural damage of cells in the hypophysis and testis. After HS administration, all these parameters were considerably improved, and the characteristics of hSCI testes were similar to those of normal control testes. Taken together, HS administration can promote the recovery of testicular biological function by anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic action. More importantly, HS can inhibit the hSCI-induced ultrastructural changes in gonadotrophs, ameliorate the abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis, and thereby promote the recovery of testicular injury. HS administration also inhibited the hSCI-induced ultrastructural changes in testicular spermatogenic cells, Sertoli cells and interstitial cells.

  17. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates spinal cord hemisection-induced testicular injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Li; Wei, Li-Hua; Du, Chang-Qing; Song, Guo-Hua; Xue, Ya-Zhuo; Shi, Hao-Shen; Yang, Ming; Yin, Xin-Xin; Li, Run-Ting; Wang, Xue-er; Wang, Zhen; Song, Wen-Gang

    2017-01-01

    To study how hydrogen-rich saline (HS) promotes the recovery of testicular biological function in a hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) rat model, a right hemisection was performed at the T11–T12 of the spinal cord in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: normal group; vehicle group: sham-operated rats administered saline; hSCI group: subjected to hSCI and administered saline; HRST group: subjected to hSCI and administered HS. Hind limb neurological function, testis index, testicular morphology, mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and seminiferous epithelial thickness (MSET), the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), mitofusin-2 (MFN-2), and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), cell ultrastructure, and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells were studied. The results indicated that hSCI significantly decreased the hind limb neurological function, testis index, MSTD, and MSET, and induced severe testicular morphological injury. The MFN-2 level was decreased, and HO-1 and HMGB-1 were overexpressed in testicular tissues. In addition, hSCI accelerated the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and the ultrastructural damage of cells in the hypophysis and testis. After HS administration, all these parameters were considerably improved, and the characteristics of hSCI testes were similar to those of normal control testes. Taken together, HS administration can promote the recovery of testicular biological function by anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic action. More importantly, HS can inhibit the hSCI-induced ultrastructural changes in gonadotrophs, ameliorate the abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis, and thereby promote the recovery of testicular injury. HS administration also inhibited the hSCI-induced ultrastructural changes in testicular spermatogenic cells, Sertoli cells and interstitial cells. PMID:28404953

  18. Outcome of ICSI with motile testicular spermatozoa obtained through microscopically assisted testicular sperm extraction in relation to the ovarian response.

    PubMed

    Erdem, E; Karacan, M; Usta, A; Arvas, A; Cebi, Z; Camlibel, T

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between AFC, basal FSH level, woman's age, the number of oocytes retrieved and the outcome of ICSI with testicular spermatozoa obtained with microscopically assisted testicular sperm extraction. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 340 couples who underwent ICSI treatment with testicular sperm were enrolled. Women aged?40years and the first cycles of couples were included. ICSI was performed with motile testicular spermatozoa obtained from 89 men with obstructive azoospermia and 251 men with nonobstructive azoospermia. GnRH-antagonist protocol was used for ovulation induction. Simple linear regression was carried out to analyze relationship between the AFC, basal FSH, woman's age, the number of oocytes, and the live birth rate (LBR). Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) were formed to detect cut-off values below which LBR was significantly decreased. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the cut-off level of the number of oocytes retrieved to predict the LBR was 7. According to this cut-off level, all patients were divided into two groups. Women with retrieved<7 oocytes were included in Group 1 and women with retrieved?7 oocytes were included in Group 2. The mean age of men was 35.1±4.9years. The mean age, mean FSH level and mean AFC of women were 32.1±4.9years, 6.9±2.7 IU/L, 7.6±3.4, respectively. Significant correlations were found between AFC, the number of oocytes retrieved, and the LBR per ICSI cycle with testicular spermatozoa. The LBR was significantly lower in women with AFC<8 than those with AFC?8. Independently, the LBR was significantly lower in cycles with<7 oocytes retrieved compared to those with ?7. Embryo transfer was not achieved in 37 cycles with<7 oocytes (37/167, 22.1%) and 18 cycles with?7 (18/173, 10.4%) because of the absence of transfer-quality embryos (P=0.005). The LBRs were the lowest in cycles with one or two oocytes available (8.3 and 8.3%, respectively), but these rates were not

  19. Testicular toxoplasmosis in a 26-year-old immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent; Amarasekera, Channa; Kundu, Shilajit

    2018-06-04

    Testicular toxoplasmosis is a very rare presentation of Toxoplasma gondii A 26-year-old immunocompetent man presented to us with right testicular pain and a right epididymal mass. Ultrasound was concerning for malignancy and a radical orchiectomy was performed. Surgical pathology revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation which stained positive for T. gondii . © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Vega, Aurelie; Baptissart, Marine; Caira, Françoise; Brugnon, Florence; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Volle, David H

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  1. Testicular microlithiasis: is there a need for surveillance in the absence of other risk factors?

    PubMed

    Richenberg, Jonathan; Brejt, Nick

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound surveillance of patients with testicular microlithiasis (TM) has been advocated following the reported association with testicular cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the evidence base supporting such surveillance. Formal literature review identified cohort studies comprising at least 15 patients followed up for at least 24 months. Combining an institutional audit with the identified studies in a pooled analysis the incidence of new cancers during the surveillance period was evaluated. Literature review identified eight studies. Our institutional audit comprised 2,656 men referred for scrotal ultrasound. Fifty-one men (1.92 %) with TM were identified, none of whom developed testicular cancer (mean follow-up: 33.3 months). In a combined population of 389 men testicular cancer developed in 4. Excluding 3 who had additional risk factors, only 1 of 386 developed testicular cancer during follow-up (95 % CI 0.05-1.45 %). Ultrasound surveillance is unlikely to benefit patients with TM in the absence of other risk factors. In the presence of additional risk factors (previous testicular cancer, a history of maldescent or testicular atrophy) patients are likely to be under surveillance; nonetheless monthly self-examination should be encouraged, and open access to ultrasound and formal annual surveillance should be offered. • The literature reports a high association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer. • Our study and meta-analysis suggest no causal link between microlithiasis and cancer. • In the absence of additional risk factors surveillance is not advocated. • In the presence of additional risk factors surveillance is recommended. • Such surveillance is primarily aimed at engaging patients in regular follow-up.

  2. [Relationship between phthalates and testicular dysgenesis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Rong; Dong, Lei; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and spermatogenic dysfunction, which are collectively referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS may be attributed to the dysfunction of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during their differentiation after exposure to phthalates in utero. Fox example, Leydig cell functions are significantly affected by phthalates, leading to the decrease of two Leydig cell products--insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone, which are critical factors for testis descent. The disorientation of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells in the adult testis may be the cause of spermatogenic dysfunction.

  3. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Association of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and semen abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gill, W B; Schumacher, G F; Bibbo, M; Straus, F H; Schoenberg, H W

    1979-07-01

    Epididymal cysts and/or hypoplastic testes have been found in 31.5 per cent of 308 men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero, compared to 7.8 per cent of 307 placebo-exposed controls. Analyses of the spermatozoa have revealed severe pathological changes (Eliasson score greater than 10) in 134 diethylstilbestrol-exposed men (18 per cent) and 87 placebo-exposed men (8 per cent). Further investigation of the 26 diethylstilbestrol-exposed men with testicular hypoplasia has revealed that 65 per cent had a history of cryptorchidism. Only 1 of the 6 placebo-exposed controls with testicular hypoplasia had a history of testicular maldescent. Although none of our Diekmann's lying-in study group has had carcinoma to date one must keep in mind the reported increased risk of testicular carcinoma in testes that are or were cryptorchid. A 25-year-old man who was not part of the study group was treated recently by us for a testicular carcinoma ( mixed anaplastic seminoma plus embryonal cell carcinoma) and he had a history of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and cryptorchidism.

  5. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  6. Testicular Cancer Presenting as Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Mejía, Carlos Eduardo; Hernández-Barajas, David; Llerena-Hernández, Edio; González-Vela, José Luis; Contreras-Salcido, María Inés; González-Gutiérrez, Adriana; Borjas-Almaguer, Omar David; Pérez-Arredondo, Luis Alberto; Wimer-Castillo, Blanca Otilia

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287.4 IU/mL. Upper endoscopy revealed a type 1 isolated gastric varix, treated with cyanoacrylate. A CT scan showed extrinsic compression of the portal vein by lymphadenopathy along with splenic vein partial thrombosis, which caused left-sided portal hypertension. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was started with etoposide and cisplatin, and seven days later the patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. A postoperative biopsy revealed a pure testicular teratoma. Noncirrhotic left portal hypertension with bleeding from an isolated gastric varix secondary to metastasic testicular cancer has not been described before. Clinicians must consider the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis of a young man presenting with unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark.

    PubMed

    Myrup, Charlotte; Westergaard, Tine; Schnack, Tine; Oudin, Anna; Ritz, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-02

    Immigrant studies offer insights into the relative importance of environment and genes in disease etiology. There is considerable variation in testicular cancer incidence worldwide. We investigated testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark, a high-incidence country, to evaluate the relative influence of genes and environment and the potential timing of action of environmental factor(s). A cohort of 2.1 million men who were born since 1930 and lived in Denmark between 1968 and 2003 was established based on information in the Danish Civil Registration System, which included their immigration histories. Cancer histories were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Testicular cancer risk was estimated as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on log-linear Poisson regression. Overall, 4216 testicular cancer cases occurred during 43 million person-years of follow-up in 2.1 million men. These included 166 cases among 344,444 direct immigrants to Denmark and 13 cases among 56,189 men born in Denmark to immigrant parents. These first- and second-generation immigrants had RRs of testicular cancer of 0.37 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.43) and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.51 to 1.53), respectively, compared with men born in Denmark of parents born in Denmark. The rate in first-generation immigrants was not modified by age at immigration or duration of stay and reflected that in the country of origin. The testicular cancer risk in first-generation immigrants was lower than that in native-born Danes and reflected that in the countries of origin, whereas the risk in second-generation immigrants was similar to that in natives of Denmark. Together these findings argue for a substantial influence of environmental factors limited to the period early in life, most probably to the period in utero.

  8. Air Force Health Care Providers Incidence of Performing Testicular Exams and Instruction of Testicular Self-Exam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Misener & Fuller,1995; Singer, Tichler , Orvieto, Finestone, & Moskowitz,1993; Sladden & Dickinson, 1995). This continues despite the American Cancer...175. Shaffner, R.J. (1995). Knowledge of testicular self exam. Nurse Practitioner, 20, (8), 10-11. Singer, A.J., Tichler , T., Orvieto, R., Finestone

  9. Air Force Health Care Providers Incidence of Performing Testicular Exams and Instruction of Testicular Self-Exam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    or discussing TSE with patients (Misener & Fuller, 1995; Singer, Tichler , Orvieto, Finestone, & Moskowitz, 1993; Sladden & Dickinson, 1995). This...Clinicians, 43, 3, 151-175. Shaffner, R.J. (1995). Knowledge of testicular self exam. Nurse Practitioner, 20, (8), 10-11. Singer, A.J., Tichler , T

  10. Acute testicular torsion in children: the role of sonography in the diagnostic workup.

    PubMed

    Gunther, P; Schenk, J P; Wunsch, R; Holland-Cunz, S; Kessler, U; Troger, J; Waag, K L

    2006-11-01

    Acute testicular torsion in children is an emergency and has to be diagnosed urgently. Doppler sonography is increasingly used in imaging the acute scrotum. Nevertheless, in uncertain cases, surgical exploration is required. In this study, we attempted to define the role of Doppler sonography in the diagnostic workup of the acutely painful scrotum. All patients admitted between 1999 and 2005 with acute scrotal pain were included. After clinical assessment, patients were imaged by Doppler sonography with a ''high-end'' instrument. In cases of absent arterial perfusion of the testis in Doppler sonography, surgical exploration was carried out. Patients with unaffected perfusion were followed clinically by ultrasound for up to 2 years. Sixty-one infants and children aged 1 day to 17 years (median: 7.9 years) were included. In 14 cases, sonography demonstrated absent central perfusion, with abnormal parenchymal echogenicity in six. Absence of venous blood flow together with reduction of central arterial perfusion was found in one infant. In these 15 patients, surgical exploration confirmed testicular torsion. Among the other 46 patients, we found four cases with increased testicular perfusion and 27 with increased perfusion of the epididymis. In one infant, a testicular tumour was found sonographically, and orchiectomy confirmed diagnosis of a teratoma. Follow-up examinations of the conservatively treated patients showed good clinical outcome with physiologic central perfusion as well as normal echogenic pattern of both testes. No case of testicular torsion was missed. By means of Doppler sonography, an unequivocal statement regarding testicular perfusion was possible in all cases. The initial Doppler diagnosis was confirmed by operative evaluation and follow-up ultrasound. Testicular torsion can therefore be excluded by correctly performed ultrasound with modern equipment.

  11. HMGA2 expression distinguishes between different types of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Lars; Gottlieb, Andrea; Helmke, Burkhard; Wosniok, Werner; Löning, Thomas; Burchardt, Käte; Belge, Gazanfer; Günther, Kathrin; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    The group of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours encompasses lesions with highly diverse differentiation - seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Heterogeneous differentiation is often present within individual tumours and the correct identification of the components is of clinical relevance. HMGA2 re-expression has been reported in many tumours, including testicular germ cell tumours. This is the first study investigating HMGA2 expression in a representative group of testicular germ cell tumours with the highly sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR as well as with immunohistochemistry. The expression of HMGA2 and HPRT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 59 postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours. Thirty specimens contained only one type of tumour and 29 were mixed neoplasms. With the exception of choriocarcinomas, at least two pure specimens from each subgroup of testicular germ cell tumour were included. In order to validate the quantitative real-time PCR data and gather information about the localisation of the protein, additional immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody specific for HMGA2 was performed in 23 cases. Expression of HMGA2 in testicular germ cell tumours depended on the histological differentiation. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas showed no or very little expression, whereas yolk sac tumours strongly expressed HMGA2 at the transcriptome as well as the protein level. In teratomas, the expression varied and in choriocarcinomas the expression was moderate. In part, these results contradict data from previous studies but HMGA2 seems to represent a novel marker to assist pathological subtyping of testicular germ cell tumours. The results indicate a critical role in yolk sac tumours and some forms of teratoma.

  12. International testicular cancer incidence trends: generational transitions in 38 countries 1900-1990.

    PubMed

    Znaor, Ariana; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Laversanne, Mathieu; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in testicular cancer incidence have marked the second half of the last century. While these secular rises, observed mainly in countries attaining the highest levels of human development, appear to have attenuated in the last decade, rates continue to increase in countries transiting toward high developmental levels. The purpose of our study was to provide a comprehensive analysis and presentation of the cohort-specific trends in testicular cancer incidence rates in 38 countries worldwide. We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyze testicular cancer incidence in men aged 15-54 in 38 countries, via age-period-cohort analysis. In many European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, there is a continuation of the increasing risk among successive generations, yet rates are attenuating in male cohorts born since the 1970s in several Northern European countries, in contrast to the steeply increasing trends in recent cohorts in Southern Europe. Incidence rates have also been increasing in the populations traditionally at rather low risk, such as in the Philippines, Singapore, China, and Costa Rica. The attenuation of testicular cancer risk in younger generations (in the most developed countries) alongside concomitant increases (in countries undergoing developmental change) is indicative of a global transition in the risk of testicular cancer. While identifying the underlying causes remains a major challenge, increasing awareness and adapting national healthcare systems to accommodate a growing burden of testicular cancer may prevent future avoidable deaths in young men.

  13. Incidence and Mortality of Testicular Cancer and Relationships with Development in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Gandomani, Hamidreza Sadeghi; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers among young men between ages 20-34 in countries with high or very high levels of the Human Development Index (HDI). This study investigated the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and the relationship with the HDI and its dimensions in Asia in 2012. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Standardized incidence and mortality rates of testicular cancer were calculated for Asian countries. Correlations between incidence and/ormortality rates, and the HDI and its components were assessed with the use of the correlation test, using SPSS software. There was a total of 14902 incidences and 5832 death were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Among the Asian countries, the five countries with the highest standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer were Israel, Georgia, Turkey, Lebanon and Kazakhstan and the five countries with the highest standardized mortality rates were Turkey, Georgia, Jordan, Cambodia and the Syrian Arab Republic. A positive correlation of 0.382 was observed between the standardized incidence rates of testicular cancer and the HDI (p=0.009). Also a negative correlation of 0.298 between the standardized mortality rate of testicular cancer and the Human Development Index was noted although this relation was statistically non-significant (p=0.052). There is a positive correlation between HDI and the standardized incidence rate of testicular cancer and negative correlation with standardized mortality rate.

  14. Feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy to diagnose testicular torsion: an experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Geoffrey A; Mader, Timothy J; Coughlin, Bret F; Lovewell, Carolanne; St Louis, Myron R L; Tirabassi, Michael; Wadie, George; Smithline, Howard A

    2007-04-01

    To assess whether near-infrared spectroscopy can detect testicular hypoxia in a sheep model of testicular torsion within 6 hours of experimental torsion. This was a randomized, controlled, nonblinded study. Trans-scrotal, near-infrared, spectroscopy-derived testicular tissue saturation of oxygen values were obtained from the posterior hemiscrota of 6 anesthetized sheep at baseline and every 15 minutes for 6 hours after either experimental-side, 720-degree, unilateral, medial testicular torsion and orchidopexy or control-side sham procedure with orchidopexy and then for 75 minutes after reduction of torsion and pexy. Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed every 30 minutes to confirm loss of vascular flow on the experimental side, return of flow after torsion reduction, and preserved flow on the control side. Near infrared spectroscopy detected a prompt, sustained reduction in testicular tissue saturation of oxygen after experimental torsion. Further, it documented a rapid return of these values to pretorsion levels after reduction of torsion. Experimental-side testicular tissue saturation of oxygen fell from a median value of 59% (interquartile range [IQR] 57% to 69%) at baseline to 14% (IQR 11% to 29%) at 2.5 hours of torsion, and postreduction values were approximately 70%. Control-side testicular tissue saturation of oxygen values increased from a median value of 67% (IQR 59% to 68%) at baseline to 77% (IQR 77% to 94%) at 2.5 hours and remained at approximately 80% for the entire protocol. The difference in median testicular tissue saturation of oxygen between experimental and control sides, using the Friedman test, was found to be significant (P=.017). This study demonstrates the feasibility, in a sheep model, of using near-infrared spectroscopy for the noninvasive diagnosis of testicular torsion and for quantification of reperfusion after torsion reduction. The applicability of these findings, from an animal model using complete torsion, to the clinical

  15. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: virtual reality training and learning curve.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Ni, Yuhua; Zhang, Yinan; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua; Wang, Hanbo

    2014-01-01

    To explore the role that virtual reality training might play in the learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy. A total of 1326 laparoscopic varicocelectomy cases performed by 16 participants from July 2005 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The participants were divided into 2 groups: group A was trained by laparoscopic trainer boxes; group B was trained by a virtual reality training course preoperatively. The operation time curves were drafted, and the learning, improving, and platform stages were divided and statistically confirmed. The operation time and number of cases in the learning and improving stages of both groups were compared. Testicular artery sparing failure and postoperative hydroceles rate were statistically analyzed for the confirmation of the learning curve. The learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy was 15 cases, and with 14 cases more, it came into the platform stage. The number of cases for the learning stages of both groups showed no statistical difference (P=.49), but the operation time of group B for the learning stage was less than that of group A (P<.00001). The number of cases of group B for the improving stage was significantly less than that of group A (P=.005), but the operation time of both groups in the improving stage showed no difference (P=.30). The difference of testicular artery sparing failure rates among these 3 stages was proved significant (P<.0001), the postoperative hydroceles rate showed no statistical difference (P=.60). The virtual reality training shortened the operation time in the learning stage and hastened the trainees' steps in the improving stage, but did not shorten the learning curve as expected to.

  16. Testicular Prostheses: Development and Modern Usage

    PubMed Central

    Bodiwala, D; Summerton, DJ; Terry, TR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testicular prostheses produced from various materials have been in use since 1941. The absence of a testicle has been shown to be a psychologically traumatic experience for males of all ages. The indications for insertion of a prosthesis include absence or following orchidectomy from a number of causes such as malignancy, torsion and orchitis. The most common substance used around the world in the manufacture of these implants is silicone; however, in the US, this material is currently banned because of theoretical health risks. This has led to the development of saline-filled prostheses as an alternative. PATIENTS AND METHODS A Medline search was carried out on all articles on testicular prosthesis between 1966 and 2006. CONCLUSIONS This review highlights the controversies regarding prosthetic materials, the complications of insertion and the potential benefits of this commonly performed procedure. PMID:17535609

  17. Testicular cancer in young men and parental occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Kardaun, J W; Hayes, R B; Pottern, L M; Brown, L M; Hoover, R N

    1991-01-01

    To investigate whether parental occupation, especially during the 12 month period before birth, could be responsible for elevated rates of testicular cancer in young men, we used data from a case-control study of 223 cases and 212 controls conducted in the Washington, DC area. For all histologic types of testicular cancer combined, no significant associations were found for specific occupations, nor for the broad occupational categories of professional, other white collar, or blue collar workers. However, for cases with seminomas, excess risks were seen for those with parents employed in the following occupations: mothers in health-related occupations, O.R. = 4.6 (1.1-19.1), and fathers working in automobile service stations, O.R. = 4.0 (0.6-24.5), manufacturing industries, O.R. = 2.2 (1.0-4.2), and aircraft production and maintenance, O.R. = 5.3 (0.7-24.1). Although these findings for seminoma are intriguing, they do not explain the increase of testicular cancer in young men.

  18. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent

    PubMed Central

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes. PMID:27022326

  19. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-02-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes.

  20. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  1. Dose-dependent protective effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, H; Durmus, A S; Şimşek, H; Yaman, M

    2012-05-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Thirty-seven adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: sham operated group (group 1), T/D+ saline (group 2), T/D+ 0.7 mg sildenafil citrate (group 3) and T/D+ 1.4 mg sildenafil citrate (group 4). Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. The level of GSH (P < 0.05) in the testis in the group 2 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and the levels of MDA and NO (P < 0.01 for both) in the testis were significantly higher when compared with those of the group 1. Administration of low dose sildenafil citrate prevented the increases in MDA and NO levels and decreases in GSH values induced by testicular torsion. However, administration of high dose sildenafil citrate did not have any effect on these testicular tissue parameters (P > 0.05). Also, mean values of seminiferous tubules diameters, germinal cell layer thicknesses and mean testicular biopsy score were significantly better in group 3 than groups 2 and 4. These results suggest that T/D injury occurred in testis after unilateral testicular T/D and that administration of low dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular torsion. Sildenafil citrate probably acts through reduction of reactive oxygen species and support antioxidant enzyme systems. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Cryptorchidism and delayed testicular descent in Florida black bears.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Cunningham, M W; Wooding, J B; Roth, R P

    1996-10-01

    Retained testes were found in 11 (16%) of 71 black bears (Ursus americanus) examined over a 3-year period in Florida (USA). Four of the 11 bears were older than one year and weighed more than 32 kg; therefore, they were considered to be cryptorchid. The remaining seven bears may have had delayed testicular descent due to their apparent normal immature development. This is the first known published report of the prevalence of cryptorchidism and apparently normal delayed testicular descent in a black bear population.

  3. Histological assessment of testicular residues in lambs and calves after Burdizzo castration.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M H; von Rotz, A; Kocher, M; Merkli, M; Boesch, D; Steiner, A

    2009-04-25

    To assess the reliability of the Burdizzo procedure for castrating calves and lambs, testicular tissue from 63 bull calves (15 intact and 48 castrated) and 69 male lambs (35 intact and 34 castrated) was collected at slaughter and assessed histologically. The bull calves were castrated at either one, four to five or 12 to 16 weeks of age and the lambs at either one or 10 weeks. There was clear evidence of spermatogenesis in testicular tissue from all the intact animals. In the samples from the calves that had been castrated at 12 to 16 weeks functional testicular tissue was completely lacking. However, there was evidence of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the calves that had been castrated at one week or four to five weeks, respectively. Failure to achieve complete involution of the testicular parenchyma was observed in the majority of lambs, irrespective of the age at which they had been castrated.

  4. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Aurelie; Baptissart, Marine; Caira, Françoise; Brugnon, Florence; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Volle, David H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures. PMID:23230429

  5. Testicular lactate content is compromised in men with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marco G; Martins, Ana D; Jarak, Ivana; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Joaquina; Sousa, Mário; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common genetic cause of human infertility, but the mechanism(s) responsible for its phenotype remain largely unknown. KS is associated with alterations in body composition and with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. We therefore hypothesized that KS men seeking fertility treatment possess an altered testicular metabolism profile that may hamper the nutritional support of spermatogenesis. Testicular biopsies from control (46, XY) (n = 6) and KS (47, XXY) (n = 6) individuals were collected and analyzed by proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mRNA and protein expression of crucial glycolysis-associated enzymes and transporters were evaluated in parallel by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Our data revealed altered regulation of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3); phosphofructokinase 1, liver isoform (PFKL); and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression in the testis of KS patients. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction in lactate and creatine accumulation within testicular tissue from KS men. The aberrant levels of the biomarkers detected in testicular biopsies of KS men may therefore be associated with the infertility phenotypes presented by these men. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 208-216, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Onofre, J; Baert, Y; Faes, K; Goossens, E

    2016-11-01

    Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23.8%. Yet, functional proof of fertility restoration in the

  7. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  8. Testicular volume and semen parameters in patients aged 12 to 17 years with idiopathic varicocele.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J B; Sajad, Yasmin; Rakoczy, George; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2012-02-01

    Varicocele is potentially a progressive condition that may affect fertility. The authors have encouraged sperm banking for their postpubertal patients with varicocele and aim to evaluate the sperm parameters in this cohort of patients. With institutional ethical approval, sperm variables (volume, concentration, and forward motility) of patients with postpubertal varicocele who opted for sperm banking were prospectively recorded. The following parameters were also acquired: (a) ultrasound measurement of testicular volume, (b) clinical grade, and (c) venous Doppler. Patients were divided into 2 groups: symmetrical testis (group A) and asymmetrical testis (group B). Testicular asymmetry was defined as greater than 20% difference in testicular volume compared with contralateral testis. Sperm parameters were compared between groups A and B using Mann-Whitney U test and P < .05. Fifteen patients were included: 10 in group A and 5 in group B. Median semen concentration in group B was significantly lower than group A (3 vs 26 million/mL; P = .04). One hundred percent of group B failed World Health Organisation adult criteria for normal spermiograms compared with 50% of group A. Sperm concentration and quality was lower in patients with asymmetrical testis. Testicular dysfunction may be present before the onset of testicular hypotrophy. When testicular hypotrophy is present, testicular dysfunction is very likely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testicular Ischemia Caused by Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia in Infants: Incidence, Conservative treatment procedure, and Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Karakus, Osman Zeki

    2017-07-02

    Testicular ischemia and necrosis, especially in the infant age, may result from incarcerated inguinal hernia. Duration of ischemia is a significant factor for the affected testicle. We aimed to present a case series on the conservative management in the testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia. Inguinal hernia repairs performed in between March 2009 and December 2014 were investigated retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, hernia side, incarceration, testicular ischemia and complications were recorded. Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed in the incarcerated inguinal hernia patients preoperatively and was repeated on 3 and 7 days and then at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The testicle sizes, volumes, and arterial flow patterns of them were recorded at the same time. Total 785 inguinal hernias were treated in 738 male patients, ranging from 18 days to 16 years. From all male patients, 44 (5.9%) had the IIH. There were 16 (36.3%) irreducible hernias in 44 incarcerated hernia patients. Of these 16, testicular ischemia was determined in 9 (56.2%) infants with the irreducible incarcerated hernia. Orchidopexyprocedure was performed in these patients. Testicular atrophy was occurred in two patients (22.2%). In the others, testicular volumes and perfusions were normal during follow-up (mean 8.3 ± 2.2 months). Testicular ischemia resulting from incarcerated inguinal hernia may be treated conservatively without orchiectomy for the ischemic testicle and testicular ischemia may be followed with color Doppler ultrasound for atleast 6 months. The inguinal hernia repair in infants should be subject to urgent surgery rather than elective surgery. So, the testicular ischemia in infants with the inguinal hernia will be an avoidable complication.

