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Sample records for thalassia testudinum beds

  1. SULFUR CYCLING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarles, Robert L., Jessica A. Rivord and Richard Devereux. In press. Sulfur Cycling in Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed Sediments (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and S...

  2. SULFATE REDUCTION RATES IN A THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED, NORTHWEST FLORIDA USA GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, R., D.F. Yates and Robert L. Quarles. In press. Sulfate Reduction Rates in a Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed, Northwest Florida USA Gulf of Mexico Coast (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-1...

  3. [Hurricane impact on Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) beds in the Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Liceaga-Correa, María de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Hernández-Núñez, Héctor

    2011-03-01

    Hurricanes have increased in strength and frequency as a result of global climate change. This research was conducted to study the spatio-temporal distribution and changes of Thalassia testudinum, the dominant species in Bahia de la Ascension (Quintana Roo, Mexico), when affected by heavy weather conditions. To complete this objective, a 2001 Landsat ETM+ image and the information from 525 sampling stations on morpho-functional and coverage of T. testudinum were used, and the seeds generated for the classification of eight benthic habitats. To quantify the changes caused by two hurricanes, we used two images, one of 1988 (Gilberto) and another of 1995 (Roxanne); other three data sets (2003, 2005 and 2007) were also used to describe the study area without major weather effects. Six categorial maps were obtained and subjected to analysis by 8 Landscape Ecology indexes, that describe the spatial characteristics, structure, function, change of the elements (matrix-patch-corridor), effects on ecosystems, connectivity, edges, shape and patch habitat fragmentation. Models indicate that T. testudinum may be classified as a continuum (matrix), since the fragments were not observed intermittently, but as a progression from minimum to maximum areas in reference to their coverage (ecological corridors). The fragments do not have a regular shape, indicating that the impacts are recent and may be due to direct effects (high-intensity hurricanes) or indirect (sediment). Fragments of type "bare soils" have a discontinuous distribution, and are considered to be the sites that have remained stable over a long timescale. While more dense coverage areas ("beds", "medium prairie" and "prairie") have low fragmentation and high connection of fragments. Features have an irregular perimeter and radial growth of formal; suggesting that the impact of meteors has no effect on the resilience of T. testudinum in this ecosystem, indicating good environmental quality to grow in this bay.

  4. [Benthic fauna associated to a Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) bed in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C; Villamizar, E

    2000-12-01

    The benthic fauna and diel variation in a shallow seagrass bed (Thalassia testudinum) were studied in Playa Mero, Venezuela. Samples of organisms and sediments were taken using PVC cylinders, 5cm in diameter, along a transect perpendicular to the coast. Seagrass cover, shoot density and biomass were estimated. The seagrass cover was homogeneous along the transect. The intermediate zone had the highest number of shoots and of above-ground and rhizome biomass. Composition and abundance of benthic organisms were related with seagrass and sediment characteristics. Sediment organic matter content and organism abundance were highest near the shore Molluscs, polychaetes, oligochaetes and nematodes were the most abundant groups. Species richness was higher in daytime (40 versus 28 at night). Gastropods were the most abundant organisms both at day and night while polychaetes and crustaceans increased during the day, and holoturids were more numerous at night.

  5. SEDIMENT AND PLANT PHOSPHORUS IN TWO THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BEDS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND, NW FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated phosphorus concentrations in the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, and the supporting quartz sediments of two meadows in Santa Rosa Sound. One meadow was sampled during 2002, and the other during 2003. Triplicate sediment and biomass cores were obtained from beneath...

  6. Seasonal behavior of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Yasnay; González, Kethia; Valdés-Iglesias, Olga; Zarabozo, Akaena; Portal, Yéssica; Laguna, Abilio; Martínez-Daranas, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Maria; Gutiérrez, Richard

    2016-12-01

    The marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum, commonly known as turtle grass, is a dominant seagrass that grows in the Caribbean Sea shelf associated to Syringodium filiforme. The hydroalcoholic extract of T. testudinum is rich in polyphenols; the most abundant metabolite in this extract is thalassiolin B, a glycosilated flavonoid with skin damage repairing properties, and antioxidant capacity among others. The present study aimed at generating information about the seasonal behavior of secondary metabolites, as well as to study the antioxidant capacity of the T. testudinum leaves extract, collected monthly during 2012 from the Northeast coastline of Havana, Cuba. For this study, spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble carbohydrates and proteins, chlorophylls a and b, and antioxidant activity of the extracts. In general, results demonstrated seasonal variations of the analyzed parameters. Extracts prepared from the vegetal material collected in October and November showed the highest values of polyphenols (58.81 ± 1.53 and 52.39 ± 0.63 mg/g bs, respectivally) and flavonoids (44.12 ± 1.30 and 51.30 ± 0.67 mg/gdw, respectively). On the contrary, the lowest values of polyphenols were found in extracts of leaves collected in July and August (15.51 ± 0.84 and 13.86 ± 0.48 mg/g,respectively). In accordance with these results, the lower value of Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) was obtained to get a 50 % of maximal effect on free radical scavenging activity with the extracts prepared from leaves collected in October and November, and less significant IC50 was obtained from the extract prepared from leaves collected in August (5.63 mg/mL). A negative correlation (r= -0.694) was observed in this study between the content of polyphenols and the IC50 necessary to get the half of its antioxidant maximal effect. The high correspondence between the maximum values of polyphenols, flavonoids

  7. Nitrogen Cycling in Seagrass Beds Dominated by Thalassia testudinum and Halodule wrightii: the Role of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Oxidation in Regulating Ammonium Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, R.; Caffrey, J. M.; Hester, C.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass meadows provide key ecosystem services including nursery and foraging grounds, storm and erosion buffers, biodiversity enhancers and global carbon and nutrient cycling. Nitrogen concentrations are often very low in coastal waters and sediments, which may limit primary productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation is a microbial process that converts dinitrogen to ammonium, which is readily taken up by seagrasses. In the oxygenated rhizospheres, diazotrophs provide the plant with ammonium and use root exudates as an energy source. Nitrogen fixation rates and nutrient concentrations differ between seagrass species and substrate types. Thalassia testudinum has a higher biomass and is a climax species than Halodule wrightii, which is a pioneer species. Nitrogen fixation rates are relatively consistent in Thalassia testudinum dominated sediments. However, it is relatively variable in sediments occupied by Halodule wrightii. Nitrogen fixation rates are higher in bare substrate compared to areas with Thalassia testudinum, which may be due to T. testudinum's greater efficiency in nutrient retention because it is a climax species. We hypothesize that seasonal shifts in nitrogen fixation will coincide with seasonal shifts in seagrass biomass due to higher nutrient requirements during peak growth and lower requirements during senescence and dormancy. The ratio of porewater ammonium to phosphate suggests that seagrass growth may be nitrogen limited as does nitrogen demand, estimated from gross primary productivity. Significant rates of ammonium oxidation in both surface and rhizosphere sediments contribute to this imbalance. Thus, nitrogen fixation may be critical in supporting plant growth.

  8. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    PubMed

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The structure and productivity of the Thalassia testudinum community in Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago.

    PubMed

    Juman, Rahanna A

    2005-05-01

    The Thalassia testudinum dominated seagrass community in the Buccoo Reef/ Bon Accord Lagoon Marine Park, measures 0.5 km(2) and is part of a contiguous coral reef, seagrass bed and mangrove swamp system in southwest Tobago. 7 testudinum coverage, productivity and percent turnover rates were measured from February 1998 to February 1999 at four sample locations, while total T. testudinum biomass was measured at two locations in the lagoon from 1992-2002. Productivity and turnover rates varied spatially and seasonally. They were higher in the back-reef area than in the mangrove-fringed lagoon, and were lowest at locations near to a sewage outfall. 7 testudinum coverage ranged from 6.6% in the lagoon to 68.5% in the back-reef area while productivity ranged from 3.9 to 4.9 g dry wt m(-2) d(-1) . Productivity and percentage turnover rates were higher in the dry season (January-June) than in the wet season (July-December). Productivity ranged from 3.0 in the wet season to 5.0 g dry wt m2 d-' in the dry season while percentage turnover rates ranged from 4.2% to 5.6%. Total Thalassia biomass and productivity in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to six similar sites in the Caribbean that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP). This seagrass community is being negatively impacted by nutrient-enriched conditions.

  10. Interactions of Thalassia testudinum and sediment biogeochemsistry in Santa Rosa Sound, NW Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Gulf of Mexico Thalassia testudinum biomass, leaf measurements, and shoot growth rates were determined during three surveys each from a different meadow over consecutive years, and correlated with sediment biogeochemical measurements by correlation analyses and multiple ...

  11. ABCG2/BCRP interaction with the sea grass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Verónica; Otero, Jon A; Barrera, Borja; Rodeiro, Idania; Prieto, Julio G; Merino, Gracia; Álvarez, Ana I

    2015-12-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from leaves of the marine plant Thalassia testudinum has shown antioxidant, cytoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. The chemical composition of this extract, rich in polyphenols, could interfere with active transport of drugs out of the cell and circumvent the phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR). The extract can act as an MDR modulator through its interaction with efflux transporters. The ABCG2/BCRP has been shown to confer MDR acting in tumor cells. To evaluate the interaction of ABCG2/BCRP with the extract, studies in cells overexpressing human BCRP transporter and its murine ortholog Bcrp1 were performed. T. testudinum extract could be included as MDR modulator, as interaction with ABCG2/BCRP has been shown through flow cytometry and MTT assays. The cells overexpressing ABCG2/BCRP in the presence of the extract (25-150 μg/mL) decreased the survival rates of the anti-tumoral mitoxantrone. Our results support its inclusion as a possible MDR modulator against tumor cells that overexpress ABCG2/BCRP.

  12. Polychaeta (Annelida) associated with Thalassia testudinum in the northeastern coastal waters of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Liñero Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscar

    2006-09-01

    Seasonal variations of polychaetes in a Thalassia testudinum bed were studied from June 2000 to April 2001 in Chacopata, northeastern Venezuela. Eight replicate samples were taken monthly with a 15 cm diameter core and the sediment was passed through a 0.5 mm mesh sieve. A total of 1,013 specimens, belonging to 35 species, was collected. The monthly density ranged from 387 ind/m2 (September) to 1,735 ind/m2 in May (x = 989+/-449 ind/m2). Species richness was lowest in August and September (8) and highest (25) in April (x = 18.00+/-5.29). The shoot density of Thalassia showed an average of 284+/-77.60 shoots/m2, with extreme values in February (164) and May (422). Species diversity ranged from 1.25 in August and 3.33 bits/ind in December (x = 2.47+/-0.64). Significant positive correlations were detected among the number of Thalassia shoots, polychaete abundance and species richness, as well as among species richness, polychaete abundance and species diversity. Species number and average density were found within the intervals of mean values reported in similar studies. The higher number of species and organisms obtained in March-April and June-July can be attributed to the recruitment correlated with the regional up-welling.

  13. INFLUENCE OF THE SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM ON THE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN AN ESSENTIAL COAST MARINE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were studied in relation to the community composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria SRB) in a Thalassia testudinum bed and in adjacent unvegetated areas. Sampling took place in Santa Rosa Sound, Pensacola, Flori...

  14. Direct contribution of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum to lime mud production.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Susana; Schubert, Nadine

    2014-05-22

    Seagrass beds contribute to oceanic carbonate lime mud production by providing a habitat for a wide variety of calcifying organisms and acting as efficient sediment traps. Here we provide evidence for the direct implication of Thalassia testudinum in the precipitation of aragonite needles. The crystals are located internally in the cell walls, and as external deposits on the blade, and are similar in size and shape to the aragonite needles reported for modern tropical carbonate factories. Seagrass calcification is a biological, light-enhanced process controlled by the leaf, and estimates of seagrass annual carbonate production in a Caribbean reef lagoon are as significant as values reported for Halimeda incrassata. Thus, we conclude that seagrass calcification is another biological source for the aragonite lime mud deposits found in tropical banks, and that tropical seagrass habitats may play a more important role in the oceanic carbon cycle than previously considered.

  15. Direct contribution of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum to lime mud production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez, Susana; Schubert, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    Seagrass beds contribute to oceanic carbonate lime mud production by providing a habitat for a wide variety of calcifying organisms and acting as efficient sediment traps. Here we provide evidence for the direct implication of Thalassia testudinum in the precipitation of aragonite needles. The crystals are located internally in the cell walls, and as external deposits on the blade, and are similar in size and shape to the aragonite needles reported for modern tropical carbonate factories. Seagrass calcification is a biological, light-enhanced process controlled by the leaf, and estimates of seagrass annual carbonate production in a Caribbean reef lagoon are as significant as values reported for Halimeda incrassata. Thus, we conclude that seagrass calcification is another biological source for the aragonite lime mud deposits found in tropical banks, and that tropical seagrass habitats may play a more important role in the oceanic carbon cycle than previously considered.

  16. Direct contribution of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum to lime mud production

    PubMed Central

    Enríquez, Susana; Schubert, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass beds contribute to oceanic carbonate lime mud production by providing a habitat for a wide variety of calcifying organisms and acting as efficient sediment traps. Here we provide evidence for the direct implication of Thalassia testudinum in the precipitation of aragonite needles. The crystals are located internally in the cell walls, and as external deposits on the blade, and are similar in size and shape to the aragonite needles reported for modern tropical carbonate factories. Seagrass calcification is a biological, light-enhanced process controlled by the leaf, and estimates of seagrass annual carbonate production in a Caribbean reef lagoon are as significant as values reported for Halimeda incrassata. Thus, we conclude that seagrass calcification is another biological source for the aragonite lime mud deposits found in tropical banks, and that tropical seagrass habitats may play a more important role in the oceanic carbon cycle than previously considered. PMID:24848374

  17. Temporal variation of biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) in Venezuela, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daisy; Guevara, Marcel; Bone, David

    2006-06-01

    Annual biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum were determined during a year at a seagrass bed located in the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. Leaf, rhizome and root biomass were determined monthly, together with short-shoot density, from February 1992 to January 1993, from nine replicated core samples. Productivity was measured using the methodology by Zieman (1974) with minor modifications, and leaf turnover rate was calculated. Leaf biomass values ranged between 101.73 dry g m(-2) in February and 178.11 dry g m(-2) in August. Productivity ranged from 1.69 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in April and October to 3.30 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in July, showing two annual peaks: one in July and one in March. The leaf turnover rate showed the highest value in June (2.41% d(-1)) and the lowest in May (1.23% d(-1)). Sampling time differences in leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate were statistically significant. Short-shoot density values varied between 811.10 shoots m(-2) in April and 1226.08 shoots m(-2) in December, but the differences were not significant along the year. These results indicated seasonal trends for leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate of T. testudinum in the Southern Caribbean (latitude 10 degrees N).

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

  19. [Effects of hyposalinity in Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) from Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Pérez, D; Galindo, L

    2000-12-01

    The year 1996 had a high pluviosity in Morrocoy National Park (western coastal zone, Venezuela) and low salinity in December 1996 affected the seagrass beds, dominated by Thalassia testudinum. Patches without T. testudinum were observed in localities of the park that used to have very dense populations of this plant. Sampling was done at Las Luisas to determine leaf productivity, turnover rate, short shoot density and relative biomass of plant sections, in order to compare with data obtained in September 1996, previous to the event. Green leaves, roots and rhizomes were the most affected parts. Mean green leaf biomass decreased in January and February 1997 to 5% of the plant's total biomass; mean root biomass decreased in March to 40% and mean rhi zome biomass decreased in February to 30%. The density of the active short shoots decreased to a minimum in February, but in April it reached a value similar to that of September 1996. The density of the inactive short shoots decreased to a minimum in March, and they dissappeared in April, matching the increasing density of the active short shoots between these two months. In February 1997, 56% of the inactive short shoots showed evidence of leaf initiation. In January 1997 the leaf productivity and turnover rate values (2.72 +/- 0.35 g/m2/d and 2.15% leaf DW/d) were similar to the annual mean previously determined from Las Luisas (2.35 +/- 0.72 g/m2/d and 1.96% leaf DW/d). Nevertheless, the values of productivity and turnover rate detected at Las Luisas in April 1997 (4.88 +/- 2.14 g/m2/d and 4.66% leaf DW/d) were higher than those values previously reported for this location. In response to the mortality episode, the leaf productivity and turnover rate of T. testudinum increased and the leaf initiation was activated in the inactive short shoots.

  20. [Abundance and species richness of fish associated to Thalassia testudinum at Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Peña, Thays Allen; Jiménez, Mayré; Villafranca, Sioliz

    2004-12-01

    Fish are among the most abundant and diverse groups in Thalassia testudinum communities, in turn considered among the most productive and important ecosystems in marine environments. Three stations were sampled in the southern shore of Cariaco gulf (northwestern Venezuela) to quantify fish associated with T. testudinum, from December 1996 to November 1997. We used a 50 m long beach net ("chinchorro playero", height 1.50 m, mesh opening 0.7 cm. A total of 15 509 individuals were collected: 27 families, 38 genera and 44 specie were identified. The most abundant, in descending order, were Haemulon boschmae, Nicholsina usta, Orthopristis ruber, Xenomelaniris brasiliensis and Diplodus argenteus. Thirty three species were occasional visitors (75.0%) and ten were recurrent visitors (22.7%). The permanent resident, N. usta, is a characteristic species that uses T. testudinum throughout its life cycle.

  1. Leaf Spectral Reflectance Shows Thalassia testudinum Seedlings More Sensitive to Hypersalinity than Hyposalinity

    PubMed Central

    Durako, Michael J.; Howarth, Jacqueline F.

    2017-01-01

    Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) is the dominant and climax-successional seagrass species in the subtropical/tropical Atlantic and Caribbean region. Two die-offs of T. testudinum in Florida Bay, United States have raised concerns regarding the resilience of this species to environmental disturbances. Seedlings are important in recovery of T. testudinum, following disturbance events. Leaf spectral reflectance [R(λ)] was measured in T. testudinum seedlings exposed for 2 weeks to three salinities (20, 35, and 50) and two light levels (full sun and 50–70% light reduction) in experimental mesocosms. Multivariate analyses indicated that hypersalinity had a greater effect on spectral reflectance than hyposalinity or light reduction. There was an increase in variability and flattening of reflectance spectra at the highest salinity. All three salinity treatments had distinct reflectance spectra across green wavelengths (530–580 nm), with additional discrimination between 20 versus 50 and 35 versus 50 treatments across red wavelengths (630–690 nm). Red:Green reflectance ratios were highest and photochemical reflective index values were lowest for the salinity 50 treatment, but were not significantly different between the salinity 20 and 35 treatments. The changes in the R(λ) spectra for the salinity 50 seedlings were consistent with previously observed reductions in leaf pigments and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. These observations indicate that leaf spectral reflectance is a sensitive indicator of plant stress in T. testudinum seedlings and that seedlings are more sensitive to short-term exposures to hypersalinity than hyposalinity. PMID:28702044

  2. Leaf Spectral Reflectance Shows Thalassia testudinum Seedlings More Sensitive to Hypersalinity than Hyposalinity.

    PubMed

    Durako, Michael J; Howarth, Jacqueline F

    2017-01-01

    Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) is the dominant and climax-successional seagrass species in the subtropical/tropical Atlantic and Caribbean region. Two die-offs of T. testudinum in Florida Bay, United States have raised concerns regarding the resilience of this species to environmental disturbances. Seedlings are important in recovery of T. testudinum , following disturbance events. Leaf spectral reflectance [ R (λ)] was measured in T. testudinum seedlings exposed for 2 weeks to three salinities (20, 35, and 50) and two light levels (full sun and 50-70% light reduction) in experimental mesocosms. Multivariate analyses indicated that hypersalinity had a greater effect on spectral reflectance than hyposalinity or light reduction. There was an increase in variability and flattening of reflectance spectra at the highest salinity. All three salinity treatments had distinct reflectance spectra across green wavelengths (530-580 nm), with additional discrimination between 20 versus 50 and 35 versus 50 treatments across red wavelengths (630-690 nm). Red:Green reflectance ratios were highest and photochemical reflective index values were lowest for the salinity 50 treatment, but were not significantly different between the salinity 20 and 35 treatments. The changes in the R (λ) spectra for the salinity 50 seedlings were consistent with previously observed reductions in leaf pigments and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. These observations indicate that leaf spectral reflectance is a sensitive indicator of plant stress in T. testudinum seedlings and that seedlings are more sensitive to short-term exposures to hypersalinity than hyposalinity.

  3. [Population of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) and structural characteristics of seagrass of Thalassia testudinum in Mochima Bay, Venezuela)].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Nicida; Cróquer, Aldo; Pauls, Sheila M

    2002-03-01

    To compare the general features of Thalassia testudinum seagrass at Mochima Bay with sea urchin (Lxtechinus variegatus) abundance and distribution, three T. testudinum seagrass beds were selected, from the mouth (strong wave exposure) to the inner bay (calm waters). Each site was surveyed by using 5 line transects (20 m long) parallel to the coast and 1 m2 quadrats. In situ measurements of T. testudinum cover, shoot and leaf density were taken. Estimation of dry biomass for each seagrass fraction (leaves, rhizomes and roots) and leaf length were obtained from 25 vegetation samples extracted per site using cores (15 cm diameter). A multivariate analysis of variance (Manova) and a less significative difference test (LSD) were performed to examine differences between sites and within sites at different depths. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done, dependent variable was sea urchin density; independent variables: vegetation values at each site. The only seagrass species found in the three sites was T. testudinum, and cover was 56-100%, leaf density 100-1000 leaf/m2, lengths 6-18.8 cm and shoot density 20-475 shoots/m2. The highest sea urchin densities were found at Isla Redonda and Ensenada Toporo (1-3.6 ind/m2), the lowest at Playa Colorada (0.6-0.8 ind/m2). Significant differences in seagrass features between sites were obtained (Manova p < 0.001), but not between depths (Manova p < 0.320). The regression coefficient between sea urchin density and seagrass parameters was statistically significant (r2 = 0.154, p < 0.007), however, total biomass was the only variable with a significant effect on sea urchin distribution (beta = 0.308, p < 0.032). The other variables did not explain satisfactorily L. variegatus abundance and distribution.

  4. Biomass, productivity and density of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at three sites in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Paynter, C K; Cortés, J; Engels, M

    2001-12-01

    The basic ecology of seagrass beds was investigated by comparing biomass, productivity and density of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) at three sites: Puerto Vargas, Punta Cahuita and Rio Perezoso, in Cahuita National Park, Limón, Costa Rica, over a two month period (March-April 1999). Above ground biomass, density, and productivity were highest in the Puerto Vargas site while Punta Cahuita had the least non-green above ground biomass was significantly lower in total biomass than Puerto Vargas. Punta Cahuita was distinguished by the largest grain size, a very hard substrate, and shallower water. Rio Perezoso, on the other hand, had extremely fine sediment and lower salinity, while Puerto Vargas was intermediate both in sediment size and environmental conditions. It appears, therefore, that higher biomass and productivity result from a combination of moderate environmental characteristics and an intermediate sediment size.

  5. [Ichthyofauna associated to Thalassia testudinum at Lobos reef, Veracruz, Mexico: diversity and abundance].

    PubMed

    González-Gándara, Carlos; Trinidad-Martínez, Silvia del Carmen; Chávez-Morales, Víctor Manuel

    2006-03-01

    The diversity and abundance of ichthyofauna associated with Thalassia testudinum in the Lobos coral reef, Veracruz, Mexico, were studied in September and October 2002. Thirty six visual censuses in four sample sites were made using a 50 x 2 m transect belt. On each census, fish species, abundance and size were recorded. Leaf size and cover of T. testudinum were estimated. The similarity of fish groups was calculated with the Gower coefficient. The most abundant coral reef fishes were: Scarus iseri, Halichoeres bivittatus, Sparisoma radians, Stegastes adustus and Stegastes leucostictus. The highest density (0.04078 ind/m2) and biomass (0.72408 g/m2) of fish species were recorded in site II, where leaf size was greater (30.8 cm). The analysis of variance showed significant differences between sites in leaf size (F = 18.30856; p = 0.00001) and cover (H = 33.8119; p = 0.00001). These differences suggest a relationship between fish diversity and abundance, and T. testudinum leaf size and cover. The Gower similarity index produced two groups of fishes; one of them (site II) showed the highest abundance. In this reef, the fishes associated to sea grasses seem to reflect the characteristics of T. testudinum.

  6. Metacystis borrori n. sp. (Ciliophora: Metacystidae) on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Aladro-Lubel, M A Antonieta; Martinez-Murillo, M A Esther

    2003-01-01

    A new epibiontic ciliate of the genus Metacystis is described on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum of the coral reef lagoons of Veracruz, Mexico. The ciliate was studied in living and stained specimens and under the scanning electron microscope. The cell body (10-35 x 10-18 microm in vivo) is transversely annulated (4-6 rings). The somatic ciliature consists of 22-30 longitudinal kineties, and patterned as 5-7 transverse kineties. The circumoral kinety is composed of kinetosomes closely spaced. The macronucleus diameter measures about 3-7 microm. The lorica (18-61 x 11-26 microm) has the posterior end round to conical or irregular with mucoid filaments. This prostomatid colonizes both natural and artificial substrates placed in an aquarium. Metacystis borrori n. sp. is a species that forms part of the ciliate community on Thalassia testudinum with a temperature range of 21-26 degrees C and a salinity of 32-40 per thousand.

  7. [Benthic macrofauna associated to Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de Mochima, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Prieto, M; Liñero-Arana, I; Blanco-Rambla, J P; Fermín, J

    2000-12-01

    Diversity and abundance of benthic macrofauna associated to Thalassia testudinum were studied at Ensenada de Reyes, Mochima Bay, in the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Samples were taken monthly in six stations, three at 1 m in depth and three at 6 m, between December 1992 and February 1994, using a quadrat of 0.25 m2 for collecting plants and sediment; each sample was washed with seawater through a 1 mm sieve. The specimens were fixed in 6% formaldehyde. A total of 1722 organisms (6 888 ind x m2) and 127 species of macroinvertebrates were collected. Mollusks dominated with 53 species, followed by polychaetes (40), crustaceans (18) and echinoderms (8). Remaining groups were represented by 1-2 species. The highest abundance was in October (214 specimens), and the lowest in December 1993 (79 specimens). Specific richness was between 47 species in October and 18 in May 1993. Mean species diversity was 2.79-1.36 bits/ind. There were differences (ANOVA p<0.01) in number of specimens at the two depths but not throughout the 15 month study period (p>0.05). There were more specimens and species at the lowest depth and in stations with higher Thalassia testudinum biomass.

  8. ROLE OF SEAGRASS (THALASSIA TESTUDINUM) AS A SOURCE OF CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN COASTAL SOUTH FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses play a variety of important ecological roles in coastal ecosystems. Here we present evidence that seagrass detritus from the widespread species, Thalassia testudinum, is an important source of ocean color and UV-protective substances in a low latitude coastal shelf re...

  9. Sulfide intrusion in the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Hedegård Petersen, Malene; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Koch, Marguerite; Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jensen, Henning S.

    2009-11-01

    Sulfur and oxygen dynamics in the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and their sediments were studied in the US Virgin Islands (USVI) in order to explore sulfide intrusion into tropical seagrasses. Four study sites were selected based on the iron concentration in sediments and on proximity to anthropogenic nutrient sources. Meadow characteristics (shoot density, above- and below-ground biomass, nutrient content) were sampled along with sediment biogeochemistry. Sulfide intrusion was high in T. testudinum, as up to 96% of total sulfur in the plant was derived from sediment-derived sulfides. The sulfide intrusion was negatively correlated to the turnover of sulfides in the sediments regulated by both plant parameters and sediment sulfur pools. Sediment iron content played an indirect role by affecting sulfide turnover rates. Leaf production was negatively correlated with sulfide intrusion suggesting that active growth reduced sulfide intrusion. Sulfide intrusion was lower in S. filiforme (up to 44%) compared to T. testudinum consistent with a higher internal nighttime oxygen concentrations found for S. filiforme. When S. filiforme can take advantage of its ability to maintain high internal oxygen concentrations, as was the case on the USVI, it could increase its success in colonizing unvegetated disturbed sediments with potentially high sulfide concentrations.

