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Sample records for texas a and m variable energy cyclotron

  1. Precision phase control for the radio frequency system of K500 superconducting cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Ghosh, Surajit; Seth, Sudeshna

    2013-11-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) has commissioned K500 Superconducting cyclotron (SCC) based on MSU and Texas A and M university cyclotrons. The radio frequency (RF) system of SCC has been commissioned with the stringent requirement of various RF parameters. The three-phase RF system of Superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9–27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.1°, respectively. The phase control system has the option to change the relative phase difference between any two RF cavities and maintain the phase stability within ±0.1° during round-the-clock cyclotron operation. The said precision phase loopmore » consists of both analogue In-phase/Quadrature modulator to achieve faster response and also Direct Digital Synthesis based phase shifter to achieve wide dynamic range as well. This paper discusses detail insights into the various issues of phase control for the K500 SCC at VECC, Kolkata.« less

  2. The rare isotope beams production at the Texas A and M university Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacaru, G.; May, D. P.; Chubarian, G.

    2013-04-19

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M initiated an upgrade project for the production of radioactive-ion beams that incorporates a light-ion guide (LIG) and a heavy-ion guide coupled (HIG) with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) constructed for charge-boosting (CB-ECRIS). This scheme is intended to produce radioactive beams suitable for injection into the K500 superconducting cyclotron. The current status of the project and details on the ion sources and devices used in the project is presented.

  3. Accelerated Learning: Undergraduate Research Experiences at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, S. J.

    The Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute (TAMU CI) has had an NSF funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates program since 2004. Each summer about a dozen students from across the country join us for the 10-week program. They are each imbedded in one of the research groups of the TAMU CI and given their own research project. While the main focus of their effort is their individual research project, we also have other activities to broaden their experience. For instance, one of those activities has been involvement in a dedicated group experiment. Because not every experimental group will run during those 10 weeks and the fact that some of the students are in theory research groups, a group research experience allows everyone to actually be involved in an experiment using the accelerator. In stark contrast to the REU students' very focused experience during the summer, Texas A&M undergraduates can be involved in research projects at the Cyclotron throughout the year, often for multiple years. This extended exposure enables Texas A&M students to have a learning experience that cannot be duplicated without a local accelerator. The motivation for the REU program was to share this accelerator experience with students who do not have that opportunity at their home institution.

  4. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoreticalmore » projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and, due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.« less

  5. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoreticalmore » projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.« less

  6. Clinical Trial with Sodium 99mTc-Pertechnetate Produced by a Medium-Energy Cyclotron: Biodistribution and Safety Assessment in Patients with Abnormal Thyroid Function.

    PubMed

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Lavallée, Éric; Senta, Helena; Caouette, Lyne; McEwan, Alexander J B; Guérin, Brigitte; Lecomte, Roger; Turcotte, Éric

    2017-05-01

    A single-site prospective open-label clinical study with cyclotron-produced sodium 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 ) was performed in patients with indications for a thyroid scan to demonstrate the clinical safety and diagnostic efficacy of the drug and to confirm its equivalence with conventional 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 eluted from a generator. Methods: 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 was produced from enriched 100 Mo (99.815%) with a cyclotron (24 MeV; 2 h of irradiation) or supplied by a commercial manufacturer (bulk vial eluted from a generator). Eleven patients received 325 ± 29 (mean ± SD) MBq of the cyclotron-produced 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 , whereas the age- and sex-matched controls received a comparable amount of the generator-derived tracer. Whole-body and thyroid planar images were obtained for each participant. In addition to the standard-energy window (140.5 keV ± 7.5%), data were acquired in lower-energy (117 keV ± 10%) and higher-energy (170 keV ± 10%) windows. Vital signs and hematologic and biochemical parameters were monitored before and after tracer administration. Results: Cyclotron-produced 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 showed organ and whole-body distributions identical to those of conventional 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 and was well tolerated. All images led to a clear final diagnosis. The fact that the number of counts in the higher-energy window was significantly higher for cyclotron-produced 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 did not influence image quality in the standard-energy window. Image definition in the standard-energy window with cyclotron-produced 99m Tc was equivalent to that with generator-eluted 99m Tc and had no particular features allowing discrimination between the 99m Tc production methods. Conclusion: The systemic distribution, clinical safety, and imaging efficacy of cyclotron-produced 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 in humans provide supporting evidence for the use of this tracer as an equivalent for generator-eluted 99m Tc-NaTcO 4 in routine clinical practice. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine

  7. Radioisotopic Purity of Sodium Pertechnetate 99mTc Produced with a Medium-Energy Cyclotron: Implications for Internal Radiation Dose, Image Quality, and Release Specifications.

    PubMed

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Lavallée, Éric; Senta, Helena; Caouette, Lyne; Sader, Jayden A; van Lier, Erik J; Zyuzin, Alexander; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric; Lecomte, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc is a promising route to supply 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Higher 99mTc yields can be obtained with medium-energy cyclotrons in comparison to those dedicated to PET isotope production. To take advantage of this capability, evaluation of the radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced at medium energy (20-24 MeV) and its impact on image quality and dosimetry was required. Thick 100Mo (99.03% and 99.815%) targets were irradiated with incident energies of 20, 22, and 24 MeV for 2 or 6 h. The targets were processed to recover an effective thickness corresponding to approximately 5-MeV energy loss, and the resulting sodium pertechnetate 99mTc was assayed for chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclidic purity. Radioisotopic content in final formulation was quantified using γ-ray spectrometry. The internal radiation dose for 99mTc-pertechnetate was calculated on the basis of experimentally measured values and biokinetic data in humans. Planar and SPECT imaging were performed using thin capillary and water-filled Jaszczak phantoms. Extracted sodium pertechnetate 99mTc met all provisional quality standards. The formulated solution for injection had a pH of 5.0-5.5, contained greater than 98% of radioactivity in the form of pertechnetate ion, and was stable for at least 24 h after formulation. Radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.03% enriched 100Mo was greater than 99.0% decay corrected to the end of bombardment (EOB). The radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.815% enriched 100Mo was 99.98% or greater (decay corrected to the EOB). The estimated dose increase relative to 99mTc without any radionuclidic impurities was below 10% for sodium pertechnetate 99mTc produced from 99.03% 100Mo if injected up to 6 h after the EOB. For 99.815% 100Mo, the increase in effective dose was less than 2% at 6 h after the EOB and less than 4% at 15 h after the EOB when the target was irradiated at an incident energy of 24 MeV. Image spatial resolution

  8. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  9. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  10. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R B; Nandy, Partha P; Yadav, R C; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  11. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya, E-mail: r-ani@vecc.gov.in; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A setmore » of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.« less

  13. mA beam acceleration efforts on 100 MeV H- cyclotron at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianjue; An, Shizhong; Lv, Yinlong; Ge, Tao; Jia, Xianlu; Ji, Bin; Yin, Zhiguo; Pan, Gaofeng; Cao, Lei; Guan, Fengping; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Zhenguo; Zhao, Zhenlu; Wu, Longcheng; Zhang, He; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Yiwang; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Shiqiang; Lu, Xiaotong; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoqian; Guo, Juanjuan; Cao, Xuelong; Guan, Leilei; Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Suping; Hou, Shigang; Wang, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Various technologies for high current compact H- cyclotron have been developed at CIAE since 1990s. A 375 μA proton beam was extracted from a 30 MeV compact H- cyclotron CYCIAE-30 at the end of 1994. A central region model cyclotron CYCIAE-CRM was developed for the design verification of a 100 MeV high current compact H- cyclotron CYCIAE-100. It is also a 10 MeV proton machine as a prototype for PET application. A 430 μA beam was achieved in 2009. The first beam was extracted from the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron on July 4, 2014, the operation stability has been improved and beam current has been increased gradually. A 1.1 mA proton beam was measured on the internal target in July 2016. The effort for an increasing of proton beam has continued till now. In this paper, the effort on several aspects for mA beam development will be presented, including the multi-cusp source, buncher, matching from the energy of the injected beam, vertical beam line and central region, beam loading of the RF system and instrumentation for beam diagnostics etc.

  14. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  15. National cyclotron centre at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Asova, G.; Artinyan, A.; Demerdjiev, A.; Georgiev, L. S.; Yavahchova, M.; Bashev, V.; Genchev, S. G.; Geleva, E.; Mincheva, M.; Nikolov, A.; Dimitrov, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that can be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99mTc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, materials sciences, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. Presently we perform investigations in the fields of target design for production of radioisotopes, shielding and radioprotection, new ion sources etc.

  16. Direct production of 99mTc using a small medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, Suzanne

    This project describes an investigation towards the production of 99mTc with a small medical cyclotron. This endeavor addresses the current urgent problem of availability of 99mTc due to the ongoing production reactor failures and the upcoming Canadian reactor shut down. Currently, 99mTc is produced via nuclear fission using highly enriched uranium which is a concern due to nuclear proliferation risks. In addition to this, the United States is dependent solely on currently unreliable foreign sources of this important medical isotope. Clearly, a need exists to probe alternative production routes of 99mTc. In the first year, this project measured cross-sections andmore » production yields of potential pathways to 99mTc and associated radionuclidic impurities produced via these pathways using a small 15 MeV medical cyclotron. During the second and third years target systems for the production of 99mTc via the most promising reaction routes were developed and separation techniques for the isolation of 99mTc from the irradiated target material will be investigated. Systems for the recycling of the enriched target isotopes as well as automated target processing systems were examined in years four and five. This project has the potential to alleviate some of the current crisis in the medical community by developing a technique to produce 99mTc on location at a university hospital. This technology will be applicable at many other sites in the United States as many other similar, low energy (<20 MeV) cyclotrons (currently used for a few hours per day for the production of [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose) are available for production of 99mTc though this method, thus leading to job creation and preservation.« less

  17. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99m TcO 4 - , in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na 99m TcO 4 , purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99m Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A preliminary area survey of neutron radiation levels associated with the NASA variable energy cyclotron horizontal neutron delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. K.; Leonard, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The 25 MeV deuteron beam from the NASA variable energy cyclotron incident on a thick beryllium target will deliver a tissue neutron dose rate of 2.14 rad micron A-min at a source to skin distance of 125 cm. A neutron survey of the existing hallways with various shielding configurations made during operating of the horizontal neutron delivery system indicates that minimal amounts of additional neutron shielding material are required to provide a low level radiation environment within a self-contained neutron therapy control station. Measurements also indicate that the primary neutron distribution delivered by a planned vertical delivery system will be minimally perturbed by neutrons backscattered from the floor.

  19. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer.more » These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity /sup 14/C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate /sup 14/C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect /sup 14/C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.« less

  20. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs…

  1. Long-term variability of wind patterns at hub-height over Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J.; Jeon, W.; Choi, Y.; Souri, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wind energy is getting more attention because of its environmentally friendly attributes. Texas is a state with significant capacity and number of wind turbines. Wind power generation is significantly affected by wind patterns, and it is important to understand this seasonal and decadal variability for long-term power generation from wind turbines. This study focused on the trends of changes in wind pattern and its strength at two hub-heights (80 m and 110 m) over 30-years (1986 to 2015). We only analyzed summer data(June to September) because of concentrated electricity usage in Texas. We extracted hub-height wind data (U and V components) from the three-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction-North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP-NARR) and classified wind patterns properly by using nonhierarchical K-means method. Hub-height wind patterns in summer seasons of 1986 to 2015 were classified in six classes at day and seven classes at night. Mean wind speed was 4.6 ms-1 at day and 5.4 ms-1 at night, but showed large variability in time and space. We combined each cluster's frequencies and wind speed tendencies with large scale atmospheric circulation features and quantified the amount of wind power generation.

  2. Status of Simulations for the Cyclotron Laboratory at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asova, G.; Goutev, N.; Tonev, D.; Artinyan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is preparing to operate a high-power cyclotron for production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, research in radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics. The cyclotron is a TR24 produced by ASCI, Canada, capable to deliver proton beams in the energy range of 15 to 24 MeV with current as high as 400 µA. Multiple extraction lines can be fed. The primary goal of the project is the production of PET and SPECT isotopes as 18F, 67,68Ga, 99mTc, etc. This contribution reports the status of the project. Design considerations for the cyclotron vault will be discussed for some of the target radioisotopes.

  3. Agricultural Education Competencies: A Comparison of Master's Students at Texas Tech and Texas A&M Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, James R.; Baker, Matt

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 69 agriculture master's students at Texas Tech and Texas A & M universities received 46 responses. Students rated perceived competence highest in the areas of enhancing teaching and learning, ability to focus attention and deliver information, and content skills. Lowest ratings were in cross-national agriculture, effective use of…

  4. Considerations, measurements and logistics associated with low-energy cyclotron decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderland, J. J.; Erdahl, C. E.; Bender, B. R.

    2012-12-19

    The University of Iowa's 20-year-old 17 MeV Scanditronix cyclotron underwent decommissioning in the summer of 2011. To satisfy local, state and federal regulations defining removal, transportation and long-term safe and environmentally secure disposal of the 22 ton activated cyclotron, a series of nuclear spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the nature and extent of proton and neutron activation of the 22-ton cyclotron, its associated targets, and the concrete wall that was demolished to remove the old cyclotron. Neutron activation of the concrete wall was minimal and below exempt concentrations resulting in standard landfill disposal. The cyclotron assessment revealed the expectedmore » array of short and medium-lived radionuclides. Subsequent calculations suggest that meaningful levels residual activity will have decayed virtually to background after 15 years, with the total residual activity of the entire cyclotron dropping below 37 MBq (1 mCi).« less

  5. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ferid; Ferrer, Ludovic; Guertin, Arnaud; Carlier, Thomas; Michel, Nathalie; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François

    2008-07-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ((67)Cu, (47)Sc) or alpha ((211)At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ((64)Cu, (124)I, (44)Sc), or that can be generator-produced ((82)Rb, (68)Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ((44)Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas (86)Y, (52)Fe, (55)Co, (76)Br or (89)Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs.

  6. Applications of high-energy heavy-ions from superconducting cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, T. L.

    1999-06-10

    The superconducting cyclotrons of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), a major nuclear physics facility, can provide ions of any element from hydrogen to uranium. A major upgrade to the NSCL is underway and will consist of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source followed by two large superconducting cyclotrons (K500 and K1200). Ions can be extracted at any point along this chain allowing a large range of energies and charge states. The ion energies range from a few keV to over 20 GeV, and charge states up to fully stripped {sup 197}Au{sup 79+} and two electron {sup 238}U{sup 90+}more » are possible. The long range of the high-energy heavy-ions allows them to penetrate deeply into a target that is placed in air, outside a vacuum chamber. The ion beams have already been used for a number of applications including; ion implantation, atomic physics, single event effects in integrated circuits, DNA radiation studies, radiation detector studies, flux pinning in high-T{sub c} superconductors, calibration of a space-based spectrometer, isotropic ratio measurements, material wear studies, and continuous positron emission tomography imaging.« less

  7. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to sitemore » a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.« less

  8. Development of a fast scintillator based beam phase measurement system for compact superconducting cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; Kanti Dey, Malay; Dhara, Partha

    2013-05-15

    In an isochronous cyclotron, measurements of central phase of the ion beam with respect to rf and the phase width provide a way to tune the cyclotron for maximum energy gain per turn and efficient extraction. We report here the development of a phase measurement system and the measurements carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre's (VECC's) K= 500 superconducting cyclotron. The technique comprises detecting prompt {gamma}-rays resulting from the interaction of cyclotron ion beam with an aluminium target mounted on a radial probe in coincidence with cyclotron rf. An assembly comprising a fast scintillator and a liquid light-guidemore » inserted inside the cyclotron was used to detect the {gamma}-rays and to transfer the light signal outside the cyclotron where a matching photo-multiplier tube was used for light to electrical signal conversion. The typical beam intensity for this measurement was a few times 10{sup 11} pps.« less

  9. Investigation on the possibility of extracting wave energy from the Texas coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haces-Fernandez, Francisco

    Due to the great and growing demand of energy consumption in the Texas Coast area, the generation of electricity from ocean waves is considered very important. The combination of the wave energy with offshore wind power is explored as a way to increase power output, obtain synergies, maximize the utilization of assigned marine zones and reduce variability. Previously literature has assessed the wave energy generation, combined with wind in different geographic locations such as California, Ireland and the Azores Island. In this research project, the electric power generation from ocean waves on the Texas Coast was investigated, assessing its potential from the meteorological data provided by five buoys from National Data Buoy Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, considering the Pelamis 750 kW Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and the Vesta V90 3 MW Wind Turbine. The power output from wave energy was calculated for the year 2006 using Matlab, and the results in several locations were considered acceptable in terms of total power output, but with a high temporal variability. To reduce its variability, wave energy was combined with wind energy, obtaining a significant reduction on the coefficient of variation on the power output. A Matlab based interface was created to calculate power output and its variability considering data from longer periods of time.

  10. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent; Gasper, John; Goldstein, Robert

    2013-07-29

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliabilitymore » Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.« less

  11. Measurement of H/H+D Ratio and Recycling in Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating HT-6M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liancheng; Jiang, Guangkuan; Wei, Lehan

    1994-12-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer has been used to measure the Hα and Dα lines obtain the H/H+D ratio in ion cyclotron resonance heating HT-6M tokamak for determing the energy absorption mechanism. The recycling is observed by changing the working gas from deuterium to hydrogen.

  12. High Power Ion Cyclotron Heating in the VASIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmier, B. W.; Brukardt, M. S.; Bering, E. A.; Chang Diaz, F.; Squire, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR®) is an electric propulsion system under development at Ad Astra Rocket Company that utilizes several processes of ion acceleration and heating that occur in the Birkeland currents of an auroral arc system. Among these processes are parallel electric field acceleration, lower hybrid resonance heating, and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The VASIMR® is capable of laboratory simulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave heating during a single pass of ions through the resonance region. The plasma is generated by a helicon discharge of 35 kW then passes through a 176 kW RF booster stage that couples left hand polarized slow mode waves from the high field side of the resonance. VX-200 auroral simulation results from the past year are discussed. Ambipolar acceleration has been shown to produce 35eV argon ions in the helicon exhaust. The effects on the ion exhaust with an addition of 150-200 kW of ion cyclotron heating are presented. The changes to the VASIMR® experiment at Ad Astra Rocket Company's new facility in Webster, Texas will also be discussed, including the possibility of collaborative experiments.

  13. Single Event Effect microchip testing at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Henry; Yennello, Sherry; Texas A&M University-Cyclotron Institute Team

    2015-10-01

    A Single Event Effect (SEE) is caused by a single, energetic particle that deposits a sufficient amount of charge in a device as it transverses it and upsets its normal operation. Soft errors are non-destructive and normally appear as transient pulses in logic or support circuitry, or as bit flips in memory cells or registers. Hard errors usually result in a high operating current, above device specifications, and must be cleared by a power reset. Burnout errors are so destructive that the device becomes operationally dead. Spacecraft designers must be concerned with the causes of SEE's from protons and heavy ions since commercial devices are typically chosen reduce the parameters of power, weight, volume and cost but have increased functionality, which in turn are typically vulnerable to SEE. As a result all mission-critical devices must be tested. The TAMU K500 superconducting cyclotron has provided beams for space radiation testing since 1994. Starting at just 100 hours/year at inception, the demand has grown to 3000 hours/year. In recent years, most beam time has been for US defense system testing. Nearly 15% has been provided for foreign agencies from Europe and Asia. An overview of the testing facility and future plans will be presented.

  14. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discussmore » the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.« less

  15. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu, E-mail: jiaxl@ciae.ac.cn; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from themore » extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.« less

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Eric J

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Texas A&M Geosciences and the growing importance of transfer students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Texas A&M University at College Station is the flagship university for the Texas A&M System, and is a major destination for transfer students, both from inside and outside the A&M system. The College of Geosciences consists of four academic departments and organized research centers spanning geoscience disciplines of Geology & Geophysics, Geography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences. Two additional interdisciplinary degree programs offer undergraduate degrees in Environmental Geosciences and Environmental Studies and graduate degrees in Water and Hydrological Sciences. The College has increased its undergraduate enrollment and graduation numbers substantially in recent years, growing from 105 Baccalaureate graduates in 2006-07 College-wide to 187 in 2010-11. This 80% growth over this time period has greatly outpaced the undergraduate degree completion growth rate of 10% for the University as a whole. While the College of Geosciences is still the smallest at A&M in terms of overall B.S. graduation rate, it is by far the fastest growing of the nine undergraduate degree-granting colleges over the last five years. A significant number of our incoming and graduating undergraduate students are transfers from primarily 2-year colleges, mostly concentrated in the southeastern portion of Texas. University-wide between 2006 and 2010, 23-25% of degree recipients entered as transfer students. In the College of Geosciences transfer students are an even more significant portion of our graduating students, making up 34-35% of graduates during the same period. Most of the recent undergraduate enrollment growth in the College, however, has come from an increase in first-time freshmen and not from an increase in transfer admissions. Recent efforts to reinvigorate transfer admissions have sharply reversed this trend. Current enrollment data shows that incoming transfer students this year once again more closely mirror historic graduation rates with 34% of our new students

  18. Potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yield variability under a changing climate in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the largest farm area in the U.S, and its revenue from crop production ranks third overall. With the changing climate, hydrological extremes such as droughts are becoming more frequent and intensified, causing significant yield reduction in rainfed agricultural systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yields (corn, sorghum, and wheat) under a changing climate in Texas. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over 10 major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed in this study.The model is forced by a set of statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) that represent different greenhouse gas concentration (4.5 and 8.5 w/m2 are selected in this study). To carry out the analysis, VIC simulations from 1950 to 2099 are first analyzed to investigate how the frequency and severity of agricultural droughts will be altered in Texas (under a changing climate). Second, future crop yields are projected using a statistical crop model. Third, the effects of agricultural drought on crop yields are quantitatively analyzed. The results are expected to contribute to future water resources planning, with a goal of mitigating the negative impacts of future droughts on agricultural production in Texas.

  19. Ion Cyclotron Waves in the VASIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukardt, M. S.; Bering, E. A.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Longmier, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket is an electric propulsion system under development at Ad Astra Rocket Company that utilizes several processes of ion acceleration and heating that occur in the Birkeland currents of an auroral arc system. Among these processes are parallel electric field acceleration, lower hybrid resonance heating, and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The VASIMR is capable of laboratory simulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave heating during a single pass of the plasma through the resonance region. The plasma is generated by a helicon discharge of about 25 kW then passes through an RF booster stage that shoots left hand polarized slow mode waves from the high field side of the resonance. This paper will focus on the upgrades to the VX-200 test model over the last year. After summarizing the VX- 50 and VX-100 results, the new data from the VX-200 model will be presented. Lastly, the changes to the VASIMR experiment due to Ad Astra Rocket Company's new facility in Webster, Texas will also be discussed, including the possibility of collaborative experiments at the new facility.

  20. Texas A&M University in the JET Collaboration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, Rainer; Ko, Che-Ming

    This final report summarizes the work done by PIs at Texas A&M University within the JET Topical Collaboration. The main focus of the group at Texas A&M has been the development and implementation of a hadronization model suitable to calculate hadronization of jet showers in heavy ion collisions event by event. The group successfully developed a hybrid model of parton recombination and remnant string fragmentation including recombination with thermal partons. A code realizing this model was developed and shared with other JET members. In addition, the group at Texas A&M worked on both open and hidden heavy flavor probes. Inmore » particular, they developed a description of heavy flavor hadronization based on recombination, and consistent with in-medium scattering rates of heavy quarks, and suggested the D s meson as a precise probe of the hadronization mechanism. Another noteworthy focus of their work was electromagnetic probes, in particular, dileptons and photons from interactions of jets with the medium. In the soft sector the group has made several contributions to modern topics, e.g. the splitting of elliptic flow between isospin partners and the role of the initial strong gluon fields.« less

  1. 76 FR 50476 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-382] Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. (Glacial) has applied for authority to transmit electric...

  2. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference tomore » those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.« less

  3. Texas A & M University at Galveston: College and University Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Texas A & M University at Galveston is the only marine and maritime-oriented University in the Southwest. Its computing policy/direction, academic computing, administrative computing, and library automation are described, and hurricance emergency plans are also discussed. (MLW)

  4. Study of the Polarization Strategy for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems on HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Huang, M.; Xia, D. H.; Song, S. D.; Wang, J. Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-06-01

    As important components integrated in transmission lines of electron cyclotron heating systems, polarizers are mainly used to obtain the desired polarization for highly efficient coupling between electron cyclotron waves and plasma. The polarization strategy for 105-GHz electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak is studied in this paper. Considering the polarizers need high efficiency, stability, and low loss to realize any polarization states, two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers, which include a linear polarizer and an elliptical polarizer, are designed with the coordinate transformation method. The parameters, the period p and the depth d, of two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers are optimized by a phase difference analysis method to achieve an almost arbitrary polarization. Finally, the optimized polarizers are manufactured and their polarization characteristics are tested with a low-power test platform. The experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations, indicating that the designed polarizers can meet the polarization requirements of the electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak.

  5. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospectsmore » for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.« less

  6. Engineering and management experience at Texas A&M Transportation Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Arif Tahjibul

    This manuscript presents the author's engineering and management experience during his internship in the Materials and Pavements (M&P) Division at the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), and is a record of study for the Doctor of Engineering at Texas A&M University. Through this internship, he met his established internship objectives of gaining technical knowledge as well as knowledge and skills in project management, organizational communication, and quality management of pavement condition data, and of attaining professional development. In meeting these objectives, the author describes the history, mission, and organizational structure of his workplace. He also presents his experience of developing and delivering a two-week training course on pavement design and construction in Kosovo. Participating in a number of professional development training courses and other activities prepared him for working as an engineering manager. These activities include Delta-T leadership training, an instructor development course, a time management and organizational skills course, and the M&P Division lecture series. Leadership and skills learned through the Delta-T program were beneficial for the employee as well as the employer. For the class project, the author and his teammates performed a study dealing with improving TTI's deliverables. The Delta-T team composed a report summarizing their efforts of examining the current state of TTI's project deliverables, the deliverables' shortcomings, and potential enhancements to expand the deliverables' appeal to additional types of potential users outside the traditional research community. The team also developed a prototype web-based model of deliverables and presented some implementation recommendations. Participating in the Texas Department of Transportation's (TxDOT's) pavement surface distress data collection program enabled the author to become familiar with pavement distress data quality management and thus attain the

  7. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average

  8. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the

  9. Ion cyclotron production by a four-wave interaction with a helicon pump.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, O; Giles, M; Boswell, R

    2005-05-27

    Ion cyclotron waves at approximately 0.7 the ion gyrofrequency have been observed experimentally in the large volume helicon reactor WOMBAT. These waves are highly localized along the axis of the device where a 8 cm diameter, 2 m long. Ar II plasma column is produced. Spectral measurements reveal a four-wave interaction where energy is down-converted to the ion cyclotron mode from the helicon pump. The experimental results are explained in terms of a filamentation type instability.

  10. Development of a 20 mA negative hydrogen ion source for cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, H.; Onai, M.; Arakawa, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Hatayama, A.; Okumura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    A cesiated DC negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. A continuous H- beam of 23 mA was stably extracted at an arc power of 3 kW. The beam current gradually decreases with a constant arc power and without additional Cs injection and the decay rate was about 0.03 mA (0.14%) per hour. A feed-back control system that automatically adjusts the arc power to stabilize the beam current is able to keep the beam current constant at ±0.04 mA (±0.2%).

  11. All-magnetic extraction for cyclotron beam reacceleration

    DOEpatents

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-07-22

    An isochronous cyclotron can be modified to provide an initial electron stripping stage, a complete acceleration of the stripped ions through the cyclotron to a first energy state, means for returning the ions to an intermediate cyclotron orbit through a second stripping stage, further acceleration of the now higher energy stripped ions through the cyclotron to their final energy, and final extraction of the ions from the cyclotron. (auth)

  12. Electron cyclotron emission imaging and applications in magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Benjamin John

    Energy production through the burning of fossil fuels is an unsustainable practice. Exponentially increasing energy consumption and dwindling natural resources ensure that coal and gas fueled power plants will someday be a thing of the past. However, even before fuel reserves are depleted, our planet may well succumb to disastrous side effects, namely the build up of carbon emissions in the environment triggering world-wide climate change and the countless industrial spills of pollutants that continue to this day. Many alternatives are currently being developed, but none has so much promise as fusion nuclear energy, the energy of the sun. The confinement of hot plasma at temperatures in excess of 100 million Kelvin by a carefully arranged magnetic field for the realization of a self-sustaining fusion power plant requires new technologies and improved understanding of fundamental physical phenomena. Imaging of electron cyclotron radiation lends insight into the spatial and temporal behavior of electron temperature fluctuations and instabilities, providing a powerful diagnostic for investigations into basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion reactor operation. This dissertation presents the design and implementation of a new generation of Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics on toroidal magnetic fusion confinement devices, or tokamaks, around the world. The underlying physics of cyclotron radiation in fusion plasmas is reviewed, and a thorough discussion of millimeter wave imaging techniques and heterodyne radiometry in ECEI follows. The imaging of turbulence and fluid flows has evolved over half a millennium since Leonardo da Vinci's first sketches of cascading water, and applications for ECEI in fusion research are broad ranging. Two areas of physical investigation are discussed in this dissertation: the identification of poloidal shearing in Alfven eigenmode structures predicted by hybrid gyrofluid-magnetohydrodynamic (gyrofluid-MHD) modeling, and

  13. An economic analysis of four options for dealing with low-volume roads in energy-impacted areas of Texas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute undertook an economic analysis to compare the costs of : maintaining a typical Texas low-volume road in an energy-impacted area in its current state versus widening : and maintaining the road; converting it to a...

  14. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    99m Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99m Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t ½  = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99m Tc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99m Tc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide 99 Mo (t ½  = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99 Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99m Tc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99m Tc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99m Tc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99m Tc are described.

  15. Texas A&M vortex type phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Frederick

    2000-01-01

    Phase separation is required for regenerative biological and chemical process systems as well as thermal transport and rejection systems. Liquid and gas management requirements for future spacecraft will demand small, passive systems able to operate over wide ranges of inlet qualities. Conservation and recycling of air and water is a necessary part of the construction and operation of the International Space Station as well as future long duration space missions. Space systems are sensitive to volume, mass, and power. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to recycle wastewater with minimal power consumption. Regenerative life support systems currently being investigated require phase separation to separate the liquid from the gas produced. The microgravity phase separator designed and fabricated at Texas A&M University relies on centripetal driven buoyancy forces to form a gas-liquid vortex within a fixed, right-circular cylinder. Two-phase flow is injected tangentially along the inner wall of this cylinder producing a radial acceleration gradient. The gradient produced from the intrinsic momentum of the injected mixture results in a rotating flow that drives the buoyancy process by the production of a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Texas A&M has flown several KC-135 flights with separator. These flights have included scaling studies, stability and transient investigations, and tests for inventory instrumentation. Among the hardware tested have been passive devices for separating mixed vapor/liquid streams into single-phase streams of vapor only and liquid only. .

  16. Production of novel diagnostic radionuclides in small medical cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Synowiecki, Mateusz Adam; Perk, Lars Rutger; Nijsen, J Frank W

    2018-01-01

    The global network of cyclotrons has expanded rapidly over the last decade. The bulk of its industrial potential is composed of small medical cyclotrons with a proton energy below 20 MeV for radionuclides production. This review focuses on the recent developments of novel medical radionuclides produced by cyclotrons in the energy range of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The production of the following medical radionuclides will be described based on available literature sources: Tc-99 m, I-123, I-124, Zr-89, Cu-64, Ga-67, Ga-68, In-111, Y-86 and Sc-44. Remarkable developments in the production process have been observed in only some cases. More research is needed to make novel radionuclide cyclotron production available for the medical industry.

  17. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Homer, Juliet S.; Bender, Sadie R.

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringingmore » potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.« less

  18. Toward a green campus : a transportation strategy for Texas A&M University.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This research study produces a recommended sustainable transportation implementation plan for Texas : A&M University (TAMU) to enhance the environmental performance of its campus transportation system. : To achieve the goal, this study followed a his...

  19. Center for Space Power, Texas A and M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ken

    Johnson Controls is a 106 year old company employing 42,000 people worldwide with $4.7 billion annual sales. Though we are new to the aerospace industry we are a world leader in automobile battery manufacturing, automotive seating, plastic bottling, and facilities environment controls. The battery division produces over 24,000,000 batteries annually under private label for the new car manufacturers and the replacement market. We are entering the aerospace market with the nickel hydrogen battery with the help of NASA's Center for Space Power at Texas A&M. Unlike traditional nickel hydrogen battery manufacturers, we are reaching beyond the space applications to the higher volume markets of aircraft starting and utility load leveling. Though space applications alone will not provide sufficient volume to support the economies of scale and opportunities for statistical process control, these additional terrestrial applications will. For example, nickel hydrogen batteries do not have the environmental problems of nickel cadmium or lead acid and may someday start your car or power your electric vehicle. However you envision the future, keep in mind that no manufacturer moves into a large volume market without fine tuning their process. The Center for Space Power at Texas A&M is providing indepth technical analysis of all of the materials and fabricated parts of our battery as well as thermal and mechanical design computer modeling. Several examples of what we are doing with nickel hydrogen chemistry to lead to these production efficiencies are presented.

  20. Center for Space Power, Texas A and M University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Johnson Controls is a 106 year old company employing 42,000 people worldwide with $4.7 billion annual sales. Though we are new to the aerospace industry we are a world leader in automobile battery manufacturing, automotive seating, plastic bottling, and facilities environment controls. The battery division produces over 24,000,000 batteries annually under private label for the new car manufacturers and the replacement market. We are entering the aerospace market with the nickel hydrogen battery with the help of NASA's Center for Space Power at Texas A&M. Unlike traditional nickel hydrogen battery manufacturers, we are reaching beyond the space applications to the higher volume markets of aircraft starting and utility load leveling. Though space applications alone will not provide sufficient volume to support the economies of scale and opportunities for statistical process control, these additional terrestrial applications will. For example, nickel hydrogen batteries do not have the environmental problems of nickel cadmium or lead acid and may someday start your car or power your electric vehicle. However you envision the future, keep in mind that no manufacturer moves into a large volume market without fine tuning their process. The Center for Space Power at Texas A&M is providing indepth technical analysis of all of the materials and fabricated parts of our battery as well as thermal and mechanical design computer modeling. Several examples of what we are doing with nickel hydrogen chemistry to lead to these production efficiencies are presented.

  1. Reducing energy costs at state agencies and institutions in Texas through the Governor's energy management center

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The one year internship required for partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Engineering Degree was completed at the Governor's Energy Management Center in Austin, Texas. The intern worked for the State Agencies Department of the Energy Management Center. The intern was involved in a variety of projects, but the primary projects requiring the greatest time were the involvement with the design reviews for energy efficiency of new prisons being constructed in Texas, conducting energy management audits at 18 major state universities, and the technical and administrative assistance to the State Cogeneration Council. Other project involvement included managing the preliminary engineeringmore » design of the cogeneration facility at Austin State Hospital, responsibility for applying for a $1.4 million dollar crude oil refund on the behalf of all state agencies in Texas, and assisting in the planning and coordination of the $48 million Revolving Loan Program for the state of Texas. The internship taught many things about management and communications. The experience also provided a better understanding of how the state and federal government operate. The greatest contribution of the internship experience was the improvement of the intern's written and oral communication skills.« less

  2. The Empirical Impact of the Graduate Record Examination and Grade Point Average on Entry and Success in Graduate School at Texas A&M University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksey, Lana; Stenning, Walter F.

    The use of the restructured Graduate Record Examination (GRE), students' entering grade point averages (GPAs), and other variables as predictors of success in graduate school at Texas A&M University (TAMU) was studied. Comparisons were also made to a similar study (Kunze, 1974). A sample of 564 entering graduate students who had taken the…

  3. Energy developments and the transportation infrastructure in Texas : impacts and strategies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Texas has experienced a boom in energy-related activities, particularly in wind power : generation and extraction of oil and natural gas. While energy developments contribute to enhance the : states ability to produce energy relia...

  4. DEEP: Discover, Explore, and Enjoy Physics & Engineering via High Impact Educational Experiences at Texas A&M and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana; Fry, Edward

    2014-03-01

    We will present the first results of an innovative program at Texas A&M University that aims to enhance the learning and research experiences of undergraduate and graduate students through their participation in high-profile outreach activities: principally the Texas A&M Physics and Engineering Festival and the Physics Shows. The goals are to enhance students' knowledge of fundamental physics concepts through collaborative hands-on research and educational activities, to teach them effective communication skills and responsibility, and to enhance their opportunities for interactions with their peers and professors outside the classroom. The program activities include (i) students working side-by-side with their peers and professors on research, concept, design, and fabrication of physics demonstration experiments, (ii) presentation of these exhibits during the Festival and Shows in teams of several students and faculty members, (iii) assessment of students teamwork, and (iv) incorporation of new demonstrations in core curriculum classes. Texas A&M Physics and Engineering Festival is a major annual outreach event at TAMU attracting over 4000 visitors and featuring over 100 interactive exhibits, public lectures by prominent scientists, and various hands-on activities. This program is supported by Tier One Grant from Texas A&M University.