  10. Insurance Status and Differences in Treatment and Survival of Testicular Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Mohamed H; Elfaramawi, Mohammed; Jadhav, Supriya; Saafan, Ahmed; Raheem, Omer A; Davis, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between insurance status and differences in treatment and survival of testicular cancer patients. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was utilized for this study. Between 2007 and 2011, 5986 testicular cancer patients were included in the SEER database. Patients were classified into nonseminoma and seminoma groups. We compared mortality rates, metastasis (M+) at diagnosis, and rates of adjuvant treatments between the uninsured (UI) and insured (I) populations. Overall, 2.64% of UI vs 1.36% of I died from testicular cancer (P = .025) and 16.73% of UI vs 10.52% of I had M+ at diagnosis (P <.0001). In the nonseminoma group, 4.19% of UI vs 2.79% of I died from testicular cancer (P = .326) and 25.92% of UI vs 18.46% of I had M+ at diagnosis (P = .0007). Also 17.28% of UI vs 20.88% of I had retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND; P = .1). In the seminoma group, 1.06% of UI vs 0.33% of I died from testicular cancer (P = .030) and 7.43% of UI vs 4.81% of I had M+ at diagnosis (P = .029). Also 34.75% of UI vs 48.4% of I received adjuvant radiation (P = .0083). The lack of health insurance predicted poor survival after adjusting for tumor stage, receiving adjuvant radiation or RPLND. UI testicular cancer patients present with more advanced cancer stages and have higher mortality rates than I patients. UI seminoma patients received less adjuvant radiation. This may be related to lack of access to care or more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Xenotransplantation as a model for human testicular development.

    PubMed

    Hutka, Marsida; Smith, Lee B; Mitchell, Rod T

    The developing male reproductive system may be sensitive to disruption by a wide range of exogenous 'endocrine disruptors'. In-utero exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been hypothesized to have an impact in the increasing incidence of male reproductive disorders. The vulnerability to adverse effects as a consequence of such exposures is elevated during a specific 'window of susceptibility' in fetal life referred to as the masculinisation programing window (MPW). Exposures that occur during prepuberty, such as chemotherapy treatment for cancer during childhood, may also affect future fertility. Much of our current knowledge about fetal and early postnatal human testicular development derives from studies conducted in animal models predictive for humans. Therefore, over recent years, testicular transplantation has been employed as a 'direct' approach to understand the development of human fetal and prepubertal testis in health and disease. In this review we describe the potential use of human testis xenotransplantation to study testicular development and its application for (i) assessing the effects of environmental exposures in humans, and (ii) establishing fertility preservation options for prepubertal boys with cancer. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Granulomatous slack skin associated with metastatic testicular seminoma].

    PubMed

    Carton de Tournai, D; Deschamps, L; Laly, P; Zeboulon, C; Bouaziz, J-D; Ram-Wolff, C; Doumecq-Lacoste, J-M; Ortonne, N; Rivet, J; Battistella, M; Bagot, M

    Granulomatous slack skin (GSS) is an extremely rare subtype of T-cell lymphoma, a variant of mycosis fungoides (MF). Herein, we describe the first reported case of GSS associated with metastatic testicular seminoma. A 28-year-old male patient presented with circumscribed erythematous loose skin masses, especially in the body folds and which had been relapsing for 4years. Skin biopsy showed a loss of elastic fibers and an atypical granulomatous T-cell infiltrate with epidermotropism, enabling a diagnosis of GSS to be made. A biopsy of a retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy showed testicular seminoma metastasis. Patients suffering from GSS have a statistically higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma. The association found between GSS and a lymphoproliferative malignancy requires long-term follow-up and determines the patient's prognosis. It is not possible to prove a formal link between GSS and testicular seminoma. However, this case illustrates the value of screening for a second cancer, particularly where extra-cutaneous lesions appear during GSS treatment. Lymph node biopsy should be performed routinely in the event of GSS with possible lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin but not the calcitonin gene-related peptide induces postnatal testicular descent in mice.

    PubMed

    Houle, A M; Gagné, D

    1995-01-01

    The androgen-regulated paracrine factor, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been proposed as a possible mediator of testicular descent. This peptide has been found to increase rhythmic contractions of gubernaculae and is known to be released by the genitofemoral nerve. We have investigated the ability of CGRP to induce premature testicular descent. CGRP was administered alone, or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to C57BL/6 male mice postnatally. The extent of testicular descent at 18 days postpartum was then ascertained. The potential relationship between testicular weight and descent was also examined. Our results show that testes of mice treated with either hCG alone, or in combination with 500 ng CGRP, were at a significantly lower position than those of controls by 16% and 17%, respectively. In contrast, mice treated with 500 ng of CGRP alone had testes at a higher position when compared to those of controls, by 19%. In mice treated with 50 ng of CGRP alone or in combination with hCG, testes were at a position similar to those in controls. Furthermore, testicular descent was analyzed in relation to testicular weight, and we found that significantly smaller testes per gram of body weight than those of controls were at a significantly lower position compared to those of controls. Our data demonstrate that CGRP had no effect on postnatal testicular descent and that there is no relationship between postnatal descent and testicular weight.

  14. Standardized education and parental awareness are lacking for testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ariella A; Ahmed, Haris; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion leads to orchiectomy in 30-50% of cases, which may cause psychological upset and parental guilt over a potentially avertable outcome. Presentation delay is an important modifiable cause of orchiectomy; yet, families are not routinely educated about torsion or its urgency. The present study assessed parental knowledge regarding acute scrotal pain. An anonymous survey was distributed to parents in Urology and ENT offices, asking about their children's gender and scrotal pain history, urgency of response to a child's acute scrotal pain, and familiarity with testicular torsion. Surveys of 479 urology and 59 ENT parents were analyzed. The results between the two were not statistically different. Among the urology parents, 34% had heard of testicular twisting/torsion, most commonly through friends, relatives or knowing someone with torsion (35%); only 17% were informed by pediatricians (Summary Figure). Parents presenting for a child's scrotal pain were significantly more likely to have heard of torsion (69%) than those presenting for other reasons (30%, OR 5.24, P < 0.0001). Only 13% of parents of boys had spoken with their children about torsion. Roughly three quarters of them would seek emergent medical attention - by day (75%) or night (82%) - for acute scrotal pain. However, urgency was no more likely among those who knew about torsion. This was the first study to assess parental knowledge of the emergent nature of acute scrotal pain in a non-urgent setting, and most closely approximating their level of knowledge at the time of pain onset. It also assessed parents' hypothetical responses to the scenario, which was markedly different than documented presentation times, highlighting a potential area for improvement in presentation times. Potential limitations included lack of respondent demographic data, potential sampling bias of a population with greater healthcare knowledge or involvement, and assessment of parents only. Parental knowledge of

  15. Antioxidants enhance the recovery of three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction, pituitary-testicular axis, and fertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilarkaje, Narayana; Mousa, Alyaa M; Al-Bader, Maie M; Khan, Khalid M

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (AC) on bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP)-induced testicular dysfunction. In vivo study. Research laboratory. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated with three cycles of 21 days each of therapeutically relevant dose levels of BEP (0.75, 7.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) with or without the AC (a mixture of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, Zn, and Se). Sperm parameters, fertility, serum hormone levels (ELISA), testicular histopathology, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and transferrin (Western blotting and immunohistochemistry) were evaluated at the end of treatment and a 63-day recovery period. At the end of treatment, the AC improved BEP-induced decrease in sperm motility and increase in abnormality but had no effect on reduced sperm count, fertility, and tubular atrophy, although it up-regulated germ cell proliferation. The AC normalized reduced inhibin B levels, but had no effect on decreased transferrin and testosterone and elevated LH levels. At the end of the recovery period, the AC enhanced the expression of PCNA and transferrin, repopulation of germ cells, LH-testosterone axis, and fertility, but had no effect on reduced FSH and elevated inhibin B levels. The antioxidants protect and then enhance the recovery of testicular and reproductive endocrine functions when administered concomitantly with BEP therapy. The AC may be beneficial to regain testicular functions after chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testicular cancer and hormonally active agents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Michael; Turner, Michelle C; Ghadirian, Parviz; Krewski, Daniel; Wade, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is a rare form of cancer, accounting for 1% of all new cancer cases in Canadian males. TC is the most common malignancy among young men, aged 25-34 yr old. Over previous decades, the incidence of TC has increased in many Western countries. Countries with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration, such as Denmark, document this trend back to the first half of the 20th century. The etiology of TC remains poorly understood. Most of the established risk factors are likely related to in utero events, including some factors that are purported to be surrogate measures for exposure to endogenous estrogens. The correlation of TC with other testicular abnormalities and with pregnancy factors led to the proposal that these conditions are a constellation of sequelae of impairment of testicular development called testis dysgenesis syndrome. There is some limited evidence suggesting that exposure to pharmacological estrogens may contribute to some cases of TC. There is currently no compelling evidence that exposure to environmental estrogenic or other hormonally active substances is contributing to the rise in TC incidence observed in Western nations over the last several decades; however, this question has not been extensively studied. The (1) rarity of this condition in the population, (2) long lag time between the presumed sensitive period during fetal development and clinical appearance of the condition, and (3) lack of a good animal model to study the progression of the disease have greatly hindered the understanding of environmental influences on TC risk.

  17. Mendelian randomisation analysis provides no evidence for a relationship between adult height and testicular cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Hall, D; Sud, A; Law, P; Litchfield, K; Dudakia, D; Haugen, T B; Karlsson, R; Reid, A; Huddart, R A; Grotmol, T; Wiklund, F; Houlston, R S; Turnbull, C

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41-1.55, p = 2.7 × 10 -57 ; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p = 3.1 × 10 -10 ; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, p = 1.1 × 10 -6 ). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors

  18. Optimizing cryopreservation of human spermatogonial stem cells: comparing the effectiveness of testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Smith, James F.; Klatsky, Peter C.; Tran, Nam D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether optimal human spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) cryopreservation is best achieved with testicular tissue or single cell suspension cryopreservation. This study compares the effectiveness between these two approaches by using testicular SSEA-4+ cells, a known population containing SSCs. Design In vitro human testicular tissues. Setting Academic research unit. Patients Adult testicular tissues (n = 4) collected from subjects with normal spermatogenesis and normal fetal testicular tissues (n = 3). Intervention(s) Testicular tissue vs. single cell suspension cryopreservation. Main Outcome Measures Cell viability, total cell recovery per milligram of tissue, as well as, viable and SSEA-4+ cell recovery. Results Single cell suspension cryopreservation yielded higher recovery of SSEA-4+ cells enriched in adult SSCs whereas fetal SSEA-4+ cell recovery was similar between testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation. Conclusions Adult and fetal human SSEA-4+ populations exhibited differential sensitivity to cryopreservation based on whether they were cryopreserved in situ as testicular tissues or as single cells. Thus, optimal preservation of human SSCs depends on the patient age, type of samples cryopreserved, and end points of therapeutic applications. PMID:25241367

  19. Sonographic Appearance of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumour in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Saurabh S; Shetty, Devdas; Saifi, Shenaz

    2017-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs) are benign testicular masses that are found in inadequately treated patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Recognizing this association and identifying characteristic ultrasound features of TARTs is important so as to avoid misdiagnosing them as malignancies, which can lead to unnecessary interventions. We describe a case of a 9-year-old boy, with a diagnosis of CAH and precocious puberty, who was referred to our department for an ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen and scrotum. On ultrasound, there were well-defined, heterogeneous, predominantly hypoechoic, round-to-oval masses in both testes. Taking into account the presence of CAH and a typical sonographic appearance of bilateral testicular masses, a diagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumour was made; biopsy was deferred and hormonal treatment was modified. Prompt diagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumours is essential, as it only indicates inadequate hormonal control. Moreover, it can prevent unnecessary biopsies and orchidectomies, and can maintain fertility. TARTs have a typical imaging appearance that every radiologist must be aware of.

  20. Sonographic Appearance of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumour in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devdas; Saifi, Shenaz

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs) are benign testicular masses that are found in inadequately treated patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Recognizing this association and identifying characteristic ultrasound features of TARTs is important so as to avoid misdiagnosing them as malignancies, which can lead to unnecessary interventions. Case Report We describe a case of a 9-year-old boy, with a diagnosis of CAH and precocious puberty, who was referred to our department for an ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen and scrotum. On ultrasound, there were well-defined, heterogeneous, predominantly hypoechoic, round-to-oval masses in both testes. Taking into account the presence of CAH and a typical sonographic appearance of bilateral testicular masses, a diagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumour was made; biopsy was deferred and hormonal treatment was modified. Conclusions Prompt diagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumours is essential, as it only indicates inadequate hormonal control. Moreover, it can prevent unnecessary biopsies and orchidectomies, and can maintain fertility. TARTs have a typical imaging appearance that every radiologist must be aware of. PMID:29662583

  1. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  2. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rato, L; Alves, M G; Dias, T R; Cavaco, J E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters.

  3. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage.

  4. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage. PMID:27885307

  5. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Leffers, Henrik

    2008-04-01

    Recent increases in male reproductive disorders have been linked to exposure to environmental factors leading to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Testicular cancer is the most severe condition in TDS and studies have shown a clear correlation between risk of testicular cancer and other components of TDS and that the geographical location of the mother during pregnancy can be a risk factor. This suggests that the dysgenesis has its origin in utero and that TDS is initiated by environmental factors, including possibly hormone-disrupting compounds that act on the mother and the developing foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from primordial germ cells or gonocytes. CIS cells and germ cell-derived cancers of the human type have so far not been described in any animal model of TDS, which could be caused by species differences in the development of the male gonad. Regardless of this, it is plausible that the dysgenesis, and hence the development of CIS cells, is a result of disturbed signalling between nurse cells and germ cells that allow embryonic germ cells to survive in the pre-pubertal and adult testis. The post-pubertal proliferation of CIS cells combined with aberrant signalling then leads to an accumulation of genetic changes in the CIS cells, which eventually results in the development of invasive testicular cancer in the adult.

  6. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer: a comparison based on relationship status.

    PubMed

    Tuinman, Marrit A; Hoekstra, Harald J; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem, social support, and mental health in 3 groups of survivors of testicular cancer: singles, those with the same partner as at diagnosis (relationship during testicular cancer), and those with a partner they met after completion of treatment (relationship after testicular cancer). A total of 129 survivors completed the Social Support List, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the subscale mental health of the RAND-36. Mean time since diagnosis for single survivors was 8.3 years (range 1-23), for survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer 9.3 years (range 1-24), and for survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer 13.6 years (range 1-24). Levels of social support were equal in groups, but satisfaction with support was not. Survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer were most satisfied with support, and had the highest self-esteem and mental health. Survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer reported the next best levels of functioning but had the same mental health as singles. Singles and survivors with a relationship established after testicular cancer had a lower mental health than a reference group of men. The difference in self-esteem between singles and survivors of testicular cancer with a relationship during testicular cancer appeared most distinct and was clinically relevant. Mental health was predicted by different factors for the 3 groups. Being single at diagnosis seems to cause a vulnerability that remains when survivors do develop a relationship after treatment is completed because these groups are at risk for a lower mental health.

  7. Validation of an automated counting procedure for phthalate-induced testicular multinucleated germ cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to certain phthalate esters results in testicular toxicity, characterized at the tissue level by induction of multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) in rat, mouse, and human fetal testis. Phthalate exposures also result in a decrease in testicular testosterone in rats...

  8. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  9. The ameliorative effects of vinpocetine on apoptosis and HSP-70 expression in testicular torsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, M F; Ozdemir, Ş; Guzel, M; Kaymak, E

    2017-01-01

    Vinpocetine is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of vinpocetine on torsion/detorsion (T/D) induced testicular damage, HSP-70 expression and germ cell apoptosis in rats. Sixty Wistar albino adult male rats were divided into five groups of 12. The groups comprised a control group, a sham treated group, a T/D group, a vinpocetine treated group, and a T/D plus vinpocetine treated group. The left testis of each rat was subjected to unilateral torsion followed by detorsion after 2 h. Vinpocetine was administered intraperitoneally immediately and for 10 days following detorsion. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and their testes removed and processed. HSP-70 expression, apoptosis and histopathological damage scores were determined for each group. Testicular T/D caused significant increases in apoptosis and HSP-70 expression, and a significant decrease in Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores and mean seminiferous tubule diameter. Vinpocetine ameliorated testicular histopathology and HSP-70 expression in the T/D + vinpocetine group. Consequently, vinpocetine may prevent testicular injury following testicular torsion owing to its antioxidant effects.

  10. Morphological variations of intra-testicular arterial vasculature in bovine testis--a corrosion casting study.

    PubMed

    Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Podgórski, Michał; Szymański, Jacek; Olbrych, Katarzyna; Olewnik, Łukasz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-10-15

    Proper blood supply is necessary for the physiological function of every internal organ. The article offers the first classification of the bovine intra-testicular arteries. A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arterial vasculature was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed accurately using MultiScanBase v.18.02 software. A corrosive study focused on the intra-testicular arteries was performed on 40 bovine testes. The vessels were analyzed accurately using MultiScanBase v.18.02 software. In bulls, the centripetal arteries tended to run straight to the mediastinal region, where they form knot-like vascular structures. Those structures are the origin for centrifugal recurrent branches, running peripherally. However, three basic types of intra-testicular arterial vasculature were noted. Type I had centrifugal, recurrent branches, running peripherally towards the surface of the testis but did not reach the tunica albuginea. Type II exhibited centrifugal, recurrent branches running more horizontally than type I. Type III is the most heterogeneous type, composed of other variform types of arteries not classified as type I or type II. Type II was most commonly observed as a vascular conglomerate of intra-testicular arteries within the arterial network of the mediastinum testis. In type III, artery diameter was significantly smaller than observed in types I and II (p < 0.01). Types I and II did not differ between each other regarding artery diameter (p > 0.05). Variations of the intra-testicular arterial vasculature in bovine testis may suggest that particular types of vessels play different physiological roles. The most common type of intra-testicular artery comprising the arterial network of the mediastinum testis was type II.

  11. The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2007-06-01

    The testicular capsule was studied histologically, morphometrically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in the Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey and duck (all members of the Galloanserae). The testicular capsule was, relative to mammals, thin, being 81.5 +/- 13.7 microm in the quail, 91.7 +/- 6.2 microm in the domestic fowl, 104.5 +/- 29.8 microm in the turkey and 91.8 +/- 18.9 microm in the duck. The orchido-epididymal border (hilus) of the capsule was much thicker than elsewhere in all birds (from 233.7 +/- 50.7 microm in the duck to 550.0 +/- 147.3 microm thick in the turkey). The testicular capsule, other than the tunica serosa and tunica vasculosa, comprised, in the main, smooth muscle-like or myoid cells running mainly in one direction, and disposed in one main mass. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth muscle-like cells disposed in several layers. Actin and desmin intermediate filaments were immunolocalized in the inner cellular layers of the capsule in the quail, domestic fowl and duck, but uniformly in the turkey. Vimentin intermediate filament immunoreaction in the capsule was moderately and uniformly positive in the testicular capsule of only the quail. Actin and desmin, but not vimentin (except very faintly in the turkey) or cytokeratin, were immunolocalized in the peritubular tissue of all birds. The results therefore establish, or complement, some previous observations that these birds have contractile cells in their testicular capsule and peritubular tissue, whose function probably includes the transport of testicular fluid into the excurrent duct system.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. Differential expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Marianna; Coltrinari, Giulia; Paoli, Donatella; Pallotti, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    Various microRNAs from the miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d clusters have recently been proposed as markers for testicular germ cell tumours. Upregulation of these miRNAs has been found in both the tissue and serum of testicular cancer patients, but they have never been studied in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the differences in the expression of miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d between the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients, and to identify new potential testicular cancer markers in seminal plasma. We investigated the serum and seminal plasma of 28 pre-orchiectomy patients subsequently diagnosed with testicular cancer, the seminal plasma of another 20 patients 30 days post-orchiectomy and a control group consisting of 28 cancer-free subjects attending our centre for an andrological check-up. Serum microRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for microRNA profiling in the seminal plasma of cancer patients. Results for both miR-371-3 and the miR-302 cluster in the serum of testicular cancer patients were in line with literature reports, while miR-371and miR-372 expression in seminal plasma showed the opposite trend to serum. On array analysis, 37 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the seminal plasma of cancer patients, and the upregulated miR-142 and the downregulated miR-34b were validated using RT-qPCR. Our study investigated the expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma of patients with testicular cancer for the first time. Unlike in serum, miR-371-3 cannot be considered as markers in seminal plasma, whereas miR-142 levels in seminal plasma may be a potential marker for testicular cancer.

  14. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  15. Protective effects of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Pratap; Madhu, P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the probable protective effect of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. Body weights of the animals showed no significant changes after cisplatin administration. Conversely, the weights of testis, and accessory sex organs reduced significantly. The daily sperm production and epididymal sperm quantity and quality were decreased in cisplatin treated rats. The circulatory levels of testosterone and activity levels of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased after cisplatin treatment. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were decreased with an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in the testis and epididymis of cisplatin treated rats, suggesting the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress. The biochemical findings were supplemented by histological examination of testis. Reduced tubular size, decreased spermatogenesis and deterioration in architecture were observed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of resveratrol alone has no significant effect on testicular and epididymal metabolism. On the other hand, administration of resveratrol ameliorated cisplatin-induced alterations in testicular and epididymal oxidative damage, suppressed steroiodgenesis and spermatogenesis and restored testicular architecture. In conclusion, resveratrol possesses multimechanistic protective activity that can be attributed to its steroidogenic and antioxidant actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, Yogy; Liang, Jian-Jong; Chen, Si-Yu; Li, Jin-Kun; Lee, Yi-Ling; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS) in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.

  17. Phthalate-induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome: Leydig cell influence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2009-04-01

    Phthalates, the most abundantly produced plasticizers, leach out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and disrupt androgen action. Male rats that are exposed to phthalates in utero develop symptoms characteristic of the human condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Environmental influences have been suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of TDS in humans (i.e. cryptorchidism and hypospadias in newborn boys and testicular cancer and reduced sperm quality in adult males). In this review, we discuss the recent findings that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects Leydig cell function in the postnatal testis. This review also focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of how Leydig cell factors contribute to phthalate-mediated TDS.

  18. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. TCGA's Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Study - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    TCGA network researchers identify molecular characteristics that classify testicular germ cell tumor types, including a separate subset of seminomas defined by KIT mutations. This provides a set of candidate biomarkers for risk stratification and potential therapeutic targeting.

  20. Cancer risk in fathers and brothers of testicular cancer patients in Denmark. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, T; Olsen, J H; Frisch, M; Kroman, N; Nielsen, J W; Melbye, M

    1996-05-29

    There are several reports of familial testicular cancer in the literature but few systematic attempts have been made to estimate the risk of testicular cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with this neoplasm, and the risk remains to be fully assessed in population-based studies. By means of data from the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all testicular cancer patients (index cases) born and diagnosed during 1950-1993 in Denmark. Their fathers were identified from national registries, as were the brothers of a subcohort of these patients. Familial cancer occurrence was determined through linkage with the cancer registry and compared with the cancer incidence in the general male population in Denmark. The ratio of observed to expected cancers generated the measure used for the relative risk. Fathers of 2,113 index cases with testicular cancer experienced an almost 2-fold risk of developing testicular cancer themselves (RR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.01-3.43). Overall, the fathers had a decreased relative cancer risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95) with a significantly decreased risk of cancers of the lung and digestive organs. Brothers of a subcohort of 702 index cases showed a markedly increased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 12.3; 95% CI: 3.3-3 1.5). In conclusion, we documented a significantly increased familial risk of testicular cancer which was relatively more pronounced between brothers than between fathers and sons. These findings support the possible involvement of a genetic component in the aetiology of testicular cancer, but also leave room for a hypothesized influence of in-utero exposures, such as specific maternal hormone levels, that might be shared by brothers.

  1. Testicular thecoma in an 11-year-old boy with nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masakatsu; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Koji; Watanabe, Kenichiro; Yorifuji, Tohru; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of testicular thecoma in an 11-year-old Japanese boy with nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). He presented with left testicular swelling and underwent a radical orchiectomy on suspicion of a malignant paratesticular tumor. The tumor arose from the testis exophytically and was diagnosed as a thecoma histopathologically. Ovarian thecoma-fibroma group tumors are closely associated with Gorlin syndrome or with abnormalities in PTCH, a candidate gene for the syndrome. The occurrence of an extremely rare testicular thecoma in this case (the second in the literature) suggests that such an etiological association may also exist in the pathogenesis of testicular tumors.