  10. Trace metal partitioning in Thalassia testudinum and sediments in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Thomas; Espinoza, Jorge; Villarreal, Xiomara; Cottagoma, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Seagrass communities dominate the Laguna Madre, which accounts for 25% of the coastal region of Texas. Seagrasses are essential to the health of the Laguna Madre (LM) and have experienced an overall decline in coverage in the Lower Laguna Madre (LLM) since 1967. Little is known on the existing environmental status of the LLM. This study focuses on the trace metal chemistry of four micronutrient metals, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn, and two non-essential metals, Pb and As, in the globally important seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Seasonal trends show that concentrations of most essential trace metals increase in the tissue during the summer months. With the exception of (1) Cu in the vertical shoot and root, and (2) Mn in the roots, no significant positive correlation exists between the rhizosphere sediment and T. testudinum tissue. Iron indicates a negative correlation between the morphological units and the rhizosphere sediments. No other significant relationship was found between the sediments and the T. testudinum tissue. Mn was enriched up to 10-fold in the leaf tissue relative to the other morphological units and also enriched relative to the rhizosphere sediments. Both Cu and Mn appear to be enriched in leaf tissue compared to other morphological units and also enriched relative to the Cu and Mn in the rhizoshpere sediments. Sediments cores taken in barren areas were slightly elevated in Zn relative to the rhizosphere sediments, whereas no other metals showed statistical differences between barren sediment cores and rhizosphere sediments. However, no correlation was measured in T. testudinum tissue and Zn in rhizosphere sediments. Previous studies suggested that Fe/Mn ratios could indicate differences between seagrass environments. Our results indicate that there is an influence from the Rio Grande in the Fe/Mn signature in sediments, and that ratio is not reflected in the T. testudinum tissue. The results from this study show that the LLM contains trace metal

  11. [Mollusks community associated to Thalassia testudinum (Bank et Köning 1805), in Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Oscar Díaz; Liñero-Arana, Ildefonso

    2004-01-01

    To study the community of mollusks associated to Thalassia testudinum, monthly samplings were made between January and December 2002 in four localities of the Bay of Mochima. A PVC corer, of 14.8 cm of diameter, was used for sampling; eight monthly replicates were taken in each locality. Each core was sifted in a sieve of 1mm of mesh opening, the mollusks were fixed in 8% formaldehide solution in sea water. 473 mollusks were analyzed and 40 species, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Mangle Quemao displayed the greater abundance, whereas Varadero the minor. Shannon-Weaver diversity average ranged between 2.02+/-0.43 bits.ind(-1) (Mangle Quemao) and 1.42+/-0.95 bits.ind(-1) (Toporo). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in abundances of mollusks among localities.

  12. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Israel; Madden, Christopher J; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Kjerfve, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS) of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 ("La Niña") which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean). The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system's salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland.

  13. [Diversity and abundance of molluscs in Thalassia testudinum prairie of the Bay of Mochinma, Mochima National Park, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Antulio; Sant, Sybil; Méndez, Elizabeth; Lodeiros, César

    2003-06-01

    The diversity and abundance of benthic malacological communities associated to Thalassia testudinum beds was studied at four localities of Mochima Bay, Sucre state, Venezuela. At each locality, samples were taken monthly on perpendicular transect at different depths (0-4 m), from January 1991 to December 1991, using a quadrate (0.25 m2) for collecting mollusks and sediments. A total of 2,988 organisms of infauna and epifauna belonging to 81 species of the classes Gastropoda (41) and Bivalvia (40) were collected. More abundant species were Anadara notabilis, Codakia orbicularis, Cerithium litteratum, Cerithium eburneum, Batillaria minima, Modiolus squamosus, Modulus modulus, Chione cancellata, Turritella variegata, Arca zebra, y Laevicardium laevigatum. There were significant differences in number of organisms between depth and month at La Gabarra which presented the highest value of total (4.51 bits/ind) and monthly diversity (2.71-3.90 bits/ind). Biomass and abundance were low in the Mochima Bay while Varadero station presented the highest value. The bivalve A. notabilis and gastropod M. modulus were species common to the four stations.

  14. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS) of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 (“La Niña”) which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean). The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system’s salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland. PMID:27736904

  15. Production and carbonate dynamics of Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamouroux altered by Thalassia testudinum Banks and Soland ex König

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, S.; Frazer, T.; Jacoby, C.

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification poses a serious threat to a broad suite of calcifying organisms. Scleractinian corals and calcareous algae that occupy shallow, tropical waters are vulnerable to global changes in ocean chemistry because they already are subject to stressful and variable carbon dynamics at the local scale. For example, net heterotrophy increases carbon dioxide concentrations, and pH varies with diurnal fluctuations in photosynthesis and respiration. Few researchers, however, have investigated the possibility that carbon dioxide consumption during photosynthesis by non-calcifying photoautotrophs, such as seagrasses, can ameliorate deleterious effects of ocean acidification on sympatric calcareous algae. Naturally occurring variations in the density of seagrasses and associated calcareous algae provide an ecologically relevant test of the hypothesis that diel fluctuations in water chemistry driven by cycles of photosynthesis and respiration within seagrass beds create microenvironments that enhance macroalgal calcification. In Grape Tree Bay off Little Cayman Island BWI, we quantified net production and characterized calcification for thalli of the calcareous green alga Halimeda incrassata growing within beds of Thalassia testudinum with varying shoot densities. Results indicated that individual H. incrassata thalli were ~6% more calcified in dense seagrass beds. On an areal basis, however, far more calcium carbonate was produced by H. incrassata in areas where seagrasses were less dense due to higher rates of production. In addition, diel pH regimes in vegetated and unvegetated areas within the lagoon were not significantly different, suggesting water exchange and mixing throughout the lagoon. These results suggest that, especially in well-mixed lagoons, carbonate production by calcareous algae may be more related to biotic interactions between seagrasses and calcareous algae than to seagrass-mediated changes in local water chemistry.

  16. Environmental Impact Research Program. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Thalassia testudinum for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development in the Southeast Region of the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES HALODULE WRIGHT/I, SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM * - -FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN...SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTHEAST REGION OF THE UNITED STATES PART...Tallahassee,. Fla., 95 pp. den Hartog, C. 1971. The dynamic aspect in the ecology of seagrass communities. Thalassia Jugosl. 7:101-112. Derrenbacker, J.A., and

  17. Bacterial diversity of siliciclastic sediments in a Thalassia testudinum meadow and the implications for Lucinisca nassula chemosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green-García, Angela M.; Engel, Annette Summers

    2012-10-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) meadows along the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coasts, and recognition that microbial activities are critical to plant growth and health, the bacterial diversity of these habitats has been poorly studied. Based on comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from sediments in a T. testudinum meadow, 25 major taxonomic groups (excluding candidate divisions) were retrieved, including Alpha- Delta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes. The distribution of bacterial groups was linked to a strongly hypoxic and sulfidic redox gradient. The diversity is potentially novel because phylogenetic affinities of sediment sequences compared to contextually annotated environmental clones from different habitats or to cultured representatives indicated approximately 41% were more closely related to each other than to sequences retrieved from these other habitats. Of all the relationships, very few (2.4%) were to cultured organisms, but 27% were to environmental clones retrieved from shallow marine shelf and coastal sediments or from mangroves, estuarine, or wetland sediments. Rare sequences were closely related to endosymbiont groups of Lucinisca nassula (Lucinidea: Bivalvia) hosts collected from the same meadow, which may indicate that the sediment is a potential reservoir for free-living symbionts. This study provides insight into the ecological and evolutionary relationships of the Thalassia-lucinid-bacteria system in tropical to sub-tropical regions.

  18. Effects of short-term hypersalinity exposure on the susceptibility to wasting disease in the subtropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Trevathan, Stacey M; Kahn, Amanda; Ross, Cliff

    2011-09-01

    Seagrass meadows are a vital component of coastal ecosystems and have experienced declines in abundance due to a series of environmental stressors including elevated salinity and incidence of disease. This study evaluated the impacts of short-term hypersalinity stress on the early stages of infection in Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König by assessing changes in cellular physiology and metabolism. Seagrass short shoots were exposed to ambient (30 psu) and elevated (45 psu) salinities for 7 days and subsequently infected for one week by the causative pathogen of wasting disease, Labyrinthula sp. The occurrence of wasting disease was significantly lower in the hypersalinity treatments. Additionally, while exposure to elevated salinity caused a reduction in chlorophyll a and b content, T. testudinum's health, in terms of photochemical efficiency, was not significantly compromised by hypersalinity or infection. In contrast, plant respiratory demand was significantly enhanced as a function of infection. Elevated salinity caused T. testudinum to significantly increase its in vivo H(2)O(2) concentrations to levels that exceeded those which inhibited Labyrinthula growth in a liquid in vitro assay. The results suggest that while short-term exposure to hypersalinity alters selected cellular processes this does not necessarily lead to an immediate increase in wasting disease susceptibility. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Thiol peptides induction in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König) in response to cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Legorreta, Teresa; Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Moreno-Sanchez, Rafael; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2008-01-20

    Trace metal accumulation and thiol compounds synthesis as induced by cadmium exposure was studied in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Shoots were exposed for 24, 48, 96 and 144 h to several CdCl(2) concentrations (0, 30, 50 and 70 microM). Levels of cadmium, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-EC), and phytochelatin-like peptides were determined in green blades, live sheaths and root/rhizomes tissues. Metal accumulation was dependent on Cd concentration and type of tissue, with green blades showing the highest content followed by live sheaths and root/rhizomes. All tissues experienced an increase in thiol-containing compounds as a response to cadmium exposure. Live sheaths showed the highest levels of cysteine, GSH and gamma-EC. This is the first report of induction of thiol peptides, presumably phytochelatins, by a trace metal in a sea grass species.

  20. [Spatial distribution and ecological structure of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) in two reefs of Veracruz Reef System National Park, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arellano-Méndez, Leonardo U; Bello-Pineda, Javier; Aké-Castillo, José A; Pérez-España, Horacio; Martínez-Cardenas, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Seagrasses in coastal environments have been threatened by increased human activities; these have negatively altered processes and environmental services, and have decreased grassland areas. The aim of this study was to generate knowledge of Thalassia testudinum distribution, state of the structure and fragmentation level in two reefs of the Veracruz Reef System National Park (PNSAV). Two different reefs were selected: Sacrificios in the North and near the coast, and Cabezo in the South and away from the coast. Shoot-specific and area-specific characteristics of submerged macrophytes meadows present were determined, and four morpho-functional groups were identified. Significant differences between plant coverage were tested through nonparametric ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test. A supervised classification of spatial high-resolution image verified with field data was performed (55 Sacrificios and 290 Cabezo). The fragmentation level was calculated using landscape metrics, class level and thematic maps were made based on four covers. The meadows were dominated by Thalassia testudinum; maximum densities were 208 shoot/m2 in Cabezo, and 176 shoot/m2 in Sacrificios. Cabezo presented grasses with short (9 cm) and thin leaves (0.55 cm) on average; while Sacrificios showed longer (23.5 cm) and thicker (1 cm) leaves. Sacrificios showed lower fragmentation degree than Cabezo; in both cases, the vegetation cover fragmentation corresponded to less than 50 %. Although Cabezo reef presents further fragmentation, which creates a large number of microenvironments, being recognized for its importance as recruitment area. This work serves as a baseline for the creation of an adequate management plan (formation of a core area of Cabezo). It is necessary to complement this work with new efforts for the recognition of seagrass prairies in all PNSAV reefs, as well as periodic monitoring and recognition of ecosystem services. .

  1. Leaf photoacclimatory responses of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum under mesocosm conditions: a mechanistic scaling-up study.

    PubMed

    Cayabyab, Napo M; Enríquez, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Here, the leaf photoacclimatory plasticity and efficiency of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum were examined. Mesocosms were used to compare the variability induced by three light conditions, two leaf sections and the variability observed at the collection site. The study revealed an efficient photosynthetic light use at low irradiances, but limited photoacclimatory plasticity to increase maximum photosynthetic rates (P(max)) and saturation (E(k)) and compensation (E(c)) irradiances under high light irradiance. A strong, positive and linear association between the percentage of daylight hours above saturation and the relative maximum photochemical efficiency (F(V)/F(M)) reduction observed between basal and apical leaf sections was also found. The results indicate that T. testudinum leaves have a shade-adapted physiology. However, the large amount of heterotrophic biomass that this seagrass maintains may considerably increase plant respiratory demands and their minimum quantum requirements for growth (MQR). Although the MQR still needs to be quantified, it is hypothesized that the ecological success of this climax species in the oligotrophic and highly illuminated waters of the Caribbean may rely on the ability of the canopy to regulate the optimal leaf light environment and the morphological plasticity of the whole plant to enhance total leaf area and to reduce carbon respiratory losses.

  2. Stable nitrogen isotopes in the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum from the Mexican Caribbean: Implications of anthropogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma. Concepción; Talavera-Sáenz, Ana; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the δ15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The δ15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the δ15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

  3. Form-function analysis of the effect of canopy morphology on leaf self-shading in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Susana; Pantoja-Reyes, Norma I

    2005-09-01

    The variation in seagrass morphology and the magnitude of leaf self-shading within the canopy of Thalassia testudinum, were compared among nine sites in a fringing reef lagoon. We found a significant variation in the growth-form of T. testudinum reflected in a 5.4-fold variation in the attenuation coefficient (K (d)) within the canopy. The largest morphological variation was observed in shoot density. Leaf biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and shoot density were positively associated with canopy-K (d) and with the percentage of surface irradiance received by the top of the seagrass canopy (% Es). These results provide an explanation for the consistent pattern of depth reduction in seagrass leaf biomass and shoot density reported in the literature. Shoot density and shoot size are two descriptors of the growth-form of T. testudinum related to its clonal life-form. Shoot size was not significantly correlated with canopy-K (d), nevertheless, it showed a significant effect on the slope of the relationship between shoot density and canopy-K (d). According to this model, shoot size also contributes to light attenuation within the seagrass canopy by increasing the effect of shoot density. This form-function analysis suggests that light may have a relevant role in the regulation of the optimal plant balance between horizontal (variation in shoot density) and vertical (variation in shoot size) growth of seagrasses. Other environmental factors and interactions also need to be examined to fully understand the mechanistic bases of the morphological responses of seagrasses to the environment.

  4. Iron, cadmium, and chromium in seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) from a coastal nature reserve in karstic Yucatán.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Mayra; Bonilla-Heredia, Blanca; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Ramirez, Javier; Rosas, Humberto; Valdespino, Job; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Martínez, Ana

    2013-09-01

    The management of protected areas in karstic regions is a challenge because flooded cave systems form there and provide underground hydrological conducts that may link different zones. As a consequence, affectations to the protected areas can possibly occur as a consequence of human activities in remote areas and may therefore pass undetected. Thus, the monitoring of possible contaminants in these regions is becoming imperative. In this work, we analyze the concentration of essential (iron) and non-essential metals (cadmium and chromium) in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum that grows in Yalahau Lagoon, located in a near-to-pristine protected area of the Yucatán Peninsula, close to the rapidly developing touristic belt of the Mexican Caribbean. Salinity and silicate patterns show that Yalahau is an evaporation lagoon, where groundwater discharge is important. High iron (> 400 μg/g), cadmium (>4 μg/g), and chromium (≈ 1 μg/g) concentrations were found in the area of highest groundwater input of the lagoon. High levels (5.1 μg/g) were also found near the town dump. In the rest of the sampling sites, metal concentrations remained near to background levels as estimated from other works. Temporal changes of concentrations in the seagrass tissues show also a local input and an input from the groundwater that could provoke an environmental problem in the Yalahau Lagoon in the near future.

  5. Epiphyte communities on Thalassia testudinum from Grand Cayman, British West Indies: Their composition, structure, and contribution to lagoonal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, Hilary; Jones, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Thalassia testudinum, the most common seagrass found in lagoons around Grand Cayman, influences sedimentation by baffling currents, binding sediment on the seafloor, and providing substrates for a diverse epiphytic biota. About 85% of the epiphytic biota is formed of at least 3 species of coralline algae, 72 species of foraminifera, and 61 species of diatoms. The rest of the biota is formed of sponges, gastropods, ostracods, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, brown algae, and worms. The epiphytes are organized in three communities that are part of an organized tripartite community succession. The basal diatom community is overlain by the coralline algae community, which is then overlain by a community composed of a variety of taxa. The coralline algae community, which is the most extensive, typically covers ˜ 75% of the leaf's surface. Potentially, the skeletons of these epiphytes can make a significant contribution to the fine-grained sediment budget of these lagoons. Surprisingly, only a few of the epiphytes were found in the lagoonal sediment. It appears, therefore, that the epiphytes are lost through skeletal dissolution or transported out of the lagoon following storms. Irrespective of the cause, the epiphytes do not form a significant part of the lagoon sediment in Grand Cayman.

  6. Lipopolysaccharides elicit an oxidative burst as a component of the innate immune system in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Kyle; Waddell, David; Ross, Cliff

    2013-09-01

    This study represents the first report characterizing the biological effects of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune modulator on a marine vascular plant. LPS was shown to serve as a strong elicitor of the early defense response in the subtropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and was capable of inducing an oxidative burst identified at the single cell level. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), detected by a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe and luminol-based chemiluminescence, included a diphenyleneiodonium sensitive response, suggesting the involvement of an NADPH oxidase. A 900 bp cDNA fragment coding for this enzyme was sequenced and found to encode a NAD binding pocket domain with extensive homology to the Arabidopsis thaliana rbohF (respiratory burst oxidase homolog) gene. The triggered release of ROS occurred at 20 min post-elicitation and was dose-dependent, requiring a minimal threshold of 50 μg/mL LPS. Pharmacological dissection of the early events preceding ROS emission indicated that the signal transduction chain of events involved extracellular alkalinization, G-proteins, phospholipase A2, as well as K(+), Ca(2+), and anion channels. Despite exclusively thriving in a marine environment, seagrasses contain ROS-generating machinery and signal transduction components that appear to be evolutionarily conserved with the well-characterized defense response systems found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Repair of UVB-damaged skin by the antioxidant sulphated flavone glycoside thalassiolin B isolated from the marine plant Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Rodríguez, María; Menéndez, Roberto; Concepción, Angel A; Nogueiras, Clara; Laguna, Abilio; Rodríguez, Armando A; Williams, David E; Lorenzo-Luaces, Patricia; Valdés, Olga; Hernandez, Yasnay

    2009-01-01

    Daily topical application of the aqueous ethanolic extract of the marine sea grass, Thalassia testudinum, on mice skin exposed to UVB radiation resulted in a dose-dependent recovery of the skin macroscopic alterations over a 6-day period. Maximal effect (90%) occurred at a dose of 240 microg/cm(2), with no additional effects at higher doses. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the plant extract resulted in the isolation of thalassiolin B (1). Topical application of 1 (240 microg/cm(2)) markedly reduces skin UVB-induced damage. In addition, thalassiolin B scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical with an EC(50) = 100 microg/ml. These results suggest that thalassiolin B is responsible for the skin-regenerating effects of the crude extract of T. testudinum.

  8. Effect of El Nĩno on demographic, morphological, and chemical parameters in turtle-grass (Thalassia testudinum): an unexpected test of indicators.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Paul R; Yarbro, Laura A; Madley, Kevin; Arnold, Herman; Merello, Manuel; Vanderbloemen, Lisa; McRae, Gil; Durako, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    We examined the response of demographic, morphological, and chemical parameters of turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum), to much-higher-than-normal rainfall associated with an El Niño event in the winter of 1997-1998. Up to 20 inches of added rain fell between December 1997 and March 1998. triggering widespread and persistent phytoplankton blooms along the west coast of Florida. Water-column chlorophyll concentrations estimated from serial Sea WiFS imagery were much higher during the El Niño event than in the previous or following years, although the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton blooms varied among sites. Seagrass samples collected in 1997, 1998, and 1999 provided an excellent opportunity to test the responsiveness of Thalassia to decline and subsequent improvement of water quality and clarity in four estuaries. Using a scoring technique based on temporal responsiveness, spatial consistency, and statistical strength of indicators, we found that several morphological parameters (Thalassia shoot density, blade width, blade number, and shoot-specific leaf area) were responsive and consistent measures of light stress. Some morphological parameters, such as rhizome apex density, responded to declines and subsequent improvement in water clarity, but lacked the statistical discriminating power necessary to be useful indicators. However, rhizome sugar, starch, and total carbohydrate concentrations also exhibited spatially and temporally consistent variation as well as statistical strength. Because changes in shoot density, as well as water clarity, affect rhizome carbohydrate levels, a composite metric based on Thalassia shoot density and rhizome carbohydrate levels together is probably more useful than either parameter alone as an indicator of seagrass health.

  9. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P; Poulos, Helen M; Goodale, Uromi M

    2015-08-15

    Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses' remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants' spectral reflectance, including 6h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of BM-21, a bioactive extract rich in polyphenolic metabolites from the sea Grass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Menendez, Roberto; Valdés, Olga; Morales, Ruth A; Laguna, Abilio; Thomas, Olivier P; Hernandez, Yasnay; Nogueiras, Clara; Kijjoa, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous ethanol extract of Thalassia testudinum leaves (BM-21) is now being developed in Cuba as an herbal medicine due to its promising pharmacological properties. Although some interesting biological activities of BM-21 have already been reported, its chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Thus, we now describe the qualitative and quantitative analyzes of BM-21 using standard phytochemical screening techniques, including colorimetric quantification, TLC and HPLC analyses. Phytochemical investigation of BM-21 resulted in the isolation and identification of a new phenolic sulfate ester (1), along with ten previously described phenolic derivatives (2-11), seven of which have never been previously reported from the genus Thalassia. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric (HRMS) data, as well as by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, BM-21 was found to exhibit strong antioxidant activity in four different free radical scavenging assays (HO*, RO2*, O2-* and DPPH*). Consequently, this is the first study which highlights the phytochemical composition of BM-21 and demonstrates that this product is a rich source of natural antioxidants with potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  11. STRESS RESPONSE MODEL FOR THE TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM: THE INTERACTIONS OF LIGHT, TEMPERATURE, SEDIMENTATION AND GEOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our modeling objective was to better define the relationship between a tropical seagrass and water-column and sediment stressors (i.e., light, organic and particle sedimentation, sediment nutrients and sulfides). The model was developed and optimized for sediments in Thalassia t...

  12. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum: impact of hydrodynamic regime and epiphyte cover on uptake rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelisen, Christopher D.; Thomas, Florence I. M.

    2004-08-01

    Seagrasses rely on the uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from both sediment pore water and the water column for metabolic processes. Rates at which their leaves remove nutrients from the water column may be influenced by physiological factors, such as enzyme kinetics, and physical factors, including water flow and the presence of epiphytes on the leaf surface. While there is some evidence of the individual effects of these factors on uptake rates for individual plants, there is little information on the effects of these factors on seagrasses that are situated in their natural environment. In order to isolate the combined effects of water flow and epiphyte cover on uptake rates for Thalassia testudinum leaves while they were situated in a natural canopy we applied 15N-labeled ammonium and 15N-labeled nitrate in a series of field flume experiments. Hydrodynamic parameters related to thickness of diffusive boundary layers, including bottom shear stress and the rate of turbulent energy dissipation, were estimated from velocity profiles collected with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Rates of NH 4+ uptake for leaves with and without epiphyte cover were proportional to bottom shear stress and energy dissipation rate, while rates of NO 3- uptake were not. For epiphytes, rates of both NH 4+ and NO 3- uptake were dependent on hydrodynamic parameters. Epiphytes covering the leaf surface reduced rates of NH 4+ uptake for seagrass leaves by an amount proportional to the spatial area covered by the epiphytes (˜90%) and although epiphytes reduced NO 3- uptake rates, the amount was not proportional to the extent of epiphyte cover. Results suggest that the rate at which seagrass leaves removed ammonium was limited by the rate of delivery to the surface of the leaves and was greatly reduced due to blockage of active uptake sites by epiphytes. Conversely, rates of nitrate uptake for the seagrass leaves were limited by the rate at which the leaves could process nitrate

  13. Photoprotecting action and phytochemical analysis of a multiple radical scavenger lipophilic fraction obtained from the leaf of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Rodríguez, María; Menéndez, Roberto; Fernandez, Xavier; Hernández, Ivones; Morales, Ruth A; Fernández, Miguel D; Thomas, Olivier P; Pino, Jorge A; Concepción, Angel R; Laguna, Abilio

    2011-01-01

    The apolar fraction F1 of Thalassia testudinum was chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of 43 metabolites, all of them reported for the first time in the genus Thalassia. More than 80% of the F1 composition was constituted by aromatic metabolites including the major components 1,1-bis(p-tolyl)ethane (6.0%), 4,4'-diisopropylbiphenyl (4.8%) and a 1,1-bis(p-tolyl)ethane isomer (4.7%). This lipophilic fraction was assayed for its antioxidant effects and skin protective action. In vitro assays showed that F1 strongly scavenged DPPH* (IC(50) 312.0 ± 8.0 μg mL(-1)), hydroxyl (IC(50) 23.8 ± 0.5 μg mL(-1)) and peroxyl radical (IC(50) 6.6 ± 0.3 μg mL(-1) ), as well as superoxide anion (IC(50) 50.0 ± 0.7 μg mL(-1)). Also, F1 markedly inhibited the spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain homogenates (IC(50) 93.0 ± 6.0 μg mL(-1)) and the LPS-stimulated nitrite generation on RAW624.7 macrophages (58.6 ± 3.2%, 400 μg mL(-1)). In agreement with these findings, its topical application at 250 and 500 μg cm(-2) strikingly reduced skin damage on mice exposed to acute UVB radiation by 45% and 70%, respectively and significantly attenuated the LPO developed following the first 48 h after acute exposure to UVB irradiation, as manifested by the decreased malondialdehide level and by the increased of reduced gluthatione content. Our results suggest that F1 may contribute to skin repair by attenuating oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Antinociception produced by Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21 is mediated by the inhibition of acid sensing ionic channels by the phenolic compound thalassiolin B

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have a significant role in the sensation of pain and constitute an important target for the search of new antinociceptive drugs. In this work we studied the antinociceptive properties of the BM-21 extract, obtained from the sea grass Thalassia testudinum, in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The action of the BM-21 extract and the major phenolic component isolated from this extract, a sulphated flavone glycoside named thalassiolin B, was studied in the chemical nociception test and in the ASIC currents of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons obtained from Wistar rats. Results Behavioral antinociceptive experiments were made on male OF-1 mice. Single oral administration of BM-21 produced a significant inhibition of chemical nociception caused by acetic acid and formalin (specifically during its second phase), and increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. Thalassiolin B reduced the licking behavior during both the phasic and tonic phases in the formalin test. It was also found that BM-21 and thalassiolin B selectively inhibited the fast desensitizing (τ < 400 ms) ASIC currents in DRG neurons obtained from Wistar rats, with a nonsignificant action on ASIC currents with a slow desensitizing time-course. The action of thalassiolin B shows no pH or voltage dependence nor is it modified by steady-state ASIC desensitization or voltage. The high concentration of thalassiolin B in the extract may account for the antinociceptive action of BM-21. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ASIC-current inhibitor derived of a marine-plant extract, and in a phenolic compound. The antinociceptive effects of BM-21 and thalassiolin B may be partially because of this action on the ASICs. That the active components of the extract are able to cross the blood-brain barrier gives them an additional advantage for future uses as tools to study pain mechanisms with a potential therapeutic

  15. Antinociception produced by Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21 is mediated by the inhibition of acid sensing ionic channels by the phenolic compound thalassiolin B.

    PubMed

    Garateix, Anoland; Salceda, Emilio; Menéndez, Roberto; Regalado, Erik L; López, Omar; García, Teidy; Morales, Ruth A; Laguna, Abilio; Thomas, Olivier P; Soto, Enrique

    2011-01-24

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have a significant role in the sensation of pain and constitute an important target for the search of new antinociceptive drugs. In this work we studied the antinociceptive properties of the BM-21 extract, obtained from the sea grass Thalassia testudinum, in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The action of the BM-21 extract and the major phenolic component isolated from this extract, a sulphated flavone glycoside named thalassiolin B, was studied in the chemical nociception test and in the ASIC currents of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons obtained from Wistar rats. Behavioral antinociceptive experiments were made on male OF-1 mice. Single oral administration of BM-21 produced a significant inhibition of chemical nociception caused by acetic acid and formalin (specifically during its second phase), and increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. Thalassiolin B reduced the licking behavior during both the phasic and tonic phases in the formalin test. It was also found that BM-21 and thalassiolin B selectively inhibited the fast desensitizing (τ < 400 ms) ASIC currents in DRG neurons obtained from Wistar rats, with a nonsignificant action on ASIC currents with a slow desensitizing time-course. The action of thalassiolin B shows no pH or voltage dependence nor is it modified by steady-state ASIC desensitization or voltage. The high concentration of thalassiolin B in the extract may account for the antinociceptive action of BM-21. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ASIC-current inhibitor derived of a marine-plant extract, and in a phenolic compound. The antinociceptive effects of BM-21 and thalassiolin B may be partially because of this action on the ASICs. That the active components of the extract are able to cross the blood-brain barrier gives them an additional advantage for future uses as tools to study pain mechanisms with a potential therapeutic application.