  5. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  6. Bloch equations applied to ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy: Broadband interconversion between magnetron and cyclotron motion for ion axialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shenheng; Marshall, Alan G.

    1993-03-01

    Conversion of magnetron motion to cyclotron motion combined with collisional cooling of the cyclotron motion provides an efficient way to reduce the kinetic energy of trapped heavy ions and to reduce their magnetron radii in an ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) ion trap. The coupling of magnetron and cyclotron motion can be realized by azimuthal quadrupolar excitation. Theoretical understanding of the coupling process has until now been based on resonant single-frequency quadrupolar excitation at the combination frequency ωc=ω++ω-, in which ωc is the ion cyclotron orbital frequency in the absence of electrostatic field; and ω+ and ω- are the reduced cyclotron and magnetron frequencies in the presence of an electrostatic trapping potential. In this work, we prove that the magnetron/cyclotron coupling is closely related to a two energy level system whose behavior is described by the well-known Bloch equations. By means of a special transformation, the equations of motion for the coupling may be expressed in Bloch-type equations in spherical coordinates. We show that magnetron-to-cyclotron conversion by single-frequency quadrupolar excitation in ICR is analogous to a 180° pulse in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We go on to show that simultaneous magnetron-to-cyclotron conversion of ions over a finite mass-to-charge ratio range may be produced by quadrupolar frequency-sweep excitation, by analogy to adiabatic rapid passage in magnetic resonance. Axialization by broadband magnetron-to-cyclotron conversion followed by cyclotron cooling is successfully demonstrated experimentally for a crude oil distillate sample.

  7. Texas A&M Physics Festival: bringing together the community, faculty, and students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    Texas A&M Physics Festival started in 2003 with a dozen of hands-on exhibits and an inaugural lecture by Stephen Hawking. Over the years it evolved into one of the largest STEM outreach events in the area. The Festival attracts over 4000 visitors annually from all over Texas and other states. It features over 100 interactive exhibits displayed by faculty and students, public lectures by world-renowned scientists and astronauts, professional bubble shows, and many other activities. I will report on the structure of the Festival as well as strategies for involving undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in public outreach. I will further discuss the results of an independent evaluation of the 2015 Festival by the NSF-funded EvalFest program.

  8. Feasibility study of a cyclotron complex for hadron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2018-04-01

    An accelerator complex for hadron therapy based on a chain of cyclotrons is under development at JINR (Dubna, Russia), and the corresponding conceptual design is under preparation. The complex mainly consists of two superconducting cyclotrons. The first accelerator is a compact cyclotron used as an injector to the main accelerator, which is a six-fold separated sector machine. The facility is intended for generation of protons and carbon beams. The H2+ and 12C6+ ions from the corresponding ECR ion sources are accelerated in the injector-cyclotron up to the output energy of 70 MeV/u. Then, the H2+ ions are extracted from the injector by a stripping foil, and the resulting proton beam with the energy of 70 MeV is used for medical purposes. After acceleration in the main cyclotron, the carbon beam can be either used directly for therapy or introduced to the main cyclotron for obtaining the final energy of 400 MeV/u. The basic requirements to the project are the following: compliance to medical requirements, compact size, feasible design, and high reliability of all systems of the complex. The advantages of the dual cyclotron design can help reaching these goals. The initial calculations show that this design is technically feasible with acceptable beam dynamics. The accelerator complex with a relatively compact size can be a good solution for medical applications. The basic parameters of the facility and detailed investigation of the magnetic system and beam dynamics are described.

  9. Toward a System-Based Approach to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Rassoul, H.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a nonlinear wave energy cascade from the low frequency range into the higher frequency domain of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation as a possible source of seed fluctuations for EMIC wave growth due to the ion cyclotron instability in Earth's magnetosphere. The theoretical analysis shows that energy cascade from the Pc 4-5 frequency range (2-22 mHz) into the range of Pc 1-2 pulsations (0.1-5 Hz) is able to supply the level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves up to an observable level during one pass through the near equatorial region where the ion cyclotron instability takes place. We also analyze magnetic field data from the Polar and Van Allen Probes spacecraft to test this nonlinear mechanism. We restrict our analysis to magnetic spectra only. We do not analyze the third-order moment for total energy of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations, but judge whether a nonlinear energy cascade is present or whether it is not by only analyzing the appearance of power-law distributions in the low frequency part of the magnetic field spectra. While the power-law spectrum alone does not guarantee that a nonlinear cascade is present, the power-law distribution is a strong indication of the possible development of a nonlinear cascade. Our data analysis shows that a nonlinear energy cascade is indeed observed in both the outer and inner magnetosphere, and EMIC waves are growing from this nonthermal background. All the analyzed data are in good agreement with the theoretical model presented in this study. Overall, the results of this study support a nonlinear energy cascade in Earth's magnetosphere as a mechanism which is responsible for supplying seed fluctuating energy in the higher frequency domain where EMIC waves grow due to the ion cyclotron instability. Keywords: nonlinear energy cascade, ultra low frequency waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, seed fluctuationsAcknowledgments: This paper is based upon work

  10. Final report for Texas A&M University Group Contribution to DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data (and ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A&M University and University of Utah)

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Joseph Maurice

    We summarize the contributions of the Texas A\\&M University Group to the project (DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data - an ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A\\&M U, and U Utah) during 6/9/2011 -- 2/27/2013.

  11. 77 FR 39996 - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, Notice of Decision on Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments...: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123. Instrument: Arc...

  12. Cyclotron Road at Berkeley Lab – U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, Kendra; Weitekamp, Raymond; Lehmann, Marcus

    The Department of Energy is testing a new model for clean energy research and development (R&D) through a program called Cyclotron Road. The goal is to support scientific R&D that is still too risky for private‐sector investment, and too applied for academia. Participants receive the time, space and capital to pursue their research and the support to find viable pathways to the market.

  13. Distance Education and Virtual Reference: Implementing a Marketing Plan at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Karen I.; vanDuinkerken, Wyoma

    2005-01-01

    Texas A&M University Libraries has been testing virtual reference services since February 2004, but during the fall semester 2005, the Libraries began implementing and actively promoting the services to various target groups. Distance education students were identified as a primary target group for virtual reference services, and as of the…

  14. Energy limit in cyclotron autoresonance acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    A multimegawatt gyroharmonic converter depends critically on the parameters of a spatiotemporally modulated gyrating electron beam prepared using a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA). This paper extends a prior analysis of CARA [B. Hafizi, P. Sprangle, and J. L. Hirshfield, Phys. Rev. E 50, 3077 (1994)] to identify an approximate constant of the motion and, therefore, to give limits to the beam energy from CARA that can be utilized in a harmonic converter. It is also shown that particles are strongly phase trapped during acceleration in CARA and thus are insensitive to deviations from exact autoresonance. This fact could simplify constructionmore » of the up-tapered guide magnetic field in the device and augurs well for production of high-quality multimegawatt beams using CARA.« less

  15. Energy transfer between energetic ring current H(+) and O(+) by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the frequency range below the helium gyrofrequency can be excited in the equatorial region of the outer magnetosphere by cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic ring current H(+) ions. As the unducted waves propagate to higher latitudes, the wave normal should become highly inclined to the ambient magnetic field. Under such conditions, wave energy can be absorbed by cyclotron resonant interactions with ambient O(+), leading to ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Resonant wave absorption peaks in the vicinity of the bi-ion frequency and the second harmonic of the O(+) gyrofrequrency. This absorption should mainly occur at latitudes between 10 deg and 30 deg along auroral field lines (L is greater than or equal to 7) in the postnoon sector. The concomitant ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can contribute to the isotropization and geomagnetic trapping of collapsed O(+) ion conics (or beams) that originate from a low-altitude ionospheric source region. During geomagnetic storms when the O(+) content of the magnetosphere is significantly enhanced, the absorption of EMIC waves should become more efficient, and it may contribute to the observed acceleration of O(+) ions of ionospheric origin up to ring current energies.

  16. Summary of highway/rail intersection research at the Texas A and M University ITS Research Center of Excellence

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-04-01

    The highway/rail intersection has been a research initiative under the transportation management focus area of the Texas A&M ITS Research Center of Excellence. This initiative was the result of many years of research at the Texas Transportation Insti...

  17. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    PubMed

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-11-07

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities.

  19. Holocene climate variability in Texas, USA: An integration of existing paleoclimate data and modeling with a new, high-resolution speleothem record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Corinne I.; Banner, Jay L.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2015-01-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. We synthesize existing paleoclimate proxy data and climate simulations to provide an overview of climate variability in Texas during the Holocene. Conditions became progressively warmer and drier transitioning from the early to mid Holocene, culminating between 7 and 3 ka (thousand years ago), and were more variable during the late Holocene. The timing and relative magnitude of Holocene climate variability, however, is poorly constrained owing to considerable variability among the different records. To help address this, we present a new speleothem (NBJ) reconstruction from a central Texas cave that comprises the highest resolution proxy record to date, spanning the mid to late Holocene. NBJ trace-element concentrations indicate variable moisture conditions with no clear temporal trend. There is a decoupling between NBJ growth rate, trace-element concentrations, and δ18O values, which indicate that (i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is likely complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and (ii) speleothem δ18O variations likely reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific-vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount.

  20. Holocene climate variability in Texas, USA: An integration of existing paleoclimate data and modeling with a new, high-resolution speleothem record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Corinne I.; Banner, Jay L.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2015-11-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. We synthesize existing paleoclimate proxy data and climate simulations to provide an overview of climate variability in Texas during the Holocene. Conditions became progressively warmer and drier transitioning from the early to mid Holocene, culminating between 7 and 3 ka (thousand years ago), and were more variable during the late Holocene. The timing and relative magnitude of Holocene climate variability, however, is poorly constrained owing to considerable variability among the different records. To help address this, we present a new speleothem (NBJ) reconstruction from a central Texas cave that comprises the highest resolution proxy record to date, spanning the mid to late Holocene. NBJ trace-element concentrations indicate variable moisture conditions with no clear temporal trend. There is a decoupling between NBJ growth rate, trace-element concentrations, and δ18O values, which indicate that (i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is likely complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and (ii) speleothem δ18O variations likely reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific-vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount.

  1. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Carol J.; Taylor, J.; Edgecock, R.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, amore » joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.« less

  2. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  3. Clean Energy Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas

    Science.gov Websites

    , fuel cells, energy conservation, clean energy-related information technology, end-use consumer products Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas For more information contact: Kerry Masson, 303 information looks like it's a good fit for the clean energy initiative, ATI will help the candidate refine its

  4. Modeling of electron cyclotron resonance discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Meyyappan, M.; Govindan, T.R.

    The current trend in plasma processing is the development of high density plasma sources to achieve high deposition and etch rates, uniformity over large ares, and low wafer damage. Here, is a simple model to predict the spatially-averaged plasma characteristics of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) reactors is presented. The model consists of global conservation equations for species concentration, electron density and energy. A gas energy balance is used to predict the neutral temperature self-consistently. The model is demonstrated for an ECR argon discharge. The predicted behavior of the discharge as a function of system variables agrees well with experimental observations.

  5. Technical Note: Building a combined cyclotron and MRI facility: Implications for interference

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Mark B. M.; Kuijer, Joost P. A.; Ridder, Jan Willem de

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: With the introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems, it has become more likely that the cyclotron and MRI systems will be located close to each other. This study considered the interference between a cyclotron and a superconducting MRI system. Methods: Interactions between cyclotrons and MRIs are theoretically considered. The main interference is expected to be the perturbation of the magnetic field in the MRI due to switching on or off the magnetic field of the cyclotron. MR imaging is distorted by a dynamic spatial gradient of an external inplane magnetic field larger than 0.5-0.04 {mu}T/m, depending on the specific MRmore » application. From the design of a cyclotron, it is expected that the magnetic fringe field at large distances behaves as a magnetic dipolar field. This allows estimation of the full dipolar field and its spatial gradients from a single measurement. Around an 18 MeV cyclotron (Cyclone, IBA), magnetic field measurements were performed on 5 locations and compared with calculations based upon a dipolar field model. Results: At the measurement locations the estimated and measured values of the magnetic field component and its spatial gradients of the inplane component were compared, and found to agree within a factor 1.1 for the magnetic field and within a factor of 1.5 for the spatial gradients of the field. In the specific case of the 18 MeV cyclotron with a vertical magnetic field and a 3T superconducting whole body MR system, a minimum distance of 20 m has to be considered to prevent interference. Conclusions: This study showed that a dipole model is sufficiently accurate to predict the interference of a cyclotron on a MRI scanner, for site planning purposes. The cyclotron and a whole body MRI system considered in this study need to be placed more than 20 m apart, or magnetic shielding should be utilized.« less

  6. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling ion cyclotron emission from KSTAR tokamak and LHD helical device plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Ben; Reman, Bernard; Chapman, Sandra; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yun, Gunsu

    2017-10-01

    New high quality measurements of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from KSTAR and LHD greatly extend the scope and diversity of plasma conditions under which ICE is observed. Variables include the origin (fusion reactions or neutral beam injection) and energy (sub- or super-Alfvénic) of the minority energetic ions that drive ICE; the composition of the bulk plasma (hydrogen or deuterium) which supports the modes excited; plasma density in the emitting region, and the timescale on which it changes; and toroidal magnetic field geometry (tokamak or helical device). Future exploitation of ICE as a diagnostic for energetic ion populations in JET D-T plasmas and in ITER rests on quantitative understanding of the physics of the emission. This is tested and extended by current KSTAR and LHD measurements of ICE. We report progress on direct numerical simulation using full orbit ion kinetic codes that solve the Maxwell-Lorentz equations for hundreds of millions of particles. In the saturated regime, these simulations yield excited field spectra that correspond directly to the measured ICE spectra under diverse KSTAR and LHD regimes. At early times, comparison of simulation outputs with linear analytical theory confirms the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability as the basic driver of ICE. Supported by RCUK Energy Programme Grant EP/P012450/1, NRF Korea Grant 2014M1A7A1A03029881, NIFS budget ULHH029 and Euratom.

  8. The Narodny ion accelerator as an injector for a small cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenchuk, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 120 keV electrostatic accelerator is currently in use at the University of Manitoba as an ion implanter. It is proposed to use this accelerator (called the Narodny ion accelerator or NIA), upgraded to 200 keV, as an injector for a small light ion cyclotron. This "minicyclotron" will consist of 6 sectors with four dees operating at 60 kV and variable frequency. The ions will be extracted at about 50 cm radius. The types of ions to be accelerated are H -, H +, D -1, 3He 2+, 4He 2+, 6Li 3+, and 7Li 3+ with a maximum energy of about 4 MeV for the Li ions and between 2 and 3 MeV for the He ions. A beam current of close to 0.5 mA is anticipated for H + and D + ions and high energy resolution ( ΔE/ E ~ 10 -3) is expected for all ions. The marriage of these two accelerators will give a very wide range of ion implantation energies (for certain ion species) as well as a source of particles for Rutherford backscatter analysis.

  9. Cyclotron emission near stellar mass black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apparao, K. M. V.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron emission in the inner regions of an accretion disk around a matter accreting black hole can be appreciable. In the case of the X-ray source Cyg X-1, cyclotron emission may provide the soft photons needed for 'Comptonization' to produce high energy X-rays. The inverse correlation between the fluxes of high energy and low energy X-rays during the 'high' and 'low' states of Cyg X-1, may be understood as a result of the variation of the rate of accretion and the Compton scattering of the cyclotron photons. In the case of the X-ray source GX 339-4, the observed optical flux during the high states does not seem to be due to cyclotron emission, but probably due to reprocessing of high energy X-rays by the outer regions of the disk.

  10. Evaluation of Wind Energy Production in Texas using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the highest installed wind capacity in the United States. The purpose of this research was to estimate the theoretical wind turbine energy production and the utilization ratio of wind turbines in Texas. Windfarm data was combined applying Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology to create an updated GIS wind turbine database, including location and technical specifications. Applying GIS diverse tools, the windfarm data was spatially joined with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind data to calculate the wind speed at each turbine hub. The power output for each turbine at the hub wind speed was evaluated by the GIS system according the respective turbine model power curve. In total over 11,700 turbines are installed in Texas with an estimated energy output of 60 GWh per year and an average utilization ratio of 0.32. This research indicates that applying GIS methodologies will be crucial in the growth of wind energy and efficiency in Texas.

  11. Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Defaulters at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Matt; Teszler, Natali

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to better understand student loan default behavior at Texas A&M University (TAMU), the research staff at TG, at the request of TAMU, conducted a study of the relationship between loan default, on the one hand, and many student and borrower characteristics, on the other hand. The study examines the default behavior of 12,776…

  12. How to Manage an Extensive Laserdisk Installation: The Texas A&M Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sandra L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The second of two articles on the acquisition and implementation of a large laserdisk service at Texas A&M University covers equipment and supplies, future plans, service, staffing, training of staff and patrons, and statistics. A floor plan, user instruction sheet, and news release are included. (MES)

  13. A simple thick target for production of 89Zr using an 11MeV cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Jeanne M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; O'Hara, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    The growing interest but limited availability of 89Zr for PET led us to test targets for the 89(p,n) reaction. The goal was an easily constructed target for an 11 MeV Siements cyclotron. Yttrium foils were tested at different thicknesses, angles and currents. A 90 degree foil tolerated 41 microAmp without damage and produced ~800 MBq/hr, >20 mCi, an amount adequate for radiochemistry research and human doses in a widely available accelerator. This method should translate to higher energy cyclotrons.

  14. How To Organize an Extensive Laserdisk Installation: The Texas A&M Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kathy M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first of two articles on the acquisition and implementation of a large laserdisk service at Texas A&M University covers funding, donor recognition, selection and ordering of databases, planning and integrating the service with other information services, and future funding and plans. (5 references) (MES)

  15. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced 99mTc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Esquinas, P.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc through the 100Mo(p,2n){{}99\\text{m}} Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify 99Mo breakthrough in generator-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure {{}99\\text{m}} Tc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of {{}93\\text{g}} Tc, {{}93\\text{m}} Tc, {{}94\\text{g}} Tc, {{}94\\text{m}} Tc

  16. Does climatic variability influence agricultural land prices under differing uses? The Texas High Plains case

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Texas High Plains faces projections of increasing temperature and declining precipitation in the future on account of its semi-arid climate. This research evaluated the impact of climatic variability on agricultural land prices under different land uses in the Texas High Plains, employing the Ri...

  17. A simple thick target for production of 89Zr using an 11 MeV cyclotron

    PubMed Central

    Link, Jeanne M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; O’Hara, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest but limited availability of 89Zr for PET led us to test targets for the 89Y(p,n) reaction. The goal was an easily constructed target for an 11 MeV Siemens cyclotron. Yttrium foils were tested at different thicknesses, angles and currents. A 90° foil tolerated 41 μA without damage and produced ~800 MBq/h, > 20 mCi, an amount adequate for radiochemistry research and human doses in a widely available accelerator. This method should translate to higher energy cyclotrons. PMID:28187357

  18. Towards a better understanding of high-energy electron pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Tang, S., W.,; Papadopoulos, K.

    2017-10-01

    Shear Alfven waves are a fundamental mode in magnetized plasmas. Propagating near the ion cyclotron frequency, these waves are often termed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and can involve multiple ion species. Near the earth, for example, the wave may interact resonantly with oxygen ions at altitudes ranging from 1000 to 2000 km. The waves may either propagate from space towards the earth (possibly involving mode conversion), or be generated by RF transmitters on the ground. These preliminary experiments are motivated by theoretical predictions that such waves can pitch-angle scatter relativistic electrons trapped in the earth's dipole field. EMIC waves are launched in the Large Plasma Device at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility in plasmas with single and multiple ion species into magnetic field gradients where ion cyclotron resonance is satisfied. We report here on the frequency and k-spectra in the critical layer and how they compare with theoretical predictions in computing an effective diffusion coefficient for high-energy electrons. Funding is provided by the NSF, DoE, and AFSOR.

  19. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    PubMed

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Single Event Effect Testing of the Micron MT46V128M8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, Scott; Campola, Michael; Wilcox, Ted; Seidleck, Christina; Phan, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The Micron MT46V128M8 was tested for single event effects (SEE) at the Texas AM University Cyclotron Facility (TAMU) in June of 2017. Testing revealed a sensitivity to device hang-ups classified as single event functional interrupts (SEFI) and possible soft data errors classified as single event upsets (SEU).

  1. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Defaulters at Texas A&M University--Kingsville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Sandra; Steiner, Matt; Teszler, Natali

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the default behavior of 5,177 undergraduate student borrowers who attended Texas A&M University--Kingsville (TAMUK) and entered repayment of their TG-guaranteed Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) loans between October 1, 1998 and September 30, 2002 (fiscal years 1999-2002). Using the Department of Education's…

  3. Ion Cyclotron Heating on Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J. F.; Kafle, N.; Ray, H. B.; Showers, M. A.; Piotrowicz, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion cyclotron heating will be used on Proto-MPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment) to increase heat flux to the target, to produce varying ion energies without substrate biasing, and to vary the extent of the magnetic pre-sheath for the case of a tilted target. A 25 cm long, 9 cm diameter dual half-turn helical ion cyclotron antenna has been installed in the device located at the magnetic field maximum. It couples power to ions via single pass damping of the slow wave at the fundamental resonance, and operates with ω 0.8ωci at the antenna location. It is designed to operate at power levels up to 30 kW, with a later 200 kW upgrade planned. Near term experiments include measuring RF loading at low power as a function of frequency and antenna gap. The plasma is generated by a helicon plasma source that has achieved ne > 5 ×1019m-3 operating with deuterium, as measured downstream from the ion cyclotron antenna location. Measurements will be compared with 1-D and 2-D models of RF coupling. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Wolaver, Brad D; Labay, Benjamin J; LaDuc, Travis J; Duran, Charles M; Ryberg, Wade A; Hibbitts, Toby J; Andrews, John R

    2018-05-01

    Recent research assessed how hydrocarbon and wind energy expansion has altered the North American landscape. Less understood, however, is how this energy development compares to other anthropogenic land use changes. Texas leads U.S. hydrocarbon production and wind power generation and has a rapidly expanding population. Thus, for ~47% of Texas (~324,000 km 2 ), we mapped the 2014 footprint of energy activities (~665,000 oil and gas wells, ~5700 wind turbines, ~237,000 km oil and gas pipelines, and ~2000 km electrical transmission lines). We compared the footprint of energy development to non-energy-related activities (agriculture, roads, urbanization) and found direct landscape alteration from all factors affects ~23% of the study area (~76,000 km 2 ), led by agriculture (~16%; ~52,882 km 2 ). Oil and gas activities altered <1% of the study area (2081 km 2 ), with 838 km 2 from pipelines and 1242 km 2 from well pad construction-and that the median Eagle Ford well pad is 7.7 times larger than that in the Permian Basin (16,200 vs. 2100 m 2 ). Wind energy occupied <0.01% (~24 km 2 ), with ~14 km 2 from turbine pads and ~10 km 2 from power transmission lines. We found that edge effects of widely-distributed energy infrastructure caused more indirect landscape alteration than larger, more concentrated urbanization and agriculture. This study presents a novel technique to quantify and compare anthropogenic activities causing both direct and indirect landscape alteration. We illustrate this landscape-mapping framework in Texas for the Spot-tailed Earless Lizard (Holbrookia lacerata); however, the approach can be applied to a range of species in developing regions globally.

  5. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-01-21

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced (99)Mo supply, direct production of (99m)Tc via (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with (99m)Tc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical (99m)Tc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  6. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced 99Mo supply, direct production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with 99mTc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical 99mTc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  7. Planned development of a radioactive beam capability at the LBNL 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Haustein, P.E.; Moltz, D.M.; Norman, E.B.

    1997-12-31

    Planned development of low-Z, proton-rich, radioactive beams ({sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, {sup 14}, {sup 15}O, and {sup 18}F) at the 88 inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab is described. Based on the {open_quotes}coupled cyclotron method{close_quotes}, isotopes produced by (p,n) and (p,a) reactions at a high-current (30 mA), low-energy (10 MeV) medical cyclotron will be transferred {approximately}300 meters by high-speed gas-jet transport to the ECR ion-source at the 88 inch Cyclotron. Important features of this approach are its low cost, use of simple and well tested technology, applicability to nearly all elements, and avoidance of lengthy (chemical or physical)more » isotopic release delays at the production target. Developmental progress is reported for various operational components. Based on conservative estimates, e.g. 1% ECR ion-yield, extracted radioactive ion beams are projected to exceed 10{sup 6} ions/sec. Experiments which will use these beams include studies of the scattering of mirror nuclei, single and mutual excitation in inelastic scattering and single nucleon transfer reactions.« less

  8. Cyclotron Road at Berkeley Lab – U.S. Department of Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Kuhl, Kendra; Weitekamp, Raymond; Lehmann, Marcus; Cave, Etosha; Gur, Ilan; Lounis, Sebastien

    2018-01-16

    The Department of Energy is testing a new model for clean energy research and development (R&D) through a program called Cyclotron Road. The goal is to support scientific R&D that is still too risky for private‐sector investment, and too applied for academia. Participants receive the time, space and capital to pursue their research and the support to find viable pathways to the market.

  9. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  10. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Asner, D. M.; Bradley, R. F.; de Viveiros, L.; ...

    2015-04-20

    Since 1897, we've understood that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. We demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. Here, we observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precisemore » electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta spectroscopy for future neutrino mass experiments.« less

  11. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  12. Lysimetric evaluation of simplified surface energy balance approach in the Texas high plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gowda, P.H.; Senay, G.B.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to 14 Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  13. Lysimetric Evaluation of Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach in the Texas High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Gowda, P.H.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to fourteen Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  14. The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelbke, C. Korad; Morrissey, D. J.; York, R. C.

    1996-10-01

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University has constructed and operates two superconducting cyclotrons for research in nuclear science, accelerator and instrumental physics. The K500, the world's first superconducting cyclotron, was commissioned in 1982 and the K1200, the world's most powerful cyclotron, was commissioned in 1988. Heavy-ion beams across the entire periodic table produced in a pair of ECR ion sources and accelerated to energies on the order of 100 MeV/A are delivered to a modern and versatile complement of experimental apparatus, including the new S800 high-resolution superconducting magnetic spectrograph now undergoing initial testing. The diverse variety of beams are used for studies of the quantum-statistical properties of hot nuclei, the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter, and for nuclear structure research, particularly with radioactive ion beams from the A1200 fragment separator. The NSCL provides radioactive nuclear beams out to the limits of stability on both the neutron-rich and the proton-rich sides of the valley of stability. The laboratory is also used for multi-disciplinary research in astrophysics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, medicine, and biology. The NSCL has recently proposed a major upgrade of its facility based on coupled operation of the two cyclotrons. The upgrade will provide large increases in beam intensities for radioactive beam production and increased energies of the heaviest beams.

  15. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  16. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beammore » intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.« less

  17. A Citation Analysis of Atmospheric Science Publications by Faculty at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Rusty; Stephens, Jane; Hubbard, David; Pickett, Carmelita

    2013-01-01

    A citation analysis of publications produced by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences faculty at Texas A&M University was conducted. This study included a detailed analysis of 5,082 cited publications by source, format, and age. TAMU Libraries holdings were then assessed using the works cited within the context of the 80/20 rule. The sources…

  18. Particle Induced X-Ray Emission experiment using the K150 3.6 MeV proton beam at TAMU Cyclotron Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajouhafsar, Yasmin; Alis Manso Rodriguez Team; Sherry Yennello Team

    2017-09-01

    Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is a non-destructive analytical technique that is used for various tasks, such as elemental composition. The x-rays are emitted when electrons transition from higher to lower energy levels, causing vacancies in the atom's electron configuration. The overall goals of this research are to successfully set up a PIXE experiment and to obtain elemental concentrations for various samples, using the K150 proton beam in the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The x-rays produced are unique to each element and analyzed with reference to their known energies. The setup consists of 3 different detectors, providing a wide range of energies: XR-100T CdTe γ/X-Ray, XR-100T/CR Si and XR-100SDD. Accelerating 3.6 MeV protons from the K150 and using PIXE, we determine concentrations from the NaCl samples provided by the Chemical Engineering Department. The concentrations for each element found in the NaCl thin films are obtained and analyzed through the software, GUPIXWIN. DOE Grant (DE-FG02-93ER40773) and Welch Foundation (A-1266).

  19. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin C; Vander Stappen, François; Bawiec, Christopher R; Janssens, Guillaume; Lewin, Peter A; Prieels, Damien; Solberg, Timothy D; Sehgal, Chandra M; Avery, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.

  1. A new, simple and precise method for measuring cyclotron proton beam energies using the activity vs. depth profile of zinc-65 in a thick target of stacked copper foils.

    PubMed

    Asad, A H; Chan, S; Cryer, D; Burrage, J W; Siddiqui, S A; Price, R I

    2015-11-01

    The proton beam energy of an isochronous 18MeV cyclotron was determined using a novel version of the stacked copper-foils technique. This simple method used stacked foils of natural copper forming 'thick' targets to produce Zn radioisotopes by the well-documented (p,x) monitor-reactions. Primary beam energy was calculated using the (65)Zn activity vs. depth profile in the target, with the results obtained using (62)Zn and (63)Zn (as comparators) in close agreement. Results from separate measurements using foil thicknesses of 100, 75, 50 or 25µm to form the stacks also concurred closely. Energy was determined by iterative least-squares comparison of the normalized measured activity profile in a target-stack with the equivalent calculated normalized profile, using 'energy' as the regression variable. The technique exploits the uniqueness of the shape of the activity vs. depth profile of the monitor isotope in the target stack for a specified incident energy. The energy using (65)Zn activity profiles and 50-μm foils alone was 18.03±0.02 [SD] MeV (95%CI=17.98-18.08), and 18.06±0.12MeV (95%CI=18.02-18.10; NS) when combining results from all isotopes and foil thicknesses. When the beam energy was re-measured using (65)Zn and 50-μm foils only, following a major upgrade of the ion sources and nonmagnetic beam controls the results were 18.11±0.05MeV (95%CI=18.00-18.23; NS compared with 'before'). Since measurement of only one Zn monitor isotope is required to determine the normalized activity profile this indirect yet precise technique does not require a direct beam-current measurement or a gamma-spectroscopy efficiency calibrated with standard sources, though a characteristic photopeak must be identified. It has some advantages over published methods using the ratio of cross sections of monitor reactions, including the ability to determine energies across a broader range and without need for customized beam degraders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  3. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : calibration plans for M-E models and related software.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate m...

  4. Irradiation setup at the U-120M cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křížek, F.; Ferencei, J.; Matlocha, T.; Pospíšil, J.; Príbeli, P.; Raskina, V.; Isakov, A.; Štursa, J.; Vaňát, T.; Vysoká, K.

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes parameters of the proton beams provided by the U-120M cyclotron and the related irradiation setup at the open access irradiation facility at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences. The facility is suitable for testing radiation hardness of various electronic components. The use of the setup is illustrated by a measurement of an error rate for errors caused by Single Event Transients in an SRAM-based Xilinx XC3S200 FPGA. This measurement provides an estimate of a possible occurrence of Single Event Transients. Data suggest that the variation of error rate of the Single Event Effects for different clock phase shifts is not significant enough to use clock phase alignment with the beam as a fault mitigation technique.

  5. The outburst decay of the low magnetic field magnetar SWIFT J1822.3-1606: phase-resolved analysis and evidence for a variable cyclotron feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Castillo, Guillermo A.; Israel, Gian Luca; Tiengo, Andrea; Salvetti, David; Turolla, Roberto; Zane, Silvia; Rea, Nanda; Esposito, Paolo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Perna, Rosalba; Stella, Luigi; Pons, José A.; Campana, Sergio; Götz, Diego; Motta, Sara

    2016-03-01

    We study the timing and spectral properties of the low-magnetic field, transient magnetar SWIFT J1822.3-1606 as it approached quiescence. We coherently phase-connect the observations over a time-span of ˜500 d since the discovery of SWIFT J1822.3-1606 following the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) trigger on 2011 July 14, and carried out a detailed pulse phase spectroscopy along the outburst decay. We follow the spectral evolution of different pulse phase intervals and find a phase and energy-variable spectral feature, which we interpret as proton cyclotron resonant scattering of soft photon from currents circulating in a strong (≳1014 G) small-scale component of the magnetic field near the neutron star surface, superimposed to the much weaker (˜3 × 1013 G) magnetic field. We discuss also the implications of the pulse-resolved spectral analysis for the emission regions on the surface of the cooling magnetar.

  6. CERA-V: Microwave plasma stream source with variable ion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Balmashnov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    A microwave plasma stream source with variable ion energy operated under low magnetic field electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A two mode resonant cavity (TE{sub 111}, {ital E}{sub 010}) was used. It was established that overdense plasma creation (TE{sub 111}) and high energy in-phase space localized electron plasma oscillations ({ital E}{sub 010}) in a decreased magnetic field lead to the potential for ion energy variation from 10 to 300 eV (up to 1 A of ion current, and a plasma cross section of 75 cm{sup 2}, hydrogen) by varying the TE{sub 111}, {ital E}{sub 010} power, the valuemore » of the magnetic field, and pressure. The threshold level of {ital E}{sub 010}-mode power was also determined. An application of this CERA-V source to hydrogenation of semiconductor devices without deterioration of surface layers by ions and fast atoms is under investigation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}« less

  7. First Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables: Evidence of Excess Emission at 3-8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Harrison, Thomas; Chun, Howard; Thomas, Beth; Stefaniak, Linda; Ciardi, David R.; Szkody, Paula; van Belle, Gerard

    2006-07-01

    We present the first observations of magnetic cataclysmic variables using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We used the Infrared Array Camera to obtain photometry of the Polars EF Eri, GG Leo, V347 Pav, and RX J0154.0-5947 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. In all of our targets, we detect excess mid-infrared emission over that expected from the component stars alone. We explore the origin of this IR excess by examining bremsstrahlung, cyclotron emission, circumbinary dust, and L/T brown dwarf secondary stars. Bremsstrahlung and cyclotron emission appear unlikely to be significant contributors to the observed fluxes. At present, the most likely candidate for the excess emission is dust that is probably located in a circumbinary disk with an inner temperature near 800 K. However, a simple dust disk plus any reasonable low-mass or brown dwarf-like secondary star is unable to fully explain the observed flux densities in the 3-8 μm region.

  8. User Perceptions of the Library's Web Pages: A Focus Group Study at Texas A&M University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Gwyneth H.; Leffel, Rob; Ramirez, Diana; Hart, Judith L.; Armstrong, Tommy S., II

    2002-01-01

    This focus group study explored library patrons' opinions about Texas A&M library's Web pages. Discusses information seeking behavior which indicated that patrons are confused when trying to navigate the Public Access Menu and suggests the need for a more intuitive interface. (Author/LRW)

  9. The First Bachelor of Science Degree in Wind Energy in the US at Texas Tech University Authors: A. Ruiz Columbié, K. Rozsavolgyi, P. Hughes, D. Farris, A. Swift, R. Walker and M. Baker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Columbie, A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a new Bachelor of Science Degree in Wind Energy proposal at Texas Tech University (TTU) beginning the spring 2011. It is designed to prepare the students for admission into a graduate program in wind energy, and/or employment as a professional in wind energy. The program integrates the environmental, social, economic, ethical, technical, scientific principles and practical skills the graduates will need in order to success as professionals in their field of expertise. This degree will provide a multidisciplinary education in the wind energy field through the study of subjects as wind meteorology, wind power generation, wind resource assessment, sustainable energy systems, utility systems operations, and fiscal and operational oversight. Students will be prepared to contribute in areas that include planning, development, operations, analysis and supervision of wind energy systems and projects, as well as to continue in graduate studies. Following the Texas Tech Uniform Undergraduate Degree Requirement Act, the major in Wind Energy will include 47 hours of general education courses from the TTU academic core, 18 hours of junior/senior level electives, and 55 hours of coursework in wind energy topics. A minor of 18 hours is also provided at TTU for those students with a different major who might decide to get a higher education in wind energy.

  10. Measuring energy-saving retrofits: Experiences from the Texas LoanSTAR program

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, J.S.; Reddy, T.A.; Claridge, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    In 1988 the Governor`s Energy Management Center of Texas received approval from the US Department of Energy to establish a $98.6 million state-wide retrofit demonstration revolving loan program to fund energy-conserving retrofits in state, public school, and local government buildings. As part of this program, a first-of-its-kind, statewide Monitoring and Analysis Program (MAP) was established to verify energy and dollar savings of the retrofits, reduce energy costs by identifying operational and maintenance improvements, improve retrofit selection in future rounds of the LoanSTAR program, and initiate a data base of energy use in institutional and commercial buildings located in Texas. Thismore » report discusses the LoanSTAR MAP with an emphasis on the process of acquiring and analyzing data to measure savings from energy conservation retrofits when budgets are a constraint. This report includes a discussion of the program structure, basic measurement techniques, data archiving and handling, data reporting and analysis, and includes selected examples from LoanSTAR agencies. A summary of the program results for the first two years of monitoring is also included.« less

  11. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.