  2. Expression of the oncoprotein gankyrin and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in human testis and testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Ando, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Taeko; Kawai, Koji; Sugita, Shintaro; Joraku, Akira; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Fujita, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    The oncoprotein, gankyrin, is known to facilitate cell proliferation through phosphorylation and degradation of retinoblastoma protein. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of gankyrin and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in human testis and testicular germ cell tumors. The effects of suppression of gankyrin by locked nucleic acid on phosphorylation status of retinoblastoma and cell proliferation were analyzed using western blot analysis and testicular tumor cell line NEC8. The expressions of gankyrin, retinoblastoma and retinoblastoma protein were analyzed in 93 testicular germ cell tumor samples and five normal human testis by immunohistochemistry. The retinoblastoma protein expression was determined using an antibody to retinoblastoma protein, Ser795. Gankyrin was expressed in NEC8 cells as well as a normal human testis and testicular tumors. Suppression of gankyrin by locked nucleic acid led to suppression of retinoblastoma protein and cell proliferation in NEC8 cells. Immunohistochemistry of normal testis showed that gankyrin is expressed dominantly in spermatocytes. In testicular germ cell tumors, high expressions of gankyrin and phosphorylated-retinoblastoma protein were observed in seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, whereas the expressions of both proteins were weak in histological subtypes of non-seminoma. Growing teratoma and testicular malignant transformation tissues expressed phosphorylated-retinoblastoma protein strongly, but gankyrin faintly. Gankyrin is dominantly expressed in normal spermatocytes and seminoma/embryonal carcinoma, and its expression correlates well with retinoblastoma protein expression except in the growing teratoma and testicular malignant transformation cases. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of normal spermatogenesis and pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumors. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Specific immune cell and cytokine characteristics of human testicular germ cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Britta; Haggeney, Thomas; Fietz, Daniela; Indumathy, Sivanjah; Loveland, Kate L; Hedger, Mark; Kliesch, Sabine; Weidner, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Martin; Schuppe, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-01

    Which immune cells and cytokine profiles are characteristic for testicular germ cell neoplasia and what consequences does this have for the understanding of the related testicular immunopathology? The unique immune environment of testicular germ cell neoplasia comprises B cells and dendritic cells as well as high transcript levels of IL-6 and other B cell supporting or T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-driven cytokines and thus differs profoundly from normal testis or inflammatory lesions associated with hypospermatogenesis. T cells are known to be the major component of inflammatory infiltrates associated with either hypospermatogenesis or testicular cancer. It has previously been reported that B cells are only involved within infiltrates of seminoma samples, but this has not been investigated further. Immunohistochemical characterisation (IHC) of infiltrating immune cells and RT-qPCR-based analysis of corresponding cytokine microenvironments was performed on different testicular pathologies. Testicular biopsies, obtained from men undergoing andrological work-up of infertility or taken during surgery for testicular cancer, were used in this study. Samples were grouped as follows: (i) normal spermatogenesis (n = 18), (ii) hypospermatogenesis associated with lymphocytic infiltrates (n = 10), (iii) samples showing neoplasia [germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS, n = 26) and seminoma, n = 18]. IHC was performed using antibodies against T cells (CD3+), B cells (CD20cy+), dendritic cells (CD11c+), macrophages (CD68+) and mast cells (mast cell tryptase+). Degree and compartmental localisation of immune cells throughout all groups analysed was evaluated semi-quantitatively. RT-qPCR on RNA extracted from cryo-preserved tissue samples was performed to analyse mRNA cytokine expression, specifically levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17a, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (pro-inflammatory), IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (anti-inflammatory), IL-2, IL-12a, IL-12b

  4. Surgical approaches for varicocele in pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Parrilli, Alejandra; Escolino, Maria; Esposito, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicocele represents one of the most common surgically correctible urologic anomalies in adolescent males. The best procedure for the treatment of adolescent varicocele has not been established, but with recent advances in minimal access surgery, there have been many reports praising the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy for the surgical correction of varicocele in adolescent. The aim of this review is to compare the results of Palomo’s technique, with retroperitoneoscopic and transperitoneoscopic approaches in adolescent, analyzing recurrence, testicular growth and complications. Methods A literature search on PubMed and Cochrane Database was conducted with regard to management of varicocele in adolescent population. Twenty two English language studies that compared outcome of different minimally invasive treatments or outcome of minimally invasive and traditional surgical treatments for adolescent diagnosed with varicocele were included. Results Intraoperative complications of minimally invasive approaches occur in early cases, but in pediatric urology these procedures would become more efficient with experience and these approaches continue to increase in number. Postoperative hydrocele is the most postoperative compliance of Palom technique, and reports have shown a wide range of variability for his incidence, depending on the technique used for surgical treatment. Literature showed an increase of testicular volume for real growth of testis after surgery, and an intratesticular improvement in sperm quality after minimally invasive approach. In laparoscopic approach reports have showed very low recurrence because allows better vision of collateral veins, and a lymphatic sparing technique permit to identify lymphatic vessels in 100% of cases. Conclusions The literature has shown that laparoscopic varicocelectomy is the surgical approach most commonly reported in adolescent patients, and that its use is increasing for better

  5. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Kaul, A; Srivastava, K N; Rehman, S M F; Goel, V; Yadav, V

    2011-12-01

    The presence of both of the testes in one scrotal sac is one of the very rare presentations of testicular ectopia, which is known as transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) and is also known as crossed testicular ectopia. The presence of the uterus and fallopian tubes in a normally virilized male is termed as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). We report a case of an adult male who had a unique combination of both TTE and PMDS presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

  6. Reassembly of adult human testicular cells: can testis cord-like structures be created in vitro?

    PubMed

    Mincheva, M; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, R; Wistuba, J; Redmann, K; Stukenborg, J-B; Kliesch, S; Schlatt, S

    2018-02-01

    Can enzymatically dispersed testicular cells from adult men reassemble into seminiferous cord-like structures in vitro? Adult human testicular somatic cells reassembled into testicular cord-like structures via dynamic interactions of Sertoli and peritubular cells. In vitro approaches using dispersed single cell suspensions of human testes to generate seminiferous tubule structures and to initiate their functionality have as yet shown only limited success. Testes from 15 adult gender dysphoria patients (mean ± standard deviation age 35 ± 9.3 years) showing spermatogonial arrest became available for this study after sex-reassignment surgery. In vitro primary testicular somatic cell cultures were generated to explore the self-organizing ability of testicular somatic cells to form testis cords over a 2-week period. Morphological phenotype, protein marker expression and temporal dynamics of cell reassembly were analyzed. Cell suspensions obtained by two-step enzymatic digestion were plated onto glass coverslips in 24-well plates. To obtain adherent somatic cells, the supernatant was discarded on Day 2. The culture of the attached cell population was continued. Reassembly into cord-like structures was analyzed daily by microscopic observations. Endpoints were qualitative changes in morphology. Cell types were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Dynamics of cord formation were recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Primary adult human testicular cells underwent sequential morphological changes including compaction and reaggregation resulting in round or elongated cord-like structures. Time-lapse video recordings within the first 4 days of culture revealed highly dynamic processes of migration and coalescence of reaggregated cells. The cellular movements were mediated by peritubular cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both SRY-related high mobility box 9-positive Sertoli and α-smooth muscle actin-positive peritubular myoid cells

  7. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion.

    PubMed

    Yíldíz, Hamit; Durmus, Ali Said; Simşek, Halil; Yaman, Mine

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7), torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10), torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10) and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10). Unilateral testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720º in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. After torsion (2 h) and detorsion (2 h) periods, rats were killed. The level of reduced glutathion (GSH) (p < 0.05) and the activities of catalase (p < 0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) in the contralateral testis from group 2 were significantly lower and nitric oxide (NO) (p < 0.05) level in the contralateral testis were significantly higher than those of group 1. Administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate (group 3) prevented the increases in malondialdehyde and NO levels and decreases in glutathione peroxidase activities and GSH values induced by testicular torsion. However, administration of high-dose sildenafil citrate (group 4) had no effect on these testicular parameters (p > 0.05). Histopathological changes were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. These results suggest that biochemically and histologically torsion/detorsion injury occurs in the contralateral testis following 2-h torsion and 2-h detorsion and that administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular tissue.

  8. Testicular choriocarcinoma with cutaneous metastasis in a 19-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Toberer, Ferdinand; Enk, Alexander; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Grüllich, Carsten

    2018-07-01

    A 19-year-old man suffering from testicular choriocarcinoma presented to the dermatology department with a cutaneous metastasis on his head. This metastasis was the first sign of disease that led to medical consultation. Histopathology revealed cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, the later expressing human chorionic gonadotropin antigen. Whole body computed tomography showed multiple metastases of the brain, lung, liver, bone, paraaortic lymph nodes and left uvea; the primary was found in the left testicle. Despite neurosurgical intervention and chemotherapy the patient died 9 days after the biopsy of the cutaneous metastasis. Cutaneous metastases of testicular choriocarcinoma are exceptionally rare, with fewer than a dozen cases reported in the English-language literature. The present case highlights that testicular choriocarcinoma metastatic to the skin should be included in the differential of cutaneous scalp tumors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, C J; Murphy, K P; McLaughlin, P D; Twomey, M; O'Regan, K N; Power, D G; Maher, M M; O'Connor, O J

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. • CT accounted for 98.3 % of CED in patients with testicular cancer. • Median CED in patients with testicular cancer was 125.1 mSv • High CED (>75 mSv) was observed in 77.5 % (93/120) of patients. • Dose tracking and development of low-dose CT protocols are recommended.

  10. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Testicular Viability Using Heterogeneity Levels in Torsed Testicles.

    PubMed

    Samson, Patrick; Hartman, Christopher; Palmerola, Ricardo; Rahman, Zara; Siev, Michael; Palmer, Lane S; Ghorayeb, Sleiman R

    2017-03-01

    Gross testicular heterogeneity on ultrasound has been associated with testis loss following testicular torsion in children. We aimed to quantify the extent of temporal heterogeneity associated with testis loss in testicular torsion cases using a noninvasive technique to determine a HI (heterogeneity index) on ultrasound images. We retrospectively studied the records of patients who presented with acute scrotal pain to the Pediatric Emergency Department over a 6-year period. Ultrasound images of the affected testis and the unaffected contralateral testis were examined using a proprietary program to determine the extent of heterogeneity of each image. The difference between the HI of the torsed testis and that of the contralateral normal testis was termed ΔHI. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to determine the ΔHI threshold for nonviability. Among 529 patients who presented with acute scrotal pain 147 had testicular torsion based on surgical findings. Of these 147 patients 110 (74.8%) were found to have a viable testis while 37 (25.2%) had a nonviable testis. Using the ΔHI cutoff of 0.394 or greater for nonviability, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.5%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that a quantifiable temporal gradation of heterogeneity exists and the heterogeneity index can be used as an objective parameter to determine the viability of a torsed testicle. By developing the technology to measure the heterogeneity index in real time, we could potentially identify which patients with testicular torsion have a nonviable testicle and, thus, would not require immediate surgical exploration. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mustafa S.; Almadaly, Essam A.; El-Far, Ali H.; Saleh, Rasha M.; Assar, Doaa H.; Al Jaouni, Soad K.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60) were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg), Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg) orally once daily), and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats. PMID:28448463

  12. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapymore » based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).« less

  13. Nontraumatic Testicular Pain due to Sacroiliac-Joint Dysfunction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Middleton, Steve

    2016-08-01

    To discuss the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to the sports medicine staff with pelvic pain of 10 years' duration consistent with pudendal neuralgia. Testicular pain in men is often provoked by direct trauma or may indicate an oncologic process. Epididymitis, athletic pubalgia, testicular tumor, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy. The patient responded positively to treatment and rehabilitation to restore normal mechanics to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Several flare-ups since the initial treatment have been of short duration (<2 days) and less intense. Pudendal neuralgia tends to affect females more than males due to changes in the alignment and stability of the pelvis from a combination of a shorter, wider pelvis and muscle imbalances associated with childbirth. Typically, males with testicular pain suffer from epididymitis or some type of testicular torsion, which was not the situation in this case. Compression is also a common cause of pudendal neuralgia, although it was not responsible for this patient's pain, making diagnosis and treatment complex. Many pain syndromes can be treated with removal of the original stimulus. However, recognizing the factors contributing to pelvic pain and dysfunction in males can be a challenge for the sports medicine professional. A vigilant and unassuming approach to male pelvic pain is warranted, particularly by health care providers in diverse practice settings.

  14. Nontraumatic Testicular Pain due to Sacroiliac-Joint Dysfunction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leone, James E.; Middleton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to the sports medicine staff with pelvic pain of 10 years' duration consistent with pudendal neuralgia. Background: Testicular pain in men is often provoked by direct trauma or may indicate an oncologic process. Differential Diagnosis: Epididymitis, athletic pubalgia, testicular tumor, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy. Treatment: The patient responded positively to treatment and rehabilitation to restore normal mechanics to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Several flare-ups since the initial treatment have been of short duration (<2 days) and less intense. Uniqueness: Pudendal neuralgia tends to affect females more than males due to changes in the alignment and stability of the pelvis from a combination of a shorter, wider pelvis and muscle imbalances associated with childbirth. Typically, males with testicular pain suffer from epididymitis or some type of testicular torsion, which was not the situation in this case. Compression is also a common cause of pudendal neuralgia, although it was not responsible for this patient's pain, making diagnosis and treatment complex. Conclusions: Many pain syndromes can be treated with removal of the original stimulus. However, recognizing the factors contributing to pelvic pain and dysfunction in males can be a challenge for the sports medicine professional. A vigilant and unassuming approach to male pelvic pain is warranted, particularly by health care providers in diverse practice settings. PMID:27626835

  15. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85-99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar.

  16. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85–99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar. PMID:23840520

  17. Ketoconazole-induced testicular damage in rats reduced by Gentiana extract.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr

    2008-04-01

    Ketoconazole (KET) is an antifungal drug with a broad spectrum of activity that also induces reproductive toxicity in humans and animals. The protective effect of Gentiana (GEN) extract (Gentiana lutea) against KET-induced testicular damage was evaluated in male Wistar rats. GEN extract was administered orally (1g/kgbwt/day) for 26 days. Three weeks after extract administration, KET was co-administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100mg/kg once a day for 5 days. KET-induced reproductive toxicity was associated with clear reductions of the weights of testes and epididymides, sperm indices and serum testosterone levels. KET also induced severe testicular histopathological lesions such as degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and depletion of germ cells. In addition, marked oxidative damage to testicular lipids and alterations of natural antioxidants (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were reported in association with KET toxicity. Most of the KET-induced effects were greatly decreased with the concomitant application of GEN extract. This study suggests a protective role of GEN extract that could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  20. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  1. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores.

    PubMed

    Joustra, Sjoerd D; van der Plas, Evelyn M; Goede, Joery; Oostdijk, Wilma; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Hack, Wilfried W M; van Buuren, Stef; Wit, Jan M

    2015-06-01

    Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonography and Prader orchidometer of 769 healthy Dutch boys aged 6 months to 19 years. We also explored the association between testicular growth and pubic hair development, and data were compared to orchidometric testicular volumes from the 1997 Dutch nationwide growth study. The LMS-smoothed reference charts showed that no revision of the definition of normal onset of male puberty - from nine to 14 years of age - was warranted. In healthy boys, the pubic hair stage SD scores corresponded with testicular volume SD scores (r = 0.394). However, testes were relatively small for pubic hair stage in Klinefelter's syndrome and relatively large in immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 deficiency syndrome. The age-corrected SD scores for testicular volume will aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of abnormalities in the timing and progression of male puberty and in research evaluations. The SD scores can be compared with pubic hair SD scores to identify discrepancies between cell functions that result in relative microorchidism or macroorchidism. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cannabis Use and Incidence of Testicular Cancer: A 42-Year Follow-up of Swedish Men between 1970 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Allebeck, Peter; Akre, Olof; McGlynn, Katherine A; Sidorchuk, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Background: Given current drug policy reforms to decriminalize or legalize cannabis in numerous countries worldwide, the current study assesses the relation between cannabis use and the development of testicular cancer. Methods: The study included a population-based sample ( n = 49,343) of young men ages 18-21 years who underwent conscription assessment for Swedish military service in 1969-1970. The conscription process included a nonanonymous questionnaire eliciting information about drug use. Conscription information was linked to Swedish health and administrative registry data. Testicular cancers diagnosed between 1970 and 2011 were identified by International Classification of Diseases-7/8/9/10 testicular cancer codes in the Swedish National Patient Register, the Cancer Register, or the Cause of Death Register. Cox regression modeling was used to estimate the hazards associated with cannabis use and time to diagnosis of testicular cancer. Results: No evidence was found of a significant relation between lifetime "ever" cannabis use and the subsequent development of testicular cancer [ n = 45,250; 119 testicular cancer cases; adjusted HR (aHR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-2.45]. "Heavy" cannabis use (defined as usage of more than 50 times in lifetime, as measured at conscription) was associated with the incidence of testicular cancer ( n = 45,250; 119 testicular cancer cases; aHR 2.57; 95% CI, 1.02-6.50). Conclusions: The current study provides additional evidence to the limited prior literature suggesting cannabis use may contribute to the development of testicular cancer. Impact: Emerging changes to cannabis drug policy should consider the potential role of cannabis use in the development of testicular cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1644-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Differentiation and diagnosis of benign and malignant testicular lesions using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dan; Gao, Qiang; Tian, Xu-Wei; Wang, Si-Yun; Liang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Shu-Xia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential diagnostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) for benign and malignant testicular lesions. The PET/CT scans of 53 patients with testicular lesions confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology were retrospectively analyzed. There were 32 cases of malignant tumors and 21 cases of benign lesions. Differences in the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measurements and the SUVmax lesion/background ratios between benign and malignant lesions were analyzed. The diagnostic value of this PET/CT modality for the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant testicular lesions was calculated. The differences in the SUVmax measurements and the SUVmax lesion/background ratios between benign and malignant lesions were statistically significant (SUVmax: Z=-4.295, p=0.000; SUVmax lesion/background ratio: Z=-5.219, p=0.000); specifically, both of these indicators were higher in malignant lesions compared to benign lesions. An SUVmax of 3.75 was the optimal cutoff value to differentiate between benign and malignant testicular lesions. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this PET/CT modality in the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant testicular lesions were 90.6%, 80.9%, 86.8%, 87.9%, and 85.0%, respectively. 18 F-FDG PET/CT can accurately identify benign and malignant testicular lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Presence of spermatogonia in 47,XXY men with no spermatozoa recovered after testicular sperm extraction.

    PubMed

    Van Saen, Dorien; Tournaye, Herman; Goossens, Ellen

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of spermatogonia in men diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), in whom no testicular spermatozoa were recovered by testicular sperm extraction. Retrospective case series. University hospital. Testicular samples from 22 nonmosaic 47,XXY men, aged 24-43 years, with no spermatozoa at multiple biopsies. Paraffin-embedded testicular tissue was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and immunostainings were performed for both MAGE-A4 and vimentin. The presence of spermatogonia. Massive fibrosis and hyalinization were observed in all men with KS. Spermatogonia were observed in 4 of 22 men with KS, with differentiation up to the spermatocyte level in 2 of them. A few men with KS, having no spermatozoa after testicular sperm extraction, still had few spermatogonia. These patients may eventually benefit from in vitro maturation using spermatogonial stem cells. The adult KS population can thus be divided into three subgroups: one subgroup showing focal spermatogenesis, a second having spermatogonia, and a third group in which no germ cells can be recovered. Further research is necessary to unravel the mechanism leading to these different patterns in patients with KS. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    PubMed

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Relevance of testicular histopathology on prediction of sperm retrieval rates in case of non-obstructive and obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Cito, Gianmartin; Coccia, Maria E; Dabizzi, Sara; Morselli, Simone; Della Camera, Pier A; Cocci, Andrea; Criscuoli, Luciana; Picone, Rita; De Carlo, Candida; Nesi, Gabriella; Micelli, Elisabetta; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Natali, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our research was to establish the relevance of testicular histopathology on sperm retrieval after testicular sperm extraction in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and in patients with obstructive azoospermia, who already underwent a previous failure testicular fine needle aspiration. We evaluated a total of 82 azoospermic men, underwent testicular sperm extraction, referring to the Assisted Reproductive Technology Centre of the University of Florence, Italy between January 2008 and March 2017. A general and genital physical examination, scrotal and trans-rectal ultrasound, semen analysis, hormone measurements, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and total testosterone, were collected. Successful sperm retrieval was obtained in 36 men of total (43.9%). Successful sperm retrieval was 29.5% in non-obstructive azoospermia patients, while men with obstructive azoospermia, who, underwent a previous failure testicular fine needle aspiration, had sperm retrieval in 86% of cases. Mean luteinizing hormone was 6.55 IU/L, total testosterone 4.70 ng/mL, right testicular volume 13.7 mL and left testicular volume 13.6 mL. Mean Follicle-stimulating hormone was 13.45 IU/L in patients with negative sperm retrieval and 8.18 IU/L in men with successful sperm retrieval. According to histology, 20.7% had normal spermatogenesis, 35.3% hypospermatogenesis, 35.3% maturation arrest and 8.5% Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Successful sperm retrieval was 88.2% in patients with normal spermatogenesis, 24.1% in the maturation arrest group and 48.27% in patients with hypospermatogenesis, while negative sperm retrieval was reported in Sertoli cell-only syndrome patients. Seven cases with maturation arrest showed a successful sperm retrieval. Testicular histopathology after testicular sperm extraction offers important information on prediction of sperm retrieval and can guide the surgeon in choosing the more suitable therapeutic practice.

  8. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, Hebatallah A.; Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg; Abdelsalam, Rania M.

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy tomore » celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved

  9. Comparative marker analysis after isolation and culture of testicular cells from the immature marmoset.

    PubMed

    Albert, Silvia; Wistuba, Joachim; Eildermann, Katja; Ehmcke, Jens; Schlatt, Stefan; Gromoll, Joerg; Kossack, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The marmoset monkey is a valuable model in reproductive medicine. While previous studies have evaluated germ cell dynamics in the postnatal marmoset, the features of testicular somatic cells remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish marmoset-specific markers for Sertoli and peritubular cells (PTCs) and to compare protocols for the enrichment and culture of testicular cell types. Immunohistochemistry of Sertoli and PTC-specific markers - anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), vimentin (VIM), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) - was performed and corresponding RNA expression profiles were established by quantitative PCR analysis (SOX9,AMH, FSHR,VIM, and SMA). For these analyses, testicular tissue from newborn (n = 4), 8-week-old (n = 4) and adult (n = 3) marmoset monkeys was used. Protocols for the enrichment and culture of testicular cell fractions from the 8-week-old marmoset monkeys (n = 3) were evaluated and cells were analyzed using germ cell- and somatic cell-specific markers. The expression of AMH, VIM and SMA reflects the proportion and differentiation status of Sertoli and PTCs at the RNA and the protein levels. While applied protocols did not support the propagation of germ cells in vitro, our analyses revealed that PTCs maintain their proliferative potential and constitute the dominant cell type after short- and long-term culture. Expression of functionally meaningful testicular somatic markers is similar in the human and the marmoset monkey, indicating that this primate can indeed be used as model for human testicular development. The PTC culture system established in this study will facilitate the identification of factors influencing male sex differentiation and spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2016-02-01

    To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk by means of well defined semen parameters. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 20,433 men who underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile control subjects matched by age and birth year. None. Risk of all cancers as well as site-specific results for prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and melanoma. Compared with fertile men, men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard rate [HR] 3.3). When the characterization of infertility was refined using individual semen parameters, we found that oligozoospermic men had an increased risk of cancer compared with fertile control subjects. This association was particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR 11.9) and on sperm count (HR 10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR 4.1), viability (HR 6.6), morphology (HR 4.2), or total motile count (HR 6.9) had higher risk of testicular cancer compared with fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentiles of the distribution (≥178 and ≥579 × 10(6)/mL, respectively), as well as total motile count, had an increased risk of melanoma (HRs 2.1, 2.7, and 2.0, respectively). We found no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer which varied by semen quality. Unlike earlier work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Value of Supraregional Multidisciplinary Review for the Contemporary Management of Testicular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Purshouse, Karin; Watson, Robert A; Church, David N; Richardson, Charlotte; Crane, Gemma; Traill, Zoe; Sullivan, Mark; Roberts, Ian; Browning, Lisa; Turner, Gareth; Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Johnson, Joseph; Chitnis, Meenali; Protheroe, Andrew; Verrill, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Testicular cancers are an uncommon and highly curable group of tumors that are typically managed by specialist multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). Although recent guidelines have emphasized the importance of tumor prognostic factors in predicting recurrence and personalizing therapy in early-stage disease, the role of central pathology review in determining these factors is unclear. We compared the referral histopathology reports with those obtained after expert central review for all cases reviewed by the UK Thames Valley Cancer Network testicular tumor MDT from August 2004 to September 2012. For cases in which the findings differed, we recorded the effect of the alteration on the estimates of patient prognosis and predicted clinical management using international (European Society of Medical Oncology [ESMO]) and local guidelines. The histopathology reports were altered after central review in 129 of 465 cases (27.7%) referred to the testicular tumor MDT during the study period. These resulted in changes in the estimation of prognosis for 42 patients (9.0% total), with a predicted affect on management according to the ESMO guidelines in 30 cases (6.5%). These proportions were broadly similar for both seminoma and nonseminoma, although the reasons for the discrepancies differed between the 2 (principally errors in categorization of rete testis invasion in seminoma and of lymphovascular invasion in nonseminoma). Changes to the tumor type were uncommon (2 cases). Central MDT review results in frequent, clinically relevant alterations to testicular tumor histopathology reports for testicular tumors. The results of our study demonstrate the importance of specialist MDTs to inform patient-centered care and ensure best practice in the management of these uncommon cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Time trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ylönen, Outi; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Pukkala, Eero; Syvänen, Kari; Boström, Peter J