  16. Coping with potential bi-parental inbreeding: limited pollen and seed dispersal and large genets in the dioecious marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Van Tussenbroek, Brigitta Ine; Valdivia-Carrillo, Tania; Rodríguez-Virgen, Irene Teresa; Sanabria-Alcaraz, Sylvia Nashieli Marisela; Jiménez-Durán, Karina; Van Dijk, Kor Jent; Marquez-Guzmán, Guadalupe Judith

    2016-08-01

    The high prevalence of dioecy in marine angiosperms or seagrasses (>50% of all species) is thought to enforce cross-fertilization. However, seagrasses are clonal plants, and they may still be subject to sibling-mating or bi-parental inbreeding if the genetic neighborhood is smaller than the size of the genets. We tested this by determining the genetic neighborhoods of the dioecious seagrass Thalassia testudinum at two sites (Back-Reef and Mid-Lagoon) in Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon, Mexico, by measuring dispersal of pollen and seeds in situ, and by fine-scale spatial autocorrelation analysis with eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. Prevalence of inbreeding was verified by estimating pairwise kinship coefficients; and by analysing the genotypes of seedlings grown from seeds in mesocosms. Average dispersal of pollen was 0.3-1.6 m (max. 4.8 m) and of seeds was 0.3-0.4 m (max. 1.8 m), resulting in a neighborhood area of 7.4 m 2 (range 3.4-11.4 m 2 ) at Back-Reef and 1.9 (range 1.87-1.92 m 2 ) at Mid-Lagoon. Neighborhood area (Na) derived from spatial autocorrelation was 0.1-20.5 m 2 at Back-Reef and 0.1-16.9 m 2 at Mid-Lagoon. Maximal extensions of the genets, in 19 × 30 m plots, were 19.2 m (median 7.5 m) and 10.8 m (median 4.8 m) at Back-Reef and Mid-Lagoon. There was no indication of deficit or excess of heterozygotes nor were coefficients of inbreeding ( F IS ) significant. The seedlings did not show statistically significant deficit of heterozygotes (except for 1 locus at Back-Reef). Contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of bi-parental inbreeding in this dioecious seagrass with large genets but small genetic neighborhoods. Proposed mechanisms to avoid bi-parental inbreeding are possible selection against homozygotes during fecundation or ovule development. Additionally, the genets grew highly dispersed (aggregation index Ac was 0.09 and 0.10 for Back-Reef and Mid-Lagoon, respectively); such highly dispersed guerrilla

  17. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  18. Caribbean-wide, long-term study of seagrass beds reveals local variations, shifts in community structure and occasional collapse.

    PubMed

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Cortés, Jorge; Collin, Rachel; Fonseca, Ana C; Gayle, Peter M H; Guzmán, Hector M; Jácome, Gabriel E; Juman, Rahanna; Koltes, Karen H; Oxenford, Hazel A; Rodríguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John J; Weil, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The CARICOMP monitoring network gathered standardized data from 52 seagrass sampling stations at 22 sites (mostly Thalassia testudinum-dominated beds in reef systems) across the Wider Caribbean twice a year over the period 1993 to 2007 (and in some cases up to 2012). Wide variations in community total biomass (285 to >2000 g dry m(-2)) and annual foliar productivity of the dominant seagrass T. testudinum (<200 and >2000 g dry m(-2)) were found among sites. Solar-cycle related intra-annual variations in T. testudinum leaf productivity were detected at latitudes > 16°N. Hurricanes had little to no long-term effects on these well-developed seagrass communities, except for 1 station, where the vegetation was lost by burial below ∼1 m sand. At two sites (5 stations), the seagrass beds collapsed due to excessive grazing by turtles or sea-urchins (the latter in combination with human impact and storms). The low-cost methods of this regional-scale monitoring program were sufficient to detect long-term shifts in the communities, and fifteen (43%) out of 35 long-term monitoring stations (at 17 sites) showed trends in seagrass communities consistent with expected changes under environmental deterioration.

  19. Caribbean-Wide, Long-Term Study of Seagrass Beds Reveals Local Variations, Shifts in Community Structure and Occasional Collapse

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Cortés, Jorge; Collin, Rachel; Fonseca, Ana C.; Gayle, Peter M. H.; Guzmán, Hector M.; Jácome, Gabriel E.; Juman, Rahanna; Koltes, Karen H.; Oxenford, Hazel A.; Rodríguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Smith, Struan R.; Tschirky, John J.; Weil, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The CARICOMP monitoring network gathered standardized data from 52 seagrass sampling stations at 22 sites (mostly Thalassia testudinum-dominated beds in reef systems) across the Wider Caribbean twice a year over the period 1993 to 2007 (and in some cases up to 2012). Wide variations in community total biomass (285 to >2000 g dry m−2) and annual foliar productivity of the dominant seagrass T. testudinum (<200 and >2000 g dry m−2) were found among sites. Solar-cycle related intra-annual variations in T. testudinum leaf productivity were detected at latitudes > 16°N. Hurricanes had little to no long-term effects on these well-developed seagrass communities, except for 1 station, where the vegetation was lost by burial below ∼1 m sand. At two sites (5 stations), the seagrass beds collapsed due to excessive grazing by turtles or sea-urchins (the latter in combination with human impact and storms). The low-cost methods of this regional-scale monitoring program were sufficient to detect long-term shifts in the communities, and fifteen (43%) out of 35 long-term monitoring stations (at 17 sites) showed trends in seagrass communities consistent with expected changes under environmental deterioration. PMID:24594732

  20. Investigation of the Acoustics of Marine Sediments using an Impedance Tube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). The work led to an invited paper and...equation could be used to model sound propagation in seagrass beds as an effective medium. A typical result for the species Thalassia testudinum (turtle...analysis (Fig. 13), was found to be χleaf = 0.23. Similar results were found the Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) rhizomes (underground root

  1. Development of multiplex microsatellite PCR panels for the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Mellors, Jane; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    New microsatellites were developed for the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae), a long-lived seagrass species that is found throughout the shallow waters of tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific. Three multiplex PCR panels were designed utilizing new and previously developed markers, resulting in a toolkit for generating a 16-locus genotype. • Through the use of microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing, 16 new, validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. Diversity was between two and four alleles per locus totaling 36 alleles. These markers, plus previously developed microsatellite markers for T. hemprichii and T. testudinum, were tested for suitability in multiplex PCR panels. • The generation of an easily replicated suite of multiplex panels of codominant molecular markers will allow for high-resolution and detailed genetic structure analysis and clonality assessment with minimal genotyping costs. We suggest the establishment of a T. hemprichii primer convention for the unification of future data sets.

  2. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LIGHT REDUCTION ON THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AT STATIONS ACROSS THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    For several decades, the role and importance of seagrasses as habitat and as a trophic source, whether grazed directly, consumed as detritus, or acting as a means of support for epiphytic algae, has been increasingly well-documented in the coastal zones of the world. However, the...

  3. Mapping spatial resources with GPS animal telemetry: foraging manatees locate seagrass beds in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Turbid water conditions make the delineation and characterization of benthic habitats difficult by traditional in situ and remote sensing methods. Here, we develop and validate modeling and sampling methodology for detecting and characterizing seagrass beds by analyzing GPS telemetry records from radio-tagged manatees. Between October 2002 and October 2005, 14 manatees were tracked in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwest Florida (USA) using Global Positioning System (GPS) tags. High density manatee use areas were found to occur off each island facing the open, nearshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. We implemented a spatially stratified random sampling plan and used a camera-based sampling technique to observe and record bottom observations of seagrass and macroalgae presence and abundance. Five species of seagrass were identified in our study area: Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, Halophila engelmannii, and Halophila decipiens. A Bayesian model was developed to choose and parameterize a spatial process function that would describe the observed patterns of seagrass and macroalgae. The seagrasses were found in depths <2 m and in the higher manatee use strata, whereas macroalgae was found at moderate densities at all sampled depths and manatee use strata. The manatee spatial data showed a strong association with seagrass beds, a relationship that increased seagrass sampling efficiency. Our camera-based field sampling proved to be effective for assessing seagrass density and spatial coverage under turbid water conditions, and would be an effective monitoring tool to detect changes in seagrass beds.

  4. Development of multiplex microsatellite PCR panels for the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Kor-jent; Mellors, Jane; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: New microsatellites were developed for the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Hydrocharitaceae), a long-lived seagrass species that is found throughout the shallow waters of tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific. Three multiplex PCR panels were designed utilizing new and previously developed markers, resulting in a toolkit for generating a 16-locus genotype. • Methods and Results: Through the use of microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing, 16 new, validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. Diversity was between two and four alleles per locus totaling 36 alleles. These markers, plus previously developed microsatellite markers for T. hemprichii and T. testudinum, were tested for suitability in multiplex PCR panels. • Conclusions: The generation of an easily replicated suite of multiplex panels of codominant molecular markers will allow for high-resolution and detailed genetic structure analysis and clonality assessment with minimal genotyping costs. We suggest the establishment of a T. hemprichii primer convention for the unification of future data sets. PMID:25383269

  5. Detection of the Free-Living Forms of Sulfide-Oxidizing Gill Endosymbionts in the Lucinid Habitat (Thalassia testudinum Environment)

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Olivier; Liberge, Martine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Khatchadourian, Chaqué; Felbeck, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Target DNA from the uncultivable Codakia orbicularis endosymbiont was PCR amplified from sea-grass sediment. To confirm that such amplifications originated from intact bacterial cells rather than free DNA, whole-cell hybridization (fluorescence in situ hybridization technique) with the specific probe Symco2 was performed along with experimental infection of aposymbiotic juveniles placed in contact with the same sediment. Taken together, the data demonstrate that the sulfide-oxidizing gill endosymbiont of Codakia orbicularis is present in the environment as a free-living uncultivable form. PMID:14532089

  6. CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

  7. Detection of the free-living forms of sulfide-oxidizing gill endosymbionts in the lucinid habitat (Thalassia testudinum environment).

    PubMed

    Gros, Olivier; Liberge, Martine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Khatchadourian, Chaqué; Felbeck, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Target DNA from the uncultivable Codakia orbicularis endosymbiont was PCR amplified from sea-grass sediment. To confirm that such amplifications originated from intact bacterial cells rather than free DNA, whole-cell hybridization (fluorescence in situ hybridization technique) with the specific probe Symco2 was performed along with experimental infection of aposymbiotic juveniles placed in contact with the same sediment. Taken together, the data demonstrate that the sulfide-oxidizing gill endosymbiont of Codakia orbicularis is present in the environment as a free-living uncultivable form.

  8. USING STABLE ISOTOPES AND MECHANISTIC MODELS TO EXAMINE CARBON RESOURCE PARTITIONING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND ZOSTERA MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and anthropogenic stress negatively impact seagrass production and ecosystem function. Our goal is to better understand seagrass response to reduced light, nutrient and organic loading at a variety of ecological scales (individual to landscape) in order to help develop p...

  9. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  11. Carbon budget of leaves of the tropical intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Han; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-07-01

    The question of whether seagrass beds are effective carbon sinks has recently attracted much attention. Leaf production and consumption, and detrital export and decomposition were determined to quantify the carbon budget of leaf production in a southern Taiwan seagrass bed composed of the tropical intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, which is widely distributed in intertidal zones of the western Pacific. The influence of elevation in the intertidal zone on these processes was also investigated. Leaf production and consumption, and export of leaf detritus showed seasonal variations, with higher rates in the wet season (summer and autumn) and lower rates in the dry season (winter and spring). At the high-elevation site, leaf consumption by fish was significantly higher than that by sea urchins. At the low-elevation site, however, the proportion of leaves consumed by sea urchins was equivalent to that by fish. Leaf detritus decomposed rapidly within the first 9 days, then gradually slowed down, and stabilised after 212 days, at which only 8.7% of dry weight remained in the litterbags. The carbon budget of seagrass leaves demonstrated that 20% of leaf production was grazed by fish and sea urchins and 80% flowed to detritus. This suggests that seagrass leaves are important food sources for inhabiting herbivores. Most of the detritus decomposed (44% of leaf production) or was exported (32% of leaf production), and only 4% of leaf production or 22 g C m-2 yr-1 was stored in this tropical intertidal seagrass bed. Mass balance calculations support this tropical seagrass bed acting as a carbon sink and an outwelling system which exports organic detritus to neighboring coral reefs.

  12. Predicting the Effects of Water Quality on the Growth of Thalassia testudinum in Tampa Bay with a Dynamic Simile-Based Model Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a seagrass growth (SGG) model that is coupled to a water quality (WQ) model that includes the effects of phytoplankton (chlorophyll), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended solids (TSS) on water clarity. Phytoplankton growth was adjusted daily for PAR (...

  13. Mercury concentration on Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii at Seribu Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratno; Irawan, Andri

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal element that can damage embryo development. Although this element is highly toxic, some human activities such as mining and industries are still using it. The uncontrolled usage of this element leads to pollution problem in the environment, which includes the seagrass ecosystem in the coastal area of Seribu Islands. For that, to gather more information about mercury pollution in the seagrass beds of these islands, the concentration of mercury (Hg) was measured in sediment, rhizomes, roots and leaves of two species of seagrass (Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii) from Lancang Island, Pari Island and Panggang Island at Seribu Islands, Indonesia in April-May 2017. The highest concentration of mercury was found in sediment on Lancang Island. The concentration of mercury was significantly higher on leaves compare to on roots or rhizomes in E. acoroides on Lancang Island and Panggang Island. T. hemprichii accumulate mercury higher than E. acoroides on Lancang Island. Overall, mercury accumulation on both species ranges at 7.12 - 87.41 ug/kg dw and this shows that they have the potential as bio-indicator of mercury bio accumulation.

  14. SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.R.; Price, M.; Thurston, J.

    The rates of uptake by a turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) ecosystem of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn which were leached from sewage sludge by seawater were determined. The experimental design used aerated flowing seawater (8.4l min/sup -1/), which passed over a 0.1 m/sup 3/ bed of sewage sludge before traversing the model ecosystem.

  15. SEAGRASS STRESS RESPONSE MODEL: THE IMPORTANCE OF LIGHT, TEMPERATURE, SEDIMENTATION AND GEOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to define interactions between seagrass and water-column and sediment stressors. The model was developed and optimized for sediments in Thalassia testudinum seagrass beds of Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, USA and is composed of a plant sub-model and a sediment diagen...

  16. Dynamic factor analysis of long-term growth trends of the intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2010-01-01

    We examined environmental factors which are most responsible for the 8-year temporal dynamics of the intertidal seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in southern Taiwan. A dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was applied to identify common trends in a multivariate time series and the relationships between this series and interacting environmental variables. The results of dynamic factor models (DFMs) showed that the leaf growth rate of the seagrass was mainly influenced by salinity (Sal), tidal range (TR), turbidity ( K), and a common trend representing an unexplained variability in the observed time series. Sal was the primary variable that explained the temporal dynamics of the leaf growth rate compared to TR and K. K and TR had larger influences on the leaf growth rate in low- than in high-elevation beds. In addition to K, TR, and Sal, UV-B radiation (UV-B), sediment depth (SD), and a common trend accounted for long-term temporal variations of the above-ground biomass. Thus, K, TR, Sal, UV-B, and SD are the predominant environmental variables that described temporal growth variations of the intertidal seagrass T. hemprichii in southern Taiwan. In addition to environmental variables, human activities may be contributing to negative impacts on the seagrass beds; this human interference may have been responsible for the unexplained common trend in the DFMs. Due to successfully applying the DFA to analyze complicated ecological and environmental data in this study, important environmental variables and impacts of human activities along the coast should be taken into account when managing a coastal environment for the conservation of intertidal seagrass beds.

  17. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi Jian; Huang, Xiao-Pin; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The effects of CO₂ enrichment on various ecophysiological parameters of tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers were tested. T. hemprichii, collected from a seagrass bed in Xincun Bay, Hainan island of Southern China, was cultured at 4 CO₂ (aq) concentrations in flow-through seawater aquaria bubbled with CO₂ . CO₂ enrichment considerably enhanced the relative maximum electron transport rate (RETR(max) ) and minimum saturating irradiance (E(k) ) of T. hemprichii. Leaf growth rate of CO₂ -enriched plants was significantly higher than that in unenriched treatment. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) of T. hemprichii, especially in belowground tissues, increased strongly with elevated CO₂ (aq), suggesting a translocation of photosynthate from aboveground to belowground tissues. Carbon content in belowground tissues showed a similar response with NSC, while in aboveground tissues, carbon content was not affected by CO₂ treatments. In contrast, with increasing CO₂ (aq), nitrogen content in aboveground tissues markedly decreased, but nitrogen content in belowground was nearly constant. Carbon: nitrogen ratio in both tissues were obviously enhanced by increasing CO₂ (aq). Thus, these results indicate that T. hemprichii may respond positively to CO₂ -induced acidification of the coastal ocean. Moreover, the CO₂ -stimulated improvement of photosynthesis and NSC content may partially offset negative effects of severe environmental disturbance such as underwater light reduction. © 2010 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Tu, Zheng Chao; Patrick, Mary; Stiles, Tracy; Lawson, Andy J; Santovenia, Monica; Gilbert, Maarten J; van Bergen, Marcel; Joyce, Kevin; Pruckler, Janet; Stroika, Steven; Duim, Birgitta; Miller, William G; Loparev, Vladimir; Sinnige, Jan C; Fields, Patricia I; Tauxe, Robert V; Blaser, Martin J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n = 8) and reptiles (n = 5). The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and genomic data from sap analysis, 16S rRNA gene and hsp60 sequence comparison, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that these strains are closely related to C. fetus but clearly differentiated from recognized subspecies of C. fetus. Therefore, this unique cluster of 13 strains represents a novel subspecies within the species C. fetus, for which the name Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is proposed, with strain 03-427(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2539(T) = LMG 27499(T)) as the type strain. Although this novel taxon could not be differentiated from C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis using conventional phenotypic tests, MALDI-TOF MS revealed the presence of multiple phenotypic biomarkers which distinguish Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. from recognized subspecies of C. fetus.

  19. Planting Guidelines for Seagrasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    34Morphogeographic Variation under Controlled Conditions in Five Seagrasses: Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, Halophila...among Populations of Three Marine Spermatophytes, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii," American Journal of Botany...Man on Seagrass Ecosystems," American Scientist, Vol. 63, No. 3, May-June 1975, pp. 288-296. THORHAUG, A., "Transplantation of the Seagrass Thalassia

  20. Short-Term Sediment Burial Effects on the Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    replacement (e.g., Cymodocea nodosa, Thalassia testudinum (Short and Duarte 2001) exhibited increased growth rates and leaf production rates when...thresholds of 10-13 cm for Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymodocea rotundata, Thalassia hemprichii, Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis...Methods for study of growth and production of turtle grass, Thalassia -testudinum Konig. Aquaculture 42: 139-143

  1. Recreating the shading effects of ship wake induced turbidity to test acclimation responses in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Nicola K.; Yaakub, Siti Maryam; Tay, Jason K. L.; Todd, Peter A.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated sediment delivery and resuspension in coastal waters from human activities such as shipping can have detrimental effects on seagrass health by limiting light penetration. Managing seagrasses requires knowledge of their light acclamatory abilities so guidelines for coastal activities (e.g. ship movements) that influence sediment dynamics can be created. Guidelines typically focus on ensuring that seagrasses are able to meet their minimal light requirements (MLR). MLRs can be achieved by different light regimes, but it remains unknown whether a chronically low yet stable light regime is less or more detrimental than a highly variable regime with periods of extreme low to no light. To test this, we compared the physiological and morphological responses of Thalassia hemprichii among three light regimes: an open control (30-40% ambient light), a shaded control with (11-15% ambient light), and a fluctuating shade (4-30% ambient light). The MLR for the T. hemprichii we studied was lower (4-10% ambient light) than previous reports (mean = 18%) illustrating enhanced light acclimation in Singapore's chronically turbid waters. Seagrass shoots in the shaded control, however, exhibited significantly more morphological stress symptoms, with reduced shoot growth and lower below ground biomass. These data suggest that for seagrass exposed to periods of acute light stress, energetic costs associated with photo-acclimation to more variable light regimes can be offset if the plant can meet its daily light requirements during periods of high light. Management of seagrass beds should incorporate regular light monitoring and move towards an adaptive feedback-based approach to ensure the long-term viability of these vulnerable ecosystems.

  2. [Biomass and density of 2 seagrass species in southern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, M A; de la Fuente-Betancourt, M G; Cervantes-Martínez, A

    2000-01-01

    The biomass and productivity of a seagrass community are useful for determining the ecological status of the coast. Leaf biomass and shoot density in beds of Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, were compared for two environments in the Mexican Caribbean coast (N = 6 quadrants/site) in November 1998. Shoot and leaf biomass values were lower in the mangrove-associated meadow than in the reef lagoon meadow. This could be related to the higher percentage of epiphytes on the leaves. In addition, T. testudinum had more biomass than Syringodium filiforme Kütz in the reef lagoon.

  3. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  4. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    seagrasses Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum in Sarasota Bay, Florida (Uhrin et al. 2008). Information on operational capabilities and limitations...within the operational limits of the GUTS, and b) a minimum of 50-percent cover by the seagrass Halodule wrightii or Thalassia testudinum was present... Thalassia testudinum prior to transplant. (Photo courtesy of FWC.) Figure 3. A survey post marks the center of a H. wrightii planting unit (Photo

  5. Investigation of the Acoustics of Marine Sediments Using an Impedance Tube and Continued Investigation of the Acoustics of Marine Sediments Using Impedance Tube and Acoustic Resonator Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-02

    properties of three gulf-coast species, Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal... Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) is shown in Fig. 12. The two curves show plant volume fraction Vleaves/Vlot (measured by acoustic and image-based...cross-section image analysis (Fig. 13), was found to be X\\<*t = 0.23. Similar results were found the Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) rhizomes

  6. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Transect Length (m) Dominant Plant Species Average Wave Reduction (% per m) Wayne (1976) 20 Spartina alterniflora 3.6 20 Thalassia testudinum 2.1...sp., Avicennia marina 0.74 Bradley and Houser (2009) 39 Thalassia testudinum 0.77 Lövstedt and Larson (2010) over first 5-14 m of vegetation...Laminaria hyperborea Fonseca and Cahalan (1992) harvested Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum, Zostera marina Parametric

  7. Investigation of the Acoustics of Marine Sediments Using an Impedance Tube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    acoustic properties of three gulf-coast species, Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii...effective medium. A typical result for the species Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) is shown in Fig. 9. The two curves show plant volume fraction...the Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) rhizomes (underground root structures) and the leaves and rhizomes of the other two species tested

  8. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    seagrass habitat dominated by Thalassia testudinum in Florida has also been linked to poor water quality, including increased turbidity and nutrient loading...1973) found that construction of a canal that temporarily covered turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum, with up to 10 cm of sediment, killed the leaves...shoot demographic characteristics and population dynamics in Thalassia testudinum," Marine Ecology Progress Series 110, 59-66. Ellison, J. C. (1999

  9. Benthic Ecology from Space: Optics and Net Primary Production in Seagrass and Benthic Algae Across the Great Bahama Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    prevailing benthic habitat was mapped as sediment with little to no microalgal biofilm. Moderate to dense sea- grass meadows of Thalassia testudinum were...dense seagrass meadows of Thalassia testudinum were the dominant primary producers and contributed over 80% of NPP in the region. If the vast majority of...density of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass) were estimated

  10. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  11. Seagrass distribution and abundance in Eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Richard L.; Bittaker, Henry F.

    1986-05-01

    The marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii form two of the largest reported seagrass beds along the northwest and southern coasts of Florida where they cover about 3000 square km in the Big Bend area and about 5500 square km in Florida Bay, respectively. Most of the leaf biomass in the Big Bend area and outer Florida Bay was composed of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme which were distributed throughout the beds but which were more abundant in shallow depths. A short-leaved form of Halodule wrightii grew in monotypic stands in shallow water near the inner edges of the beds, while Halophila decipiens and a longer-leaved variety of H. wrightii grew scattered throughout the beds, in monotypic stands near the outer edges of the beds, and in deeper water outside the beds. Halophila engelmanni was observed scattered at various depths throughout the seagrass beds and in monospecific patches in deep water outside the northern bed. Ruppia maritima grew primarily in brackish water around river mouths. The cross-shelf limits of the two major seagrass beds are controlled nearshore by increased water turbidity and lower salinity around river mouths and off-shore by light penetration to depths which receive 10% or more of sea surface photosynthetically active radiation. Seagrasses form large beds only along low energy reaches of the coast. The Florida Bay seagrass bed contained about twice the short-shoot density of both Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme, for data averaged over all depths, and about four times the average short-shoot density of both species in shallow water compared with the Big Bend seagrass bed. The differences in average seagrass abundance between Florida Bay and the Big Bend area may be a consequence of the effects of greater seasonal solar radiation and water temperature fluctuations experienced by plants in the northern bed, which lies at the northern distribution limit for American

  12. Physiological responses of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers as indicators of nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Huang, Xiaoping; Jiang, Zhijian

    2014-06-30

    To select appropriate bioindicators for the evaluation of the influence of nutrients from human activities in a Thalassia hemprichii meadow, environmental variables and plant performance parameters were measured in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China. Nutrient concentrations in the bay decreased along a gradient from west to southeast. Moreover, the nutrients decreased with an increase in the distance from the shore on the southern side of the bay. Among the candidate indicators, the P content of the tissues closely mirrored the two nutrient loading gradients. The epiphytic algae biomass and the N content in the tissues mirrored one of the two nutrient loading trends. The leaf length, however, exhibited a significant negative correlation with the nutrient gradients. We propose that changes in the P content of T. hemprichii, followed by epiphytic algae biomass and N content of the tissues, may be the useful indicators of nutrient loading to coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SciTech Connect

    Macauley, J.M.; Clark, J.R.; Pitts, A.R.

    Concurrent 12-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. Test systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. Chlorophyll content of Thalassia leaves and epiphyte biomass and chlorophyll content were monitored during each test. Laboratory exposures were conducted in 7-L, flow-through (7 L/h) microcosms consisting of Plexiglas cylinders containing intact cores of Thalassia from a local seagrass bed. Field exposures were conducted in water-tight plexiglas chambers (2 m x 2 m x 1.5 m) placed over testmore » plots in a seagrass bed for 24 h during SPP additions. Epiphyte biomass was reduced after 6 weeks of intermittent exposure to SPP in laboratory and field tests. After 12 weeks, epiphyte biomass had increased to densities similar to control values.« less

  14. Geospatial Video Monitoring of Benthic Habitats Using the Shallow-Water Positioning System (SWaPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    established from the video frames collected using SWaPS. C) Cover contours for the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. A B C surveyed using a spatial grid...distributions of seagrass species within this area are clearly influenced by their tolerance to salinity patterns. Thalassia testudinum, a species

  15. Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    PubMed

    Abel, K M

    1984-11-01

    Photosynthetic carbon uptake of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers was studied by several methods. Photosynthesis in buffered seawater in media in the range of pH 6 to pH 9 showed an exponentially increasing rate with decreasing pH, thus indicating that free CO(2) was a photosynthetic substrate. However, these experiments were unable to determine whether photosynthesis at alkaline pH also contained some component due to HCO(3) (-) uptake. This aspect was further investigated by studying photosynthetic rates in a number of media of varying pH (7.8-8.61) and total inorganic carbon (0.75-13.17 millimolar). In these media, photosynthetic rate was correlated with free CO(2) concentration and was independent of the HCO(3) (-) concentration in the medium. Short time-course experiments were conducted during equilibration of free CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) after injection of (14)C labeled solution at acid or alkaline pH. High initial photosynthetic rates were observed when acidic solutions (largely free CO(2)) were used but not with alkaline solutions. The concentration of free CO(2) was found to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis in this plant.

  16. The growth and population dynamics of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Suli Waters, Ambon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupan, C. I.; Uneputty, Pr A.

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of the research were to determined growth of rhizome, age structure, recruitment rate, and mortality rate of Thalassia hemprichii. Data were collected by using reconstruction technique which the measurements were based on past growth history. The age of seagrass was based on plastochrone interval. The recruitment rate was estimated by age structure of living shoots while mortality rate was estimated by age structure of dead shoots. The research was conducted on coastal waters of Suli where divided into two stations with different substrates, namely mixed substrates of sand and mud (S1) and mixed substrates of sand and coral fragment (S2). The growth rate of horizontal rhizome ranged from 4.15-8.68 cm.year-1 whereas the growth rate of vertical rhizome was 1.11-1.16 cm.year-1. The average age of T. hemprichii varied between 3.22-4.15 years. The youngest shoots were found at age 0.38 years and the oldest shoots were 7.82 years. Distribution of age was polymodal which reflecting cohort. The recruitment rate ranged from 0.23-0.54 year-1. Otherwise, the mortality rate ranged from 0.21-0.26 year-1.Seagrass population of T. hemprichii in Suli Waters indicated an increasing condition which shown by higher recruitment rate than mortality rate.

  17. Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Two Seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kuoyan; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Soong, Keryea

    2016-01-01

    The wide distribution of many seagrasses may be attributable to exploitation of currents. However, many species have seeds heavier than seawater, limiting surface floating, and thus, deep water becomes a potential barrier between suitable habitats. In this investigation, we studied the dispersal potential of various life history stages of two species of seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis, at Dongsha Atoll and Penghu Islands in Taiwan Strait, west Pacific. The adult plants of both species, often dislodged naturally from substrate by waves, could float, but only that of T. hemprichii could float for months and still remain alive and potentially able to colonize new territories. The seedlings of T. hemprichii could also float for about a month once failing to anchor to substrate of coral sand, but that of H. ovalis could not. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii could both float, but for too short a duration to enable long distance travel; those seeds released from long floating fruits had low germination rates in our tests. Obviously, their seeds are not adaptive for long distance dispersal. Fruits and seeds of H. ovalis do not float. The potential of animals as vectors was tested by feeding fruits and seeds of both species to a goose, a duck, and two fish in the laboratory. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii were digested and could no longer germinate; those of H. ovalis could pass through the digestive tracts and have a much higher germination rates than uningested controls. Therefore, birds could be important vectors for long distance dispersal of H. ovalis. The two seagrasses adopted very different dispersal mechanisms for long distance travel, and both exploited traits originally adaptive for other purposes. PMID:27248695

  18. Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Two Seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuoyan; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Soong, Keryea

    2016-01-01

    The wide distribution of many seagrasses may be attributable to exploitation of currents. However, many species have seeds heavier than seawater, limiting surface floating, and thus, deep water becomes a potential barrier between suitable habitats. In this investigation, we studied the dispersal potential of various life history stages of two species of seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis, at Dongsha Atoll and Penghu Islands in Taiwan Strait, west Pacific. The adult plants of both species, often dislodged naturally from substrate by waves, could float, but only that of T. hemprichii could float for months and still remain alive and potentially able to colonize new territories. The seedlings of T. hemprichii could also float for about a month once failing to anchor to substrate of coral sand, but that of H. ovalis could not. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii could both float, but for too short a duration to enable long distance travel; those seeds released from long floating fruits had low germination rates in our tests. Obviously, their seeds are not adaptive for long distance dispersal. Fruits and seeds of H. ovalis do not float. The potential of animals as vectors was tested by feeding fruits and seeds of both species to a goose, a duck, and two fish in the laboratory. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii were digested and could no longer germinate; those of H. ovalis could pass through the digestive tracts and have a much higher germination rates than uningested controls. Therefore, birds could be important vectors for long distance dispersal of H. ovalis. The two seagrasses adopted very different dispersal mechanisms for long distance travel, and both exploited traits originally adaptive for other purposes.