    2013-12-01

    While thermoelectric power generation accounts for less than one percent of total water consumption in the western U.S, steady growth in demand is projected for this sector. Complexities and heterogeneity in water supply, water demand, and institutional controls make water development a challenging proposition throughout the West. A consortium of National Laboratories, the University of Texas and the Electric Power Research Institute are working with the Western Governors' Association and Western States Water Council to assist the Western Electricity Coordinating Council and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas to integrate water related issues into long-term transmission planning. Specifically, water withdrawal and consumption have been estimated for each western power plant and their susceptibility to climate impacts assessed. To assist with transmission planning, water availability and cost data have been mapped at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level for the conterminous western U.S. (1208 watersheds). Five water sources were individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in consumptive water demand to 2030. The relative costs (capital and O&M) to secure, convey, and treat the water as necessary have also been estimated for each source of water. These data configured into watershed level supply curves were subsequently used to constrain West-wide transmission planning. Results across a range of alternative energy futures indicate the impact of water availability and cost on the makeup and siting of future power generation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Water budgets at a 8

  12. Toward Understanding Low Level Jet Climatology over West Texas and its Impact on Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, W.; Araya, G.; Basu, S.; Ruiz-Columbie, A.; Castillo, L.

    2014-06-01

    Low Level Jets (LLJs) are defined as regions of relatively strong winds in the lower part of the atmosphere. They typically occur between 100 and 1500 m above ground level (ABL) and can be found in every continent. In particular, LLJs are a common feature over the Great Plains in the United States. It has been reported that 75% of LLJs in the Great Plains occur at night and with seasonal patterns. Our preliminary results have corroborated some of the LLJ known characteristics, but also shown the lack of a clear three-dimensional picture of how the phenomenon is displaced over West Texas (precise location, timing and lifespan). This paper is focused on the development of a detailed LLJ climatology and its weather correlates for West Texas. Using the 200-m tower data (Reese, Texas), profiler and Mesonet data, and WRF runs, a 4-dim model is introduced which summarizes the main features of the LLJ over the aforementioned region and shows its patterns along the year. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the importance of LLJs for wind energy production. It has been observed that during a LLJ event the level of turbulence intensities and TKE are significantly much lower than those during unstable conditions; as a result, cyclical aerodynamic loads on turbine blades are diminished. The major salient results from this study include: the vertical shears in LLJs are very large, causing higher static loads. Finally, the WRF model has accurately captured the beginning of the LLJ event; however, the local maximum wind speed at the LLJ "nose" has been under-predicted by approximately 15%, which highlights the difficulties WRF still faces in predicting this phenomenon.

  13. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  14. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.Avery@uphs.upenn.edu

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be onmore » the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.« less

  15. Source of seed fluctuations for electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-06-01

    We consider a nonlinear wave energy cascade from the low frequency range into the higher frequency domain of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation as a possible source of seed fluctuations for EMIC wave growth due to the ion cyclotron instability in Earth's magnetosphere. The presented theoretical analysis shows that energy cascade from the Pc 4-5 frequency range (2-22 mHz) into the range of Pc 1-2 pulsations (0.1-5 Hz), i.e. into the frequency range of EMIC waves, is able to supply the needed level of seed fluctuations that guarantees growth of EMIC waves up to the observable level during one pass through the near equatorial region where the ion cyclotron instability takes place. We also analyze the magnetic field data from the Polar and Van Allen Probes spacecraft to test the suggested nonlinear mechanism. In this initial study we restrict our analysis to magnetic fluctuation spectra only. We do not analyze the third-order structure function, but judge whether a nonlinear energy cascade is present or whether it is not by only analyzing the appearance of power-law distributions in the low-frequency part of the magnetic field spectra. While the power-law spectrum alone does not guarantee that a nonlinear cascade is present, the power-law distribution is a strong indication of the possible development of a nonlinear cascade. Our analysis shows that a nonlinear energy cascade is indeed observed in both the outer and inner magnetosphere data, and EMIC waves are growing from this nonthermal background. All the analyzed data are in good agreement with the theoretical model presented in this study. Overall, the results of this study support a nonlinear energy cascade in Earth's magnetosphere as a mechanism which is responsible for supplying seed fluctuating energy in the higher frequency domain where EMIC waves grow due to the ion cyclotron instability.

  16. Reflection and backscattering of microwaves under doubling of the plasma density and displacement of the gyroresonance region during electron cyclotron resonance heating of plasma in the l-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Vasilkov, D. G.

    Reflection and backscattering of high-power (400 kW) gyrotron radiation creating and heating plasma at the second harmonic of the electronic cyclotron frequency in the L-2M stellarator have been investigated experimentally. The effect of the displacement of the gyroresonance region from the axis of the plasma column under doubling of the plasma density on the processes of reflection and backscattering of microwave radiation has been examined. A near doubling of short-wavelength (k{sub ⊥} ≈ 30 cm{sup –1}) turbulent density fluctuations squared is observed. The change in the energy confinement time under variations of plasma parameters and characteristics of short-wavelength turbulence ismore » discussed. A discrepancy between the measured values of the reflection coefficient from the electron cyclotron resonance heating region and predictions of the one-dimensional model is revealed.« less

  17. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  18. Single-turn extraction from a K110 AVF cyclotron by flat-top acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Okumura, Susumu

    2009-03-15

    Single-turn extraction from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency AVF cyclotron with a K number of 110 using a flat-top (FT) acceleration system has been achieved to reduce the energy spread of an ion beam for microbeam formation with energy up to hundreds of MeV and to increase extraction efficiency from the cyclotron. In order to generate a FT waveform voltage using the fifth-harmonic frequency on a dee electrode, a FT resonator was designed using MAFIA code to achieve downsizing and low power consumption. The FT resonator, coupled to the main resonator through a coupling capacitor, covered the full range ofmore » the fifth harmonic frequency from 55 to 110 MHz. Various ion beams, accelerated using different acceleration harmonic modes of h=1 and 2, such as 220 MeV {sup 12}C{sup 5+} (h=2), 260 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+} (h=2), and 45 MeV H{sup +} (h=1), were developed by FT acceleration. A clear turn separation of the beam bunches was successfully observed at the extraction region of the large-scale AVF cyclotron with number of revolutions greater than 200. As a result, high extraction efficiency (over 95%) from the cyclotron was achieved. Single-turn extraction was confirmed by counting the number of beam bunches out of the cyclotron for an injected beam pulsed by a beam chopping system in the injection line. The energy spread of the 260 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+} beam was measured using an analyzing magnet, and we verified a reduction in the energy spread from {delta}E/E=0.1% to 0.05% by single-turn extraction after FT acceleration.« less

  19. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTemore » X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.« less

  20. Nonlinear analysis of a relativistic beam-plasma cyclotron instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent set of nonlinear and relativistic wave-particle equations are derived for a magnetized beam-plasma system interacting with electromagnetic cyclotron waves. In particular, the high-frequency cyclotron mode interacting with a streaming and gyrating electron beam within a background plasma is considered in some detail. This interaction mode may possibly find application as a high-power source of coherent short-wavelength radiation for laboratory devices. The background plasma, although passive, plays a central role in this mechanism by modifying the dielectric properties in which the magnetized electron beam propagates. For a particular choice of the transverse beam velocity (i.e., the speed of light divided by the relativistic mass factor), the interaction frequency equals the nonrelativistic electron cyclotron frequency times the relativistic mass factor. For this choice of transverse beam velocity the detrimental effects of a longitudinal beam velocity spread is virtually removed. Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent are both analytically calculated and obtained through numerical simulations of the wave-particle equations. The quality of the electron beam, degree of energy and pitch angle spread, and its effect on the beam-plasma cyclotron instability is studied.

  1. The electron-cyclotron maser for astrophysical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.

    2006-08-01

    The electron-cyclotron maser is a process that generates coherent radiation from plasma. In the last two decades, it has gained increasing attention as a dominant mechanism of producing high-power radiation in natural high-temperature magnetized plasmas. Originally proposed as a somewhat exotic idea and subsequently applied to include non-relativistic plasmas, the electron-cyclotron maser was considered as an alternative to turbulent though coherent wave-wave interaction which results in radio emission. However, when it was recognized that weak relativistic corrections had to be taken into account in the radiation process, the importance of the electron-cyclotron maser rose to the recognition it deserves. Here we review the theory and application of the electron-cyclotron maser to the directly accessible plasmas in our immediate terrestrial and planetary environments. In situ access to the radiating plasmas has turned out to be crucial in identifying the conditions under which the electron-cyclotron maser mechanism is working. Under extreme astrophysical conditions, radiation from plasmas may provide a major energy loss; however, for generating the powerful radiation in which the electron-cyclotron maser mechanism is capable, the plasma must be in a state where release of susceptible amounts of energy in the form of radiation is favorable. Such conditions are realized when the plasma is unable to digest the available free energy that is imposed from outside and stored in its particle distribution. The lack of dissipative processes is a common property of collisionless plasmas. When, in addition, the plasma density becomes so low that the amount of free energy per particle is large, direct emission becomes favorable. This can be expressed as negative absorption of the plasma which, like in conventional masers, leads to coherent emission even though no quantum correlations are involved. The physical basis of this formal analogy between a quantum maser and the

  2. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  3. Evaluation of neutron skyshine from a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Huyashi, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-06-01

    The dose distribution and the spectrum variation of neutrons due to the skyshine effect have been measured with various detectors in the environment surrounding the cyclotron of the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The source neutrons were produced by stopping a 52-MeV proton beam into a carbon beam stopper and were extracted upward from the opening in the concrete shield surrounding the cyclotron and then leaked into the atmosphere through the cyclotron building. The dose distribution and the spectrum of neutrons near the beam stopper were also measured in order to get information on the skyshine source. Themore » measured skyshine neutron spectra and dose distribution were analyzed with two codes, MMCR2 and SKYSHINE-II, with the result that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experiment. Valuable characteristics of this experiment are the determination of the energy spectrum and dose distribution of source neutron and the measurement of skyshine neutrons from an actual large-scale accelerator building to the exclusion of direct neutrons transported through the air. This experiment must be useful as a kind of benchmark experiment on the skyshine phenomenon.« less

  4. User Perceptions of the "Reliability" of Library Services at Texas A&M University: A Focus Group Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Jeannette; Crowley, Gwyneth H.

    2003-01-01

    Explored user perceptions of dependability and accuracy of Texas A&M library services through focus groups. Reports user difficulties in locating materials, inaccurate catalog and circulation records, inadequate signage, searching the online catalog, and late notification of interlibrary loan arrivals; and discusses the library's efforts to…

  5. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  6. Assessment of the neutron dose field around a biomedical cyclotron: FLUKA simulation and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Lucconi, Giulia; Pancaldi, Davide; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2016-12-01

    In the planning of a new cyclotron facility, an accurate knowledge of the radiation field around the accelerator is fundamental for the design of shielding, the protection of workers, the general public and the environment. Monte Carlo simulations can be very useful in this process, and their use is constantly increasing. However, few data have been published so far as regards the proper validation of Monte Carlo simulation against experimental measurements, particularly in the energy range of biomedical cyclotrons. In this work a detailed model of an existing installation of a GE PETtrace 16.5MeV cyclotron was developed using FLUKA. An extensive measurement campaign of the neutron ambient dose equivalent H ∗ (10) in marked positions around the cyclotron was conducted using a neutron rem-counter probe and CR39 neutron detectors. Data from a previous measurement campaign performed by our group using TLDs were also re-evaluated. The FLUKA model was then validated by comparing the results of high-statistics simulations with experimental data. In 10 out of 12 measurement locations, FLUKA simulations were in agreement within uncertainties with all the three different sets of experimental data; in the remaining 2 positions, the agreement was with 2/3 of the measurements. Our work allows to quantitatively validate our FLUKA simulation setup and confirms that Monte Carlo technique can produce accurate results in the energy range of biomedical cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently offers…

  8. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low- frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  9. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low-frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  10. EFRC:CST at the University of Texas at Austin - A DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Zhu, Xiaoyang (Director, Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials); CST Staff

    2017-12-09

    'EFRC:CST at the University of Texas at Austin - A DOE Energy Frontier Research Center' was submitted by the EFRC for Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. EFRC:CST is directed by Xiaoyang Zhu at the University of Texas at Austin in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  11. Comparative study of ion cyclotron waves at Mars, Venus and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Zhang, T. L.; Blanco-Cano, X.

    2011-08-01

    Ion cyclotron waves are generated in the solar wind when it picks up freshly ionized planetary exospheric ions. These waves grow from the free energy of the highly anisotropic distribution of fresh pickup ions, and are observed in the spacecraft frame with left-handed polarization and a wave frequency near the ion's gyrofrequency. At Mars and Venus and in the Earth's polar cusp, the solar wind directly interacts with the planetary exospheres. Ion cyclotron waves with many similar properties are observed in these diverse plasma environments. The ion cyclotron waves at Mars indicate its hydrogen exosphere to be extensive and asymmetric in the direction of the interplanetary electric field. The production of fast neutrals plays an important role in forming an extended exosphere in the shape and size observed. At Venus, the region of exospheric proton cyclotron wave production may be restricted to the magnetosheath. The waves observed in the solar wind at Venus appear to be largely produced by the solar-wind-Venus interaction, with some waves at higher frequencies formed near the Sun and carried outward by the solar wind to Venus. These waves have some similarity to the expected properties of exospherically produced proton pickup waves but are characterized by magnetic connection to the bow shock or by a lack of correlation with local solar wind properties respectively. Any confusion of solar derived waves with exospherically derived ion pickup waves is not an issue at Mars because the solar-produced waves are generally at much higher frequencies than the local pickup waves and the solar waves should be mostly absorbed when convected to Mars distance as the proton cyclotron frequency in the plasma frame approaches the frequency of the solar-produced waves. In the Earth's polar cusp, the wave properties of ion cyclotron waves are quite variable. Spatial gradients in the magnetic field may cause this variation as the background field changes between the regions in which

  12. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-1958), Cyclotron and Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, William T.

    On August 8, 2001, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory celebrated the centennial of the birth of its founder (and namesake), Ernest Orlando Lawrence. For the occasion, many speeches were given and old speeches were remembered. We recall the words of the late Luis Alvarez, a Nobel Laureate and one of the Lawrence's closest colleagues: ''Lawrence will always be remembered as the inventor of the cyclotron, but more importantly, he should be remembered as the inventor of the modern way of doing science''. J. L. Heilbron and R. W. Seidel, in the introduction of their book, ''Lawrence and His Laboratory'' stated, ''Themore » motives and mechanisms that shaped the growth of the Laboratory helped to force deep changes in the scientific estate and in the wider society. In the entrepreneurship of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, these motives, mechanisms, and changes came together in a tight focus. He mobilized great and small philanthropists, state and local governments, corporations, and plutocrats, volunteers and virtuosos. The work they supported, from astrophysics and atomic bombs, from radiochemistry to nuclear medicine, shaped the way we observe, control, and manipulate our environment.'' Indeed, all over the civilized world, the ways we do science changed forever after Lawrence built his famed Radiation Laboratory. In this editorial, we epitomize his legacy of changing the way we do medicine, thereby affecting the health and well being of all humanity. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. Lawrence conceived the idea of the cyclotron early in 1929 after reading an article by Rolf Wideroe on high-energy accelerators. In the spring of 1930 one of his students, Nels Edlefsen, constructed two crude models of a cyclotron. Later in the fall of the same year, another student, M. Stanley Livingston, constructed a 13-cm diameter model that had all the features of

  13. Variability of the composition of Io's exosphere deduced from the spectrum of ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Russell, C. T.; Raeder, J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2000-10-01

    The spectrum of ion cyclotron waves seen during the Io flybys, I0, I24, I25 and I27 is quite varied. On I0 the cyclotron waves had a single strong peak near the gyrofrequency of SO2+. On I24 there were two peaks, one at the SO+ gyrofrequency and one at the SO2+ gyrofrequency, with the former stronger. On I25, the spectrum was similar but the relative strength of the peaks reversed. On I27 the spectrum was similar to I24 with the addition of a broad band centered on the H2S+ gyrofrequency. These varying strength emissions centered at the gyrofrequency of discrete ion gyrofrequencies imply that the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere is quite variable. The strength of the waves also appears to vary from one pass to the next, with the weakest signals occurring furthest from noon solar phase angle. This latter effect may be a geometrical in origin, associated with the varying dayside atmosphere relative to the corotating plasma. A simple model of the ion pickup process and transport of fast neutrals across field lines can explain the observed local time effect, and some of the radial variation of the torus properties.

  14. Reinvesting in Geosciences at Texas A&M University in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Bednarz, S. W.; Miller, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University is implementing a three-prong strategy to build a strong college: 1) reinvesting in signature areas, 2) emphasizing environmental programs, and 3) nurturing a strong multi-disciplinary approach to course, program and research development. The college is home to one of the most comprehensive concentrations of geosciences students (837), faculty (107) and research scientists (32) in the country. Its departments include Atmospheric Sciences, Geography, Geology & Geophysics, and Oceanography. The college is also home to three major research centers: the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, and the Texas Sea Grant College Program. During the 1990’s the college experienced a 20 percent loss in faculty when allocation of university funds was based primarily on student credit hour production while research expenditures were deemphasized. As part of Texas A&M University President Robert Gates’ Faculty Reinvestment and the college’s Ocean Drilling and Sustainable Earth Sciences hiring programs, 31 faculty members were hired in the college from 2004 through 2009, representing a significant investment-2.2 million in salaries and 4.6 million in start-up. Concurrent improvements to infrastructure and services important to signature programs included $3.0 million for radiogenic isotope and core imaging facilities and the hiring of a new Director of Student Recruitment. In contrast to faculty hiring in previous decades, the expectation of involvement in multi-disciplinary teaching, learning and research was emphasized during this hiring initiative. Returns on investments to date consist of growth in our environmental programs including new multidisciplinary course offerings, generation of a new research center and significant increases in student enrollment, research expenditures, and output of research and scholarly works. Challenges ahead include providing adequate staff

  15. Production of Radioactive Beams on the Proton Dripline Using MARS at Texas A&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundey, Rebekah; Roeder, Brian; Youngs, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Exotic nuclei near the proton dripline are of interest for research in nuclear astrophysics, especially in the study of the r-p process. A 58Ni on Ni reaction at higher energies has been shown to successfully populate isotopes on the dripline, but this reaction has not previously been used at the Cyclotron Institute. In this experiment, a 58Ni beam at 36 MeV/u was impinged on Nickel and Beryllium targets to determine which isotopes could be produced. The resulting fragments were measured with two Silicon detectors in order to determine energy loss and production rates for each isotope. The effects of the different targets and the presence of a Carbon stripper foil on production rates will be presented and compared with simulations from the LISE++ program. Funded by a NSF REU Grant (PHY-1659847) and a DOE Grant (DE-FG02-93ER40773).

  16. A strong-focusing 800 MeV cyclotron for high-current applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, N.; Assadi, S.; Badgley, K.; Comeaux, J.; Kellams, J.; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-04-01

    A superconducting strong-focusing cyclotron (SFC) is being developed for high-current applications. It incorporates four innovations. Superconducting quarter-wave cavities are used to provide >20 MV/turn acceleration. The orbit separation is thereby opened so that bunch-bunch interactions between successive orbits are eliminated. Quadrapole focusing channels are incorporated within the sectors so that alternating-gradient strong-focusing transport is maintained throughout. Dipole windings on the inner and outer orbits provide enhanced control for injection and extraction of bunches. Finally each sector magnet is configured as a flux-coupled stack of independent apertures, so that any desired number of independent cyclotrons can be integrated within a common footprint. Preliminary simulations indicate that each SFC should be capable of accelerating 10 mA CW to 800 MeV with very low loss and >50% energy efficiency. A primary motivation for SFC is as a proton driver for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core. The cores are fueled solely with the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel from a conventional nuclear power plant. The beams from one SFC stack would destroy all of the transuranics and long-lived fission products that are produced by a GWe reactor [1]. This capability offers the opportunity to close the nuclear fuel cycle and provide a path to green nuclear energy.

  17. IUE and ground-based observations of the Hubble-Sandage variables in M31 and M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, C.; Dodorico, S.; Gull, T. R.; Benvenuti, P.; Humphreys, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra were obtained from the International Ultraviolet Explorer for the brightest Hubble-Sandage (H-S) variables in M31 and M33. The ultraviolet fluxes were then used in combination with ground-based visual and infrared photometry to determine the energy distributions, luminosities, and temperatures of these stars. When corrected for interstellar extinction, the integrated energy distributions yield the total luminosities and blackbody temperatures of the H-S variables. The resulting bolometric magnitudes and temperatures confirm that these peculiar stars are indeed very luminous, hot stars. They occupy the same regions of the bolometric magnitude vs temperature diagram as Eta Car and P Cyg in the Galaxy and S Dor in the LMC.

  18. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutronmore » collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.« less

  19. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  20. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Michael

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  1. Electron cyclotron emission from nonthermal tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; O'Brien, M.R.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.

    1993-02-01

    Electron cyclotron emission can be a sensitive indicator of nonthermal electron distributions. A new, comprehensive ray-tracing and cyclotron emission code that is aimed at predicting and interpreting the cyclotron emission from tokamak plasmas is described. The radiation transfer equation is solved along Wentzel--Kramers--Brillouin (WKB) rays using a fully relativistic calculation of the emission and absorption from electron distributions that are gyrotropic and toroidally symmetric, but may be otherwise arbitrary functions of the constants of motion. Using a radial array of electron distributions obtained from a bounce-averaged Fokker--Planck code modeling dc electron field and electron cyclotron heating effects, the cyclotron emissionmore » spectra are obtained. A pronounced strong nonthermal cyclotron emission feature that occurs at frequencies relativistically downshifted to second harmonic cyclotron frequencies outside the tokamak is calculated, in agreement with experimental results from the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davies, Fusion Technol. [bold 8], 441 (1985)] and FT-1 [D. G. Bulyginsky [ital et] [ital al]., in [ital Proceedings] [ital of] [ital the] 15[ital th] [ital European] [ital Conference] [ital on] [ital Controlled] [ital Fusion] [ital and] [ital Plasma] [ital Heating], Dubrovnik, 1988 (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, 1988), Vol. 12B, Part II, p. 823] tokamaks. The calculations indicate the presence of a strong loss mechanism that operates on electrons in the 100--150 keV energy range.« less

  2. New superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Hans-Udo; Baumgarten, Christian; Geisler, Andreas; Heese, Jürgen; Hobl, Achim; Krischel, Detlef; Schillo, Michael; Schmidt, Stefan; Timmer, Jan

    2005-12-01

    Since one and a half decades ACCEL is investing in development and engineering of state of the art particle-therapy systems. A new medical superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron with special focus on the present and future beam requirements of fast scanning treatment systems has been designed. The first new ACCEL medical proton cyclotron is under commissioning at PSI for their PROSCAN proton therapy facility having undergone successful factory tests especially of the closed loop cryomagnetic system. The second cyclotron is part of ACCEL's integrated proton therapy system for Europe's first clinical center, RPTC in Munich. The cyclotron, the energy selection system, the beamline as well as the four gantries and patient positioners have been installed. The scanning system and major parts of the control software have already been tested. We will report on the concept of ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems and the current status of the commissioning work at PSI and RPTC.

  3. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted itsmore » own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.« less

  4. Development of the Focal Plane Detection System for the Future Gas-Filled Separator at the Cyclotron Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, Erin; Mayorov, Dmitriy; Folden, Charles ``Cody'', III

    2015-10-01

    A focal plane detection system is being developed for use with the gas-filled separator previously known as SASSYER (Small Angle Separator System at Yale for Evaporation Residues) that will be installed at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. This system will be used to study heavy (Z >= 90) elements and features two 60×40 strip double-sided silicon detectors (DSSDs) and accompanying multiplexing read-out electronics. The DSSDs cover an area of 120×40 mm2 and are read-out by fourteen 16-channel multiplexers (Mesytec MUX-16) that perform the function of a preamplifier, shaper, and leading-edge discriminator in one unit. The multiplexers are controlled by four ``MUX drivers,'' each of which serves as a signal bus for multiple MUX-16 boards. The system allows a single 16-channel ADC to read the combined 200 strips of both DSSDs. A four peak source composed of 148Gd, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm was used to characterize the performance of the system, with a preliminary energy resolution of ~ 60 keV measured for the 241Am alphas. This contribution will discuss the work performed in assembly of the test setup, optimization and performance check of the multiplexers, and the preliminary energy and position data collected with the α-source. Present address: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545.

  5. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  6. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  7. Development of a PET cyclotron based irradiation setup for proton radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghithan, Sharif; Crespo, Paulo; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, Hugo; Alves, Francisco; Rachinhas, P. J. B. M.

    2015-02-01

    An out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinary produces radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) has been developed, characterized, calibrated and validated. The current from a 20 μm thick aluminum transmission foil is readout by home-made transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setup can be computer-controlled with a shutter. In this work, we report on experimental results and Geant4 simulations of a setup which exploits for the first time the 18 MeV proton beam from a PET cyclotron to irradiate a selected region of a target using the developed irradiation system. By using this system, we are able to deliver a homogeneous beam on targets with 18 mm diameter, allowing to achieve the controlled irradiation of cell cultures located in biological multi-well dishes of 16 mm diameter. We found that the magnetic field applied inside the cyclotron plays a major role for achieving the referred to homogeneity. The quasi-Gaussian curve obtained by scanning the magnet current and measuring the corresponding dose rate must be measured before any irradiation procedure, with the shutter closed. At the optimum magnet current, which corresponds to the center of the Gaussian, a homogenous dose is observed over the whole target area. Making use of a rotating disk with a slit of 0.5 mm at a radius of 150 mm, we could measure dose rates on target ranging from 500 mGy/s down to 5 mGy/s. For validating the developed irradiation setup, several Gafchromic® EBT2 films were exposed to different values of dose. The absolute dose in the irradiated films were assessed in the 2D film dosimetry system of the Department of Radiotherapy of Coimbra University Hospital Center with a precision better than 2%. In the future, we plan

  8. EFRC: CST at the University of Texas at Austin- A DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    "EFRC: CST at the University of Texas at Austin- A DOE Energy Frontier Research Center" was submitted by the EFRC for Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST) to the "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. EFRC: CST is directed by Xiaoyang Zhu at the University of Texas at Austin in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in themore » U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.« less

  9. A Suzaku View of Cyclotron Line Sources and Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Suchy, S.; Rivers, E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Marcu, D. M.; Barragan, L.; Kuehnel, M.; Fuerst, F.; Schwarm, F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Seventeen accreting neutron star pulsars, mostly high mass X-ray binaries with half of them Be-type transients, are known to exhibit Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features (CRSFs) in their X-ray spectra, with characteristic line energies from 10 to 60 keY. To date about two thirds of them, plus a few similar systems without known CRSFs, have been observed with Suzaku. We present an overview of results from these observations, including the discovery of a CRSF in the transient IA1118-61 and pulse phase resolved spectroscopy of OX 301-2. These observations allow for the determination of cyclotron line parameters to an unprecedented degree of accuracy within a moderate amount of observing time. This is important since these parameters vary - e.g., with orbital phase, pulse phase, or luminosity - depending on the geometry of the magnetic field of the pulsar and the properties of the accretion column at the magnetic poles. We briefly introduce a spectral model for CRSFs that is currently being developed and that for the first time is based on these physical properties. In addition to cyclotron line measurements, selected highlights from the Suzaku analyses include dip and flare studies, e.g., of 4U 1907+09 and Vela X-I, which show clumpy wind effects (like partial absorption and/or a decrease in the mass accretion rate supplied by the wind) and may also display magnetospheric gating effects.

  10. Thin layer activation techniques at the U-120 cyclotron of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Ivanov, E. A.; Pascovici, G.; Popa-Simil, L.; Racolta, P. M.

    1994-05-01

    The Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is a nuclear method especially used for different types of wear (or corrosion) investigations. Experimental results for selection criteria of nuclear reactions for various tribological studies, using the IPNE U-120 classical variable energy Cyclotron are presented. Measuring methods for the main types of wear phenomena and home made instrumentations dedicated for TLA industrial applications are also reported. Some typical TLA tribological applications, a nuclear scanning method to obtain wear profile of piston-rings are presented as well.

  11. Investigation of Y 88 via ( p ,   d γ ) reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Hughes, R. O.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; ...

    2016-02-18

    We studied the low-spin structure of odd-odd 88Y via (p,dγ) reactions on an 89Y target. The K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute was employed to provide a 28.5-MeV proton beam, and particle-γ and particle-γ-γ coincidence data were collected with the STARLiTeR array. Moreover, a number of new levels and γ rays have been observed below 2.5 MeV, while level and γ-ray energies as well as spin-parity assignments have been re-evaluated.

  12. Texas motorcycle crash countermeasure workshop.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the Texas A&M : Transportation Institute (TTI) to develop a 5-year strategic plan for improving motorcycle safety : in the State of Texas. The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycl...

  13. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  14. Shielding design of the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riper, Kenneth A. Van; Metzger, Robert L.; Nelson, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (Scottsdale, Arizona) is building a cyclotron vault containing a cyclotron with adjacent targets and a beam line leading to an external target. The targets are irradiated by high energy (15 to 16.5 MeV) protons for the production of radioisotopes. We performed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to calculate the radiation dose outside of the vault during irradiation of the cyclotron and external targets. We present the Monte Carlo model including the geometry, sources, and variance reduction methods. Mesh tallies surrounding the vault show the external dose rate is within acceptable limits.

  15. Overview of the future upgrade of the INFN-LNS superconducting cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabretta, Luciano; Calanna, Alessandra; Cuttone, Giacomo; D'Agostino, Grazia; Rifuggiato, Danilo; Domenico Russo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The LNS Superconducting Cyclotron, named “Ciclotrone Superconduttore” (CS), has been in operation for more than 20 years. A wide range of ion species from hydrogen to lead, with energy in the range 10 to 80 AMeV, have been delivered to users. The maximum beam power is limited to 100 W due to the beam dissipation on the electrostatic deflectors. To fulfil the demand of users aiming at studying rare processes in nuclear physics, an upgrade of the cyclotron is necessarily intended to increase the intensity of ion beams with mass lower than 40 a.m.u. up to a power 10 kW. This will be achieved by means of extraction by stripping. This solution needs to replace the cryostat including the superconducting coils. The present capability of the cyclotron will be maintained, i.e. all the ion species allowed by the operating diagram will be available, being extracted by electrostatic extraction. In addition to the high power beams for nuclear physics, it will be possible to produce medical radioisotopes like 211At using an internal target.

  16. Single-Electron Detection and Spectroscopy via Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Asner, D M; Bradley, R F; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thümmler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L

    2015-04-24

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Although first derived in 1904, cyclotron radiation from a single electron orbiting in a magnetic field has never been observed directly. We demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radio-frequency spectrometer. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay end point, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta spectroscopy for future neutrino mass experiments.

  17. Anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in downward auroral-current regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. III

    SciTech Connect

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas; Lund, Eric J.

    2010-06-15

    Recently, a new multimoment fluid theory was developed for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation that includes the effect of electrostatic, turbulent, wave-particle interactions (see Jasperse et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006); ibid.13, 112902 (2006)]). In the present paper, which is intended as a sequel, it is concluded from FAST satellite data that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence that appears is due to the operation of an electron, bump-on-tail-driven ion-cyclotron instability for downward currents in the long-range potential region of the Earth's magnetosphere. Approximate closed-form expressions for the anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for themore » ion-cyclotron turbulence are obtained. The turbulent, inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized, multimoment fluid theory given above, in the limit of a turbulent, homogeneous, uniformly magnetized, quasisteady plasma, yields the well-known formula for the anomalous resistivity given by Gary and Paul [Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 1097 (1971)] and Tange and Ichimaru [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1437 (1974)].« less

  18. Radionuclidic purity measurements for cyclotron-produced 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n) at 18 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, K.; Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Stothers, L.; Vuckovic, M.; Frantzen, K.; Cockburn, N.; Corsaut, J.; Dodd, M.; Goodbody, A.; Hanemaayer, V.; Hook, B.; Klug, J.; Kovacs, M.; Kumlin, J.; McDiarmid, S.; McEwan, J.; Prato, F.; Ruddock, P.; Valiant, J.; Zeisler, S.; Ruth, T.; Celler, A.; Benard, F.; Schaffer, P.

    2017-05-01

    The radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced 99mTc has been measured by gamma ray spectroscopy and compared to the results of a quick release test modeled after the molybdenum breakthrough test performed on generator-derived 99mTc. Excellent radionuclidic purity is reported for samples produced at BCCA during our clinical trial. The quick release test results agree well with the gamma ray analysis.

  19. Analysis of the Impact of Introductory Physics on Engineering Students at Texas A&M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Jonathan; Bassichis, William

    Introductory physics forms a major part of the foundational knowledge of engineering majors, independent of discipline and institution. While the content of introductory physics courses is consistent from institution to institution, the manner in which it is taught can vary greatly due to professor, textbook, instructional method, and overall course design. This work attempts to examine variations in student success, as measured by overall academic performance in an engineering major, and matriculation rates, based on the type of introductory physics a student took while enrolled in an engineering degree at Texas A&M University. Specific options for introductory physics at Texas A&M University include two calculus based physics courses, one traditional (UP), and one more mathematically rigorous (DP), transfer credit, and high school (AP or dual) credit. In order to examine the impact of introductory physics on a student's degree progression, data mining analyses are performed on a data set of relatively comprehensive academic records for all students enrolled as an engineering major for a minimum of one academic term. Student data has been collected for years of entering freshman beginning in 1990 and ending in 2010. Correlations will be examined between freshman level courses, including introductory physics, and follow on engineering courses, matriculation rates, and time to graduation.

  20. Cyclotron resonance mass and Fermi energy pinning in the In(AsN) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drachenko, O.; Patanè, A.; Kozlova, N. V.; Zhuang, Q. D.; Krier, A.; Eaves, L.; Helm, M.

    2011-04-01

    We report cyclotron resonance (CR) experiments on the midinfrared alloy InAs1-xNx grown on GaAs with x from 0% to 1.9%. Using magnetic fields up to 60 T and terahertz photon sources from 3 to 30 THz, we determine the dependence on x of the electron density and CR mass. The increase in the carrier density with increasing x is accompanied by a redshift in the interband photoluminescence emission and is explained in terms of the pinning of the Fermi level to its value at x =0. The high carrier densities (˜1018 cm-3) at x˜1% give rise to a CR mass that is only weakly dependent on the excitation energy, significantly weaker than that in InAs.

  1. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Hojo, S; Katagiri, K; Nakao, M; Sugiura, A; Muramatsu, M; Noda, A; Okada, T; Takahashi, Y; Komiyama, A; Honma, T; Noda, K

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C(4+) ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C(4+), for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source.

  2. Texas Conservation Guide for Municipal Services: A Report to Texas Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacilyn G.; DeHaven, Martha L.

    This document presents a collection of energy conservation ideas gathered from a survey of Texas cities and via a national search of recent technical information. The conservation ideas presented are grouped into categories of: administrative concerns, public buildings, public vehicle fleets, transportation systems, municipal utilities, alternate…

  3. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  4. Radioactive by-products of a self-shielded cyclotron and the liquid target system for F-18 routine production.

    PubMed

    Kambali, I; Suryanto, H; Parwanto

    2016-06-01

    Routine production of F-18 radionuclide using proton beams accelerated in a cyclotron could potentially generate residual radioisotopes in the cyclotron vicinity which eventually become major safety concerns over radiation exposure to the workers. In this investigation, a typical 11-MeV proton, self-shielded cyclotron has been assessed for its residual radiation sources in the cyclotron's shielding, tank/chamber, cave wall as well as target system. Using a portable gamma ray spectroscopy system, the radiation measurement in the cyclotron environment has been carried out. Experimental results indicate that relatively long-lived radioisotopes such as Mn-54, Zn-65 and Eu-152 are detected in the inner and outer surface of the cyclotron shielding respectively while Mn-54 spectrum is observed around the cyclotron chamber. Weak intensity of Eu-152 radioisotope is again spotted in the inner and outer surface of the cyclotron cave wall. Angular distribution measurement of the Eu-152 shows that the intensity slightly drops with increasing observation angle relative to the proton beam incoming angle. In the target system, gamma rays from Co-56, Mn-52, Co-60, Mn-54, Ag-110 m are identified. TALYS-calculated nuclear cross-section data are used to study the origins of the radioactive by-products.

  5. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  7. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus…

  8. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper - Entering commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Chouhan, S.; Das, J. J.; Green, M.; Magsig, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Zeller, A.