    2018-02-20

    To describe the trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries utilising national cancer registries, NORDCAN (NORDCAN project/database presents the incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival from >50 cancers in the Nordic countries) and NOCCA (Nordic Occupational Cancer) databases. We obtained the incidence data of testicular cancer for 5-year periods from 1960-1964 to 2000-2014 and for 5-year age-groups from the NORDCAN database. Morphological data on incident cases of seminoma and non-seminoma were obtained from national cancer registries. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASR) were calculated per 100 000 person-years (World Standard). Regression analysis was used to evaluate the annual change in the incidence of testicular cancer in each of the Nordic countries. The risk of testicular cancer in different professions was described based on NOCCA information and expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). During 2010-2014 the ASR for testicular cancer varied from 11.3 in Norway to 5.8 in Finland. Until 1998, the incidence was highest in Denmark. There has not been an increase in Denmark and Iceland since the 1990s, whilst the incidence is still strongly increasing in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. There were no remarkable changes in the ratio of seminoma and non-seminoma incidences during the past 50 years. There was no increase in the incidences in children and those of pension age. The highest significant excess risks of testicular seminoma were found in physicians (SIR 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99), artistic workers (SIR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-1.99) and religious workers etc. (SIR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56). The lowest SIRs of testicular seminoma were seen amongst cooks and stewards (SIR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), and forestry workers (SIR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.86). The occupational category of administrators was the only one with a significantly elevated SIR for testicular non-seminoma (SIR 1.21, 95

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Testicular Damage and Dysfunction in Mice With Partial IGF-1 Deficiency and the Effectiveness of IGF-1 Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Gago, Alberto; Muñoz, Úrsula; Ávila-Gallego, Elena; Guerra-Menéndez, Lucía; Sádaba, María Cruz; García-Magariño, Mariano; Olleros Santos-Ruiz, María; Aguirre, G A; Puche, Juan Enrique

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) deficiency can cause testicular damage and to examine changes of the testicular morphology and testicular function-related gene expression caused by IGF-1 deficiency. Therefore, this study aims to determine the benefits of low doses of IGF-1 and to explore the mechanisms underlying the IGF-1 replacement therapy. A murine model of IGF-1 deficiency was used to avoid any factor that could contribute to testicular damage. Testicular weight, score of histopathological damage, and gene expressions were studied in 3 experimental groups of mice: controls (wild-type Igf1(+/+)), heterozygous Igf1(+/-) with partial IGF-1 deficiency, and heterozygous Igf1(+/-) treated with IGF-1. Results show that the partial IGF-1 deficiency induced testicular damage and altered expression of genes involved in IGF-1 and growth hormone signaling and regulation, testicular hormonal function, extracellular matrix establishment and its regulation, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis, inflammation, and cytoprotection. In addition, proteins involved in tight junction expression were found to be reduced. However, low doses of IGF-1 restored the testicular damage and most of these parameters. IGF-1 deficiency caused the damage of the blood-testis barrier and testicular structure and induced the abnormal testicular function-related gene expressions. However, low doses of IGF-1 constitute an effective replacement therapy that restores the described testicular damage. Data herein show that (1) cytoprotective activities of IGF-1 seem to be mediated by heat shock proteins and that (2) connective tissue growth factor could play a relevant role together with IGF-1 in the extracellular matrix establishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The number of spermatogonia in various congenital testicular disorders.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Kumamoto, Y

    1989-05-01

    Various congenital testicular disorders, including monorchism, retractile testis, cryptorchidism and male intersex, were investigated by counting the number of spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule. The results showed that all 7 cases of monorchism had normal numbers of spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule. However, in 29 cases of a retractile testis a normal testis was observed in 13 (44.8 per cent). Therefore testicular dysgenesis is suggested to exist in more than half of cases of the retractile testis. Of 150 cases of cryptorchidism 82 were bilateral and 68 were unilateral. There was no significant difference in the number of spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule between these 2 groups. The higher the testes were located the worse the ratio of spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule. Fewer or absent spermatogonia were observed in 2 patients less than 2 years old. Of 28 contralateral scrotal testes in patients with unilateral cryptorchidism 4 (14.3 per cent) had no spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule and 8 (28.0 per cent) had a decreased number of spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule. The male intersex patients had much damage even in the scrotal testes. From these results it is suggested that these congenital testicular disorders, except monorchism, have similar histological features. Moreover, these conditions are possibly related in etiology to the phenomenon of deficient androgen stimulation.

  15. Poor Centrosomal Function of Cat Testicular Spermatozoa Impairs Embryo Development In Vitro after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection1

    PubMed Central

    Comizzoli, Pierre; Wildt, David E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2007-01-01

    In the domestic cat, morula-blastocyst formation in vitro is compromised after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with testicular compared to ejaculated spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to determine the cellular basis of the lower developmental potential of testicular spermatozoa. Specifically, we examined the influence of sperm DNA fragmentation (evaluated by TUNEL assay) and centrosomal function (assessed by sperm aster formation after ICSI) on first-cleavage timing, developmental rate, and morula-blastocyst formation. Because the incidences of DNA fragmentation were not different between testicular and ejaculated sperm suspensions, DNA integrity was not the origin of the reduced developmental potential of testicular spermatozoa. After ICSI, proportions of fertilized and cleaved oocytes were similar and not influenced by sperm source. However, observations made at 5 h post-activation clearly demonstrated that 1) zygotes generally contained a large sperm aster after ICSI with ejaculated spermatozoa, a phenomenon never observed with testicular spermatozoa, and 2) proportions of zygotes with short or absent sperm asters were higher after ICSI with testicular spermatozoa than using ejaculated spermatozoa. The poor pattern of aster formation arose from the testicular sperm centrosome, which contributed to a delayed first cleavage, a slower developmental rate, and a reduced formation of morulae and blastocysts compared to ejaculated spermatozoa. When a testicular sperm centrosome was replaced by a centrosome from an ejaculated spermatozoon, kinetics of first cell cycle as well as embryo development quality significantly improved and were comparable to data from ejaculated spermatozoa. Results demonstrate for the first time in mammals that maturity of the cat sperm centrosome (likely via epididymal transit) contributes to an enhanced ability of the spermatozoon to produce embryos that develop normally to the morula and blastocyst stages. PMID:16687647

  16. Minocycline Attenuates Depressive-Like Behaviour Induced by Rat Model of Testicular Torsion: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Seyed Soheil Saeedi; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) can induce depression in pre- and post-pubertal patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological impact of testicular torsion and mechanism underlying its depressive-like behaviour, as well as antidepressant-like activity of minocycline and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway in this paradigm in male rats undergoing testicular T/D. Unilateral T/D was performed in 36 male adult Wistar rats, and different doses of minocycline were injected alone or combined with N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AG), specific inducible NOS inhibitor; l-arginine, an NO precursor; and selective PDE5I, sildenafil. After assessment of locomotor activity in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, 30 days after testicular T/D, testicular venous testosterone and serum nitrite concentrations were measured. A correlation was observed between either a decrease in plasma testosterone or an increase in serum nitrite concentrations with prolongation in immobility time in the testicular T/D-operated rats FST. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) exerted the highest significant antidepressant-like effect in the operated rats in the FST (p < 0.001). Furthermore, combination of subeffective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) and either l-NAME (10 mg/kg) or AG (50 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant robust antidepressant-like activity in T/D group (p < 0.01). Consequently, NO/cGMP pathway was involved in testicular T/D-induced depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant-like activity of minocycline in the animal model. Moreover, a contribution was observed between either decreased testosterone or elevated serum nitrite levels and depressive-like behaviour following testicular T/D. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. The decision to have a prosthesis: A qualitative study of men with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapple, A; McPherson, A

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand why some men decide to have a testicular prosthesis while others reject the idea and to explore the extent to which the option of a testicular prosthesis is adequately presented. Forty-five men with testicular cancer were interviewed about all aspects of their illness. Some men decided against a prosthesis for a number of reasons; they thought that the loss of a testicle was not visibly obvious, did not affect self-image, was not a long-term threat to masculinity, and that living with one testicle was comfortable. Some did not want additional surgery and others were concerned about safety issues. The men who decided to have a prosthesis were concerned about self-image and a threat to masculinity. They had a desire to look 'normal' and a wish to keep the orchidectomy secret. Some men felt that the decision had been rushed. Others wished that they had had information about the possibility of implants before the orchidectomy or they considered the information presented inadequate. We conclude that it is important to counsel men with testicular cancer about the advantages and disadvantages of having a testicular prosthesis and to give them time to consider issues such as cosmetic appearance, self-image, comfort, possible short term complications and long-term safety. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Post-fertilization effect of bilateral primary testicular damage induced by unilateral cryptorchidism in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Tsounapi, P; Honda, M; Dimitriadis, F; Shimizu, S; Hikita, K; Muraoka, K; Sejima, T; Saito, M; Tomita, S; Sofikitis, N; Takenaka, A

    2016-03-01

    Cryptorchidism, a common anomaly of the male genitalia, affects 2-4% of male infants. The post-fertilization effects of unilateral cryptorchidism model in the rat and the effects of antioxidant treatment were investigated. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly separated into four groups. Unilateral cryptorchidism was induced in the right testis of three groups. One group was treated with saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) (Crypto), one group was treated with taurine (500 mg/kg, i.p.; Tau), and another group was treated with sivelestat (15 mg/kg i.p.; Siv). The control group was treated with saline i.p. The treatment was daily for 8 weeks. Five days before sacrifice, mating studies were performed. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights were recorded. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the seminal vesicular fluid (SVF) were measured. Testicular levels of MDA and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined bilaterally. TUNEL assay was used to examine DNA fragmentation bilaterally. Histological examination and the Johnsen score were used to evaluate morphological testicular alterations. The Crypto group demonstrated significantly lower right testicular and epididymal weights, significantly increased SVF-MDA levels, testicular MDA and 8-OHdG levels, and the apoptotic score bilaterally compared to the controls. Furthermore, histological evaluation revealed significantly reduced spermatogenesis and mild injury to the cryptorchid testes compared to the control. Treatment with both taurine and sivelestat significantly reduced SVF-MDA levels, testicular MDA, 8-OHdG, and apoptosis bilaterally compared to the Crypto group. Antioxidant treatment was unable to ameliorate spermatogenesis. Newborns delivered by females that mated with Crypto-males had significantly lower body weight compared with the respective animals from the control, Tau and Siv groups. The present study demonstrated that unilateral cryptorchidism-induced testicular damage can significantly affect

  19. Cannabis use and incidence of testicular cancer: a 42-year follow-up of Swedish men between 1970 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Russell C.; Allebeck, Peter; Akre, Olof; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Sidorchuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Background Given current drug-policy reforms to decriminalize or legalize cannabis in numerous countries worldwide, it is critically important to understand the potential impacts of cannabis use on the development of cancer. The current study aims to assess the relation between cannabis use and the development of testicular cancer. Method The current study relied on a population-based sample (n = 49 343) of young men aged 18–21 years who underwent conscription assessment for Swedish military service in 1969–1970. The conscription process included a non-anonymous questionnaire eliciting information about drug use. Individual-level conscription information was linked to Swedish health and social registry data. Testicular cancers diagnosed between 1970 and 2011 were identified by ICD-7/8/9/10 testicular cancer codes in the Swedish National Patient Register, the Cancer Register, or the Cause of Death Register. Cox regression modeling was used to estimate the hazards associated with cannabis use and time to diagnosis of testicular cancer. Results No evidence was found of a significant relation between lifetime “ever” cannabis use and the subsequent development of testicular cancer [n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.42, 95% CI, 0.83, 2.45]. “Heavy” cannabis use (defined as usage of more than 50 times in lifetime, as measured at conscription) was associated with the incidence of testicular cancer (n = 45 250; 119 testicular cancer cases; AHR 2.57, 95% CI, 1.02, 6.50). Conclusion The current study provides additional evidence to the limited prior literature suggesting cannabis use may contribute to the development of testicular cancer. PMID:29093004

  20. What is the best cryopreservation protocol for human testicular tissue banking?

    PubMed

    Baert, Y; Van Saen, D; Haentjens, P; In't Veld, P; Tournaye, H; Goossens, E

    2013-07-01

    Is there a better alternative to the conventional cryopreservation protocols for human testicular tissue banking? Uncontrolled slow freezing (USF) using 1.5 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.15 M sucrose as cryoprotectants appears to be a user-friendly and efficient method for the cryopreservation of human testicular tissue. Currently, time-consuming controlled slow freezing (CSF) protocols that need expensive equipment are commonly used for human testicular tissue banking. USF and vitrification are cryopreservation techniques that were successfully applied in several animal models but need further exploration with human tissue. Fragments (n = 160) of testicular tissue from 14 patients undergoing vasectomy reversal were assigned to a fresh control group or one of the following cryopreservation procedures: CSF using DMSO at a concentration of 0.7 or 1.5 M in the presence (+S) or absence of sucrose (-S), USF using either 0.7 or 1.5 M DMSO combined with sucrose, solid-surface vitrification (SSV) or direct cover vitrification (DCV). Light microscopic evaluations were performed to study apoptosis, germ cell proliferation ability, spermatogonial survival, coherence of the seminiferous epithelium and integrity of the interstitial compartment after cryopreservation. Ultrastructural alterations were studied by scoring cryodamage to four relevant testicular cell types. The USF 1.5 M DMSO + S protocol proved not solely to prevent cell death and to preserve seminiferous epithelial coherence, interstitial compartment integrity, SG and their potential to divide but also protected the testicular cell ultrastructure. A significant reduction in the number of SG per tubule from 21.4 ± 5.6 in control tissue to 4.9 ± 2.1, 8.2 ± 5.4, 11.6 ± 5.1, 8.8 ± 3.9, 12.6 ± 4.4 and 11.7 ± 5.7 was observed after cryopreservation combined with at least one other form of cryoinjury when using CSF 0.7 M DMSO -S, CSF 0.7 M DMSO + S, CSF 1.5 M DMSO + S, USF 0.7 M DMSO + S, SSV and direct cover

  1. Prostate cancer involving bilateral seminal vesicles along with bone and testicular metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Jianhuai; Dai, Yutian

    2018-03-09

    In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level. A transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. A pathology report showed prostate cancer tissue with a Gleason score of 4 + 4 = 8/10. Imaging findings suggested that the prostate cancer tissue involved bilateral seminal vesicles and multiple bones. Next, radioactive seed implantation was carried out, and endocrine therapy was continued after the operation. Then enlargement of the left scrotum was found along with a total prostate-specific antigen level of 19.21 ng/ml. Computed tomography of the middle abdomen and pelvic cavity revealed 2.0 × 1.3-cm lesions of the left testis. The patient underwent a left testicular high resection and right orchiectomy. The postoperative pathology report showed metastatic prostate cancer cells in the left testis. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer is rare. Therefore, a testicular physical examination is necessary for patients without relapse to avoid a missed diagnosis. Testicular metastasis should be treated according to the principle of treatment for advanced prostate adenocarcinoma if testicular metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is detected.

  2. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

    PubMed

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  3. The SWENOTECA group: A good example of continuous binational and multidisciplinary collaboration for patients with testicular cancer in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Tandstad, Torgrim; Ståhl, Olof; Håkansson, Ulf; Wahlqvist, Rolf; Klepp, Olbjørn; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Group (SWENOTECA), with an emphasis on the history of SWENOTECA, organization, results and current status. SWENOTECA was founded in 1981 as a binational organization open to hospitals in Sweden and Norway treating testicular cancer. It has since published treatment protocols for testicular cancer and prospectively registered patients with testicular cancer. Today, all hospitals in Norway and Sweden involved in the care of testicular cancer participate in SWENOTECA, and all patients with testicular cancer are prospectively registered in a population-based database. Nine protocols with standardized guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of testicular cancer have been published. In addition to the guidelines, several studies have been performed or initiated within the scope of SWENOTECA. The details are presented in this article. SWENOTECA has been a very fruitful binational collaboration and has thoughtfully evolved over time. The group's continuous work and dedication have provided an example for other national and international cancer networks. The binational implementation of standardized guidelines has resulted in excellent patient outcomes, regardless of place of residence. Although testicular cancer is a relatively rare disease, the population-based binational organization of SWENOTECA has made it possible to publish some of the largest studies in the field of testicular cancer.

  4. Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair: Effect on Testicular Blood Flow and Sperm Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Krnić, Dragan; Družijanić, Nikica; Štula, Ivana; Čapkun, Vesna; Krnić, Duška

    2016-05-05

    BACKGROUND The aim of our study was to determine an influence of incarcerated inguinal hernia mesh repair on testicular circulation and to investigate consequent sperm autoimmunity as a possible reason for infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was performed over a 3-year period, and 50 male patients were included; 25 of these patients underwent elective open mesh hernia repair (Group I). Group II consisted of 25 patients who had surgery for incarcerated inguinal hernia. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the testicular blood flow and blood samplings for antisperm antibodies (ASA) was performed in all patients before the surgery, on the second day, and 5 months after. Main outcome ultrasound measures were resistive index (RI) and pulsative index (PI), as their values are inversely proportional to testicular blood flow. RESULTS In Group I, RI, and PI temporarily increased after surgery and then returned to basal values in the late postoperative period. Friedman analysis showed a significant difference in RI and PI for all measurements in Group II (p<0.05), with a significant decrease between the preoperative, early, and late postoperative periods. All final values were within reference range, including ASA, despite significant increase of ASA in the late postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS Although statistically significant differences in values of testicular flow parameters and immunologic sensitization in observed time, final values remained within the reference ranges in all patients. Our results suggest that the polypropylene mesh probably does not cause any clinically significant effect on testicular flow and immunologic response in both groups of patients.

  5. Cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm: techniques and clinical outcomes of assisted conception

    PubMed Central

    Gangrade, Bhushan K

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. The techniques for the retrieval of spermatozoa vary from relatively simple percutaneous sperm aspiration to open excision (testicular biopsy) and the more invasive Micro-TESE. The probability of retrieving spermatozoa can be as high as 100% in men with obstructive azoospermia (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, status post-vasectomy). However, in non-obstructive azoospermia, successful sperm retrieval has been reported in 10-100% of cases by various investigators. The surgical retrieval and cryopreservation of sperm, especially in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to some extent ensures the availability of sperm at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In addition, this strategy can avoid unnecessary ovarian stimulation in those patients intending to undergo in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection with freshly retrieved testicular sperm when an absolute absence of sperm in the testis is identified. Several different methods for the cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm are available. The choice of the container or carrier may be an important consideration and should take into account the number or concentration of the sperm in the final preparation. When the number of sperm in a testicular biopsy sample is extremely low (e.g., 1-20 total sperm available), the use of an evacuated zona pellucida to store the cryopreserved sperm has been shown to be an effective approach. PMID:23503963

  6. Testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal male children: an analysis of parental decision-making.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Li, Yimei; Carlson, Claire A; Gracia, Clarisa R; Hobbie, Wendy L; Miller, Victoria A; Mulhall, John; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Brinster, Ralph L; Kolon, Thomas F

    2014-09-01

    Infertility is an unfortunate treatment-related consequence for some pediatric malignancies as well as some non-malignant conditions treated with stem cell transplant. Unlike pubertal males, prepubertal males cannot produce semen for cryopreservation. This manuscript reports on the acceptability and safety of a multi-institutional protocol for offering testicular tissue cryopreservation to families of prepubertal male children at highest risk for infertility. Data on decision influences, decision-making control, and emotional state when considering this option are described. Prepubertal males facing gonadotoxic therapy were offered testicular cryopreservation. Post-biopsy, patients were followed for acute side effects. In addition, parents and patients were asked to complete questionnaires, whether or not they chose to cryopreserve tissue. Seventy-four prepubertal male children were approached. Fifty-seven families (77%) consented to the testicular biopsy; 48 of 57 underwent the procedure. There was one post-operative side effect. Parents who agreed to testicular cryopreservation and those that did not felt in control of this decision. Parents who consented to the biopsy and refusers were not deterred by the experimental nature of the protocol. An important decision-making influence was the risk of the biopsy. Biopsy and cryopreservation of testicular tissue from prepubertal male children was performed successfully and safely at three institutions. Parents faced with this option at diagnosis can make an informed decision and weigh carefully the risks and benefits. Although asked to make a decision soon after they were given a difficult diagnosis, parents uniformly felt in control of this decision. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Species differences in susceptibility to 1,3-dinitrobenzene-induced testicular toxicity and methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Obasaju, M F; Katz, D F; Miller, M G

    1991-02-01

    The testicular toxicity and methemoglobinemia induced by 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) was compared in two species, the Sprague-Dawley rat and the golden Syrian hamster. A marked difference in susceptibility to both endpoints of toxicity was observed. The hamster showed no testicular lesions at dose levels up to 50 mg/kg whereas, as previously reported by others, damage to rat testicular tubules in later stages of spermatogenesis was readily apparent at a 25 mg/kg dose level. Similarly, administration of 1,3-DNB induced substantially less methemoglobinemia in the hamster than in the rat. For example, at the 25 mg/kg dose level peak levels of methemoglobin in the hamster were 15% compared with 80% in the rat. Mortality in the rat also occurred at lower doses than in the hamster (50 vs 100 mg/kg, respectively). In in vitro studies, the capacity of 1,3-DNB and 1,3-DNB metabolites (nitroaniline, nitroacetanilide, aminoacetanilide, diacetamidobenzene) to induce methemoglobinemia was examined in suspensions of red blood cells obtained from both species. Only 1,3-DNB caused the formation of methemoglobin and rat red blood cells were twice as sensitive as hamster red blood cells. The species difference in susceptibility to both methemoglobinemia and testicular toxicity could indicate differences in 1,3-DNB clearance and/or formation of toxic metabolites. Additional metabolic work is under way. This study demonstrates that the hamster is more resistant than the rat to the testicular lesion and methemoglobinemia induced by 1,3-DNB.

  8. Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair: Effect on Testicular Blood Flow and Sperm Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Dragan; Družijanić, Nikica; Štula, Ivana; Čapkun, Vesna; Krnić, Duška

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to determine an influence of incarcerated inguinal hernia mesh repair on testicular circulation and to investigate consequent sperm autoimmunity as a possible reason for infertility. Material/Methods This prospective study was performed over a 3-year period, and 50 male patients were included; 25 of these patients underwent elective open mesh hernia repair (Group I). Group II consisted of 25 patients who had surgery for incarcerated inguinal hernia. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the testicular blood flow and blood samplings for antisperm antibodies (ASA) was performed in all patients before the surgery, on the second day, and 5 months after. Main outcome ultrasound measures were resistive index (RI) and pulsative index (PI), as their values are inversely proportional to testicular blood flow. Results In Group I, RI, and PI temporarily increased after surgery and then returned to basal values in the late postoperative period. Friedman analysis showed a significant difference in RI and PI for all measurements in Group II (p<0.05), with a significant decrease between the preoperative, early, and late postoperative periods. All final values were within reference range, including ASA, despite significant increase of ASA in the late postoperative period. Conclusions Although statistically significant differences in values of testicular flow parameters and immunologic sensitization in observed time, final values remained within the reference ranges in all patients. Our results suggest that the polypropylene mesh probably does not cause any clinically significant effect on testicular flow and immunologic response in both groups of patients. PMID:27149257

  9. Conditional Risk of Relapse in Surveillance for Clinical Stage I Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Madhur; Jewett, Michael A S; Hosni, Ali; Anson-Cartwright, Lynn; Bedard, Philippe L; Moore, Malcolm; Hansen, Aaron R; Chung, Peter; Warde, Padraig; Sweet, Joan; O'Malley, Martin; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Hamilton, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Patients on surveillance for clinical stage I (CSI) testicular cancer are counseled regarding their baseline risk of relapse. The conditional risk of relapse (cRR), which provides prognostic information on patients who have survived for a period of time without relapse, have not been determined for CSI testicular cancer. To determine cRR in CSI testicular cancer. We reviewed 1239 patients with CSI testicular cancer managed with surveillance at a tertiary academic centre between 1980 and 2014. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: cRR estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. We stratified patients according to validated risk factors for relapse. We used linear regression to determine cRR trends over time. At orchiectomy, the risk of relapse within 5 yr was 42.4%, 17.3%, 20.3%, and 12.2% among patients with high-risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT), low-risk NSGCT, seminoma with tumor size ≥3cm, and seminoma with tumor size <3cm, respectively. However, for patients without relapse within the first 2 yr of follow-up, the corresponding risk of relapse within the next 5 yr in the groups was 0.0%, 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-1.7%), 5.6% (95% CI 3.1-8.2%), and 3.9% (95% CI 1.4-6.4%). Over time, cRR decreased (p≤0.021) in all models. Limitations include changes to surveillance protocols over time and few late relapses. After 2 yr, the risk of relapse on surveillance for CSI testicular cancer is very low. Consideration should be given to adapting surveillance protocols to individualized risk of relapse based on cRR as opposed to static protocols based on baseline factors. This strategy could reduce the intensity of follow-up for the majority of patients. Our study is the first to provide data on the future risk of relapse during surveillance for clinical stage I testicular cancer, given a patient has been without relapse for a specified period of time. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B

  10. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    PubMed

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  11. Probing GATA factor function in mouse Leydig cells via testicular injection of adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Penny, Gervette M; Cochran, Rebecca B; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Schrade, Anja; Häkkinen, Merja; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2017-10-01

    Testicular Leydig cells produce androgens essential for proper male reproductive development and fertility. Here, we describe a new Leydig cell ablation model based on Cre/Lox recombination of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 , two genes implicated in the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenesis. The testicular interstitium of adult Gata4 flox/flox ; Gata6 flox/flox mice was injected with adenoviral vectors encoding Cre + GFP (Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP) or GFP alone (Ad-GFP). The vectors efficiently and selectively transduced Leydig cells, as evidenced by GFP reporter expression. Three days after Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP injection, expression of androgen biosynthetic genes ( Hsd3b1 , Cyp17a1 and Hsd17b3 ) was reduced, whereas expression of another Leydig cell marker, Insl3 , was unchanged. Six days after Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP treatment, the testicular interstitium was devoid of Leydig cells, and there was a concomitant loss of all Leydig cell markers. Chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, mitochondrial swelling, and other ultrastructural changes were evident in the degenerating Leydig cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated reduced levels of androstenedione and testosterone in testes from mice injected with Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP. Late effects of treatment included testicular atrophy, infertility and the accumulation of lymphoid cells in the testicular interstitium. We conclude that adenoviral-mediated gene delivery is an expeditious way to probe Leydig cell function in vivo Our findings reinforce the notion that GATA factors are key regulators of steroidogenesis and testicular somatic cell survival.Free Finnish abstract: A Finnish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/154/4/455/suppl/DC2. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Reliability of testicular stiffness quantification using shear wave elastography in predicting male fertility: a preliminary prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Yokus, Adem; Taken, Kerem; Batur, Abdussamet; Ozgokce, Mesut; Arslan, Harun

    2018-05-02

    To evaluate the reliability of testicular stiffness quantification using shear wave elastography in predicting the fertility potential of males and for the pre-diagnosis of disorders based upon sperm quantification. One hundred males between the ages of 19-49 years (mean age of 28.77±6.11), ninety of whom with complaints of infertility, were enrolled in this prospective study. Scrotal grey-scale, Doppler ultrasound (US), and mean testicular shear wave velocity quantifications (SWVQs) were performed. The volumes of testes, as well as the grade of varicocele if present, were recorded. The mean shear wave velocity values (SWVVs) of each testis and a mean testicular SWVV for each patient were calculated. The semen-analyses of patients were consecutively performed. There were significant negative correlations between the mean testicular SWVVs of patients and their sperm counts or the testis volumes (r=-0.399, r=-0.565; p<0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was found between testicular volumes and sperm counts (r=0.491, p<0.01). The cut-off values regarding mean testicular SWVV to distinguish normal sperm count from azoospermia and oligozoospermia were 1.465 m/s (75.0% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity) and 1.328 m/s (64.3% sensitivity and 68.2% specificity), respectively, and the value to distinguish oligozoospermia from azoospermia was 1.528 m/s (66.7% sensitivity, 60.7% specificity). The mean testicular SWVQ using the ARFI shear wave technique was a reliable, non-invasive and acceptably stable method for predicting male infertility, especially related to sperm count issues.