  19. Influence of Sedimentary and Seagrass Microbial Communities on Shallow-Water Benthic Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    grass, Thalassia testudinum) and in Monterey Bay (eel grass, Zostera marina). Assess how the microbial community affects the flux of photons to and...optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Zostera marina”. The manuscript will be submitted to the...crystals in Thalassia from LSI. We have pursued this serendipitous discovery, and at the Estuarine Research Federation meeting this fall, we will

  20. Waves in Seagrass Systems: Review and Technical Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    species (e.g., Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum) are found near the sediment surface while other seagrass species (e.g., Zostera marina, Ruppia...309. Almasi, M. N., C. M. Hoskin, J. K. Reed, and J. Milo. 1987. Effects of natural and artificial Thalassia on rates of sedimentation. Journal of...Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, 123 pp. Koch, E. W. 1994. Hydrodynamics, diffusion boundary layers and photosynthesis of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Rhizosphere Microbiology of Rooted Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    acids. Acetic acid postulated as agent Thalassia Nitrogen fixation in Capone 1983 testudinwn rhizosphere and phyllosphere 13. Fungi living in the...microbial population associated with the rhizome detritus. 26. Durako and Moffler (1987) examined responses of Thalassia testudinum to nitrogen enrichment...economy of seagrasses for communities of Thalassia testudinium and Zostera maina. He concluded that nitrogen fixation is probably more important for

  2. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  3. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  4. The Fouling of Mine Casing Surfaces by Fluorescent Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    is deployed in a climax community such as Thalassia sp., what algal species initiate settlement onto the mine surface? 2) Since root systems are...such as Thalassia sp. depends on the substrate: the suite of species is different for hard, sandy and mud bottoms (Figure 1). Report Documentation...Rhizophytic algae Halodule Thalassia Figure 1. Scheme of the succession series leading to the Thalassia testudinum association. Thick arrows

  5. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  6. Illumina-based analysis the microbial diversity associated with Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the microbial diversity associated with seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea, 16S rRNA gene was identified by highthrough sequencing method. Bacteria associated with seagrass T. hemprichii belonged to 37 phyla, 99 classes. The diversity of bacteria associated with seagrass was similar among the geographically linked coastal locations of Xincun Bay. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria and the α-proteobacteria had adapted to the seagrass ecological niche. As well, α-proteobacteria and Pseudomonadales were associated microflora in seagrass meadows, but the interaction between the bacteria and plant is needed to further research. Burkholderiales and Verrucomicrobiae indicated the influence of the bay from anthropogenic activities. Further, Cyanobacteria could imply the difference of the nutrient conditions in the sites. γ-proteobacteria, Desulfobacterales and Pirellulales played a role in the cycle of sulfur, organic mineralization and meadow ecosystem, respectively. In addition, the less abundance bacteria species have key functions in the seagrass meadows, but there is lack knowledge of the interaction of the seagrass and less abundance bacteria species. Microbial communities can response to surroundings and play key functions in the biochemical cycle.

  7. Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi Derived from Three Seagrass Species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii

    PubMed Central

    Supaphon, Preuttiporn; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodocea serrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae), Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae) were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporum gypseum and Penicillium marneffei . Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C . serrulata , Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H . ovalis , and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T . hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses. PMID:23977310

  8. Spectral response of healthy and damaged leaves of tropical seagrass Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii, and Cymodocea rotundata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Kamal, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of seagrass spectral reflectance response is important to understand seagrass condition and for the possibility of mapping activities using remote sensing data, which is important for the management, monitoring, and evaluation of seagrass ecosystem. This paper presents the spectral reflectance response of several tropical seagrass species. These species are Enhalus acoroides (Ea), Thalassia hemprichii (Th) and Cymodocea rotundata (Cr). Spectral reflectance response of healthy seagrass, epiphyte-covered seagrass, and damaged seagrass leaves for each species were measured using Jaz EL-350 field spectrometer ranged from 350 - 1100 nm. Repeated measurements were performed above water on harvested seagrass leaves. The results indicate that there is a change in spectral reflectance response of damaged or epiphyte-covered seagrass leaves compared to the healthy leaves. The results show similar pattern for the three species, where the peak reflectance in visible wavelengths shifted toward longer wavelengths on damaged seagrass leaves. The results of this research open up a possibility of mapping seagrass health condition using remote sensing image.

  9. Historical processes and contemporary ocean currents drive genetic structure in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Hernawan, Udhi E; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Kendrick, Gary A; Feng, Ming; Biffin, Edward; Lavery, Paul S; McMahon, Kathryn

    2017-02-01

    Understanding spatial patterns of gene flow and genetic structure is essential for the conservation of marine ecosystems. Contemporary ocean currents and historical isolation due to Pleistocene sea level fluctuations have been predicted to influence the genetic structure in marine populations. In the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), the world's hotspot of marine biodiversity, seagrasses are a vital component but population genetic information is very limited. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeography of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the IAA based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then characterized the genetic structure based on a panel of 16 microsatellite markers. We further examined the relative importance of historical isolation and contemporary ocean currents in driving the patterns of genetic structure. Results from SNPs revealed three population groups: eastern Indonesia, western Indonesia (Sunda Shelf) and Indian Ocean; while the microsatellites supported five population groups (eastern Indonesia, Sunda Shelf, Lesser Sunda, Western Australia and Indian Ocean). Both SNPs and microsatellites showed asymmetrical gene flow among population groups with a trend of southwestward migration from eastern Indonesia. Genetic diversity was generally higher in eastern Indonesia and decreased southwestward. The pattern of genetic structure and connectivity is attributed partly to the Pleistocene sea level fluctuations modified to a smaller level by contemporary ocean currents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. UTILIZATION OF DOC FROM SEAGRASS RHIZOMES BY SEDIMENT BACTERIA: 13C TRACER EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses are widely recognized as contributing to net ecosystem primary production and to supporting heterotrophy in estuarine systems. We investigated the linkage between seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) rhizosphere carbon exudation and sediment bacteria. In microcosms, we si...

  11. An Experimental Test of the Capacity of Food Web Interactions (Fish Epiphytes Seagrasses) to Offset the Negative Consequences of Eutrophication on Seagrass Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacia, E.; Littler, M. M.; Littler, D. S.

    1999-06-01

    A mechanism of competition between epiphytes and seagrasses potentially modulated by grazers was studied in a high-nutrient Thalassia testudinum meadow in the Indian River Lagoon (Florida, U.S.A.). The effects of fish grazing on epiphytes, and likely enhancing T. testudinum growth, was tested through an exclusion experiment. Twelve (2×2m) independent experimental plots were selected within a shallow monospecific bed to which three randomized treatments (exclusion fences, open fences and controls) with four replicates each were assigned. The epiphyte load was monitored on T. testudinum leaves inside the plots from January 1995 to March 1996. Treatment effects occurred during a chlorophyte bloom in March 1995, when the epiphyte biomass was significantly higher inside the exclusion cages than in either of the controls. The composition of the epiphytic community in March 1995 was dominated by sheet-like Enteromorpha and filamentous algae such as Cladophora , which are less resistant to herbivory than the coarsely-branched forms of red algae (e.g. Hypnea , Chondria and Acanthophora) that bloomed subsequently. These results suggest that herbivory change seasonally depending on the availability of different prey species to fish-grazers, which preferentially utilize the fleshy green algae typical of bloom conditions over the thicker coarsely-branched red algae. In the nutrient-rich lagoon the role of top-down interactions in enhancing T. testudinum growth is limited to the reduction of shading by green macroalgae.

  12. Community Composition and Transcriptional Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes of Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Coral Reef Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ling, Juan; Lin, Xiancheng; Zhang, Yanying; Zhou, Weiguo; Yang, Qingsong; Lin, Liyun; Zeng, Siquan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Cong; Ahmad, Manzoor; Long, Lijuan; Dong, Junde

    2018-01-01

    Seagrasses in coral reef ecosystems play important ecological roles by enhancing coral reef resilience under ocean acidification. However, seagrass primary productivity is typically constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ammonia oxidation is an important process conducted by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), yet little information is available concerning the community structure and potential activity of seagrass AOA and AOB. Therefore, this study investigated the variations in the abundance, diversity and transcriptional activity of AOA and AOB at the DNA and transcript level from four sample types: the leaf, root, rhizosphere sediment and bulk sediment of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in three coral reef ecosystems. DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA) were used to prepare clone libraries and DNA and cDNA quantitative PCR ( q PCR) assays, targeting the ammonia monooxygenase-subunit ( amo A) genes as biomarkers. Our results indicated that the closest relatives of the obtained archaeal and bacterial amo A gene sequences recovered from DNA and cDNA libraries mainly originated from the marine environment. Moreover, all the obtained AOB sequences belong to the Nitrosomonadales cluster. Nearly all the AOA communities exhibited higher diversity than the AOB communities at the DNA level, but the q PCR data demonstrated that the abundances of AOB communities were higher than that of AOA communities based on both DNA and RNA transcripts. Collectively, most of the samples shared greater community composition similarity with samples from the same location rather than sample type. Furthermore, the abundance of archaeal amo A gene in rhizosphere sediments showed significant relationships with the ammonium concentration of sediments and the nitrogen content of plant tissue (leaf and root) at the DNA level ( P < 0.05). Conversely, no such relationships were found for the AOB communities. This work provides new insight into the nitrogen cycle, particularly

  13. Biological Response to the Dynamic Spectral-Polarized Underwater Light Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    organic in nature (e.g. detrital flocs) and not re-suspended bottom sediments. 5 (v) (Dierssen) Benthic reflectance from the seagrass Thalassia ...Laboratory measurements of polarized reflectance over the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. 15 Fig 14. Noon time

  14. Seagrass Planting Guidelines for the Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic Coasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima), shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii), and manatee- grass (Sgringodium filiforme). The fifth species, turtlegrass ( Thalassia ...Eelgrass 20-35 11LW to -2 m អ Spring Combination Very Good (Zostera marina) or cohesive * Note that turtlegrass ( Thalassia testudinum) is omitted

  15. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  16. Bed Bugs and Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  17. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  18. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  19. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  20. Seasonal changes in environmental variables, biomass, production and nutrient contents in two contrasting tropical intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Erftemeijer, Paul L A; Herman, Peter M J

    1994-09-01

    Seasonal dynamics were studied by monthly monitoring of biological and environmental variables in permanent quadrats in two contrasting intertidal seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, from February 1991 to January 1992. Datasets were analysed with canonical correlation analysis for correlations between environmental and biological variables. Considerable variation in biomass, production and plant tissue nutrient contents in a monospecific seagrass bed of Enhalus acoroides, growing on a coastal terrigenous mudbank (Gusung Tallang), was assumed to be related to riverine influences of the nearby Tallo River. The variation in seagrass variables at this site could, however, not be significantly correlated to seasonal patterns in rainfall, salinity, tides, nutrient availability, water motion or turbidity. A seasonal cycle in biomass, production and nutrient contents in a mixed seagrass bed of Thalassia hemprichii and E. acoroides, growing on carbonate sand on the reef flat of an offshore coral island (Barang Lompo), was found to be largely determined by tidal exposure and water motion. Exposure of the intertidal seagrass bed during hours of low water during spring tides showed a gradual shift from exposure during the night (January-June) to exposure during daylight (July-December). Daylight exposure resulted in a significant loss of above-ground plant biomass through desiccation and 'burning' of leaves. The observed seasonal dynamics of the seagrass bed on reef sediment contrast with reports from the Caribbean, where the effect of tidal exposure on comparable shallow-water seagrass communities is relatively insignificant due to a small tidal amplitude.

  1. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  2. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  3. Effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon in tropical seagrass beds in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wu, Yunchao; Lian, Zhonglian; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-09-15

    To assess the effect of nutrient enrichment on the source and composition of sediment organic carbon (SOC) beneath Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides in tropical seagrass beds, Xincun Bay, South China Sea, intertidal sediment, primary producers, and seawater samples were collected. No significant differences on sediment δ(13)C, SOC, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were observed between T. hemprichii and E. acoroides. SOC was mainly of autochthonous origin, while the contribution of seagrass to SOC was less than that of suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and epiphytes. High nutrient concentrations contributed substantially to SOC of seagrass, macroalgae, and epiphytes. The SOC, MBC, and MBC/SOC ratio in the nearest transect to fish farming were the highest. This suggested a more labile composition of SOC and shorter turnover times in higher nutrient regions. Therefore, the research indicates that nutrient enrichment could enhance plant-derived contributions to SOC and microbial use efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle size variations between bed load and bed material in natural gravel bed channels

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1995-01-01

    Abstract - Particle sizes of bed load and bed material that represent materials transported and stored over a period of years are used to investigate selective transport in 13 previously sampled, natural gravel bed channels. The ratio (D*) of median particle size of bed material to the transport- and frequency-weighted mean of median bed load size decreases to unity...

  5. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion. The following topics are discussed: what is pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion?; pulse combustors; pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (PAFBC); advantages of PAFBC; performance advantages; PAFBC facts; and PAFBC contact points.

  6. Tanning Bed Perception Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mcquinn, Donna; Lohse, Christine; Hassani, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was intended to investigate the perception of tanning bed use among college students. Design: A 15-question survey was given to young adults regarding tanning perceptions. Setting: Rochester Community College in Rochester, Minnesota. Participants: Forty-four respondents between 18 and 51 years of age. Measurements: Data was collected via a self-reported questionnaire. Results: In this study, 50 percent of participants were not educated on the risks of melanoma, and 68 percent were not interested in receiving information on melanoma and completing a follow-up survey. More specifically, 63 percent versus 89 percent of participants with no tanning bed versus some tanning bed use did not want information regarding melanoma, respectively. This study also shows that more tanning bed users believe tanning helps prevent burning than non-tanning bed users. Fifty-seven percent of the 35 participants who had never used a tanning bed thought that they never prevent sunburn, while only 11 percent of the nine participants who had used a tanning bed in the past thought that they never prevent sunburn, which was statistically significant. PMID:25852811

  7. How many hospital beds?

    PubMed

    Green, Linda V

    For many years, average bed occupancy level has been the primary measure that has guided hospital bed capacity decisions at both policy and managerial levels. Even now, the common wisdom that there is an excess of beds nationally has been based on a federal target of 85% occupancy that was developed about 25 years ago. This paper examines data from New York state and uses queueing analysis to estimate bed unavailability in intensive care units (ICUs) and obstetrics units. Using various patient delay standards, units that appear to have insufficient capacity are identified. The results indicate that as many as 40% of all obstetrics units and 90% of ICUs have insufficient capacity to provide an appropriate bed when needed. This contrasts sharply with what would be deduced using standard average occupancy targets. Furthermore, given the model's assumptions, these estimates are likely to be conservative. These findings illustrate that if service quality is deemed important, hospitals need to plan capacity based on standards that reflect the ability to place patients in appropriate beds in a timely fashion rather than on target occupancy levels. Doing so will require the collection and analysis of operational data-such as demands for and use of beds, and patient delays--which generally are not available.

  8. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  9. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  10. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  11. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). "They are used not only in hospitals, but ... long-term care facilities, and in private homes." CDRH reports that about 2.5 million hospital beds ...

  12. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  13. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as blankets, bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding. (3) Towels are woven cloth products used primarily for drying and wiping. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as blankets, bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding. (3) Towels are woven cloth products used primarily for drying and wiping. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as blankets, bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding. (3) Towels are woven cloth products used primarily for drying and wiping. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as blankets, bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding. (3) Towels are woven cloth products used primarily for drying and wiping. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  17. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  18. Particulate fuel bed tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, F. L.; Powell, J. R.; Savino, J. M.

    Gas-cooled reactors using packed beds of small-diameter, coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. To test the thermal-hydraulic performance of the particulate reactor fuel under simulated reactor conditions, a bed of 800-micrometer diameter particles was heated by its electrical resistance current and cooled by flowing helium gas. The specific resistance of the bed composed of pyrocarbon-coated particles was measured at several temperatures, and found to be 0.09 ohm-cm at 1273 K and 0.06 ohm-cm at 1600 K. The maximum bed power density reached was 1500 W/cu cm at 1500 K. The pressure drop followed the packed-bed correlation, typically 100,000 Pa/cm. The various frit materials used to contain the bed were also tested to 2000 K in helium and hydrogen to determine their properties and reactions with the fuel. Rhenium metal, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide appeared to be the best candidate materials, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost mass and strength.

  19. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  20. Zonation and structuring factors of meiofauna communities in a tropical seagrass bed (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Troch, Marleen; Gurdebeke, Shirley; Fiers, Frank; Vincx, Magda

    2001-02-01

    This study deals with the relation between tropical meiofauna and environmental variables by comparing the 'benthic' (i.e. in the bare sediment adjacent to seagrass plants) and the 'epiphytic' (i.e. in samples including seagrass plants) meiofauna associated with five seagrass species from the high intertidal to the high subtidal zone in Gazi Bay (Kenya). Ordination and variance analysis revealed three distinct 'benthic' and two 'epiphytic' meiofauna assemblages. These assemblages corresponded entirely with those identified for the seagrass species: a high intertidal pioneer association ( Halophila ovalis/ Halodule wrightii), an intertidal climax assemblage ( Thalassia hemprichii) and a high subtidal pioneer association ( Halophila stipulacea/ Syringodium isoetifolium). These data support the hypothesis that meiofaunal communities correspond to the characteristic zonation of the seagrass vegetation in Gazi Bay. In beds of the pioneer seagrass species, the close relationship between sediment characteristics and both 'benthic' and 'epiphytic' meiofauna communities suggests that these pioneer communities were mainly driven by physical factors. The 'benthic' communities adjacent to the climax seagrass species T. hemprichii were more structured by biogenic factors, e.g. % TOM, chlorophyll a and c, fucoxanthin, habitat complexity and growth form of the seagrass species. For its associated 'epiphytic' meiofauna the latter conclusion was even more striking. These data corroborate the importance of physical factors in disturbed environments (intertidal zone, near pioneer seagrasses) and of biotic factors in more stable conditions (subtidal zone, near climax seagrasses).

  1. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  2. Bed bug deterrence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph) signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121 PMID:20828375

  3. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  4. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  5. Phytotoxic effects of Cu, Cd and Zn on the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii and metal accumulation in plants growing in Xincun Bay, Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Gu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Tai-Jie; Liu, Hui-Hui; Ou, Qiao-Jing; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2018-03-19

    Seagrasses play an important role in coastal marine ecosystems, but they have been increasingly threatened by human activities. In recent years, seagrass communities have rapidly degenerated in the coastal marine ecosystems of China. To identify the reasons for the decline in seagrasses, the phytotoxic effects of trace metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) on the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated, and the environmental contents of the metals were analyzed where the seagrass grows. The results showed that leaf necrosis in T. hemprichii exposed to 0.01-0.1 mg L -1 of Cu 2+ for 5 days was more serious than that in plants exposed to the same concentrations of Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ . The chlorophyll content in T. hemprichii declined in a concentration-dependent manner after 5 days of exposure to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ . The evident reduction in ΔF/F m ' in T. hemprichii leaves was observed at day 1 of exposure to 0.01-1.0 mg L -1 of Cu 2+ and at day 3 of exposure to 0.1-1.0 mg L -1 of Cd 2+ . The antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, POD and CAT) in T. hemprichii leaves exposed to the three metal ions also showed significant changes. In seawater from Xincun Bay (Hainan, China), where T. hemprichii grows, Cu had reached a concentration (i.e., 0.01 mg L -1 ) that could significantly reduce chlorophyll content and ΔF/F m ' in T. hemprichii leaves. Our results indicate that Cu influences the deterioration of seagrasses in Xincun Bay.

  6. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  7. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  8. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  9. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  10. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  11. Bed Prism Spectacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2018-01-01

    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal…

  12. Bed Bug Myths

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  13. Technology test bed review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology test bed (TTB) history; (2) TTB objectives; (3) TTB major accomplishments; (4) TTB contributions to SSME; (5) major impacts of 3001 testing; (6) some challenges to computational fluid dynamics (CFD); (7) the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP); and (8) 3001 lessons learned in design and operations.

  14. Epiphyte loads on seagrasses and microphytobenthos abundance are not reliable indicators of nutrient availability in oligotrophic coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fourqurean, James W; Muth, Meredith F; Boyer, Joseph N

    2010-07-01

    Despite marked gradients in nutrient availability that control the abundance and species composition of seagrasses in south Florida, and the importance of nutrient availability in controlling abundance and composition of epiphytes on seagrasses in other locations, we did not find that epiphyte load on the dominant seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, or that the relative contribution of algal epiphytes to the epiphyte community, was positively correlated with nutrient availability in the water column or the sediment in oligotrophic seagrass beds. Further, the abundance of microphytobenthos, as indicated by Chlorophyll-a concentration in the sediments, was not directly correlated with concentrations of nutrients in the sediments. Our results suggest that epiphyte and microphytobenthos abundance are not unambiguous indicators of nutrient availability in relatively pristine seagrass environments, and therefore would make poor candidates for indicators of the status and trends of seagrass ecosystems in relatively low-nutrient environments like the Florida Keys. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that... minimum biobased content is 12 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in..., and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of...

  16. Fine bed material in pools of natural gravel bed channels

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Sue Hilton

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - Natural gravel bed channels commonly contain a fine mode of sand and fine gravel that fills voids of the bed framework of coarser gravel. If the supply of fine bed material exceeds the storage capacity of framework voids, excess fine material forms surficial patches, which can be voluminous in pools during low flow. Data collected in 34 natural channels in...

  17. Bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry

    2007-01-01

    Bed load transport is a fundamental physical process in alluvial rivers, building and maintaining a channel geometry that reflects both the quantity and timing of water and the volume and caliber of sediment delivered from the watershed. A variety of formulae have been developed to predict bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers, but testing of the equations in natural...

  18. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  19. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By ... Rid of Bed Bugs When a bed bug infestation is discovered there are multiple methods for controlling it. Be aware that it will ...

  20. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  1. Fluidized bed operations survey summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, C.

    1996-12-31

    A fluidized bed operations survey summary is presented. The survey contains information on: forced outage causes; forced outage concerns ranked numerically; 1996 boiler operation and maintenance (O&M) concerns; 1997 boiler O&M concerns; fluidized bed capacity factor results; and fluidized bed total outage time.

  2. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  3. Bed Prism Spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2018-01-01

    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal reflection in a prism. In this article we explain the physics behind this unfamiliar device, supported by geometrical optics principles.

  4. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bugs EPA Registered Bed Bug Products EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products Resources Bed Bug Main Page Top Ten ... Where you can use the pesticide Pesticide type Bed Bug Search Tool Enter the information as described in ...

  5. Eutrophication threatens Caribbean seagrasses - An example from Curaçao and Bonaire.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Lamers, Leon P M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; de Brouwer, Jan H F; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-12-15

    Seagrass beds are globally declining due to human activities in coastal areas. We here aimed to identify threats from eutrophication to the valuable seagrass beds of Curaçao and Bonaire in the Caribbean, which function as nursery habitats for commercial fish species. We documented surface- and porewater nutrient concentrations, and seagrass nutrient concentrations in 6 bays varying in nutrient loads. Water measurements only provided a momentary snapshot, due to timing, tidal stage, etc., but Thalassia testudinum nutrient concentrations indicated long-term nutrient loads. Nutrient levels in most bays did not raise any concern, but high leaf % P values of Thalassia in Piscadera Bay (∼0.31%) and Spanish Water Bay (∼0.21%) showed that seagrasses may be threatened by eutrophication, due to emergency overflow of waste water and coastal housing. We thus showed that seagrasses may be threatened and measures should be taken to prevent loss of these important nursery areas due to eutrophication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  7. Infant's bed climate and bedding in the Japanese home.

    PubMed

    Nakamura Ikeda, Rie; Fukai, Kiyoko; Okamoto Mizuno, Kazue

    2012-06-01

    to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0°C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  11. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  14. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  15. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  16. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  17. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  18. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  19. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  1. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  2. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 -4">−4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  3. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  4. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  5. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  6. SMART NAS Test Bed Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee

    2016-01-01

    These slides presents an overview of SMART NAS Test Bed. The test bed is envisioned to be connected to operational systems and to allow a new concept and technology to be evaluated in its realistic environment. Its role as an accelerator of concepts and technologies development, its use-case-driven development approach, and its state are presented.

  7. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  8. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

  9. Epiphytic calcium carbonate production and facies development within sub-tropical seagrass beds, Inhaca Island, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Beavington-Penney, S. J.

    2005-02-01

    Seagrass beds have been widely recognised as playing an important role in influencing carbonate sediment facies development. This reflects their role not only as facilitators of fine sediment settling and stabilisation, but also as substrates for epiphytic organisms that, after death, contribute skeletal carbonate to the sediment substrate. In low latitude (reef-related) settings, epiphytic carbonate production rates are often high and this, in combination with the trapping of carbonate mud produced by a range of associated calcareous algal species, typically results in the development of carbonate mud-rich facies. Whilst such environments, and their associated sediment substrates, have been widely documented, studies of seagrass facies in marginal (sub-tropical/warm temperate) marine settings have not been conducted from a sedimentological perspective. This study determines rates of epiphytic carbonate production on two seagrass species Thalassodendron ciliatum and Thalassia hemprichii, and examines seagrass sediment facies from a sub-tropical reef-related environment in southern Mozambique. Dense seagrass beds colonise primarily siliciclastic sediment substrates and are characterised by low rates of epiphytic carbonate production (mean: 43.9 g CaCO 3 m -2 year -1 for T. ciliatum, and 33.4 g CaCO 3 m -2 year -1 for T. hemprichii). Epiphytic encrusters are dominated by thin, monostromatic layers of the crustose coralline red algae Hydrolithon farinosum, along with rotaliid smaller benthic foraminifera (including Asterorotalia cf. gaimardi and Spirillina sp.) and the soritid Peneroplis sp., as well as rare encrusting acervulinid foraminifera, serpulids and bryozoans. Epiphytic calcium carbonate production rates are therefore low and this is reflected in the low (<15%) carbonate content of the seagrass sediments, as well as the low (<1%) sediment fine (<63 μm size fraction) content. This study suggests that mud-rich sediment facies do not necessarily develop in

  10. Hospital bed occupancy: more than queuing for a bed.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Andrew D

    2010-09-06

    Timely access to safe hospital care remains a major concern. Target bed-occupancy rates have been proposed as a measure of the ability of a hospital to function safely and effectively. High bed-occupancy rates have been shown to be associated with greater risks of hospital-associated infection and access block and to have a negative impact on staff health. Clinical observational data have suggested that bed occupancies above 85% could adversely affect safe, effective hospital function. Using this figure, at least initially, would be of value in the planning and operational management of public hospital beds in Australia. There is an urgent need to develop meaningful outcome measures of patient care that could replace the process measures currently in use.

  11. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A development plan for a proposed avionics test bed facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements is presented. A distributed data processing facility that utilizes the current laboratory resources for the test bed development is outlined. Future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are defined. A background analysis of the specific hardware system for the preliminary baseline avionics test bed system is included.

  12. 78 FR 12703 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment to the Corals and Reef...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    .... The Coral FMP currently includes four individual species of seagrasses: turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum), manatee grass (Syringodium filiforme), shoal grass (Halodule wrightii), widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima), and one group of species, the sea vines (Halophila spp., including H. decipiens, H. baillonis, H...

  13. SEAGRASS AND CDOM IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses play a variety of important ecological roles in coastal ecosystems. Here we present evidence that seagrass detritus from the widespread species, Thalassia testudinum, is an important source of ocean color and UV-protective substances in a low latitude coastal shelf reg...

  14. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF THREE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF MACROALGAE IN TROPICAL SEAGRASS HABITATS. (R828677C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model of three functional groups of macroalgae, drift algae, rhizophytic calcareous algae, and seagrass epiphytes, was developed to complement an existing seagrass production model for tropical habitats dominated by Thalassia testudinum (Turtle-grass). The current modeling e...