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These 'stopped beams' have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN2-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet's two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  9. Recasting History: Are Race, Class, and Gender Dominating American History? A Study of U.S. History Courses at the University of Texas and Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard W.; Wood, Peter W.; Thorne, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, the state of Texas enacted a legislative requirement that students at public institutions complete two courses in American history. With that mandate in mind, the Texas Association of Scholars and the National Association of Scholars' Center for the Study of the Curriculum proposed to determine how students today meet the requirement, and…

  10. The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alfred; Newhauser, Wayne; Latinkic, Mitchell; Hay, Amy; McMaken, Bruce; Styles, John; Cox, James

    2003-08-01

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), in partnership with Sanders Morris Harris Inc., a Texas-based investment banking firm, and The Styles Company, a developer and manager of hospitals and healthcare facilities, is building a proton therapy facility near the MDACC main complex at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas USA. The MDACC Proton Therapy Center will be a freestanding, investor-owned radiation oncology center offering state-of-the-art proton beam therapy. The facility will have four treatment rooms: three rooms will have rotating, isocentric gantries and the fourth treatment room will have capabilities for both large and small field (e.g. ocular melanoma) treatments using horizontal beam lines. There will be an additional horizontal beam room dedicated to physics research and development, radiation biology research, and outside users who wish to conduct experiments using proton beams. The first two gantries will each be initially equipped with a passive scattering nozzle while the third gantry will have a magnetically swept pencil beam scanning nozzle. The latter will include enhancements to the treatment control system that will allow for the delivery of proton intensity modulation treatments. The proton accelerator will be a 250 MeV zero-gradient synchrotron with a slow extraction system. The facility is expected to open for patient treatments in the autumn of 2005. It is anticipated that 675 patients will be treated during the first full year of operation, while full capacity, reached in the fifth year of operation, will be approximately 3,400 patients per year. Treatments will be given up to 2-shifts per day and 6 days per week.

  11. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  12. Addressing medical school diversity through an undergraduate partnership at Texas A&M Health Science Center: a blueprint for success.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Alan R; Daniels, Dennis E; Hester, R Kelly; Colenda, Christopher C

    2008-05-01

    Imperative to increasing diversity in the physician workforce is increasing the pool of qualified underrepresented minority applicants to medical schools. With this goal in mind, the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (A&M College of Medicine) has partnered with Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), a historically black college and university that is a component of the Texas A&M university system, to develop the undergraduate medical academy (UMA). The UMA was established by legislative mandate in 2003 and is a state-funded program. The authors describe the development of partnership between the A&M College of Medicine and PVAMU, focusing on the key attributes that have been identified for success. The administrative structure of the UMA ensures that the presidents of the two institutions collaborate to address issues of program oversight and facilitates a direct relationship between the dean and associate dean for academic affairs of A&M College of Medicine and the director of the UMA to define the program objectives and structure. The authors delineate the admission process to the UMA, as well as the academic requirements of the program. Students attend lecture series during the academic year and participate in summer programs on the A&M College of Medicine campus in addition to receiving intensive academic counseling and opportunities for tutoring in several subjects. The authors also describe the initial success in medical school admissions for UMA students. This partnership provides a model blueprint that can be adopted and adapted by other medical schools focused on increasing diversity in medicine.

  13. Hydrological extremes and their agricultural impacts under a changing climate in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With the changing climate, hydrologic extremes (such as floods, droughts, and heat waves) are becoming more frequent and intensified. Such changes in extreme events are expected to affect agricultural production and food supplies. This study focuses on the State of Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the U.S. The objectives are two-fold: First, to investigate the climatic impact on the occurrence of future hydrologic extreme events; and second, to evaluate the effects of the future extremes on agricultural production. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model is forced by the statistically downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four different scenarios in terms of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) (i.e. 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 w/m2). To carry out the analysis, VIC outputs forced by the CMIP5 model scenarios over three 30-year periods (1970-1999, 2020-2049 and 2070-2099) are first evaluated to identify how the frequency and the extent of the extreme events will be altered in the ten Texas major river basins. The results suggest that a significant increase in the number of extreme events will occur starting in the first half of the 21st century in Texas. Then, the effects of the predicted hydrologic extreme events on the irrigation water demand are investigated. It is found that future changes in water demand vary by crop type and location, with an east-to-west gradient. The results are expected to contribute to future water management and planning in Texas.

  14. NACA Researcher Examines the Cyclotron

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-02-21

    Researcher James Blue examines the new cyclotron at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. Researchers at NACA Lewis began postulating about the use of atomic power for propulsion immediately after World War II. The NACA concentrated its efforts on the study of high temperature materials and heat transfer since it did not have access to the top secret fission information. The military studied the plausibility of nuclear propulsion for aircraft in the late 1940s. The military program was cancelled after four years without any breakthroughs, but the Atomic Energy Commission took on the effort in 1951. The NACA Lewis laboratory was expanding its nuclear-related research during this period. In 1948, Lewis engineers were assigned to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to obtain expertise in high temperature heat transfer and advanced materials technology. The following year a new 80-person Nuclear Reactor Division was created, and an in-house nuclear school was established to train these researchers. The cyclotron was built behind the Materials and Structures Laboratory to support thermodynamic and materials research for both nuclear aircraft and nuclear rockets. The original NACA Lewis cyclotron was used to accelerate two kinds of particles. To better match the space radiation environment, the cyclotron was later modified to accelerate particles of the newly-discovered Van Allen radiation belts.

  15. Cyclotron Provides Neutron Therapy for Cancer Patients

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-01-21

    A cancer patient undergoes treatment in the Neutron Therapy Treatment Facility, or Cylotron, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. After World War II Lewis researchers became interested in nuclear energy for propulsion. The focused their efforts on thermodynamics and strength of materials after radiation. In 1950 an 80-person Nuclear Reactor Division was created, and a cyclotron was built behind the Materials and Structures Laboratory. An in-house nuclear school was established to train these researchers in their new field. NASA cancelled its entire nuclear program in January 1973, just as the cyclotron was about to resume operations after a major upgrade. In 1975 the Cleveland Clinic Foundation partnered with NASA Lewis to use the cyclotron for a new type of radiation treatment for cancer patients. The cyclotron split beryllium atoms which caused neutrons to be released. The neutrons were streamed directly at the patient’s tumor. The facility had a dual-beam system that could target the tumor both vertically and horizontally. Over the course of five years, the cyclotron was used to treat 1200 patients. It was found to be particularly effective on salivary gland, prostrate, and other tumors. It was not as successful with tumors of the central nervous system. The program was terminated in 1980 as the Clinic began concentrating on non-radiation treatments.

  16. Evolution of the axial electron cyclotron maser instability, with applications to solar microwave spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, Loukas; Sprangle, Phillip

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of cyclotron radiation from streaming and gyrating electrons in an external magnetic field is analyzed. The nonlinear dynamics of both the fields and the particles are treated fully relativistically and self-consistently. The model includes a background plasma and electrostatic effects. The analytical and numerical results show that a substantial portion of the beam particle energy can be converted to electromagnetic wave energy at frequencies far above the electron cyclotron frequency. In general, the excited radiation can propagate parallel to the magnetic field and, hence, escape gyrothermal absorption at higher cyclotron harmonics. The high-frequency Doppler-shifted cyclotron instability can have saturation efficiencies far higher than those associated with well-known instabilities of the electron cyclotron maser type. Although the analysis is general, the possibility of using this model to explain the intense radio emission observed from the sun is explored in detail.

  17. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  18. Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report, Phase 1 - February 2010-December 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    2012-11-01

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (STCE) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin subbituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a syntheticmore » gas (syngas) which will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two high-hydrogen (H 2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO 2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR and permanent underground sequestration. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. STCE and the DOE executed a Cooperative Agreement dated January 29, 2010, which defined the objectives of the project for all phases. During Phase 1, STCE conducted and completed all objectives defined in the initial development, permitting and design portions of the Cooperative Agreement. This topical report summarizes all work associated with the project objectives, and additional work required to complete

  19. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  20. Ion cyclotron waves near comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F. J.; Dols, V. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    On October 19, 2014, comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed approximately 135,000 km from Mars. Previously,we predicted the amplitude of ion cyclotron waves which might be observed during the Siding Spring encounter. Ioncyclotron waves have been observed both in the vicinity of comets and of Mars. These waves are generated by theionization of neutrals in the flowing solar wind, which produces an unstable ring-beam velocity distribution. We estimated that, for a production rate of 2x1028 s-1, ion cyclotron wave with amplitudes over 0.1 nT would be present within ‡5 hours (1.2 million km) of closest approach. We will compare the actual observations made by the MAVEN spacecraft with these predictions. The spacecraft was close to or downstream of the martian bow shock, which complicates the interpretation of the data. Taking thisinto account, we will describe the observations and their implications for wave activity and cometary neutral production. We also present updated hybrid simulations of ion cyclotron wave generation. The simulations use our best estimate of solar wind conditions at the time of the encounter and a variable injection of 18 AMU pickup ions, at a rates consistent a model of the cometary neutrals.

  1. Statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Shot noise is the cause of statistical fluctuations in cooperative cyclotron radiation generated by an ensemble of electrons oscillating in magnetic field. Autophasing time - the time required for the cooperative cyclotron radiation power to peak - is the critical parameter characterizing the dynamics of electron-oscillators interacting via the radiation field. It is shown that premodulation of charged particles leads to a considerable narrowing of the autophasing time distribution function for which the analytic expression is obtained. When the number of particles Ne exceeds a certain value that depends on the degree to which the particles have been premodulated, the relative root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the autophasing time δT changes from a logarithmic dependence on Ne (δT ∼ 1 / lnNe) to square-root (δT ∼ 1 /√{Ne }). A slight energy spread (∼4%) results in a twofold drop of the maximum attainable power of cooperative cyclotron radiation.

  2. Technical Note: Defining cyclotron-based clinical scanning proton machines in a FLUKA Monte Carlo system.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Francesca; Schreuder, Niek; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Cyclotron-based pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton machines represent nowadays the majority and most affordable choice for proton therapy facilities, however, their representation in Monte Carlo (MC) codes is more complex than passively scattered proton system- or synchrotron-based PBS machines. This is because degraders are used to decrease the energy from the cyclotron maximum energy to the desired energy, resulting in a unique spot size, divergence, and energy spread depending on the amount of degradation. This manuscript outlines a generalized methodology to characterize a cyclotron-based PBS machine in a general-purpose MC code. The code can then be used to generate clinically relevant plans starting from commercial TPS plans. The described beam is produced at the Provision Proton Therapy Center (Knoxville, TN, USA) using a cyclotron-based IBA Proteus Plus equipment. We characterized the Provision beam in the MC FLUKA using the experimental commissioning data. The code was then validated using experimental data in water phantoms for single pencil beams and larger irregular fields. Comparisons with RayStation TPS plans are also presented. Comparisons of experimental, simulated, and planned dose depositions in water plans show that same doses are calculated by both programs inside the target areas, while penumbrae differences are found at the field edges. These differences are lower for the MC, with a γ(3%-3 mm) index never below 95%. Extensive explanations on how MC codes can be adapted to simulate cyclotron-based scanning proton machines are given with the aim of using the MC as a TPS verification tool to check and improve clinical plans. For all the tested cases, we showed that dose differences with experimental data are lower for the MC than TPS, implying that the created FLUKA beam model is better able to describe the experimental beam. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists

  3. Linkages Between Terrestrial Carbon Uptake and Interannual Climate Variability over the Texas-northern Mexico High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, N.; Barnes, E. A.; Worden, J.; Harper, A. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Frankenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Texas-northern Mexico high plains experienced record drought conditions in 2011 during strong negative phases of ENSO and the NAO. Given predictions of increased frequency and severity of drought under projected climate change [e.g., Reichstein et al., 2013] and recent findings of CO2 growth rate sensitivity to interannual variability of carbon uptake in semi-arid ecosystems [Poulter et al., 2014], we investigate the response of carbon uptake in the Texas high plains to interannual climate variability with the goal of improved mechanistic understanding of climate-carbon cycle links. Specifically, we examine (1) observed tendencies in regional scale carbon uptake and soil moisture from 2010 to 2011 using satellite observations of gross primary production (GPP) (from plant fluorescence) from GOSAT and soil moisture from SMOS, and (2) the interannual relationship between GPP and ENSO & NAO variability using terrestrial biosphere simulations from 1950-2012. Observations reveal widespread decline of GPP in 2011 (0.42 +/- 0.04 Pg C yr-1) correlated with negative soil moisture tendencies (r = 0.85 +/- 0.21) which leads to corresponding declines in net carbon uptake and transpiration (according to model simulations). Further examination of model results over the period 1950-2012 indicates that negative GPP anomalies are linked systematically to winter and spring precipitation deficits associated with overlapping negative phases of winter NAO and ENSO, with increasing magnitude of negative anomalies in strong La Niña years. Furthermore, the strongest decline of GPP, carbon uptake, and transpiration on record occurred during the 2011 drought and were associated with extreme negative phases of ENSO and NAO, with 2011 being the only year since 1950 that both indices exceeded 1 σ standard deviation.

  4. Graphical user interface for yield and dose estimations for cyclotron-produced technetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Bénard, F.; Schaffer, P.; Ruth, T.; Celler, A.

    2014-07-01

    The cyclotron-based 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction has been proposed as an alternative method for solving the shortage of 99mTc. With this production method, however, even if highly enriched molybdenum is used, various radioactive and stable isotopes will be produced simultaneously with 99mTc. In order to optimize reaction parameters and estimate potential patient doses from radiotracers labeled with cyclotron produced 99mTc, the yields for all reaction products must be estimated. Such calculations, however, are extremely complex and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a graphical user interface (GUI) that would automate these calculations, facilitate analysis of the experimental data, and predict dosimetry. The resulting GUI, named Cyclotron production Yields and Dosimetry (CYD), is based on Matlab®. It has three parts providing (a) reaction yield calculations, (b) predictions of gamma emissions and (c) dosimetry estimations. The paper presents the outline of the GUI, lists the parameters that must be provided by the user, discusses the details of calculations and provides examples of the results. Our initial experience shows that the proposed GUI allows the user to very efficiently calculate the yields of reaction products and analyze gamma spectroscopy data. However, it is expected that the main advantage of this GUI will be at the later clinical stage when entering reaction parameters will allow the user to predict production yields and estimate radiation doses to patients for each particular cyclotron run.

  5. Graphical user interface for yield and dose estimations for cyclotron-produced technetium.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Bénard, F; Schaffer, P; Ruth, T; Celler, A

    2014-07-07

    The cyclotron-based (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction has been proposed as an alternative method for solving the shortage of (99m)Tc. With this production method, however, even if highly enriched molybdenum is used, various radioactive and stable isotopes will be produced simultaneously with (99m)Tc. In order to optimize reaction parameters and estimate potential patient doses from radiotracers labeled with cyclotron produced (99m)Tc, the yields for all reaction products must be estimated. Such calculations, however, are extremely complex and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a graphical user interface (GUI) that would automate these calculations, facilitate analysis of the experimental data, and predict dosimetry. The resulting GUI, named Cyclotron production Yields and Dosimetry (CYD), is based on Matlab®. It has three parts providing (a) reaction yield calculations, (b) predictions of gamma emissions and (c) dosimetry estimations. The paper presents the outline of the GUI, lists the parameters that must be provided by the user, discusses the details of calculations and provides examples of the results. Our initial experience shows that the proposed GUI allows the user to very efficiently calculate the yields of reaction products and analyze gamma spectroscopy data. However, it is expected that the main advantage of this GUI will be at the later clinical stage when entering reaction parameters will allow the user to predict production yields and estimate radiation doses to patients for each particular cyclotron run.

  6. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Danny R.

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply.more » We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.« less

  7. Dual-Credit/Dual-Enrollment Coursework and Long-Term College Success in Texas. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie; Wheeler, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This study was a cooperative effort of the Texas-ACT College Success Research Consortium, a research partnership between ACT and the following Texas four-year postsecondary institutions: (1) The University of Texas at Austin; (2) Texas A&M University at College Station; (3) Texas A&M University at Commerce; and (4) University of Texas--Pan…

  8. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-138-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  9. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  10. Biomass energy: a monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.; Stout, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This monograph presents a review of the status of biomass as an alternative energy source, with particular emphasis on the energy research programs of the Texas A and M University System. Eight chapters include joint research efforts in thermochemical conversion (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis), biological conversion (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), and plant oil extraction (physical expelling, solvent extraction). Six chapters are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis.

  11. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  12. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-524-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy...

  13. Cyclotron in the Materials and Stresses Building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-11-21

    Researchers check the cyclotron in the Materials and Stresses Building at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Materials and Stresses Building, built in 1949, contained a number of laboratories to test the strength, diffusion, and other facets of materials. The materials could be subjected to high temperatures, high stresses, corrosion, irradiation, and hot gasses. The Physics of Solids Laboratory included a cyclotron, cloud chamber, helium cryostat, and metallurgy cave. The cyclotron was built in the early 1950s to test the effects of radiation on different materials so that the proper materials could be used to construct a nuclear aircraft engine and other components. By the late 1950s, the focus had shifted to similar studies for rockets. NASA cancelled its entire nuclear program in January 1973, and the cyclotron was mothballed. In 1975 the Cleveland Clinic Foundation partnered with NASA Lewis to use the cyclotron to treat cancer patients with a new type of radiation therapy. The cyclotron split beryllium atoms which caused neutrons to be released. The neutrons were streamed directly at the patient’s tumor. Over the course of five years, the cyclotron was used to treat 1200 patients. The program was terminated in 1980 as the Clinic shifted its efforts to concentrate on non-radiation treatments. The Lewis cyclotron was mothballed for a number of years before being demolished.

  14. A study of engineering student attributes and time to completion of first-year required courses at Texas A&M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Jorja Lay

    For many years, colleges of engineering across the nation have required that a foundational set of courses be completed for entry into upper division coursework or into a specific engineering major. Since 1998, The Dwight Look College of Engineering at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has required that incoming first-time enrolling students complete a Core Body of Knowledge (CBK) with specific cumulative grade points required for specific majors. However, considerations of the time to completion of coursework and other student characteristics and academic factors have not been taken into consideration by TAMU, like most institutions. The purpose of this study is to determine for first year engineering students at TAMU the relationship of gender, ethnicity, engineering major, unmet financial need, cumulative grade point average, and total transfer hours on time to completion of CBK courses. The results of the analysis showed that cumulative grade point average (CGPA) had the strongest relationship to completion of CBK of any independent variable in this study. Statistical significance was found for the following variables in this study: CGPA, gender, ethnicity, and unmet financial need. For the study's variable of major, statistical significance was found for Chemical, Electrical, and Computer Engineering majors. The one variable in this study that did not show statistical significance in relation to time to completion of CBK was transfer credit. Findings with implications for recruitment and retention of underrepresented in engineering is a statistical significance indicating that on average females are taking less time than males to complete CBK. The conclusion from the study is that efforts to attract more women into engineering have merit as do programs to support underrepresented students in order that they may complete CBK at a faster pace. Further study to determine profiles of those majors where statistical significance was found for students taking a greater or

  15. Direct Production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n) on Small Medical Cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Bernstein, A.; Buckley, K.; Celler, A.; Cockburn, N.; Corsaut, J.; Dodd, M.; Economou, C.; Eriksson, T.; Frontera, M.; Hanemaayer, V.; Hook, B.; Klug, J.; Kovacs, M.; Prato, F. S.; McDiarmid, S.; Ruth, T. J.; Shanks, C.; Valliant, J. F.; Zeisler, S.; Zetterberg, U.; Zavodszky, P. A.

    From the efforts of a number of Canadian institutions and private industry collaborations, direct production of 99mTc using medical cyclotrons has recently been advanced from a 1970's academic exercise to a commercial, economically viable solution for regional production. Using GE PETtrace 880 machines our team has established preliminary saturated yields of 2.7 GBq/μA, translating to approximately 174 GBq after a 6 hour irradiation. The team is in the process of assessing the accuracy and reliability of this production value with a goal of optimizing yields by up to 50%.

  16. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    SciTech Connect

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  17. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-164-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP12-164-000, a request...

  18. Phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy of polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ryan

    In this thesis we use phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy to study polars. Polars are a subset of cataclysmic variables where the primary WD is highly magnetic. In this case, the accretion flow is constrained along the magnetic field lines and eventually deposited on the WD, where the accreting material interacts with the atmosphere, forming a standing hydrodynamic shock at a location termed the accretion region, and emitting cyclotron radiation. Due to its field strength, cyclotron radiation from polars falls at either UV, optical or NIR wavelengths. While a substantial amount of optical cyclotron spectra have been published on polars, the NIR remains relatively unstudied. In this thesis, we present NIR spectroscopy for fifteen polars. Additionally, while a single cyclotron spectrum is needed to constrain the shock parameters, phase- resolved spectroscopy allows for a more in-depth analysis of the shock structure and the geometry of the accretion region. Of the fifteen polars observed, eight yielded spectra of adequate quality to be modeled in this manner: EF Eri, EQ Cet, AN UMa, VV Pup, AM Her, ST LMi, MR Ser, and MQ Dra. Initially, we used the industry standard "Constant Lambda (CL)" code to model each object. The code is fast, but produces only globally averaged values of the salient shock parameters: B - the magnetic field strength, kT - the plasma temperature, logL - the "size parameter" of the accretion column, and TH- the viewing angle between the observer and the magnetic field. For each object we present CL models for our NIR phase-resolved cyclotron spectra. Subsequently, we use a more advanced "Structured-Shock" code built by Fischer & Beuermann (2001)("F&B") to remodel three objects: EQ Cet, MQ Dra, and EF Eri. The F&B code allows for input of more physical parameters and most importantly does ray tracing through a simulated one-dimensional accretion column. To determine the outgoing spectrum, temperature and velocity profiles are needed to

  19. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. A&M. TAN607 sections. Section A shows variable roof lines, variable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 sections. Section A shows variable roof lines, variable thickness of hot shop shield walls, relationship of subterranean pool to grade. Section B shows relative heights of hot shop floor and its control gallery, position of bridge cranes and manipulator rails. Locomotive service pit. Referent drawing is ID-33-E-158 Above. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 105. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106757 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Nonlinear sub-cyclotron resonance as a formation mechanism for gaps in banded chorus

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Xiangrong; Guo, Zehua; Dong, Chuanfei; ...

    2015-05-14

    An interesting characteristic of magnetospheric chorus is the presence of a frequency gap at ω ≃ 0.5Ω e, where Ω e is the electron cyclotron angular frequency. Recent chorus observations sometimes show additional gaps near 0.3Ω e and 0.6Ω e. Here we present a novel nonlinear mechanism for the formation of these gaps using Hamiltonian theory and test particle simulations in a homogeneous, magnetized, collisionless plasma. We find that an oblique whistler wave with frequency at a fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency can resonate with electrons, leading to effective energy exchange between the wave and particles.

  2. EBCO Technologies TR Cyclotrons, Dynamics, Equipment, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Univ British Columbia; Erdman, K. L.

    2003-08-26

    The Ebco Technologies TR cyclotrons have a common parent in the 500 MeV negative ion cyclotron at TRIUMF in Vancouver. As such, the TR cyclotrons have features that can be adapted for specific application. The cyclotron design is modularized into ion source and injection system, central region and then extraction. The cyclotron ion source is configured for cyclotron beam currents ranging from 50 microAmps to 2 milliAmps. The injection line can be operated in either continuous (CW) or in pulsed mode. The center region of the cyclotron is configured to match the ion source configuration. The extracted beams are directedmore » either to a local target station or to beam lines and thence to target stations. There has been development both in solid, liquid and gas targets. There has been development in radioisotope handling techniques, target material recovery and radiochemical synthesis.« less

  3. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821-1836. The Centennial Series of the Association of Former Students, Texas A&M University, No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijerina, Andres

    This book details the history of Texas between 1821 and 1836 and describes the two-way exchange of land, power, culture, and social institutions between the Anglo-American frontier and the Hispanic frontier. In 1821, when Anglos first began to settle in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas, Tejanos had had permanent settlements in place for…

  4. Fabrication of the Superferric Cyclotron Gas-stopper Magnet at NSCL at Michigan State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, S. S.; Bollen, G.; DeKamp, J.; Green, M. A.; Lawton, D.; Magsig, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J.; Schwarz, S.; Zeller, A. F.

    2014-05-01

    The magnet for the cyclotron gas stopper is a newly designed, large warm-iron superconducting cyclotron sector gradient dipole. The maximum field in the centre (gap = 0.18 m) is 2.7 T. The outer diameter of magnet yoke is 4.0 m, with a pole radius of 1.1 m and B*ρ = 1.8 T m. The fabrication and assembly of the iron return yoke and twelve pole pieces is complete. Separate coils are mounted on the return yokes that have a total mass of about 167 metric tons of iron. This paper illustrates the design and the fabrication process for the cyclotron gas-stopper magnet that is being fabricated at MSU.

  5. Magneto-optical absorption and cyclotron-phonon resonance in graphene monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phong, Tran Cong

    2018-03-01

    The optical absorption power by Dirac fermions in a graphene monolayer subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field is calculated using a projection operator technique. The electron-optical phonon interaction with optical deformation potential is taken into account. By varying the photon frequency (energy), we observe in the absorption power a series of cyclotron-phonon resonance (CPR) peaks (i.e., the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance). It is seen that the resonant photon energy is linearly proportional to the square root of the magnetic field. Also, the half width at half maximum (HWHM) of CPR peaks depends on the magnetic field by the law HWHM = 7.42 √{B } but does not depend on the temperature. In particular, the magnetic field and temperature dependences of the position and HWHM of CPR peaks are in good agreement with those obtained recently by the perturbation theory and an experiment in graphene.

  6. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  7. Heating of ions to superthermal energies in the topside ionosphere by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungstrup, E.; Klumpar, D. M.; Heikkila, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The soft particle spectrometer on the Isis 2 spacecraft occasionally observes fluxes of ions moving upward out of the ionosphere in the vicinity of the auroral oval. These ion fluxes are characterized by a sharp pitch angle distribution usually peaked at an angle somewhat greater than 90 deg, indicative of particles heated to a large transverse temperature in a narrow range below the spacecraft. The observations are interpreted in terms of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves, which heat the ions to superthermal energies transverse to the earth's magnetic field. When the transverse energy increases, the repulsive force of the earth's magnetic field, proportional to the particle magnetic moment, repels the particles away from the earth.

  8. NORTICA—a new code for cyclotron analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-12-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER [1] developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state.

  9. Electrostatic waves in the warm magnetoplasma at the cyclotron harmonic frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Gwal, A.K.; Misra, K.D.

    1977-09-01

    Mode conversion and collisionless absorption of electromagnetic wave at the cyclotron harmonic frequencies in an inhomogeneous non-Maxwellian magnetoplasma have been studied. Under suitable energy transfer condition the converted electrostatic wave (plasma wave) either grows or damps. The expressions for the growth/damping rates of this wave have been derived and studied at the cyclotron harmonic frequencies. The effect of the temperature anisotropy on the growth/damping rate of the electrostatic wave at the second cyclotron harmonic frequency has been shown. Growth of such electrostatic waves at ionospheric heights may explain the observed upper hybrid resonance (UHR) echoes and noise bands at themore » second cyclotron harmonic frequency.« less

  10. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  11. Impurities in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical solution obtained from Mo-100 in cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Tymiński, Zbigniew; Saganowski, Paweł; Kołakowska, Ewa; Listkowska, Anna; Ziemek, Tomasz; Cacko, Daniel; Dziel, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The gamma emitting impurities in 99m Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum 100 Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of 99m Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of 99m Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H + and Alumina A columns were used. Fractions of eluates from various steps of separation process were taken and measured for radionuclidic purity. The overall measurement sensitivity of gamma emitters in terms of minimum detectable activity (MDA) was found at the level of 14-70Bq with emission lines in range of 36 - 1836keV resulting in impurity content range of 6.7 × 10 -4 to 3.4 × 10 -3 % for 93 Tc, 93m Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc 96 Nb, 97 Nb, 99 Mo contaminants and 9.4 × 10 -3 % for 97m Tc. The usefulness of the chosen measurement conditions and the method applied to testing the potential contaminators was proved by reaching satisfactory results of MDAs less than the criteria of impurity concentration of all nuclides specified in the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  13. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  14. Cyclotron maser instability and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.

    The possible application of cyclotron maser theory to a variety of radio sources is considered, with special attention given to the theory of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) of Wu and Lee (1979). The AKR model assumes a loss-cone distribution function for the reflected electrons, along with the depletion of low-energy electrons by the parallel electric field. Other topics considered include fundamental AKR, second-harmonic AKR, the generation of Z-mode radiation, and the application of maser instability to other sources than AKR.

  15. Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

  16. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Treesearch

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  17. Forests of east Texas, 2015

    Treesearch

    Kerry J.W. Dooley

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  18. 77 FR 20015 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-88-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed an application in Docket No...

  19. 77 FR 12045 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-68-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), PO Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77056 filed an application in the above referenced docket...

  20. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  1. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-67-001] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an amendment...

  2. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  3. The Economic Impact of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi on the Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1998 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi.

    A study was conducted to examine the socioeconomic impact of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC) on the surrounding community. This study was a follow-up to a previous examination of the economic relationship between the university and the community. The current study examined the short-term measurable economic impact of university…

  4. Seals Research at Texas A/M University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The Turbomachinery Laboratory at Texas A&M has been providing experimental data and computational codes for the design seals for many years. The program began with the development of a Halon based seal test rig. This facility provided information about the effective stiffness and damping in whirling seals. The Halon effectively simulated cryogenic fluids. Another test facility was developed (using air as the working fluid) where the stiffness and damping matrices can be determined. This data was used to develop bulk flow models of the seal's effect upon rotating machinery; in conjunction with this research, a bulk flow model for calculation of performance and rotordynamic coefficients of annular pressure seals of arbitrary non-uniform clearance for barotropic fluids such as LH2, LOX, LN2, and CH4 was developed. This program is very efficient (fast) and converges for very large eccentricities. Currently, work is being performed on a bulk flow analysis of the effects of the impeller-shroud interaction upon the stability of pumps. The data was used along with data from other researchers to develop an empirical leakage prediction code for MSFC. Presently, the flow field inside labyrinth and annular seals are being studied in detail. An advanced 3-D Doppler anemometer system is being used to measure the mean velocity and entire Reynolds stress tensor distribution throughout the seals. Concentric and statically eccentric seals were studied; presently, whirling seals are being studied. The data obtained are providing valuable information about the flow phenomena occurring inside the seals, as well as a data base for comparison with numerical predictions and for turbulence model development. A finite difference computer code was developed for solving the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equation inside labyrinth seals. A multi-scale k-epsilon turbulence model is currently being evaluated. A new seal geometry was designed and patented using a computer code. A large scale, 2

  5. Low current performance of the Bern medical cyclotron down to the pA range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2015-09-01

    A medical cyclotron accelerating H- ions to 18 MeV is in operation at the Bern University Hospital (Inselspital). It is the commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker. This feature is unique for a hospital-based facility and makes it possible to conduct routine radioisotope production for PET diagnostics in parallel with multidisciplinary research activities, among which are novel particle detectors, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. Several of these activities, such as radiobiology experiments for example, require low current beams down to the pA range, while medical cyclotrons are designed for high current operation above 10 μA. In this paper, we present the first results on the low current performance of a PET medical cyclotron obtained by ion source, radio-frequency and main coil tuning. With this method, stable beam currents down to (1.5+/- 0.5 ) pA were obtained and measured with a high-sensitivity Faraday cup located at the end of the beam transport line.

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Equatorial Magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Z. C.; Simon, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn, considering all magnetic field data collected during the Cassini era (totaling to over 4 years of data from the equatorial plane). This dataset includes eight targeted flybys of Enceladus, three targeted flybys of Dione, and three targeted flybys of Rhea. Because all remaining orbits of Cassini are high-inclination, our study provides the complete map of ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's equatorial magnetosphere during the Cassini era. We provide catalogs of the radial and longitudinal dependencies of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron fundamental and first harmonic wave modes. The fundamental wave mode is omnipresent between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and evenly distributed across all Local Times. The occurrence rate of the fundamental mode displays a Fermi-Dirac-like profile with respect to radial distance from Saturn. Detection of the first harmonic mode is a rare event occurring in only 0.49% of measurements taken and always in conjunction with the fundamental mode. We also search for a dependency of the ion cyclotron wave field on the orbital positions of the icy moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. On magnetospheric length scales, the wave field is independent of the moons' orbital positions. For Enceladus, we analyze wave amplitude profiles of seven close flybys (E9, E12, E13, E14, E17, E18, and E19), which occurred during the studied trajectory segments, to look for any local effects of Enceladan plume variability on the wave field. We find that even in the close vicinity of Enceladus, the wave amplitudes display no discernible dependency on Enceladus' angular distance to its orbital apocenter. Thus, the correlation between plume activity and angular distance to apocenter proposed by Hedman et al. (2013) does not leave a clearly distinguishable imprint in the ion cyclotron wave field. Reference: Meeks, Z., Simon, S., Kabanovic, S

  7. 78 FR 66352 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-9-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 17, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-9...

  8. Beach Geomorphology and Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) Nest Site Selection along Padre Island, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, M.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Shaver, D. J.; Tissot, P.; Starek, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is the most endangered sea turtle in the world, largely due to the limited geographic range of its nesting habitat. In the U.S., the majority of nesting occurs along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) in Texas. There has been limited research regarding the connection between beach geomorphology and Kemp's ridley nesting patterns, but studies concerning other sea turtle species suggest that certain beach geomorphology variables, such as beach slope and width, influence nest site selection. This research investigates terrestrial habitat variability of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle and quantifies the connection between beach geomorphology and Kemp's ridley nest site selection on PAIS and South Padre Island, Texas. Airborne topographic lidar data collected annually along the Texas coast from 2009 through 2012 was utilized to extract beach geomorphology characteristics, such as beach slope and width, dune height, and surface roughness, among others. The coordinates of observed Kemp's ridley nests from corresponding years were integrated with the aforementioned data in statistical models, which analyzed the influence of both general trends in geomorphology and individual morphologic variables on nest site selection. This research identified the terrestrial habitat variability of the Kemp's ridley and quantified the range of geomorphic characteristics of nesting beaches. Initial results indicate that dune width, beach width, and wind speed are significant variables in relation to nest presence, using an alpha of 0.1. Higher wind speeds and narrower beaches and foredunes favor nest presence. The average nest elevation is 1.13 m above mean sea level, which corresponds to the area directly below the potential vegetation line, and the majority of nesting occurs between the elevations of 0.68 m and 1.4 m above mean sea level. The results of this study include new information regarding Kemp's ridley beach habitat and its

  9. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  10. Numerical solution for linear cyclotron and diocotron modes in a nonneutral plasma column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2014-10-01

    This poster presents numerical methods for solution of the linearized Vlasov-Poisson (LVP) equation applied to a cylindrical single-species plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The code is used to study z-independent cyclotron and diocotron modes of these plasmas, including kinetic effects. We transform to polar coordinates in both position and velocity space and Fourier expand in both polar angles (i.e. the cyclotron gyro angle and θ). In one approach, we then discretize in the remaining variables r and v (where v is the magnitude of the perpendicular velocity). However, using centered differences the method is unstable to unphysical eigenmodes with rapid variation on the scale of the grid. We remedy this problem by averaging particular terms in the discretized LVP operator over neighboring gridpoints. We also present a stable Galerkin method that expands the r and v dependence in basis functions. We compare the numerical results from both methods to exact analytic results for various modes. Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership Grants PHY-0903877 and DE-SC0002451.

  11. Two Texas Colleges Buy into the Big Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Week, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Revenues from oil/gas royalties on University of Texas (Austin) and Texas A&M go into a fund which is used to hire faculty and develop programs, particularly in the sciences. However, Texas legislators are considering a bill that would spread the oil money to other campuses in the Texas university system. (JN)

  12. East Texas, 2012—Forest Inventory and Analysis Factsheet

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; James W. Bentley

    2014-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the statewide annual inventory of the forest resource attributes in Texas conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—southeast (unit 1), northeast (unit 2), north central (...

  13. 78 FR 79687 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-29-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 10, 2013 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-29-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of...

  14. CLOVERLEAF CYCLOTRON

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, E.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1959-02-01

    A cyclotron is presented embodying a unique magnetic field configuration, which configuration increases in intensity with radius and therefore compensates for the reltivistic mass effect, the field having further convolutions productive of axial stability in the particle beam. By reconciling the seemingly opposed requirements of mass increase compensation on one hand and anial stability on the other, the production of extremely high current particle beams in the relativistie energy range is made feasible. Certain further advantages inhere in the invention, notably an increase in the usable magnet gap, simplified and more efficient extraction of the beam from the accelerator, and ready adaptation to the use of multiply phased excitation as contrasted with the single phased systems herstofore utilized. General

  15. Assessment of Water Resource Sustainability in Energy Production for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Eagle Ford Shale Play, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obkirchner, G.; Knappett, P.; Burnett, D.; Bhatia, M.; Mohtar, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is one of the largest producers of shale oil globally. It is located in a semi-arid region of South Central Texas where hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production accounts for 16% of total water consumption in Region L Groundwater Management Area (GMA). Because water is largely supplied through groundwater sources, it is critical to understand, monitor, and predict future groundwater budgets to keep up with growing demands from the municipal and energy sectors to improve its management and sustainability. Within the Texas A&M University Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus Initiative and research group, tools have been developed that quantify the interrelations between water, energy, and transportation within Region L and calculate the environmental needs/outcomes to reach optimum levels of oil and gas production. These tools will be combined with a groundwater budget model to fully integrate groundwater limitations and enhance the resiliency of energy production. With about half of oil and gas production wells located in high to extremely high water stress areas, monitoring and modeling must be drastically improved to predict the impacts of various spatial distributions of pumping rates on future aquifer conditions. These changing conditions will impact the cost of water production in an aquifer. Combining the WEF Nexus tools with hydrologic models creates a multi-disciplinary sustainability assessment model that calculates social and economic constraints from an area's limited water resources. This model will allow industry, governments and scientists to plan through evaluating the impacts of any number of growth, conservation and reuse scenarios across different water usage sectors on groundwater supplies.