  13. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna.

  14. Testicular tumors as a possible cause of antisperm autoimmune response.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Donatella; Gilio, Barbara; Piroli, Emanuela; Gallo, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Francesco; Dondero, Franco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of antisperm antibodies in testicular cancer patients 1 month after orchiectomy and before radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Clinical study. Department of andrology and seminology at a university hospital. One hundred ninety patients with testicular cancer. Determination of semen parameters and autoimmune reaction evaluated on the sperm surface and in blood serum. Autoimmune reaction on the sperm surface by the direct immunobead test (IBT), and in blood serum by the indirect IBT and the gelatin agglutination test (GAT), was evaluated 1 month after orchiectomy and before beginning chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Of the 190 patients, 11 (5.8%) were positive for antisperm antibody by GAT. On indirect IBT, 3 of the 11 GAT-positive patients were positive to IgG class only, with values of 22%, 24%, and 40%. Of the 11 GAT-positive patients, 4 showed no antibody bound to the sperm surface, and 3 were positive to IgG class only (28%, 21%, and 38%), with binding exclusively on the tail. Direct IBT could not be performed in the remaining 4 patients. Our data support the hypothesis that testicular cancer might not be a possible cause of antisperm autoimmunization and infertility.

  15. [Testicular cancer: a model to optimize the radiological follow-up].

    PubMed

    Stebler, V; Pauchard, B; Schmidt, S; Valerio, M; De Bari, B; Berthold, D

    2015-05-20

    Despite being rare cancers, testicular seminoma and non-seminoma play an important role in oncology: they represent a model on how to optimize radiological follow-up, aiming at a lowest possible radiation exposure and secondary cancer risk. Males diagnosed with testicular cancer undergo frequently prolonged follow-up with CT-scans with potential toxic side effects, in particular secondary cancers. To reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation, precise follow-up protocols have been developed. The number of recommended CT-scanners has been significantly reduced over the last 10 years. The CT scanners have evolved technically and new acquisition protocols have the potential to reduce the radiation exposure further.

  16. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... TSE) can help you check for things like cancer. Although testicular cancer is rare in teenage guys, overall it is the most common cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35. It's important to try to do a TSE every month so you ... Reproductive System View more About ...

  17. Predomination of IL-17-producing tryptase-positive/chymase-positive mast cells in azoospermic chronic testicular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-J; Duan, Y-G; Haidl, G; Allam, J-P

    2016-08-01

    Chronic testicular inflammation and infection have been regarded as important factors in the pathogenesis of azoospermia. As key effector cells in innate and adaptive immune system, mast cells (MCs) were observed in inflammation and autoimmune disease. Furthermore, increased expression of tryptase-positive MCs has been reported in testicular disorders associated with male infertility/subfertility. However, little is known about the potential relationship between MCs and chronic testicular inflammation in azoospermic patients. Moreover, the preferential expression of MCs' subtypes in testis of these patients is still far from being understood. Thus, this study aimed to investigate characteristics of testicular MCs as well as their subtypes in azoospermic men with chronic testicular inflammation (AZI, n = 5) by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results showed significant increase of MCs in AZI, and more importantly, considerable numbers of tryptase-positive/chymase-positive MCs could also be demonstrated in AZI, when compared to control groups representing azoospermia without chronic testicular inflammation (AZW, n = 5) and normal spermatogenesis (NT, n = 5) respectively. Most interestingly, immunofluorescence staining revealed autoimmune-associated interleukin (IL)-17-producing MCs in AZI, whereas co-expression of MC markers with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and IL-1β could not be detected. In conclusion, AZI is associated with significant increase of tryptase-positive/chymase-positive MCs expressing IL-17, and these MCs might contribute to the pathogenesis of AZI. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Testicular cancer in US Navy personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, F.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Garland, C.F.

    1988-02-01

    Computerized career history and demographic information is obtained four times each year for all active-duty US Navy enlisted personnel by the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. This system provided demographic, occupational (110 occupations), and service history information for enlisted men serving during 1974-1979 (2,275,829 person-years). This analysis is restricted to white males because of the relatively small number of events in nonwhites. Age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates of testicular cancer in US Navy personnel did not differ significantly from those of the US population, and age-adjusted incidence rates did not increase with length of service in themore » Navy. There was a group of three occupations, however, which involved duties similar to those of the civilian occupation of automobile mechanic, and which had a significantly elevated age-adjusted rate of testicular cancer compared with the US population and the total Navy population. These occupations were aviation support equipment technician, engineman, and construction mechanic. All involve maintenance of internal combustion engines and exposure to the attendant lubricants, solvents, paints, and exhausts.« less

  19. [Primary testicular rhabdomyosarcoma: A case report].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Salas, Jesús Alberto; Sánchez-Corona, Hugo; Priego-Niño, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Edgar; Sánchez-Galindo, José Antonio

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of soft tissues in childhood and adolescence, with an annual incidence of 4-7 cases per million children aged 15. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is common in adults younger than 30 years, and are usually presented as a large painless, palpable mass (> 5cm). Survival in the case of paratesticular sarcoma in men is approximately 50%. Male 27 years of age with no history of importance, was seen in a clinic with an increased, painless, left testicular volume 3 years onset. Intrascrotal left testicle increased volume, with dimensions of 20×12×8cm, a stone and left inguinal node in induratum measuring 2×2cm. Microscopically, it showed a pattern of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with left inguinal node metastases. Early diagnosis of testicular tumours, and especially of primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, and aggressive surgical treatment in combination with chemotherapy reduces the incidence of local recurrence and may improve the rate of disease-free survival and overall survival in adult patients with metastases. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage.

  1. Increased Sensitivity to Testicular Toxicity of Transplacental Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure in Male Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Modifier Subunit Knockout (Gclm−/−) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Brooke N.; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W.; Cortés, Mabel M.; Hoang, Yvonne D.; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A.; McConnachie, Lisa A.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and spermatogenesis and its effect on the sensitivity of male embryos to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. Gclm−/− males had dramatically decreased testicular and epididymal GCL enzymatic activity and total GSH concentrations compared with Gclm+/+ littermates. Ratios of reduced to oxidized GSH were significantly increased in Gclm−/− testes. GSH reductase enzymatic activity was increased in Gclm−/− epididymides. We observed no changes in fertility, testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, or testicular histology and subtle changes in cauda epididymal sperm counts, motility, and morphology in Gclm−/− compared with Gclm+/+ males. Prenatal exposure to BaP from gestational day 7 to 16 was dose dependently associated with significantly decreased testicular and epididymal weights, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, and with vacuolated seminiferous tubules at 10 weeks of age. Gclm−/− males exposed prenatally to BaP had greater decreases in testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility than Gclm+/+ littermates. These results show no effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and testicular spermatogenesis and subtle epididymal effects but support increased sensitivity of Gclm−/− males to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. PMID:22253057

  2. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  3. Polymorphisms in RAI and in genes of nucleotide and base excision repair are not associated with risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Laska, Magdalena J; Nexø, Bjørn A; Vistisen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla

    2005-07-28

    Testicular cancer has been suggested to be primed in utero and there is familiar occurrence, particularly brothers and sons of men with testicular cancer have increased risk. Although no specific causative genotoxic agents have been identified, variations in DNA repair capacity could be associated with the risk of testicular cancer. A case-control study of 184 testicular cancer cases and 194 population-based controls living in the Copenhagen Greater Area in Denmark was performed. We found that neither polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes nor alleles of several polymorphisms in the chromosomal of region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ASE, ERCC1, RAI and XPD, were associated with risk of testicular cancer in Danish patients. This is in contrast to other cancers, where we reported strong associations between polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE and RAI and occurrence of basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer and lung. To our knowledge this is the first study of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of testicular cancer.

  4. Association between vasectomy and risk of testicular cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haifeng; Deng, Tuo; Chen, Yiwen; Zhao, Zhijian; Wen, Yaoan; Chen, Yeda; Li, Xiaohang; Zeng, Guohua

    2018-01-01

    A number of researchers have reported that vasectomy is a risk factor for testicular cancer. However, this conclusion is inconsistent with a number of other published articles. Hence, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess whether vasectomy increases the risk of testicular cancer. We identified all related studies by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library database from January 01, 1980 to June 01, 2017. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist was used to assess all included non-randomized studies. Summarized odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the difference in outcomes between case and control groups. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the study design and country. A total of eight studies (2176 testicular cancer patients) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Six articles were case-control studies, and two were cohort studies. The pooled estimate of the OR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93-1.30) based on the eight studies in a fixed effects model. Two subgroup analyses were performed according to the study design and country. The results were consistent with the overall findings. Publication bias was detected by Begg's test and Egger's test and p values > 0.05, respectively. Our meta-analysis suggested that there was no association between vasectomy and the development of testicular cancer. More high-quality studies are warranted to further explore the association between vasectomy and risk of testicular cancer.

  5. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy for treating primary varicocele in children.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Paola; Mayr, Johannes; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of antegrade sclerotherapy (AS) for the treatment of primary varicocele in childhood. From December 1996 to December 2004, 88 patients (mean age 13.3 years, range 9-18) with primary varicocele underwent AS (91 varicocele ablations in all). The indications for surgery were testicular pain (16 boys, 18%), a large varicocele with cosmetic implications, testicular hypotrophy (one) and in 71 (81%) the varicocele was detected incidentally during a routine physical examination; all were left-sided. According to the classification used by Tauber, 46 (52%) varicoceles were grade II and 42 (48%) grade III. The clinical and ultrasonography (US) results were evaluated over a median (range) follow-up of 11 (3-60) months, and the operative duration, X-ray exposure time, persistence rate of varicoceles and complications were compared with those using other techniques. In 11 patients there was a palpable difference in size between the testicles, but in only five (6%) was testicular hypotrophy (testicular volume (<75% testicular volume vs the normal side) confirmed by US. The mean (sem) operative duration for AS was 33.2 (2.14) min. In 16 (18%) patients it was necessary to expose a second or third vein because the first vein chosen was unsuitable for sclerotherapy. The mean operative radiation exposure was 2.18 (0.21) s. One patient (1%) was treated with a high ligature of the testicular vein (Palomo procedure) after initial unsuccessful AS, and was excluded from the analysis. Eighty-four (97%) patients were eligible for follow-up: six (7%) had a persistent varicocele (four grade II, two grade III), four of whom had repeat sclerotherapy successfully (no recurrence at follow-up). Fourteen (15%) patients had enlarged testicular veins only on US (varicocele grade 0). No patient developed a hydrocele after AS, There were complications after surgery in three (3%) patients (two superficial wound infections, one scrotal haematoma together with

  6. [Local anesthesia in the surgical management of hydrocele and cysts of the spermatic cord].

    PubMed

    Marchal Escalona, C; Chicharro Molero, J A; Martín Morales, A; Del Rosal Samaniego, J M; Díaz Ramírez, F; Ruiz Domínguez, J L; Burgos Rodríguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Traditional management of vaginal fluid collections has always been surgery. The benignancy of this disease does not correspond with the morbidity caused by the anaesthetic techniques used. Over the last few years, sclerotherapy has become increasingly attractive as an alternative to hydrocelectomy. Indications are, nonetheless, restricted, presenting a relapse rate which varies according to the substance used and the operating team. The study proposes the use of local anaesthetics for the surgery of vaginal fluid collections so as to minimize the immediate postoperative period and thus the hospital stay. Between May and October 1991, 55 patients, 49 with hydrocele (4 bilateral) and 6 with sperm cord cyst, were treated in our Unit. Patients were monitored in the theatre (EKG, blood pressure and oximeter) to supervise their life constants, and 2% Mepivacaine (10-20 cc) was infiltrated into the sperm cord and the area of scrotal wall to be cut. Surgical techniques range from dissection to scission of the bag until partial eversion, requiring the use of reabsorbable suture and a careful haemostasis to avoid drainage. Anaesthetics tolerance has been highly satisfactory in 52 patients (94%), good in one patient (2%) and unsatisfactory in two cases (4%). Recorded complications include: severe bradycardia and hypotension in one case (2%), persistent right renoureteral pain in one case (2%), scrotal haematoma in 5 cases (9%) and suture dehiscence in another patient (2%). It is concluded that surgical management of vaginal collection with local anaesthetics is feasible, and reduces the immediate postoperative period also avoiding morbidity derived from a more aggressive anaesthetic technique.

  7. Comments on "Ochratoxin A: In utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA. Toxins 2010, 2, 1428-1444"-Mis-Citation of Rat Literature to Justify a Hypothetical Role for Ochratoxin A in Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mantle, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces testicular cancer in rats or mice.

  8. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome as models for studying hormonal regulation of human testicular endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Lamothe, Sophie; Maione, Luigi; Bouvattier, Claire; Sarfati, Julie; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Men with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and those with congenital isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with normal olfaction share a chronic, usually profound deficit, in FSH and LH, the two pituitary gonadotropins. Many studies indicate that this gonadotropin deficiency is already present during fetal life, thus explaining the micropenis, cryptorchidism and marked testicular hypotrophy already present at birth. In addition, neonatal activation of gonadotropin secretion is compromised in boys with severe CHH/Kallmann, preventing the first phase of postnatal testicular activation. Finally, CHH is characterized by the persistence, in the vast majority of cases, of gonadotropin deficiency at the time of puberty and during adulthood. This prevents the normal pubertal testicular reactivation required for physiological sex steroid and testicular peptide production, and for spermatogenesis. CHH/KS thus represents a pathological paradigm that can help to unravel, in vivo, the role of each gonadotropin in human testicular exocrine and endocrine functions at different stages of development. Recombinant gonadotropins with pure LH or FSH activity have been used to stimulate Leydig's cells and Sertoli's cells, respectively, and thereby to clarify their paracrine interaction in vivo. The effects of these pharmacological probes can be assessed by measuring the changes they provoke in circulating testicular hormone concentrations. This review discusses the impact of chronic gonadotropin deficiency on the endocrine functions of the interstitial compartment, which contains testosterone-, estradiol- and INSL3-secreting Leydig's cells. It also examines the regulation of inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) secretion in the seminiferous tubules, and the insights provided by studies of human testicular stimulation with recombinant gonadotropins, used either individually or in combination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome and the Estrogen Hypothesis: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Olwenn V.; Shialis, Tassos; Lester, John N.; Scrimshaw, Mark D.; Boobis, Alan R.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    Background Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). The hypothesis that in utero exposure to estrogenic agents could induce these disorders was first proposed in 1993. The only quantitative summary estimate of the association between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago, and other systematic reviews of the association between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. Objectives We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER)-α–mediated mode of action was specifically explored. Results We included in this meta-analysis eight studies investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. Conclusions The doubling of the risk ratios for all three end points investigated after DES exposure is consistent with a shared etiology and the TDS hypothesis but does not constitute evidence of an estrogenic mode of action. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population. PMID:18288311

  10. Protective effect of ebselen on experimental testicular torsion and detorsion injury.

    PubMed

    Rifaioglu, M M; Motor, S; Davarci, I; Tuzcu, K; Sefil, F; Davarci, M; Nacar, A

    2014-12-01

    Ebselen is used as a drug in clinical trials against stroke, reperfusion injury with anti-atherosclerotic and renoprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of ebselen, on torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in experimental testicular ischaemia/reperfusion injury. A total of 28 male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1(sham-operated group, n = 7), group 2(ebselen group, n = 7), group 3(torsion/detorsion + saline, n = 7) and group 4(T/D + 10 mg kg(-1) ebselen group, n = 7). The tissue homogenate samples were used for immediate nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione measurement. Testes in all groups were evaluated for the biochemical assay and histopathological examinations. To evaluate spermatogenesis, Johnsen scoring system was used. Testicular tissue MDA and NO levels in group 3 were significantly higher than in group 1 and 4. In histological evaluation of the testicular tissues, ebselen administration improved tubular histology significantly compared with T/D group. Significant increase in histological score was observed in the testis of group 3 compared with group 1 and 2. Histological score in group 4 significantly decreased compared with group 3. Johnson score was significantly lower in T/D group compared with all other three groups, ebselen administration increased the score significantly compared with T/D group. Ebselen reduced oxidative biochemical and histopathological damage in our testicular T/D rat model. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the estrogen hypothesis: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Olwenn V; Shialis, Tassos; Lester, John N; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Boobis, Alan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). The hypothesis that in utero exposure to estrogenic agents could induce these disorders was first proposed in 1993. The only quantitative summary estimate of the association between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago, and other systematic reviews of the association between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-mediated mode of action was specifically explored. We included in this meta-analysis eight studies investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. The doubling of the risk ratios for all three end points investigated after DES exposure is consistent with a shared etiology and the TDS hypothesis but does not constitute evidence of an estrogenic mode of action. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population.

  12. Binding of Nickel to Testicular Glutamate–Ammonia Ligase Inhibits Its Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YINGBIAO; OU, YOUNG; CHENG, MIN; RUAN, YIBING; VAN DER HOORN, FRANS A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to nickel has been shown to cause damage to the testis in several animal models. It is not known if the testis expresses protein(s) that can bind nickel. To test this, we used a nickel-binding assay to isolate testicular nickel-binding proteins. We identified glutamate–ammonia ligase (GLUL) as a prominent nickel-binding protein by mass spectrometry. Protein analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that GLUL is expressed in the testis, predominantly in interstitial cells. We determined that GLUL has a higher affinity for nickel than for its regular co-factor manganese. We produced an enzymatically active, recombinant GLUL protein. Upon binding, nickel interferes with the manganese-catalyzed enzymatic activity of recombinant GLUL protein. We also determined that GLUL activity in testes of animals exposed to nickel sulfate is reduced. Our results identify testicular GLUL as the first testicular protein shown to be affected by nickel exposure. PMID:21254280

  13. Intrascrotal CGRP 8-37 causes a delay in testicular descent in mice.

    PubMed

    Samarakkody, U K; Hutson, J M

    1992-07-01

    The genitofemoral nerve is a key factor in the inguinoscrotal descent of the testis. The effect of androgens may be mediated via the central nervous system, which in turn secretes the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) at the genitofemoral nerve endings, to cause testicular descent. The effect of endogenous CGRP was examined by weekly injections of a vehicle with or without synthetic antagonist (CGRP 8-37) into the developing scrotum of neonatal mice. The descent of the testis was delayed in the experimental group compared with the control group. At 2 weeks of age 43% of controls had descended testes compared with 0% of experimental animals. At 3 weeks of age 17% of experimentals still had undescended testes, whereas all testes were descended in controls. At 4 weeks 3 testes remained undescended in the experimental group. It is concluded that the CGRP antagonist can retard testicular descent. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that CGRP is an important intermediary in testicular descent.

  14. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  15. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; Lasheen, Noha N; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180-200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD + . Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF- α , and IL1- β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF- α , IL-1 β , and testicular mitochondrial NAD + were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD + , which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  16. Comparison of aspiration-sclerotherapy with hydrocelectomy in the management of hydrocele: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Khaniya, Sudeep; Agrawal, Chandra Shekhar; Koirala, Rabin; Regmi, Rajendra; Adhikary, Shailesh

    2009-08-01

    Hydrocelectomy is practiced as the gold standard technique for the treatment of hydrocele worldwide. Aspiration and sclerotherapy is cheap, less invasive and safe compared to hydrocelectomy. However, the outcomes are inconsistent because of lack of uniformity in methods and sclerosing agents used. This was a randomized controlled study conducted in a university hospital for a period of one year. Sixty symptomatic adult males without fertility concern or coexisting scrotal pathology were enrolled. Aspiration and sclerotherapy and hydrocelectomy were performed in 30 each. incidence of complications, loss of working days, cost involved, recurrence rate and patient's satisfaction. Patients were followed up till 6 months after the procedures. Eight patients (26.7%) after hydrocelectomy developed fever which was significantly more (p<0.05) than 2 patients (6.7%) following sclerotherapy. Four patients (14%) with hydrocelectomy had infection (p<0.05). The incidence of pain and haematocele between the two groups were comparable. Nine patients (34.6%) after sclerotherapy developed recurrence at 3 months. All patients developed recurrence after repeat aspiration and sclerotherapy. The level of satisfaction was more in hydrocelectomy 19 (95%) versus 13 (61.9%) patients in sclerotherapy (p<0.05). The cost involved was fivefold and the loss of working days sevenfold in hydrocelectomy (p<0.01) as compared to sclerotherapy. Although aspiration and sclerotherapy had less complications, morbidity and was cheaper, it had lower success rate and less patient's satisfaction than hydrocelectomy.

  17. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  18. Seasonally and experimentally induced changes in testicular function of the Australian bush rat (Rattus fuscipes).

    PubMed

    Irby, D C; Kerr, J B; Risbridger, G P; de Kretser, D M

    1984-03-01

    Serum concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured monthly throughout the year in male bush rats. Testicular size and ultrastructure, LH/hCG, FSH and oestradiol receptors and the response of the pituitary to LHRH were also recorded. LH and FSH rose in parallel with an increase in testicular size after the winter solstice with peak gonadotrophin levels in the spring (September). The subsequent fall in LH and FSH levels was associated with a rise in serum testosterone which reached peak levels during summer (December and January). In February serum testosterone levels and testicular size declined in parallel, while the pituitary response to an LHRH injection was maximal during late summer. The number of LH/hCG, FSH and oestradiol receptors per testis were all greatly reduced in the regressed testes when compared to active testes. In a controlled environment of decreased lighting (shortened photoperiod), temperature and food quality, the testes of sexually active adult males regressed at any time of the year, the resultant testicular morphology and endocrine status being identical to that of wild rats in the non-breeding season. Full testicular regression was achieved only when the photoperiod, temperature and food quality were changed: experiments in which only one or two of these factors were altered failed to produce complete sexual regression.

  19. Cellular changes in the hamster testicular interstitium with ageing and after exposure to short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: ageing and exposure to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an 'age group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With ageing, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during ageing and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (age and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of ageing and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod.

  20. [Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium-Complex (MAC) Disease Differentially Diagnosed from Metastasis of Testicular Cancer : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Teranishi, Jyn-Ichi; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Yumura, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Kondo, Keiichi; Uemura, Hiroji; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    A 45 year-old-man was admitted to our hospital because of discomfort in his left scrotum. He had a left testicular tumor. We performed high orchiectomy and pathological findings revealed testicular cancer. He was treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Computed tomography showed a new mass in the left lung after 3 cycles of the chemotherapy. Because of its rapid growth, the tumor was thought to be a metastasis lesion of testicular cancer or pulmonary infection. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed an invasion of multinucleated giant cells and granuloma. The culture and polymerase chain reaction of the bronchial sputum were positive for myobacterium avium-complex (MAC). From these findings, the left lung tumor was diagnosed as pulmonary MAC disease. He received partial resection of the left lung and the lesion was diagnosed as granuloma. There was no recurrence of testicular cancer or pulmonary disease after the surgery.

  1. Microcirculatory effects of sildenafil in experimental testicular torsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Márton; Szabó, Andrea; Fehér, Ádám Miklós; Deák, Gábor; Bajory, Zoltán

    2018-05-21

    Investigate the short-term effect of sildenafil on microcirculation, especially the velocity, the pattern of the flow and the recruitment of the leukocyte in postcapillaries. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, the microcirculatory consequences of 60 min experimental testicular torsion, followed by 240 min of reperfusion, were examined. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy, changes in red blood cell velocity in post-capillary venules and rolling as well as adhesion of leukocytes in the postcapillary venules were examined before the torsion and every hour during the reperfusion period. Sildenafil was given 10 min prior to reperfusion (iv 0.7 mg/kg, n = 6), while control animals received saline vehicle (n = 5). The characteristic flow motion disappeared in the affected testicular during the torsion. Red blood cell velocity values were dramatically decreased (by > 50%) and both rolling and adhesion of leukocytes increased during the reperfusion phase. Sildenafil treatment resulted in significantly higher red blood cell velocity values during the entire reperfusion period, but exerted only a temporary positive effect on the plost-ischaemic leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Intraoperative administration of sildenafil during surgical detorsion may provide marked testicular microperfusion benefits, but failed to influence the overall leukocyte-driven microcirculatory inflammatory reactions.