  15. Improving bed turnover time with a bed management system.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Frank; Ukanowicz, Donna; Douglas-Ntagha, Pamela; Ray, Robert; Triller, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Efficient patient throughput requires a high degree of coordination and communication. Opportunities abound to improve the patient experience by eliminating waste from the process and improving communication among the multiple disciplines involved in facilitating patient flow. In this article, we demonstrate how an interdisciplinary team at a large tertiary cancer center implemented an electronic bed management system to improve the bed turnover component of the patient throughput process.

  16. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  17. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Audience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Find materials for emergency and health facilities, hotels, housing authorities, landlords, schools, pest management professionals, and more.

  18. Print a Bed Bug Card

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  19. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  20. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... you hire an expert, be sure it’s a company with a good reputation and request that it ...

  1. Twelfth annual fluidized bed conference

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held November 11-13, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA are presented. Information is given on: owner`s discussions; new aspects and field upgrades in fluidized bed boilers; manufacturer`s perspectives; fuel considerations; FBC ash reclassification; and beneficial uses of FBC ash. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Recurrence of Seagrass Mortality in Florida Bay: The Role of Climate Change and Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Catastrophic mortality of seagrass in Florida Bay (USA) from 1987 to 1991 resulted in the complete loss of thousands of hectares of dense Thalassia testudinum beds. At that time, acutely toxic levels of dissolved sulfide in sediments were determined to be the proximal cause of seagrass mortality, but the mechanisms responsible for sulfide accumulation in sediments were not demonstrated. With the recurrence of seagrass mortality in Florida Bay in summer 2015, we show that several processes create the conditions that lead to sulfide toxicity and catastrophic mortality of Thalassia. Regional drought and elevated water temperature lead to hypersalinity, particularly in the northern Bay. In addition, evaporation of seawater on mudbanks and microtidal flow patterns create stratified brine layers in basins adjacent to mudbanks. Because of very high seagrass shoot densities and limited tidal exchange, brine layers limit oxygen diffusion and prevent oxidation of sulfide in sediments and bottom water, exposing roots, rhizomes and lateral meristems of Thalassia to acutely toxic levels of sulfide, causing extensive mortality. Dead belowground tissues provide labile carbon sources to sulfate-reducing bacteria enhancing sulfide production and creating a positive feedback loop of increasing sulfide toxicity leading to further seagrass death. The carbon sequestration capacity of these dense seagrass communities is diminished three ways: 1) export of dead seagrass shoots and leaves as floating wrack, 2) in situ decomposition of roots, rhizomes, and some leaf material, and 3) reduced areal productivity of surviving seagrasses. Climate analyses show that, in the short term ( 50 years), higher water temperatures and evaporation rates might result in recurring seagrass mortality events. However, in the long term, sea level rise will increase tidal exchange and flushing in Florida Bay reducing the likelihood of seagrass mortality.

  3. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOEpatents

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  4. A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry; John M. Buffington; John G. King

    2004-01-01

    A variety of formulae has been developed to predict bed load transport in gravel bed rivers, ranging from simple regressions to complex multiparameter formulations. The ability to test these formulae across numerous field sites has, until recently, been hampered by a paucity of bed load transport data for gravel bed rivers. We use 2104 bed load transport observations...

  5. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  6. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  7. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  8. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occurmore » in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).« less

  9. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  10. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  11. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  12. How to Find Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  13. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  14. How to Find Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-13

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  15. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

  16. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  18. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  19. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  20. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  1. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  2. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a device intended for temporary use to help patient ventilation (breathing) by repeatedly tilting the patient...

  3. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  4. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  5. Dermatology Residents are Prescribing Tanning Bed Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kathryn L; Huang, Karen E; Huang, William W; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-07-15

    Although 90% of dermatologists discourage the use of tanning beds, about half of psoriasis patients report using tanning beds and most of these note improvement. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if dermatology residents are advocating the tanning bed use to their patients.

  6. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  7. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a device...

  11. RF Photonic Link Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    TEST BED 6. AUTHOR(S) 1Lt Charles Ware, Paul Payson, Richard Michalak and George Brost 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS C - N/A PE - 62204F...modulator [ 5 ]. As can be deduced from the above equation, biasing the modulator at Vπ/2, or quadrature, allows the device to operate in the most linear...is desirable to have access to the secure surveillance facility added to your 5 RRS badge, since room F-251 is in this area. This allows unescorted

  12. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    DOEpatents

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  13. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190

  14. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Linear test bed. Volume 1: Test bed no. 1. [aerospike test bed with segmented combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Linear Test Bed program was to design, fabricate, and evaluation test an advanced aerospike test bed which employed the segmented combustor concept. The system is designated as a linear aerospike system and consists of a thrust chamber assembly, a power package, and a thrust frame. It was designed as an experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of the linear aerospike-segmented combustor concept. The overall dimensions are 120 inches long by 120 inches wide by 96 inches in height. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure, at a mixture ratio of 5.5. At the design conditions, the sea level thrust is 200,000 pounds. The complete program including concept selection, design, fabrication, component test, system test, supporting analysis and posttest hardware inspection is described.

  16. Marginal bed load transport in a gravel bed stream, Sagehen Creek, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Marginal bed load transport describes the condition when relatively few bed particles are moving at any time. Bed particles resting in the shallowest bed pockets will move when the dimensionless shear stress т* exceeds a value of about 0.020. As т* increases, the number of bed particles moving increases. Significant motion of bed particles, i.e., when a substantial fraction of the bed particles are moving, occurs when т* exceeds a value of about 0.060. Thus marginal bed load transport occurs over the domain 0.020 < т* < 0.060. Marginal bed load transport rates and associated hydraulic characteristics of Sagehen Creek, a small mountain gravel bed stream, were measured on 55 days at discharges ranging from slightly less than one half of the bank-full discharge to more than 4 times the bank-full discharge. Dimensionless shear stress varied from 0.032 to 0.042, and bed particles as large as the 80th percentile of the bed surface were transported. The relation between reference dimensionless shear stress and relative particle protrusion for Sagehen Creek was determined by varying т*ri to obtain the best fit of the Parker bed load function to the measured transport rates. During the period of record (water years 1954–1991), the mean annual quantity of bed load transported past the Sagehen Creek gage was 24.7 tons. Forty-seven percent of all bed load transported during the 38 years of record occurred in just 6 years. During 10 of the 38 years of record, essentially no bed load was transported. The median diameter of bed load was 26 mm, compared to 58 mm in the surface bed material.

  17. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  18. A fluidized bed enhances biotreatment

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Chlorinated organics such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are often difficult to treat biologically because they degrade into intermediate compounds that are toxic to most microorganisms. But recent advances in fluidized bed biotreatment by Envirex, Inc. (Waukesha, Wis.) indicate that difficult-to-treat wastes like TCE can be successfully biodegraded. The key is to add chemicals (dubbed co-metabolic substrates), which promote the growth of microbes that preferentially degrade the unwanted intermediate compounds. Preliminary field tests using phenol, toluene and methane as the co-metabolic substrate show that TCE levels can be reduced by as much as 95%.

  19. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  20. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    PubMed

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  1. Low shear stress gravel-bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    A low stress gravel bed river is a river where the cross-sectional average dimensionless shear stress (??*) rarely exceeds 0.047. That is the case for the Gunnison River below Delta in Western Colorado. The cross-sectional average ??* in the Gunnison River has not exceeded 0.047, except at one cross section during one year, in the 87 years of record. A ??* of 0.047 is the critical ??* in the bed-load equation considered to be most applicable to gravel/cobble bed rivers (the Meyer-Peter, Mueller equation). According to this equation, there has been no bed-material movement in the Gunnison River since 1920; in fact there has been bed-material movement and this movement is biologically important. Bed-material is moved when the ??* is 0.016 or larger. Streamflows that cause a ??* of at least 0.016 maintain the aquatic habitat in a low shear stress river.

  2. The WCSAR telerobotics test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffie, N.; Zik, J.; Teeter, R.; Crabb, T.

    1988-01-01

    Component technologies for use in telerobotic systems for space are being developed. As part of this effort, a test bed was established in which these technologies can be verified and integrated into telerobotic systems. The facility consists of two slave industrial robots, an articulated master arm controller, a cartesian coordinate master arm controller, and a variety of sensors, displays and stimulators for feedback to human operators. The controller of one of the slave robots remains in its commercial state, while the controller of the other robot has been replaced with a new controller that achieves high-performance in telerobotic operating modes. A dexterous slave hand which consists of two fingers and a thumb is being developed, along with a number of force-reflecting and non-force reflecting master hands, wrists and arms. A tactile sensing finger tip based on piezo-film technology has been developed, along with tactile stimulators and CAD-based displays for sensory feedback and sensory substitution. The telerobotics test bed and its component technologies are described, as well as the integration of these component technologies into telerobotic systems, and their performance in conjunction with human operators.

  3. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  5. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  6. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOEpatents

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  7. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOEpatents

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  8. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  9. Fluidized bed regenerators for Brayton cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A recuperator consisting of two fluidized bed regenerators with circulating solid particles is considered for use in a Brayton cycle. These fluidized beds offer the possibility of high temperature operation if ceramic particles are used. Calculations of the efficiency and size of fluidized bed regenerators for typical values of operating parameters were made and compared to a shell and tube recuperator. The calculations indicate that the fluidized beds will be more compact than the shell and tube as well as offering a high temperature operating capability.

  10. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  11. Coastal Remote Sensing Investigations. Volume 1. Marine Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    and heavy growths of vegetation (mainly Thalassia ) in protected areas. The water is very clear, and extensive shallow areas exist with depths rangin...16.0 boundary of vegetated area A-2 3 5.0 Thalassia bed A-3 3 32.0 white carbonate sand B-I 5 16.5 hard, non-vegetated bottom B-2 4 30.0 white...carbonate sand B-3 3 12.5 boundary of vegetated area B-4 4 5.0 Thalassia bed C-I 3 35.0 white carbonate sand C-2 4 3.0 Thalassia bed 30 Figure

  12. The dominance of dispersion in the evolution of bed material waves in gravel-bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Yantao Cui; Gary Parker; James E. Pizzuto; Annjanette M. Dodd

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Bed material waves are temporary zones of sediment accumulation created by large sediment inputs. Recent theoretical, experimental and field studies examine factors in fluencing dispersion and translation of bed material waves in quasi-uniform, gravel-bed channels. Exchanges of sediment between a channel and its floodplain are...

  13. Manual for computing bed load transport using BAGS (Bedload Assessment for Gravel-bed Streams) Software

    Treesearch

    John Pitlick; Yantao Cui; Peter Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides background information and instructions on the use of a spreadsheet-based program for Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bed Streams (BAGS). The program implements six bed load transport equations developed specifically for gravel-bed rivers. Transport capacities are calculated on the basis of field measurements of channel geometry, reach-average slope,...

  14. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulatedmore » through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.« less

  15. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  16. Debridement and wound bed preparation.

    PubMed

    Falabella, Anna F

    2006-01-01

    Debridement can play a vital role in wound bed preparation and the removal of barriers that impair wound healing. In accordance with the TIME principles, debridement can help remove nonviable tissue, control inflammation or infection, decrease excess moisture, and stimulate a nonadvancing wound edge. There are many types of debridement, each with a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be clearly understood by the healthcare team. Failure to use the correct debridement method for a given type of wound may lead to further delays in healing, increase patient suffering, and unnecessarily increase the cost of care. This review article discusses the various methods of debridement, describes currently available debriding agents, evaluates the clinical data regarding their efficacy and safety, and describes strategies for the management of problematic nonhealing wounds.

  17. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  18. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  19. Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Dominic E.; Peñas, Pablo F.; Russell, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations. PMID:22232375

  20. Replication of Pine Needle Fuel Beds

    Treesearch

    John E. Deeming; Ernest R. Elliott

    1971-01-01

    A technique for building pine needle fuel beds has been developed and tested which assures uniform rates of spread and independence of the builder. Five beds were constructed by each of two technicians. They were burned under identical conditions and a comparison made of the time the fires took to spread 24 inches. A t-test showed that there was no difference between...

  1. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  2. Cross-Bedding at Whale Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    This view from the NASA Curiosity Mars rover shows an example of cross-bedding that results from water passing over a loose bed of sediment. It was taken at a target called Whale Rock within the Pahrump Hills outcrop at the base of Mount Sharp.

  3. Measurement of the bed material of gravel-bed rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, R.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the physical properties of a gravel-bed river is important in the calculation of sediment transport and physical habitat values for aquatic animals. These properties are not always easy to measure. One recent report on flushing of fines from the Klamath River did not contain information on one location because the grain size distribution of the armour could not be measured on a dry river bar. The grain size distribution could have been measured using a barrel sampler and converting the measurements to the same as would have been measured if a dry bar existed at the site. In another recent paper the porosity was calculated from an average value relation from the literature. The results of that paper may be sensitive to the actual value of porosity. Using the bulk density sampling technique based on a water displacement process presented in this paper the porosity could have been calculated from the measured bulk density. The principle topics of this paper are the measurement of the size distribution of the armour, and measurement of the porosity of the substrate. The 'standard' method of sampling of the armour is to do a Wolman-type count of the armour on a dry section of the river bed. When a dry bar does not exist the armour in an area of the wet streambed is to sample and the measurements transformed analytically to the same type of results that would have been obtained from the standard Wolman procedure. A comparison of the results for the San Miguel River in Colorado shows significant differences in the median size of the armour. The method use to determine the porosity is not 'high-tech' and there is a need improve knowledge of the porosity because of the importance of porosity in the aquatic ecosystem. The technique is to measure the in-situ volume of a substrate sample by measuring the volume of a frame over the substrate and then repeated the volume measurement after the sample is obtained from within the frame. The difference in the

  4. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  5. SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.B.

    A study of the effect of a thermal effluent on Thalassia testudinum was made at Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico, and at the laboratory of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Biomass of Thalassia was inversely correlated with temperature in established turtle grass flats near a thermal plume. Visual signs of stress were noted in transplanted Thalassia samples after two weeks of exposure to temperatures of 34.5$sup 0$ to 35$sup 0$C. Mortality occurred in transplanted Thalassia after seven weeks of exposure to 35.0$sup 0$ to 36.4$sup 0$C. Biomass and pigment values varied nonlinearly with temperature. There was strongmore » correlation between the effect of temperature on biomass and on the absorption ratio 410 nm/665 nm of acetone extracts of leaf material between 28$sup 0$ and 36$sup 0$C. This absorption ratio was proposed as an index of thermal stress in the plant. Radionuclide uptake experiments demonstrated that osmoregulation in Thalassia was affected by temperature. Sodium and certain other cations were preferentially excluded from Thalassia at temperatures normally experienced by the plant. Between 32$sup 0$ and 34.5$sup 0$C accelerated uptake of these cations in leaves occurred. Sodium poisoning and breakdown of osmoregulatory processes were proposed as the cause of visual signs of thermal stress and mortality in Thalassia. (auth)« less

  6. Solids feed nozzle for fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical fuel pipe of a fluidized bed extends up through the perforated support structure of the bed to discharge granulated solid fuel into the expanded bed. A cap, as a deflecting structure, is supported above the discharge of the fuel pipe and is shaped and arranged to divert the carrier fluid and granulated fuel into the combusting bed. The diverter structure is spaced above the end of the fuel pipe and provided with a configuration on its underside to form a venturi section which generates a low pressure in the stream into which the granules of solid fuel are drawn to lengthen their residence time in the combustion zone of the bed adjacent the fuel pipe.

  7. Fluidized bed heating process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHale, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Capacitive electrical heating of a fluidized bed enables the individual solid particles within the bed to constitute the hottest portion thereof. This effect is achieved by applying an A. C. voltage potential between dielectric coated electrodes, one of which is advantageously the wall of the fluidized bed rejection zone, sufficient to create electrical currents in said particles so as to dissipate heat therein. In the decomposition of silane or halosilanes in a fluidized bed reaction zone, such heating enhances the desired deposition of silicon product on the surface of the seed particles within the fluidized bed and minimizes undesired coating of silicon on the wall of the reaction zone and the homogeneous formation of fine silicon powder within said zone.

  8. Does bedding affect the airway and allergy?

    PubMed

    Siebers, R W; Crane, J

    2011-04-01

    Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  9. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  10. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in the Caribbean: the importance of habitats and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Neigel, Joseph; Leberg, Paul; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Although reef corals are dependent of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, the large majority of corals spawn gametes that do not contain their vital symbiont. This suggests the existence of a pool of Symbiodinium in the environment, of which surprisingly little is known. Reefs around Curaçao (Caribbean) were sampled for free-living Symbiodinium at three time periods (summer 2009, summer 2010, and winter 2010) to characterize different habitats (water column, coral rubble, sediment, the macroalgae Halimeda spp., Dictyota spp., and Lobophora variegata, and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum) that could serve as environmental sources of symbionts for corals. We detected the common clades of Symbiodinium that engage in symbiosis with Caribbean coral hosts A, B, and C using Symbiodinium-specific primers of the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S ribosomal DNA gene. We also discovered clade G and, for the first time in the Caribbean, the presence of free-living Symbiodinium clades F and H. Additionally, this study expands the habitat range of free-living Symbiodinium as environmental Symbiodinium was detected in T. testudinum seagrass beds. The patterns of association between free-living Symbiodinium types and habitats were shown to be complex. An interesting, strong association was seen between some clade A sequence types and sediment, suggesting that sediment could be a niche where clade A radiated from a free-living ancestor. Other interesting relationships were seen between sequence types of Symbiodinium clade C with Halimeda spp. and clades B and F with T. testudinium. These relationships highlight the importance of some macroalgae and seagrasses in hosting free-living Symbiodinium. Finally, studies spanning beyond a 1-yr cycle are needed to further expand on our results in order to better understand the variation of Symbiodinium in the environment through time. All together, results presented here showed that the great diversity of free-living Symbiodinium has

  11. Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  12. Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo; Hosek, William

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

  13. The Virtual Test Bed Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis C.

    2002-01-01

    This is a report of my activities as a NASA Fellow during the summer of 2002 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The core of these activities is the assigned project: the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) from the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate. The VTB Project has its foundations in the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Intelligent Launch & Range Operations program. The objective of the VTB project is to develop a new and unique collaborative computing environment where simulation models can be hosted and integrated in a seamless fashion. This collaborative computing environment will be used to build a Virtual Range as well as a Virtual Spaceport. This project will work as a technology pipeline to research, develop, test and validate R&D efforts against real time operations without interfering with the actual operations or consuming the operational personnel s time. This report will also focus on the systems issues required to conceptualize and provide form to a systems architecture capable of handling the different demands.

  14. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  15. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  16. Keeping tabs on seagrass beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Sargent, F.J.; Leary, T.J.

    1997-06-01

    Seagrasses form the foundation of complex, fragile communities that include marine and estuarine animals, especially larval and juvenile fish, providing critical shelter and sustenance. Seagrasses also have a role in providing habitat for waterfowl, marine turtles and manimals. In addition, seagrasses improve water quality by stabilizing mobile sediments and converting some pollutants into plant biomass. The issue of propeller scarring or propeller dredging in seagrass beds has received much attention since 1990. The scarring of seagrass results from personal watercraft. Heightened interest has instigated numerous monitoring and mapping projects on propeller scarring and regrowth characteristics within seagrasses. The study areasmore » selected for this paper are located within Tampa Bay, Florida. Specifically, they are Shell Island and Miquel Bay. Spatial monitoring for the extent of seagrass scarring in the Tampa Bay region was conducted in two ways, a regional (general) approach and a site specific (detailed) approach. Regional monitoring assessed the status of seagrass in Tampa Bay and identified {open_quote}hot spots{close_quote}. After identifying {open_quote}hot spots{close_quote}, boat surveys were used to confirm or deny the initial assessment. This poster involves the design of a propeller scarring monitoring program using several methods: Hi8 video, digital cameras, film cameras, and differential GPS combined with Arcview. A pilot program to evaluate the adequacy of these monitoring devices and the recommendation of specific actions in areas of severe propeller scarring will be presented.« less

  17. Kinetics of bed fracturing around mine workings

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, Yu.A.

    1988-03-01

    A failure of the bed near the walls of the workings of a mine away from the face occurs gradually over time and in this paper the authors take a kinetic approach to evaluating its development. The influence of certain mine engineering factors on the pattern of bed fracturing is discussed. The effect of the depth of mining is shown. Cracking occurs in the portion of the seam at the face near the ground at some distance from it on the interface between soft and hard coal. The density of the fractured rocks and their response affect the bed fracturingmore » near the stope face.« less

  18. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies.

  19. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  20. [The microcirculatory bed of the human epididymis].

    PubMed

    Aleksieiev, O M

    1998-08-01

    Based on the material of 24 human epididymides at ages 18 to 54, hemomicrocirculatory bed was studied of epididymis in man with the aid of a complex of morphologic techniques (injection of 20% Chinese ink-gelatine suspension, injection of a weak solution of caustic silver, transmission electron microscopy). It has been ascertained that architectonics and ultrastructural features of various links of the hemomicrocirculatory bed have signs of regional specificity for the subcapsular vascular network, small seminal ducts of caput epididymidis, ductus epididymidis of the head, body and tail of the organ. Reasons are discussed why specific hemomicrocirculatory bed should be caused to develop in different parts of the organ.

  1. Paediatric burn unit in Portugal: Beds needed using a bed-day approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, João V; Viana, João; Amarante, José; Freitas, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high burden of children with burns, there is not a paediatric burn unit (PBU) in Portugal. We aimed to estimate the Portuguese health care providing needs on paediatric burns. We performed a nation-wide retrospective study, between 2009 and 2013, among less than 16 years-old inpatients with burns that met the transfer criteria to a burn unit in Portugal. A bed-day approach was used, targeting an occupancy rate of 70-75%, and possible locations were studied. The primary outcome was the number of beds needed, and secondary outcomes were the overload and revenue for each possible number of beds in a PBU. A total of 1155 children met the transfer criteria to a burn unit, representing a total of 17,371 bed-days. Occupancy rates of 11-bed, 12-bed, 13-bed and 14-bed PBU were, respectively, 79.7%, 75.3%, 71.0% and 66.8%. The 13-bed PBU scenario would represent an overload of 523 bed-days, revenue of more than 5 million Euros and a ratio of 1 PBU bed per 123,409 children. Using a groundbreaking approach, the optimal number of PBU beds needed in Portugal is 13. However, as half of the patients who met burn transfer criteria are not transferred, this bed number might be overestimated if this pattern maintains, despite the underestimation with our method approach. If a PBU is to be created the preferable location is Porto. Cost-effectiveness studies should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  3. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  4. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.

    PubMed

    Proietto, R L; Hinckley, L S; Fox, L K; Andrew, S M

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner on sawdust bedding pH, dry matter (DM), environmental pathogen counts, and environmental bacterial counts on teat ends of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk yield, and milk somatic cell count, and were negative for the presence of an intramammary pathogen. Within each pair, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 3-wk periods in a crossover design. Treatment groups consisted of 9 freestalls per group bedded with either untreated sawdust or sawdust with a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner, added at 3- to 4-d intervals over each 21-d period. Bedding and teat ends were aseptically sampled on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 for determination of environmental bacterial counts. At the same time points, bedding was sampled for DM and pH determination. The bacteria identified in the bedding material were total gram-negative bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and coliform bacteria. The bacteria identified on the teat ends were Streptococcus spp., coliform bacteria, and Klebsiella spp. Teat end score, milk somatic cell count, and intramammary pathogen presence were measured weekly. Bedding and teat cleanliness, environmental high and low temperatures, and dew point data were collected daily. The bedding conditioner reduced the pH, but not the DM, of the sawdust bedding compared with untreated sawdust. Overall environmental bacterial counts in bedding were lower for treated sawdust. Total bacterial counts in bedding and on teat ends increased with time over both periods. Compared with untreated sawdust, the treated bedding had lower counts of total gram-negative bacteria and streptococci, but not coliform counts. Teat end bacterial counts were lower for cows bedded on treated sawdust for streptococci, coliforms, and Klebsiella spp. compared with cows bedded on untreated sawdust. The clay-based acidic bedding conditioner

  5. Design of fluidized-bed fermentors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Przezdziecki, J.

    1986-06-01

    Designing a fluidized-bed bioreactor requires choosing the best support particle (if any). Effectiveness factors (proportional to reactor volumetric productivity) are derived for flocs, solid spherical supports, porous supports, and adsorbent supports. The derivation demonstrates a mathematical procedure for reducing the diffusion/uptake equations for many components (substrates and inhibitory products) to a single equation, and for identifying the limiting component. With solid supports there exists a film thickness that maximizes the effectiveness, and the design objective is to keep the film near this optimum throughout the bed. This involves consideration of the effect of support particle density and film growth onmore » bed stratification. Other considerations in packing support particles are obtaining reasonable values for bed height and diameter, minimizing mass transfer resistance between liquid and biomass, and preventing surface shear from stripping off the biomass. 20 references.« less

  6. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Type of Resource

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These brochures, fact sheets, manuals, posters, checklists, videos, and more provide guidance such as hotel room inspection and pesticide safety.

  7. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  8. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  9. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  10. Bedding Pattern Interpreted as Martian Delta Deposition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    On March 25, 2014, view from the Mastcam on NASA Curiosity Mars rover looks southward at the Kimberley waypoint. Multiple sandstone beds show systematic inclination to the south suggesting progressive build-out of delta sediments.

  11. Monitoring by Control Technique - Electrified Filter Bed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about electrified filter bed control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  12. Positive train control test bed interoperability upgrades.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed to support additional PTC testing configurations under Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Task Order 270. The scope of work provided additional PTC Co...

  13. Effect of bed characters on the direct synthesis of dimethyldichlorosilane in fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Duan, Ji H; Chen, Guang H; Wang, Wei W

    2015-03-06

    This paper presents the numerical investigation of the effects of the general bed characteristics such as superficial gas velocities, bed temperature, bed heights and particle size, on the direct synthesis in a 3D fluidized bed reactor. A 3D model for the gas flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer was coupled to the direct synthesis reaction mechanism verified in the literature. The model was verified by comparing the simulated reaction rate and dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity with the experimental data in the open literature and real production data. Computed results indicate that superficial gas velocities, bed temperature, bed heights, and particle size have vital effect on the reaction rates and/or M2 selectivity.

  14. Effect of Bed Characters on the Direct Synthesis of Dimethyldichlorosilane in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pan; Duan, Ji H.; Chen, Guang H.; Wang, Wei W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical investigation of the effects of the general bed characteristics such as superficial gas velocities, bed temperature, bed heights and particle size, on the direct synthesis in a 3D fluidized bed reactor. A 3D model for the gas flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer was coupled to the direct synthesis reaction mechanism verified in the literature. The model was verified by comparing the simulated reaction rate and dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity with the experimental data in the open literature and real production data. Computed results indicate that superficial gas velocities, bed temperature, bed heights, and particle size have vital effect on the reaction rates and/or M2 selectivity. PMID:25742729

  15. Potential for Biomagnification of Contaminants within Marine and Freshwater Food Webs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    level. 17. In a turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) community in Card Sound, Florida, Gilio and Segar (1976) found no indication of increased Cd...Florida, were reported by Gilio and Segar (1976). Table 6 shows that the highest mean Cu concentrations were 21, 12, 7.4, and 5.8 ppm, respectively...elements in Card Sound, Florida, showed no trend toward biomagnification of Pb ( Gilio and Segar 1976). The mean Pb concentrations in the macrofauna were

  16. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  17. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  18. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  19. Use of glow discharge in fluidized beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Wood, P. C.; Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Static charges and agglomerization of particles in a fluidized bed systems are minimized by maintaining in at least part of the bed a radio frequency glow discharge. This approach is eminently suitable for processes in which the conventional charge removing agents, i.e., moisture or conductive particle coatings, cannot be used. The technique is applied here to the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate to yield calcium superoxide, an exceptionally water and heat sensitive reaction.

  20. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  1. Fluidized Bed Boiler Assessment for Navy Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    rather than removing it from the flue gas later with "scrubbing" devices. Intro- duction of limestone in the bed will reduce SO emissions; two...boiler in a satisfactory manner, the bed level, combustion temperature, and the flue gas composition and temperature should be continuously monitored...The flue gas composition should be c^-ɝely monitored for pollutants and combustion efficiency. EVOLUTION OF FBC BOILERS The performance of FBC

  2. Flow over gravel beds with clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M.; Venditti, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of a gravel bed has been shown to alter the entrainment threshold. Structures such as clusters, reticulate stone cells and other discrete structures lock grains together, making it more difficult for them to be mobilized. These structures also generate form drag, reducing the shear stress available for mobilization. Form drag over gravel beds is often assumed to be negligible, but this assumption is not well supported. Here, we explore how cluster density and arrangement affect flow resistance and the flow structure over a fixed gravel bed in a flume experiment. Cluster density was varied from 6 to 68.3 clusters per square meter which corresponds to areal bed coverages of 2 to 17%. We used regular, irregular and random arrangements of the clusters. Our results show that flow resistance over a planar gravel bed initially declines, then increases with flow depth. The addition of clusters increases flow resistance, but the effect is dependent on cluster density, flow depth and arrangement. At the highest density, clusters can increase flow resistance as by as much as 8 times when compared to flat planar bed with no grain-related form drag. Spatially resolved observations of flow over the clusters indicate that a well-defined wake forms in the lee of each cluster. At low cluster density, the wakes are isolated and weak. As cluster density increases, the wakes become stronger. At the highest density, the wakes interact and the within cluster flow field detaches from the overlying flow. This generates a distinct shear layer at the height of the clusters. In spite of this change in the flow field at high density, our results suggest that flow resistance simply increases with cluster density. Our results suggest that the form drag associated with a gravel bed can be substantial and that it depends on the arrangement of the grains on the bed.