  16. Differences in Soil Moisture Dynamics across Landforms in South Texas Shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basant, S.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    To understand the water budget for a landscape, it is important to understand the hydrologic differences between different landforms constituting the landscape. The Tamaulipas Biotic Province shrublands in South Texas are characterized by primarily three different landforms - the sandy loam uplands, clay loam intermittent drainage woodlands and closed basin depressions situated in intermittent drainage ways, also referred to as `playas'. Texas A&M's La Copita Research Area (LCRA) in South Texas is a similar landscape where previous research has been limited to soil water movement in uplands and localized water accumulation in the playa landforms. The objective of this research is to understand the hydrology of different landforms and integrate them to complete a landscape scale water budget. Deep soil water movement will be measured at LCRA using neutron moisture gauges. Over 50 access tubes distributed around the site will be used to cover the dominant landforms and vegetation classes. Soil moisture will be measured up to a depth of 2m at different times of the year - so as to capture the variability in response to different rain events and also to different seasons. This will be complimented by over 6 years of run off data collected from controlled plots which will provide an estimate on the amount of overland water exchange from uplands to drainage and playas. The depth-wise soil moisture data collected over time will also be used to estimate the variability in plant water uptake rates across different sites.

  17. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  18. Integro-differential modeling of ICRH wave propagation and damping at arbitrary cyclotron harmonics and wavelengths in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.

    2014-02-01

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating scenarios creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses ongoing work to extend the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [D. Van Eester & R. Koch, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 40 (1998) 1949] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response. Adopting a philosophy originally due to Kaufman [A.N. Kaufman, Phys. Fluids 15 (1972) 1063], the relevant dielectric response in the Galerkin formalism is written in a form where the electric field and the test function vector appear symmetrically, which yields a power balance equation that guarantees non-negative absorption for any wave type for Maxwellian plasmas. Moreover, this choice of independent variable yields intuitive expressions that can directly be linked to the corresponding expressions in the RF diffusion operator. It also guarantees that a positive definite power transfer from waves to particles is ensured for any of the wave modes in a plasma in which all populations have a Maxwellian distribution, as is expected from first principles. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach that retains all finite Larmor radius effects [D. Van Eester & E. Lerche, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 (2013) 055008] is proposed.

  19. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  20. Design and development of a radio frequency quadrupole linac postaccelerator for the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center rare ion beam project.

    PubMed

    Dechoudhury, S; Naik, V; Mondal, M; Chatterjee, A; Pandey, H K; Mandi, T K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Karmakar, P; Bhattacharjee, S; Chouhan, P S; Ali, S; Srivastava, S C L; Chakrabarti, A

    2010-02-01

    A four-rod type heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, constructed, and tested for the rare ion beam (RIB) facility project at VECC. Designed for cw operation, this RFQ is the first postaccelerator in the RIB beam line. It will accelerate A/q < or = 14 heavy ions coming from the ion source to the energy of around 100 keV/u for subsequent acceleration in a number of Interdigital H-Linac. Operating at a resonance frequency of 37.83 MHz, maximum intervane voltage of around 54 kV will be needed to achieve the final energy over a vane length of 3.12 m for a power loss of 35 kW. In the first beam tests, transmission efficiency of about 90% was measured at the QQ focus after the RFQ for O(5+) beam. In this article the design of the RFQ including the effect of vane modulation on the rf characteristics and results of beam tests will be presented.

  1. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-01

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  2. 75 FR 55315 - National Fuel Marketing Company, LLC; NFM Midstream, LLC; NFM Texas Pipeline, LLC; NFM Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. IN09-10-000] National Fuel Marketing Company, LLC; NFM Midstream, LLC; NFM Texas Pipeline, LLC; NFM Texas Gathering, LLC; Notice of Amended Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional September 2, 2010. On January 15, 2009, the Commission issued an order in the above-...

  3. Imaging study of using radiopharmaceuticals labeled with cyclotron-produced 99mTc.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-12-07

    Cyclotron-produced 99m Tc (CPTc) has been recognized as an attractive and practical substitution of reactor/generator based 99m Tc. However, the small amount of 92-98 Mo in the irradiation of enriched 100 Mo could lead to the production of other radioactive technetium isotopes (Tc-impurities) which cannot be chemically separated. Thus, these impurities could contribute to patient dose and affect image quality. The potential radiation dose caused by these Tc-impurities produced using different targets, irradiation conditions, and corresponding to different injection times have been investigated, leading us to create dose-based limits of these parameters for producing clinically acceptable CPTc. However, image quality has been not considered. The aim of the present work is to provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of image quality for CPTc. The impact of Tc-impurities in CPTc on image resolution, background noise, and contrast is investigated by performing both Monte-Carlo simulations and phantom experiments. Various targets, irradiation, and acquisition conditions are employed for investigating the image-based limits of CPTc production parameters. Additionally, the relationship between patient dose and image quality of CPTc samples is studied. Only those samples which meet both dose- and image-based limits should be accepted in future clinical studies.

  4. Imaging study of using radiopharmaceuticals labeled with cyclotron-produced 99mTc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) has been recognized as an attractive and practical substitution of reactor/generator based 99mTc. However, the small amount of 92-98Mo in the irradiation of enriched 100Mo could lead to the production of other radioactive technetium isotopes (Tc-impurities) which cannot be chemically separated. Thus, these impurities could contribute to patient dose and affect image quality. The potential radiation dose caused by these Tc-impurities produced using different targets, irradiation conditions, and corresponding to different injection times have been investigated, leading us to create dose-based limits of these parameters for producing clinically acceptable CPTc. However, image quality has been not considered. The aim of the present work is to provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of image quality for CPTc. The impact of Tc-impurities in CPTc on image resolution, background noise, and contrast is investigated by performing both Monte-Carlo simulations and phantom experiments. Various targets, irradiation, and acquisition conditions are employed for investigating the image-based limits of CPTc production parameters. Additionally, the relationship between patient dose and image quality of CPTc samples is studied. Only those samples which meet both dose- and image-based limits should be accepted in future clinical studies.

  5. The spectral energy distributions of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Renxin

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their very well Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, the optical/UV excess is a long standing problem. Recently, Kaplan et al. (2011) have measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may due to contribution from bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.

  6. Messing Up Texas?: A Re-Analysis of the Effects of Executions on Homicides.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Patrick T; Kovandzic, Tomislav V

    2015-01-01

    Executions in Texas from 1994-2005 do not deter homicides, contrary to the results of Land et al. (2009). We find that using different models--based on pre-tests for unit roots that correct for earlier model misspecifications--one cannot reject the null hypothesis that executions do not lead to a change in homicides in Texas over this period. Using additional control variables, we show that variables such as the number of prisoners in Texas may drive the main drop in homicides over this period. Such conclusions however are highly sensitive to model specification decisions, calling into question the assumptions about fixed parameters and constant structural relationships. This means that using dynamic regressions to account for policy changes that may affect homicides need to be done with significant care and attention.

  7. Messing Up Texas?: A Re-Analysis of the Effects of Executions on Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Patrick T.; Kovandzic, Tomislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Executions in Texas from 1994–2005 do not deter homicides, contrary to the results of Land et al. (2009). We find that using different models—based on pre-tests for unit roots that correct for earlier model misspecifications—one cannot reject the null hypothesis that executions do not lead to a change in homicides in Texas over this period. Using additional control variables, we show that variables such as the number of prisoners in Texas may drive the main drop in homicides over this period. Such conclusions however are highly sensitive to model specification decisions, calling into question the assumptions about fixed parameters and constant structural relationships. This means that using dynamic regressions to account for policy changes that may affect homicides need to be done with significant care and attention. PMID:26398193

  8. Determining the spatial and temporal variability of Enceladus' mass-loading rate from ion-cyclotron wave observations and hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Ronald; Wei, Hanying; Cowee, Misa; Russell, Christopher; Leisner, Jared; Dougherty, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The southern plume of Enceladus releases a significant amount of neutrals, ions and dust into the inner magnetosphere of Saturn, thus it plays a critical role in the dynamics of plasma transport. The moon is also considered to be the ultimate source for the dusty E-ring and the extended neutral cloud from 3.5 to 6.5 Saturn radii. The mass loading rate from the plume can not only be directly measured from plasma instruments, but can also be obtained from the magnetic signatures produced by the plume and the properties of ion-cyclotron waves (ICW) generated by pickup ions from the plume. The ICWs grow from the free energy of the highly anisotropic distribution of the pickup ions, and their powers are proportional to the density and energy of the pickup ions. At Enceladus, ICWs are detected by Cassini not only near the moon but throughout the extended neutral cloud in all local times. However, the wave power is largely enhanced near the moon's longitude rather than far away from it. This indicates that on top of the relatively azimuthally symmetric mass-loading source of the neutral cloud, there is a much denser cloud of neutrals centered on the moon and rotating with it. The latter source is the instantaneous mass loading from Enceladus' plume, which leads to asymmetry and dynamics in the magnetosphere. From hybrid simulations, we study the ICW generation and understand the relationship between wave power and pickup ion densities. From observations, we obtain the spatial profiles of the ICW power near and far from the moon. Through comparison with waves at longitudes far away from the moon, we investigate how significant is the plume's mass-loading with respect to the neutral cloud mass-loading. We also compare the waves along several groups of identical trajectories and find that the temporal variability of the plume is within a factor of two.

  9. Effective dose to immuno-PET patients due to metastable impurities in cyclotron produced zirconium-89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Alzimami, Khalid; Ma, Andy K.; Alghamdi, Ali; Al Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Immuno-PET is a nuclear medicine technique that combines positron emission tommography (PET) with radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for tumor characterization and therapy. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is an emerging radionuclide for immuno-PET imaging. Its long half-life (78.4 h) gives ample time for the production, the administering and the patient uptake of the tagged radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the nuclides will remain in the tumor cells after the mAbs are catabolized so that time series studies are possible without incurring further administration of radiopharmarceuticals. 89Zr can be produced in medical cyclotrons by bombarding an yttrium-89 (89Y) target with a proton beam through the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction. In this study, we estimated the effective dose to the head and neck cancer patients undergoing 89Zr-based immune-PET procedures. The production of 89Zr and the impurities from proton irradiation of the 89Y target in a cyclotron was calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the nuclear reaction code TALYS. The cumulated activities of the Zr isotopes were derived from real patient data in literature and the effective doses were estimated using the MIRD specific absorbed fraction formalism. The estimated effective dose from 89Zr is 0.5±0.2 mSv/MBq. The highest organ dose is 1.8±0.2 mSv/MBq in the liver. These values are in agreement with those reported in literature. The effective dose from 89mZr is about 0.2-0.3% of the 89Zr dose in the worst case. Since the ratio of 89mZr to 89Zr depends on the cooling time as well as the irradiation details, contaminant dose estimation is an important aspect in optimizing the cyclotron irradiation geometry, energy and time.

  10. Nonlinear collisionless electron cyclotron interaction in the pre-ionisation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, D.

    2018-06-01

    Electron cyclotron (EC) wave-particle interaction is theoretically investigated in the pre-ionisation phase, much before collisions and other mechanisms can play a role. In the very first phase of a plasma discharge with EC-assisted breakdown, the motion of an electron at room temperature in a static magnetic field under the action of a localised microwave beam is nonlinear, and transition to states of larger energy can occur via wave trapping. Within a Hamiltonian adiabatic formalism, the conditions at which the particles gain energy in single beam crossing are derived in a rigorous way, and the energy variation is characterized quantitatively as a function of the wave frequency, harmonic number, polarisation and EC power and beam width. Estimates of interest for applications to tokamak start-up are obtained for the first, second and third cyclotron harmonic. The investigation confirms that electrons can easily gain energies well above the ionisation energy in most conditions at the first two harmonics, while not at the third harmonic, as observed in experiments.

  11. 77 FR 22773 - Texas Eastern Transmission, L.P.; Notice of Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. RP12-318-001] Texas Eastern... order of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in the above- captioned proceeding Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) submits its response to show cause why it should not be required to file...

  12. Modification and integration of JSW cyclotron GAS targets at the national institutes of health cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, R.; Plascjak, P.; Sheh, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Adams, R.; Simpson, N.; Larson, S.

    1987-04-01

    The Cyclotron staff at the National Institutes of Health is involved in a comprehensive radionuclide preparation program which culminates with the formulation of numerous requested short-lived radiopharmaceutical agents for clinical evaluation. The existence of two cyclotrons and the requests for cyclotron-produced radionuclides, principally short-lived positron-emitting ones, necessitates an efficient and cost-effective program. The clinical need for 15O labelled water exemplifies the modification and effective coupling of two supplied gas target systems without detriment to either individual product. 15O labeled oxygen, produced from the 14N(d,n) 15O nuclear reaction, is combined with the target gas for 11C labelled cyanide production through standard fittings to achieve the chemical oxidation. The system allows an "on-line" product of extremely high yield and excellent radionuclidic purity. The operational characteristics of the redesigned commercial cyclotron targetry system and the radiochemical considerations are presented.

  13. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  14. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  15. High current H2(+) and H3(+) beam generation by pulsed 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Peng, Shixiang; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Jia; Zhang, Ailin; Zhang, Tao; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er

    2014-02-01

    The permanent magnet 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University can produce more than 100 mA hydrogen ion beam working at pulsed mode. For the increasing requirements of cluster ions (H2(+) and H3(+)) in linac and cyclotron, experimental study was carried out to further understand the hydrogen plasma processes in the ion source for the generation of cluster ions. The constituents of extracted beam have been analyzed varying with the pulsed duration from 0.3 ms to 2.0 ms (repetition frequency 100 Hz) at different operation pressure. The fraction of cluster ions dramatically increased when the pulsed duration was lower than 0.6 ms, and more than 20 mA pure H3(+) ions with fraction 43.2% and 40 mA H2(+) ions with fraction 47.7% were obtained when the operation parameters were adequate. The dependence of extracted ion fraction on microwave power was also measured at different pressure as the energy absorbed by plasma will greatly influence electron temperature and electron density then the plasma processes in the ion source. More details will be presented in this paper.

  16. Experimental measurement and Monte Carlo assessment of Argon-41 production in a PET cyclotron facility.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Valtieri, Lorenzo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In a medical cyclotron facility, (41)Ar (t1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux during irradiation, according to the (40)Ar(n,γ)(41)Ar reaction; this is particularly relevant in widely diffused high beam current cyclotrons for the production of PET radionuclides. While theoretical estimations of the (41)Ar production have been published, no data are available on direct experimental measurements for a biomedical cyclotron. In this work, we describe a sampling methodology and report the results of an extensive measurement campaign. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the FLUKA code. To measure (41)Ar activity, air samples were taken inside the cyclotron bunker in sealed Marinelli beakers, during the routine production of (18)F with a 16.5 MeV GE-PETtrace cyclotron; this sampling thus reproduces a situation of absence of air changes. Samples analysis was performed in a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector. Monte Carlo assessment of the (41)Ar saturation yield was performed directly using the standard FLUKA score RESNUCLE, and off-line by the convolution of neutron fluence with cross section data. The average (41)Ar saturation yield per one liter of air of (41)Ar, measured in gamma-ray spectrometry, resulted to be 3.0 ± 0.6 Bq/µA*dm(3) while simulations gave a result of 6.9 ± 0.3 Bq/µA*dm(3) in the direct assessment and 6.92 ± 0.22 Bq/µA*dm(3) by the convolution neutron fluence-to-cross section. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Texas Scholars: Successful Partnerships and Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Randolph, Joe; Devilbiss, Charles; Johnson, Annabel M.

    The Texas Scholars Program uses business and community involvement to motivate middle- and lower-ranked high school students to take and complete a rigorous academic curriculum to prepare them for the labor market or postsecondary education. The paper examines variables such as staff development, community involvement, support from the central…

  18. Calculation of Energetic Ion Tail from Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianguo; Li, Youyi; Li, Jiangang

    1994-04-01

    The second harmonic frequency of hydrogen ion cyclotron resonance heating experiment on HT-6M tokamak was studied by adding the quasi-linear wave-ion interaction term in the two-dimensional (velocity space), time-dependent, nonlinear and multispecies Fokker-Planck equation. The temporal evolution of ion distribution function and relevant parameters were calculated and compared with experiment data. The calculation shows that the ion temperature increases, high-energy ion tail (above 5 keV) and anisotropy appear when the wave is injected to plasma. The simulations are in reasonable agreement with experiment data.

  19. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source for high currents of mono- and multicharged ion and general purpose unlimited lifetime application on implantation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieth, C.; Bouly, J. L.; Curdy, J. C.; Kantas, S.; Sortais, P.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J. L.

    2000-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were originally developed for high energy physic applications. They are used as injectors on linear accelerators and cyclotrons to further increase the particle energy via high charge state ions. This ECR technology is well suited for sources placed on a high voltage platform where ac power available is limited by insulated transformers. The PANTECHNIK family of ion source with its wide range of ion beam (various charge states with various beam currents) offers new possibilities and perspectives in the field of ion implantation. In addition to all these possibilities, the PANTECHNIK ion sources have many other advantages like: a very long lifetime without maintenance expense, good stability, efficiency of ionization close to 100% (this improves the lifetime of the pumping system and other equipment), the possibility of producing ion beams with different energies, and a very good reproducibility. The main characteristics of sources like Nanogan or SuperNanogan will be recalled. We will especially present the results obtained with the new Microgan 10 GHz source that can be optimized for the production of high currents of monocharged ion, including reactive gas like BF3 (2 mA e of B+) or medium currents of low charge state like 0.5 mA e of Ar4+. The latest results obtained with Microgan 10 GHz show that it is possible to drive the source up to 30 mA e of total current, with an emittance of 150 π mm mrad at 40 kV and also to maintain the production of multicharged ions like Ar8+.

  1. 76 FR 7187 - East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc., Texas; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Electric Cooperative, Inc., Texas; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment February 2, 2011. In... Register [FR] 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc.'s... number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access the document. For assistance...

  2. Spatiotemporal Variability of Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budgets in the Convective Boundary Layer over Both Simple and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail

    The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains eachmore » for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.« less

  3. 2016 Texas Transportation Poll : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-25

    In spring 2016, the Texas A&M Transportation Institute initiated the second Texas Transportation Poll, a survey of more than 4,000 Texans that assesses public opinion surrounding the following transportation issues: - Travel behavior. - Travel soluti...

  4. Converting an AEG Cyclotron to H- Acceleration and Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Fred; Carroll, Lewis; Rathmann, Tom; Huenges, Ernst; Bechtold, Matthias Mentler Volker

    2009-03-01

    Clinical Trials are under way to evaluate agents labeled with the nuclide 225Ac and its decay product 213Bi, in targeted alpha-immuno-therapy [1]. 225Ac can be produced on a medium-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reaction 226Ra(p,n)225Ac. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a vintage AEG cyclotron, Model E33 [2], with an internal target, had been employed in a pilot production program at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). To enhance production capability and further support the clinical studies, the TUM facility has recently been refurbished and upgraded, adding a new external beam-line, automated target irradiation and transport systems, new laboratories, hot cells, etc. [3]. An improved high-power rotating target has been built and installed [4]. The AEG cyclotron itself has also been modified and upgraded to accelerate and extract H- ions. We have designed, built, and tested a new axial Penning-type ion source which is optimized for the production of H- ions. The ion source has continued to evolve through experiment and experience. Steady improvements in materials and mechanics have led to enhanced source stability, life-time, and H- production. We have also designed and built a precision H- charge-exchange beam-extraction system which is equipped with a vacuum lock. To fit within the tight mechanical constraint imposed by the narrow magnet gap, the system incorporates a novel chain-drive foil holder and foil-changer mechanism. The reconfigured cyclotron system has now been in operation for more than 1 year. Three long-duration target irradiations have been conducted. The most recent bombardment ran 160 continuous hours at a beam on target of ˜80 microamperes for a total yield of ˜70 milli-curies of 225Ac.

  5. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  6. 76 FR 14387 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-118-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), Post Office Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket... West Cameron Blocks 566, 565, and 548, offshore Louisiana, under Texas Eastern's blanket certificate...

  7. Variability of the atmospheric energy flux across 70°N computed from the GFDL data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Turet, Philip

    The primary energy balance for the arctic atmosphere is through northward advection of moist static energy—sensible heat, potential energy, and latent heat—balanced by long wave radiation to space. Energy flux from sea ice and marginal seas contributes perhaps 20-30% of the outgoing radiation north of 70°N in winter and absorbs a nearly equal amount during summer. Thorndike's toy model shows that extreme climate states with no ice growth or melt can occur by changing the latitudinal energy flux by ±20-30% out of an annual mean flux of 100 W m-2. We extend the previous work on latitudinal energy flux by Nakamura and Oort (NO) to a 25-year record and investigate temporal variability. Our annual latitudinal energy flux was 103 W m-2 compared to the NO value of 98 W m-2 this difference was from greater fluxes during the winter. We found that mean winter (NDJFM) energy flux was 121 W m-2 with a standard deviation of 11 W m-2. There were no large outliers in any year. An analysis of variance showed that interannual variability does not contribute towards explaining monthly variability of northward energy transport for the winter, summer or annual periods. Transient eddy flux of sensible heat into the arctic basin was the largest component of the total energy flux and is concentrated near the longitudes of the Greenland Sea (˜10°W) and the Bering and Chukchi Seas (180°). There is a minimum in atmospheric heating north of Greenland, a known region of thick ice. While there was little interannual variability of energy flux across 70°N, there was considerable month-to-month variability and regional variability in poleward energy flux. Sea ice may playa role in storage and redistribution of energy in the arctic climate.

  8. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  9. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  10. Experimental observation of ion-cyclotron turbulence in the presence of transverse-velocity shear. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Amatucci, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    This laboratory investigation documents the influence of transverse, localized, dc electric fields (TLE) on the excitation of ion-cyclotron waves driven by magnetic field-aligned current (FAC) in a Q-machine plasma device. A segmented disk electrode, located on axis at the end of the plasma column, is used to independently control TLE and FAC in the plasma (potassium plasma, n approximately equals 10(exp 9) cm(exp {minus}3), rho(i) approximately equals 0.2 cm, T(e) = T(i) approximately equals 0.2 eV). Ion-cyclotron waves have been characterized in both the weak-TLE and large-FAC regime and the strong-TLE and small-FAC regime. The existence of a new categorymore » of oscillation identified as the inhomogeneous energy-density driven (IEDD) instability is verified based on the properties of the waves in the latter regime. In the weak-TLE regime, current-driven electrostatic ion-cyclotron (CDEIC) waves with features in qualitative agreement with previous laboratory results have been observed at sufficiently large FAC. These waves have a frequency spectrum with a single narrow spectral feature located slightly above the ion-cyclotron frequency (omega approximately equals 1.2 Omega(i)). The waves are standing in the radial direction with peak oscillation amplitude located in the center of the FAC channel and are azimuthally symmetric (m = 0). Small magnitude TLE were found to have negligible effect on the characteristics of the waves. In the strong-TLE regime, a decrease in the threshold FAC level is observed. This transition in the instability threshold is accompanied by changes in the frequency spectra, propagation characteristics, and mode amplitude profiles. In the presence of strong-TLE, the ion-cyclotron waves propagate azimuthally in the E x B direction with k(theta) rho(i) = 0.4 and m = 1. The frequency spectrum becomes broadband and spiky, and shifts with the applied TLE strength.« less

  11. Fabrication of Natural Uranium UO 2 Disks (Phase II): Texas A&M Work for Others Summary Document

    SciTech Connect

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Schmidlin, Joshua E.

    The steps to fabricate natural UO 2 disks for an irradiation campaign led by Texas A&M University are outlined. The process was initiated with stoichiometry adjustment of parent, U 3O 8 powder. The next stage of sample preparation involved exploratory pellet pressing and sintering to achieve the desired natural UO 2 pellet densities. Ideal densities were achieved through the use of a bimodal powder size blend. The steps involved with disk fabrication are also presented, describing the coring and thinning process executed to achieve final dimensionality.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven; Kabanovic, Slawa

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn, considering all magnetic field data collected during the Cassini era (totaling to over 4 years of data from the equatorial plane). This dataset includes eight targeted flybys of Enceladus, three targeted flybys of Dione, and three targeted flybys of Rhea. Because all remaining orbits of Cassini are high-inclination, our study provides the complete map of ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's equatorial magnetosphere during the Cassini era. We provide catalogs of the radial and longitudinal dependencies of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron fundamental and first harmonic wave modes. The fundamental wave mode is omnipresent between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and evenly distributed across all Local Times. The occurrence rate of the fundamental mode displays a Fermi-Dirac-like profile with respect to radial distance from Saturn. Detection of the first harmonic mode is a rare event occurring in only 0.49% of measurements taken and always in conjunction with the fundamental mode. We also search for a dependency of the ion cyclotron wave field on the orbital positions of the icy moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. On magnetospheric length scales, the wave field is independent of the moons' orbital positions. For Enceladus, we analyze wave amplitude profiles of seven close flybys (E9, E12, E13, E14, E17, E18, and E19), which occurred during the studied trajectory segments, to look for any local effects of Enceladan plume variability on the wave field. We find that even in the close vicinity of Enceladus, the wave amplitudes display no discernible dependency on Enceladus' angular distance to its orbital apocenter. Thus, the correlation between plume activity and angular distance to apocenter proposed by Hedman et al. (2013) does not leave a clearly distinguishable imprint in the ion cyclotron wave field.

  13. Carbonate Microfabrics Symposium and Workshop Held Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas on 30 September-3 October 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-03

    Center, Mississippi; and ARCO Oil and Gas Company, Piano, Texas. We are grateful to the following people for ideas and support during the planning...dissolution. In 1983, disturbed by the obviously severe effects of pressure-dissolution on the structures of oil fields , the oil companies active in...extreme depletion of the C-13 isotope (to values of 53.9 %co PDB) which associates them with carbon from oil and gas (both biogenic and thermogenic

  14. A Broadband Investigation of the Texas/Gulf of Mexico Passive Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evanzia, D.; Ainsworth, R.; Pratt, K. W.; Pulliam, J.; Gurrola, H.

    2012-12-01

    The lithosphere of central and east Texas underwent two cycles of continental rifting and orogeny from the formation of Laurentia and assembly through the breakup of Pangea. The craton itself, exposed in the Llano uplift of central Texas, formed ~1.4 Ga as part of the great expanse of Mesoproterozoic crust that makes up southern Laurentia. Some of this crust was deformed during the Grenville orogeny ~1.1 Ga. Southern Laurentia was subsequently stable until rifting began in Cambrian time (~530 Ma). Suturing of Gondwana to Laurentia (310-290 Ma) during the assembly of Pangea formed the Ouachita orogen in west Texas. Sometime before 200 Ma rifting was initiated, opening the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In north and east Texas the Ouachita front lies north of GoM rifting but, according to deep seismic data, Ouachita structures appear to coincide with GoM rifting in south and central Texas. This suggests that rifting in that region occurred along structures that were weakened previously by Ouachita deformation and reactivated during the Jurassic opening of the GoM. It is not clear whether the process that created the Gulf of Mexico and led to the formation of Texas' Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is best described as "active" or "passive" rifting. A recent study interpreted the GCP to be a volcanic rifted margin—an active rifting process—using available gravity, magnetic, drilling and geological data, but older studies describe the opening of the GoM as a passive event. In the coastal plain, a large magnetic anomaly suggests that the crust here was modified by volcanism. Seismic data are sparse and of limited quality in the Gulf Coast region so we conducted a 2.5-year broadband seismograph transect across the GCP in an effort to clarify its structure and origin. In all, twenty-three broadband seismographs were deployed in a line from Matagorda Island, in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, TX, on the uplifted Llano Plateau from July 2010 to December 2012. These seismographs have

  15. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  16. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of amore » beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.« less

  17. Whistler and Alfvén Mode Cyclotron Masers in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Rycroft, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory of cyclotron masers (CMs); 3. Linear theory of the cyclotron instability (CI); 4. Backward wave oscillator (BWO) regime in CMs; 5. Nonlinear cyclotron wave-particle interactions for a quasi-monochromatic wave; 6. Nonlinear interaction of quasi-monochromatic whistler mode waves with gyroresonant electrons in an in homogeneous plasma; 7. Wavelet amplification in an inhomogeneous plasma; 8. Quasi-linear theory of cyclotron masers; 9. Nonstationary generation regimes, and modulation effects; 10. ELF/VLF noise-like emissions and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts; 11. Generation of discrete ELF/VLF whistler mode emissions; 12. Cyclotron instability of the proton radiation belts; 13. Cyclotron masers elsewhere in the solar system and in laboratory plasma devices; Epilogue; Glossary of terms; List of acronyms; References; Index.

  18. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  19. Accurate Monte Carlo modeling of cyclotrons for optimization of shielding and activation calculations in the biomedical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Marengo, Mario; Baschetti, Serafina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Longo Vaschetto, Vittorio; Lucconi, Giulia; Massucci, Piera; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical cyclotrons for production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radionuclides and radiotherapy with hadrons or ions are widely diffused and established in hospitals as well as in industrial facilities and research sites. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for radiation protection assessment, are given in a number of international documents; however, these well-established guides typically offer analytic methods of calculation of both shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealized geometry set up. The availability of Monte Carlo codes with accurate and up-to-date libraries for transport and interactions of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of nowadays computers, makes systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to radiation protection. In this work, the well-known Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to simulate two representative models of cyclotron for PET radionuclides production, including their targetry; and one type of proton therapy cyclotron including the energy selection system. Simulations yield estimates of various quantities of radiological interest, including the effective dose distribution around the equipment, the effective number of neutron produced per incident proton and the activation of target materials, the structure of the cyclotron, the energy degrader, the vault walls and the soil. The model was validated against experimental measurements and comparison with well-established reference data. Neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured around a GE PETtrace cyclotron: an average ratio between experimental measurement and simulations of 0.99±0.07 was found. Saturation yield of 18F, produced by the well-known 18O(p,n)18F reaction, was calculated and compared with the IAEA recommended

  20. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to

  1. Why Do Top 10% South Texas Latino High School Seniors Choose to Forego Automatic Admission to Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influential factors that contribute to pathway decisions of high achieving Latino students from South Texas. The theoretical frameworks of Hossler & Gallagher (1987) and Yosso (2005) are utilized as foundational pieces to denote various factors and networks of "capital" which impact the decision making process…

  2. Encapsulation methods for solid radionuclide production targets at a medium-energy cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Gideon; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Isaacs, Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The techniques employed at iThemba LABS for the encapsulation of solid radionuclide production targets, based on cold indentation welding, electron beam welding and laser welding, are described. Some aspects of the target holders and cooling requirements to bombard targets in a tandem configuration with a 66 MeV proton beam, with intensities up to nominally 250 A, are also briefly discussed. These techniques are inter alia suitable for a production regimen compatible with the new generation of commercial, high-intensity 70 MeV cyclotrons.

  3. Effect of high energy electrons on H{sup −} production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Onai, M., E-mail: onai@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Fujita, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2016-02-15

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H{sup −} production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H{sup −} extraction current on the arc-discharge powermore » in the experiments.« less

  4. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Treesearch

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  5. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  6. Management of south Texas shrublands with prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    C. Wayne Hanselka; D. Lynn Drawe; D.C. III Ruthven

    2007-01-01

    The Rio Grande Plains (RGP) and Coastal Prairie (CP) of South Texas is the southernmost extension of the Great Plains Grasslands. Fire, along with other climatic variables, such as drought, presumably maintained mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) savannas and interspersed grasslands of pre- European settlement South Texas. Frequency of fire...

  7. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  8. A Photometric Variability Survey of Field K and M Dwarf Stars with HATNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Noyes, R. W.; Sipőcz, B.; Kovács, G.; Mazeh, T.; Shporer, A.; Pál, A.

    2011-05-01

    Using light curves from the HATNet survey for transiting extrasolar planets we investigate the optical broadband photometric variability of a sample of 27, 560 field K and M dwarfs selected by color and proper motion (V - K >~ 3.0, μ > 30 mas yr-1, plus additional cuts in J - H versus H - KS and on the reduced proper motion). We search the light curves for periodic variations and for large-amplitude, long-duration flare events. A total of 2120 stars exhibit potential variability, including 95 stars with eclipses and 60 stars with flares. Based on a visual inspection of these light curves and an automated blending classification, we select 1568 stars, including 78 eclipsing binaries (EBs), as secure variable star detections that are not obvious blends. We estimate that a further ~26% of these stars may be blends with fainter variables, though most of these blends are likely to be among the hotter stars in our sample. We find that only 38 of the 1568 stars, including five of the EBs, have previously been identified as variables or are blended with previously identified variables. One of the newly identified EBs is 1RXS J154727.5+450803, a known P = 3.55 day, late M-dwarf SB2 system, for which we derive preliminary estimates for the component masses and radii of M 1 = M 2 = 0.258 ± 0.008 M sun and R 1 = R 2 = 0.289 ± 0.007 R sun. The radii of the component stars are larger than theoretical expectations if the system is older than ~200 Myr. The majority of the variables are heavily spotted BY Dra-type stars for which we determine rotation periods. Using this sample, we investigate the relations between period, color, age, and activity measures, including optical flaring, for K and M dwarfs, finding that many of the well-established relations for F, G, and K dwarfs continue into the M dwarf regime. We find that the fraction of stars that is variable with peak-to-peak amplitudes greater than 0.01 mag increases exponentially with the V - KS color such that

  9. Simultaneous observations of subauroral electron temperature enhancements and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlandson, R. E.; Aggson, T. L.; Hogey, W. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Observational results from an investigation of LF (0.5-4.0 Hz) electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and subauroral electron temperature enhancements recorded from the DE-2 satellite are presented. Four different wave events were analyzed, all recorded at magnetic latitudes from 57-60 deg, magnetic local times from 8-14 hr, and altitudes from 600-900 km. The peak wave amplitudes during the events ranged from 8-70 nT and 5-30 mV/m in the magnetic and electric field, respectively. Te enhancements at the time of the waves were observed in three of four events. A linear relationship between the wave magnetic field spectral density and Te enhancements was found for these events. The Te enhancements were also correlated with an enhanced flux of low energy electrons. During one event (82104) an enhanced flux of electrons were observed at energies up to 50 eV and at nearly all pitch angles, although the flux was largest in the precipitating and upflowing directions. It is suggested that the waves are responsible for heating the low energy electrons which precipitate to the ionosphere and produce the observed Te enhancements. The upflowing electron population appears to be heated at ionospheric altitudes, below the DE-2 satellite.

  10. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Jin, W.

    2014-11-15

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  11. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Detected by Kaguya and Geotail in the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi

    2018-02-01

    Narrowband electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves first discovered by the Apollo 15 and 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometers were surveyed in the magnetic field data obtained by the Kaguya satellite at an altitude of ˜100 km above the Moon in the tail lobe and plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere. The frequencies of the waves were typically 0.7 times the local proton cyclotron frequency, and 75% of the waves were left hand polarized with respect to the background magnetic field. They had a significant compressional component and comprised several discrete packets. They were detected on the dayside, nightside, and above the terminator of the Moon, irrespective of the lunar magnetic anomaly, or the magnetic connection to the lunar surface. The waves with the same characteristics were detected by Geotail in the absence of the Moon in the magnetotail. The most likely energy source of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is the ring beam ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  12. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  13. Toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    Increasing implementation of managed lanes in the : United States : Katy Freeway Managed Lanes : (KML) offers lessons learned : for other projects : First operational, multilane, : variably priced, managed facility : in Texas : Became oper...

  14. Var C: Long-term photometric and spectral variability of a luminous blue variable in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burggraf, B.; Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Henze, M.; Meusinger, H.; Sholukhova, O.; Zharova, A.; Pellerin, A.; Becker, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: So far the highly unstable phase of luminous blue variables (LBVs) has not been understood well. It is still uncertain why and which massive stars enter this phase. Investigating the variabilities by looking for a possible regular or even (semi-)periodic behaviour could give a hint at the underlying mechanism for these variations and might answer the question of where these variabilities originate. Finding out more about the LBV phase also means understanding massive stars better in general, which have (e.g. by enriching the ISM with heavy elements, providing ionising radiation and kinetic energy) a strong and significant influence on the ISM, hence also on their host galaxy. Methods: Photometric and spectroscopic data were taken for the LBV Var C in M 33 to investigate its recent status. In addition, scanned historic plates, archival data, and data from the literature were gathered to trace Var C's behaviour in the past. Its long-term variability and periodicity was investigated. Results: Our investigation of the variability indicates possible (semi-)periodic behaviour with a period of 42.3 years for Var C. That Var C's light curve covers a time span of more than 100 years means that more than two full periods of the cycle are visible. The critical historic maximum around 1905 is less strong but discernible even with the currently rare historic data. The semi-periodic and secular structure of the light curve is similar to the one of LMC R71. Both light curves hint at a new aspect in the evolution of LBVs. Based on observations collected at the Thüringer Landessternwarte (TLS) Tautenburg.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Tables 2-4, and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. 76 FR 25330 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-216-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No... in the termination of any services to Texas Eastern's customers, all as more fully set forth in the...

  16. Superconducting Ring Cyclotron for Riken RI Beam Factory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, H.; Dantsuka, T.; Yamada, K.; Kase, M.; Maie, T.; Kamigaito, O.

    2010-04-01

    Since 1997, RIKEN Nishina Center has been constructing the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and succeeded in beam commissioning of its accelerator complex at the end of 2006. The world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC) is the final booster in the RIBF accelerator complex which is able to accelerate all-element heavy ions to a speed of about 70% of the velocity of light. The ring cyclotron consists of 6 major superconducting sector magnets with a maximum field of 3.8 T. The total stored energy is 235 MJ, and its overall sizes are 19 m diameter, 8 m height and 8,300 tons. The magnet system assembly was completed in August 2005, and successfully reached the maximum field in November 2005. The first beam was extracted at the end of 2006 and the first uranium beam was extracted in March 2007. However operation of the helium refrigerator was not satisfactory although the commissioning of SRC was successful. Operation was stopped every two month due to degradation of its cooling power. In February 2008 the reason of the degradation was revealed to be oil contamination. Operation of the cryogenic system was restarted from August 2008 after hard task to clean up the helium refrigerator and to add oil separators to the compressor. After restoration long-term steady operation to keep the magnet superconducting continued for about 8 months with no sign of degradation of cooling capacity.

  17. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... one-year drought on record and the warmest month in Texas history. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the wildfires at 12:05 p.m. CDT on ...

  18. 76 FR 29234 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-477-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 10, 2011 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP11-477-000...

  19. Read Across Texas! 2002 Texas Reading Club Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgmon, Missy; Ferate-Soto, Paolo; Foley, Lelana; Hager, Tina; Heard, Adriana; Ingham, Donna; Lopez, Nohemi; McMahon, Dorothy; Meyer, Sally; Parrish, Leila; Rodriguez-Gibbs, Josefina; Moreyra-Torres, Maricela; Travis, Gayle; Welch, Willy

    The goal of the Texas Reading Club is to encourage the children of Texas to become library users and lifelong readers. This manual was created for the 2002 Texas Reading Club, a program of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. The theme, "Read Across Texas!" invites children to explore the history, geography, and culture of…

  20. Cyclotron resonance and interband optical transitions in HgTe/CdTe(0 1 3) quantum well heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonnikov, A. V.; Zholudev, M. S.; Spirin, K. E.; Lastovkin, A. A.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Aleshkin, V. Ya; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Drachenko, O.; Helm, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Goiran, M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Teppe, F.; Diakonova, N.; Consejo, C.; Chenaud, B.; Knap, W.

    2011-12-01

    Cyclotron resonance spectra of 2D electrons in HgTe/CdxHg1-xTe (0 1 3) quantum well (QW) heterostructures with inverted band structure have been thoroughly studied in quasiclassical magnetic fields versus the electron concentration varied using the persistent photoconductivity effect. The cyclotron mass is shown to increase with QW width in contrast to QWs with normal band structure. The measured values of cyclotron mass are shown to be systematically less than those calculated using the 8 × 8 Kane model with conventional set of HgTe and CdTe material parameters. In quantizing pulsed magnetic fields (Landau level filling factor less than unity) up to 45 T, both intraband (CR) and interband magnetoabsorption have been studied at radiation wavelengths 14.8 and 11.4 µm for the first time. The results obtained are compared with the allowed transition energies between Landau levels in the valence and conduction bands calculated within the same model, the calculated energies being again systematically less (by 3-14%) than the observed optical transition energies.

  1. Utilizing Machine Learning for Analysis of Tiara for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Slycke, Jacqueline; Christian, Greg, , Dr.

    2017-09-01

    The Tiara for Texas detector at Texas A&M University consists of a target chamber housing an array of silicon detectors and surrounded by four high purity germanium clovers that generate voltage pulses proportional to detected gamma ray energies. While some radiation is fully absorbed in one photopeak, others undergo Compton scattering between detectors. This process is thoroughly simulated in GEANT4. Machine learning with scikit-learn allows for the reconstruction of scattered photons to the original energy of the incident gamma ray. In a given simulation, a defined number of rays are emitted from the source. Each ray is marked as an event and its path is tracked. Scikit-learn uses the events' paths to train an algorithm, which recognizes which events should be summed to reconstruct the full gamma ray energy and additional events to test the algorithm. These predictions are not exact, but were analyzed to further understand any discrepancies and increase the effectiveness of the simulation. The results from this research project compare various machine learning techniques to determine which methods should be expanded on in the future. National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1659847 and United States Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-93ER40773.

  2. Chronic back pain and associated work and non-work variables among farmworkers from Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Eva M; Cooper, Sharon P; del Junco, Deborah J; Delclos, George L; Burau, Keith D; Tortolero, Susan; Whitworth, Ryan E

    2009-01-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic back pain among migrant farmworker family members and identified associated work and non-work variables. Migrant farmworkers (n = 390 from 267 families) from Starr County, Texas were interviewed in their home once a year for 2 years. The original survey included items measuring demographics, smoking, sleep, farm work, and chronic back pain. For this cross-sectional analysis, multi-level logistic regression was used to identify associated work and other variables associated with chronic back pain while accounting for intraclass correlations due to repeated measures and multiple family members. The prevalence of chronic back pain during the last migration season ranged from 9.5% among the youngest children to 33.3% among mothers. Variables significantly associated with chronic back pain were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03, per year increase), depressive symptoms while migrating (OR, 8.72), fewer than 8 hours of sleep at home in Starr County (OR, 2.26), fairly bad/very bad quality of sleep while migrating (OR, 3.25), sorting crops at work (OR, 0.18), and working tree crops (OR, 11.72). The role of work exposures, depressive symptoms, and sleep in chronic back pain among farmworkers warrants further examination. Refinements in outcome and exposure assessments are also needed given the lack of a standardized case definition and the variety of tasks and crops involved in farm work in the United States.

  3. The Woodlands, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Larry J.; Bernhardt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the "central project" concept for implementing technology education while addressing education reform. The central project is a topic around which students, teachers, administrators, and the community focus their energies as a team. At McCullough High School (Texas), the central project involved design and…

  4. 75 FR 31429 - Atmos Pipeline-Texas; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-27-000] Atmos Pipeline--Texas; Notice of Baseline Filing May 27, 2010. Take notice that on May 27, 2010, Atmos Pipeline--Texas submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for interruptible transportation...

  5. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  6. Preliminary Public Design Report for the Texas Clean Energy Project: Topical Report - Phase 1, June 2010-July 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (Summit) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a syntheticmore » gas (syngas) which will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two high-hydrogen (H 2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO 2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. Front-end Engineering and Design (FEED) commenced in June 2010 and was completed in July 2011, setting the design basis for entering into the detailed engineering phase of the project. During Phase 1, TCEP conducted and completed the FEED, applied for and received its air construction permit, provided engineering and other technical information required for development of the draft Environmental Impact Statement, and completed contracts for the

  7. Project 8: Towards cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy on tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertl, Martin; Project 8 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Project 8 aims to determine the neutrino mass by making a precise measurement of the beta decay of molecular tritium (Q = 18.6 keV) using the recently demonstrated the technique of cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy (CRES). We report on results for calibration measurements performed with Kr-83m in a gas cell that fulfills the stringent requirements for a measurement using tritium: cryogenic operation, safe tritium handling, a non-magnetic design, and a good microwave guide performance. The phased program that allows Project 8 to probe the neutrino mass range accessible using molecular tritium is described. Major financial support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics to the University of Washington under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020 is acknowledged

  8. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University ofmore » Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.« less

  9. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Klaas, Kelly; Tapia, Beatriz; Sexton, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI) and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008)) is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables) to (100—Healthy). These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border. PMID:24865399

  10. Examining social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability in Texas.

    PubMed

    Siebeneck, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To develop a vulnerability model that captures the social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability of Texas counties. Guided by previous research and methodologies proposed in the hazards and emergency management literature, a principle components analysis is used to create a tornado vulnerability index. Data were gathered from open source information available through the US Census Bureau, American Community Surveys, and the Texas Natural Resources Information System. Texas counties. The results of the model yielded three indices that highlight geographic variability of social vulnerability, built environment vulnerability, and tornado hazard throughout Texas. Further analyses suggest that counties with the highest tornado vulnerability include those with high population densities and high tornado risk. This article demonstrates one method for assessing statewide tornado vulnerability and presents how the results of this type of analysis can be applied by emergency managers towards the reduction of tornado vulnerability in their communities.

  11. Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, D.

    2003-03-01

    The Texas Intense Positron Source (TIPS) is a state of the art variable energy positron beam under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Projected intensities on the order of the order of 10^7 e+/second using ^64Cu as the positron source are expected. Owing to is short half-life (t1/2 12.8 hrs), plans are to produce the ^64Cu isotope on-site using beam port 1 of NETL TRIGA Mark II reactor. Following tungsten moderation, the positrons will be electrostatically focused and accelerated from few 10's of eV up to 30 keV. This intensity and energy range should allow routine performance of several analytical techniques of interest to surface scientists (PALS, PADB and perhaps PAES and LEPD.) The TIPS project is being developed in parallel phases. Phase I of the project entails construction of the vacuum system, source chamber, main beam line, electrostatic/magnetic focusing and transport system as well as moderator design. Initial construction, testing and characterization of moderator and beam transport elements are underway and will use a commercially available 10 mCi ^22Na radioisotope as a source of positrons. Phase II of the project is concerned primarily with the Cu source geometry and thermal properties as well as production and physical handling of the radioisotope. Additional instrument optimizing based upon experience gained during Phase I will be incorporated in the final design. Current progress of both phases will be presented along with motivations and future directions.

  12. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD (invited).

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Nishiura, M; Tanaka, K; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahash, H; Mutoh, T; Tamura, N; Tatematsu, Y; Saito, T; Notake, T; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Nielsen, S K; Salewski, M; Stejner, M

    2010-10-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system in Large Helical Device (LHD). The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH system. The 32 channel radiometer with sharp notch filter at the front end is attached to the ECRH system transmission line as a CTS receiver. The validation of the CTS signal is performed by scanning the scattering volume. A new method to separate the CTS signal from background electron cyclotron emission is developed and applied to derive the bulk and high energy ion components for several combinations of neutral beam heated plasmas.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov Websites

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video thumbnail for Electric Vehicles Take Center Stage in North Texas Electric Vehicles Take Center Stage in North Texas June 30, 2016 Video thumbnail for Texas through Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs) April 20, 2016 Video thumbnail for Houston

  14. The Challenge of Advanced Placement Partnerships in the South Texas Border Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Deborah L.; Pisani, Jana S.; Pisani, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2000, the Texas Education Agency and the Texas A&M University System teamed up to create an initiative called the University Faculty Fellows Program. Spearheaded by Texas A&M International University in Laredo, the program paired up faculty from the university with area Advanced Placement (AP) teachers in a variety of…

  15. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan

    2011-06-30

    The Texas Hydrogen Education project builds on past interest in hydrogen and fuel cells to help create better informed leaders and stakeholders and thereby improve decision making and planning for inclusion of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies as energy alternatives in Texas. In past years in Texas, there was considerable interest and activities about hydrogen and fuel cells (2000-­2004). During that time, the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) created a fuel cell consortium and a fuel cell testing lab. Prior to 2008, interest and activities had declined substantially. In 2008, in cooperation with the Texas H2 Coalition and the Statemore » Energy Conservation Office, HARC conducted a planning process to create the Texas Hydrogen Roadmap. It was apparent from analysis conducted during the course of this process that while Texas has hydrogen and fuel cell advantages, there was little program and project activity as compared with other key states. Outreach and education through the provision of informational materials and organizing meetings was seen as an effective way of reaching decision makers in Texas. Previous hydrogen projects in Texas had identified the five major urban regions for program and project development. This geographic targeting approach was adopted for this project. The project successfully conducted the five proposed workshops in four of the target metropolitan areas: San Antonio, Houston, Austin, and the Dallas-­Ft. Worth area. In addition, eight outreach events were included to further inform state and local government leaders on the basics of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The project achieved its primary objectives of developing communication with target audiences and assembling credible and consistent outreach and education materials. The major lessons learned include: (1) DOE’s Clean Cities programs are a key conduit to target transportation audiences, (2) real-­world fuel cell applications (fuel cell buses, fuel cell

  16. Observations of single-pass ion cyclotron heating in a trans-sonic flowing plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Squire, J. P.; Glover, T. W.; Carter, M. D.; McCaskill, G. E.; Longmier, B. W.; Brukardt, M. S.; Chancery, W. J.; Jacobson, V. T.

    2010-04-01

    The VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR®) is a high power electric spacecraft propulsion system, capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power [F. R. Chang Díaz et al., Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, 8-11 Jan. 2001]. The VASIMR® uses a helicon discharge to generate plasma. This plasma is energized by an rf booster stage that uses left hand polarized slow mode waves launched from the high field side of the ion cyclotron resonance. In the experiments reported in this paper, the booster uses 2-4 MHz waves with up to 50 kW of power. This process is similar to the ion cyclotron heating (ICH) in tokamaks, but in the VASIMR® the ions only pass through the resonance region once. The rapid absorption of ion cyclotron waves has been predicted in recent theoretical studies. These theoretical predictions have been supported with several independent measurements in this paper. The single-pass ICH produced a substantial increase in ion velocity. Pitch angle distribution studies showed that this increase took place in the resonance region where the ion cyclotron frequency was roughly equal to the frequency on the injected rf waves. Downstream of the resonance region the perpendicular velocity boost should be converted to axial flow velocity through the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant as the magnetic field decreases in the exhaust region of the VASIMR®. This paper will review all of the single-pass ICH ion acceleration data obtained using deuterium in the first VASIMR® physics demonstrator machine, the VX-50. During these experiments, the available power to the helicon ionization stage increased from 3 to 20+ kW. The increased plasma density produced increased plasma loading of the ICH coupler. Starting with an initial demonstration of single-pass ion cyclotron acceleration, the experiments demonstrate significant improvements in coupler efficiency and in ion heating efficiency. In

  17. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, Karl

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (STCE) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the Project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin subbituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into amore » synthetic gas (syngas) that will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the IGCC facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two highhydrogen (H 2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO 2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR and permanent underground sequestration. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. STCE and the DOE executed a Cooperative Agreement dated January 29, 2010, which defined the objectives of the Project for all phases. During Phase 1, STCE conducted and completed all objectives defined in the initial development, permitting and design portions of the Cooperative Agreement. This topical report summarizes all work associated with the project objectives, and additional work required to

  18. 75 FR 70732 - Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-92-001] Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing November 10, 2010. Take notice that on November 9, 2010, Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  19. Zirconium and Yttrium (p, d) Surrogate Nuclear Reactions: Measurement and determination of gamma-ray probabilities: Experimental Physics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J. T.; Hughes, R. O.; Escher, J. E.

    This technical report documents the surrogate reaction method and experimental results used to determine the desired neutron induced cross sections of 87Y(n,g) and the known 90Zr(n,g) cross section. This experiment was performed at the STARLiTeR apparatus located at Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute using the K150 Cyclotron which produced a 28.56 MeV proton beam. The proton beam impinged on Y and Zr targets to produce the nuclear reactions 89Y(p,d) 88Y and 92Zr(p,d) 91Zr. Both particle singles data and particle-gamma ray coincident data were measured during the experiment. This data was used to determine the γ-ray probability as a function of energymore » for these reactions. The results for the γ-ray probabilities as a function of energy for both these nuclei are documented here. For completeness, extensive tabulated and graphical results are provided in the appendices.« less

  20. Characterization of 41Ar production in air at a PET cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoria, Gianfranco; Cesarini, Francesco; Infantino, Angelo; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Marengo, Mario

    2017-06-01

    In the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) nuclides at a medical cyclotron facility 41Ar (T1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux, according to the 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar reaction. In this work, we describe a relatively inexpensive and readily reproducible methodology of air sampling that can be used for quantification of 41Ar during the routine production of PET nuclides. We report the results of an extensive measurement campaign in the cyclotron bunker and in the ducts of the ventilation system, before and after final filtering of the extracted air. Air Samples were analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector, with proper correction of the efficiency calibration to account for the samples density. The results of measurement were then used to evaluate the Total Effective Dose (TED) to the population living in the surrounding areas, due to routine emissions in the operation of the cyclotron. The average 41Ar saturation yield per one liter of air emitted in the environment resulted to be (0.044 ± 0.007) Bq/(μA ṡ dm3). The maximum value of TED for the critical group of the population, even considering an overestimated workload, was less than 0.19 μSv/year, well below the level of radiological relevance.

  1. Texas M-E flexible pavement design system: literature review and proposed framework.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments over last several decades have offered an opportunity for more rational and rigorous pavement design procedures. Substantial work has already been completed in Texas, nationally, and internationally, in all aspects of modeling, ma...

  2. Optimized magnet for a 250 MeV proton radiotherapy cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Blosser, H.

    2001-12-01

    The NSCL accelerator group in 1993 carried out an extensive design study [1] for a K250 superconducting cyclotron for advanced cancer therapy. A private company ACCEL now offers cyclotrons based on this study on a commercial basis, and actual construction of a first such cyclotron is likely in the near future. In view of this, further optimization of the design of the superconducting magnet is currently underway. The configuration of the cyclotron has many similarities with previous NSCL-built superconducting cyclotrons—notable differences are the peak average field of 3 T (required by the focusing limit for protons) vs the 5 tesla of other MSU designs, and the use of four sectors rather than three to avoid the νr=3/2 stopband. The further optimization of the magnetic design described here keys on using the true 3D magnetic field program to more precisely match the design to an optimized orbital frequency configuration and to explore reducing the amount of spiral in the hills which then shortens the linear length of the rf elements and therefore reduces capacity and power consumption.

  3. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation update: GSA/Federal Youth Center, Bastrop, Texas, October 1982-April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Logee, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report is the second in a series of performance evaluation reports on the GSA/Federal Youth Center located in Bastrop, Texas. The GSA/Federal Youth Center is a federal correctional institute for youthful, male offenders in Bastrop, Texas. The active solar energy system is equipped with: 21,760 square feet of single-glazed, liquid flat-plate collectors manufactured by Cole Solar Systems. The storage consists of 40,000 gallons of insulated outdoor water tanks. Two 100-horsepower boilers and one 30-horsepower boiler burning natural gas with the capability to use Number 2 diesel fuel make up the auxiliary system. Solar energy is used to supply themore » hot water and space heating loads of the dormitory, offices, cafeteria, and hospital. During the summer, solar energy can also be used to supply some of the cooling load. The solar energy system at this Federal Correctional Institute operated well from October 1982 through April 1983. The solar system provided an estimated 12% or 866 million of the estimated total load of 7600 million Btu. There were 10 days of downtime in April caused by a failure of the collector pump. However, the collector pump high-speed motor had started to fail earlier in November. There were no other unusual solar system maintenance requirements during this period. The system performance during the monitoring period was 39% of the expected annual design performance, based on a proportional number of months.« less

  4. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy - Russia

    SciTech Connect

    To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can bemore » organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, Planning for a High RE Future. This is a Russian-language translation of Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid, originally published in English in May 2015.« less

  5. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in KS 1947+300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jorn; Kennea, Jamie; Bachetti, Matteo; Bellm, Eric; Boggs, Steven E.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of three simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array and Swift/XRT observations of the transient Be-neutron star binary KS 1947+300 taken during its outburst in 2013/2014. These broadband observations were supported by Swift/XRTmonitoring snapshots every three days, which we use to study the evolution of the spectrum over the outburst.We find strong changes of the power-law photon index, which shows a weak trend of softening with increasing X-ray flux. The neutron star shows very strong pulsations with a period of P ˜ [almost equal to] 18.8 s. The 0.8-79 keV broadband spectrum can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff and a blackbody component at low energies. During the second observation we detect a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 12.5 keV, which is absent in the phase-averaged spectra of observations 1 and 3. Pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that the strength of the feature changes strongly with pulse phase and is most prominent during the broad minimum of the pulse profile. At the same phases the line also becomes visible in the first and third observation at the same energy. This discovery implies that KS 1947+300 has a magnetic field strength of B ˜ [almost equal to] 1.1 × 1012(1 + z) G, which is at the lower end of known cyclotron line sources.

  6. NuSTAR DISCOVERY OF A CYCLOTRON LINE IN KS 1947+300

    SciTech Connect

    Fürst, Felix; Bellm, Eric; Harrison, Fiona

    2014-04-01

    We present a spectral analysis of three simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array and Swift/XRT observations of the transient Be-neutron star binary KS 1947+300 taken during its outburst in 2013/2014. These broadband observations were supported by Swift/XRT monitoring snapshots every three days, which we use to study the evolution of the spectrum over the outburst. We find strong changes of the power-law photon index, which shows a weak trend of softening with increasing X-ray flux. The neutron star shows very strong pulsations with a period of P ≈ 18.8 s. The 0.8-79 keV broadband spectrum can be described by a power law with anmore » exponential cutoff and a blackbody component at low energies. During the second observation we detect a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 12.5 keV, which is absent in the phase-averaged spectra of observations 1 and 3. Pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that the strength of the feature changes strongly with pulse phase and is most prominent during the broad minimum of the pulse profile. At the same phases the line also becomes visible in the first and third observation at the same energy. This discovery implies that KS 1947+300 has a magnetic field strength of B ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 12}(1 + z) G, which is at the lower end of known cyclotron line sources.« less

  7. Dissociation of heme from gaseous myoglobin ions studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Sheng; Sabu, Sahadevan; Wei, Shih-Chia; Josh Kao, C.-M.; Kong, Xianglei; Liau, Shing-Chih; Han, Chau-Chung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Tu, Shih-Yu; Kung, A. H.; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2006-10-01

    Detachment of heme prosthetic groups from gaseous myoglobin ions has been studied by collision-induced dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation in combination with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Multiply charged holomyoglobin ions (hMbn +) were generated by electrospray ionization and transferred to an ion cyclotron resonance cell, where the ions of interest were isolated and fragmented by either collision with Ar atoms or irradiation with 3μm photons, producing apomyoglobin ions (aMbn +). Both charged heme loss (with [Fe(III)-heme]+ and aMb(n-1)+ as the products) and neutral heme loss (with [Fe(II)-heme] and aMbn + as the products) were detected concurrently for hMbn + produced from a myoglobin solution pretreated with reducing reagents. By reference to Ea=0.9eV determined by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation for charged heme loss of ferric hMbn +, an activation energy of 1.1eV was deduced for neutral heme loss of ferrous hMbn + with n =9 and 10.

  8. Drought and the water-energy nexus in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Duncan, Ian; Reedy, Robert C.

    2013-12-01

    Texas experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011 with up to 100 days of triple digit temperatures resulting in record electricity demand and historically low reservoir levels. We quantified water and electricity demand and supply for each power plant during the drought relative to 2010 (baseline). Drought raised electricity demands/generation by 6%, increasing water demands/consumption for electricity by 9%. Reductions in monitored reservoir storage <50% of capacity in 2011 would suggest drought vulnerability, but data show that the power plants were flexible enough at the plant level to adapt by switching to less water-intensive technologies. Natural gas, now ˜50% of power generation in Texas, enhances drought resilience by increasing the flexibility of power plant generators, including gas combustion turbines to complement increasing wind generation and combined cycle generators with ˜30% of cooling water requirements of traditional steam turbine plants. These reductions in water use are projected to continue to 2030 with increased use of natural gas and renewables. Although water use for gas production is controversial, these data show that water saved by using natural gas combined cycle plants relative to coal steam turbine plants is 25-50 times greater than the amount of water used in hydraulic fracturing to extract the gas.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of fishing behavior among Texas anglers (1990-2006)

    Treesearch

    Jiaying Lu; Michael A. Schuett; Nathan Wolber; Robert Ditton

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fishing participation and experience preferences of Texas anglers from a longitudinal perspective. Data were obtained from five independent statewide surveys of licensed Texas anglers conducted by Texas A and M University in 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006. We observed the following changes between 1990 and 2006: 1) Fishing participation,...

  10. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A.

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has beenmore » observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.« less

  11. Realistic simulations of a cyclotron spiral inflector within a particle-in-cell framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklehner, Daniel; Adelmann, Andreas; Gsell, Achim; Kaman, Tulin; Campo, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code opal that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of the cyclotron both in terms of particle termination, and calculation of self-fields. Results are benchmarked against the analytical solution of a coasting beam. As a practical example, the spiral inflector and the first revolution in a 1 MeV /amu test cyclotron, located at Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc., are modeled and compared to the simulation results. We find that opal can now handle arbitrary boundary geometries with relative ease. Simulated injection efficiencies and beam shape compare well with measured efficiencies and a preliminary measurement of the beam distribution after injection.

  12. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  13. CSHCN in Texas: meeting the need for specialist care.

    PubMed

    Young, M Cherilyn; Drayton, Vonna L C; Menon, Ramdas; Walker, Lesa R; Parker, Colleen M; Cooper, Sam B; Bultman, Linda L

    2005-06-01

    Assuring the sufficiency and suitability of systems of care and services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) presents a challenge to Texas providers, agencies, and state Title V programs. To meet the need for specialist care, referrals from primary care doctors are often necessary. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with the need for specialist care and problems associated with obtaining referrals in Texas. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) weighted sample for Texas (n = 719,014) to identify variables associated with the need for specialist care and problems obtaining referrals for specialist care. Medical need of the CSHCN and sensitivity to family values/customs was associated with greater need for specialist care, and Hispanic ethnicity and lower maternal education were associated with less need. Medical need, amount of time spent with doctors and sensitivity to values/customs, living in a large metropolitan statistical area, and lack of medical information were associated with problems obtaining a specialist care referral. Findings revealed some similarities and differences with meeting the need for specialist care when comparing Texas results to other studies. In Texas, aspects of customer satisfaction variables, especially doctors' sensitivity to family values/customs and parents' not receiving enough information on medical problems, were significantly associated with problems obtaining specialist referrals. Findings indicate a need to further research relationships and communication among doctors, CSHCN, and their families.

  14. Endangered Species Management Plan for Fort Hood, Texas: FY06-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Texas red oak, post oak, Texas ash (Fraxinus texensis), shin oak, blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), cedar elm ...by Ashe juniper and Texas oak. Other important tree species included live oak, cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), Lacey oak (Quercus laceyi), Arizona...0.83 m (Cimprich 2005). Nest substrates include shin oak, Texas red oak, Texas redbud, Ashe juniper, Texas ash, Plateau live oak, cedar elm , rusty

  15. Improved measurement of the half-life of the J π = 8 - nuclear isomer 152m2 Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Humby, Peter; Simon, Anna; Beausang, C. W.

    2015-02-23

    The standard γ-ray energy calibration source 152Eu is well known based on the 13.5 y decay of its ground state. Nevertheless, in addition to this decay 152Eu also has two relatively long-lived isomeric states: a 9 h J π=0 - state at E *=46 keV and a 96 min J π=8 - state at E *=148 keV. Here we report a new measurement of the half-lives of both of these isomeric states. Excited states in 152Eu were populated following the 154Sm (p,3n) reaction using a 25 MeV proton beam from the K-150 cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&Mmore » University. Post irradiation, γ rays from the de-excitation of the long lived isomeric states were measured using the six BGO shielded high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that are part of the STARLiTeR array. The half-life of the J π=8 - isomer 152m2Eu was obtained by measuring the decrease in intensity of the 90 keV γ ray from the cascade to the ground state. The half-life of this state was measured to be 95.8(4) min which is in agreement with and significantly more precise than the previously measured value of 96(1) min. In a manner similar to the ground state the second long-lived isomer 151m1Eu, the J π=0 - state at 46 keV, β decays to excited states in 152Gd and 152Sm. Also, the half-life of this state was measured to be 9.39(7) h using five γ-ray transitions.« less

  16. GEANT4 simulation of cyclotron radioisotope production in a solid target.

    PubMed

    Poignant, F; Penfold, S; Asp, J; Takhar, P; Jackson, P

    2016-05-01

    The use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is essential for diagnosing and treating cancer. The optimization of their production is a key factor in maximizing the production yield and minimizing the associated costs. An efficient approach to this problem is the use of Monte Carlo simulations prior to experimentation. By predicting isotopes yields, one can study the isotope of interest expected activity for different energy ranges. One can also study the target contamination with other radioisotopes, especially undesired radioisotopes of the wanted chemical element which are difficult to separate from the irradiated target and might result in increasing the dose when delivering the radiopharmaceutical product to the patient. The aim of this work is to build and validate a Monte Carlo simulation platform using the GEANT4 toolkit to model the solid target system of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) GE Healthcare PETtrace cyclotron. It includes a GEANT4 Graphical User Interface (GUI) where the user can modify simulation parameters such as the energy, shape and current of the proton beam, the target geometry and material, the foil geometry and material and the time of irradiation. The paper describes the simulation and presents a comparison of simulated and experimental/theoretical yields for various nuclear reactions on an enriched nickel 64 target using the GEANT4 physics model QGSP_BIC_AllHP, a model recently developed to evaluate with high precision the interaction of protons with energies below 200MeV available in Geant4 version 10.1. The simulation yield of the (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu reaction was found to be 7.67±0.074 mCi·μA(-1) for a target energy range of 9-12MeV. Szelecsenyi et al. (1993) gives a theoretical yield of 6.71mCi·μA(-1) and an experimental yield of 6.38mCi·μA(-1). The (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu cross section obtained with the simulation was also verified against the yield predicted from the nuclear database TENDL and

  17. Use of cyclotrons in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaim, S. M.

    2004-10-01

    Cyclotrons are versatile ion-accelerating machines which find many applications in medicine. In this short review their use in hadron therapy is briefly discussed. Proton therapy is gaining significance because of its capability to treat deep-lying tumours. A strong area of application of cyclotrons involves the production of short-lived neutron deficient radiotracers for use in emission tomography, especially positron emission tomography. This fast and quantitative in vivo diagnostic technique is being increasingly used in neurology, cardiology and oncology. Besides routine patient care, considerable interdisciplinary work on development of new positron emitters is under way. A short account of those efforts is given. The use of cyclotrons in the production of radionuclides for internal radiotherapy is also briefly described.

  18. Status of the Milan superconducting cyclotron project

    SciTech Connect

    Acerbi, E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper presents an updated status report on the Superconducting Cyclotron, under construction at the University of Milan during the past two years, with funding chiefly provided by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics. The cyclotron is designed for a K of 800 and a K /SUB FOC/ of 200 and thus yields maximum energies of 100 MeV/n for fully stripped light ions and 20 MeV/n for uranium and other heavy ions. The pole radius is 90 cm with three sectors having an average spiral constant of 1/45.7 rad/cm. The average magnetic field will span between 22 and 48more » K Gauss with a corresponding R.F. frequency range between 15 and 48 MHz. The anticipated peak dee voltage is 100 KV with harmonic operation from h = 1 to h = 4. The operating modes include the use of an internal PIG source, injection from a 16 MV tandem, and axial injection from an external ion source. This paper presents the design parameters and outlines the progress made so far.« less

  19. Rotatable superconducting cyclotron adapted for medical use

    DOEpatents

    Blosser, Henry G.; Johnson, David A.; Riedel, Jack; Burleigh, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron (10) rotatable on a support structure (11) in an arc of about 180.degree. around a pivot axis (A--A) and particularly adapted for medical use is described. The rotatable support structure (13, 15) is balanced by being counterweighted (14) so as to allow rotation of the cyclotron and a beam (12), such as a subparticle (neutron) or atomic particle beam, from the cyclotron in the arc around a patient. Flexible hose (25) is moveably attached to the support structure for providing a liquified gas which is supercooled to near 0.degree. K. to an inlet means (122) to a chamber (105) around superconducting coils (101, 102). The liquid (34) level in the cyclotron is maintained approximately half full so that rotation of the support structure and cyclotron through the 180.degree. can be accomplished without spilling the liquid from the cyclotron. With the coils vertically oriented, each turn of the winding is approximately half immersed in liquid (34) and half exposed to cold gas and adequate cooling to maintain superconducting temperatures in the section of coil above the liquid level is provided by the combination of cold gas/vapor and by the conductive flow of heat along each turn of the winding from the half above the liquid to the half below.

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunologymore » projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.« less

  1. Mass Measurements with the CSS2 and CIME cyclotrons at GANIL

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Hornillos, M. B.; Chartier, M.; Demonchy, C. E.

    2006-03-13

    This paper presents two original direct mass-measurement techniques developed at GANIL using the CSS2 and CIME cyclotrons as high-resolution mass spectrometers. The mass measurement with the CSS2 cyclotron is based on a time-of-flight method along the spiral trajectory of the ions inside the cyclotron. The atomic mass excesses of 68Se and 80Y recently measured with this technique are -53.958(246) MeV and -60.971(180) MeV, respectively. The new mass-measurement technique with the CIME cyclotron is based on the sweep of the acceleration radio-frequency of the cyclotron. Tests with stable beams have been performed in order to study the accuracy of this newmore » mass-measurement method and to understand the systematic errors.« less

  2. Study of electrostatic electron cyclotron parallel flow velocity shear instability in the magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Praveen; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the study of electrostatic electron cyclotron parallel flow velocity shear instability in presence of perpendicular inhomogeneous DC electric field has been carried out in the magnetosphere of Saturn. Dimensionless growth rate variation of electron cyclotron waves has been observed with respect to k⊥ ρe for various plasma parameters. Effect of velocity shear scale length (Ae), inhomogeneity (P/a), the ratio of ion to electron temperature (Ti/Te) and density gradient (ɛnρe) on the growth of electron cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn has been studied and analyzed. The mathematical formulation and computation of dispersion relation and growth rate have been done by using the method of characteristic solution and kinetic approach. This theoretical analysis has been done taking the relevant data from the Cassini spacecraft in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. We have considered ambient magnetic field data and other relevant data for this study at the radial distance of ˜4.82-5.00 Rs. In our study velocity shear and ion to electron temperature ratio have been observed to be the major sources of free energy for the electron cyclotron instability. The inhomogeneity of electric field caused a small noticeable impact on the growth rate of electrostatic electron cyclotron instability. Density gradient has been observed playing stabilizing effect on electron cyclotron instability.

  3. Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT): Sustainable Energy Planning Using the WEF Nexus Approach - Texas Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroue, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The future energy portfolio at the national and subnational levels should consider its impact on water resources and environment. Although energy resources are the main contributors to the national economic growth, these resources must not exploit other primary natural resources. A study of the connections between energy and natural systems, such as water, environment and land is required prior to proceeding to energy development. Policy makers are in need of a tool quantifying the interlinkages across energy, water and the environment, while demonstrating the consequent trade-offs across the nexus systems. The Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT) is a tool that enables the policy maker to create different energy portfolio scenarios with various energy and electricity sources, and evaluate the scenario's sustainability environmentally and economically. The Water-Energy-Food nexus systematic approach is the foundation of the EPAT framework. The research evaluates the impact of the current and projected Texas energy portfolios on water and the environment, taking into consideration energy production, electricity generation and policy change. The three scenarios to be assessed include EIA projections for energy production, and EIA projections for electricity generation with and without the Clean Power Plan (CPP). Each scenario is accompanied by tradeoffs across water, land, emissions, energy revenue and electricity cost. The CPP succeeds in mitigating the emissions of the electricity portfolio, but leads to an increase in water consumption and land use. The cost of electricity generation is almost identical with and without environmental conservation. Revenue from energy production increased, but results are majorly influenced by commodity price. Therefore, conservation policies should move from the silo to the nexus mentality to avoid unintended consequences as improving one part of the nexus could end up worsening the other parts.

  4. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating of plasma with small impurity production

    DOEpatents

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1987-01-01

    Plasma including plasma ions is magnetically confined by a magnetic field. The plasma has a defined outer surface and is intersected by resonance surfaces of respective common ion cyclotron frequency of a predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the magnetic field. A radio frequency source provides radio frequency power at a radio frequency corresponding to the ion cyclotron frequency of the predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the field at a respective said resonance surface. RF launchers coupled to the radio frequency source radiate radio frequency energy at the resonance frequency onto the respective resonance surface within the plasma from a plurality of locations located outside the plasma at such respective distances from the intersections of the respective resonance surface and the defined outer surface and at such relative phases that the resulting interference pattern provides substantially null net radio frequency energy over regions near and including substantial portions of the intersections relative to the radio frequency energy provided thereby at other portions of the respective resonance surface within the plasma.

  5. Standardisation of the ion beam facility at Chandigarh cyclotron for simultaneous PIXE and PESA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shivcharan; Mohanty, Biraja P.; Singh, Karn P.; Kumar, Ashok

    2018-02-01

    The proton beam facility at variable energy cyclotron (VEC) Panjab University, Chandigarh, India is being used for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of different environmental, biological and industrial samples. The PIXE method, however, does not provide any information of low Z elements like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine. As a result of the increased need for rapid and multi-elemental analysis of biological and environmental samples, the PIXE facility was upgraded and standardized to facilitate simultaneous measurements using PIXE and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA). Both PIXE and PESA techniques were calibrated and standardized individually. Finally, the set up was tested by carrying out simultaneous PIXE and PESA measurements using a 2 mm diameter proton beam of 2.7 MeV on few multilayered thin samples. The results obtained show excellent agreement between PIXE and PESA measurements and confirm adequate sensitivity and precision of the experimental set up.

  6. Ion Bernstein instability as a possible source for oxygen ion cyclotron harmonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyungguk; Denton, Richard E.; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter; Spence, Harlan E.

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates that an ion Bernstein instability can be a possible source for recently reported electromagnetic waves with frequencies at or near the singly ionized oxygen ion cyclotron frequency, ΩO+, and its harmonics. The particle measurements during strong wave activity revealed a relatively high concentration of oxygen ions (˜15%) whose phase space density exhibits a local peak at energy ˜20 keV. Given that the electron plasma-to-cyclotron frequency ratio is ωpe/Ωe≳1, this energy corresponds to the particle speed v/vA≳0.3, where vA is the oxygen Alfvén speed. Using the observational key plasma parameters, a simplified ion velocity distribution is constructed, where the local peak in the oxygen ion velocity distribution is represented by an isotropic shell distribution. Kinetic linear dispersion theory then predicts unstable Bernstein modes at or near the harmonics of ΩO+ and at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, B0. If the cold ions are mostly protons, these unstable modes are characterized by a low compressibility (|δB∥|2/|δB|2≲0.01), a small phase speed (vph˜0.2vA), a relatively small ratio of the electric field energy to the magnetic field energy (between 10-4 and 10-3), and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to B0. These linear properties are overall in good agreement with the properties of the observed waves. We demonstrate that superposition of the predicted unstable Bernstein modes at quasi-perpendicular propagation can produce the observed polarization properties, including the minimum variance direction on average almost parallel to B0.

  7. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and H2O fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum and maize in the Texas High Plains.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Pradeep; Gowda, Prasanna H; Moorhead, Jerry E; Marek, Gary W; Brauer, David K

    2018-05-08

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water vapor (H 2 O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in terms of relevant controlling climatic variables. Eddy covariance measured evapotranspiration (ET EC ) was also compared against lysimeter measured ET (ET Lys ). Daily peak (7-day averages) NEE reached approximately -12 g C m -2 for sorghum and -14.78 g C m -2 for maize. Daily peak (7-day averages) ET EC reached approximately 6.5 mm for sorghum and 7.3 mm for maize. Higher leaf area index (5.7 vs 4-4.5 m 2  m -2 ) and grain yield (14 vs 8-9 t ha -1 ) of maize compared to sorghum caused larger magnitudes of NEE and ET EC in maize. Comparisons of ET EC and ET Lys showed a strong agreement (R 2  = 0.93-0.96), while the EC system underestimated ET by 15-24% as compared to lysimeter without any corrections or energy balance adjustments. Both NEE and ET EC were not inhibited by climatic variables during peak photosynthetic period even though diurnal peak values (~2-weeks average) of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), air temperature (T a ), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) had reached over 2000 μmol m -2  s -1 , 30 °C, and 2.5 kPa, respectively, indicating well adaptation of both C 4 crops in the Texas High Plains under irrigation. However, more sensitivity of NEE and H 2 O fluxes beyond threshold T a and VPD for maize than for sorghum indicated higher adaptability of sorghum for the region. These findings provide baseline information on CO 2 fluxes and ET for a minimally studied grain sorghum and offer a robust geographic comparison for maize outside the United States Corn Belt. However, longer-term measurements are required for assessing carbon and water dynamics of these globally important agro-ecosystems. Copyright

  8. Evaluation of induced activity in various components of a PET-cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, A.; Yoshida, G.; Matsumura, H.; Masumoto, K.; Nakabayashi, T.; Yagishita, T.; Sasaki, H.

    2018-06-01

    For decommissioning a cyclotron facility, it is important to evaluate the induced activity of the various components of the cyclotron; however, activation of the metal components has been rarely investigated. In this study, two types of cyclotrons were examined; one is a proton acceleration type using a deflector, and another is a hydride ion (H-) acceleration type using a carbon stripper foil for beam extraction to the target port. The samples were obtained from various metal components such as the yoke, sector magnet, coil, and vacuum chamber by the core boring method, and the depth distribution of the radioactivity was determined via a germanium semiconductor detector. The activities of 54Mn and 60Co were detected from the surface to a deeper site of the yoke and sector magnet. Most of the observed activities of the cyclotron components were higher than the clearance levels, suggesting that a clearance system should not be applied to the yoke and sector magnet. In the case of a high-activity sample, we have to wait for 30 years to reach the clearance level.

  9. Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Texas Legislature passed a comprehensive revision to the Texas Water Code. This legislation (Senate Bill 1) changed water planning in Texas from a statewide to a regional activity. By September 2001, the 16 regions created by Senate Bill 1 must produce water plans to address their water needs during drought-of-record conditions, and must identify water-management strategies for periods when streamflows, reservoir storage, and groundwater levels are 50 and 75 percent of normal.

  10. Missing: Texas Youth. Dropout and Attrition Rates in Texas Public High Schools. A Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supik, Josie Danini; Johnson, Roy L.

    This policy brief presents an in-depth look at the dropout issue in Texas in the context of 1986 state legislation that mandated that the schools and state education agency ensure that at least 95 % of Texas youth complete high school. Findings from a study by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA), using a high school attrition…

  11. 75 FR 35780 - ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-36-000] ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ONEOK Texas Gas Storage, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Storage Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

  12. A clumpy stellar wind and luminosity-dependent cyclotron line revealed by the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Markowitz, Alex

    2014-09-01

    We present results from the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522. The broadband spectral coverage of Suzaku allows for a detailed spectral analysis, characterizing the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 23.0 ± 0.4 keV and the iron Kα line at 6.426 ± 0.008 keV, as well as placing limits on the strengths of the iron Kβ line and the iron K edge. We track the evolution of the spectral parameters both in time and in luminosity, notably finding a significant positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity. A dip and spike in the light curvemore » is shown to be associated with an order-of-magnitude increase in column density along the line of sight, as well as significant variation in the underlying continuum, implying the accretion of a overdense region of a clumpy stellar wind. We also present a phase-resolved analysis, with most spectral parameters of interest showing significant variation with phase. Notably, both the cyclotron line energy and the iron Kα line intensity vary significantly with phase, with the iron line intensity significantly out of phase with the pulse profile. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of recent work in the areas of accretion column physics and cyclotron resonance scattering feature formation.« less

  13. Quantum non demolition measurement of cyclotron excitations in a Penning trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzoli, Irene; Tombesi, Paolo

    1993-01-01

    The quantum non-demolition measurement of the cyclotron excitations of an electron confined in a Penning trap could be obtained by measuring the resonance frequency of the axial motion, which is coupled to the cyclotron motion through the relativistic shift of the electron mass.

  14. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandemmore » type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.« less

  15. Variability and periodicity of field M dwarfs revealed by multichannel monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenfeller, B.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Mundt, R.

    2006-03-01

    We present simultaneous, multiband photometric monitoring of 19 field dwarfs covering most of the M spectral sequence (M2-M9). Significant variability was found in seven objects in at least one out of the three channels I, R and G. Periodic variability was tested with a CLEAN power spectral analysis. Two objects, LHS370 (M5V) and 2M1707+64 (M9V), show periods of 5.9± 2.0 and 3.65± 0.1 h respectively. On account of the agreement with the typical values of v sin i published for M dwarfs (Mohanty & Basri 2003, ApJ, 583, 451), we claim these to be the objects' rotation periods. Three further objects show possible periods of a few hours. Comparing the variability amplitude in each channel with predictions based on the synthetic spectra of Allard et al. (2001, ApJ, 556, 357), we investigated the source of variability in LHS370 and 2M1707+64. For the latter, we find evidence for the presence of magnetically-induced cool spots at a temperature contrast of 4-8%, with a projected surface coverage factor of less than 0.075. Moreover, we can rule out dust clouds (as represented by the COND or DUSTY models) as the cause of the variability. No conclusion can be drawn in the case of LHS370. Comparing the frequency of occurrence of variability in this and various L dwarf samples published over the past few years, we find that variability is more common in field L dwarfs than in field M dwarfs (for amplitudes larger than 0.005 mag on timescales of 0.5 to 20 h). Using the homogeneous data sets of this work and Bailer-Jones & Mundt (2001, A&A, 367, 218), we find fractions of variable objects of 0.21± 0.11 among field M dwarfs and 0.70± 0.26 among field L dwarfs (and 0.29± 0.13, 0.48± 0.12 respectively if we take into account a larger yet more inhomogeneous sample). This is marginally significant (2σ deviation) and implies a change in the physical nature and/or extent of surface features when moving from M to L dwarfs.

  16. Potential impact of neonicotinoid use on Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in Texas: A historical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brightsmith, Donald J.; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge A.

    2018-01-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978–2012 in Texas’ ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We considered bobwhite abundance, neonicotinoid use, climate, and land-use variables in our analysis. Neonicotinoid use was significantly (p<0.05) negatively associated with bobwhite abundance in the High Plains, Rolling Plains, Gulf Coast Prairies & Marshes, Edwards Plateau, and South Texas Plains ecological regions in the time periods following neonicotinoid introduction (1994–2003) or after their widespread use (2004–2012). Our analyses suggest that the use of neonicotinoid insecticides may negatively affect bobwhite populations in crop-producing regions of Texas. PMID:29324902

  17. A border versus non-border comparison of food environment, poverty, and ethnic composition in Texas urban settings.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Sexton, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relationship between the food environment and selected socioeconomic variables and ethnic/racial makeup in the eight largest urban settings in Texas so as to gain a better understanding of the relationships among Hispanic composition, poverty, and urban foodscapes, comparing border to non-border urban environments. Census-tract level data on (a) socioeconomic factors, like percentage below the poverty line and number of households on foodstamps, and (b) ethnic variables, like percent of Mexican origin and percent foreign born, were obtained from the U.S. Census. Data at the census-tract level on the total number of healthy (e.g., supermarkets) and less-healthy (e.g., fast food outlets) food retailers were acquired from the CDC's modified retail food environment index (mRFEI). Variation among urban settings in terms of the relationship between mRFEI scores and socioeconomic and ethnic context was tested using a mixed-effect model, and linear regression was used to identify significant factors for each urban location. A jackknife variance estimate was used to account for clustering and autocorrelation of adjacent census tracts. Average census-tract mRFEI scores exhibited comparatively small variation across Texas urban settings, while socioeconomic and ethnic factors varied significantly. The only covariates significantly associated with mRFEI score were percent foreign born and percent Mexican origin. Compared to the highest-population county (Harris, which incorporates most of Houston), the only counties that had significantly different mRFEI scores were Bexar, which is analogous to San Antonio (2.12 lower), El Paso (2.79 higher), and Neuces, which encompasses Corpus Christi (2.90 less). Significant interaction effects between mRFEI and percent foreign born (El Paso, Tarrant - Fort Worth, Travis - Austin), percent Mexican origin (Hidalgo - McAllen, El Paso, Tarrant, Travis), and percent living below the poverty line (El Paso) were

  18. The recoil implantation technique developed at the U-120 cyclotron in Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntele, C. I.; Simil, L. Popa; Racolta, P. M.; Voiculescu, D.

    1999-06-01

    At the U-120 cyclotron in Bucharest was developed 15 years ago the thin layer activation (TLA) technique for radioactive labeling of metallic components on depths ranging between 100 μm and 300 μm, for wear/corrosion studies. Aiming to extend these kinds of studies on non-metallic components and at sub-micrometric level we were led to the development of the recoil implantation technique for ultra thin layer activation (UTLA) applications. Due to the low energy of the recoils obtained in a sacrificial target from a nuclear reaction, the surface layer of material to be labeled must be as thick as a few hundred nanometers. Also, since the radiotracer is externally created, there are no restrictions for the kind of material to be labeled, except to be a solid. In this paper we present some results of our studies concerning the actual status of this application at our accelerator.

  19. Design of a compact, permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton and H2(+) beam production.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xianlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Luo, Shan; Wang, Chuan; Zheng, Xia; Yin, Zhiguo; Zhong, Junqing; Wu, Longcheng; Qin, Jiuchang

    2010-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for proton beam production of over 60 mA [B.-Q. Cui, Y.-W. Bao, L.-Q. Li, W.-S. Jiang, and R.-W. Wang, Proceedings of the High Current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source for Proton Accelerator, APAC-2001, 2001 (unpublished)]. For various proton beam applications, another 2.45 GHz microwave ion source with a compact structure is designed and will be built at CIAE as well for high current proton beam production. It is also considered to be used for the test of H(2)(+) beam, which could be injected into the central region model cyclotron at CIAE, and accelerated to 5 MeV before extraction by stripping. The required ECR magnetic field is supplied by all the permanent magnets rather than electrical solenoids and six poles. The magnetic field distribution provided by this permanent magnets configuration is a large and uniformly volume of ECR zone, with central magnetic field of a magnitude of approximately 875 Gs [T. Taylor and J. S. C. Wills, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 37 (1991)]. The field adjustment at the extraction end can be implemented by moving the position of the magnet blocks. The results of plasma, coupling with 2.45 GHz microwave in the ECR zone inside the ion source are simulated by particle-in-cell code to optimize the density by adjusting the magnetic field distribution. The design configuration of the ion source will be summarized in the paper.

  20. The Best Choice for a Prosperous Texas: A Texas-Style Personal Income Tax. Policy Brief No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Part one of this trilogy of policy briefs explains the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This policy brief explains why a Texas-style personal income tax is the best way to meet the needs of Texas. Only a personal income tax can significantly reduce reliance on property taxes--cutting the school operations tax from $1.50 to…

  1. M Dwarf Variability and Periodicities in Praesepe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamper, R.; Honeycutt, R. K.

    2018-02-01

    212 M dwarfs in the Praesepe cluster have been monitored photometrically for three observing seasons. It is found that Praesepe M dwarfs earlier than ∼M4 often have significant photometric variations, while variability is not detected for >M4. Time series analysis was performed on 147 of the targets having likely variability in order to study possible periodicities. For 83% of these targets, we detected no periodicities; these null results included targets with published photometric periods from earlier work. Our detected periods ranged from 20 to 45 days, and we are not able to confirm any of the 1–5 day periods in Praesepe periods reported by Schultz et al., which we attribute to the very different observing cadences of the two studies. We conjecture that our more widely spaced data cannot adequately sample the Schultz et al. periodicities before the growth and decay of spots have a chance to ruin the coherence. The new periods we find in the range 20–45 days (in targets that do not overlap with those from Schultz having shorter periods) have very small false alarm probabilities. We argue that rotation is unlikely to be responsible for these 20–45 day periods. Perhaps short activity cycles in the Praesepe M dwarfs play a role in generating such periodicities.

  2. Relativistic electromagnetic ion cyclotron instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. R.; Huang, R. D.; Wang, J. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2005-03-01

    The relativistic instabilities of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves driven by MeV ions are analytically and numerically studied. As caused by wave magnetic field and in sharp contrast to the electrostatic case, interesting characteristics such as Alfvénic behavior and instability transition are discovered and illuminated in detail. The instabilities are reactive and are raised from the coupling of slow ions’ first-order resonance and fast ions’ second-order resonance, that is an essential extra mechanism due to relativistic effect. Because of the wave magnetic field, the nonresonant plasma dielectric is usually negative and large, that affects the instability conditions and scaling laws. A negative harmonic cyclotron frequency mismatch between the fast and slow ions is required for driving a cubic (and a coupled quadratic) instability; the cubic (square) root scaling of the peak growth rate makes the relativistic effect more important than classical mechanism, especially for low fast ion density and Lorentz factor being close to unity. For the cubic instability, there is a threshold (ceiling) on the slow ion temperature and density (the external magnetic field and the fast ion energy); the Alfvén velocity is required to be low. This Alfvénic behavior is interesting in physics and important for its applications. The case of fast protons in thermal deuterons is numerically studied and compared with the analytical results. When the slow ion temperature or density (the external magnetic field or the fast ion energy) is increased (reduced) to about twice (half) the threshold (ceiling), the same growth rate peak transits from the cubic instability to the coupled quadratic instability and a different cubic instability branch appears. The instability transition is an interesting new phenomenon for instability.

  3. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, andmore » temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.« less

  4. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a decade Texas educators, scientists and citizens have shown a commitment to earth science education through planning at the national and state levels, involvement in earth science curriculum and teacher professional development projects, and the creation of a model senior level capstone Earth and Space Science course first offered in 2010 - 2011. The Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science demonstrate a shift to rigorous content, career relevant skills and use of 21st century technology. Earth and Space Science standards also align with the Earth Science, Climate and Ocean Literacy framework documents. In spite of a decade of progress K-12 earth science education in Texas is in crisis. Many school districts do not offer Earth and Space Science, or are using the course as a contingency for students who fail core science subjects. The State Board for Educator Certification eliminated Texas' secondary earth science teacher certification in 2009, following the adoption of the new Earth and Space Science standards. This makes teachers with a composite teacher certification (biology, physics and chemistry) eligible to teach Earth and Space Science, as well other earth science courses (e.g., Aquatic Science, Environmental Systems/Science) even if they lack earth science content knowledge. Teaching materials recently adopted by the State Board of Education do not include Earth and Space Science resources. In July 2011 following significant budget cuts at the 20 Education Service Centers across Texas, the Texas Education Agency eliminated key staff positions in its curriculum division, including science. This "perfect storm" has created a unique opportunity for a university-based approach to confront the crisis in earth science education in Texas which the Diversity and Innovation in the Geosciences (DIG) TEXAS alliance aims to fulfill. Led by the Texas A&M University College of Geosciences and The University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, with

  5. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Indranuj, E-mail: indranuj@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extractedmore » ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.« less

  6. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, S. L.; Dangelo, N.; Merlino, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f is approximately greater than fci, where fci is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism.

  7. Electron cyclotron thruster new modeling results preparation for initial experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, E. Bickford

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: a whistler-based electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) thruster; cross-field coupling in the helicon approximation; wave propagation; wave structure; plasma density; wave absorption; the electron distribution function; isothermal and adiabatic plasma flow; ECRH thruster modeling; a PIC code model; electron temperature; electron energy; and initial experimental tests. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  8. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  9. GRASSLAND BIRD DISTRIBUTION AND RAPTOR FLIGHT PATTERNS IN THE COMPETITIVE RENEWABLE ENERGY ZONES OF THE TEXAS PANHANDLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Erik

    The consistent wind resource in the Great Plains of North America has encouraged the development of wind energy facilities across this region. In the Texas Panhandle, a high quality wind resource is only one factor that has led to the expansion of wind energy development. Other factors include federal tax incentives and the availability of subsidies. Moreover, the State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), mandating production of 10,000 mega-watts of renewable energy in the state by 2025, has contributed to an amicable regulatory and permitting environment (State Energy Conservation Office 2010). Considering the current rate of development, the RPS will bemore » met in coming years (American Wind Energy Association 2011) and the rate of development is likely to continue. To meet increased energy demands in the face of a chronically constrained transmission grid, Texas has developed a comprehensive plan that organizes and prioritizes new transmission systems in high quality wind resource areas called Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ). The CREZ plan provides developers a solution to transmission constraints and unlocks large areas of undeveloped wind resource areas. In the northern Texas panhandle, there are two CREZs that are classified Class 3 wind (Class 5 is the highest) and range from 862,725 to 1,772,328 ha in size (Public Utility Commission of Texas 2008). Grassland bird populations have declined more than any other bird group in North America (Peterjohn and Sauer 1999, Sauer et al. 2004). Loss of grassland habitat from agricultural development has been the greatest contributor to the decline of grassland bird populations, but development of non-renewable (i.e., oil, coal, and gas) and renewable energy (i.e., wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal) sources have contributed to the decline as well (Pimentel et al. 2002, Maybe and Paul 2007). The effects of wind energy development on declining grassland bird populations has become an area of extensive

  10. Cyclotrons and FFAG Accelerators as Drivers for ADS

    DOE PAGES

    Calabretta, Luciano; Méot, François

    2015-01-01

    Our review summarizes projects and studies on circular accelerators proposed for driving subcritical reactors. The early isochronous cyclotron cascades, proposed about 20 years ago, and the evolution of these layouts up to the most recent solutions or designs based on cyclotrons and fixed field alternating gradient accelerators, are reported. Additionally, the newest ideas and their prospects for development are discussed.

  11. Consequences of the Ion Cyclotron Instability in the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2011-01-01

    The inner magnetospheric plasma is a very unique composition of different plasma particles and waves. Among these plasma particles and waves are Ring Current (RC) particles and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The RC is the source of free energy for the EMIC wave excitation provided by a temperature anisotropy of RC ions, which develops naturally during inward E x B convection from the plasma sheet. The cold plasmasphere, which is under the strong influence of the magnetospheric electric field, strongly mediates the RC-EMIC waves-coupling process, and ultimately becomes part of the particle and energy interplay, generated by the ion cyclotron instability of the inner magnetosphere. On the other hand, there is a strong influence of the RC on the inner magnetospheric electric and magnetic field configurations and these configurations, in turn, are important to RC dynamics. Therefore, one of the biggest needs for inner magnetospheric plasma physics research is the continued progression toward a coupled, interconnected system, with the inclusion of nonlinear feedback mechanisms between the plasma populations, the electric and magnetic fields, and plasma waves.

  12. Implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on Texas highways (HB 790) : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The 84th Texas Legislature passed House Bill (HB) 790 directing the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) to perform a study on the implementation and effectiveness of sound mitigation measures on the state highway system and certain toll roads an...

  13. 75 FR 37785 - Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-39-000] Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing June 23, 2010. Take notice that on June 21, 2010, Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P. submitted a baseline filing of its FERC Operating Statement for...

  14. 75 FR 33799 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-29-000] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 4, 2010, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions...

  15. 75 FR 35781 - Kinder Morgan North Texas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-33-000] Kinder Morgan North Texas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 14, 2010, Kinder Morgan North Texas Pipeline LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating...

  16. 75 FR 61462 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-29-002] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing September 29, 2010. Take notice that on September 27, 2010, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of...

  17. 75 FR 69063 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-29-003] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing November 4, 2010. Take notice that on November 3, 2010, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of...

  18. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company and to operate...

  19. On-shell constrained M 2 variables with applications to mass measurements and topology disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Won Sang; Gainer, James S.; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-08-01

    We consider a class of on-shell constrained mass variables that are 3+1 dimensional generalizations of the Cambridge M T2 variable and that automatically incorporate various assumptions about the underlying event topology. The presence of additional on-shell constraints causes their kinematic distributions to exhibit sharper endpoints than the usual M T2 distribution. We study the mathematical properties of these new variables, e.g., the uniqueness of the solution selected by the minimization over the invisible particle 4-momenta. We then use this solution to reconstruct the masses of various particles along the decay chain. We propose several tests for validating the assumed event topology in missing energy events from new physics. The tests are able to determine: 1) whether the decays in the event are two-body or three-body, 2) if the decay is two-body, whether the intermediate resonances in the two decay chains are the same, and 3) the exact sequence in which the visible particles are emitted from each decay chain.

  20. New Measurement of the Electron Magnetic Moment and the Fine Structure Constant: A First Application of a One-Electron Quantum Cyclotron

    ScienceCinema

    Gabrielse, Gerald

    2018-05-22

    Remarkably, the famous UW measurement of the electron magnetic moment has stood since 1987. With QED theory, this measurement has determined the accepted value of the fine structure constant. This colloquium is about a new Harvard measurement of these fundamental constants. The new measurement has an uncertainty that is about six times smaller, and it shifts the values by 1.7 standard deviations. One electron suspended in a Penning trap is used for the new measurement, like in the old measurement. What is different is that the lowest quantum levels of the spin and cyclotron motion are resolved, and the cyclotron as well as spin frequencies are determined using quantum jump spectroscopy. In addition, a 0.1 mK Penning trap that is also a cylindrical microwave cavity is used to control the radiation field, to suppress spontaneous emission by more than a factor of 100, to control cavity shifts, and to eliminate the blackbody photons that otherwise stimulate excitations from the cyclotron ground state. Finally, great signal-to-noise for one-quantum transitions is obtained using electronic feedback to realize the first one-particle self-excited oscillator. The new methods may also allow a million times improved measurement of the 500 times small antiproton magnetic moment.

  1. Helicon Plasma Injector and Ion Cyclotron Acceleration Development in the VASIMR Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang, Franklin R.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; McCaskill, Greg E.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    In the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) radio frequency (rf) waves both produce the plasma and then accelerate the ions. The plasma production is done by action of helicon waves. These waves are circular polarized waves in the direction of the electron gyromotion. The ion acceleration is performed by ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) acceleration. The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) is actively developing efficient helicon plasma production and ICRF acceleration. The VASIMR experimental device at the ASPL is called VX-10. It is configured to demonstrate the plasma production and acceleration at the 10kW level to support a space flight demonstration design. The VX-10 consists of three electromagnets integrated into a vacuum chamber that produce magnetic fields up to 0.5 Tesla. Magnetic field shaping is achieved by independent magnet current control and placement of the magnets. We have generated both helium and hydrogen high density (>10(exp 18) cu m) discharges with the helicon source. ICRF experiments are underway. This paper describes the VX-10 device, presents recent results and discusses future plans.

  2. Unitization of oil and gas fields in Texas. A study of legislative, administrative, and judicial policies

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the 1970s, the long lines of cars at gasoline stations, the blackouts, and the school and factory closings announced to the public that the United States had an ''energy crisis.'' In response, an outpouring of state and federal legislation sought to lessen the effects of the oil and gas shortages and to prevent their recurrence. By 1985, every oil- and gas-producing state but Texas has passed a compulsory unitization statute. ''Unitization'' is the joint, coordinated operation of all, or at least a large part, of an oil or gas reservoir by the owners of the separate tracts overlying themore » reservoir; only by such joint endeavors can the many owners of interests in oil and gas fields operate efficiently to recover as much as possible at the lowest cost. In this book, Jacqueline Lang Weaver explains why Texas failed to enact such a statute--and how Texas has achieved a substantial degree of unitization nonetheless.« less

  3. Modeling of a cyclotron target for the production of 11C with Geant4.

    PubMed

    Chiappiniello, Andrea; Zagni, Federico; Infantino, Angelo; Vichi, Sara; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Morigi, Maria Pia; Marengo, Mario

    2018-04-12

    In medical cyclotron facilities, 11C is produced according to the 14N(p,α)11C reaction and widely employed in studies of prostate and brain cancers by Positron Emission Tomography. It is known from literature [1] that the 11C-target assembly shows a reduction in efficiency during time, meaning a decrease of activity produced at the end of bombardment. This effect might depend on aspects still not completely known. Possible causes of the loss of performance of the 11C-target assembly were addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Geant4 was used to model the 11C-target assembly of a GE PETtrace cyclotron. The physical and transport parameters to be used in the energy range of medical applications were extracted from literature data and 11C routine productions. The Monte Carlo assessment of 11C saturation yield was performed varying several parameters such as the proton energy and the angle of the target assembly with respect to the proton beam. The estimated 11C saturation yield is in agreement with IAEA data at the energy of interest, while is about the 35% greater than experimental value. A more comprehensive modeling of the target system, including thermodynamic effect, is required. The energy absorbed in the inner layer of the target chamber was up to 46.5 J/mm2 under typical irradiation conditions. This study shows that Geant4 is potentially a useful tool to design and optimize targetry for PET radionuclide productions. Tests to choose the Geant4 physics libraries should be performed before using this tool with different energies and materials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Climate-water quality relationships in Texas reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelca, Rodica; Hayhoe, Katharine; Scott-Fleming, Ian; Crow, Caleb; Dawson, D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of salts in surface water bodies can be affected by the natural environment, local human activities such as surface and ground water withdrawals, land use, and energy extraction, and variability and long-term trends in atmospheric conditions including temperature and precipitation. Here, we quantify the relationship between 121 indicators of mean and extreme temperature and precipitation and 24 water quality parameters in 57 Texas reservoirs using observational data records covering the period 1960 to 2010. We find that water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and phosphorus all show consistent correlations with atmospheric predictors, including high and low temperature extremes, dry days, heavy precipitation events, and mean temperature and precipitation over time scales ranging from one week to two years. Based on this analysis and published future projections for this region, we expect climate change to increase water temperatures, decrease dissolved oxygen levels, decrease pH, increase specific conductance, and increase levels of sulfate, chloride in Texas reservoirs. Over decadal time scales, this may affect aquatic ecosystems in the reservoirs, including altering the risk of conditions conducive to algae occurrence, as well as affecting the quality of water available for human consumption and recreation.

  6. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Zarate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-04

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  7. Practical experience and challenges in the operation of medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Pandey, Anil K; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant A; Kumar, Praveen; Bal, Chandra S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to share 10 years of operational experience of medical cyclotron and to provide working knowledge on the same. This experience has helped us gain working knowledge on cyclotron operation with practical points, which may help in improving F yield, minimizing the breakdown time, and help in the prevention of the occurrence of unusual events. Our facility has a self-shielded radioisotope delivery system eclipse 111 medical cyclotron with an 11 MeV proton beam in use for the past 10 years to produce positron emitters - namely, F, N, and F-2 gas - for PET imaging. During F production, we have followed a set protocol comprising the following: monitoring target pressure, rinsing the target with O water just immediately after bombardment, ion source feedback, radiofrequency (RF) feedback, and recording any unusual events that occurred during the operation. Besides this, enrichment of O water, target volume, target current, energy of the beam, variation in argon pressure on the target, bombardment duration, target status (new or old target or total number of previous bombardments on the same target), status of the delivery lines from target to the radiochemistry module (old or new) were also recorded. Rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment increases the life of the target and delivery line. The frequent problems encountered were with the ion source, RF, and target foil rupture. These problems were solved by rebuilding the ion source, changing the fuse of RF, and rebuilding the target. F yield can be increased by rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment. The effect of target leak - that is, rupture of vacuum window - can be avoided by immediate stoppage of bombardment.

  8. Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-05-24

    The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability ismore » exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×10 7 s -1.« less

  9. Stochastic Growth of Ion Cyclotron And Mirror Waves In Earth's Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Grubits, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron and mirror waves in Earth's magnetosheath are bursty, have widely variable fields, and are unexpectedly persistent, properties difficult to reconcile with uniform secular growth. Here it is shown for specific periods that stochastic growth theory (SGT) quantitatively accounts for the functional form of the wave statistics and qualitatively explains the wave properties. The wave statistics are inconsistent with uniform secular growth or self-organized criticality, but nonlinear processes sometimes play a role at high fields. The results show SGT's relevance near marginal stability and suggest that it is widely relevant to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  10. DIG Texas Blueprints - Pathways for Teaching a Rigorous Earth Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Pennington, D. D.; Fox, S.; Larsen, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Stocks, E.; Mosher, S.; Miller, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    challenges encountered in developing and testing the blueprints. Sponsored by NSF, the DIG Texas Instructional Blueprint project is a collaborative effort that draws on the resources of three major research universities, The University of Texas at Austin, The University of Texas at El Paso, and Texas A&M University, all of which are members of the DIG Texas alliance.

  11. Low energy cyclotron production of multivalent transition metals for PET imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    Recent advances in high-resolution tomographs for small animals require the production of nonconventional long-lived positron emitters to label novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging. Radioisotopes with an appropriate half life to match the kinetics of slow biological processes will allow to researchers to study the phamacokinetics of PET ligands over several hours, or even days, on the same animal, with the injection of a single dose. In addition, radionuclides with a suitable half life can potentially be distributed from a central production site making them available in PET facilities that lack an in-house cyclotron. In the last few years there has been a growing interest in the use of PET ligands labeled with radiometals, particularly isotopes of copper, yttrium and zirconium. Future clinical applications of these tracers will require them to be produced reliably and efficiently. This thesis work deals with implementing and optimizing the production of the multivalent transition metals 61,64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr for molecular PET imaging and therapy. Our findings in the production of these radionuclides at high specific activity on an 11 MeV proton-only cyclotron are presented. Local applications of these tracers, including Cu-ATSM for in vivo quantification of hypoxia, synthesis of targeted radiopharmaceuticals using activated esters of DOTA, and a novel development of positron emitting resin microspheres, are also be discussed. As a result of this thesis work, metallic radionuclides are now efficiently produced on a weekly basis in sufficient quality and quantity for collaborating scientists at UW-Madison and external users in other Universities across the country.

  12. DNA contents in Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera) selected in Texas and Oklahoma determined by flow cytometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.) is a dioecious, perennial, cool-season grass native to southern Kansas, Oklahoma, western Arkansas and most of Texas. Its major use has been for forage on rangelands in Texas and Oklahoma. More recently, interspecific hybrids between Texas bluegrass and Kentuc...

  13. 76 FR 34975 - Atmos Pipeline-Texas; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-112-000] Atmos Pipeline-Texas; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on June 6, 2011, Atmos Pipeline-Texas (APT... transportation service. APT states the rate election reflects its cost-based transportation rates on file with...

  14. a Study of Women Engineering Students and Time to Completion of First-Year Required Courses at Texas A&M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Jorja; Cole, Bryan; Hobson, Margaret; Watson, Karan; Stanley, Christine

    This paper reports findings on gender that were part of a larger study reviewing time to completion of course work that includes the first two semesters of calculus, chemistry, and physics, which are often considered the stumbling points or "barrier courses" to an engineering baccalaureate degree. Texas A&M University terms these courses core body of knowledge (CBK), and statistical analysis was conducted on two cohorts of first-year enrolling engineering students at the institution. Findings indicate that gender is statistically significantly related to completion of CBK with female engineering students completing required courses faster than males at the .01 level (p = 0.008). Statistical significance for gender and ethnicity was found between white male and white female students at the .01 level (p = 0.008). Descriptive analysis indicated that of the five majors studied (chemical, civil, computer, electrical, and mechanical engineering), women completed CBK faster than men, and African American and Hispanic women completed CBK faster than males of the same ethnicity.

  15. Linear analysis of ion cyclotron interaction in a multicomponent plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendrin, R.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Omura, Y.; Quest, K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which hot anisotropic protons generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in a plasma containing cold H(+) and He(+) ions is quantitatively studied. Linear growth rates (both temporal and spatial) are computed for different plasma parameters: concentration, temperature,and anisotropy of cold He(+) ions and of hot protons. It is shown that: (1) for parameters typical of the geostationary altitude the maximum growth rates are not drastically changed when a small proportion (about 1 to 20 percent) of cold He(+) ions is present; (2) because of the important cyclotron absorption by thermal He(+) ions in the vicinity of the He(+) gyrofrequency, waves which could resonate with the bulk of the He(+) distribution cannot be generated. Therefore quasi-linear effects, in a homogeneous medium at least, cannot be responsible for the heating of He(+) ions which is often observed in conjunction with ion cyclotron waves. The variation of growth rate versus wave number is also studied for its importance in selecting suitable parameters in numerical simulation experiments.

  16. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Wurbs, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  17. The instrument for investigating magnetic fields of isochronous cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avreline, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new instrument was designed and implemented in order to increase the measurement accuracy of magnetic field maps for isochronous Cyclotrons manufactured by Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc. This instrument uses the Hall Probe (HP) from New Zealand manufacturer Group3. The specific probe used is MPT-141 HP and can measure magnetic field in the range from 2G to 21kG. Use of a fast ADC NI9239 module and error reduction algorithms, based on a polynomial regression method, allowed to reduce the noise to 0.2G. The design of this instrument allows to measure high gradient magnetic fields, as the resolution of the HP arm angle is within 0.0005° and the radial position resolution is within 25μm. A set of National Instrument interfaces connected to a desktop computer through a network are used as base control and data acquisition systems.

  18. The recoil implantation technique developed at the U-120 cyclotron in Bucharest

    SciTech Connect

    Muntele, C. I.; Simil, L. Popa; Racolta, P. M.

    1999-06-10

    At the U-120 cyclotron in Bucharest was developed 15 years ago the thin layer activation (TLA) technique for radioactive labeling of metallic components on depths ranging between 100 {mu}m and 300 {mu}m, for wear/corrosion studies. Aiming to extend these kinds of studies on non-metallic components and at sub-micrometric level we were led to the development of the recoil implantation technique for ultra thin layer activation (UTLA) applications. Due to the low energy of the recoils obtained in a sacrificial target from a nuclear reaction, the surface layer of material to be labeled must be as thick as a few hundredmore » nanometers. Also, since the radiotracer is externally created, there are no restrictions for the kind of material to be labeled, except to be a solid. In this paper we present some results of our studies concerning the actual status of this application at our accelerator.« less

  19. A Hamiltonian Model of Dissipative Wave-particle Interactions and the Negative-mass Effect

    SciTech Connect

    A. Zhmoginov

    2011-02-07

    The effect of radiation friction is included in the Hamiltonian treatment of wave-particle interactions with autoresonant phase-locking, yielding a generalized canonical approach to the problem of dissipative dynamics near a nonlinear resonance. As an example, the negativemass eff ect exhibited by a charged particle in a pump wave and a static magnetic field is studied in the presence of the friction force due to cyclotron radiation. Particles with negative parallel masses m! are shown to transfer their kinetic energy to the pump wave, thus amplifying it. Counterintuitively, such particles also undergo stable dynamics, decreasing their transverse energy monotonically due tomore » cyclotron cooling, whereas some of those with positive m! undergo cyclotron heating instead, extracting energy from the pump wave.« less

  20. Ion cyclotron emission from energetic fusion products in tokamak plasmas: A full-wave calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Colestock, P.L.

    1989-06-01

    A full-wave ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) code has been modified to allow calculation of cyclotron emission from energetic ions in tokamaks. The immediate application is to fusion alpha particles in near-ignition devices. This permits detailed evaluation of proposed alpha particle diagnostics (Proceedings of the Thirteenth European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating, Schliersee, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986, edited by G. Briffod and M. Kaufmann (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, 1986), Part 1, Vol. 2, p. 37.) This full-wave approach automatically takes into account wall reflections, standing waves, and plasma absorption and overcomes the difficulties inherent in attemptingmore » to apply conventional geometrical optics to long wavelengths. By calculating the coherent radiation field caused by an ensemble of localized current sources (and retaining the phase information), the directivity of pickup antennas is correctly represented.« less

  1. Theory of unfolded cyclotron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rax, J.-M.; Robiche, J.

    2010-10-01

    An acceleration process based on the interaction between an ion, a tapered periodic magnetic structure, and a circularly polarized oscillating electric field is identified and analyzed, and its potential is evaluated. A Hamiltonian analysis is developed in order to describe the interplay between the cyclotron motion, the electric acceleration, and the magnetic modulation. The parameters of this universal class of magnetic modulation leading to continuous acceleration without Larmor radius increase are expressed analytically. Thus, this study provides the basic scaling of what appears as a compact unfolded cyclotron accelerator.

  2. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A.; Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental resultsmore » show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.« less

  3. Detection of Mycoplasma agassizii in the Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guthrie, Amanda L.; White, C. LeAnn; Brown, Mary B.; deMaar, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in Texas tortoises (Gopherus berlandieri). To determine exposure to and shedding of M. agassizii, we collected blood samples and nasal swabs from 40 free-ranging Texas tortoises on public and private lands in Texas, USA, from May to October 2009. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect M. agassizii–specific antibodies. Eleven (28%) tortoises were antibody positive, three (8%) were suspect, and the remaining 26 (65%) were negative. Nasal lavage samples were collected from 35 of the 40 tortoises for M. agassizii culture and PCR to detect shedding of M. agassizii. Current infection with M. agassizii was confirmed in one tortoise that had mild clinical signs of URTD and was positive by ELISA (antibody titer >512), PCR, and culture. The clinical isolate was confirmed as M. agassizii by restriction fragment length polymorphism and immunobinding.

  4. Ion cyclotron instability at Io: Hybrid simulation results compared to in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šebek, Ondřej; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Walker, Raymond J.; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-08-01

    We present analysis of global three-dimensional hybrid simulations of Io's interaction with Jovian magnetospheric plasma. We apply a single-species model with simplified neutral-plasma chemistry and downscale Io in order to resolve the ion kinetic scales. We consider charge exchange, electron impact ionization, and photoionization by using variable rates of these processes to investigate their impact. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with the in situ magnetic field measurements for five Galileo flybys around Io. The hybrid model describes ion kinetics self-consistently. This allows us to assess the distribution of temperature anisotropies around Io and thereby determine the possible triggering mechanism for waves observed near Io. We compare simulated dynamic spectra of magnetic fluctuations with in situ observations made by Galileo. Our results are consistent with both the spatial distribution and local amplitude of magnetic fluctuations found in the observations. Cyclotron waves, triggered probably by the growth of ion cyclotron instability, are observed mainly downstream of Io and on the flanks in regions farther from Io where the ion pickup rate is relatively low. Growth of the ion cyclotron instability is governed mainly by the charge exchange rate.

  5. Cyclotron production for the radiometal Zirconium-89 with an IBA cyclone 18/9 and COSTIS solid target system (STS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowski, A. M.; Probst, K.; Marshall, C.

    2012-12-01

    The development of biological targeting agents such as proteins, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles with a range of biological half-lives demands the production of new radionuclides with half-lives (physical) complementary to these biological properties. Zirconium-89 (89Zr) is a promising radionuclide for development of new immuno-PET agents due to its convenient half-life of 78.4 h, β+ emission rate of 23%, low maximum energy of 0.9 MeV resulting in good spatial resolution, stable daughter isotope of Yttrium-89 (89Y) and favorable imaging characteristics, with only one significant γ-line of 909 keV emitted during decay alongside the 511 keV positron photons. Our aim was to prove that isotopically pure 89Zr could be produced in an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron equipped with a COSTIS STS using the 89Y(p,n)89Zr reaction and optimise the yield by reducing the beam degrader thickness without producing either 88Zr or 88Y. The degradation of the beam energy with 400 and 500 μm thick Niobium foils were achieved without overheating problems with 2-3 hours long irradiation times. From repeated measurements of activity, it was clear that there is a bi-exponential decay of radioactivity due to the short lived 89mZr and 89Zr. The measured half-life of the longer lived radionulide was consistent with value for 89Zr. The energy spectrum from 89Zr had energy peaks at 511 keV and 909 keV and was consistent with 89Zr. Production of 89Zr with 500 μm thick Niobium beam degrader (Ep = 9.8MeV) was achieved, without producing either 88Zr or 88Y. It was necessary to wait at least 4 hours before measuring the activity and decay correct in order to calculate the 89gZr activity at the end of cyclotron production. Degrading the proton beam to 10 MeV produces radionuclidically pure 89Zr with yields from 8 to 9 MBq/μAh. Whilst this is enough for pre-clinical use, the yield is not enough for either clinical use or commercial supply. Using thinner beam degraders to increase the proton beam

  6. Energy Engineering Analysis (EEA) program for Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, Texas. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The objective of this Energy Engineering Analysis (EEA) for LSAAP is threefold: Develop a systematic plan of projects which will result in reducing energy consumption. Consider renewable energy sources with the objective of establishing an orderly procedure for reducing use of non-renewable energy sources. Determine the feasibility of Total Energy (TE), Selective Energy (SE), and Central Heating Plant (CHP) concepts using alternative fuels. In essence, an assessment of the entire energy picture at LSAAP was undertaken. This report is a summary of that effort. LSAAP was originally built during 1941 and 1942 as a shell loading plant for the Army.more » After World War II, the facility was deactivated until 1951 when it was reactivated as a Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) facility. Day and Zimmerman was selected as the operator in 1951 and has been the operating contractor ever since. Located just west of Texarkana, Texas, LSAAP encompasses an area of approximately 15,546 acres. The primary mission of LSAAP is to load, assemble and pack ammunition and ammunition components for the Army.« less

  7. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass resolution and dynamic range limits calculated by computer modeling of ion cloud motion.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Marshall, Alan G; Heeren, Ron M A; Nikolaev, Eugene N

    2012-02-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) ion trajectory calculations provide the most realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) experiments by efficient and accurate calculation of the forces acting on each ion in an ensemble (cloud), including Coulomb interactions (space charge), the electric field of the ICR trap electrodes, image charges on the trap electrodes, the magnetic field, and collisions with neutral gas molecules. It has been shown recently that ion cloud collective behavior is required to generate an FT-ICR signal and that two main phenomena influence mass resolution and dynamic range. The first is formation of an ellipsoidal ion cloud (termed "condensation") at a critical ion number (density), which facilitates signal generation in an FT-ICR cell of arbitrary geometry because the condensed cloud behaves as a quasi-ion. The second phenomenon is peak coalescence. Ion resonances that are closely spaced in m/z coalesce into one resonance if the ion number (density) exceeds a threshold that depends on magnetic field strength, ion cyclotron radius, ion masses and mass difference, and ion initial spatial distribution. These two phenomena decrease dynamic range by rapid cloud dephasing at small ion density and by cloud coalescence at high ion density. Here, we use PIC simulations to quantitate the dependence of coalescence on each critical parameter. Transitions between independent and coalesced motion were observed in a series of the experiments that systematically varied ion number, magnetic field strength, ion radius, ion m/z, ion m/z difference, and ion initial spatial distribution (the present simulations begin from elliptically-shaped ion clouds with constant ion density distribution). Our simulations show that mass resolution is constant at a given magnetic field strength with increasing ion number until a critical value (N) is reached. N dependence on magnetic field strength, cyclotron radius, ion mass, and difference between ion masses

  8. A Texas Flood from Land to Ocean Observed by SMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, S.; Reager, J. T., II; Lee, T.; Vazquez, J.; David, C. H.; Gierach, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are natural hazards that can have damaging impacts not only on affected land areas but also on the adjacent coastal waters. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides measurements of both surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS), offering the opportunity to study the effects of flooding events on both terrestrial and marine environments. Here, we present analysis of a severe flood that occurred in May 2015 in Texas using SMAP observations and ancillary satellite and in situ data that describe the precipitation intensity, the evolving saturation state of the land surface, the flood discharge peak, and the resulting freshwater plume in the Gulf of Mexico. We describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the different variables, their relationships, and the associated physical processes. Specifically, we identify a freshwater plume in the north-central Gulf, being distinct from the typical Mississippi River plume, that is attributable to the Texas flood.

  9. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  10. Electromagnetic cyclotron waves in the solar wind: Wind observation and wave dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, L. K., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov; Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771; Moya, P. S.

    2016-03-25

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and α-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  11. Alpha-capture reaction rates for 22Ne(alpha,n) via sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayatissa, Heshani; Rogachev, Grigory; Koshchiy, Yevgen; Goldberg, Vladilen; Bedoor, Shadi; Hooker, Joshua; Hunt, Curtis; Magana, Cordero; Roeder, Brian; Saastamoinen, Antti; Spiridon, Alexandria; Upadhyayula, Sriteja

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurements of α-capture reactions at energies relevant to astrophysics is extremely difficult to carry out due to the very small reaction cross section. The large uncertainties introduced when extrapolating direct measurements at high energies down to the Gamow energies can be overcome by measuring the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANC) of the relevant states using (6Li,d) α-transfer reactions at sub-Coulomb energies to reduce the model dependence. The study of the 22Ne(6Li,d) reaction was carried out at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The α-ANC measurements for the near α-threshold resonances of 26Mg will provide constraints for the reaction rate of the 22Ne(α,n) reaction.

  12. Coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Sreeraj, T., E-mail: sreerajt13@iigs.iigm.res.in; Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: gslakhina@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    The coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves is examined in three component magnetized plasma consisting of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. In the theoretical model relevant to solar wind plasma, electrons are assumed to be superthermal with kappa distribution and protons as well as alpha particles follow the fluid dynamical equations. A general linear dispersion relation is derived for such a plasma system which is analyzed both analytically and numerically. For parallel propagation, electrostatic ion cyclotron (proton and helium cyclotron) and ion acoustic (slow and fast) modes are decoupled. For oblique propagation, coupling between the cyclotron andmore » acoustic modes occurs. Furthermore, when the angle of propagation is increased, the separation between acoustic and cyclotron modes increases which is an indication of weaker coupling at large angle of propagation. For perpendicular propagation, only cyclotron modes are observed. The effect of various parameters such as number density and temperature of alpha particles and superthermality on dispersion characteristics is examined in details. The coupling between various modes occurs for small values of wavenumber.« less

  13. Seasonal Variability in Calorimetric Energy Content of Two Caribbean Mesophotic Corals

    PubMed Central

    Brandtneris, Viktor W.; Brandt, Marilyn E.; Glynn, Peter W.; Gyory, Joanna; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-01-01

    Energetic responses of zooxanthellate reef corals along depth gradients have relevance to the refugia potential of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Previous observations suggested that MCEs in the Caribbean are thermally buffered during the warmest parts of the year and occur within or just below the chlorophyll maximum, suggesting abundant trophic resources. However, it is not known if mesophotic corals can maintain constant energy needs throughout the year with changing environmental and biological conditions. The energetic content of tissues from the stony coral species Orbicella faveolata and Agaricia lamarcki was measured on the southern insular shelf of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands (USVI), using micro-bomb calorimetry. Three sites for each species, at depths of 6m, 25m, 38m and 63m, were selected to capture energetic differences across the major vertical range extent of both species in the USVI—and sampled over five periods from April 2013 to April 2014. Mesophotic colonies of O. faveolata exhibited a significant reduction in energetic content during the month of September 2013 compared to mid-depth and shallow colonies (p = 0.032), whereas A. lamarcki experienced similar energetic variability, but with a significant reduction in energy content that occurred in July 2013 for colonies at sites deeper than 25m (p = 0.014). The results of calorimetric analyses indicate that O. faveolata may be at risk during late summer stress events, possibly due to the timing of reproductive activities. The low-point of A. lamarcki energy content, which may also coincide with reproduction, occurs prior to seasonal stress events, indicating contrasting, species-specific responses to environmental variability on MCEs. PMID:27050430

  14. Comparative habitat ecology of Texas and masked bobwhites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guthery, F.S.; King, N.M.; Nolte, K.R.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; DeStefano, S.; Gall, S.A.; Silvy, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    The habitat ecology of masked bobwhites (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) is poorly understood, which hampers recovery efforts for this endangered bird. During 1994-96, we analyzed the habitat ecology of masked bobwhites in Sonora, Mexico, and Arizona, and compared these findings with the habitat ecology of Texas bobwhites (C. v. texanus) in southern Texas. Mean values for the quantity of low screening cover (<50 cm aboveground), operative temperature (??C), and exposure to aerial predators were relatively constant across regions (CV <14.2%), indicating these variables are important in adaptive habitat-use decisions by bobwhites. Bobwhites exhibited preference in all regions for higher canopy coverage of woody vegetation, lower exposure to aerial predators, and lower operative temperatures in comparison with randomly available conditions. The major habitat deficiencies for masked bobwhites were lack of woody and herbaceous cover, which led to high exposure to aerial predators in Sonora and Arizona. High operative temperatures at quail level were associated with the loss of ???24% of potential habitat space-time in Texas, Sonora, and Arizona. Management to improve habitat for masked bobwhites includes any practice that increases canopy coverage of woody vegetation, and height and coverage of herbaceous vegetation.

  15. RAP workshop : Buda-TxAPA, Texas, August 27, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-27

    Presentation Outline : RAP overview : RAP stockpile survey: state of practice : RAP processing and RAP variability : RAP characterization : RAP mix design : Field performance of Texas high RAP test sections

  16. Ionospheric modification at twice the electron cyclotron frequency.

    PubMed

    Djuth, F T; Pedersen, T R; Gerken, E A; Bernhardt, P A; Selcher, C A; Bristow, W A; Kosch, M J

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, a new transmission band was added to the HAARP high-frequency ionospheric modification facility that encompasses the second electron cyclotron harmonic at altitudes between approximately 220 and 330 km. Initial observations indicate that greatly enhanced airglow occurs whenever the transmission frequency approximately matches the second electron cyclotron harmonic at the height of the upper hybrid resonance. This is the reverse of what happens at higher electron cyclotron harmonics. The measured optical emissions confirm the presence of accelerated electrons in the plasma.

  17. Cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 45 T

    SciTech Connect

    Spirin, K. E., E-mail: spirink@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Sadofyev, Yu. G.

    Electron cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures with quantum wells of various widths in pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T are investigated. Our experimental cyclotron energies are in satisfactory agreement with the results of theoretical calculations performed using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The shift of the cyclotron resonance (CR) line, which corresponds to the transition from the lowest Landau level to the low magnetic-field region, is found upon varying the electron concentration due to the negative persistent photoconductivity effect. It is shown that the observed shift of the CR lines is associated with the finite width of the density ofmore » states at the Landau levels.« less

  18. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Race: A Report of ECT Use and Sociodemographic Trends in Texas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie; Chiu, Lawrence; Livingston, Robin

    2017-06-01

    Minimal research on race and other sociodemographic disparities in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) exists. One previously noted national trend reveals whites receiving ECT disproportionately more than other races. The aim of this study is to determine whether a county ECT program demonstrates similar disparities observed at the state and national levels. This study examined 21 years of ECT data, between 1993 and 2014, provided by the Texas Department of State Health Services, focusing on race, sex, age, and payer source and 2.5 years of the same variables from a Harris County hospital ECT program. In addition, population demographic data for Harris County and the state of Texas during the same period were obtained from the Department of State Health Services Web site. Despite an overall decrease in the population of whites countywide and statewide, whites continue to use more ECT than African Americans, Latinos, and Asians in both Harris County and Texas. However, the rates of ECT use in minorities increased overall. Both countywide and statewide, ECT was used more than twice as often in women than men. Statewide, elderly patients (>65 years old) saw decreases in ECT use, and there was an increase in private third-party payer source. Electroconvulsive therapy remains underused among African Americans, Latinos, and Asians. Hypotheses and areas for future study include cultural beliefs, stigma, patient and provider knowledge of ECT, and access to care. Despite this, the general use of ECT in Texas has increased overall, and minority use is slowly on the rise.

  19. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  20. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  1. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning...

  2. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning...

  3. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  4. Preliminary constraints on variable w dark energy cosmologies from the SNLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Neill, J. D.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.

    2005-12-01

    The first 71 confirmed Ia supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey being conducted with CFHT imaging and Gemini, VLT and Keck spectroscopy set limits on variable dark energy cosmological models. For a generalized Chaplygin gas, in which the dark energy content is (1-Ω M)/ρ a, we find that a is statistically consistent with zero, with a best fit a=-0.2±-0.3 (68 systematic errors requires a further refinement of the photometric calibration and the potential model biases. A variable dark energy equation of state with w=w0+w_1 z shows the expected degeneracy between increasingly positive w0 and negative w1. The existing data rule out the parameters of the Weller & Linder (2002) Super-gravity inspired model cosmology (w0,w_1)=(-0.81,0.31). The full 700 Ia of the completed survey will provide a statistical error limit of w1 of about 0.2 and significant constraints on variable w models. The Canadian NSERC provided funding for the scientific analysis. These results are based on observations obtained at the CFHT, Gemini, VLT and Keck observatories.

  5. Analysis of Special Education Mediations in Texas, 2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Diana Lane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables which might influence the frequency of Texas special education mediations used for dispute resolution. Variables such as district size, location, economic level, and the State Accountability Rating were investigated and evaluated. In order to determine if there were any relationships between the…

  6. The development of an injection system for a compact H(-) cyclotron, the concomitant measurement of injected beam properties and the experimental characterization of the spiral inflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehnel, Morgan Patrick

    1998-11-01

    This thesis addresses two major problems. One is of interest to commercial cyclotron manufacturers and the other is of interest to the accelerator physics community. The industrial problem was to produce a compact and modular ion source and injection system for the new TR13 H- cyclotron, which is capable of transporting and injecting a high quality and well matched beam into the cyclotron. The accelerator physics problem was to advance the science of inflector ion optical design, analysis and troubleshooting from the realm of pure simulation to the realm of measurement and experimentation. The industrial problem was solved by designing candidate injection systems in parallel with the TR13 cyclotron design. These systems were fabricated and then experimentally optimized along with the ion source on a 1 MeV test cyclotron. This work resulted in a set of ion source and injection systems with well documented and understood properties. The recommended solution for the TR13 was a cost effective injection system composed of only two axially rotated quadrupole magnets. The accelerator physics problem is the lack of measured cyclotron inflector optical data and beam related properties in the immediate vicinity of a cyclotron inflector. This required the development of an experimental technique to overcome the numerous technical difficulties associated with making measurements near a device as inaccessible as a cyclotron inflector. A diverse assembly of equipment and procedures was required: a well understood injection system, a pinhole collimator for producing beamlets for ray-tracing, a specially configured center region to expose the inflector to view, a system of scintillators in close proximity to the inflector for producing visible beamspots, a TV camera and frame grabber to record images and a set of image analysis and data processing procedures. The results obtained using this technique were: (a) measured constraints on the coefficients of an inflector's transport

  7. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  8. Grassland Birds Wintering at U.S. Navy Facilities in Southern Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Cenchrus echinatus N X X Coastal sandbur Cenchrus spinifex N X X X Slimspike windmill grass Chloris andropogonoides N X Fringed windmill grass Chloris...Hatch, Texas A&M University. Additional scientific expertise was provided by Gene Blacklock and David Newstead, Coastal Bend Bays & Estuaries Program...Inland Prairies of Texas The study area was located in two Texas ecoregions. Coastal study sites were located in the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes

  9. Characterization of the Energy Spectrum at the Indiana University Neutron Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENERGY SPECTRUM AT THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY NREP NEUTRON SOURCE THESIS Matthew R. Halstead, Civilian AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M08...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M08 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENERGY SPECTRUM AT THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY NREP NEUTRON...The neutron source at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility produces neu- trons via proton bombardment of a natural beryllium (100% 9Be) target

  10. Motel DHW Retrofit--Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy system designed to provide 65% of total domestic-hot-water (DHW) demands for 100-room motel in Dallas, Texas is subject of a report now available. System is retrofit, and storage-tank size was limited to 1,000 gallons (3,785 1) by size of room where it is located.

  11. Simulation, design, and testing of a high power collimator for the RDS-112 cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Peeples, Johanna L; Stokely, Matthew H; Poorman, Michael C; Bida, Gerald T; Wieland, Bruce W

    2015-03-01

    A high power [F-18] fluoride target package for the RDS-112 cyclotron has been designed, tested, and commercially deployed. The upgrade includes the CF-1000 target, a 1.3kW water target with an established commercial history on RDS-111/Eclipse cyclotrons, and a redesigned collimator with improved heat rejection capabilities. Conjugate heat transfer analyses were employed to both evaluate the existing collimator capabilities and design a suitable high current replacement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Science.gov Websites

    , commercial, and international institutions use these beams to understand the effect of radiation on microelectronics, optics, materials, and cells. Click here to see the 88-Inch Cyclotron's contributions to space

  13. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER): 'rules of thumb' for Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm estimation and use in aquatic toxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter provides a listing of the increasing variety of organic moieties and heteroatom group for which Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) values are available, and the LSER variable estimation rules. The listings include values for typical nitrogen-, sulfur- and phosphorus-containing moieties, and general organosilicon and organotin groups. The contributions by an ion pair situation to the LSER values are also offered in Table 1, allowing estimation of parameters for salts and zwitterions. The guidelines permit quick estimation of values for the four primary LSER variables Vi/100, π*, Βm, and αm by summing the contribtuions from its components. The use of guidelines and Table 1 significantly simplifies computation of values for the LSER variables for most possible organic comppounds in the environment, including the larger compounds of environmental and biological interest.

  14. Variable-energy collimator for high-energy radiation

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.A.

    1982-03-03

    An apparatus is disclosed providing a variable aperture energy beam collimator. A plurality of beam opaque blocks are in sliding interface edge contact to form a variable aperture. The blocks may be offset at the apex angle to provide a non-equilateral aperture. A plurality of collimator block assemblies may be employed for providing a channel defining a collimated beam. Adjacent assemblies are inverted front-to-back with respect to one another for preventing noncollimated ;energy from emergine from the apparatus. An adjustment mechanism comprises a cable attached to at least one block and a hand wheel mechanism for operating the cable. The blocks are supported by guide rods engaging slide brackets on the blocks. The guide rods are pivotally connected at each end to intermediate actuators supported on rotatable shafts to change the shape of the aperture. A divergent collimated beam may be obtained by adjusting the apertures of adjacent stages to be unequal.

  15. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunologymore » projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.« less

  16. Socioeconomic deprivation as a determinant of cancer mortality and the Hispanic paradox in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Philips, Billy U; Belasco, Eric; Markides, Kyriakos S; Gong, Gordon

    2013-04-15

    We have recently reported that delayed cancer detection is associated with the Wellbeing Index (WI) for socioeconomic deprivation, lack of health insurance, physician shortage, and Hispanic ethnicity. The current study investigates whether these factors are determinants of cancer mortality in Texas, the United States of America (USA). Data for breast, colorectal, female genital system, lung, prostate, and all-type cancers are obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. A weighted regression model for non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and African Americans is used with age-adjusted mortality (2004-2008 data combined) for each county as the dependent variable while independent variables include WI, percentage of the uninsured, and physician supply. Higher mortality for breast, female genital system, lung, and all-type cancers is associated with higher WI among non-Hispanic whites and/or African Americans but with lower WI in Hispanics after adjusting for physician supply and percentage of the uninsured. Mortality for all the cancers studied is in the following order from high to low: African Americans, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics. Lung cancer mortality is particularly low in Hispanics, which is only 35% of African Americans' mortality and 40% of non-Hispanic whites' mortality. Higher degree of socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher mortality of several cancers among non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, but with lower mortality among Hispanics in Texas. Also, mortality rates of all these cancers studied are the lowest in Hispanics. Further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the Hispanic Paradox.

  17. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  18. Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D A; Hansen, V N; Thompson, M G; Poludniowski, G; Niven, A; Seco, J; Evans, P M

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy. Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is the scope with such a tuneable system

  19. Texas School Law: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Kelly, Ed.; Horner, Jeff, Ed.; Camp, Bill, Ed.; Robinson, Vianei Lopez, Ed.

    Intended as a practical legal guide for Texas educators and lawyers, this book contains three major sections dealing with several chapters on various school law topics, each prepared by Texas attorneys. Section 1, "School Boards and Superintendents," includes chapters on school board members authority and relationship with staff, the…

  20. Variable Stars in M13. II.The Red Variables and the Globular Cluster Period-Luminosity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W.; Layden, A.; Kopacki, G.; Smith, H.; Anderson, M.; Kelly, A.; McBride, K.; Pritzl, B.

    2017-06-01

    New CCD observations have been combined with archival data to investigate the nature of the red variables in the globular cluster M13. Mean magnitudes, colors and variation ranges on the UBVIC system have been determined for the 17 cataloged red variables. 15 of the stars are irregular or semi-regular variables that lie at the top of the red giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram. Two stars are not, including one with a well-defined period and a light curve shape indicating it is an ellipsoidal or eclipsing variable. All stars redder than (V-IC)0=1.38 mag vary, with the amplitudes being larger with increased stellar luminosity and with bluer filter passband. Searches of the data for periodicities yielded typical variability cycle times ranging from 30 d up to 92 d for the most luminous star. Several stars have evidence of multiple periods. The stars' period-luminosity diagram compared to those from microlensing survey data shows that most M13 red variables are overtone pulsators. Comparison with the diagrams for other globular clusters shows a correlation between red variable luminosity and cluster metallicity.

  1. In Texas, a Statewide Commitment to Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bonita C.; Cutright, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Transfer Success Conference, held at eight sites across Texas in May 2009, drew more than 1,000 attendees from Texas and international colleges and universities. The purpose of the conference was to discuss strategies and principles for increasing the effectiveness of inter-institutional transfer for students. The conference was planned…

  2. A compact electron cyclotron resonance proton source for the Paul Scherrer Institute's proton accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarten, C.; Barchetti, A.; Einenkel, H.

    2011-05-15

    A compact electron cyclotron resonance proton source has been developed and installed recently at thePaul Scherrer Institute's high intensity proton accelerator. Operation at the ion source test stand and the accelerator demonstrates a high reliability and stability of the new source. When operated at a 10 - 12 mA net proton current the lifetime of the source exceeds 2000 h. The essential development steps towards the observed performance are described.

  3. Geological record of severe storm impacts along the Texas Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D.; Anderson, J. B.; Yu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Hurricanes act as one of the primary controls on barrier island migration through wave and wind energy, and their frequency has been suggested to indicate changes in climate (El Niño) cycles. Texas has an extensive coastline containing barriers in various stages of evolution. Through a detailed sedimentological examination and radiocarbon age constraints of offshore storm sands, beach ridge breaching events, storm surge channels, and washovers, we offer a geologic record of severe storm impacts along the Texas Coast. From offshore core data, we ascertain that sand storage along the upper and lower shoreface (the profile of which is controlled by catastrophic storm impacts) is minimal over geologic timescales (i.e. 100-1000 years). Hence, an offshore record of storm impact is lacking. Using high resolution LIDAR data, we map breaching events of prominent beach ridges. Storm surge channels on the bayside of barriers (which are cut by water flowing towards the Gulf of Mexico when storm surge recedes) are also being dated, although they likely record lower magnitude storms. This study reveals that hurricane washover formation is only a minor contributor to sand transport within the system, as accumulation rates in back-barriers range from .095 - .4m/C. By examining the sedimentological components of hurricane impacts, we establish a hurricane impact chronology and conclude that the frequency of major storms along the Texas Coast is actually quite minimal.

  4. Electron-cyclotron absorption in high-temperature plasmas: quasi-exact analytical evaluation and comparative numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albajar, F.; Bertelli, N.; Bornatici, M.; Engelmann, F.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the electromagnetic energy balance equation, a quasi-exact analytical evaluation of the electron-cyclotron (EC) absorption coefficient is performed for arbitrary propagation (with respect to the magnetic field) in a (Maxwellian) magneto-plasma for the temperature range of interest for fusion reactors (in which EC radiation losses tend to be important in the plasma power balance). The calculation makes use of Bateman's expansion for the product of two Bessel functions, retaining the lowest-order contribution. The integration over electron momentum can then be carried out analytically, fully accounting for finite Larmor radius effects in this approximation. On the basis of the analytical expressions for the EC absorption coefficients of both the extraordinary and ordinary modes thus obtained, (i) for the case of perpendicular propagation simple formulae are derived for both modes and (ii) a numerical analysis of the angular distribution of EC absorption is carried out. An assessment of the accuracy of asymptotic expressions that have been given earlier is also performed, showing that these approximations can be usefully applied for calculating EC power losses from reactor-grade plasmas. Presented in part at the 14th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating, Santorini, Greece, 9-12 May 2006.

  5. TexNet seismic network performance and reported seismicity in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvaidis, A.; Lomax, A.; Aiken, C.; Young, B.; Huang, D.; Hennings, P.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, the Texas State Legislature began funding the Texas Seismological Network (TexNet). Since then, 22 new permanent broadband three-component seismic stations have been added to 17 existing stations operated by various networks [US, N4, IM]. These stations together with 4 auxiliary stations, i.e. long term deployments of 20 sec portable stations, were deployed to provide a baseline of Texas seismicity. As soon as the deployment of the new permanent stations took place in West Texas, TexNet was able to detect and characterize smaller magnitude events than was possible before, i.e. M < 2.5. As a consequence, additional portable stations were installed in the area in order to better map the current seismicity level. During the different stages of station deployment, we monitored the seismic network performance and its ability to detect earthquake activity. We found that a key limitation to the network performance is industrial noise in West Texas. For example, during daytime, phase picking and event detection rates are much lower than during nighttime at noisy sites. Regarding seismicity, the high density portable station deployment close to the earthquake activity minimizes hypocentral location uncertainties. In addition, we examined the effects of different crustal velocity models in the area of study on hypocentral location using the local network first arrivals. Considerable differences in location were obtained, which shows the importance of local networks and/or reliable crustal velocity models for West Texas. Given the levels of seismicity in West Texas, a plan to continuously monitor the study area is under development.

  6. The value of pipelines to the transportation system of Texas : year one report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-10-01

    Pipelines represent a major transporter of petrochemical commodities in Texas. The Texas pipeline system represents as much as 17% of the total pipeline mileage in the U.S. and links many segments of the country with energy sources located on the Gul...

  7. Evaluation of Migrant Education in Texas: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory conducted a study of migrant education in Texas under a contract with the Texas Education Agency from March 7, 1968 to August 31, 1968. Of the reported 65,000 migrant students who attended Texas schools, approximately half attended 45 specially funded project schools. These 45 project schools and 45…

  8. Dynamic Confinement of ITER Plasma by O-Mode Driver at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2009-05-01

    A low B-field side launched electron cyclotron O-Mode driver leads to the dynamic rf confinement, in addition to rf turbulent heating, of ITER plasma. The scaling law for the local energy confinement time τE is evaluated (τE ˜ 3neTe/2Q, where (3/2) neTe is the local plasma thermal energy density and Q is the local rf turbulent heating rate). The dynamics of unstable dissipative trapped particle modes (DTPM) strongly coupled to Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for gyrotron frequency 170GHz; power˜24 MW CW; and on-axis B-field ˜ 10T. In the case of dynamic stabilization of DTPM turbulence and for the heavily damped T-G modes, the energy confinement time scales as τE˜(I0)-2, whereby I0(W/m^2) is the O-Mode driver irradiance. R. Prater et. al., Nucl. Fusion 48, No 3 (March 2008). E. P. Velikhov, History of the Russian Tokamak and the Tokamak Thermonuclear Fusion Research Worldwide That Led to ITER (Documentary movie; Stefan Studios Int'l, La Jolla, CA, 2008; E. P. Velikhov, V. Stefan.) M N Rosenbluth, Phys. Scr. T2A 104-109 1982 B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Nucl. Fusion 11, 67 (1971).

  9. A study about the photometric variability in the M42 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, G. H. R. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Reipurth, B.

    2003-08-01

    The M42 region in Orion is one of the most active regarding stellar formation in the neighborhood of the solar system. At a distance of 450pc, it gives us an excellent oportunity to study star formation processes. By studying 22 films of this region, covering an area of 5 by 5 degrees, taken in almost regular intervals through 2.5 years by ESO 1m Schimdt Telescope, in La Silla, Chile, we seek to discover variable stars among the young stars. These films were digitalized by the SuperCOSMOS (the most precise scientific scanner today) team, and each film were exposed for 30 minutes. Our knowledge about the variability of low-mass young variable stars were outdated, and were based on old photographic plates, which were studied by the so called blink comparators and Iris photometers. Now we developed a process to study these data and identify possible candidate stars to be constants or variables, and developed some softwares based on this process. We also used some softwares supplied by the SuperCosmos team to help our analysis of the dataset. After identifying the stars, which we, definitively, can consider variables, we will study more deeply these ones in hope to obtain more data about the formation process. We expect to detect thousands of new variables within our data as also the light curves for each star detected.

  10. Influence of Climate Oscillations on Extreme Precipitation in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, N.; Singh, V. P.; Srivastav, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Much research in the field of hydroclimatology is focusing on the impact of climate variability on hydrologic extremes. Recent studies show that the unique geographical location and the enormous areal extent, coupled with extensive variations in climate oscillations, have intensified the regional hydrologic cycle of Texas. The state-wide extreme precipitation events can actually be attributed to sea-surface pressure and temperature anomalies, such as Bermuda High and Jet Streams, which are further triggered by such climate oscillations. This study aims to quantify the impact of five major Atlantic and Pacific Ocean related climate oscillations: (i) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), (ii) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), (iii) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), (iv) Pacific North American Pattern (PNA), and (v) Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), on extreme precipitation in Texas. Their respective effects will be determined for both climate divisions delineated by the National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) and climate regions defined by the Köppen Climate Classification System. This study will adopt a weighted correlation approach to attain the robust correlation coefficients while addressing the regionally variable data outliers for extreme precipitation. Further, the variation of robust correlation coefficients across Texas is found to be related to the station elevation, historical average temperature, and total precipitation in the months of extremes. The research will shed light on the relationship between precipitation extremes and climate variability, thus aiding regional water boards in planning, designing, and managing the respective systems as per the future climate change.

  11. Target development for diversified irradiations at a medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Spellerberg, S; Scholten, B; Spahn, I; Bolten, W; Holzgreve, M; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2015-10-01

    The irradiation facility at an old medical cyclotron (Ep=17 MeV; Ed=10 MeV) was upgraded by extending the beam line and incorporation of solid state targetry. Tests performed to check the quality of the available beam are outlined. Results on nuclear data measurements and improvement of radiochemical separations are described. Using solid targets, with the proton beam falling at a slanting angle of 20°, a few radionuclides, e.g. (75)Se, (120)I, (124)I, etc. were produced with medium currents (up to 20 µA) in no-carrier-added form in quantities sufficient for local use. The extended irradiation facility has considerably enhanced the utility of the medical cyclotron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy density and variability in abundance of pigeon guillemot prey: Support for the quality-variability trade-off hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Robards, Martin D.

    2004-01-01

    1. The quality-variability trade-off hypothesis predicts that (i) energy density (kJ g-1) and spatial-temporal variability in abundance are positively correlated in nearshore marine fishes; and (ii) prey selection by a nearshore piscivore, the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas), is negatively affected by variability in abundance. 2. We tested these predictions with data from a 4-year study that measured fish abundance with beach seines and pigeon guillemot prey utilization with visual identification of chick meals. 3. The first prediction was supported. Pearson's correlation showed that fishes with higher energy density were more variable on seasonal (r = 0.71) and annual (r = 0.66) time scales. Higher energy density fishes were also more abundant overall (r = 0.85) and more patchy at a scale of 10s of km (r = 0.77). 4. Prey utilization by pigeon guillemots was strongly non-random. Relative preference, defined as the difference between log-ratio transformed proportions of individual prey taxa in chick diets and beach seine catches, was significantly different from zero for seven of the eight main prey categories. 5. The second prediction was also supported. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to summarize variability in correlated prey characteristics (energy density, availability and variability in abundance). Two PCA scores explained 32% of observed variability in pigeon guillemot prey utilization. Seasonal variability in abundance was negatively weighted by these PCA scores, providing evidence of risk-averse selection. Prey availability, energy density and km-scale variability in abundance were positively weighted. 6. Trophic interactions are known to create variability in resource distribution in other systems. We propose that links between resource quality and the strength of trophic interactions may produce resource quality-variability trade-offs.