  2. Testicular cancer survivors' supportive care needs and use of online support: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bender, Jacqueline L; Wiljer, David; To, Matthew J; Bedard, Philippe L; Chung, Peter; Jewett, Michael A S; Matthew, Andrew; Moore, Malcolm; Warde, Padraig; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2012-11-01

    The supportive care needs of testicular cancer survivors have not been comprehensively studied. Likewise, there is limited research on their use of the Internet or social media applications--tools that are popular among young adults and which could be used to address their needs. Two hundred and four testicular cancer patients receiving care at an urban cancer center completed a questionnaire assessing supportive care needs and the use and preferences for online support. We examined the associations between patient characteristics and met or unmet supportive care needs and the use of testicular cancer online communities. Respondents had more met (median 8.0, interquartile range (IQR) 10.0) than unmet (median 2.0, IQR 7.0) needs. The majority (62.5%) reported at least one unmet need, most commonly (25%) concerning financial support, body image, stress, being a cancer survivor, and fear of recurrence. Patients who were younger, had nonseminoma testicular cancer, or received treatment beyond surgery had more needs, and those who were unemployed had more unmet needs. The majority of respondents (71.5%) were social media users (e.g., Facebook), and 26% had used a testicular cancer online support community. Reasons for nonuse were lack of awareness (34.3%), interest (30.9%), trust (4.9%), and comfort using computers (2.5%). Users were more likely to speak English as a first language and have more needs. At least one in four testicular cancer survivors has unmet needs related to financial support, body image, stress, being a cancer survivor, and fear of recurrence. A web-based resource may be a useful strategy to consider given the high prevalence of social media use in this sample and their desire for online support. Efforts are needed to raise awareness about online peer support resources and to overcome barriers to their use.

  3. Deregulation of EZH2 expression in human spermatogenic disorders and testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Stefan; Magheli, Ahmed; Weikert, Steffen; Schulze, Wolfgang; Krause, Hans; Schrader, Mark; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten

    2010-10-01

    Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) is an epigenetic transcriptional repressor involved in cell cycle control and cell fate decisions. Since these processes play key roles during intact spermatogenesis, deregulation of EZH2 expression may contribute to the development and progression of benign and malignant testicular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profile of EZH2 in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and spermatogenic defects. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to quantify the m-RNA expression of EZH2 in 64 seminomas 36 non-seminomas, 4 carcinomas in situ (CIS), 40 samples harboring impaired spermatogenesis and 24 normal testicular reference biopsies. EZH2 was expressed in 99% of TGCT samples and in all biopsies with intact spermatogenesis. Its expression levels were highest in normal testicular tissue, and continuously decreased with malignant transformation to CIS and further progression to invasive TGCT (P < 0.001). EZH2 tumor levels were not related to the histological TGCT subtype or clinical tumor stage. Comparison of distinct stages of spermatogenic failure revealed an inverse association of EZH2 levels to the severity of the spermatogenic defect (P < 0.001). Our data strongly suggest that in TGCT EZH2 does not exert its often assumed oncogenic properties during malignant transformation and progression. High EZH2 levels in normal testicular tissue and the inverse association of its expression levels with the severity of spermatogenic failure point to its potential value as a molecular marker for spermatogenic defects and may indicate an important physiological role of EZH2 during intact spermatogenesis.

  4. Comparative experimental re-evaluation of the two implanting methods of silicone gel testicular prostheses in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Testicular prosthesis has been applied clinically for decades, and implantation of testis prosthesis under the tunica albuginea has been considered to be the standard method in the most of the reports. However, postoperative scrotal appearance, the mobilization and the palpitation of the prosthesis are not always satisfactory to all the patients. Modifications in surgical techniques might be necessary to bring improvements to the clinical outcomes in testicular prosthesis implantation. Findings In a group of 9 beagle dogs in this study, an orchiectomy succeeded with a testicular prosthesis implantation under the tunica vaginalis, and a complete mechanical denudation of the testicular parenchyma succeeded with an implantation under the tunica albuginea were performed, respectively. Histopathological evaluations of the scrotal tissues and the implants, which were made at the end of the follow-up, showed that all the tested animals lived uneventful lives during the follow-up period, and no rejections or infections were found. Prostheses implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying mobilization and palpation than those implanted under the tunica albuginea. Chronic inflammation in the para-prosthesis tissues with vascular proliferation and fibrinogenesis were more common in the "under tunica albuginea" group than that in the "under tunica vaginalis" group, although differences in fibrinogenesis between the two groups were found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusions In this comparative study, we have re-evaluated the two most popular implantation methods of testicular prosthesis, the "under the tunica albuginea" and the "under the tunica vaginalis" pathways, in animal models. We found that the testicular prosthesis were all well tolerated, but the prosthesis implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying result concerning appearance, palpability, and histopathological findings than that of the "under the tunica

  5. Long-term treatment of hydrogen-rich saline abates testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Lu, DanDan; Zhang, Yaling; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with hydrogen-rich saline abated testicular oxidative stress induced by nicotine in mice. The effects of hydrogen-rich saline (6 ml/kg, i.p.), vitamin C (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) on reproductive system and testicular oxidative levels in nicotine-treated (4.5 mg/kg, s.b.) mice were investigated. It was found that vitamin C and vitamin E attenuated serum oxidative level, but did not lower testicular oxidative levels in mice subjected to chronic nicotine treatment, and did not improve the male reproductive damage and apoptosis induced by nicotine. Different from normal antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, hydrogen-rich saline abated oxidative stress in testis, and protected against nicotine-induced male reproductive damages. Our results first demonstrated that long-term treatment with hydrogen-rich saline attenuated testicular oxidative level and improved male reproductive function in nicotine-treated mice.

  6. The effect of environmental contaminants on testicular function.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Premendu Prakash; D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia

    2011-07-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated considerably in the last few decades. Nutritional, socioeconomic, lifestyle and environmental factors (among others) have been attributed to compromising male reproductive health. In recent years, a large volume of evidence has accumulated that suggests that the trend of decreasing male fertility (in terms of sperm count, quality and other changes in male reproductive health) might be due to exposure to environmental toxicants. These environmental contaminants can mimic natural oestrogens and target testicular spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and the function of both Sertoli and Leydig cells. Most environmental toxicants have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species, thereby causing a state of oxidative stress in various compartments of the testes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of action of the environmental toxicants on the testis have yet to be elucidated. This review discusses the effects of some of the more commonly used environmental contaminants on testicular function through the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  7. Assessment of the quality of patient-oriented information over internet on testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, Anton S; Jayarajah, Umesh; Mohanappirian, Ranganathan; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa A

    2018-05-02

    This study aimed to assess the quality and readability of patient education information available on the internet on testicular cancer. Internet searches were performed using the keywords 'testicular cancer', 'testicular tumour', 'testicular tumor', 'testicular malignancy', 'germ cell tumour' and 'germ cell tumor' using Google, Yahoo! And Bing search engines with default settings. The first 50 web links appeared in each search engine were evaluated for their readability by using the validated Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) while accessibility, usability and reliability were assessed using the LIDA tool. The quality was assessed using DISCERN instrument. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Overall, 900 websites were assessed and 62 websites were included in the analysis. Twenty two (22) websites (35.5%) were certified by Health on the Net Foundation code of conduct (HON code). The majority (n = 57, 91.9%) were non-governmental websites. The median FRES score was 51.6 (range: 28.1-74.1), the overall median LIDA score was 115 (range: 81-147); accessibility 55 (range: 46-61), reliability 22 (range: 8-45) and usability 38.5 (range: 21-50), while the median DISCERN score was 43.5 (range: 16-69). The DISCERN score was significantly associated with the overall LIDA score and usability and reliability components of the LIDA score (p < 0.001). However, no significant associations were observed between readability and accessibility. A significant correlation was noted between usability and reliability components of the LIDA score (Spearman's rho: 0.789, p < 0.001). In this study, the readability, reliability and quality scores of most websites were found to be suboptimal and hence, there is potential for improvement. As the internet is expanding rapidly as a readily available source of information to the public, it is essential to implement steps to ensure that highest quality information is provided without any commercial motivation or bias.

  8. Effectiveness of lycopene on experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Mahmut; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Baştuğ, Osman; Aras, Necip Fazıl; Öztürk, Ayşe Betül; Küçükaydın, Mustafa; Turan, Cüneyt

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the long term effectiveness of lycopene, a precursor of vitamin A, on the testes for ischemia-reperfusion injury. Seventy male Wistar albino rats were used for this experiment. The rats were divided into seven groups. Group 1 served as the control group; group 2 was sham-operated; group 3 received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally); in group 4, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for three days; in group 5, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for ten days; in group 6, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for three days; in group 7, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for ten days. Lycopene was used intraperitoneally. Some of the testes tissues were used for biochemical analyses and the other tissues were used for histological procedures. The Johnsen's score was used for seminiferous tubule deterioration. The TUNEL method was utilized to show apoptosis of testicular tissue. Testosterone levels were measured from blood samples and SOD, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 measurements were recorded from tissue samples. The results were analyzed statistically. In groups 1, 2 and 3 there was normal testicular structure. Rats in groups 4 and 5 had damaged testicular tissues. In groups 6 and 7, in which we used lycopene, the testes were not better than those in groups 4 and 5. The MSTD and JTBS values were better in group 6, but not in group 7 among the torsion groups. As a result, MDA, SOD, TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and serum testosterone and IL-6 levels were decreased in groups 4 and 5 compared to group 1. There was no improvement in the groups treated with lycopene for therapeutic purposes. It was shown that

  9. Exploring awareness and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of malignant and benign testicular disorders among young men is on the rise. Evidence from three reviews suggest that men's knowledge of these disorders is lacking and their help-seeking intention for testicular symptoms is suboptimal. Qualitative studies have addressed men's awareness of testicular cancer, with none exploring their awareness of non-malignant diseases such as epididymitis, testicular torsion, and varicocele and none including sexual minorities. To explore, in-depth, heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men's awareness of testicular disorders and their help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms in the Irish context. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Data were collected via face-to-face individual interviews and focus groups. Participation was sought from a number of community and youth organisations and one university in Southern Ireland. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit a heterogeneous sample. A total of 29 men partook in this study. Participants were men, aged between 18 and 50 years, and residents of the Republic of Ireland. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflective field notes were taken following each interview. A summary of the interview was shared with selected participants for member-check. Data were analysed and validated by three researchers. Inductive qualitative analysis of manifest content was used. Latent content was captured in the field notes. Data analysis yielded two key themes. The themes that emerged from the interviews were: Awareness of testicular disorders and their screening, and help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms. Although most participants heard of testicular cancer, most did not know the different aspects of this malignancy including its risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and screening. Several men had a number of misconceptions around testicular disorders which negatively impacted their intentions to seek prompt help

  10. Meiotic activity in orthotopic xenografts derived from human postpubertal testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Van Saen, D; Goossens, E; Bourgain, C; Ferster, A; Tournaye, H

    2011-02-01

    Grafting of frozen-thawed testicular tissue has been suggested as a novel fertility preservation method for patients undergoing gonadotoxic treatments. However, this technique still needs further optimization before any clinical application. So far, grafting of human testicular tissue has only been performed to the back skin of nude mice and has shown spermatogonial stem-cell survival and occasionally differentiation up to primary spermatocytes. In this study, orthotopic grafting to mouse testes was evaluated as an alternative, and the effect of freezing and the donor's age was studied. Human testicular tissue was obtained from two prepubertal (aged 3 and 5) and two postpubertal (aged 12 and 13) boys. Both fresh and frozen-thawed testicular tissue was grafted to the testis of immuno-deficient nude mice. Four and nine months after transplantation, testes were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Four and nine months after transplantation, spermatogonial stem cells were observed in all tissue grafts. Germ cell survival was found to be higher in xenografts from the older boys when compared with that from younger donors. Furthermore, no differentiation was observed in the xenografts from younger patients, but the grafts of two older donors showed differentiation up to the primary spermatocyte level, with the presence of secondary spermatocytes in the oldest donor 9 months after transplantation. This xenografting study shows that intratesticular grafting results in high germ cell survival. In grafts derived from the older boys, meiotic activity was maintained in the xenografts for at least 9 months. Although difficult to conduct due to the scarcity of the tissue, more comparative research is needed to elucidate an optimal grafting strategy.

  11. Subtype-specific risk of testicular tumors among immigrants and their descendants in Sweden, 1960 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Omid; Granath, Fredrik; Allebeck, Peter; Akre, Olof; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-04-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young male adults in several populations. We compared subtype-specific risk of testicular cancer among migrants and their descendants to that of Swedish-born men to elucidate importance of genetic and environmental factors in testicular cancer etiology and the potential timing of exposures. We followed a nationwide cohort of 3.6 million men ages 15 to 54 years between 1960 and 2007 through linkage between Swedish National Registers. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) adjusted for age and calendar year with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 5,801 cases of testicular cancer occurred during 80 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with Swedish-born men, first-generation immigrants from low-risk countries had a lower risk (IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.38-0.49) and first-generation immigrants from high-risk countries had a higher risk (IRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.83) of testicular cancer. The risk among first-generation immigrants varied remarkably by birthplace, reflecting the risk in their countries of birth. The risk of seminomas was statistically significantly modified by age at immigration and duration of residence among immigrants born in high-risk areas. We observed a statistically significantly convergence of risk among second-generation immigrants toward the risk in Sweden (IRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93-1.12). The risk among second-generation immigrants was not affected by the duration of stay of their mothers in Sweden before pregnancy. Our study provides evidence that life-style and environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of testicular cancer.

  12. Nonpalpable testicular pure seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting with retroperitoneal metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Shoichiro; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Ando, Ryosuke; Nagai, Takashi; Okada, Atsushi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-05-05

    Patients with a primary pure seminoma in the testis who have elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein are rare and should be treated as patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. However, nonpalpable testicular tumors in this condition have never been reported. We describe a case of nonpalpable pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. A 29-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with right flank pain. Computed tomography showed a mass located between his aorta and inferior vena cava, but a testicular tumor was not detected. His serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and DUPAN-2 were high. Although no tumor or nodule was palpable in his testis, ultrasonography revealed multiple low echoic lesions in his right testicular parenchyma. He was diagnosed with right testicular cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and underwent right high orchiectomy. A pathological examination revealed pure seminoma and no nonseminomatous components were found in the specimen. Three courses of induction systemic chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) normalized his serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 levels. Three additional courses of chemotherapy (etoposide and bleomycin) were performed, and treatment was completed with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pathology of the dissected specimen showed fibrous and necrotic tissue with no viable cells. He is alive without recurrence 54 months after orchiectomy. We report a case of pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. We recommend an ultrasound examination of bilateral testes when large retroperitoneal tumors are detected in young men, even if a mass is not palpable in the scrotum.

  13. Pulse Doppler ultrasound as a tool for the diagnosis of chronic testicular dysfunction in stallions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Jose M.; Anel-Lopez, Luis; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Álvarez, Mercedes; Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma; Anel, Luis; Rodríguez-Medina, Pedro; Peña, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Testicular function is particularly susceptible to vascular insult, resulting in a negative impact on sperm production and quality of the ejaculate. A prompt diagnosis of testicular dysfunction enables implementation of appropriate treatment, hence improving fertility forecasts for stallions. The present research aims to: (1) assess if Doppler ultrasonography is a good tool to diagnose stallions with testicular dysfunction; (2) to study the relationship between Doppler parameters of the testicular artery and those of sperm quality assessed by flow cytometry and (3) to establish cut off values to differentiate fertile stallions from those with pathologies causing testicular dysfunction. A total of 10 stallions (n: 7 healthy stallions and n: 3 sub-fertile stallions) were used in this study. Two ejaculates per stallion were collected and preserved at 5°C in a commercial extender. The semen was evaluated at T0, T24 and T48h by flow cytometry. Integrity and viability of sperm (YoPro®-1/EthD-1), mitochondrial activity (MitoTracker® Deep Red FM) and the DNA fragmentation index (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) were assessed. Doppler parameters were measured at three different locations on the testicular artery (Supratesticular artery (SA); Capsular artery (CA) and Intratesticular artery (IA)). The Doppler parameters calculated were: Resistive Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI), Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV), End Diastolic Velocity (EDV), Time Average Maximum Velocity (TAMV), Total Arterial Blood Flow (TABF) and TABF rate. The capsular artery was the most reliable location to carry out spectral Doppler assessment, since blood flow parameters of this artery were most closely correlated with sperm quality parameters. Significant differences in all the Doppler parameters studied were observed between fertile and subfertile stallions (p ≤ 0.05). The principal components analysis assay determined that fertile stallions are characterized by high EDV, TAMV, TABF and TABF rate

  14. Protective Effect of Selenium on Aflatoxin B1-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Shao, Bing; Xu, Feibo; Liu, Yunfeng; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxins have been considered as one of the major risk factors of male infertility, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most highly toxic and prevalent member of the aflatoxins family. Selenium (Se), an essential nutritional trace mineral for normal testicular development and male fertility, has received extensive intensive on protective effects of male reproductive system due to its potential antioxidant and activating testosterone synthesis. To investigate the protective effect of Se on AFB1-induced testicular toxicity, the mice were orally administered with AFB1 (0.75 mg/kg) and Se (0.2 mg/kg or 0.4 mg/kg) for 45 days. We found that that Se elevated testes index, sperm functional parameters (concentration, malformation, and motility), and the level of serum testosterone in AFB1-exposed mice. Moreover, our results showed that Se attenuated the AFB1-induced oxidative stress and the reduction of testicular testosterone synthesis enzyme protein expression such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in AFB1-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that Se conferred protection against AFB1-induced testicular toxicity and can be attributed to its antioxidant and increased testosterone level by stimulating protein expression of StAR and testosterone synthetic enzymes.

  15. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Cives, R.; Méndez-Gallart, R.; Estevez-Martínez, E.; Rodríguez-Barca, P.; Bautista-Casasnovas, A.; Pombo-Arias, M.; Tojo-Sierra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or age of initial treatment exerts

  16. How do they get here: Does the method of transportation impact salvage for patients with testicular torsion?

    PubMed

    Weiss, D A; Tsarouhas, N; Carr, M C; Kalmus, A; Zderic, S A

    2017-06-01

    A growing number of patients are arriving at our tertiary care center for evaluation of possible testicular torsion using ambulance or helicopter transport. In many cases the parents arrive by car before the patient arrives. Are these advanced methods of medical transport worth the expense and risk in the case of suspected testicular torsion? We evaluated the total number of patients presenting to our emergency room for suspected testicular torsion to see if the means of transport affected testicular survival. Retrospective. As shown below in the table, the means of transport did not impact on testicular salvage. It is understandable that many patients with scrotal pain seek treatment closer to home because of their pediatrician's recommendation and/or family preference. However once evaluated many patients are transferred because of a lack of urologists willing to evaluate and treat the pediatric patients in community settings or because of a lack of anesthesia support. These patients are often transported by ambulance or helicopter. Our data would suggest that there is no improvement in the testicular salvage rate seen with these more advanced means of medical transportation compared with transfer by private car even when we restrict the analysis to patients traveling from over 40 miles away. We suspect that important time is lost while waiting to make such transfer arrangements. Furthermore transfer by ambulance or helicopter is more expensive and these costs are often passed on to families. Transfer by helicopter is also riskier. While an argument can be made in favor of medical transport over long distances or long driving times, this data suggests that many of these transfers could be accomplished by car with no effect on testicular salvage rates. The rate of testicular salvage was not affected by the means of transport to our tertiary facility. Only 4 patients would have required advanced of medical transport if this were limited to those facilities over 100

  17. [A case of lung abscess during chemotherapy for testicular tumor].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Miyago, Naoki; Takeda, Ken; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Masashi; Arai, Yasuyuki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    32-year-old man was seen in a clinic because of prolonged cough and slight-fever. Chest X-ray showed multiple pulmonary nodules, and multiple lung and mediastinal lymph node metastases from right testicular tumor was suspected by positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) scan. He was diagnosed with right testicular germ cell tumor (embryonal carcinoma + seminoma, pT2N1M1b), and classified into the intermediate risk group according to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. He underwent 4 cycles of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP therapy). During BEP therapy, sputum with foul odor appeared and chest CT scan revealed lung abscess with a necrotic lesion of metastatic tumor. The lung abscess was treated successfully with antibiotics.

  18. Digital image analysis of testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogencity and heterogeneity in dogs and the relation to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Bright, Lucy; Pritchard, Beth; Bowen, I Mark; de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado; England, Gary C W

    2015-09-01

    A semi-automated ultrasonographic method was developed to measure echogenicity and heterogeneity of the testes and prostate gland and relationships of these measures with semen quality were assessed in 43 fertile dogs. The relationship between animal age and body weight upon the volume of the testes, epididymal tail volume and prostate volume were also established. Mean testicular echogenicity was negatively correlated with the percentage of morphologically normal live spermatozoa (more echogenic testes were associated with fewer normal sperm) but not with any other semen quality measure. Mean testicular heterogeneity was positively correlated with the total spermatozoal output (more heterogenous testes, being those with anechoic parenchyma and prominent echogenic stippling, were associated with greater sperm output) but not with any other semen quality measure. There was no relationship between either mean prostatic echogenicity or mean prostatic heterogeneity and any semen quality measure. There was no relationship between age and any testicular or prostatic parameter; however bodyweight was significantly correlated with total testicular volume, total epididymal tail volume and total prostatic volume. Testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogenicity and heterogeneity can be objectively assessed using digital image analysis and testicular echogenicity and heterogeneity may be useful adjunct measurements in a breeding soundness examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  1. Involvement of selenoprotein P and GPx4 gene expression in cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Imed; Banni, Mohamed; Saïd, Lamia; Saïd, Khaled; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-10-06

    To investigate the effect of co-exposure to cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on selenoprotein P (SelP) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) gene expression in testis and to evaluate their possible involvement in Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology, male rats received either tap water, Cd or Cd+Se in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Cd exposure caused a down-regulation of SelP and GPx4 gene expression and a significant decrease in plasma and testicular concentrations of Se. These changes were accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, sperm count and motility, GSH content, protein-bound sulfhydryl concentration (PSH), enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as by increased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA) and proteins carbonyls (PC). The decrease of testicular SelP and GPx4 gene expression under Cd influence was significantly restored in Cd+Se group. Co-treatment with Cd and Se also totally reversed the Cd-induced depletion of Se, decrease in plasma testosterone level and partially restored Cd-induced oxidative stress and decrease in sperm count and motility. Taken together, these data suggest that down-regulation of SelP and GPx4 gene expression induces plasma and testicular Se depletion leading, at least in part, to Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuation of the cyproterone acetate-induced testicular hypofunction by a novel nutraceutical lycopene: a genomic approach.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, A; Ghosh, A; Dey, A; Pakhira, B P; Ghosh, D

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to explore the cyproterone acetate (CPA)-induced andrological hypofunction and its correction by oral administration of lycopene. In this concern, spermatogenic, biochemical, histological and genomic profiles were studied. Cyproterone acetate administration for 1 month helped to develop infertile model rats. A significant recovery was noted in sperm motility, sperm count, sperm viability, hypo-osmotic swelling tail-coiled spermatozoa; activities of testicular ∆ 5 , 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and levels of conjugated diene (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA), testicular cholesterol and serum testosterone after the administration of lycopene at 1.5 mg/0.5 ml Tween-80/100 g body weight/day for last 1 month to infertile model rats. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR study of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, ∆ 5 , 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD genes in testicular tissue showed a significant rectification towards the control in CPA-pre-treated cum CPA-lycopene-cotreated rats. Side-by-side histological and histometric studies showed a significant correction in qualitative analysis of spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubular diameter (STD) in CPA-pre-treated cum CPA-lycopene-cotreated rats. Lycopene showed outstanding efficacy in the management of CPA-induced testicular hypofunction with special reference to correction in oxidative stress-induced testicular apoptosis at genomic level. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic analysis of the testicular toxicity of haloacetic acids

    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, R...

  4. Spermatogenesis in tumor-bearing testes in germ cell testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Shin, T; Shimomura, Y; Iwahata, T; Okada, H

    2015-12-01

    What are the factors that might indicate a greater likelihood of success in oncologic testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE)? Smaller tumor diameter and greater noncancerous testicular tissue width (NCTW) are positive predictors of spermatogenesis in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Onco-TESE is a key modality for fertility preservation in cases of inadequate pretreatment sperm collection and azoospermic men with testicular cancer. TGCTs are known to reduce sperm quality such that ∼ 10% of these patients are azoospermic, making surgical TESE at the same time as orchiectomy their only means of fertility preservation. This study is a retrospective analysis performed in a single university hospital from 2002 to 2014. Participants were 102 male patients (104 testes) who underwent inguinal orchiectomy and were diagnosed with a germinoma. In each specimen, the Johnsen Score Count (JSC) in seminiferous tubules at each established distance from the tumor margin (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mm) was determined. We analyzed the relations between age, tumor histopathologic type, tumor size (maximum diameter), distance from the tumor, non-tumor tissue width and JSC. The 104 specimens consisted of 78 seminomas and 26 non-seminomatous TGCTs. The mean ± SD JSC was 4.7 ± 2.4 in seminomas and 3.9 ± 2.5 in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, with no significant difference between the two subtypes. Single regression analysis showed that tumor diameter was significantly negatively correlated with spermatogenesis (RC = -0.422, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis also showed that tumor diameter had a negative influence on spermatogenesis (RC = -0.437, P < 0.001). The greater the distance the seminiferous tubules from the tumor, the better the preservation of spermatogenesis. Mature spermatozoa were identified in 93.0% of patients with a NCTW ≥ 7.5 mm and in 41.3% of those with NCTW < 7.5 mm (P < 0.001). Study data were obtained retrospectively, which

  5. Performing Testicular Self-Examination, Driving Automobiles, and Anxiety: What Is the Logical Link?

    PubMed

    Rovito, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    The debate of whether testicular self-examination (TSE) should be promoted among males generally centers on a harm-benefit corollary. The benefits of TSE include improving health outcomes, inclusive of an increase in both quality of life and knowledge/awareness of potential health concerns, as well as promoting proactivity in achieving wellness. The harms include claims that false-positive results can increase anxiety and produce costs via unnecessary treatments and therapies. Further claims point to the lack of evidence suggesting TSE decreases testicular cancer mortality. This commentary primarily discusses the anxiety portion of this debate from a logic-based perspective. The argument that TSE should not be promoted among males due to the risk of inciting false-positive anxiety appears to be flawed. A 5-point perspective is presented on the illogical discouragement of TSE due to theorized levels of false-positive anxiety while existing evidence suggests late-stage testicular cancer is associated with anxiety and depression.