  3. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  4. How dynamic are ice-stream beds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Damon; Bingham, Robert G.; King, Edward C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Brisbourne, Alex M.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Hogg, Anna E.; Vaughan, David G.

    2018-05-01

    Projections of sea-level rise contributions from West Antarctica's dynamically thinning ice streams contain high uncertainty because some of the key processes involved are extremely challenging to observe. An especially poorly observed parameter is sub-decadal stability of ice-stream beds, which may be important for subglacial traction, till continuity and landform development. Only two previous studies have made repeated geophysical measurements of ice-stream beds at the same locations in different years, but both studies were limited in spatial extent. Here, we present the results from repeat radar measurements of the bed of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, conducted 3-6 years apart, along a cumulative ˜ 60 km of profiles. Analysis of the correlation of bed picks between repeat surveys shows that 90 % of the bed displays no significant change despite the glacier increasing in speed by up to 40 % over the last decade. We attribute the negligible detection of morphological change at the bed of Pine Island Glacier to the ubiquitous presence of a deforming till layer, wherein sediment transport is in steady state, such that sediment is transported along the basal interface without inducing morphological change to the radar-sounded basal interface. Given the precision of our measurements, the upper limit of subglacial erosion observed here is 500 mm a-1, far exceeding erosion rates reported for glacial settings from proglacial sediment yields, but substantially below subglacial erosion rates of 1.0 m a-1 previously reported from repeat geophysical surveys in West Antarctica.

  5. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  6. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison ofmore » velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.« less

  7. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E. K.

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  8. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine...

  13. Effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Tsai, Wan-Tien; Cooper, Richard; White, Jeffrey

    2011-02-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

  14. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao

    2013-03-01

    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  15. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (<3%) and high (>40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  16. Synthetic bedding and wheeze in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2003-01-01

    The reasons for the increase in childhood asthma over time are unclear. The indoor environment is of particular concern. An adverse role for synthetic bedding on asthma development in childhood has been suggested by cross-sectional studies that have found an association between synthetic pillow use and childhood wheeze. Prospective data on infant bedding have not been available. Bedding data at 1 month of age were available from an infant survey for children who were participating in a 1995 follow-up study (N = 863; 78% traced). The 1995 follow-up was embedded in a larger cross-sectional survey involving 6,378 seven year olds in Tasmania (N = 92% of eligible). Outcome measures included respiratory symptoms as defined in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. Frequent wheeze was defined as more than 12 wheeze episodes over the past year compared with no wheeze. Synthetic pillow use at 1 month of age was associated with frequent wheeze at age 7 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-5.5) independent of childhood exposure. Current synthetic pillow and quilt use was strongly associated with frequent wheeze (aRR = 5.2; CI = 1.3-20.6). Substantial trends were evident for an association of increasing number of synthetic bedding items with frequent wheeze and with increasing wheeze frequency. Among children with asthma, the age of onset of asthma occurred earlier if synthetic bedding was used in infancy. In this cohort, synthetic bedding was strongly and consistently associated with frequent childhood wheeze. The association did not appear to be attributable to bedding choice as part of an asthma management strategy.

  17. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  18. Response of bed mobility to sediment supply in natural gravel bed channels: A detailed examination and evaluation of mobility parameters

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle; J. M. Nelson; B. L. Barkett; J. Pitlick; M. A. Madej

    1998-01-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that bed mobility in gravel bed channels responds to changes in sediment supply, but detailed examinations of this adjustment in natural channels have been lacking, and practical methodologies to measure bed mobility have not been tested. We examined six gravel-bed, alternate-bar channels which have a wide range in annual...

  19. Coal fired fluid bed module for a single elevation style fluid bed power plant

    DOEpatents

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the burning of pulverized fuel having a specific waterwall arrangement that comprises a structurally reinforced framework of wall tubes. The wall tubes are reversely bent from opposite sides and then bonded together to form tie rods that extend across the bed to support the lateral walls thereof.

  20. Bed Load Variability and Morphology of Gravel Bed Rivers Subject to Unsteady Flow: A Laboratory Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.

  1. Performance of bed load transport equations in mountain gravel-bed rivers: A re-analysis

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry; John M. Buffington; John G. King; Peter Goodwin

    2006-01-01

    Our recent examination of bed load transport data from mountain gravel-bed rivers in the western United States shows that the data can be fit by a simple power function of discharge, with the coefficient being a function of drainage area (a surrogate for basin sediment supply) and the exponent being a function of supply-related channel armoring (transport capacity in...

  2. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Fluidized Bed and Fixed Bed Latent Heat Thermal Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technology is essential because its stores available energy at low cost. Objective of the work is to store the thermal energy in a most efficient method. This work is deal with thermal analysis of fluidized bed and fixed bed latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) system with different encapsulation materials (aluminium, brass and copper). D-Mannitol has been used as phase change material (PCM). Encapsulation material which is in orbicular shape with 4 inch diameter and 2 mm thickness orbicular shaped product is used. Therminol-66 is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). Arrangement of encapsulation material is done in two ways namely fluidized bed and fixed bed thermal storage system. Comparison was made between the performance of fixed bed and fluidized bed with different encapsulation material. It is observed that from the economical point of view aluminium in fluidized bed LHTS System has highest efficiency than copper and brass. The thermal energy storage system can be analyzed with fixed bed by varying mass flow rate of oil paves a way to find effective heat energy transfer.

  4. Correction to "A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers"

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry; John M. Buffington; John G. King

    2007-01-01

    In the paper "A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers" by Jeffrey J. Barry et al. (Water Resources Research, 40, W10401, doi:10.1029/2004WR003190, 2004), the y axis for Figures 5 and 10 was incorrectly labeled and should have read "log10 (predicted transport) - log10 (observed transport)." In addition,...

  5. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  6. Monolithic Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Bed Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponzo, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    With recent increased industry and government interest in rocket grade hydrogen peroxide as a viable propellant, significant effort has been expended to improve on earlier developments. This effort has been predominately centered in improving heterogeneous. typically catalyst beds; and homogeneous catalysts, which are typically solutions of catalytic substances. Heterogeneous catalyst beds have traditionally consisted of compressed wire screens plated with a catalytic substance, usually silver, and were used m many RCS applications (X-1, Mercury, and Centaur for example). Aerojet has devised a heterogeneous catalyst design that is monolithic (single piece), extremely compact, and has pressure drops equal to or less than traditional screen beds. The design consists of a bonded stack of very thin, photoetched metal plates, silver coated. This design leads to a high surface area per unit volume and precise flow area, resulting in high, stable, and repeatable performance. Very high throughputs have been demonstrated with 90% hydrogen peroxide. (0.60 lbm/s/sq in at 1775-175 psia) with no flooding of the catalyst bed. Bed life of over 900 seconds has also been demonstrated at throughputs of 0.60 lbm/s/sq in across varying chamber pressures. The monolithic design also exhibits good starting performance, short break-in periods, and will easily scale to various sizes.

  7. Advection and dispersion of bed load tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Eric; Devauchelle, Olivier; James, François

    2018-05-01

    We use the erosion-deposition model introduced by Charru et al. (2004) to numerically simulate the evolution of a plume of bed load tracers entrained by a steady flow. In this model, the propagation of the plume results from the stochastic exchange of particles between the bed and the bed load layer. We find a transition between two asymptotic regimes. The tracers, initially at rest, are gradually set into motion by the flow. During this entrainment regime, the plume is strongly skewed in the direction of propagation and continuously accelerates while spreading nonlinearly. With time, the skewness of the plume eventually reaches a maximum value before decreasing. This marks the transition to an advection-diffusion regime in which the plume becomes increasingly symmetrical, spreads linearly, and advances at constant velocity. We analytically derive the expressions of the position, the variance, and the skewness of the plume and investigate their asymptotic regimes. Our model assumes steady state. In the field, however, bed load transport is intermittent. We show that the asymptotic regimes become insensitive to this intermittency when expressed in terms of the distance traveled by the plume. If this finding applies to the field, it might provide an estimate for the average bed load transport rate.

  8. Changes in Seagrass Species Composition in Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Effects on Associated Seagrass Fauna

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Brandon R.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Cammarata, Kirk; Smee, Delbert L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the communities associated with different seagrass species to predict how shifts in seagrass species composition may affect associated fauna. In the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, coverage of the historically dominant shoal grass (Halodule wrightii) is decreasing, while coverage of manatee grass (Syringodium filiforme) and turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) is increasing. We conducted a survey of fishes, crabs, and shrimp in monospecific beds of shoal, manatee, and turtle grass habitats of South Texas, USA to assess how changes in sea grass species composition would affect associated fauna. We measured seagrass parameters including shoot density, above ground biomass, epiphyte type, and epiphyte abundance to investigate relationships between faunal abundance and these seagrass parameters. We observed significant differences in communities among three seagrass species, even though these organisms are highly motile and could easily travel among the different seagrasses. Results showed species specific relationships among several different characteristics of the seagrass community and individual species abundance. More work is needed to discern the drivers of the complex relationships between individual seagrass species and their associated fauna. PMID:25229897

  9. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales) to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae) and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth A; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-12-01

    Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhi- zome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior.

  10. The influence of seagrass on shell layers and Florida Bay mudbanks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prager, E.J.; Halley, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aerial photography indicates that sometime since the early 1970's, an emergent ridge of shell debris developed on a mudbank north of Calusa Key in Florida Bay. Coarse shell deposits on and within the Bay's shallow mudbanks are believed to be the product of transport during major storm events and subsequent winnowing. However, shell material from the ridge contains nuclear bomb 14C, supporting formation within the past 30 years and the last major hurricanes to influence Florida Bay were Donna and Betsy (1960 and 1965). Results from this study suggest that the Calusa ridge and other coarse shell deposits in Florida Bay can result from, 1) periodic seagrass mortality and wave-induced transport during frequent winter cold fronts and/or 2) mollusc blooms and subsequent burial. A survey of bottom types indicates that dense to intermediate beds of seagrass, mainly Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), occur within the shallow basins of western Florida Bay and along the margins of Bay mudbanks. Wave measurements and modeling indicate that Thalassia along mudbank margins can reduce incoming wave-energy by over 80%. Seagrass beds also host particularly dense populations of molluscs from periodic 'blooms' and are believed to be the major source of coarse sediments in the Bay. Thus, if bank-edge seagrass dies, sediments, including shell debris, become exposed and subject to greatly increased wave energy. Modeling indicates that winds typical of winter cold fronts in South Florida can produce near-bottom velocities and shear stress at a grass-free bank edge which are sufficient to transport coarse carbonate grains. Shell layers found at depth in mudbank cores can also be explained by previous episodes of sediment accretion over mollusc-rich seagrass beds or grass bed mortality at the edge of a mudbank and shell transport during cold front passage. The latter implies that mortality of marginal seagrass beds has occurred throughout the history of Florida Bay and that the

  11. Field assessment of alternative bed-load transport estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, G.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of near-bed sediment velocities with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) is an emerging approach for quantifying bed-load sediment fluxes in rivers. Previous investigations of the technique have relied on conventional physical bed-load sampling to provide reference transport information with which to validate the ADCP measurements. However, physical samples are subject to substantial errors, especially under field conditions in which surrogate methods are most needed. Comparisons between ADCP bed velocity measurements with bed-load transport rates estimated from bed-form migration rates in the lower Missouri River show a strong correlation between the two surrogate measures over a wide range of mild to moderately intense sediment transporting conditions. The correlation between the ADCP measurements and physical bed-load samples is comparatively poor, suggesting that physical bed-load sampling is ineffective for ground-truthing alternative techniques in large sand-bed rivers. Bed velocities measured in this study became more variable with increasing bed-form wavelength at higher shear stresses. Under these conditions, bed-form dimensions greatly exceed the region of the bed ensonified by the ADCP, and the magnitude of the acoustic measurements depends on instrument location with respect to bed-form crests and troughs. Alternative algorithms for estimating bed-load transport from paired longitudinal profiles of bed topography were evaluated. An algorithm based on the routing of local erosion and deposition volumes that eliminates the need to identify individual bed forms was found to give results similar to those of more conventional dune-tracking methods. This method is particularly useful in cases where complex bed-form morphology makes delineation of individual bed forms difficult. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  12. Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems

    DOEpatents

    Salvador, Louis A.; Andermann, Ronald E.; Rath, Lawrence K.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

  13. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  14. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  15. New approach to calibrating bed load samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbell, D.W.; Stevens, H.H.; Skinner, J.V.; Beverage, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Cyclic variations in bed load discharge at a point, which are an inherent part of the process of bed load movement, complicate calibration of bed load samplers and preclude the use of average rates to define sampling efficiencies. Calibration curves, rather than efficiencies, are derived by two independent methods using data collected with prototype versions of the Helley‐Smith sampler in a large calibration facility capable of continuously measuring transport rates across a 9 ft (2.7 m) width. Results from both methods agree. Composite calibration curves, based on matching probability distribution functions of samples and measured rates from different hydraulic conditions (runs), are obtained for six different versions of the sampler. Sampled rates corrected by the calibration curves agree with measured rates for individual runs.

  16. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  17. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  18. Bed failure induced by internal solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Rosario, Gustavo A.; Diamessis, Peter J.; Jenkins, James T.

    2017-07-01

    The pressure field inside a porous bed induced by the passage of an Internal Solitary Wave (ISW) of depression is examined using high-accuracy numerical simulations. The velocity and density fields are obtained by solving the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long Equation, for a two-layer, continuously stratified water column. The total wave-induced pressure across the surface of the bed is computed by vertically integrating for the hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic contributions. The bed is assumed to be a continuum composed of either sand or silt, with a small amount of trapped gas. Results show variations in pore-water pressure penetrating deeper into more conductive materials and remaining for a prolonged period after the wave has passed. In order to quantify the potential for failure, the vertical pressure gradient is compared against the buoyant weight of the bed. The pressure gradient exceeds this weight for weakly conductive materials. Failure is further enhanced by a decrease in bed saturation, consistent with studies in surface-wave induced failure. In deeper water, the ISW-induced pressure is stronger, causing failure only for weakly conductive materials. The pressure associated with the free-surface displacement that accompanies ISWs is significant, when the water depth is less than 100 m, but has little influence when it is greater than 100 m, where the hydrostatic pressure due to the pycnocline displacement is much larger. Since the pore-pressure gradient reduces the specific weight of the bed, results show that particles are easier for the flow to suspend, suggesting that pressure contributes to the powerful resuspension events observed in the field.

  19. Astronomical cycle origin of bedded chert: A middle Triassic bedded chert sequence, Inuyama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Tada, Ryuji; Sakuma, Hironobu

    2010-09-01

    Astronomical forcing is one of the main drivers of climate change, and astronomical cyclicity recorded in sediments provides a clue to understand the dynamics of the global climate system. Bedded cherts consist of rhythmic alternations of chert and shale beds. Although previous studies have hypothesized that the origin of bedded chert is related to astronomical cycles (e.g. Fischer, 1976; Hori et al., 1993), conclusive proof remains elusive. To explore this possibility, we established a continuous, high-resolution lithostratigraphy of middle Triassic bedded chert in Central Japan. The average duration of each chert-shale couplet is 20 kyr, similar to that of the precession cycle. Spectral analysis of a bed number series of thickness variations in chert beds was performed assuming that each chert-shale couplet represents a 20-kyr precession cycle. The results reveal cycles involving approximately 200, 20, 5, and 2-3 beds, corresponding to periodicities of approximately 4000, 400, 100, and 40-60 kyr, respectively. By further assuming that the 20-bed cycle represents a 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of constant and stable periodicity, we converted the bed number series to a time series. Spectral analysis of the time series revealed distinct periodicities of 3600, 117, 97, and 38 kyr, in addition to 405 kyr. Besides 3600 kyr, these periodicities agree well with the 120, 95, and 37 kyr periodicities for eccentricity cycles and the obliquity cycle during the Triassic. Moreover, we detected amplitude modulation of the approximately 100-kyr cycle of thickness variations in chert beds with a 405-kyr periodicity, which may correspond to amplitude modulation of 100-kyr climatic precession cycle with the 405-kyr periodicity. The approximately 3600-kyr periodicity described above and 1800-kyr periodicity manifested as the amplitude modulation of the 405-kyr cycle are correlated to present-day long-term eccentricity cycles of 2400 and 4800 kyr evolved by chaotic behavior of solar

  20. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence levelmore » were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.« less

  1. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect

    KLEIN, JAMES

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percentmore » confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.« less

  2. Enzymatic Catalytic Beds For Oxidation Of Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    1993-01-01

    Modules containing beds of enzymatic material catalyzing oxidation of primary alcohols and some other organic compounds developed for use in wastewater-treatment systems of future spacecraft. Designed to be placed downstream of multifiltration modules, which contain filters and sorbent beds removing most of non-alcoholic contaminants but fail to remove significant amounts of low-molecular-weight, polar, nonionic compounds like alcohols. Catalytic modules also used on Earth to oxidize primary alcohols and other compounds in wastewater streams and industrial process streams.

  3. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Perhonen, M A; Franco, F; Lane, L D; Buckey, J C; Blomqvist, C G; Zerwekh, J E; Peshock, R M; Weatherall, P T; Levine, B D

    2001-08-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  4. Bed load transport by submerged jets

    PubMed Central

    Francis, J. R. D.; McCreath, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Some similarities are presented between the bed load transport of noncohesive grains in long rivers and at a local, jet-induced scour. Experiments are described in which a submerged two-dimensional slot nozzle, inclined downward, eroded a deep sand bed. The rate of erosion at the very beginning of a scour was evaluated and compared with river data by use of the idea of “stream-power.” Empirical relationships for the two cases are similar, although the geometry of the boundaries is quite different. PMID:16592696

  5. An infrared illuminator for a healing bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharekar, Madhu A.; Crowley, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Bio-stimulation by a light is called the Light Therapy (LT) and an Infrared Illuminator (IRI) provides the human sleeping in a Healing Bed (HB) continuously a dose of the IR radiation. General specifications for the IRI given below and its data are discussed in the paper. (1) Use of 60" wide by 80" long queen size bed. (2) A LED providing 1.5 mw at 1550 nm is selected. (3) 60 LED are mounted in series and parallel on a chip and this chip is mounted on top of the HB.

  6. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  7. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  8. Exploring the Early Structure of a Rapidly Decompressed Particle Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, R. J.; Clarke, Amanda; Johnson, Blair; Arizona State University Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Rapid expansion of dense, pressurized beds of fine particles subjected to rapid reduction of the external pressure is studied in a vertical shock tube. A near-sonic expansion wave impinges on the particle bed-gas interface and rapidly unloads the particle bed. A high-speed video camera captures events occurring during bed expansion. The particle bed does not expand homogeneously, but breaks down into horizontal slabs and then transforms into a cellular-type structure. There are several key parameters that affect the particle bed evolution, including particle size and initial bed height. Analyses of this bed structure evolution from experiments with varying particle sizes and initial bed heights is presented. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  9. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature risemore » monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.« less

  10. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  11. Numerical simulation of turbulence and sand-bed morphodynamics in natural waterways under live bed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-11-01

    We develop and validate a 3D numerical model for coupled simulations of turbulence and sand-bed morphodynamics in natural waterways under live bed conditions. We employ the Fluid-Structure Interaction Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (FSI-CURVIB) method of Khosronejad et al. (Adv. in Water Res., 2011). The mobile channel bed is discretized with an unstructured triangular grid and treated as the sharp-interface immersed boundary embedded in a background curvilinear mesh. Transport of bed load and suspended load sediments are combined in the non-equilibrium from of the Exner-Poyla for the bed surface elevation, which evolves due to the spatio-temporally varying bed shear stress and velocity vector induced by the turbulent flow field. Both URANS and LES models are implemented to simulate the effects of turbulence. Simulations are carried out for a wide range of waterways, from small scale streams to large-scale rivers, and the simulated sand-waves are quantitatively compared to available measurements. It is shown that the model can accurately capture sand-wave formation, growth, and migration processes observed in nature. The simulated bed-forms are found to have amplitude and wave length scales ranging from the order of centimeters up to several meters. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 and EAR-0738726, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program Grant NCHRP-HR 24-33. Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  12. Mineral resources of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas, Lake County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, W.J.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Devel's Garden lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas include approximately 70,940 acres and are underlain entirely by Pleistocene or Holocene lava flows and associated sediments. There is no evidence of hydrothermal alteration in the study areas. No resources were identified in the study areas, but there is low potential for perlite resources in the southern part of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed and the northern half of the Squaw Ridge Lava Bed areas. All three study areas have low potential for geothermal resources and for oil and gas resources.

  13. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    DOEpatents

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  14. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  15. Preferences for paper bedding material of the laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Akio; Gonda, Tatuo; Takechi, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei

    2002-04-01

    In order to identify indicators of the preferences for bedding materials, the paper bedding material preferences of laboratory mice were investigated in the present study. Four cages, each containing a different structure of paper bedding material were connected to allow free access to each cage. The preferences for paper bedding materials of laboratory mice were judged by the differences in the length of stay and sleep in each cage. The mice preferred the bedding material that allowed them to easily hide and build nests and was soft. We conclude that the comfort and well-being of laboratory mice can be increased through the appropriate selection of bedding material.

  16. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  17. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  18. Fluidized-bed combustion reduces atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonke, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Method of reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides released during combustion of fossil fuels is described. Fuel is burned in fluidized bed of solids with simultaneous feeding of crushed or pulverized limestone to control emission. Process also offers high heat transfer rates and efficient contacting for gas-solid reactions.

  19. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  20. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  1. Neuropeptidomics of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Derst, Christian; Reinhardt, Klaus; Wegener, Christian

    2018-01-05

    The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a globally distributed human ectoparasite with fascinating biology. It has recently acquired resistance against a broad range of insecticides, causing a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations. The recent annotation of the bed bug genome revealed a full complement of neuropeptide and neuropeptide receptor genes in this species. With regard to the biology of C. lectularius, neuropeptide signaling is especially interesting because it regulates feeding, diuresis, digestion, as well as reproduction and also provides potential new targets for chemical control. To identify which neuropeptides are translated from the genome-predicted genes, we performed a comprehensive peptidomic analysis of the central nervous system of the bed bug. We identified in total 144 different peptides from 29 precursors, of which at least 67 likely present bioactive mature neuropeptides. C. lectularius corazonin and myosuppressin are unique and deviate considerably from the canonical insect consensus sequences. Several identified neuropeptides likely act as hormones, as evidenced by the occurrence of respective mass signals and immunoreactivity in neurohemal structures. Our data provide the most comprehensive peptidome of a Heteropteran species so far and in comparison suggest that a hematophageous life style does not require qualitative adaptations of the insect peptidome.

  2. Climate conditions in bedded confinement buildings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confinement buildings are utilized for finishing cattle to allow more efficient collection of animal waste and to buffer animals against adverse climatic conditions. Environmental data were obtained from a 29 m wide x 318 m long bedded confinement building with the long axis oriented east to west. T...

  3. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  4. Estimating Fuel Bed Loadings in Masticated Areas

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Ros Wu

    2006-01-01

    Masticated fuel treatments that chop small trees, shrubs, and dead woody material into smaller pieces to reduce fuel bed depth are used increasingly as a mechanical means to treat fuels. Fuel loading information is important to monitor changes in fuels. The commonly used planar intercept method however, may not correctly estimate fuel loadings because masticated fuels...

  5. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  6. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  7. Hardware survey for the avionics test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of maor hardware items that could possibly be used in the development of an avionics test bed for space shuttle attached or autonomous large space structures was conducted in NASA Johnson Space Center building 16. The results of the survey are organized to show the hardware by laboratory usage. Computer systems in each laboratory are described in some detail.

  8. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; hide

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  9. Advanced traffic technology test-bed.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-06-01

    The goal of this project was to create a test-bed to allow the University of California to conduct advanced traffic technology research in a designated, non-public, and controlled setting. Caltrans, with its associated research facilities on UC campu...

  10. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Share Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Información relacionada disponible en español Can you treat ... all of the residents to participate. Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the ...

  11. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José; Comtet, Jean; de Langre, Emmanuel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    We are `hairy' on the inside: beds of passive fibres anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. These hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Yet fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem that is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear-driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model that accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers towards the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter that controls nonlinear behaviour. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps.

  12. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  13. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  14. Pulse Detonation Engine Test Bed Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A detonation is a supersonic combustion wave. A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) repetitively creates a series of detonation waves to take advantage of rapid burning and high peak pressures to efficiently produce thrust. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Branch has developed a PDE test bed that can reproduce the operating conditions that might be encountered in an actual engine. It allows the rapid and cost-efficient evaluation of the technical issues and technologies associated with these engines. The test bed is modular in design. It consists of various length sections of both 2- and 2.6- in. internal-diameter combustor tubes. These tubes can be bolted together to create a variety of combustor configurations. A series of bosses allow instrumentation to be inserted on the tubes. Dynamic pressure sensors and heat flux gauges have been used to characterize the performance of the test bed. The PDE test bed is designed to utilize an existing calorimeter (for heat load measurement) and windowed (for optical access) combustor sections. It uses hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen and nitrogen are mixed to simulate air. An electronic controller is used to open the hydrogen and air valves (or a continuous flow of air is used) and to fire the spark at the appropriate times. Scheduled tests on the test bed include an evaluation of the pumping ability of the train of detonation waves for use in an ejector and an evaluation of the pollutants formed in a PDE combustor. Glenn's Combustion Branch uses the National Combustor Code (NCC) to perform numerical analyses of PDE's as well as to evaluate alternative detonative combustion devices. Pulse Detonation Engine testbed.

  15. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  16. Cognitive Rationalizations for Tanning-Bed Use: A Preliminary Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Greene, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine construct and predictive utility of an adapted cognitive rationalization scale for tanning-bed use. Methods Current/former tanning-bed-using undergraduate students (N = 216; 87.6% females; 78.4% white) at a large northeastern university participated in a survey. A cognitive rationalization for tanning-bed use scale was adapted. Standardized self-report measures of past tanning-bed use, advantages of tanning, perceived vulnerability to photoaging, tanning-bed use dependence, and tanning- bed use intention were also administered. Results The cognitive rationalization scale exhibited strong construct and predictive validity. Current tanners and tanning-bed-use-dependent participants endorsed rationalizations more strongly than did former tanners and not-tanning-bed-use-dependent participants respectively. Conclusions Findings indicate that cognitive rationalizations help explain discrepancy between inconsistent cognitions. PMID:23985280

  17. Deleterious Thermal Effects Due To Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature associated with Pebble Bed and Particle Bed reactor core research has revealed a systemic problem inherent to reactor core concepts which utilize randomized rather than structured coolant channel flow paths. For both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor designs; case studies reveal that for indeterminate reasons, regions within the core would suffer from excessive heating leading to thermal runaway and localized fuel melting. A thermal Computational Fluid Dynamics model was utilized to verify that In both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor concepts randomized coolant channel pathways combined with localized high temperature regions would work together to resist the flow of coolant diverting it away from where it is needed the most to cooler less resistive pathways where it is needed the least. In other words given the choice via randomized coolant pathways the reactor coolant will take the path of least resistance, and hot zones offer the highest resistance. Having identified the relationship between randomized coolant channel pathways and localized fuel melting it is now safe to assume that other reactor concepts that utilize randomized coolant pathways such as the foam core reactor are also susceptible to this phenomenon.

  18. Improved lignin pyrolysis for phenolics production in a bubbling bed reactor--Effect of bed materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongbing; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis was studied in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor equipped with a fractional condensation train, using nitrogen as the fluidization gas. The effect of different bed materials (silica sand, lignin char, activated lignin char, birch bark char, and foamed glass beads) on bio-oil yield and quality was investigated for a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C. Results how that a bed of activated lignin char is preferable to the commonly used silica sand: pyrolysis of Kraft lignin with a bed of activated lignin char not only provides a pure char product, but also a higher dry bio-oil yield (with a relative increase of 43%), lower pyrolytic water production, and better bio-oil quality. The bio-oil obtained from Kraft lignin pyrolysis with a bed of activated lignin char has a lower average molecular weight, less tar, more phenolics, and less acidity than when sand is used as bed material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are tanning beds "safe"? Human studies of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne

    2008-10-01

    Controversy continues over the carcinogenic properties of tanning beds. The tanning industry "sells" tanning beds as a safe alternative to UV exposure for both tanning as well as vitamin D biosynthesis. But, how safe are tanning beds? Epidemiologic data - incomplete and unsatisfactory - suggests that tanning beds are not safer than solar ultraviolet radiation and that they may have independent effects from solar exposure that increase risk for melanoma.

  20. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Goodstine, Stephen L.

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  1. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulatemore » including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at

  2. Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.

    2009-04-01

    Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow

  3. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  4. 21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bed-patient monitor. 880.2400 Section 880.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered...

  5. Dual fluidized bed design for the fast pyrolysis of biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mechanism for the transport of solids between fluidised beds in dual fluidised bed systems for the fast pyrolysis of biomass process was selected. This mechanism makes use of an overflow standpipe to transport solids from the fluidised bed used for the combustion reactions to a second fluidised be...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical disposable bedding. 880.6060 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6060 Medical disposable bedding. (a) Identification. Medical disposable bedding is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6060 - Medical disposable bedding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical disposable bedding. 880.6060 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6060 Medical disposable bedding. (a) Identification. Medical disposable bedding is a device...

  8. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  9. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOEpatents

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  11. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fluidized bed silicon deposition from silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, George C. (Inventor); Levin, Harry (Inventor); Hogle, Richard A. (Inventor); Praturi, Ananda (Inventor); Lutwack, Ralph (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A process and apparatus for thermally decomposing silicon containing gas for deposition on fluidized nucleating silicon seed particles is disclosed. Silicon seed particles are produced in a secondary fluidized reactor by thermal decomposition of a silicon containing gas. The thermally produced silicon seed particles are then introduced into a primary fluidized bed reactor to form a fluidized bed. Silicon containing gas is introduced into the primary reactor where it is thermally decomposed and deposited on the fluidized silicon seed particles. Silicon seed particles having the desired amount of thermally decomposed silicon product thereon are removed from the primary fluidized reactor as ultra pure silicon product. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed.

  13. Fluidized bed silicon deposition from silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, George (Inventor); Levin, Harry (Inventor); Hogle, Richard A. (Inventor); Praturi, Ananda (Inventor); Lutwack, Ralph (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A process and apparatus for thermally decomposing silicon containing gas for deposition on fluidized nucleating silicon seed particles is disclosed. Silicon seed particles are produced in a secondary fluidized reactor by thermal decomposition of a silicon containing gas. The thermally produced silicon seed particles are then introduced into a primary fluidized bed reactor to form a fludized bed. Silicon containing gas is introduced into the primary reactor where it is thermally decomposed and deposited on the fluidized silicon seed particles. Silicon seed particles having the desired amount of thermally decomposed silicon product thereon are removed from the primary fluidized reactor as ultra pure silicon product. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed.

  14. Biochemical separations by continuous-bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tisch, T L; Frost, R; Liao, J L; Lam, W K; Remy, A; Scheinpflug, E; Siebert, C; Song, H; Stapleton, A

    1998-08-07

    Innovations in column-packing media for biomolecule purification have progressed from large spherical, porous polysaccharide beads to advanced polymeric supports. Continuous-bed technology is a radical new technology for chromatography based on the polymerization of advanced monomers and ionomers directly in the chromatographic column. The polymer chains form aggregates which coalesce into a dense, homogeneous network of interconnected nodules consisting of microparticles with an average diameter of 3000 A. The voids or channels between the nodules are large enough to permit a high hydrodynamic flow. Due to the high cross-linking of the polymer matrix, the surface of each nodule is nonporous yet the polymeric microparticles provide a very large surface area for high binding capacity. This paper will demonstrate the properties and advantages of using a continuous bed support for high resolution biomolecule separations at high flow-rates without sacrificing capacity.

  15. Cardiac atrophy in women following bed rest.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Todd A; Levine, Benjamin D; Tillery, Tommy; Peshock, Ronald M; Hastings, Jeff L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Macias, Brandon R; Biolo, Gianni; Hargens, Alan R

    2007-07-01

    Both chronic microgravity exposure and long-duration bed rest induce cardiac atrophy, which leads to reduced standing stroke volume and orthostatic intolerance. However, despite the fact that women appear to be more susceptible to postspaceflight presyncope and orthostatic hypotension than male astronauts, most previous high-resolution studies of cardiac morphology following microgravity have been performed only in men. Because female athletes have less physiological hypertrophy than male athletes, we reasoned that they also might have altered physiological cardiac atrophy after bed rest. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 healthy young women (32.1 +/- 4 yr) to measure left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) mass, volumes, and morphology accurately before and after 60 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. Subjects were matched and then randomly assigned to sedentary bed rest (controls, n = 8) or two treatment groups consisting of 1) exercise training using supine treadmill running within lower body negative pressure plus resistive training (n = 8), or 2) protein (0.45 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) increase) plus branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) (7.2 g/day) supplementation (n = 8). After sedentary bed rest without nutritional supplementation, there were significant reductions in LV (96 +/- 26 to 77 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.03) and RV volumes (104 +/- 33 to 86 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.02), LV (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 2.0 +/- 0.2 g/kg; P = 0.003) and RV masses (0.8 +/- 0.1 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 g/kg; P < 0.001), and the length of the major axis of the LV (90 +/- 6 to 84 +/- 7 mm. P < 0.001), similar to what has been observed previously in men (8.0%; Perhonen MA, Franco F, Lane LD, Buckey JC, Blomqvist Zerwekh JE, Peshock RM, Weatherall PT, Levine BD. J Appl Physiol 91: 645-653, 2001). In contrast, there were no significant reductions in LV or RV volumes in the exercise-trained group, and the length of the major axis was preserved. Moreover, there were significant increases in

  16. Telerobotics test bed for space structure assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitami, M.; Ogimoto, K.; Yasumoto, F.; Katsuragawa, T.; Itoko, T.; Kurosaki, Y.; Hirai, S.; Machida, K.

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative research on super long distance space telerobotics is now in progress both in Japan and USA. In this program. several key features will be tested, which can be applicable to the control of space robots as well as to terrestrial robots. Local (control) and remote (work) sites will be shared between Electrotechnical Lab (ETL) of MITI in Japan and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in USA. The details of a test bed for this international program are discussed in this report.

  17. Reactor for fluidized bed silane decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  18. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-04-288 (22 June 1973) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast New Mexico (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  20. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  1. Particle Dynamics and Gravel-Bed Adjustments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Freshwater Biological Association Approved for Public Release; distribution unlimited 93- 77903 93 4 1 DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY... FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL ASSOCTh N" A11PO N NUMBE FERRY HOUSE, FAR SAWREY, AMBLESIDE, CUMBRIA LA22 OLP N/A 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NA45 N¶0DESI...smoothing of the bed and concomitant reduction in hydraulic roughness during the passage of the sheet. Consequent energy slope adjustment caused water

  2. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  3. Variability of bed mobility in natural, gravel-bed channels and adjustments to sediment load at local and reach scales

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Jonathan M. Nelson; John Pitlick; Mary Ann Madej; Brent L. Barkett

    2000-01-01

    Abstract - Local variations in boundary shear stress acting on bed-surface particles control patterns of bed load transport and channel evolution during varying stream discharges. At the reach scale a channel adjusts to imposed water and sediment supply through mutual interactions among channel form, local grain size, and local flow dynamics that govern bed mobility...

  4. Modeling of Powder Bed Manufacturing Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindt, H.-W.; Desmaison, O.; Megahed, M.; Peralta, A.; Neumann, J.

    2018-01-01

    Powder bed additive manufacturing offers unmatched capabilities. The deposition resolution achieved is extremely high enabling the production of innovative functional products and materials. Achieving the desired final quality is, however, hampered by many potential defects that have to be managed in due course of the manufacturing process. Defects observed in products manufactured via powder bed fusion have been studied experimentally. In this effort we have relied on experiments reported in the literature and—when experimental data were not sufficient—we have performed additional experiments providing an extended foundation for defect analysis. There is large interest in reducing the effort and cost of additive manufacturing process qualification and certification using integrated computational material engineering. A prerequisite is, however, that numerical methods can indeed capture defects. A multiscale multiphysics platform is developed and applied to predict and explain the origin of several defects that have been observed experimentally during laser-based powder bed fusion processes. The models utilized are briefly introduced. The ability of the models to capture the observed defects is verified. The root cause of the defects is explained by analyzing the numerical results thus confirming the ability of numerical methods to provide a foundation for rapid process qualification.

  5. Size distribution of Amazon River bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, C.F.; Meade, R.H.; Curtis, W.F.; Bosio, N.J.; Landim, P.M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The first recorded observations of bed material of the Amazon River were made in 1843 by Lt William Lewis Herndon of the US Navy, when he travelled the river from its headwaters to its mouth, sounding its depths, and noting the nature of particles caught in a heavy grease smeared to the bottom of his sounding weight1. He reported the bed material of the river to be mostly sand and fine gravel. Oltman and Ames took samples at a few locations in 1963 and 1964, and reported the bed material at O??bidos, Brazil, to be fine sands, with median diameters ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 mm (ref. 2). We present here a summary of particle-size analyses of samples of streambed material collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries along a reach of the river from Iquitos in Peru, ???3,500 km above Macapa?? Brazil, to a point 220 km above Macapa??3. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  7. Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  8. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  9. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Joseph S.; Halow, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  10. Effect of bed rest and exercise on body balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A battery of 11 body balance tests was administered to 7 men before and after 14 days of bedrest. Seven men who had not undergone bed rest served as controls. During bed rest, each subject underwent daily either isotonic, isometric, or no leg exercise. The results showed that, for the bed-rested no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isometric exercise groups, 2 weeks of bed rest produces significant body balance decrements on 3, 4, and 5 of the 11 tests, respectively. Daily leg exercise did not prevent the debilitating effects of bed rest on body balance. After bed rest, balance skill was relearned rapidly so that in most tests, performance had reached prebed-rest levels by the third recovery day. These data suggest that balance impairment is not due to loss of muscular strength in the legs but, perhaps, to a bed-rest-related change in the neurally coded information to postural control centers.

  11. Virtual Design of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Timothy J.; Coker, Robert F.; O'Connor, Brian F.; Knox, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of six new 4-Bed Molecular Sieve configurations have been performed using a COMSOL (COMSOL Multiphysics - commercial software) model. The preliminary results show that reductions in desiccant bed size and sorbent bed size when compared to the International Space Station configuration are feasible while still yielding a process that handles at least 4.0 kilograms a day CO2. The results also show that changes to the CO2 sorbent are likewise feasible. Decreasing the bed sizes was found to have very little negative effect on the adsorption process; breakthrough of CO2 in the sorbent bed was observed for two of the configurations, but a small degree of CO2 breakthrough is acceptable, and water breakthrough in the desiccant beds was not observed. Both configurations for which CO2 breakthrough was observed still yield relatively high CO2 efficiency, and future investigations will focus on bed size in order to find the optimum configuration.

  12. Virtual Design of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Timothy J.; Coker, Robert F.; O'Connor, Brian F.; Knox, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of six new 4-Bed Molecular Sieve configurations have been performed using a COMSOL model. The preliminary results show that reductions in desiccant bed size and sorbent bed size when compared to the International Space Station configuration are feasible while still yielding a process that handles at least 4.0 kg/day CO2. The results also show that changes to the CO2 sorbent are likewise feasible. Decreasing the bed sizes was found to have very little negative effect on the adsorption process; breakthrough of CO2 in the sorbent bed was observed for two of the configurations, but water breakthrough in the desiccant beds was not observed. Nevertheless, both configurations for which CO2 breakthrough was observed still yield relatively high CO2 efficiency, and future investigations will focus on bed size in order to find the optimum configuration.

  13. The optimal design of the bed structure of bedstand based on ABAQUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xudong; Dong, Yu; Ge, Qingkuan; Wang, Song

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic transmission bedstand is one kind of the most commonly used in engineering machinery companies, and the bed structure is the most important part. Based on the original hydraulic transmission bedstand bed structure and the CAE technology, the original bed structure is improved. The optimized bed greatly saves the material of the production bed and improves the seismic performance of the bed. In the end, the performance of the optimized bed was compared with the original bed.

  14. Concentration and Velocity Gradients in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClymer, James P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we focus on the height dependence of particle concentration, average velocity components, fluctuations in these velocities and, with the flow turned off, the sedimentation velocity. The latter quantities are measured using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The PIV technique uses a 1-megapixel camera to capture two time-displaced images of particles in the bed. The depth of field of the imaging system is approximately 0.5 cm. The camera images a region with characteristic length of 2.6 cm for the small particles and 4.7 cm. for the large particles. The local direction of particle flow is determined by calculating the correlation function for sub-regions of 32 x 32 pixels. The velocity vector map is created from this correlation function using the time between images (we use 15 to 30 ms). The software is sensitive variations of 1/64th of a pixel. We produce velocity maps at various heights, each consisting of 3844 velocities. We break this map into three vertical zones for increased height information. The concentration profile is measured using an expanded (1 cm diameter) linearly polarized HeNe Laser incident on the fluidized bed. A COHU camera (gamma=1, AGC off) with a lens and a polarizer images the transmitted linearly polarized light to minimize the effects of multiply scattered light. The intensity profile (640 X 480 pixels) is well described by a Gaussian fit and the height of the Gaussian is used to characterize the concentration. This value is compared to the heights found for known concentrations. The sedimentation velocity is estimated using by imaging a region near the bottom of the bed and using PIV to measure the velocity as a function of time. With a nearly uniform concentration profile, the time can be converted to height information. The stable fluidized beds are made from large pseudo-monodisperse particles (silica spheres with radii (250-300) microns and (425-500) microns) dispersed in a glycerin/water mix. The Peclet number is

  15. Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang

    2009-05-15

    The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure.more » 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.« less

  16. In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F.

    1990-01-01

    An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

  17. Experimental study on the bed shear stress under breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Si-yu; Xia, Yun-feng; Xu, Hua

    2017-06-01

    The object of present study is to investigate the bed shear stress on a slope under regular breaking waves by a novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor. The sensors were calibrated before application, and then a wave flume experiment was conducted to study the bed shear stress for the case of regular waves spilling and plunging on a 1:15 smooth PVC slope. The experiment shows that the sensor is feasible for the measurement of the bed shear stress under breaking waves. For regular incident waves, the bed shear stress is mainly periodic in both outside and inside the breaking point. The fluctuations of the bed shear stress increase significantly after waves breaking due to the turbulence and vortexes generated by breaking waves. For plunging breaker, the extreme value of the mean maximum bed shear stress appears after the plunging point, and the more violent the wave breaks, the more dramatic increase of the maximum bed shear stress will occur. For spilling breaker, the increase of the maximum bed shear stress along the slope is gradual compared with the plunging breaker. At last, an empirical equation about the relationship between the maximum bed shear stress and the surf similarity parameter is given, which can be used to estimate the maximum bed shear stress under breaking waves in practice.

  18. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites.

  19. Mercury recovery using a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, C.; Baum, D.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Philip Environmental Services Corporation`s (Philip`s) innovative fluidized bed thermal desorption system recovers mercury from contaminated soil. Referred to as the Thermal Recycling System, Philip has constructed a mobile thermal desorption system that has a processing rate up to five tons per hour. The system includes a continuous-feed system, all radiant heat, inert gas atmosphere, hot gas filter, two-stage cooling, and a water treatment system. Based on treatability studies, the processed soil can meet cleanup objectives as low as two milligrams per kilogram and passes the mercury toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Who should get the last PICU bed?

    PubMed

    Wightman, Aaron; Largent, Emily; Del Beccaro, Mark; Lantos, John D

    2014-05-01

    Administrators sometimes face ethical dilemmas about the allocation of institutional resources. One such situation is when elective surgery cases require reserved ICU beds and the ICU is full. Such situations arise frequently in children's hospitals today. They are sometimes complicated by questions about whether every patient in the ICU belongs there. We present such a situation and responses from Mark Del Becarro, Vice President for Medical Affairs at Seattle Children's Hospital; Aaron Wightman, a nephrology fellow and bioethicist at Seattle Children's Hospital; and Emily Largent, a doctoral student in the joint JD/PhD Program in Health Policy at Harvard University. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-10-613 (22-30 March 1982) --- A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground. Space shuttle Columbia (STS-3), this mission, landed at the White Sands alternate landing site because of bad weather at Edwards AFB, CA. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Exercise countermeasures for bed rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of different modes of exercise (isotonic and isokinetic) for countering the effects of bed rest deconditioning on work capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength, orthostatic tolerance, posture, equilibrium and gait; and to collect additional data of a more fundamental nature to help understand how these deconditioning responses occur. These data will be used for writing prescriptions for exercise to be utilized by astronauts for maintaining work capacity and well-being on Freedom Station, and to determine what exercise devices should be place in the station.

  3. Simulation of fluidized bed coal combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, R.

    1979-01-01

    The many deficiencies of previous work on simulation of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes are presented. An attempt is made to reduce these deficiencies, and to formulate a comprehensive FBC model taking into account the following elements: (1) devolatilization of coal and the subsequent combustion of volatiles and residual char; (2) sulfur dioxide capture by limestone; (3) NOx release and reduction of NOx by char; (4) attrition and elutriation of char and limestone; (5) bubble hydrodynamics; (6) solids mixing; (7) heat transfer between gas and solid, and solid and heat exchange surfaces; and (8) freeboard reactions.

  4. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOEpatents

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  5. Fluidized-Bed Cleaning of Silicon Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Hsu, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Fluidized-bed chemical cleaning process developed to remove metallic impurities from small silicon particles. Particles (250 micrometer in size) utilized as seed material in silane pyrolysis process for production of 1-mm-size silicon. Product silicon (1 mm in size) used as raw material for fabrication of solar cells and other semiconductor devices. Principal cleaning step is wash in mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaching out metals and carrying them away as soluble chlorides. Particles fluidized by cleaning solution to assure good mixing and uniform wetting.

  6. Valles Marineris Basin Beds: a Complex Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution stereoimages of the central Valles Marineris enabled detailed geologic mapping on Ophir and Candor Chasmata. Abundant light colored deposits, both layered and massive, fill the chasmata in this region. Units within these deposits were identified by their erosional characteristics and superposition and cross cutting relations. The Valles Marineris beds reflect a history of repeated faulting, volcanic eruptions, and deposition and erosion, resulting in stratigraphic sequences with several unconformities. Because of the preponderance of apparent volcanic deposits inside the troughs, the chasmata may not be simple grabens, but rather giant volcano tectonic depressions. Major events in chasmata development are examined.

  7. Mechanism test bed. Flexible body model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Jimmy

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed is a six degree-of-freedom motion simulation facility used to evaluate docking and berthing hardware mechanisms. A generalized rigid body math model was developed which allowed the computation of vehicle relative motion in six DOF due to forces and moments from mechanism contact, attitude control systems, and gravity. No vehicle size limitations were imposed in the model. The equations of motion were based on Hill's equations for translational motion with respect to a nominal circular earth orbit and Newton-Euler equations for rotational motion. This rigid body model and supporting software were being refined.

  8. Electrode assembly for a fluidized bed apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Matthews, Charles W.; Knowlton, Ted M.

    1976-11-23

    An electrode assembly comprising a high voltage electrode having a generally cylindrical shape and being electrically connected to a high voltage source, where the cylinder walls may be open to flow of fluids and solids; an electrically grounded support electrode supporting said high voltage electrode by an electrically insulating support where both of the electrically grounded and electrically insulating support may be hollow; and an electrically grounded liner electrode arranged concentrically around both the high voltage and support electrodes. This assembly is specifically adapted for use in a fluidized bed chemical reactor as an improved heating means therefor.

  9. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  10. Influence of submarine springs and wastewater on nutrient dynamics of Caribbean seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, T. J. B.; van Tussenbroek, B. I.; Dennison, W. C.

    2005-08-01

    The east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, consists of highly permeable limestone, such that surface flow and rivers are absent in this region. Extensive underground cave systems connect sink holes (cenotes) to submarine springs (ojos de aqua), which vent into the seagrass meadows of the adjacent oligotrophic coastal lagoons. This study investigated the potential for these submarine springs to influence nutrient processes within seagrass meadows, by assessing nutrient status of Thalassia testudinum meadows in two contrasting coastal lagoons along the north eastern Yucatan peninsula. Tissue nutrient concentrations as well as δ 15N values of T. testudinum were surveyed in the Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon and the Nichupte Lagoon System, Cancun Hotel Zone, during an extended dry period and again following heavy rainfall. After a period of heavy rainfall, T. testudinum near submarine springs in Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon had exceptionally high leaf tissue phosphorus concentrations of 0.38±0.06%. These submarine springs may have been a direct source of phosphorus and/or a source of iron to this very iron limited carbonate system. Thalassia testudinum nutrient concentrations suggest that nitrogen loading to the Nichupte Lagoon System is regionally high and has increased over the past decade (mean leaf N: 2.04% N in 1991 to 2.71% N in 2002). Nitrogen content in leaf tissue of T. testudinum was significantly higher within the poorly flushed Nichupte Lagoon System (2.93±0.12% N) than in the well-flushed Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon (1.80±0.07% N). Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen suggest that this high and increasing nitrogen loading within the Nichupte Lagoon System is a result of wastewater nitrogen (δ 15N 9.06±0.07 in northern Nichupte Lagoon System vs. 1.69±0.07 in Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon).

  11. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    PubMed

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A note on acoustic measurements of turbulence, suspended sediment, and bed forms in mobile bed experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the challenges of hydraulic experimentation is designing experiments that are complex enough to capture relevant processes while retaining the simplicity necessary for useful, accurate measurements. The intricacy of the interactions between turbulent flows and mobile beds in rivers and stream...

  13. Soft-bed experiments beneath Engabreen, Norway: Regelation, infiltration, basal slip and bed deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Cohen, D.; Moore, P.L.; Jackson, M.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2007-01-01

    To avoid some of the limitations of studying soft-bed processes through boreholes, a prism of simulated till (1.8 m ?? 1.6 m ?? 0.45 m) with extensive instrumentation was constructed in a trough blasted in the rock bed of Engabreen, a temperate glacier in Norway. Tunnels there provide access to the bed beneath 213 m of ice. Pore-water pressure was regulated in the prism by pumping water to it. During experiments lasting 7-12 days, the glacier regelated downward into the prism to depths of 50-80 mm, accreting ice-infiltrated till at rates predicted by theory. During periods of sustained high pore-water pressure (70-100% of overburden), ice commonly slipped over the prism, due to a water layer at the prism surface. Deformation of the prism was activated when this layer thinned to a sub-millimeter thickness. Shear strain in the till was pervasive and decreased with depth. A model of slip by ploughing of ice-infiltrated till across the prism surface accounts for the slip that occurred when effective pressure was sufficiently low or high. Slip at low effective pressures resulted from water-layer thickening that increased non-linearly with decreasing effective pressure. If sufficiently widespread, such slip over soft glacier beds, which involves no viscous deformation resistance, may instigate abrupt increases in glacier velocity.

  14. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  15. Sediment transport primer: estimating bed-material transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Peter Wilcock; John Pitlick; Yantao Cui

    2009-01-01

    This primer accompanies the release of BAGS, software developed to calculate sediment transport rate in gravel-bed rivers. BAGS and other programs facilitate calculation and can reduce some errors, but cannot ensure that calculations are accurate or relevant. This primer was written to help the software user define relevant and tractable problems, select appropriate...

  16. Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggertsen, L.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Fontoura, L.; Kautsky, N.; Gullström, M.; Berkström, C.

    2017-09-01

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

  17. Tracking channel bed resiliency in forested mountain catchments using high temporal resolution channel bed movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses continuous-recording load cell pressure sensors in four, high-elevation (1500-1800 m), Sierra Nevada, headwater streams, to collect high temporal resolution, bedload-movement data for investigating the channel bed movement patterns within these streams for water years 2012-2014. Data show an annual pattern where channel bed material in the thalweg starts to build up in early fall, peaks around peak snow melt, and scours back to baseline levels during hydrograph drawdown and baseflow. This pattern is punctuated by disturbance and recovery of channel bed material associated with short-term, storm events. We propose conceptual model, linking sediment sources at the channel margins to patterns of channel bed fill and scour in the thalweg, based on this and earlier work showing in-stream sources for bedload material. The material in the thalweg represents a balance between sediment supply from the channel margins and sporadic, conveyor-belt-like, downstream transport in the thalweg. The conceptual model highlights not only the importance of production and transport rates but also that seasonal connectedness between the margins and thalweg is a key sediment control, determining both the accumulation rate of sediment stores at the margins, and the redistribution of sediment from margins to thalweg that "feeds" the conveyor-belt. Disturbance and recovery cycles are observed at multiple temporal scales, but long term, the channel beds are stable, suggesting the beds act as short-term storage for sediment, but are in equilibrium interannually. The feasibility of use for these sensors in forested mountain stream environments is tested. Despite a high failure rate (50%), load cell pressure sensors show potential for high-temporal-resolution bedload measurements, allowing for the collection of channel bed movement data to move beyond time-integrated change measurements - where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns may be missed - to continuous and

  18. Tracking channel bed resiliency in forested mountain catchments using high temporal resolution channel bed movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sarah E.; Conklin, Martha H.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses continuous-recording load cell pressure sensors in four, high-elevation (1500-1800 m), Sierra Nevada headwater streams to collect high-temporal-resolution, bedload-movement data for investigating the channel bed movement patterns within these streams for water years 2012-2014. Data show an annual pattern where channel bed material in the thalweg starts to build up in early fall, peaks around peak snow melt, and scours back to baseline levels during hydrograph drawdown and base flow. This pattern is punctuated by disturbance and recovery of channel bed material associated with short-term storm events. A conceptual model, linking sediment sources at the channel margins to patterns of channel bed fill and scour in the thalweg, is proposed building on the results of Martin et al. (2014). The material in the thalweg represents a balance between sediment supply from the channel margins and sporadic, conveyor-belt-like downstream transport in the thalweg. The conceptual model highlights not only the importance of production and transport rates but also that seasonal connectedness between the margins and thalweg is a key sediment control, determining the accumulation rate of sediment stores at the margins and the redistribution of sediment from margins to thalweg that feeds the conveyor belt. Disturbance and recovery cycles are observed at multiple temporal scales; but long term, the channel beds are stable, suggesting that the beds act as short-term storage for sediment but are in equilibrium interannually. The feasibility of use for these sensors in forested mountain stream environments is tested. Despite a high failure rate (50%), load cell pressure sensors show potential for high-temporal-resolution bedload measurements, allowing for the collection of channel bed movement data to move beyond time-integrated change measurements - where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns may be missed - to continuous and/or real-time measurements. This

  19. Hospital output forecasts and the cost of empty hospital beds.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, M V; Wilson, P

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the cost incurred when hospitals have different levels of beds to treat a given number of patients. The cost of hospital care is affected by both the forecasted level of admissions and the actual number of admissions. When the relationship between forecasted and actual admissions is held constant, it is found that an empty hospital bed at a typical hospital in Michigan has a relatively low cost, about 13 percent or less of the cost of an occupied bed. However, empty beds in large hospitals do add significantly to cost. If hospital beds are closed, whether by closing beds at hospitals which remain in business or by closing entire hospitals, cost savings are estimated to be small. PMID:3759473

  20. Collapsing granular beds: the role of interstitial air.

    PubMed

    Homan, Tess; Gjaltema, Christa; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-05-01

    A prefluidized sand bed consisting of fine particles compactifies when it is subjected to a shock. We observe that the response depends on both the shock strength and the ambient pressure, where, counterintuitively, at high ambient pressure the compaction is larger, which we connect to a decrease of the static friction inside the bed. We find that the interstitial air is trapped inside the bed during and long after compaction. We deduce this from measuring the pressure changes above and below the bed: The top pressure decreases abruptly, on the time scale of the compaction, whereas that below the bed slowly rises to a maximum. Subsequently, both gently relax to ambient values. We formulate a one-dimensional diffusion model that uses only the change in bed height and the ambient pressure as an input, and we show that it leads to a fully quantitative understanding of the measured pressure variations.

  1. A Numerical Model for Trickle Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propp, Richard M.; Colella, Phillip; Crutchfield, William Y.; Day, Marcus S.

    2000-12-01

    Trickle bed reactors are governed by equations of flow in porous media such as Darcy's law and the conservation of mass. Our numerical method for solving these equations is based on a total-velocity splitting, sequential formulation which leads to an implicit pressure equation and a semi-implicit mass conservation equation. We use high-resolution finite-difference methods to discretize these equations. Our solution scheme extends previous work in modeling porous media flows in two ways. First, we incorporate physical effects due to capillary pressure, a nonlinear inlet boundary condition, spatial porosity variations, and inertial effects on phase mobilities. In particular, capillary forces introduce a parabolic component into the recast evolution equation, and the inertial effects give rise to hyperbolic nonconvexity. Second, we introduce a modification of the slope-limiting algorithm to prevent our numerical method from producing spurious shocks. We present a numerical algorithm for accommodating these difficulties, show the algorithm is second-order accurate, and demonstrate its performance on a number of simplified problems relevant to trickle bed reactor modeling.

  2. Coal-bed methane potential in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Campen, E.

    1991-06-01

    Montana's coal resources are the second largest of the US, with coal underlying approximately 35% of the state. These resources are estimated at 478 billion tons. Associated coal-bed methane resources are estimated to be 14 tcf. The coals of Montana range from Jurassic to early Tertiary in age and from lignite to low-volatile bituminous in rank. Thickness, rank, maceral composition, and proximate and ultimate analyses all vary vertically and laterally. The state contains eight major coal resource areas. A large percentage of Montana's coal consists of the Paleocene Fort Union lignites of eastern Montana, generally considered of too low amore » rank to contain significant methane resources. Most of the state's other coal deposits are higher in rank and contain many recorded methane shows. During Cretaceous and Tertiary times, regressive-transgressive cycles resulted in numerous coal-bearing sequences. Major marine regressions allowed the formation of large peat swamps followed by transgressions which covered the swamps with impervious marine shales, preventing the already forming methane from escaping. About 75% of Montana's coal is less than 1,000 ft below the ground's surface, making it ideal for methane production. Associated water appears to be fresh, eliminating environmental problems. Pipelines are near to most of the major coal deposits. Exploration for coal-bed methane in Montana is still in its infancy but at this time shows commercial promise.« less

  3. Rock bed thermal storage: Concepts and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kenneth; von Backström, Theodor; Joubert, Eugene; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Thermal storage enables concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to provide baseload or dispatchable power. Currently CSP plants use two-tank molten salt thermal storage, with estimated capital costs of about 22-30 /kWhth. In the interests of reducing CSP costs, alternative storage concepts have been proposed. In particular, packed rock beds with air as the heat transfer fluid offer the potential of lower cost storage because of the low cost and abundance of rock. Two rock bed storage concepts which have been formulated for use at temperatures up to at least 600 °C are presented and a brief analysis and cost estimate is given. The cost estimate shows that both concepts are capable of capital costs less than 15 /kWhth at scales larger than 1000 MWhth. Depending on the design and the costs of scaling containment, capital costs as low as 5-8 /kWhth may be possible. These costs are between a half and a third of current molten salt costs.

  4. [Comparative pathology of the microcirculatory bed].

    PubMed

    Strukov, A I; Vorob'eva, A A

    1976-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of publications, mostly by Soviet authores, on clinical studies and morphological examinations of the microcirculatory bed in different pathology. It is concluded that the microcirculatory bed should be regarded as an integral system responding to the pathological effects by a local and general reaction of its structural components and by changing the rheological properties of blood. Two types of changes develop in the microcirculatory system -- sterotyped ones, typical for extreme states (various kinds of shock, hypertensive crisis, stress situations), and those specific for certain diseases (diabetes melitus, essential hypertension, athersclerosis, collagenoses, etc.). In all the above diseases the pathological process affects the functional structures of microcirculation that undergo a rearrangement in accordance with the requirements of the body. In the initial period of the disease this re-arrangement is of a compensatory nature and passes ahead of the clinical manifestations. A comparison of the pictutrs obtained by biomicroscopy of the bulbconjunctiva of the eye and of other mucosae with film preparations of the serosae demonstrates their complete similarity. Therefore, the method of biomicroscopy of the eyeball and of the mucosae as a method reflecting the state of microcirculation in the body as a whole should become an integral part of the clinical examination of patients.

  5. Key technologies for tritium storage bed development

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.H.; Chang, M.H.; Kang, H.G.

    2015-03-15

    ITER Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is a complex system involving tens of storage beds. The most important SDS getter bed will be used for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen isotopes in accordance with the fusion fuel cycle scenario. In this paper the current status concerning research/development activities for the optimal approach to the final SDS design is introduced. A thermal analysis is performed and discussed on the aspect of heat losses considering whether the reflector and/or the feed-through is present or not. A thermal hydraulic simulation shows that the presence of 3 or 4 reflectors minimize the heatmore » loss. Another important point is to introduce the real-time gas analysis in the He{sup 3} collection system. In this study 2 independent strength methods based on gas chromatography and quadruple mass spectrometer for one and on a modified self-assaying quadruple mass spectrometer for the second are applied to separate the hydrogen isotopes in helium gas. Another issue is the possibility of using depleted uranium getter material for the storage of hydrogen isotopes, especially of tritium.« less

  6. Paleocene-eocene lignite beds of southwest Alabama: Parasequence beds in highstand systems tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H.; Carroll, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite beds are present in at least four stratigraphic intervals that span approximately 8 m.y. of geologic time. Lignite is found in the Paleocene Oak Hill Member and Coal Bluff Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group and the Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand and the Eocene Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group. Lignite beds range in thickness from 0.5 to 11 ft and consist of 32-53% moisture, 13-39% volatile matter, 4-36% fixed carbon, and 5-51% ash. These Paleocene and Eocene lignite beds occur as parasequence deposits in highstand systems tracts of four distinct third-order depositional sequences.more » The lignite beds are interpreted as strata within highstand systems tract parasequences that occur in mud-dominated regressive intervals. Lignite beds were deposited in coastal marsh and low-lying swamp environments as part of deltaic systems that prograded into southwestern Alabama from the west. As sediment was progressively delivered into the basin from these deltas, the effects of relative sea level rise during an individual cycle were overwhelmed, producing a net loss of accommodation and concomitant overall basinward progradation of the shoreline (regression). Small-scale fluctuations in water depth resulting from the interaction of eustasy, sediment yield, and subsidence led to cyclical flooding of the low-lying coastal marshes and swamps followed by periods of progradational and regression. Highstand systems tract deposition within a particular depositional sequence culminated with a relative sea level fall that resulted in a lowering of base level and an abrupt basinward shift in coastal onlap. Following sea level fall and the subsequent accumulation of the lowstand deposits, significant relative sea level rise resulted in the marine inundation of the area previously occupied by coastal marshes and swamps and deposition of the transgressive systems tract of the overlying sequence.« less

  7. Spatial Distribution of Bed Particles in Natural Boulder-Bed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, K. F.; Prestegaard, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Wolman pebble count is used to obtain the size distribution of bed particles in natural streams. Statistics such as median particle size (D50) are used in resistance calculations. Additional information such as bed particle heterogeneity may also be obtained from the particle distribution, which is used to predict sediment transport rates (Hey, 1979), (Ferguson, Prestegaard, Ashworth, 1989). Boulder-bed streams have an extreme range of particles in the particle size distribution ranging from sand size particles to particles larger than 0.5-m. A study of a natural boulder-bed reach demonstrated that the spatial distribution of the particles is a significant factor in predicting sediment transport and stream bed and bank stability. Further experiments were performed to test the limits of the spatial distribution's effect on sediment transport. Three stream reaches 40-m in length were selected with similar hydrologic characteristics and spatial distributions but varying average size particles. We used a grid 0.5 by 0.5-m and measured four particles within each grid cell. Digital photographs of the streambed were taken in each grid cell. The photographs were examined using image analysis software to obtain particle size and position of the largest particles (D84) within the reach's particle distribution. Cross section, topography and stream depth were surveyed. Velocity and velocity profiles were measured and recorded. With these data and additional surveys of bankfull floods, we tested the significance of the spatial distributions as average particle size decreases. The spatial distribution of streambed particles may provide information about stream valley formation, bank stability, sediment transport, and the growth rate of riparian vegetation.

  8. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  9. Fluidized-bed calciner with combustion nozzle and shroud

    DOEpatents

    Wielang, Joseph A.; Palmer, William B.; Kerr, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A nozzle employed as a burner within a fluidized bed is coaxially enclosed within a tubular shroud that extends beyond the nozzle length into the fluidized bed. The open-ended shroud portion beyond the nozzle end provides an antechamber for mixture and combustion of atomized fuel with an oxygen-containing gas. The arrangement provides improved combustion efficiency and excludes bed particles from the high-velocity, high-temperature portions of the flame to reduce particle attrition.

  10. The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A; Ferdinande, P; Flaatten, H; Guidet, B; Metnitz, P G; Moreno, R P

    2012-10-01

    To quantify the numbers of critical care beds in Europe and to understand the differences in these numbers between countries when corrected for population size and gross domestic product. Prospective data collection of critical care bed numbers for each country in Europe from July 2010 to July 2011. Sources were identified in each country that could provide data on numbers of critical care beds (intensive care and intermediate care). These data were then cross-referenced with data from international databases describing population size and age, gross domestic product (GDP), expenditure on healthcare and numbers of acute care beds. We identified 2,068,892 acute care beds and 73,585 (2.8 %) critical care beds. Due to the heterogeneous descriptions of these beds in the individual countries it was not possible to discriminate between intensive care and intermediate care in most cases. On average there were 11.5 critical care beds per 100,000 head of population, with marked differences between countries (Germany 29.2, Portugal 4.2). The numbers of critical care beds per country corrected for population size were positively correlated with GDP (r(2) = 0.16, p = 0.05), numbers of acute care beds corrected for population (r(2) = 0.12, p = 0.05) and the percentage of acute care beds designated as critical care (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.0001). They were not correlated with the proportion of GDP expended on healthcare. Critical care bed numbers vary considerably between countries in Europe. Better understanding of these numbers should facilitate improved planning for critical care capacity and utilization in the future.

  11. 21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered device placed under a mattress and used to indicate by an alarm or other signal when a patient attempts... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed-patient monitor. 880.2400 Section 880.2400...

  12. Wave Driven Fluid-Sediment Interactions over Rippled Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Diane; Nichols, Claire

    2008-11-01

    Empirical investigations relating vortex shedding over rippled beds to oscillatory flows date back to Darwin in 1883. Observations of the shedding induced by oscillating forcing over fixed beds have shown vortical structures to reach maximum strength at 90 degrees when the horizontal velocity is largest. The objective of this effort is to examine the vortex generation and ejection over movable rippled beds in a full-scale, free surface wave environment. Observations of the two-dimensional time-varying velocity field over a movable sediment bed were obtained with a submersible Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system in two wave flumes. One wave flume was full scale and had a natural sand bed and the other flume had an artificial sediment bed with a specific gravity of 1.6. Full scale observations over an irregularly rippled bed show that the vortices generated during offshore directed flow over the steeper bed form slope were regularly ejected into the water column and were consistent with conceptual models of the oscillatory flow over a backward facing step. The results also show that vortices remain coherent during ejection when the background flow stalls (i.e. both the velocity and acceleration temporarily approach zero). These results offer new insight into fluid sediment interaction over rippled beds.

  13. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Virulence of entomopathogenic bacteria in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Jose E; Liang, Dangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. The failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. While a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. Here, we tested the virulence of three entomopathogenic bacterial species in C. lectularius to determine their potential for bed bug control. We examined bed bug survival after inoculation with live or heat-killed Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis at varying temperatures. We also analyzed the viability and growth of the same bacteria in infected bed bugs. All three bacterial species were pathogenic to bed bugs. However, the effects of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were temperature-dependent while the lethality of B. thuringiensis israelensis was not. In addition, bacterial virulence was partly dependent on the route of infection but was not strongly associated with proliferation. Thus, our results suggest multiple possible mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity in the bed bug and indicate that entomopathogenic bacteria, or products derived from them, may have useful applications for bed bug control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bed occupancy monitoring: data processing and clinician user interface design.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Melanie; Joshi, Vilas; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of patients, especially at their place of residence, is becoming a significant part of the healthcare model. A variety of sensors are being used to monitor different patient conditions. Bed occupancy monitoring provides clinicians a quantitative measure of bed entry/exit patterns and may provide information relating to sleep quality. This paper presents a bed occupancy monitoring system using a bed pressure mat sensor. A clinical trial was performed involving 8 patients to collect bed occupancy data. The trial period for each patient ranged from 5-10 weeks. This data was analyzed using a participatory design methodology incorporating clinician feedback to obtain bed occupancy parameters. The parameters extracted include the number of bed exits per night, the bed exit weekly average (including minimum and maximum), the time of day of a particular exit, and the amount of uninterrupted bed occupancy per night. The design of a clinical user interface plays a significant role in the acceptance of such patient monitoring systems by clinicians. The clinician user interface proposed in this paper was designed to be intuitive, easy to navigate and not cause information overload. An iterative design methodology was used for the interface design. The interface design is extendible to incorporate data from multiple sensors. This allows the interface to be part of a comprehensive remote patient monitoring system.

  16. Cimex lectularius ("Bed Bugs"): Recognition, Management, and Eradication.

    PubMed

    McMenaman, Kathryn S; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the United States and abroad have been in the public press. Physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. In this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites and their complications. Integrated pest management programs involving housing managers, residents, and professional pest exterminators provide both chemical and nonchemical solutions for eradication of bed bug infestations.

  17. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  18. Channel widening due to urbanization and a major flood can alter bed particle organization and bed stability in an urban boulder-bed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Behrns, K.; Blanchet, Z.; Hankin, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Anacostia River is a tributary of the Potomac River north of Washington D.C. that has become progressively more urbanized in the past 50 years. Bankfull discharge and bankfull width in the Anacostia have increased by 3- 4x in the past 50 years. Nearby watersheds of similar size and geology, but without significant urbanization, contain threshold gravel-bed streams. The Anacostia, however, is not a threshold channel; it exhibits break-up of boulder-bed channels in upstream reaches and significant gravel bar formation in downstream reaches. These gravel bars have grown and migrated considerably in the past 10-15 years, contributing significantly to local channel widening that can be twice that of adjacent reaches. The purpose of this study is to determine bedload transport rates and grain size distributions and their relationship to discharge, bed organization and sediment supply. Bed mobility data come from both bedload transport measurements and measurements of channel bed changes. Channel bed changes were obtained from a) repeated channel cross section surveys, b) surface and subsurface size distributions, and c) bed particle organization measurements (measurements of location of particles within reaches). These measurements were made prior to and after the floods of 2006, which equalled the largest floods on record for most parts of the Anacostia River. In some boulder bed reaches, boulders were removed from the center of the channel and deposited along and on the channel banks. The mid-channel boulders were replaced by sheets of gravel and cobbles, significantly altering the bed mobility of the channels.

  19. Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: a randomized survey.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate A; Byanaku, Aisha; Kubikonse, Augustine; Tshowe, Vincent; Katensi, Said; Lehman, Amy G

    2014-10-07

    Malaria is among the most common causes of death along Lake Tanganyika, a problem which many aid organizations have attempted to combat through the distribution of free mosquito bed nets to high-risk communities. The Lake Tanganyika Floating Health Clinic (LTFHC), a health-based non-governmental organization (NGO), has observed residents of the Lake Tanganyika basin using bed nets to fish small fry near the shoreline, despite a series of laws that prohibit bed net use and other fine-gauge nets for fishing, implemented to protect the near-shore fish ecology. The LTFHC sought to quantify the sources of bed nets and whether they were being used for fishing. The LTFHC conducted a survey of seven lakeside villages in Lagosa Ward, Tanzania. The government has divided each village into two to six pre-existing geographic sub-villages depending on population size. Seven households per sub-village were chosen at random for survey administration. The survey consisted of 23 questions regarding mosquito bed net practices, including the use of bed nets for fishing, as well as questions pertaining to any perceived changes to the fish supply. A total of 196 surveys were administered over a four-week period with a 100% response rate. Over 87% of households surveyed have used a mosquito bed net for fishing at some point. The majority of respondents reported receiving their bed net for free (96.4%), observing "many" residents of their village using bed nets for fishing (97.4%), and noticing a subjective decrease in the fish supply over time (64.9%). The findings of this study raise concerns that the use of free malaria bed nets for fishing is widespread along Lake Tanganyika, and that this dynamic will have an adverse effect on fish ecology. Further studies are indicated to fully define the scope of bed net misuse and the effects of alternative vector control strategies in water-based communities.

  20. Bed material transport in the Virgin River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed information concerning the rate and particle size distribution of bed material transport by streamflows can be very difficult and expensive to obtain, especially where peak streamflows are brief and bed material is poorly sorted, including some very large boulders. Such streams, however, are common in steep, arid watersheds. Any computational approach must consider that (1) only the smaller particle sizes present on the streambed move even during large floods and (2) the largest bed particles exert a significant form drag on the flow. Conventional methods that rely on a single particle size to estimate the skin friction shear stress acting on the mobile fraction of the bed material perform poorly. Instead, for this study, the skin friction shear stress was calculated for the observed range of streamflows by calculating the form drag exerted on the reach‐averaged flow field by all particle sizes. Suspended and bed load transported rates computed from reach‐averaged skin friction shear stress are in excellent agreement with measured transport rates. The computed mean annual bed material load, including both bed load and suspended load, of the East Fork Virgin River for the water years 1992‐1996 was approximately 1.3×10 5 t. A large portion of the bed material load consists of sand‐sized particles, 0.062–1.0 mm in diameter, that are transported in suspension. Such particles, however, constituted only 10% of the surface bed material and less than 25% of the subsurface bed material. The mean annual quantity of bed load transported was 1060 t/yr with a median size of 15 mm.

  1. Fuzzy control of a fluidized bed dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Taprantzis, A.V.; Siettos, C.I.; Bafas, G.V.

    1997-05-01

    Fluidized bed dryers are utilized in almost every area of drying applications and therefore improved control strategies are always of great interest. The nonlinear character of the process, exhibited in the mathematical model and the open loop analysis, implies that a fuzzy logic controller is appropriate because, in contrast with conventional control schemes, fuzzy control inherently compensates for process nonlinearities and exhibits more robust behavior. In this study, a fuzzy logic controller is proposed; its design is based on a heuristic approach and its performance is compared against a conventional PI controller for a variety of responses. It is shownmore » that the fuzzy controller exhibits a remarkable dynamic behavior, equivalent if not better than the PI controller, for a wide range of disturbances. In addition, the proposed fuzzy controller seems to be less sensitive to the nonlinearities of the process, achieves energy savings and enables MIMO control.« less

  2. A computational continuum model of poroelastic beds

    PubMed Central

    Zampogna, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of fluid flows interacting with porous and elastic materials, we lack a validated non-empirical macroscale method for characterizing the flow over and through a poroelastic medium. We propose a computational tool to describe such configurations by deriving and validating a continuum model for the poroelastic bed and its interface with the above free fluid. We show that, using stress continuity condition and slip velocity condition at the interface, the effective model captures the effects of small changes in the microstructure anisotropy correctly and predicts the overall behaviour in a physically consistent and controllable manner. Moreover, we show that the performance of the effective model is accurate by validating with fully microscopic resolved simulations. The proposed computational tool can be used in investigations in a wide range of fields, including mechanical engineering, bio-engineering and geophysics. PMID:28413355

  3. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  4. Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, G.

    1996-09-01

    In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can bemore » added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.« less

  5. Ignition of a granular propellant bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wildegger-Gaissmaier, A.E.; Johnston, I.R.

    1996-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is reported on the ignition process of a low vulnerability ammunition (LOVA) propellant bed in a 127-mm (5-in) bore gun charge. The theoretical investigation was with a two-phase flow interior ballistics code and the model predictions showed the marked influence the igniter system can have on pressure wave development, flame spreading, and the overall interior ballistics performance. A number of different igniter systems were investigated in an empty and propellant-filled gun simulator. Pressure, flame spreading, and high-speed film records were used to analyze the ignition/combustion event. The model predictions for flame spreading were confirmed qualitativelymore » by the experimental data. Full-scale instrumented gun firings were conducted with the optimized igniter design. Pressure waves were not detected in the charge during the firings. Model predictions on overall interior ballistics performance agreed well with the firing data.« less

  6. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration planmore » was completed. (VC)« less

  7. Carbon storage in seagrass soils: long-term nutrient history exceeds the effects of near-term nutrient enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, A. R.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The carbon sequestration potential in coastal soils is linked to aboveground and belowground plant productivity and biomass, which in turn, is directly and indirectly influenced by nutrient input. We evaluated the influence of long-term and near-term nutrient input on aboveground and belowground carbon accumulation in seagrass beds, using a nutrient enrichment (nitrogen and phosphorus) experiment embedded within a naturally occurring, long-term gradient of phosphorus availability within Florida Bay (USA). We measured organic carbon stocks in soils and above- and belowground seagrass biomass after 17 months of experimental nutrient addition. At the nutrient-limited sites, phosphorus addition increased the carbon stock in aboveground seagrass biomass by more than 300 %; belowground seagrass carbon stock increased by 50-100 %. Soil carbon content slightly decreased ( ˜ 10 %) in response to phosphorus addition. There was a strong but non-linear relationship between soil carbon and Thalassia testudinum leaf nitrogen : phosphorus (N : P) or belowground seagrass carbon stock. When seagrass leaf N : P exceeded an approximate threshold of 75 : 1, or when belowground seagrass carbon stock was less than 100 g m-2, there was less than 3 % organic carbon in the sediment. Despite the marked difference in soil carbon between phosphorus-limited and phosphorus-replete areas of Florida Bay, all areas of the bay had relatively high soil carbon stocks near or above the global median of 1.8 % organic carbon. The relatively high carbon content in the soils indicates that seagrass beds have extremely high carbon storage potential, even in nutrient-limited areas with low biomass or productivity.

  8. Carbon storage in seagrass soils: long-term nutrient history exceeds the effects of near-term nutrient enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, A. R.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    The carbon sequestration potential in coastal soils is linked to aboveground and belowground plant productivity and biomass, which in turn, is directly and indirectly influenced by nutrient input. We evaluated the influence of long-term and near-term nutrient input on aboveground and belowground carbon accumulation in seagrass beds, using a nutrient enrichment (nitrogen and phosphorus) experiment embedded within a naturally occurring, long-term gradient of phosphorus availability within Florida Bay (USA). We measured organic carbon stocks in soils and above- and belowground seagrass biomass after 17 months of experimental nutrient addition. At the nutrient-limited sites, phosphorus addition increased the carbon stock in aboveground seagrass biomass by more than 300 %; belowground seagrass carbon stock increased by 50-100 %. Soil carbon content slightly decreased (~ 10 %) in response to phosphorus addition. There was a strong but non-linear relationship between soil carbon and Thalassia testudinum leaf nitrogen: phosphorus (N : P) or belowground seagrass carbon stock. When seagrass leaf N : P exceeded a threshold of 75 : 1, or when belowground seagrass carbon stock was less than 100 g m-2, there was less than 3 % organic carbon in the sediment. Despite the marked difference in soil carbon between phosphorus-limited and phosphorus-replete areas of Florida Bay, all areas of the bay had relatively high soil carbon stocks near or above the global median of 1.8 % organic carbon. The relatively high carbon content in the soils indicates that seagrass beds have extremely high carbon storage potential, even in nutrient-limited areas with low biomass or productivity.

  9. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  10. The Influence of Relative Submergence on the Near-bed Flow Field: Implications for Bed-load Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Tait, S.; Marion, A.

    2005-12-01

    Bed-load is governed by interdependent mechanisms, the most significant being the interaction between bed roughness, surface layer composition and near-bed flow. Despite this, practically all transport rate equations are described as a function of average bed shear stress. Some workers have examined the role of turbulence in sediment transport (Nelson et al. 1995) but have not explored the potential significance of spatial variations in the near-bed flow field. This is unfortunate considering evidence showing that transport is spatially heterogeneous and could be linked to the spatial nature of the near-bed flow (Drake et al., 1988). An understanding is needed of both the temporal and spatial variability in the near-bed flow field. This paper presents detailed spatial velocity measurements of the near-bed flow field over a gravel-bed, obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry. These data have been collected in a laboratory flume under two regimes: (i) tests with one bed slope and different flow depths; and (ii) tests with a combination of flow depths and slopes at the same average bed shear stress. Results indicate spatial variation in the streamwise velocities of up to 45 per cent from the double-averaged velocity (averaged in both time and space). Under both regimes, as the depth increased, spatial variability in the flow field increased. The probability distributions of near-bed streamwise velocities became progressively more skewed towards the higher velocities. This change was more noticeable under regime (i). This has been combined with data from earlier tests in which the near-bed velocity close to an entraining grain was measured using a PIV/image analysis system (Chegini et al, 2002). This along with data on the shape of the probability density function of velocities capable of entraining individual grains derived from a discrete-particle model (Heald et al., 2004) has been used to estimate the distribution of local velocities required for grain motion in

  11. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  12. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Allen; Kiptui, Rebecca; Manya, Ayub; Wolkon, Adam; Vanden Eng, Jodi Leigh; Hamel, Mary; Noor, Abdisalan; Sharif, Shahnaz K; Buluma, Robert; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla; Slutsker, Laurence; Akhwale, Willis

    2010-06-24

    In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s) in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs) with attached global positioning systems (GPS) were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3%) of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0%) of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7%) slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1%) of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%). The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  13. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s) in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs) with attached global positioning systems (GPS) were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3%) of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0%) of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7%) slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1%) of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%). Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels. PMID:20576145

  14. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  15. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hosek, William S.; Garruto, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  16. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug, (hemiptra: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control and their painful bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has a strong need for materials and methods ...

  17. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  18. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  19. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  20. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. Themore » first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.« less

  1. Dynamic transport capacity in gravel-bed river systems

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle; B. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Sediment transport capacity mediates the transfer and storage of bed material between alluvial reservoirs in a drainage system. At intermediate time scales corresponding to the evolution of sediment pulses, conditions governing bed-material transport capacity under the hydrologic regime respond to variations in storage and sediment flux as pulses extend,...

  2. Gypsum as a bedding source for broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three trials examined the feasibility of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a bedding material for raising broilers. Gypsum was used alone, under or on top of pine shavings and pine bark. Test materials were placed as bedding in pens to simulate commercial broiler production through three growout cy...

  3. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Page of Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For mass distribution: two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  5. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  6. Implications of bed reduction in an acute psychiatric service.

    PubMed

    Bastiampillai, Tarun J; Bidargaddi, Niranjan P; Dhillon, Rohan S; Schrader, Geoffrey D; Strobel, Jörg E; Galley, Philip J

    2010-10-04

    To evaluate the impact of psychiatric inpatient bed closures, accompanied by a training program aimed at enhancing team effectiveness and incorporating data-driven practices, in a mental health service. Retrospective comparison of the changes in services within three consecutive financial years: baseline period - before bed reduction (2006-07); observation period - after bed reduction (2007-08); and intervention period - second year after bed reduction (2008-09). The study was conducted at Cramond Clinic, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide. Length of stay, 28-day readmission rates, discharges, bed occupancy rates, emergency department (ED) presentations, ED waiting time, seclusions, locality of treatment, and follow-up in the community within 7days. Reduced bed numbers were associated with reduced length of stay, fewer referrals from the community and subsequently shorter waiting times in the ED, without significant change in readmission rates. A higher proportion of patients was treated in the local catchment area, with improved community follow-up and a significant reduction in inpatient seclusions. Our findings should reassure clinicians concerned about psychiatric bed numbers that service redesign with planned bed reductions will not necessarily affect clinical care, provided data literacy and team training programs are in place to ensure smooth transition of patients across ED, inpatient and community services.

  7. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  8. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  9. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  10. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a...

  15. 21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner of the bed, the pipes drain off any excess water and maintain a limit on water depth. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. 3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Inclined Plane 10, 1970. Track bed at left. View some what similar to that of NJ-30-2. Stone track bed is visible under cable system of NJ-30-2. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 10 West, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  17. Predicting fractional bed load transport rates: Application of the Wilcock‐Crowe equations to a regulated gravel bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, David; Andrews, E.D.; Krause, Andreas; Smith, Wes

    2009-01-01

    Bed load samples from four locations in the Trinity River of northern California are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the Wilcock‐Crowe bed load transport equations for predicting fractional bed load transport rates. Bed surface particles become smaller and the fraction of sand on the bed increases with distance downstream from Lewiston Dam. The dimensionless reference shear stress for the mean bed particle size (τ*rm) is largest near the dam, but varies relatively little between the more downstream locations. The relation between τ*rm and the reference shear stresses for other size fractions is constant across all locations. Total bed load transport rates predicted with the Wilcock‐Crowe equations are within a factor of 2 of sampled transport rates for 68% of all samples. The Wilcock‐Crowe equations nonetheless consistently under‐predict the transport of particles larger than 128 mm, frequently by more than an order of magnitude. Accurate prediction of the transport rates of the largest particles is important for models in which the evolution of the surface grain size distribution determines subsequent bed load transport rates. Values of τ*rm estimated from bed load samples are up to 50% larger than those predicted with the Wilcock‐Crowe equations, and sampled bed load transport approximates equal mobility across a wider range of grain sizes than is implied by the equations. Modifications to the Wilcock‐Crowe equation for determining τ*rm and the hiding function used to scale τ*rm to other grain size fractions are proposed to achieve the best fit to observed bed load transport in the Trinity River.

  18. Bed usage in a Dublin teaching hospital: a prospective audit.

    PubMed

    John, A; Breen, D P; Ghafar, Aabdul; Olphert, T; Burke, C M

    2004-01-01

    We prospectively audited inpatient bed use in our hospital for the first three months of this year. While 70% (mean age 54 +/- 20.8 years) of our patients went home on the day they were medically discharged, 30% (mean age 70.3 +/- 18.3 years) remained in the hospital awaiting step-down facilities. The total of 486 bed days occupied by overstaying patients would if available, have allowed treatment of 54% more patients without any increase in the hospital complement of beds, preventing the cancellation of elective procedures and preventing patients remaining on trolleys overnight. These prospective data emphasise (1) a highly inefficient use of acute hospital beds; (2) the need for step-down facilities; (3) efficient use of existing hospital beds is the highest priority both for optimal patient care and optimal use of expensive hospital resources; (4) efficient use of existing facilities should be achieved before the construction of additional facilities.

  19. Influence of bedding type on mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Amy N; Clark, Stephanie E; Talham, Gwen; Sidelsky, Michael G; Coffin, Susan E

    2002-10-01

    The mucosal immune system interacts with the external environment. In the study reported here, we found that bedding materials can influence the intestinal immune responses of mice. We observed that mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding, had increased numbers of Peyer's patches (PP) visible under a dissecting microscope. In addition, culture of lymphoid organs revealed increased production of total and virus-specific IgA by PP and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding. However, bedding type did not influence serum virus-specific antibody responses. These observations indicate that bedding type influences the intestinal immune system and suggest that this issue should be considered by mucosal immunologists and personnel at animal care facilities.

  20. Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Douglas W [Blackfoot, ID

    2011-05-24

    There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.