  6. Effects of mGnRH on testicular steroidogenesis in the toad Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Canosa, Luis F; Pozzi, Andrea G; Somoza, Gustavo M; Ceballos, Nora R

    2002-06-15

    GnRH controls vertebrate reproduction in several ways. This hormone not only affects the secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland but also has a direct influence on several gonadal functions such as steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and spermiation. In the present paper we have studied the in vitro effects of GnRH on the testicular steroidogenesis of Bufo arenarum to ascertain the role of this peptide in the control of the steroidogenic pathway previously described in this species. It was found that GnRH is able to reduce basal as well as hCG-stimulated testosterone release, having an inhibitory effect on P450(c17) activity. Thus, GnRH could be involved in the mechanism that regulates the metabolic change in the testicular steroidogenesis. Additionally, testicular GnRH binding site has been characterised, showing a K(d) of 34 nM and a maximum binding of 4.7 pmol/mg protein. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  7. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  8. Measurement of testicular volume in smaller testes: how accurate is the conventional orchidometer?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chieh; Huang, William J S; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods, including the Seager orchidometer (SO) and ultrasonography (US), for assessing testicular volume of smaller testes (testes volume less than 18 mL). Moreover, the equations used for the calculations--the Hansen formula (length [L] x width [W](2) x 0.52, equation A), the prolate ellipsoid formula (L x W x height [H] x 0.52, equation B), and the Lambert equation (L x W x H x 0.71, equation C)--were also examined and compared with the gold standard testicular volume obtained by water displacement (Archimedes principle). In this study, 30 testes from 15 men, mean age 75.3 (+/-8.3) years, were included. They all had advanced prostate cancer and were admitted for orchiectomy. Before the procedure, all the testes were assessed using SO and US. The dimensions were then input into each equation to obtain the volume estimates. The testicular volume by water displacement was 8.1 +/- 3.5 mL. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the 2 different methods (SO, US) to the gold standard were 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The calculated testicular volumes were 9.2 +/- 3.9 mL (measured by SO, equation A), 11.9 +/- 5.2 mL (measured by SO, equation C), 7.3 +/- 4.2 mL (measured by US, equation A), 6.5 +/- 3.3 mL (measured by US, equation B) and 8.9 +/- 4.5 mL (measured by US, equation C). Only the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Hansen equation (equation A) and the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Lambert equation (equation C) showed no significant differences when compared with the volumes estimated by water displacement (mean difference 0.81 mL, P = .053, and 0.81 mL, P = .056, respectively). Based on our measurements, we categorized testicular volume by different cutoff values (7.0 mL, 7.5 mL, 8.0 mL, and 8.5 mL) to calculate a new constant for use in the Hansen equation. The new constant was 0.59. We then reexamined the equations using the new 0.59 constant, and found

  9. Dismantling the present and future threats of testicular cancer: a grounded theory of positive and negative adjustment trajectories.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Protheroe, Andrew; Brand, Sue; Wanat, Marta; Watson, Eila

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer commonly affects men in the prime of their lives. While survival rates are excellent, little previous research has examined men's experiences of adjustment to survivorship. We aimed to explore this issue in younger testicular cancer survivors. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with testicular cancer survivors over two time points approximately 6 months apart in the year following treatment completion. Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The sample included 18 testicular cancer survivors between 22 and 44 years (mean age 34). A grounded theory was developed, which explained the process of positive adjustment over the first year following the treatment completion in terms of men's ability to dismantle the present and future threats of cancer, involving the key transitions of gaining a sense of perspective and striving to get on with life and restore normality. These were facilitated by six key processes. The processes that explained a negative adjustment trajectory are also presented. These findings contribute to the understanding of the psychosocial impact of testicular cancer on younger men's lives and have implications for the provision of support to testicular cancer survivors. Further investigation into the feasibility of one-on-one peer support interventions is warranted, as well as informal support that respects men's desire for independence. Understanding the processes involved in adjustment highlights ways in which health professionals can offer support to those struggling to adjust through challenging illness beliefs, encouraging emotional disclosure and facilitating peer mentoring.

  10. Bilateral Testicular Tumors Resulting in Recurrent Cushing Disease After Bilateral Adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Puar, Troy; Engels, Manon; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Sweep, Fred C G J; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin; Chortis, Vasileios; Arlt, Wiebke; Stikkelbroeck, Nike; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-02-01

    Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease is extremely rare. We present a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission. Gene expression analysis of the tumor tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed high expression of all key steroidogenic enzymes. Adrenocortical-specific genes were 5.1 × 105 (CYP11B1), 1.8 × 102 (CYP11B2), and 6.3 × 104 (MC2R) times higher than nonsteroidogenic fibroblast control. This correlated with urine steroid metabolome profiling showing 2 fivefold increases in the excretion of the metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, and total glucocorticoids. Leydig-specific genes were 4.3 × 101 (LHCGR) and 9.3 × 100 (HSD17B3) times higher than control, and urinary steroid profiling showed twofold increased excretion of the major androgen metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone. These distinctly increased steroid metabolites were suppressed by dexamethasone but unresponsive to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, supporting the role of ACTH, but not luteinizing hormone, in regulating tumor-specific steroid excess. We report bilateral testicular tumors occurring in a patient with recurrent Cushing disease 12 years after bilateral adrenalectomy. Using mRNA expression analysis and steroid metabolome profiling, the tumors demonstrated both adrenocortical and gonadal steroidogenic properties, similar to testicular adrenal rest tumors found in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, suggesting the presence of pluripotent cells even in patients without congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  11. Identical NR5A1 Missense Mutations in Two Unrelated 46,XX Individuals with Testicular Tissues.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Maki; Takasawa, Kei; Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Takada, Shuji; Miyado, Mami; Baba, Takashi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Tajima, Toshihiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Sekido, Ryohei; Ogata, Tsutomu; Kashimada, Kenichi; Fukami, Maki

    2017-01-01

    The role of monogenic mutations in the development of 46,XX testicular/ovotesticular disorders of sex development (DSD) remains speculative. Although mutations in NR5A1 are known to cause 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis and 46,XX ovarian insufficiency, such mutations have not been implicated in testicular development of 46,XX gonads. Here, we identified identical NR5A1 mutations in two unrelated Japanese patients with 46,XX testicular/ovotesticular DSD. The p.Arg92Trp mutation was absent from the clinically normal mothers and from 200 unaffected Japanese individuals. In silico analyses scored p.Arg92Trp as probably pathogenic. In vitro assays demonstrated that compared with wild-type NR5A1, the mutant protein was less sensitive to NR0B1-induced suppression on the SOX9 enhancer element. Other sequence variants found in the patients were unlikely to be associated with the phenotype. The results raise the possibility that specific mutations in NR5A1 underlie testicular development in genetic females. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Combined adrenal failure and testicular adrenal rest tumor in a patient with nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Eli; Arafat, Maram; Loewenthal, Neta; Haim, Alon; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-09-01

    The nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) enzyme is the main generator of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase in the mitochondrion. Mutations of the NNT gene have been recently implicated in familial glucocorticoid deficiency. We describe the long-term clinical course of a NNT-deficient 20-year-old patient with combined adrenal failure who had developed a testicular adrenal rest tumor and precocious puberty. The patient's medical records were reviewed. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on DNA obtained from the patient and family members. The patient experienced Addisonian crisis at 10 months of age. Enlarged testicular volume and precocious puberty, accompanied by increased testosterone levels, were noted at 6 years. Testicular biopsy revealed a adrenal rest tumor, which regressed after intensification of glucocorticoid treatment. Genetic studies disclosed a c.1163A>C, p.Tyr388Ser substitution on the NNT gene. This mutation is predicted to be damaging to NNT function. We demonstrated for the first time that the clinical spectrum of NNT deficiency may consist of mineralocorticoid deficiency and testicular involvement as well.

  13. Long-term clinical outcomes of testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for infertile men.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Noriyuki; Obata, Ryuichiro; Oka, Nao; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hattori, Hiromitsu; Nakajo, Yukiko; Aono, Nobuya; Koizumi, Masae; Toya, Mayumi; Nagao, Koichi; Tai, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Igarashi, Hideki; Kyono, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    To find the best methods to achieve the highest pregnancy and birth rates for couples needing testicular sperm extraction (TESE)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospectively studied were 801 patients with male factor infertility who had undergone TESE-ICSI between April, 1996 and July, 2016 and who had been categorized into four groups: obstructive azoospermia (OA); non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA); Klinefelter syndrome (KS); and cryptozoospermia (Crypt). The sperm retrieval rate, hormone levels, fertilization rate (FR), pregnancy rate (PR), and birth rate (BR) after ICSI among three groups were compared: fresh testicular sperm (FS)-fresh oocytes (FO) (Group I); frozen-thawed testicular sperm-FO (Group II); and FS-vitrified-warmed oocytes (Group III). The testicular sperm recovery rate was 57.8% (463/801): 89.6% in the Crypt, 97.1% in the OA, 28.9% in the NOA, and 42.2% in the KS groups. The follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in the NOA and KS groups and the testosterone levels were significantly lower in the KS group. The FR, PR, and BR were: 65.2%, 43.2%, and 28.5% in group I; 59.2%, 33.4%, and 18.7% in group II; and 56.4%, 33.8%, and 22.1% in group III. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with FS-FO achieved the best PR and BR. It should be considered what to do in cases with no testicular sperm by TESE. The authors hope that ICSI with donor sperm will be allowed in Japan in the near future.

  14. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P<0.05) between the rutting and non-rutting seasons among the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. There were no differences between groups for primary spermatocyte numbers, early spermatid numbers and SSEI. There was no differences (P>0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [German national second-opinion network for testicular cancer and penile carcinoma : Two sources for evidence-based information].

    PubMed

    Schrader, M; Zengerling, F; Hakenberg, O W; Protzel, C

    2016-09-01

    The second-opinion network for testicular cancer is an internet-based platform addressing physicians treating testicular cancer patients. They are offered a second-opinion before determining further therapy after orchiectomy and completion of staging. The high rate of discrepancies between the first and second opinion in more than 30 % supports the assumption of a deficit in the implementation of treatment guidelines. In 2015, approximately 22 % of the newly diagnosed cases with testicular cancer in Germany were covered by this system. According to the present interim analysis, the second-opinion platform helps to avoid overtreatment of testicular cancer patients. The high acceptance of the project and the encouraging results of this interim analysis gave rise to considerations to apply the second-opinion model to penile carcinoma. Data from the UK and the Netherlands show that the second-opinion network for penile cancer could help to improve treatment standards and results in Germany. Current data and the intended further development of the system are discussed.

  16. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity. PMID:28777292

  17. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Vías, Germán; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Prieto, Isabel

    2017-08-04

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity.

  18. Giant cell arteritis mimicking a testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Smith, D H

    2001-07-01

    Giant cell arteritis involving the testis was identified incidentally upon orchidectomy of a right testicular mass. The mass looked like a malignant process on ultrasound. The patient also had generalised disease and was treated appropriately. Giant cell arteritis involving the bladder, prostate, uterus, and adnexa have been described before. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of giant cell arteritis affecting the testis.

  19. Koch's Disease Presenting as an Isolated Testicular Mass- An Unusual Occurance.

    PubMed

    Lamichaney, Rachna; Das, Deepak; Sherpa, Mingma

    2014-09-01

    Isolated testicular tuberculosis (TB) is rarely seen. A 72-year-old, farmer presented with complaints of discharging sinus from scrotum along with pain and swelling. The patient had no sign of tuberculosis. On examination a hard mass arising from the left testis was noted along with a discharging fistula on the overlying scrotal skin. Chest x-ray and ultrasound examination of the abdomen were within normal limits. After assessing the testicular mass, an informed consent was taken thereafter left orchiectomy and fistulectomy performed. Histopathological examination revealed caseating granulomas along with numerous Langhan's giant cells consistent with tuberculous orchitis. The patient received anti-TB treatment for six months. The rare involvement of testis by tuberculosis needs to be mentioned.

  20. Production of sperm from porcine fetal testicular tissue after cryopreservation and grafting into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Men, Nguyen Thi; Nakai, Michiko; Noguchi, Junko; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Ito, Junya

    2017-03-15

    A major goal of testicular xenografting is to salvage germ cells from immature animals that cannot be used for reproduction and generate their offspring. In this study, we investigated whether porcine fetal testicular tissue would acquire the ability to produce sperm with full developmental competence after they had been cryopreserved and grafted into nude mice. Testicular fragments from fetuses at 35, 55 and 90 days postartificial insemination (dpi) were vitrified and stored in liquid nitrogen. Immediately after warming, testicular fragments at each fetal stage were transplanted under the back skin of castrated nude mice (Crlj:CD1-Foxn1 nu ) (35-, 55- and 90-dpi groups, respectively) (day 0 = grafting). Before grafting, the testicular fragments contained seminiferous cords consisting of only gonocytes and Sertoli cells. Histological analyses of the testicular grafts revealed that the differentiation of seminiferous tubules was largely dependent on the time after grafting, and not on donor age. On day 180 in each group, 10-20% of the total number of tubule/cord cross-sections examined had germ cells that had progressed beyond the spermatogonial stage. Fewer than 5% of tubule cross-sections contained elongated spermatids or sperm. Between days 360 and 420, tubule differentiation advanced further, until more than 45% of the tubule cross-sections contained elongated spermatids or sperm. Sperm were recovered for the first time from a single mouse in the 55-dpi group on day 180, although on days 360-420 sperm were recovered from most mice in all of the groups. Serum concentrations of inhibin and testosterone in host mice in all of the groups were higher than those in castrated mice that had received no testicular grafts. Single sperm collected from mice in each group on day 300 or later were injected into individual in vitro-matured oocytes, and these sperm-injected oocytes were transferred to the oviducts of 2 or 3 estrus-synchronized recipient gilts. None of the

  1. Predictive Factors for Developing Venous Thrombosis during Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Porres, Daniel; Veek, Nica; Heidenreich, Axel; Pfister, David

    2017-01-01

    Malignancies and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are both known to correlate with a high risk of venous thrombotic events (VTT). In testicular cancer, the information regarding the incidence and reason of VTT in patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still discussed controversially. Moreover, no risk factors for developing a VTT during cisplatin-based chemotherapy have been elucidated so far. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with testicular cancer undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy at our institution for the development of a VTT during or after chemotherapy. Clinical and pathological parameters for identifying possible risk factors for VTT were analyzed. The Khorana risk score was used to calculate the risk of VTT. Student t test was applied for calculating the statistical significance of differences between the treatment groups. Twenty-six out of 153 patients (17%) developed a VTT during chemotherapy. When we analyzed the risk factors for developing a VTT, we found that Lugano stage ≥IIc was significantly (p = 0.0006) correlated with the risk of developing a VTT during chemotherapy. On calculating the VTT risk using the Khorana risk score model, we found that only 2 out of 26 patients (7.7%) were in the high-risk Khorana group (≥3). Patients with testicular cancer with a high tumor volume have a significant risk of developing a VTT with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The Khorana risk score is not an accurate tool for predicting VTT in testicular cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protection by sulforaphane from type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xin; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    Diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as a master transcription factor in controlling anti-oxidative systems, is able to be induced by sulforaphane (SFN). To examine whether SFN prevents testicular apoptosis, type 1 diabetic mouse model was induced with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without SFN at 0.5 mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3 months and then kept until 6 months. Diabetes significantly increased testicular apoptosis that was associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cell death pathways, shownmore » by the increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, Bax to Bcl2 expression ratio, and cleaved caspase-3. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, and decreased germ cell proliferation. All these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment for the first 3 months, and the protective effect could be sustained at 3 months after SFN treatment. SFN was able to up-regulate Nrf2 expression and function. The latter was reflected by the increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 and expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants at mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes significantly induced testicular apoptosis and damage along with increasing oxidative stress and cell death and suppressing Nrf2 expression and function. SFN is able to prevent testicular oxidative damage and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes mice, which may be associated with the preservation of testicular Nrf2 expression and function under diabetic condition. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane (SFN) could attenuate diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. • SFN could preserve germ cell proliferation under diabetic conditions. • SFN testicular protection was sustained until 3 months

  4. Experimentally induced testicular dysgenesis syndrome originates in the masculinization programming window

    PubMed Central

    van den Driesche, Sander; Kilcoyne, Karen R.; Wagner, Ida; Rebourcet, Diane; Mitchell, Rod; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Donat, Roland; Shukla, Chitranjan J.; Jorgensen, Anne; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis, which proposes that common reproductive disorders of newborn and adult human males may have a common fetal origin, is largely untested. We tested this hypothesis using a rat model involving gestational exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which suppresses testosterone production by the fetal testis. We evaluated if induction of TDS via testosterone suppression is restricted to the “masculinization programming window” (MPW), as indicated by reduction in anogenital distance (AGD). We show that DBP suppresses fetal testosterone equally during and after the MPW, but only DBP exposure in the MPW causes reduced AGD, focal testicular dysgenesis, and TDS disorders (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, reduced adult testis size, and compensated adult Leydig cell failure). Focal testicular dysgenesis, reduced size of adult male reproductive organs, and TDS disorders and their severity were all strongly associated with reduced AGD. We related our findings to human TDS cases by demonstrating similar focal dysgenetic changes in testes of men with preinvasive germ cell neoplasia (GCNIS) and in testes of DBP-MPW animals. If our results are translatable to humans, they suggest that identification of potential causes of human TDS disorders should focus on exposures during a human MPW equivalent, especially if negatively associated with offspring AGD. PMID:28352662

  5. Dosimetric analysis of testicular doses in prostate intensity-modulated and volumetric-modulated arc radiation therapy at different energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem, E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com; Arslan, Gungor; Dolek, Yemliha

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidental testicular doses during prostate radiation therapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) at different energies. Dosimetric data of 15 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated with radiotherapy were analyzed. The prescribed dose was 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Dosimetric analysis compared testicular doses generated by 7-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy with a single arc at 6, 10, and 15 MV energy levels. Testicular doses calculated from the treatment planning system and doses measured from the detectors were analyzed. Mean testicular doses from themore » intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy per fraction calculated in the treatment planning system were 16.3 ± 10.3 cGy vs 21.5 ± 11.2 cGy (p = 0.03) at 6 MV, 13.4 ± 10.4 cGy vs 17.8 ± 10.7 cGy (p = 0.04) at 10 MV, and 10.6 ± 8.5 cGy vs 14.5 ± 8.6 cGy (p = 0.03) at 15 MV, respectively. Mean scattered testicular doses in the phantom measurements were 99.5 ± 17.2 cGy, 118.7 ± 16.4 cGy, and 193.9 ± 14.5 cGy at 6, 10, and 15 MV, respectively, in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. In the volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans, corresponding testicular doses per course were 90.4 ± 16.3 cGy, 103.6 ± 16.4 cGy, and 139.3 ± 14.6 cGy at 6, 10, and 15 MV, respectively. In conclusions, this study was the first to measure the incidental testicular doses by intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans at different energy levels during prostate-only irradiation. Higher photon energy and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy plans resulted in higher incidental testicular doses compared with lower photon energy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans.« less

  6. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors and testicular cancer: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Gabe S; Chang, Shine; Strom, Sara S; Sweeney, Anne M; Annegers, J Fred; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2007-01-01

    Some evidence exists to support the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating maternal estrogens during early pregnancy may increase risk of testicular germ cell cancer. However, the results from studies evaluating maternal factors have been mixed. We evaluated maternal factors, particularly those associated with excess estrogen levels, as risk factors for testicular cancer. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas of 144 testicular cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 1996 and 86 friend controls matched to cases on age, race, and state of residence. Risk factor data about the mother, the son, and the pregnancy were obtained from the mothers by telephone interviews and from the sons by self-administered questionnaires. Extreme nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.9]. Adjustment for potential confounders slightly lowered this risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9-3.8). Risks were modestly increased for other factors that are proxy measures for maternal estrogens, including preterm delivery (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.4-12.9), birth weight <3000 g (OR = 2.4: 95% CI = 0.7-8.1), and birth weight >4000 g (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9-3.2), albeit nonsignificantly so. Our finding that severe nausea was associated with increased testicular cancer risk adds evidence to support the in utero estrogen exposure hypothesis because nausea early in pregnancy is related to rising levels of circulating estrogens. For other factors, which are less direct measures of maternal estrogens, the modest associations found indicate a suggestive pattern in support of the excess estrogen hypothesis.

  7. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyung Min; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-06-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.

  8. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tusat, Mustafa; Mentese, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Alver, Ahmet; Imamoglu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Testicular torsion (TT) refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; sham-operated, torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg) was injected intraperi-toneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined. Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histo-pathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  9. Duplication of SOX9 is not a common cause of 46,XX testicular or 46,XX ovotesticular DSD.

    PubMed

    Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Ukarapong, Supamit; McElreavey, Kenneth; Berkovitz, Gary D; Perera, Erasmo M

    2012-01-01

    Translocation of the SRY gene to the paternal X chromosome is the explanation for testis development in the majority of subjects with 46,XX testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD). However, nearly all subjects with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD and up to one third of subjects with 46,XX testicular DSD lack SRY. SRY-independent expression of SOX9 has been implicated in the etiology of testis development in some individuals. We amplified microsatellite markers in the region of SOX9 from a cohort of 30 subjects with either 46,XX testicular or 46,XX ovotesticular DSD to detect SOX9 duplications. Duplication of the SOX9 region in 17q was not detected in any subject. Duplication in the region of 17q that contains SOX9 is not a common cause of testis development in subjects with SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD.

  10. Acute effects of polychlorinated biphenyl-containing and -free transformer fluids on rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Andric, S A; Kostic, T S; Dragisic, S M; Andric, N L; Stojilkovic, S S; Kovacevic, R Z

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer fluids belong to a class of environmentally persistent mixtures with known toxic effects. Here, we studied the acute effects of Askarel (which contains Aroclor 1260) and two substitute transformer fluids (the silicone oil-based DC561 and the mineral oil-based ENOL C) on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Single intraperitoneal (ip; 10 mg/kg body weight) or bilateral intratesticular (itt; 25 microg/testis) injections of Askarel markedly decreased serum androgen levels 24 hr after administration. In acute testicular cultures from these animals, chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone and androgen productions were severely attenuated. When itt was injected or added in vitro, Askarel inhibited 3ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ssHSD), stimulated 17[alpha]-hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17), and did not affect 17ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testicular postmitochondrial fractions. The ip-injected Askarel did not affect 3ssHSD, but inhibited P450c17, suggesting that a more intensive metabolism of peripherally injected Askarel reduces the circulating levels of active ingredients below the threshold needed for inhibition of 3ssHSD and generates a derivative that inhibits P450c17. In contrast to Askarel, itt-injection (25 microg/testis) of DC561 and ENOL C did not affect in vivo and in vitro steroidogenesis. These findings show the acute effects of Askarel, but not silicone and mineral oils, on testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:11049815

  11. Perinatal determinants of germ-cell testicular cancer in relation to histological subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Richiardi, L; Akre, O; Bellocco, R; Ekbom, A

    2002-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of perinatal determinants on the risk for germ-cell testicular cancer, with respect to the aetiological heterogeneity between seminomas and non-seminomas. A case–control study of 628 case patients with testicular cancer (308 seminomas and 320 non-seminomas) and 2309 individually matched controls was nested within a cohort of boys born from 1920 to 1980 in two Swedish regions (Uppsala-Örebro Health Care Region and Stockholm). Cases were diagnosed from 1958 to 1998 and were identified through the Swedish National Cancer Registry. Perinatal information on cases and controls was collected through charts available at maternity wards. Gestational duration, categorised in three categories (<37, 37–41, >41 weeks), was negatively associated with the risk for testicular cancer (P value for linear trend=0.008). A protective effect of long gestational duration and an increased risk for high birth weight were found for seminomas. Non-seminomas were associated with short gestational duration, particularly among those with low birth order (odds ratio: 3.02, 95% confidence intervals: 1.53–5.97) and high maternal age (odds ratio: 2.33, 95% confidence intervals: 1.19–4.55). No significant differences were found in tests for heterogeneity between the two histological groups. Our data support the hypothesis that intrauterine environment affects the risk for germ-cell testicular cancer. Seminomas and non-seminomas seemed to have similar risk patterns, although they are not entirely congruent. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 545–550. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600470 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12189554

  12. Apoptosis-mediated seasonal testicular regression in the Japanese Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Islam, M Nazrul; Tsukahara, N; Sugita, S

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated effects of apoptosis observed during seasonal testicular regression in Japanese Jungle Crows. The study was conducted during January to June 2008, 2009. Testes from adults captured during non-breeding (January), prebreeding (February to mid-March), main-breeding (late March to early May), transition (mid-May to late May), and post-breeding (June) seasons were analyzed. Apoptosis was assessed by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Paired-testis volume increased 95-fold from the non-breeding to the main-breeding season (P < 0.05), and subsequently decreased 26-fold from the main breeding to the post-breeding season (P < 0.05). Testicular activity was evaluated from the total germ cell count and sperm index, which increased 42- and 5-fold, respectively, in the main-breeding season, and subsequently decreased 33- and 5-fold in the post-breeding season. In testes, TUNEL-positive germ cells were at low levels in the non-breeding season, absent in the prebreeding and the main-breeding seasons, and highest in mid-May (P < 0.05). In contrast, TUNEL-positive Sertoli cells occurred only in late-April. In addition, TUNEL-positive fibroblast-like cells were observed in the outer zone of the tunica albuginea in the post-breeding season. Collectively, these data suggested that the seasonal rise in the testicular competence occurred slowly in Japanese Jungle Crows; however, testis function was terminated rapidly after the breeding season. Furthermore, we concluded, similar to other avian species, Sertoli cell apoptosis followed by massive germ cell death was responsible for rapid testicular regression in Jungle Crows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of newborn bovine serum on cryopreservation of adult bovine testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Wu, J Y; Sun, Y X; Wang, A B; Che, G Y; Hu, T J; Zhang, X M

    2014-04-01

    Bovine serum is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. However, its cryoprotective effects on the cells and tissues are ambiguous and controversial. To test the effects of newborn calf serum (NCS) on cryopreservation of bovine testis tissue, NCS of 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (v/v) was added into minimum essential medium + 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-based medium according to our previous report. Interestingly, the testicular cell viabilities and spermatogonia percentages from four groups were very close. The results indicated that an increase in the concentration of NCS in freezing medium to 20% has no significant effect on survival of both testicular cells and spermatogonia, and 10% DMSO-based freezing medium can maintain the testicular cell viability and spermatogonia percentage at a relatively high level (83.4 ± 0.7 and 56.5 ± 2.2 respectively). Taken together, NCS is dispensable for cryopreservation of adult bovine testis tissue. Our results provide an evidence for cutting down the costs in cryopreservation research of bovine testis tissue by reducing or giving up the use of serum. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comments on “Ochratoxin A: In utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA. Toxins 2010, 2, 1428–1444”—Mis-Citation of Rat Literature to Justify a Hypothetical Role for Ochratoxin A in Testicular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces testicular cancer in rats or mice. PMID:22069555

  15. Three cases of thyroid cancer following the diagnosis of testicular cancer: treatment-related complication or genetics?

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Pavlina; Bowers, Sarah Pauline; Gibson, Sarah; White, Jeff; Reed, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of second primary thyroid cancer in subjects diagnosed and treated for testicular cancer is raised. This finding is strongly associated to treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and it is explained by their mutagenic effect. On the other hand, inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes inducing both testicular and thyroid cancers denote that these tumours might share common genomic aberrations. We herein present our experience with three cases of metachronous development of thyroid cancer after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer in our tertiary cancer centre. Our case report contributes to the limited available literature on such findings and aims to raise awareness of the cancer physicians treating these particular tumour types. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Scrotal antegradesclerotherapy demonstrates anatomical variations on venous drainage in paediatric, adolescent and young adult varicoceles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y S; Chung, K L Y; Lo, K W Y; Liu, C S W; Fan, T W; Tse, S K S; Tang, P M Y; Chao, N S Y; Liu, K K W; Leung, M W Y

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical variations on venous drainage in varicoceles are under-reported. We report our experience in scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy (SAS) for adolescent varicoceles. Since 2011, 15 consecutive boys with left varicoceles were recruited. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-mm transverse incision was made at scrotal neck, testicular vein was cannulated at pampiniform plexus with venogram performed. Foam sclerosant by mixing sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS), Lipiodol(®) and air was slowly injected under fluoroscopy. Postoperatively the patients were followed-up for varicocele grading, testicular size, and complications. Median age at operation was 14 (10-19) years. 80 % had grade three varicoceles, 33.3 % had smaller left testis before operation. Intra-operative venogram showed three different anatomical variations. Group I: eleven patients (73.3 %) had single distinct internal spermatic vein; Group II: two patients demonstrated duplication of internal spermatic vein draining into left renal vein; Group III: two patients had pampiniform plexus draining to iliac and/or paraspinal veins. SAS was performed in Group I and II patients. Sclerosant volume injected ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 ml. In Group III patients, surgical ligation of testicular veins was performed rather than SAS to avoid uncontrolled systemic sclerosant spillage. Mean length of stay was 1.13 day. One patient with scrotal haematoma and one other with minor wound dehiscence were managed conservatively. Mean follow-up period was 10.9 (1-22) months. Thirteen patients (86.7 %) achieved varicocele grading ≤ 1. There was no postoperative testicular atrophy, hydrocele and epididymo-orchitis. Scrotal antegrade sclerotherapy using STS foam is a safe and effective treatment for adolescent varicoceles. Anatomical variations on venous drainage in varicoceles are common.

  17. Impaired testicular function in rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and/or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Nakaya, S; Kumai, T; Watanabe, M; Matsumoto, N; Kobayashi, S

    2001-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus are known to be accompanied by reproductive dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and these conditions combined, on testosterone (T) and testicular luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) binding. Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: Group 1 was the control, group 2 was fed standard chow containing 2% cholesterol (C-diet), group 3 was administered streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg, i.p.), group 4 was treated with both the C-diet and STZ. After 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed. Serum glucose was significantly higher in the STZ group (304% that of controls) and the C-diet plus STZ group (345%), but there was no difference between the C-diet group (89%) and the control group. Serum cholesterol was significantly higher in the C-diet group (206% that of controls), the STZ group (452%) and the C-diet plus STZ group (2042%). Serum T, testicular T, and LH/hCG binding were significantly lower in the C-diet group (49%, 52%, and 81% that of controls, respectively), the STZ group (15%, 32%, and 72%) and the C-diet plus STZ group (8%, 21%, and 57%). These results suggest that hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor for testicular dysfunction and that the reduction of serum and testicular T levels is due at least in part to a reduction in testicular LH/hCG binding in rats with hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and these conditions combined. It is further suggested that the reduction in LH/hCG binding is mainly related to a rise in serum cholesterol levels.

  18. Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculation in cryptozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, N; Heidari-Vala, H; Akhondi, M A; Hosseini Jadda, S H; Kamali, K; Sadeghi, M R

    2012-05-01

    The infrequent presence of spermatozoa in cryptozoospermic men ejaculate is a limiting factor in the treatment of them. Sometimes, this consideration impels us to apply meticulous microscopic search in ejaculate or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) method. The aim of this study was to assess putative effectiveness of sperm origin, ejaculated or testicular, in cryptozoospermia treatment. In this context, were evaluated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in two parameters including fertilisation rate (2PN) and embryo quality, independently. We compared the outcome in two groups: patients who underwent ejaculate/ICSI and ones who underwent TESE/ICSI process. Nineteen ICSI cycles performed with testicular spermatozoa and the rest of cycles (n = 208) carried out with ejaculated spermatozoa. Result analysis showed similar fertilisation rate between testicular and ejaculated spermatozoa (respectively, 60% versus 68%, P ≥ 0.05). Also, on the other hand, embryo quality did not show significant differences between two groups, except grade A with low significance. With regard to almost equal performance of both methods in results and being invasive of TESE as surgical sperm retrieval method, the use of ejaculated sperm more than testicular sperm should be recommended in patients with cryptozoospermia whenever possible. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia mimicking primary testicular neoplasm. Presentation of a case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, Laura; Sokol, Lubomir; Moscinski, Lynn C; Saba, Hussain I

    2003-04-01

    We describe a new unique case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a 21-yr-old male presenting with abdominal pain, bilateral testicular masses and gynecomastia. Further work-up with computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed massive retroperitoneal, peripancreatic and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, suggesting primary testicular neoplasm. The patient was subjected to right orchiectomy that showed infiltration of testicular tissue with malignant cells, originally misinterpreted as undifferentiated carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry studies, however, showed these cells to be strongly positive for myeloperoxidase and CD45, indicating a myeloid cell origin. Bone marrow (BM) aspirate and biopsy demonstrated replacement of marrow with immature myeloid cells. Both the morphology and immunophenotype of the blast cells were consistent with AML type M4 (acute myelo-monocytic leukemia), using French-American-British (FAB) classification. The patient received standard induction chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) and daunorubicin followed with two cycles of consolidation therapy with high dose ARA-C, which resulted in remission of BM disease and resolution of lymphadenopathy and left testicular masses. After the second cycle of consolidation therapy, the patient developed sepsis that was complicated by refractory disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. He expired with a clinical picture of multiple organ failure. The unique features of this case are presented and the related literature is reviewed.

  20. Therapeutic effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollen extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Neweshy, M S; El-Maddawy, Z K; El-Sayed, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. This study was designed to explore the long-term effects of a single low dose of Cd on spermatogenesis, and testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of date palm pollen extract (DPP) in averting such reproductive damage. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 (0 or 1 mg kg(-1) ). Twenty-four hours later, they started receiving DPP (0 or 40 mg kg(-1) ) orally, once daily for 56 consecutive days. Cd exposure caused significant reproductive damage via reduced weight of the reproductive organs, which includes spermatological damage (decreased sperm count and motility and increased rates of sperm abnormalities), increased oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde and decreased reduced glutathione levels), histological alterations (necrosis, inefficient to completely arrest spermatogenesis and a reduced Johnsen's score) and decreased serum testosterone level. DPP restored spermatogenesis and attenuated the toxic effects of Cd on the reproductive system to the levels observed in the control animals. These findings support the hypothesis that the testis is particularly sensitive to Cd, which can cause testicular damage and infertility. Treatment with DPP can ameliorate the deleterious effects of Cd, probably by activating testicular endocrine and antioxidant systems. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Factors affecting presentation and delay in patients with testicular cancer: results of a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gascoigne, P; Mason, M D; Roberts, E

    1999-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken with men treated for testicular tumours, to ascertain how they interpreted their symptoms and the factors which influenced a decision to consult a physician. The research was undertaken with six men who had been diagnosed as having testicular tumours. Interviews were also conducted with four wives and one mother. The findings showed that giving men information on testicular cancer may not guarantee early presentation. Symptoms were not generally attributed to cancer and the one patient who practised self-examination had delayed seeking help for 6 months. The extent to which symptoms affected the patient's lifestyle was also a factor in the decision-making process, as was the checking of symptoms with other family members. Wives were often pivotal in persuading men to seek help. The discovery of testicular symptoms produced emotional responses which included embarrassment and fear of both cancer and castration. There was evidence of strong feelings of masculine identity bound up with the appearance of 'normal' genitals. Provider-delay was identified in four cases and was associated with misattribution of symptoms by physicians and the failure to initiate specialist referral. Delay was under-recorded in the hospital notes in all cases where presentation was not immediate.

  2. Overall Survival After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Intracerebral Metastases from Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Veninga, Theo; Bajrovic, Amira; Schild, Steven E

    2016-09-01

    To identify predictors and develop a score for overall survival of patients with intracerebral metastasis from testicular cancer. Whole-brain radiation therapy program, age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), number of intracerebral metastases, number of other metastatic sites and time between testicular cancer diagnosis and radiation therapy were analyzed for their association with overall survival in eight patients. KPS of 80-90% was significantly associated with better overall survival (p=0.006), one or no other metastatic sites showed a trend for a better outcome (p=0.10). The following scores were assigned: KPS 60-70%=0 points, KPS 80-90%=1 point, ≥2 other metastatic sites=0 points, 0-1 other metastatic sites=1 point. Two groups, with 0 and with 1-2 points, were formed. Overall survival rates were 33% vs. 100% at 6 months and 0% vs. 100% at 12 months (p=0.006), respectively. A simple instrument enabling physicians to judge the overall survival of patients with intracerebral metastasis from testicular cancer is provided. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Asare, Nana; Instanes, Christine; Sandberg, Wiggo J; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per; Kruszewski, Marcin; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2012-01-27

    Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines; including the potential effects on reproduction and fertility, are relevant for this risk evaluation. In this study, we examined effects of silver particles of nano- (20nm) and submicron- (200nm) size, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs; 21nm), with emphasis on reproductive cellular- and genotoxicity. Ntera2 (NT2, human testicular embryonic carcinoma cell line), and primary testicular cells from C57BL6 mice of wild type (WT) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase knock-out (KO, mOgg1(-/-)) genotype were exposed to the particles. The latter mimics the repair status of human testicular cells vs oxidative damage and is thus a suitable model for human male reproductive toxicity studies. The results suggest that silver nano- and submicron-particles (AgNPs) are more cytotoxic and cytostatic compared to TiO(2)-NPs, causing apoptosis, necrosis and decreased proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The 200nm AgNPs in particular appeared to cause a concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand breaks in NT2 cells, whereas the latter response did not seem to occur with respect to oxidative purine base damage analysed with any of the particles tested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Romantic and Sexual Relationships, Body Image, and Fertility in Adolescent and Young Adult Testicular Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the impact of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on AYA testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research. PMID:20638003

  5. A Critical Point of Male Gonad Development: Neuroendocrine Correlates of Accelerated Testicular Growth in Rats during Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Dygalo, Nikolay N.; Shemenkova, Tatjana V.; Kalinina, Tatjana S.; Shishkina, Galina T.

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during “proportional” period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during “proportional” period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during “proportional” period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited “accelerated” testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during “accelerated” period of testicular growth than during “proportional” period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling. PMID:24695464

  6. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Clitoria ternatea flower extract on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in rats.

    PubMed

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Burawat, Jaturon; Kanla, Pipatpong; Arun, Supatcharee; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Uabundit, Nongnut; Wattathorn, Jintanaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Fongmoon, Duriya; Kondo, Hisatake

    2014-06-01

    Ketoconazole (KET), an antifungal drug, has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Pre-treatments with antioxidant plant against testicular damage induced by KET are required. The flowers of Clitoria ternatea (CT) are proven to have hepatoprotective potential. However, the protective effect on KET-induced testicular damage has not been reported. To investigate the protective effect of CT flower extracts with antioxidant activity on male reproductive parameters including sperm concentration, serum testosterone level, histopathology of the testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels in rats induced with KET. The antioxidant activity of CT flower extracts was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Male rats were treated with CT flower extracts (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg BW) or distilled water via a gastric tube for 28 d (preventive period: Days 1-21) and induced by KET (100 mg/kg BW) via intraperitoneal injection for 7 d (induction period: Days 22-28). After the experiment, all animals were examined for the weights of the testis, epididymis plus vas deferens and seminal vesicle, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration, histological structures and diameter of testis, and testicular tyrosine phosphorylation levels by immunoblotting. The CT flower extracts had capabilities for DPPH scavenging and high reducing power. At 100 mg/kg BW, the extract had no toxic effects on the male reproductive system. Significantly, in CT+KET groups, CT flower extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) alleviated the reduction of reproductive organ weight parameters, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration. In addition, CT flower extracts gave protection from testicular damage in KET-induced rats. Moreover, in the CT100+KET group, CT flower extracts significantly enhanced the expression of a testicular 50-kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein compared with that of other groups. C. ternatea flower extracts

  7. Characterization of a nonhuman primate model for the study of testicular peritubular cells - comparison with human testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Schmid, N; Stöckl, J B; Flenkenthaler, F; Dietrich, K-G; Schwarzer, J U; Köhn, F-M; Drummer, C; Fröhlich, T; Arnold, G J; Behr, R; Mayerhofer, A

    2018-05-29

    Are monkey testicular peritubular cells (MKTPCs) from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) a suitable translational model for the study of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs)? MKTPCs can be isolated and propagated in vitro, retain characteristic markers for testicular peritubular cells and their proteome strongly (correlation coefficient of 0.78) overlaps with the proteome of HTPCs. Smooth-muscle-like peritubular cells form the wall of seminiferous tubules, transport sperm, are immunologically active, secrete a plethora of factors and may contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell niche. Mechanistic studies are hampered by heterogeneity of human samples. We established a culture method for MKTPCs and characterized these cells from 6 young adult animals (2-3 years). To examine whether they qualify as a translational model we also examined HTPCs from 7 men and compared the proteomes of both groups. We used explant cultures to obtain MKTPCs, which express smooth muscle markers (calponin (CNN1), smooth muscle actin (ACTA2)), lack FSH-receptors (FSHR) and LH-receptors (LHCGR), but possess androgen receptors (AR). MKTPCs can be passaged at least up to 8 times, without discernable phenotypic changes. Mass-spectrometry-based analyses of the MKTPC and HTPC proteomes were performed. We established a method for isolation and cultivation of MKTPCs, and provide a comprehensive analysis of their protein repertoire. The results let us conclude that MKTPCs are suitable as a nonhuman primate model to study peritubular cell functions. List of identified proteins in MKTPCs by LC-MS/MS is accessible at the ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD009394). This is an in vitro cellular non-human primate model used to provide a window into the role of these cells in the human testis. Previous studies with HTPCs from patients revealed a degree of heterogeneity, possibly due to age, lifestyle and medical history of the individual human donors. We anticipate that the new

  8. Anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with testicular germ cell tumor treated by carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Fujisaki, Akira; Arakawa, Takashi; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Dalmau, Joseph; Hattori, Kazunori

    2008-10-01

    Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis is a paraneoplastic disorder that predominantly affects the limbic system, diencephalon and brainstem, and is usually associated with tumors of the testis. We report a 35-year-old man with a right testicular mass who presented with multiple neurological complains, and clinical, serological and radiological features compatible with anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis. After three courses of carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin for metastatic testicular germ-cell tumor, all elevated tumor markers normalized and the retroperitoneal metastases disappeared, but the neurological disorder deteriorated. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which orchiectomy followed by carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin for a testicular tumor with anti-Ma2 encephalitis was performed.

  9. Qualitative study of men's perceptions of why treatment delays occur in the UK for those with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Alison; Ziebland, Sue; McPherson, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Many studies (but not all) have shown that for men with testicular cancer a longer treatment delay is associated with additional treatments, greater morbidity, and shorter survival. This paper explores patients' perspectives on why treatment delays occur. Qualitative study using narrative interviews Interviews in patient's homes throughout the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews with a maximum variation sample of 45 men with testicular cancer, recruited through general practitioners (GPs), urologists, support groups, and charities. Those who sought help relatively quickly responded to symptoms, had heard about testicular cancer in the media, had seen leaflets in GPs' surgeries, or knew others with this disease. Men delayed because they did not recognise signs and symptoms; feared appearing weak, a hypochondriac, or lacking in masculinity; recalled past illness or painful examinations; were embarrassed; feared the consequences of treatment; or lacked time to consult their doctors. Beliefs about symptoms and pessimistic associations with cancer also led to delay. Treatment delays also resulted from misdiagnosis or waiting lists. Whether or not men should be taught to examine themselves routinely to check for testicular cancer is much debated. This study suggests that it is important that men are aware of the normal shape and feel of their testicles, and may benefit from information about signs and symptoms of testicular cancer and the excellent cure rate. Information, provided in surgeries where men feel welcome, might encourage men to seek help promptly when a problem arises. Our study also suggests that GPs may need to accept a low threshold for ultrasound investigation of testicular symptoms and that the ultrasound service needs to be improved. These measures may further reduce mortality and morbidity.

  10. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  11. Sulforaphane reduction of testicular apoptotic cell death in diabetic mice is associated with the upregulation of Nrf2 expression and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Guo, Weiying; Sun, Weixia; Miao, Xiao; Wu, Hao; Cong, Xianling; Wintergerst, Kupper A; Kong, Xiangbo; Cai, Lu

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes-induced testicular cell death is due predominantly to oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor in controlling the antioxidative system and is inducible by sulforaphane (SFN). To test whether SFN prevents diabetes-induced testicular cell death, an insulin-defective stage of type 2 diabetes (IDS-T2DM) was induced in mice. This was accomplished by feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 mo to induce insulin resistance and then giving one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia while age-matched control mice were fed a normal diet (ND). IDS-T2DM and ND-fed control mice were then further subdivided into those with or without 4-mo SFN treatment. IDS-T2DM induced significant increases in testicular cell death presumably through receptor and mitochondrial pathways, shown by increased ratio of Bax/Bcl2 expression and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8 without significant change of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage and inflammation. All of these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment with upregulated Nrf2 expression. These results suggest that IDS-T2DM induces testicular cell death presumably through caspase-8 activation and mitochondria-mediated cell death pathways and also by significantly downregulating testicular Nrf2 expression and function. SFN upregulates testicular Nrf2 expression and its target antioxidant expression, which was associated with significant protection of the testis from IDS-T2DM-induced germ cell death. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Reliability of Frozen Section Examination in a Large Cohort of Testicular Masses: What Did We Learn?

    PubMed

    Matei, Deliu Victor; Vartolomei, Mihai Dorin; Renne, Giuseppe; Tringali, Valeria Maria Lucia; Russo, Andrea; Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Bottero, Danilo; Musi, Gennaro; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Ferro, Matteo; de Cobelli, Ottavio

    2017-08-01

    Frozen section examination (FSE) for testicular masses is gaining popularity because of the possibility of performing testis-sparing surgery (TSS) on the basis of the FSE results. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of FSE in the diagnosis of testicular masses. From 1999 to 2016, 144 of 692 patients who underwent surgery in our tertiary center for testicular masses had FSE. The indications for FSE were: masses < 1 cm, nonpalpable, multiple, or with unusual presentation. Mean follow-up for patients was 25.5 months. The algorithm of surgery determined by FSE was: orchiectomy if malignant or nonconclusive pathology; TSS if benign or nontumor pathology. FSE data were analyzed retrospectively. Specificity and sensitivity of the method was calculated for benign, malignant, seminoma, and nonseminoma tumors. Intraoperative FSE was conducted on 21% of candidates for surgery on testicular masses. The sensitivity and specificity of FSE were 93% and 98%, respectively, for malignant tumors, and 90% and 99%, respectively, for benign tumors. The κ agreement coefficient between FSE and final histopathology was statistically significant (0.76). TSS was performed in 57 (40%) patients, including 6 of 23 monorchid patients. FSE correlates well with final histopathological diagnosis of testicular masses. Thus, it reliably identifies patients who might benefit from TSS. FSE should be considered always in small, nonpalpable, multiple, or uncommonly presenting masses in solitary testis or both testes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    PubMed

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started.

  15. Familial male pseudohermaphroditism and testicular descent in the racoon dog (Nyctereutes).

    PubMed

    Fentener van Vlissingen, J M; Blankenstein, M A; Thijssen, J H; Colenbrander, B; Verbruggen, A J; Wensing, C J

    1988-12-01

    Sexual differentiation was investigated in familial male pseudohermaphroditism in Nyctereutes procyonoides (Canidae). In intersex males, development of external genital organs and prostate glandular tissue was severely disturbed; Wolffian (mesonephric) duct derivatives developed prepubertally but were absent in some adults. Müllerian (paramesonephric) duct regression was complete. Testicular descent was undisturbed. Male/female sex differences in plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were present. Intersex plasma hormone concentrations were within the normal male range. The concentration of androgen receptors in pubic skin was similar in male, female, and intersex animals and no significant differences in affinity for the ligand were detected. It was concluded that in intersex animals androgen-dependent virilisation was deficient despite the presence of androgens and androgen receptors and that this condition had not affected gubernaculum development and testicular descent.

  16. Testicular Fibrous Hypoplasia in Cynomolgus Monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis): An Incidental, Congenital Lesion.

    PubMed

    Pereira Bacares, Marcia E; Vemireddi, Vimala; Creasy, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    Testicular fibrous hypoplasia is an incidental lesion characterized by replacement of the testicular parenchyma by mature collagen. A retrospective survey of hematoxylin and eosin-stained testicular sections from 722 purpose-bred Asian and 90 Mauritian cynomolgus monkeys from 56 safety assessment studies conducted between 1999 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of the lesion increased markedly over time. No cases occurred between 1999 and 2004. Between 2005 and 2009, the incidence ranged between 8.1% and 11.0% of the monkeys examined and then rose to 26.1% in 2010 and 30.9% in 2011. Overall, the lesion was identified in 10.94% of Asian monkeys with the highest incidence in animals originating from China and Vietnam; severity ranged from minimal to severe and it occurred unilaterally (38.5%) and bilaterally (61.5%). In Mauritian monkeys, the lesion was predominantly minimal in severity, bilateral in distribution, and affected 6.6% of the animals examined. The lesion occurred regardless of sexual maturation status but when present in mature monkeys was often associated with cystic tubular atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium. Based on the morphological characteristics of the lesion and the unilateral/bilateral distribution, the lesion is considered to be a congenital or developmental abnormality.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The natural history of Leydig cell testicular tumours: an analysis of the National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Nason, G J; Redmond, E J; Considine, S W; Omer, S I; Power, D; Sweeney, P

    2018-05-01

    Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis is a rare histological subtype of stromal tumours, accounting for 1 to 3% of testicular neoplasms. The natural history of LCT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and natural history of Leydig cell tumours (LCT) of the testes. A search of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland database was performed regarding Leydig cell testicular tumours. Recurrence free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analysed. Between 1994 and 2013, 2755 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Ireland. Of these, 22 (0.79%) were Leydig cell tumours. Nineteen were invasive (stage T1) and three were in situ (stage Tis). One patient developed a local recurrence following an organ preserving procedure and underwent a completion orchidectomy 107 days after initial diagnosis. No further treatment was required. There have been no disease-specific deaths. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.5, 88.2 and 73.3%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 100% and the 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 93.3%. From the National Cancer Registry, LCT has been shown to be a rare subtype of testicular tumour. Due to the relatively favourable natural history, it may be possible to tailor less aggressive surveillance regimens in these patients.

  19. [Non-palpable testicular tumors in adults: A management based on imaging? Issue from the French Urologic Association Genital Cancer committee's edit].

    PubMed

    Rocher, L; Feretti, L; Camparo, P; Savoie, P H; Morel-Journel, N; Murez, T; Sebe, P; Flechon, A; Méjean, A; Durand, X

    2018-04-09

    Help in management of non-palpable testicular tumors. French Urologic Association Genital cancer committee's Edit. To review their characterization at imaging findings of non-palpable testicular tumors. Literature review (PubMed, Medline) of urological and radiological studies dealing with testicular tumors using keywords: non-palpable/incidental testicular tumors; color Doppler ultrasound; US elastography; magnetic resonance imaging; contrast enhanced sonography; partial surgery. Color Doppler is the basic exam. The size, the presence of microlithts/microlithiasis/macrocalcifications, the vascular architecture are major semiological findings to suggest the benign or the malignant nature of the lesion. Other techniques like multiparametric MRI, contrast-enhanced sonography, sonographic elastography are still in evaluation. The frequency of benign tumors such as Leydig cell tumors lead to preservation management, through improved characterization, monitoring or tumorectomy. Non-randomized study - a very few prospective studies. The era of total orchiectomy for any uncertain testicular lesion is over. We try the challenge of characterization, and define management's algorithms based on the suspected nature of the tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a category approach to predict the testicular toxicity of chemical substances structurally related to ethylene glycol methyl ether.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Tanaka, Yushiro; Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Sakuratani, Yuki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    We propose a category approach to assessing the testicular toxicity of chemicals with a similar structure to ethylene glycol methyl ether (EGME). Based on toxicity information for EGME and related chemicals and accompanied by adverse outcome pathway information on the testicular toxicity of EGME, this category was defined as chemicals that are metabolized to methoxy- or ethoxyacetic acid, a substance responsible for testicular toxicity. A Japanese chemical inventory was screened using the Hazard Evaluation Support System, which we have developed to support a category approach for predicting the repeated-dose toxicity of chemical substances. Quantitative metabolic information on the related chemicals was then considered, and seventeen chemicals were finally obtained from the inventory as a shortlist for the category. Available data in the literature shows that chemicals for which information is available on the metabolic formation of EGME, ethylene glycol ethyl ether, methoxy- or ethoxyacetic acid do in fact possess testicular toxicity, suggesting that testicular toxicity is a concern, due to metabolic activation, for the remaining chemicals. Our results clearly demonstrate practical utility of AOP-based category approach for predicting repeated-dose toxicity of chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. German second-opinion network for testicular cancer: sealing the leaky pipe between evidence and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Hartmann, Michael; Heidenreich, Axel; Krege, Susanne; Albers, Peter; Karl, Alexander; Weissbach, Lothar; Wagner, Walter; Bedke, Jens; Retz, Margitta; Schmelz, Hans U; Kliesch, Sabine; Kuczyk, Markus; Winter, Eva; Pottek, Tobias; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Schrader, Andres Jan; Schrader, Mark

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project's effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant