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Sample records for theophylline

  1. Enoxacin decreases the clearance of theophylline in man.

    PubMed Central

    Wijnands, W J; Vree, T B; Van Herwaarden, C L

    1985-01-01

    In patients treated concurrently with theophylline and enoxacin, a new broad-spectrum antibacterial agent of the quinolone class, unexpectedly high plasma theophylline concentrations were measured. In part I of this study, daily plasma theophylline concentrations were measured in 14 patients. The mean +/- s.d. theophylline concentrations increased from 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms ml-1 prior to enoxacin to a maximum of 21.7 +/- 7.8 micrograms ml-1 during coadministration. In part II, six of these patients received aminophylline intravenously at a constant infusion rate and under controlled conditions. Plasma theophylline concentrations rose from 8.4 +/- 2.4 micrograms ml-1 prior to enoxacin treatment to 15.0 +/- 5.1 micrograms ml-1 at day 3 of coadministration (P less than 0.005). Plasma protein-binding and renal clearance of theophylline remained unchanged, whereas total body clearance of theophylline significantly decreased (P less than 0.005). From these observations it is concluded that the rise of plasma theophylline concentrations is caused by a reduced metabolic clearance of theophylline. If concomitant use of both drugs is necessary, monitoring of plasma theophylline concentration and adjustment of the theophylline dose is recommended. PMID:3867394

  2. Theophylline

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking or eating foods high in caffeine, like coffee, tea, cocoa, and chocolate, may increase the side effects caused by theophylline. Avoid large amounts of these substances while you are taking ...

  3. Physical stability enhancement of theophylline via cocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Trask, Andrew V; Motherwell, W D Sam; Jones, William

    2006-08-31

    The crystal form adopted by the respiratory drug theophylline was modified using a crystal engineering strategy in order to search for a solid material with improved physical stability. Cocrystals, also referred to as crystalline molecular complexes, were prepared with theophylline and one of several dicarboxylic acids. Four cocrystals of theophylline are reported, one each with oxalic, malonic, maleic and glutaric acids. Crystal structures were obtained for each cocrystal material, allowing an examination of the hydrogen bonding and crystal packing features. The cocrystal design scheme was partly based upon a series of recently reported cocrystals of the molecular analogue, caffeine, and comparisons in packing features are drawn between the two cocrystal series. The theophylline cocrystals were subjected to relative humidity challenges in order to assess their stability in relation to crystalline theophylline anhydrate and the equivalent caffeine cocrystals. None of the cocrystals in this study converted into a hydrated cocrystal upon storage at high relative humidity. Furthermore, the theophylline:oxalic acid cocrystal demonstrated superior humidity stability to theophylline anhydrate under the conditions examined, while the other cocrystals appeared to offer comparable stability to that of theophylline anhydrate. The results demonstrate the feasibility of pharmaceutical cocrystal design based upon the crystallization preferences of a molecular analogue, and furthermore show that avoidance of hydrate formation and improvement in physical stability is possible via pharmaceutical cocrystallization.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline after administration of suppositories formulation.

    PubMed

    Abou-Basha, L I; Wahman, L F; Hamza, A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a public health problem for developed countries. It attacks all age groups but often starts in childhood. Theophylline ethanoate of piperazine in a suppository form is one of the treatments of asthmatic children. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were evaluated in 24 healthy male subjects after administration of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine suppositories (PR) (Minophylline 500 mg. Alexandria Co.) and single injection intravenous (IV) of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine (Minophylline ampoules 500 mg Alexandria Co.). The theophylline serum levels were determined by an ELISA method. Peak theophylline plasma concentration, Cmax, (mean +/- S.D) was 21.5 +/- 2.10 microg/mL & 14 +/- 0.90 microg/mL; AUC(0-t), values were 80.9 and 67. 4 microg x ml x hr for the reference IV preparation and suppositories, respectively. The median peak time, Tmax, was 0.5 hr for theophylline rectal administration. The above mentioned results demonstrate the possibilities of using theophylline (Minophylline Suppositories--500 mg Alexandria Co.) in asthmatic children in rural and desert areas away from health care personnel.

  5. Development of matrix-based theophylline sustained-release microtablets.

    PubMed

    Rey, H; Wagner, K G; Wehrlé, P; Schmidt, P C

    2000-01-01

    Microtablets containing high theophylline content (from 60% to 80%) based on a Eudragit RS PO matrix were produced on a rotary tablet press. The influence of the compaction pressure, the plasticizer content used for the granulation of theophylline particles, and the amount of theophylline on the drug release were investigated. The effects of surface area and the addition of magnesium stearate as a hydrophobic agent on the drug release were studied. The storage stabilities of the release rate at room temperature and at 50 degrees C were also determined. Dissolution profiles expressed as percentage of theophylline dissolved were obtained over 8 hr in 900 ml of purified water at 37 degrees C and 75 rpm. It was observed that the compaction pressure (from 200 MPa to 250 MPa) had no effect on the theophylline release. The use of triethyl citrate (TEC) as a plasticizer in the granulation of theophylline enhanced the physical properties of the microtablets. Theophylline content in the range 60% to 80% did not affect the drug release. The theophylline release obtained was a function of the quotient surface area/tablet weight and therefore was dependent on the tablet diameter. To reduce the dissolution rates, magnesium stearate was added in a concentration up to 50% of the matrix material. Tablets of this hydrophobic formulation fulfilled the requirements of USP 23 for theophylline sustained-release preparations. Storage at room temperature for 3 months and at 50 degrees C for 2 months showed no significant influence on the theophylline release.

  6. Theophylline-nicotinamide cocrystal formation in physical mixture during storage.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant properties, such as solubility and dissolution rate, of active pharmaceutical ingredients can be enhanced by cocrystal formation. Theophylline and nicotinamide are known to form cocrystals, for example if subjected to solid-state grinding. However, under appropriate conditions, cocrystals can also form in physical mixtures without any mechanical activation. The purpose of this work was to study whether theophylline and nicotinamide could form cocrystals spontaneously, without mechanical activation. Crystalline theophylline and nicotinamide powders were gently mixed manually in a 1:1 molar ratio and stored at different relative humidity and temperature conditions. The solid state of the samples was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. Three different variations of theophylline were used as starting materials, e.g., two size fractions of theophylline anhydrate (large 710 μm-1 mm and small 180-355 μm), and monohydrate (recrystallized from water). As a reference, anhydrous theophylline-nicotinamide cocrystals were prepared by solid-state grinding. The results of this study indicate that theophylline-nicotinamide cocrystals can form without any mechanical activation from physical mixtures of theophylline and nicotinamide during storage. For anhydrous samples, storage humidity was found to be a critical parameter for cocrystal formation. Increasing temperature was also found to have an accelerating effect on the transformation. The effect of particle size of anhydrous theophylline on the transformation rate could not be completely resolved; DSC and Raman indicated slightly faster transformation with a physical mixture prepared from large size fraction of anhydrous theophylline, but the differences were only minor. Cocrystal formation was also observed in the physical mixture prepared from theophylline monohydrate, but the rate was not as high as with samples prepared from anhydrous

  7. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Won; Shirley, Shawna A; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2006-01-01

    Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs) can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in treating asthma may be enhanced

  8. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Won; Shirley, Shawna A; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2006-08-24

    Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs) can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in treating asthma may be enhanced through the use of this novel drug delivery

  9. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline: a dose-range study.

    PubMed Central

    Rovei, V; Chanoine, F; Strolin Benedetti, M

    1982-01-01

    1 Pharmacokinetics of theophylline were investigated in a group of healthy adult volunteers (non smokers and on xanthine-free diet) following single oral administration of 125, 250, 375 and 500 mg doses as tablets (Theodel). 2 Absorption of theophylline was rapid and followed first-order kinetics. Plasma curves were fitted according to a one compartment open model. 3 There was a linear relationship (P less than 0.001) between plasma Cmax or AUCx values and the administered dose. The analysis of variance showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline (t1/2 abs, tmax, t1/2 beta, CL, CLR, Vd and F) were not modified at any dose. 4 Absorption of the drug was complete since the recovery in urine of theophylline (13.7 to 16.8% of the dose) and its major metabolites, 1,3-dimethyluric acid (35 to 42%), 1-methyluric acid (21.3 to 26.7%) and 3-methylxanthine (11.5 to 13.7%), accounted for the administered dose. Some impairment of demethylation to 3-methylxanthine was observed in two subjects, however the percentage of theophylline and its major metabolites excreted in urine was constant for all the four doses. 5 On the basis of these results, after single oral administration, elimination of theophylline followed first-order kinetics in the range of doses investigated (1.62 to 10.42 mg/kg). PMID:7150456

  10. Theophylline therapy inhibits neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis from chronic asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Condino-Neto, A; Vilela, M M; Cambiucci, E C; Ribeiro, J D; Guglielmi, A A; Magna, L A; De Nucci, G

    1991-01-01

    1. Theophylline is commonly used to relieve symptoms of chronic asthma. Since neutrophil and mononuclear cell activation are associated with late phase asthmatic reactions, effects of theophylline on these cells may be of importance. 2. In the present investigation we compared neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis from chronic asthmatic children during and after theophylline therapy. 3. Thirty patients were recruited for the study. Each patient received theophylline orally for 10 days. The theophylline dose was 20 mg kg-1 day-1 given in four divided doses. On the tenth day, blood was collected into heparinized (100 u ml-1) and siliconized tubes 2 h after the last theophylline dose for chemotactic assays, cAMP and theophylline plasma determinations. When clinical conditions allowed, theophylline was discontinued for 7 days and the chemotactic assays, cAMP and theophylline plasma concentrations repeated. Serum complement and IgE levels were also determined. 4. Theophylline therapy clearly inhibited both spontaneous and stimulated neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis. Twenty-seven patients had therapeutic plasma concentrations of theophylline (5-20 micrograms ml-1). Discontinuation of theophylline therapy caused a significant decrease in plasma cAMP levels (44 and 31 pmol ml-1 respectively during and after treatment, n = 30, P less than 0.001). 5. The inhibition of neutrophil and mononuclear cell migration by theophylline therapy in chronic asthmatic children may be beneficial for the control of the inflammatory response observed in these patients. PMID:1659436

  11. Poly(acrylic acid) to induce competitive crystallization of a theophylline/oxalic acid cocrystal and a theophylline polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jisun; Kim, Il Won

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric additives to induce competitive crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds were explored. A cocrystal of theophylline and oxalic acid was used as a model system, and poly(acrylic acid), poly(caprolactone), and poly(ethylene glycol) were the additives. The cocrystal formation was selectively hindered with addition of poly(acrylic acid). First the size of the cocrystals were reduced, and eventually the cocrystallization was inhibited to generate neat theophylline crystals. The theophylline crystals were of a distinctively different crystal structure from known polymorphs, based on powder X-ray diffraction. They were also obtained in nanoscale size, when millimeter-scale crystals formed without poly(acrylic acid). Polymeric additives that could form specific interactions with crystallizing compounds seem to be useful tools for the phase and size control of pharmaceutical crystals.

  12. Theophylline effects on cognition, behavior, and learning.

    PubMed

    Weldon, D P; McGeady, S J

    1995-01-01

    To compare a group of hospitalized asthmatic children taking theophylline with a similar group of hospitalized nonasthmatic children on standardized measures of distractibility, attention, hyperactivity, and academic achievement. Standardized psychological tests were used to measure cognition, attention, and learning, and results for the two groups were compared. All subjects were hospitalized in an intermediate care facility. Up to 63 asthmatic children taking theophylline were compared with a group of 46 nonasthmatic children matched for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and full-scale IQ. Children with head injuries, mental retardation, or known learning disabilities were not included. All asthmatic children and none of the nonasthmatic children maintained therapeutic levels of theophylline during the evaluation period. Independent t tests were used to examine differences between groups on psychological tests of cognition, attention, and learning. No significant differences were found between groups on any variables at the 95% level of confidence. While idiosyncratic side effects of theophylline are possible, most children are not more hyperactive, distractible, short of memory, different in academic achievement, or more impulsive than other children with chronic illness.

  13. Roller compaction of different pseudopolymorphic forms of theophylline: Effect on compressibility and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Hadzović, Ervina; Betz, Gabriele; Hadzidedić, Seherzada; El-Arini, Silvia Kocova; Leuenberger, Hans

    2010-08-30

    The effect of roller compaction on disintegration time, dissolution rate and compressibility of tablets prepared from theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate was studied. In addition, the influence of adding microcrystalline cellulose, a commonly used excipient, in mixtures with these materials was investigated. Theophylline anhydrate powder was used as a model drug to investigate the influence of different compaction pressures on the tablet properties. Tablets with same porosity were prepared by direct compaction and by roller compaction/re-compaction. Compressibility was characterized by Heckel and modified Heckel equations. Due to the property of polymorphic materials to change their form during milling and compression, X-ray diffraction analysis of theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate powders and granules was carried out. After roller compaction the disintegration time and the dissolution rate of the tablets were significantly improved. Compressibility of theophylline anhydrate powder and theophylline anhydrate fine powder was decreased, while theophylline monohydrate showed higher compressibility after roller compaction. Microcrystalline cellulose affected compressibility of theophylline anhydrate powder, theophylline anhydrate fine powder and theophylline monohydrate whereby the binary mixtures showed higher compressibility than the individual materials. X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that there were no polymorphic/pseudopolymorphic changes after roller compaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Terbinafine on Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Trépanier, Eric F.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Amsden, Guy W.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident. PMID:9517954

  15. [Life-threatening theophylline intoxication: a variant of Munchhausen syndrome by proxy].

    PubMed

    Föll, D; Debus, O; Schmitt, G M; Harms, E; Zimmer, K-P

    2003-01-01

    We report of a prematurely born infant, who was admitted to hospital at the age of 6 months due to seizures. The seizures continued despite of an improved electroencephalogram due to varying medications. The boy had episodes of hypokaliaemia, diarrhea, and tachycardia which were treated in critical care unit. Not before 3 months of continued treatment and diagnostic work up in three different hospitals had passed the underlying poisoning with theophylline by the mother was proved. The toxicity of theophylline is well known. Adverse reactions occur frequently during theophylline therapy. There are numerous reports of suicidal intoxications with theophylline. Non-accidental poisoning with theophylline has not yet been reported in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

  16. [The antitussive effect of theophylline].

    PubMed

    Nemceková, E; Nosál'ová, G; Rybár, A

    1994-08-01

    Theophylline belongs to a group of medicaments used in asthma therapy. It yields an antiinflammatory effect, reduces allergic reactions, and in respiratory airways it improves the mucociliary clearance and eminently dilates smooth muscles. Therefore, the main aim of our interest is its effect on the cough reflex. Cough was evoked by mechanical irritation of the airways in cats with chronic tracheal cannula. It has been discovered that theophylline, when dosed 10 mg per kg of body weight i.p. achieved a more intensive effect than dextromethorphane, namely in evaluation of cough parameters, but it had a lower suppressive effect than codeine. (Fig. 3, Ref. 13.)

  17. An aptamer nanopore-enabled microsensor for detection of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Feng, Silu; Chen, Changtian; Wang, Wei; Que, Long

    2018-05-15

    This paper reports an aptamer-based nanopore thin film sensor for detecting theophylline in the buffer solution and complex fluids including plant extracts and serum samples. Compared to antibody-based detection, aptamer-based detection offers many advantages such as low cost and high stability at elevated temperatures. Experiments found that this type of sensor can readily detect theophylline at a concentration as low as 0.05µM, which is much lower than the detection limit of current lab-based equipment such as liquid chromatography (LC). Experiments also found that the aptamer-based sensor has good specificity, selectivity, and reasonable reusability with a significantly improved dynamic detection range. By using the same nanopore thin film sensors as the reference sensors to further mitigate the non-specific binding effect, the theophylline in plant extracts and serum has been detected. Only a small amount (~1μL) of plant extracts or serum samples is required to measure theophylline. Its low cost and ease-of-operation make this type of sensor suitable for point-of-care application to monitor the theophylline level of patients in real time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of Hydrodynamically balanced system for theophylline delivery.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Malakar, Jadupati

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBSs) of theophylline as single unit capsules. They were formulated by physical blending of theophylline with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, liquid paraffin, and lactose in different ratios. These theophylline HBS capsules were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, in vitro floating behavior and drug release in simulated gastric fluids (pH 1.2). All these formulated HBS capsules containing theophylline were floated well over 6 hours with no floating lag time, and also showed sustained in vitro drug release in simulated gastric fluid over 6 hours. The theophylline release from these capsules was more sustained with the addition of release modifiers (ethyl cellulose and liquid paraffin). The drug release pattern from these capsules was correlated well with first order model (F-1 to F-5) and Korsmeyer-Peppas model (F-6 and F-7) with the non-Fickian (anomalous) diffusion mechanism. These experimental results clearly indicated that these theophylline HBS capsules were able to remain buoyant in the gastric juice for longer period, which may improve oral bioavailability of theophylline.

  19. Theophylline kinetics in relation to age: the importance of smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, B; Kelly, J G; Lavan, J; Noel, J; O'Malley, K

    1980-01-01

    1 Single dose studies of theophylline kinetics were compared in groups of young and elderly smokers and non-smokers to assess the effect of age on theophylline absorption and the effect of smoking on drug metabolising enzyme activity in old age. 2 The rate and extent of absorption was not affected by age. Distribution and elimination kinetics were similar in young and elderly non-smokers. 3 In young subjects the elimination half-life of theophylline was shorter and clearance was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. 4 In the elderly mean elimination half-life was significantly shorter in smokers and their plasma clearance was 40% higher than in non-smokers. The statistical difference for clearance was at the 7% level of significance. 5 These data indicate that ageing per se does not affect theophylline elimination and also that induction of theophylline metabolism due to smoking occurs in old age. Smoking is a variable that should be taken account of when assessing drug metabolism in elderly patients. PMID:7426272

  20. Characteristic of theophylline imprinted monolithic column and its application for determination of xanthine derivatives caffeine and theophylline in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-wen; Qiao, Feng-xia; Liu, Guang-yu

    2006-11-17

    Theophylline imprinted monolithic columns were designed and prepared for rapid separation of a homologous series of xanthine derivatives, caffeine, and theophylline by an in situ thermal-initiated copolymerization technique. Caffeine and theophylline were fully separated both under isocratic and gradient elutions on this kind of monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) column. The broad peak showed in isocratic elution could be improved in gradient elution. Some chromatographic conditions such as mobile phase composition, flow rate, and the temperature on the retention times were investigated. Hydrogen bonding interaction and hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the retention and separation. The binding capacity was evaluated by static adsorption and Scatchard analysis, which showed that the dissociation constant (KD) and the maximum binding capacity (Qmax) were 1.50 mol/L, and 236 micromol/g for high affinity binding site, and 7.97 mol/L and 785 micromol/g for lower affinity binding site, respectively. Thermodynamic data (DeltaDeltaH and DeltaDeltaS) obtained by Van't Hoff plots revealed an enthalpy-controlled separation. The morphological characteristics of monolithic MIP were investigated by scanning electron microscope, which showed that both mesopores and macropores were formed in the monolith. The present monolithic MIP column was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of caffeine and theophylline in different kinds of green tea.

  1. Oral theophylline in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Al-Damluji, S.; Johnston, A.; Spurrell, R. A. J.; Nathan, A. W.; Banim, S. O.; Camm, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Theophylline choline 600 mg was given as a single oral dose to nine patients in chronic left ventricular failure due to myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac output, left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) were measured with a pulmonary artery thermodilution catheter for the following 3 hr. Continuous recordings of cardiac rhythm were made throughout the study. Mean cardiac index increased from 1·75 (±0·14 s.e. mean) to 2·04 (±0·11) 1/min/m2 (P<0·02), mean LVFP fell from 27 (±2·4) to 22 (±1·5) mmHg (P<0·01), mean RAP fell from 5 (±1·3) to 3 (±2·0) mmHg (P<0·05) and mean systemic arterial pressure rose from 80 (±3) to 86 (±3·5) mmHg (P<0·05). There were no significant changes in heart rate or systemic vascular resistance; thus the increase in cardiac output was probably due to a positive inotropic effect. Side effects were seen in two patients, both of whom proved to have toxic plasma theophylline concentrations. This study demonstrated a beneficial acute haemodynamic effect of oral theophylline in chronic cardiac failure. PMID:7111101

  2. Intercalated theophylline-smectite hybrid for pH-mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Vivek; Nandi, Uttom; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Coleman, Nichola J

    2018-01-23

    On the basis of their large specific surface areas, high adsorption and cation exchange capacities, swelling potential and low toxicity, natural smectite clays are attractive substrates for the gastric protection of neutral and cationic drugs. Theophylline is an amphoteric xanthine derivative that is widely used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study considers the in vitro uptake and release characteristics of the binary theophylline-smectite system. The cationic form of theophylline was readily ion exchanged into smectite clay at pH 1.2 with a maximum uptake of 67 ± 2 mg g -1 . Characterisation of the drug-clay hybrid system by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the theophylline had been exclusively intercalated into the clay system in an amorphous form. The drug remained bound within the clay under simulated gastric conditions at pH 1.2; and the prolonged release of approximately 40% of the drug was observed in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 6.8 and 7.4 within a 2-h timeframe. The incomplete reversibility of the intercalation process was attributed to chemisorption of the drug within the clay lattice. These findings indicate that smectite clay is a potentially suitable vehicle for the safe passage of theophylline into the duodenum. Protection from absorption in the stomach and subsequent prolonged release in the small intestine are advantageous in reducing fluctuations in serum concentration which may impact therapeutic effect and toxicity.

  3. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D; Calello, Diane P; Godin, Melanie; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-05-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. After a systematic review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19 pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is < 15 mg/L (83 μmol/L) (1D). Following the cessation of ECTR, patients

  5. Plants to Polyelectrolytes: Theophylline Polymers and Their Microsphere Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Ryan; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-04-01

    To extend fossil oil supplies, sustainable feed stocks for the production of useful reagents and polymers should be harnessed. In this regard, chemicals derived from plants are excellent candidates. While the vast majority of plant sources used for polymer science only contain C x H y O z , alkaloids such as caffeine, nicotine, and theophylline possess nitrogen functionality that can provide new functions for bioderived polymers and their synthesis. In this context, the chemistry of theophylline, a natural product found in chocolate and tea, is exploited to create a cationic "poly(theophylline)" in a straightforward fashion for the first time. This work demonstrates how this new polymer can be synthesized and used for the creation of narrowly disperse cationic microspheres. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Theophylline-Induced Seizures: Clinical and Pathophysiologic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Tsutomu; Kwee, Ingrid L.; Lerner, Alfred M.; Remler, Michael P.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features and management of theophylline-induced seizures are not well appreciated in spite of their unique aspects. These seizures tend to occur in neurologically intact patients and leave no or only minor neurologic sequelae if controlled early. They begin with focal motor seizures with or without secondary generalization and are followed by stupor or coma. They are responsive only to adjustment of theophylline dosage. Should the motor phenomenon persist, it takes the form of epilepsia partialis continua. Extensive workup for a structural brain lesion may be unrewarding. The electroencephalogram typically shows periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, which may provide a diagnostic clue. PMID:6858124

  7. Use of theophylline in the investigation of pseudothrombocytopenia induced by edetic acid (EDTA-2K).

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, O; Shirata, Y; Miyazawa, K

    1988-01-01

    In automated cell counting of edetic acid (EDTA-2K) anticoagulated blood, thrombocytopenia is occasionally seen which bears no relation to any underlying disease. In this study a heparin and soluble theophylline mixture was used to measure accurately platelet numbers in patients with such pseudothrombocytopenia. In four normal volunteers, a theophylline concentration of more than 7 mg/ml produced no significant difference in platelet numbers between theophylline and heparin and EDTA-2K anticoagulated bloods. When blood treated with EDTA-2K was used in seven patients with pseudothrombocytopenia, falsely low platelet counts were observed in three patients immediately after sampling; in blood treated with theophylline, white cell and platelet counts remained unchanged for up to six hours after sampling. Microscopical examination of the EDTA-2K anticoagulated blood showed massive platelet clumping, but no aggregates were seen in theophylline anticoagulated blood. It is concluded that theophylline can be useful in the investigation of pseudothrombocytopenia when an automated cell counter is used. PMID:3139717

  8. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks)more » bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced

  9. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of decursin on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-woo; Baek, In-hwan; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2012-11-21

    Decursin is used as a traditional Asian medicine to treat various women's diseases. Herb-drug interaction has become a serious problem since herbal medicine is extensively used in the modern world. This study investigates effects of decursin, on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, a typical substrate of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme, in rats. After decursin pretreatment for 3 days, on the fourth day rats were administered decursin and theophylline concomitantly. The blood theophylline and its major metabolites (1-methylxanthine (1-MX), 3-methylxanthine (3-MX), 1-methyluric acid (1-MU), and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU)) levels were monitored with LC-MS/MS. The results indicated that the clearance, elimination rate constant (K(el)) of theophylline was significantly decreased and area under concentration-time curve (AUC), C(max), half-life was increased in decursin (25mg/kg) pretreatment when theophylline (10mg/kg) was given. In the presence of decursin, the pharmacokinetic parameters of three metabolites (1-MX, 1,3-DMU, and 1-MU) were affected and the differences were statistically significant about AUC(24)(h) parameter. Our results suggest that patients who want to use CYP1A2-metabolized drugs such as caffeine and theophylline should be advised of the potential herb-drug interaction, to reduce therapeutic failure or increased toxicity of conventional drug therapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Effect of decursinol angelate on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-woo; An, Jung-hwa; Kang, Wonku; Ma, Jin yeul; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2012-10-01

    Herb-drug interactions represent a serious problem as herbal medicine is used extensively in the modern world. This study investigated the effects of decursinol angelate on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, a typical substrate of the cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme, in rats. After 3 days of decursinol angelate pretreatment, on the fourth day, rats were administered decursinol angelate and theophylline concomitantly. Blood theophylline and its major metabolite [1-methylxanthine (1-MX), 3-methylxanthine (3-MX), 1-methyluric acid (1-MU), and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU)] levels were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that theophylline clearance significantly decreased and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in decursinol angelate (25 mg/kg)-pretreated rats administered theophylline (10 mg/kg). The elimination half-life (t1/2) of theophylline was increased by 20%. In the presence of decursinol angelate (25 mg/kg), the pharmacokinetic parameters of three metabolites (1-MX, 1,3-DMU, and 1-MU) were significantly altered (half-life for 1-MU, and AUC24 h for 1-MX, 1,3-DMU, and 1-MU). Our results suggest that patients receiving CYP1A2-metabolized drugs, such as caffeine and theophylline, should be advised of the potential herb-drug interaction to reduce the risk of therapeutic failure or increased toxicity of conventional drug therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of theophylline in adult Chinese patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanjiao; Xue, Ling; Chen, Xin; Kang, Yingbo; Wang, Yong; Wang, Liqing

    2018-05-18

    Background Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic range and large interindividual variability in blood levels, so a thorough understanding of its pharmacokinetic characteristics is essential. Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) approaches could achieve it and many PPK studies of theophylline have been reported in infants. However, none was conducted in Chinese adults and none has explored the effect of CYP1A2 genotypes on the PPK characteristics of theophylline in adults. Objective To evaluate the PPK characteristics of theophylline and to assess the possible influence of covariates, including CYP1A2 genotypes, on theophylline clearance in Chinese adult patients. Setting The study is conducted at the department of respiration in Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Methods Theophylline concentrations were obtained from eligible patients and were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The polymorphisms of - 3860G > A, - 163C > A, C5347T (CYP1A2*1B) and G-3113A were genotyped using a direct sequencing method. Then, CYP1A2 genotypes, age, fat-free mass (FFM) and other covariates were used to develop a PPK model by NONMEM software. Bootstrap analysis was used to asses the accuracy and prediction of the PPK model. Main outcome measure The concentration and clearance of theophylline. Results A total of 134 theophylline concentrations from 95 patients were obtained. The final model was as follows: CL/F(L/h) = 4.530 × (FFM/56.1) 0.75  × 0.713 CYP1A2*1B , the inter-individual variability in clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) was 44.0%, and the residual variability was 9.8%. The final model was proved to be reliable by bootstrap analysis. Conclusion Theophylline clearance was significantly associated with FFM and CYP1A2*1B genotypes in Chinese adult patients.

  13. Sustained-release theophylline and nocturnal asthma, once-daily and unequal dosing schedules.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, M H; D'Alonzo, G E; Kunkel, G; Barnes, P J

    1987-01-01

    Many asthmatic patients experience aggravation of symptoms overnight resulting in disruption of their sleep. Sustained-release theophylline represents at this time a major bronchodilator medication which possesses a sufficient duration of activity to avert the nocturnal breathing distress of asthma. Circadian rhythm-adapted theophylline schedules consisting of unequal dosing--more or all the drug taken in the evening--have proven efficacious in clinical investigations for certain patients. Although the kinetic behavior of some formulations is affected by food, the circadian rhythm-adapted schedules represent a significant step forward toward the goal of optimizating sustained-release theophyllines for patients who experience nighttime symptoms.

  14. Adaptive control of theophylline therapy: importance of blood sampling times.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, D Z; Khakmahd, K

    1983-10-01

    A two-observation protocol for estimating theophylline clearance during a constant-rate intravenous infusion is used to examine the importance of blood sampling schedules with regard to the information content of resulting concentration data. Guided by a theory for calculating maximally informative sample times, population simulations are used to assess the effect of specific sampling times on the precision of resulting clearance estimates and subsequent predictions of theophylline plasma concentrations. The simulations incorporated noise terms for intersubject variability, dosing errors, sample collection errors, and assay error. Clearance was estimated using Chiou's method, least squares, and a Bayesian estimation procedure. The results of these simulations suggest that clinically significant estimation and prediction errors may result when using the above two-point protocol for estimating theophylline clearance if the time separating the two blood samples is less than one population mean elimination half-life.

  15. Direct conversion of theophylline to 3-methylxanthine by metabolically engineered E. coli.

    PubMed

    Algharrawi, Khalid H R; Summers, Ryan M; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2015-12-21

    Methylxanthines are natural and synthetic compounds found in many foods, drinks, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Aside from caffeine, production of many methylxanthines is currently performed by chemical synthesis. This process utilizes many chemicals, multiple reactions, and different reaction conditions, making it complicated, environmentally dissatisfactory, and expensive, especially for monomethylxanthines and paraxanthine. A microbial platform could provide an economical, environmentally friendly approach to produce these chemicals in large quantities. The recently discovered genes in our laboratory from Pseudomonas putida, ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD, provide an excellent starting point for precisely engineering Escherichia coli with various gene combinations to produce specific high-value paraxanthine and 1-, 3-, and 7-methylxanthines from any of the economical feedstocks including caffeine, theobromine or theophylline. Here, we show the first example of direct conversion of theophylline to 3-methylxanthine by a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli. Here we report the construction of E. coli strains with ndmA and ndmD, capable of producing 3-methylxanthine from exogenously fed theophylline. The strains were engineered with various dosages of the ndmA and ndmD genes, screened, and the best strain was selected for large-scale conversion of theophylline to 3-methylxanthine. Strain pDdA grown in super broth was the most efficient strain; 15 mg/mL cells produced 135 mg/L (0.81 mM) 3-methylxanthine from 1 mM theophylline. An additional 21.6 mg/L (0.13 mM) 1-methylxanthine were also produced, attributed to slight activity of NdmA at the N 3 -position of theophylline. The 1- and 3-methylxanthine products were separated by preparative chromatography with less than 5% loss during purification and were identical to commercially available standards. Purity of the isolated 3-methylxanthine was comparable to a commercially available standard, with no contaminant peaks as

  16. Protective effect of theophylline on renal functions in experimental pneumoperitoneum model.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sefa Alperen; Ceylan, Cavit; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Soyupek, Arap Sedat; Guzel, Ahmet; Özorak, Alper; Uz, Efkan; Savas, Hasan Basri; Baspinar, Sirin

    2015-07-01

    Our objective in this experimental study is to research the effect of the intra-abdominal pressure which rises following pneumoperitoneum and whether Theophylline has a possible protective activity on this situation. In our study, 24 Wistar Albino rats were used. Rats were divided into two groups. The first group was set for only pneumoperitoneum model. The second group was given 15 mg/kg of Theophylline intraperitoneally before setting pneumoperitoneum model. Then urea, creatinine, cystatin-C, tissue and serum total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant capacity and oxidative stress index in two groups were measured and compared with each other. Apoptosis and histopathological conditions in the renal tissues were examined. The differences between the groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05. No statistically significant difference was determined between tissue and serum averages in two groups in terms of TAS, TOS and OSI values (p > 0.05). The mean value of urea were similar in pneumoperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum + theophylline groups (p = 0.12). The mean cystatin-C value was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum, 1.74 ± 0.33 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum + theophylline (p = 0.002). According to our study, lower cystatin-C levels in the group, where Theophylline was given, are suggestive of lower renal injury in this group. However, this opinion is interrogated as there is no difference in terms of tissue and serum TAS, TOS, OSI and urea values between the groups.

  17. Two Distinct Pathways for Metabolism of Theophylline and Caffeine Are Coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria. PMID:19447909

  18. Behavioral and cognitive effect of theophylline: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Stein, M A; Lerner, C A

    1993-02-01

    The behavioral and cognitive effects of theophylline were studied in 14 asymptomatic asthmatic children. A double-blind crossover design was used with two dosage levels. Conners parent ratings suggest behavioral improvement by the second week of treatment, regardless of dosage or order of administration. No effects were found on cognitive measures. We conclude that the majority of behavior problems associated with theophylline occur during the induction phase, and that for most children behavior and attention problems rapidly return to baseline or improve.

  19. Polymorphs of Theophylline Characterized by DNP Enhanced Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show how dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy can be used to characterize polymorphs and solvates of organic solids. We applied DNP to three polymorphs and one hydrated form of the asthma drug molecule theophylline. For some forms of theophylline, sample grinding and impregnation with the radical-containing solution, which are necessary to prepare the samples for DNP, were found to induce polymorphic transitions or desolvation between some forms. We present protocols for sample preparation for solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments that avoid the polymorphic phase transitions in theophylline. These protocols include cryogrinding, grinding under inert atmosphere, and the appropriate choice of the impregnating liquid. By applying these procedures, we subsequently demonstrate that two-dimensional correlation experiments, such as 1H–13C and 1H–15N HETCOR or 13C–13C INADEQUATE, can be obtained at natural isotopic abundance in reasonable times, thus enabling more advanced structural characterization of polymorphs. PMID:26393368

  20. EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUSLY SILICIFIED MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE AND PREGELATINIZED STARCH ON THE THEOPHYLLINE TABLETS STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Mazurek-Wadołkowska, Edyta; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Czyzewska, Urszula; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    High profitability and simplicity of direct compression, encourages pharmaceutical industry to create universal excipients to improve technology process. Prosolv® SMCC - silicified microcrystalline cellulose and Starch 1500® - pregelatinized starch, are the example of multifunctional excipients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the stability of theophylline (API) in the mixtures with excipients with various physico-chemical properties (Prosolv® SMCC 90, Prosolv® SMCC HD 90, Prosolv* SMCC 50®, Starch 1500® and magnesium stearate). The study presents results of thermal analysis of the mixtures with theophylline before and after 6 months storage of the tablets at various temperatures and relative humidity conditions (25 ± 2°C/40 ± 5% RH, 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5% RH). It was shown that high concentration of Starch 1500® (49%) affects the stability of the theophylline tablets with Prosolv® SMCC. Prosolv® SMCC had no effect on API stability as confirmed by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes in peak placements were observed just after tabletting process, which might indicate that compression accelerated the incompatibilities between theophylline and Starch 1500. TGA analysis showed loss in tablets mass equal to water content in starch. GC-MS study established no chemical decomposition of theophylline. We demonstrated that high content of Starch 1500® (49%) in the tablet mass, affects stability on tablets containing theophylline and Prosolv® SMCC.

  1. Preparation of theophylline-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrices using supercritical antisolvent precipitation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moneghini, M; Perissutti, B; Kikic, I; Grassi, M; Cortesi, A; Princivalle, F

    2006-01-01

    Several controlled release systems of drugs have been elaborated using a supercritical fluid process. Indeed, recent techniques using a supercritical fluid as a solvent or as an antisolvent are considered to be useful alternatives to produce fine powders. In this preliminary study, the effect of Supercritical Anti Solvent process (SAS) on the release of theophylline from matrices manufactured with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was investigated. Two grades of HPMC (HPMC E5 and K100) as carriers were considered in order to prepare a sustained delivery system for theophylline which was used as a model drug. The characterization of the drug before and after SAS treatment, and the coprecipitates with carriers, was performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The dissolution rate of theophylline, theophylline-coprecipitates, and matricial tablets prepared with coprecipitates were determined. The physical characterizations revealed a substantial correspondence of the drug solid state before and after supercritical fluid treatment while drug-polymer interactions in the SAS-coprecipitates were attested. The dissolution studies of the matrices prepared compressing the coprecipitated systems showed that the matrices based on HPMC K100 were able to promote a sustained release of the drug. Further, this advantageous dissolution performance was found to be substantially independent of the pH of the medium. The comparison with the matrices prepared with untreated substances demonstrated that matrices obtained with SAS technique can provide a slower theophylline release rate. A new mathematical model describing the in vitro dissolution kinetics was proposed and successfully tested on these systems.

  2. Adenosine receptor inhibition with theophylline attenuates the skin blood flow response to local heating in humans.

    PubMed

    Fieger, Sarah M; Wong, Brett J

    2010-09-01

    Mechanisms underlying the robust cutaneous vasodilatation in response to local heating of human skin remain unresolved. Adenosine receptor activation has been shown to induce vasodilatation via nitric oxide, and a substantial portion of the plateau phase to local heating of human skin has been shown to be dependent on nitric oxide. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential role for adenosine receptor activation in cutaneous thermal hyperaemia in humans. Six subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibres on the ventral forearm. Sites were randomly assigned to receive one of the following four treatments: (1) lactated Ringer solution to serve as a control; (2) 4 mM theophylline, a competitive, non-selective A(1)/A(2) adenosine receptor antagonist; (3) 10 mM Nomega(-)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit NO synthase; or (4) combined 4 mm theophylline + 10 mM L-NAME. Following baseline measurements, each site was locally heated from a baseline temperature of 33 degrees C to 42 degrees C at a rate of 1 degrees C (10 s)(-1), and skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF divided by mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximal values (CVC(max)) via local heating to 43 degrees C and infusion of 28 mM sodium nitroprusside. The initial peak was significantly reduced in theophylline (68 +/- 2% CVC(max)) and L-NAME sites (54 +/- 5% CVC(max)) compared with control sites (81 +/- 2% CVC(max); P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Combined theophylline + L-NAME (52 +/- 5% CVC(max)) reduced the initial peak compared with control and theophylline sites, but was not significantly different compared with L-NAME sites. The secondary plateau was attenuated in theophylline (77 +/- 2% CVC(max)), L-NAME (60 +/- 2% CVC(max)) and theophylline + L-NAME (53 +/- 1% CVC(max)) compared with control sites (94 +/- 2% CVC(max); P < 0.001 for all conditions). The secondary plateau

  3. Response Surface Optimization for Decaffeination and Theophylline Production by Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Nanjundaiah, Shwetha; Bhatt, Praveena; Rastogi, Navin Kumar; Thakur, Munna Singh

    2016-01-01

    Coffee processing industries generate caffeine-containing waste that needs to be treated and decaffeinated before being disposed. Five fungal isolates obtained on caffeine-containing mineral media were tested for their ability to utilize caffeine at high concentrations. An isolate identified as Fusarium solani could utilize caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen up to 5 g/l and could degrade it to an extent of 30-53 % in 120 h. Sucrose that was added as an auxiliary substrate (5 g/l) enhanced the biodecaffeination of caffeine to 88 % in 96 h. The addition of co- substrate (sucrose) not only resulted in higher biodecaffeination efficiency, but also reduced the incubation period from the initial 120 to 96 h. Theophylline and 3-methyl xanthine were obtained as the major metabolites of decaffeination at 96 and 120 h, respectively. Response surface methodology used to optimize the process parameters for maximum biodecaffeination as well as theophylline production showed that a pH of 5.8, temperature of 24 °C and inoculum size of 4.8 × 10(5) spores/ml have resulted in a complete biodecaffeination of caffeine as well as the production of theophylline with a yield of 33 % (w/w). Results thus show that a viable and sustainable process can be developed for the detoxification of caffeine along with the recovery of theophylline, a commercially important chemical.

  4. Mouse interferons: production by Ehrlich ascites tumour cells infected with Newcastle disease virus and its enhancement by theophylline.

    PubMed

    Slattery, E; Taira, H; Broeze, R; Lengyel, P

    1980-07-01

    Conditions are described for the production of 0.3 to 0.7 NIH mouse reference standard units of interferon per cell from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells cultured as monolayers and induced by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Inclusion of theophylline (6 mM) in the medium increased the interferon yield three to four times. Cells infected with NDV started to lyse at about 15 p.i., but infected, theophylline-treated cells lysed only 24 p.i. Several other methylxanthines (e.g. theobromine, caffeine and isobutylmethylxanthine) when tested a concentrations similar to that of theophylline, did not boost interferon production. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-10) to 10(-2)M) did not substitute for theophylline in increasing interferon production, and, if used together with theophylline, did not cause further enhancement.

  5. Molecular simulations and Markov state modeling reveal the structural diversity and dynamics of a theophylline-binding RNA aptamer in its unbound state

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Becka M.

    2017-01-01

    RNA aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind with high specificity and affinity to target ligands. In the absence of bound ligand, secondary structures of RNA aptamers are generally stable, but single-stranded and loop regions, including ligand binding sites, lack defined structures and exist as ensembles of conformations. For example, the well-characterized theophylline-binding aptamer forms a highly stable binding site when bound to theophylline, but the binding site is unstable and disordered when theophylline is absent. Experimental methods have not revealed at atomic resolution the conformations that the theophylline aptamer explores in its unbound state. Consequently, in the present study we applied 21 microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations to structurally characterize the ensemble of conformations that the aptamer adopts in the absence of theophylline. Moreover, we apply Markov state modeling to predict the kinetics of transitions between unbound conformational states. Our simulation results agree with experimental observations that the theophylline binding site is found in many distinct binding-incompetent states and show that these states lack a binding pocket that can accommodate theophylline. The binding-incompetent states interconvert with binding-competent states through structural rearrangement of the binding site on the nanosecond to microsecond timescale. Moreover, we have simulated the complete theophylline binding pathway. Our binding simulations supplement prior experimental observations of slow theophylline binding kinetics by showing that the binding site must undergo a large conformational rearrangement after the aptamer and theophylline form an initial complex, most notably, a major rearrangement of the C27 base from a buried to solvent-exposed orientation. Theophylline appears to bind by a combination of conformational selection and induced fit mechanisms. Finally, our modeling indicates that when Mg2+ ions are present the population

  6. Production and characterization of spray-dried theophylline powders prepared from fresh milk for potential use in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, João P; Fernandes, Tânia A P; Nese, Carlotta; Fernandes, Ana I; Pinto, João F

    2017-05-01

    This work evaluates the potential of using fresh milk to deliver theophylline to children. Theophylline-fresh milk systems were prepared using different solids ratios (0 : 1-1 : 0) and three fat contents in commercial milks (low, medium and high), which were spray-dried at different inlet air temperatures (T inlet - 105, 130 and 150 °C). The process was evaluated for yield and the resulting powders for moisture content (MC), particle size and shape, density and wettability. Theophylline-milk potential interactions (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR) and chemical (theophylline content) and microbiological stability of powders (shelf and in-use) were also evaluated. The production yield (13.6-76.0%), MC (0.0-10.3%) and contact angles in water (77.29-93.51°) were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by T inlet , but no differences were found concerning the mean particle size (3.0-4.3 μm) of the different powders. The milk fat content significantly (P < 0.05) impacted on the density (1.244-1.552 g/cm 3 ). Theophylline content remained stable after 6 months of storage, before extemporaneous reconstitution. After reconstitution in water, low-fat milk samples (stored at 4 °C) met the microbial pharmacopoeia criteria for up to 7 days. No theophylline-milk components interaction was observed. Spray-dried milk-composed powders may be used as vehicles for theophylline delivery in paediatrics following further characterization and in-vivo evaluation. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. The rabbit as an experimental model for biopharmaceutical studies following rectal administration of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Van Aerde, P; Moerman, E; Van Severen, R; Braeckman, P

    1984-03-01

    In order to find a suitable animal model for biopharmaceutical studies after rectal application of theophylline, the pharmacokinetics of theophylline following the administration in rabbits of three different rectal preparations were examined and compared with those of the oral and i. v. route. No significant formulation related impact from the studied rectal dosage forms on the bioavailability of the drug was found. However, the unexpected rapid achievement of peak serum concentration after insertion of the suppository lacked any correlation with human experiments. It was concluded that the evaluation of rectal theophylline medication for man cannot directly be based on the data obtained from rabbits.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3880 - Theophylline test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... central nervous systems) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Theophylline test system. 862.3880 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3880 - Theophylline test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... central nervous systems) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Theophylline test system. 862.3880 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3880 - Theophylline test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... central nervous systems) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Theophylline test system. 862.3880 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3880 - Theophylline test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... central nervous systems) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Theophylline test system. 862.3880 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3880 - Theophylline test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... central nervous systems) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Theophylline test system. 862.3880 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  13. Free radicals and theophylline neurotoxicity : an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gulati, K; Ray, A; Vijayan, V K

    2007-05-30

    Free radicals play a crucial role in health and disease and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been implicated in CNS effects like excitotoxicity. Theophylline, a re-emerging drug for the treatment of obstructive airway disease, has a narrow therapeutic index which precludes its safe use. The present study evaluated the possible involvement of free radicals in theophylline induced seizures in mice. Aminophylline (100-250 mg/kg) consistently induced seizures and post-ictal mortality, and conventional anticonvulsants and adenosine agonists were ineffective in antagonizing them. Further, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, per se, also did not show any significant seizurogenic potential. Pretreatments with antioxidants, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and melatonin, all dose dependently reduced seizure incidence and mortality after aminophylline, whereas, antioxidant depletion potentiated such excitotoxicity. Pretreatments with the NO synthase inhibitors, L-NAME and 7-NI blocked aminophylline seizures, whereas, the NO mimetics, L-arginine and glyceryl trinitrate, tended to potentiate this phenomenon. Sub-effective doses of aminophylline (100 mg/kg) also induced seizures when combined with subthreshold intensity of electroshock, and such seizures were similarly antagonized by the antioxidants and NO synthase inhibitors. Biochemical assay of brain homogenates showed that aminophylline seizures were associated with enhancements in brain MDA and NOx (NO metabolites) levels, whereas, SOD activity was reduced, and these changes were attenuated after melatonin and L-NAME pretreatments. The pharmacological and biochemical data are strongly suggestive of the involvement of both ROS and RNS during theophylline-induced seizures.

  14. The novel combination of theophylline and bambuterol as a potential treatment of hypoxemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Strand, Trond-Eirik; Khiabani, Hasse Z; Boico, Alina; Radiloff, Daniel; Zhao, Yulin; Hamilton, Karyn L; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jelena; Noveck, Robert J; Piantadosi, Claude A; Bell, Christopher; Irwin, David; Schroeder, Thies

    2017-09-01

    Hypoxemia can be life-threatening, both acutely and chronically. Because hypoxemia causes vascular dysregulation that further restricts oxygen availability to tissue, it can be pharmacologically addressed. We hypothesized that theophylline can be safely combined with the β2-adrenergic vasodilator bambuterol to improve oxygen availability in hypoxemic patients. Ergogenicity and hemodynamic effects of bambuterol and theophylline were measured in rats under hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia (12% O 2 ). Feasibility in humans was assessed using randomized, double-blind testing of the influence of combined slow-release theophylline (300 mg) and bambuterol (20 mg) on adverse events (AEs), plasma K + , pulse, blood pressure, and drug interaction. Both drugs and their combination significantly improved hypoxic endurance in rats. In humans, common AEs were low K + (<3.5 mmol/L; bambuterol: 12, theophylline: 4, combination: 13 episodes) and tremors (10, 0, 14 episodes). No exacerbation or serious AE occurred when drugs were combined. A drop in plasma K + coincided with peak bambuterol plasma concentrations. Bambuterol increased heart rate by approximately 13 bpm. Drug interaction was present but small. We report promise, feasibility, and relative safety of combined theophylline and bambuterol as a treatment of hypoxemia in humans. Cardiac safety and blood K + will be important safety endpoints when testing these drugs in hypoxemic subjects.

  15. Chronic Use of Theophylline and Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Horita, Nobuyuki; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kojima, Ryota; Inoue, Miyo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    Theophylline has been shown to improve respiratory function and oxygenation in patients with chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the impact of theophylline on mortality in COPD patients has not been not sufficiently evaluated. Two investigators independently searched for eligible articles in 4 databases. The eligibility criterion for this meta-analysis was an original research article that provided a hazard ratio for theophylline for all-cause mortality of COPD patients. Both randomized controlled trials and observational studies were accepted. After we confirmed no substantial heterogeneity (I(2)<50%), the fixed-model method with generic inverse variance was used for meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratio. We screened 364 potentially eligible articles. Of the 364 articles, 259 were excluded on the basis of title and abstract, and 99 were excluded after examination of the full text. Our final analysis included 6 observational studies and no randomized controlled trials. One study reported 2 cohorts. The number of patients in each cohort ranged from 47 to 46,403. Heterogeneity (I(2)=42%, P=.11) and publication bias (Begg's test r=0.21, P=.662) were not substantial. Fixed-model meta-analysis yielded a pooled hazard ratio for theophylline for all-cause death of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.13, P=.003). This meta-analysis of 7 observational cohorts suggests that theophylline slightly increases all-cause death in COPD patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and Study of Guest-Rebinding of MIP Based on MAA Prepared using Theophylline Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, T.; Yanti; Royani, I.; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer and theophylline template has been synthesized using a modified bulk polymerization method. Theophylline was employed as a template and it formed a complex with MAA through hydrogen bonding. Self-assembly of template-monomer was followed by cross-linking process using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linker. The polymerization process was initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator at 60oC after cooling treatment at -5oC. After 7 hours, a rigid polymer was obtained and followed by grinding the polymer and removing the template. As a reference, a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) has also been synthesized using similar procedure by excluding the template. FTIR study was carried out to investigate the presence of theophylline in the as- prepared polymer, MIP, and NIP. The spectra indicated that theophylline was successfully incorporated in the as-prepared polymer. This result was also confirmed by EDS analysis showing that N atoms of the as-prepared polymer were derived from amino group of theophylline. Furthermore, the polymer particles of MIP were irregular in shape and size as shown by its SEM image. The capability of guest-rebinding of the MIP was analyzed through Batchwise guest-binding experiment. The results showed that for initial concentration of theophylline in methanol/chloroform (1/1, v/v) of 0.333 mM, the binding capacity of the MIP was 23.22 /mol/g. Compared to the MIP, the adsorption capacity of the NIP was only 3.73 /mol/g. This result shows that MIP has higher affinity than NIP.

  17. A liquid chromatographic method for determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood--a comparison.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, J; Jäger, H; Vins, I

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic method for the determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood after a solid phase extraction is described for therapeutic drug monitoring. The employment of capillary blood permits the determination of an individual drug profile and other pharmacokinetic studies in neonates and infants. There were no differences in venous- and capillary-blood levels but these values compared poorly with those in serum. An adjustment of the results by correction of the different volumes of serum and blood by haematocrit was unsuccessful. Differences in the binding of theophylline to erythrocytes could be an explanation for the differences in serum at blood levels of theophylline.

  18. Pharmacokinetic analysis of multi PEG-theophylline conjugates.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Mario; Bonora, Gian Maria; Drioli, Sara; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2012-10-01

    In the attempt of prolonging the effect of drugs, a new branched, high-molecular weight multimeric poly(ethylene glycol) (MultiPEG), synthesized with a simple assembling procedure that devised the introduction of functional groups with divergent and selective reactivity, was employed as drug carrier. In particular, the attention was focused on the study of theophylline (THEO) and THEO-MultiPEG conjugates pharmacokinetic after oral administration in rabbit. Pharmacokinetic behavior was studied according to an ad hoc developed mathematical model accounting for THEO-MultiPEG in vivo absorption and decomposition into drug (THEO) and carrier (MultiPEG). The branched high-molecular weight MultiPEG proved to be a reliable drug delivery system able to prolong theophylline staying in the blood after oral administration of a THEO-MultiPEG solution. The analysis of experimental data by means of the developed mathematical model revealed that the prolongation of THEO effect was essentially due to the low THEO-MultiPEG permeability in comparison to that of pure THEO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microchip systems for immunoassay: an integrated immunoreactor with electrophoretic separation for serum theophylline determination.

    PubMed

    Chiem, N H; Harrison, D J

    1998-03-01

    A glass microchip is described in which reagents and serum samples for competitive immunoassay of serum theophylline can be mixed, reacted, separated, and analyzed. The device functions as an automated microfluidic immunoassay system, creating a lab-on-a-chip. Electroosmotic pumping was used to control first the mixing of 50-fold-diluted serum sample with labeled theophylline tracer in a 1:1 ratio, followed by 1:1 mixing and reaction with anti-theophylline antibody. The 51-nL on-chip mixer gave the same concentration as dilution performed off-chip, within 3%. A 100-pL plug of the reacted solution was then injected into an electrophoresis separation channel integrated within the same chip. Measurements of free and bound tracer by fluorescence detection gave linear calibration curves of signal vs log[theophylline] between 0 and 40 mg/L, with a slope of 0.52 +/- 0.03 and an intercept of -0.04 +/- 0.04 after a 90-s reaction time. A detection limit of 0.26 mg/L in serum (expressed before the dilution step, actual concentration of 1.3 micrograms/L at the detector) was obtained. Recovery values were 107% +/- 8% for 15 mg/L serum samples.

  20. Effects of theophylline on expression of the long cilia phenotype in sand dollar blastulae.

    PubMed

    Riederer-Henderson, M A

    1988-04-01

    Previously, increases in ciliary length have only been obtained through genetic mutation in Chlamydomonas or by incubation of swimming echinoderm blastulae in trypsin or elastase. We have found that the phenotypic switch from short to long cilia on sand dollar blastulae can also be effected by incubation in theophylline. Cilia detached from control blastulae have a mean length of 21 +/- 7 microns with 10% of the cilia being greater than 30 microns. Upon incubation in 10 mM theophylline additional long cilia appeared after 10 hours and by 24-32 hours 1/2-3/4 of the embryo was covered with long cilia. The percentage of long cilia increased to 65% with a mean length of 40.0 +/- 17.6 microns. Incubation in other methylxanthines, such as aminophylline, caffeine, or isobutylmethylxanthine, inhibited development but had no effect on ciliary length distribution. Dibutyryl cAMP, 8-bromoadenosine, and calcium ionophore also had no effect on ciliary length. Cyclic AMP levels were measured and showed only slight differences among controls and embryos incubated in trypsin, caffeine, or theophylline. These data suggest that theophylline may be altering ciliary length control through some mechanism other than elevations in cAMP.

  1. Effects of phloretin and theophylline on 3-O-methylglucose transport by intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1978-03-01

    Phloretin and theophylline each exert an immediate inhibitory effect on the Na/sup +/-independent, facilitated-diffusion transport system for sugar associated with intestinal epithelial cells. Phloretin inhibits approximately 50% more of the total Na/sup +/-independent sugar flux than theophylline. Neither agent has an immediate effect on the Na/sup +/-dependent, concentrative sugar transport system, although preincubation of the cells with phloretin causes a significant inhibition. The slowly developing effect is correlated with a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and an elevation of intracellular Na/sup +/. Other agents which elevate cell Na/sup +/ also inhibit Na/sup +/-dependent sugar influx, even if ATP levelsmore » are not depleted. On the other hand, if ATP is depleted by phloretin under conditions in which the cells do not gain Na/sup +/, the inhibitory effect on Na/sup +/-dependent sugar flux tends to disappear. The slow-onset phloretin effects are due to transinhibition of the Na/sup +/-dependent sugar carrier by cellular Na/sup +/. When the passive sugar carrier is inhibited by phloretin or theophylline, the concentrative system can establish an enhanced sugar gradient. Because of the secondary metabolic effects of phloretin, theophylline induces a greater gradient enhancement despite its more limited effect on the passive sugar-transport system. Sugar gradients as large as 20-fold are induced by theophylline, in contrast to 12-fold gradients observed in the presence of phloretin and approximately 7- to 8-fold for untreated cells. These results are discussed in terms of conceptual questions regarding the energetics of Na/sup +/-dependent transport systems.« less

  2. Effects of phloretin and theophylline on 3-O-methylglucose transport by intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Phloretin and theophylline each exert an immediate inhibitory effect on the Na/sup +/-independent, facilitated-diffusion transport system for sugar associated with intestinal epithelial cells. Phloretin inhibits approximately 50% more of the total Na/sup +/-independent sugar flux than theophylline. Neither agent has an immediate effect on the Na/sup +/-dependent, concentrative sugar transport system, although preincubation of the cells with phloretin causes a significant inhibition. The slowly developing effect is correlated with a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and an evaluation of intracellular Na/sup +/. Other agents which elevate cell Na/sup +/ also inhibit Na/sup +/-dependent sugar influx, even if ATP levelsmore » are not depleted. On the other hand, if ATP is depleted by phloretin under conditions in which the cells do not gain Na/sup +/, the inhibitory effect on Na/sup +/-dependent sugar flux tends to disappear. The slow-onset phloretin effects are due to transinhibition of the Na/sup +/-dependent sugar carrier by cellular Na/sup +/. When the passive sugar carrier is inhibited by phloretin or theophylline, the concentrative system can establish an enhanced sugar gradient. Because of the secondary metabolic effects of phloretin, theophylline induces a greater gradient enhancement despite its more limited effect on the passive sugar-transport system. Sugar gradients as large as 20-fold are induced by theophylline, in contrast to 12-fold gradients observed in the presence of phloretin and approximately 7- to 8-fold for untreated cells. These results are discussed in terms of conceptual questions regarding the energetics of Na/sup +/-dependent transport systems.« less

  3. Pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P-450 substrates phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in healthy Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, B; Nauss, J L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in six healthy Greyhound dogs. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of the diazepam metabolites, oxazepam and nordiazepam, after diazepam administration was determined. Phenytoin sodium (12 mg/kg), aminophylline (10 mg/kg), and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) were administered IV on separate occasions, and blood was collected at predetermined time points for the quantification of plasma drug concentrations by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (phenytoin, theophylline) or mass spectrometry (diazepam, oxazepam, and nordiazepam). The terminal half-life was 4.9, 9.2, and 1.0 h, respectively, for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam, and 6.2 and 2.4 h for oxazepam and nordiazepam after IV diazepam. The clearance was of 2.37, 0.935, and 27.9 mL · min/kg, respectively, for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam. The C(MAX) was 44.7 and 305.2 ng/mL for oxazepam and nordiazepam, respectively, after diazepam administration. Temazepam was not detected above 5 ng/mL in any sample after IV diazepam. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P-450 substrates phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in healthy Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Nauss, Jon L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in six healthy Greyhound dogs. Additionally the pharmacokinetics of the diazepam metabolites oxazepam and nordiazepam after diazepam administration were determined. Phenytoin sodium (12 mg/kg), aminophylline (10 mg/kg), and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) were administered IV on separate occasions and blood obtained at predetermined time points for the quantification of plasma drug concentrations by florescence polarization immunoassay (phenytoin, theophylline) or mass spectrometry (diazepam, oxazepam, nordiazepam). The terminal half-life was 4.9, 9.2, and 1.0 hours, respectively for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam, and 6.2 and 2.4 hours for oxazepam and nordiazepam after IV diazepam. The clearance was of 2.37, 0.935, and 27.9 mL/min/kg respectively for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam. The CMAX was 44.7 and 305.2 ng/mL for oxazepam and nordiazepam, respectively, after diazepam administration. Temazepam was not detected above 5 ng/mL in any sample after IV diazepam. PMID:21692812

  5. The effects of theophylline on hospital admissions and exacerbations in COPD patients: audit data from the Bavarian disease management program.

    PubMed

    Fexer, Johannes; Donnachie, Ewan; Schneider, Antonius; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Keller, Manfred; Hofmann, Frank; Mehring, Michael

    2014-04-25

    Theophylline is often used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current evidence leaves the effectiveness and safety of this drug open to question. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of theophylline on the rate of hospitalizations and disease exacerbations by examining routine data from the ambulatory disease management program for COPD in the German state of Bavaria. Data sets from a total of 30 330 patients were examined. Logistic regression models were used to calculate propensity scores that controlled for baseline characteristics. These propensity scores, in turn, were used to create comparable patient groups, which were observed for a median follow-up time of 9 quarters (the theophylline group) and 10 quarters (the control group). 1496 patients with first prescription of theophylline were matched with 1496 patients with no record of theophylline treatment. 1. The probability of suffering an exacerbation during the period of observation, was 33.5% for the control group and 43.4% for the theophylline group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24 to 1.60], yielding a number needed to harm (NNH) of 11 (95% CI 7.7 to 20.9). The probability for hospitalization was 11.4% for the control group and 17.4% of the theophylline group (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.01), yielding a NNH of 17 (95%CI 11.0-34.5). Treatment with theophylline is associated with an elevated incidence of exacerbations and hospitalizations. The therapeutic value of this drug should be reconsidered and investigated in further studies.

  6. Properties of hot-melt extruded theophylline tablets containing poly(vinyl acetate).

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; McGinity, J W

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) as a retardant polymer and to study the drug release mechanism of theophylline from matrix tablets prepared by hot-melt extrusion. A physical mixture of drug, polymer, and drug release modifiers was fed into the equipment and heated inside the barrel of the extruder. The cylindrical extrudates were either cut into tablets or ground into granules and compressed with other excipients into tablets. Due to the low glass transition temperature of the PVAc, the melt extrusion process was conducted at approximately 70 degrees C. Theophylline was used as the model drug in this study. Theophylline was present in the extrudate in its crystalline form and was released from the tablets by diffusion. The Higuchi diffusion model and percolation theories were applied to the dissolution data to explain the drug release properties of the matrix systems. The release rate was shown to be dependent on the granule size, drug particle size, and drug loading in the tablets. Water-soluble polymers were demonstrated to be efficient release rate modifiers for this system.

  7. Solid-state NMR studies of theophylline co-crystals with dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Pindelska, Edyta; Sokal, Agnieszka; Szeleszczuk, Lukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2014-11-01

    In this work, three polycrystalline materials containing co-crystals of theophylline with malonic, maleic, and glutaric acids were studied using (13)C, (15)N and (1)H solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The NMR assignments were supported by gauge including projector augmented waves (GIPAW) calculations of chemical shielding, performed using X-ray determined geometry. The experimental (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR results and the calculated isotropic chemical shifts were in excellent agreement. A rapid and convenient method for theophylline co-crystals crystal structure analysis has been proposed for co-crystals, which are potentially new APIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of serum theophylline concentrations following administration of sustained-release beads in applesauce to asthmatic preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leeder, J S; Robertson, C; Correia, J; Isles, A F; Levison, H; Macleod, S M

    1986-02-01

    A sustained-release theophylline preparation (Theo-Dur Sprinkle) was evaluated in young asthmatic patients aged 1 to 6 years and receiving a daily dose of 23.4 +/- 2.0 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) to determine, on the basis of serial serum concentrations obtained over a 12-hour dosing interval at steady state, the suitability of such a product in patients likely to metabolize the drug very rapidly. Peak theophylline concentrations of 15.1 +/- 4.1 mg/L were achieved 5.5 +/- 1.5 hours after dosing. The mean maximum to minimum concentration difference was 6.9 +/- 2.2 mg/L for the dosing interval studied. Fluctuations in theophylline concentration less than 100% were achieved in nine of the 12 study patients. Use of the "sprinkle-technique" with Theo-Dur Sprinkle appears to be a simple and effective method of maintaining acceptable fluctuations in serum theophylline concentrations in preschool asthmatic children.

  9. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Time and pH dependent colon specific, pulsatile delivery of theophylline for nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Mastiholimath, V S; Dandagi, P M; Jain, S Samata; Gadad, A P; Kulkarni, A R

    2007-01-02

    In this study, investigation of an oral colon specific, pulsatile device to achieve time and/or site specific release of theophylline, based on chronopharmaceutical consideration. The basic design consists of an insoluble hard gelatin capsule body, filled with eudragit microcapsules of theophylline and sealed with a hydrogel plug. The entire device was enteric coated, so that the variability in gastric emptying time can be overcome and a colon-specific release can be achieved. The theophylline microcapsules were prepared in four batches, with Eudragit L-100 and S-100 (1:2) by varying drug to polymer ratio and evaluated for the particle size, drug content and in vitro release profile and from the obtained results; one better formulation was selected for further fabrication of pulsatile capsule. Different hydrogel polymers were used as plugs, to maintain a suitable lag period and it was found that the drug release was controlled by the proportion of polymers used. In vitro release studies of pulsatile device revealed that, increasing the hydrophilic polymer content resulted in delayed release of theophylline from microcapsules. The gamma scintigraphic study pointed out the capability of the system to release drug in lower parts of GIT after a programmed lag time for nocturnal asthma. Programmable pulsatile, colon-specific release has been achieved from a capsule device over a 2-24h period, consistent with the demands of chronotherapeutic drug delivery.

  11. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J.; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzymemore » inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.« less

  12. Transitiometric analysis of solid II/solid I transition in anhydrous theophylline.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Bernard; Randzio, Stanislaw L

    2007-10-01

    For the first time, with the use of a high sensitivity, low heating rate, scanning transitiometry, it was possible to distinguish and characterise the polymorphic equilibrium transition between forms II and I in anhydrous theophylline. In this manner it was univocally proved, that forms II and I in theophylline are enantiotropically related. The temperature and enthalpy for that transition are as follows: T(trs)(II/I)=536.8+/-2.2K; Delta(trs)H(II/I)=1.99+/-0.09 kJ/mol. Making use of advantages of very slow heating rate and of a high energetic sensitivity of the transitiometer it was possible to observe in detail the polymorphic transition followed by melting of high temperature form I and to stop the solid I-liquid transition at a desired point of equilibrium. Such a solid I-liquid equilibrium could be stabilised and then displaced back to the crystallisation of form I with an adequate use of a precise temperature programming. In such a way a pure single phase of form I of theophylline was prepared. This fact was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction patterns and calorimetric traces of fusion of the crystallised product. The temperature and enthalpy of the form I-liquid transition are as follows: T(fus)(I)=546.5+/-0.2K and Delta(fus)H(I)=29.37+/-0.29 kJ/mol.

  13. Theophylline Represses IL-8 Secretion from Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Independently of Phosphodiesterase Inhibition. Novel Role as a Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Oliver, Brian G; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-06-01

    Theophylline is an old drug experiencing a renaissance owing to its beneficial antiinflammatory effects in chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multiple modes of antiinflammatory action have been reported, including inhibition of the enzymes that degrade cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). Using primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we recently revealed that PDE4 inhibitors can potentiate the antiinflammatory action of β2-agonists by augmenting cAMP-dependent expression of the phosphatase that deactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address whether theophylline repressed cytokine production in a similar, PDE-dependent, MKP-1-mediated manner. Notably, theophylline did not potentiate cAMP release from ASM cells treated with the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Moreover, theophylline (0.1-10 μM) did not increase formoterol-induced MKP-1 messenger RNA expression nor protein up-regulation, consistent with the lack of cAMP generation. However, theophylline (at 10 μM) was antiinflammatory and repressed secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine IL-8, which is produced in response to TNF-α. Because theophylline's effects were independent of PDE4 inhibition or antiinflammatory MKP-1, we then wished to elucidate the novel mechanisms responsible. We investigated the impact of theophylline on protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, a master controller of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, and show that theophylline increases TNF-α-induced PP2A activity in ASM cells. Confirmatory results were obtained in A549 lung epithelial cells. PP2A activators have beneficial effects in ex vivo and in vivo models of respiratory disease. Thus, our study is the first to link theophylline with PP2A activation as a novel mechanism to control respiratory inflammation.

  14. Simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine on novel [Tetra-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy) phthalocyanato] manganese(III)-Carbon nanotubes composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Çağrı Ceylan; Nas, Asiye; Kantekin, Halit; Dursun, Zekerya

    2018-07-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new symmetrically substituted manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2eOHMnPc) (2) containing tetra 5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy group at the peripheral position for the first time. Manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2) was synthesized by cyclotetramerization of 4-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy)phthalonitrile (1) in the presence of corresponding metal salt (manganese(II) chloride). This peripherally substituted phthalocyanine complex (2) was purified by column chromatography and characterized by several techniques such as IR, mass and UV-Visible spectral data. This novel synthesized phthalocyanine was mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in order to prepare the novel catalytic surface on glassy carbon electrode for theophylline and caffeine detection in acidic medium. The novel composite electrode surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Individual and simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine were studied by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limits were individually calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 6.6 × 10 -9 M and 5.0 × 10 -8 M, respectively. In simultaneous determination, LODs were calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 8.1 × 10 -9 M and 3.0 × 10 -7 M, respectively. The practical applicability of the proposed modified electrode was tested for the determination of theophylline and caffeine in green tea, cola and theophylline serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of formulation and process variables on solid-state stability of theophylline in controlled release formulations.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval; Mohammad, Adil; Wu, Suyang; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-02-29

    Understanding the impact of pharmaceutical processing, formulation excipients and their interactions on the solid-state transitions of pharmaceutical solids during use and in storage is critical in ensuring consistent product performance. This study reports the effect of polymer viscosity, diluent type, granulation and granulating fluid (water and isopropanol) on the pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline anhydrous (THA) in controlled release formulations as well as the implications of this transition on critical quality attributes of the tablets. Accordingly, 12 formulations were prepared using a full factorial screening design and monitored over a 3 month period at 40 °C and 75%. Physicochemical characterization revealed a drastic drop in tablet hardness accompanied by a very significant increase in moisture content and swelling of all formulations. Spectroscopic analysis (ssNMR, Raman, NIR and PXRD) indicated conversion of THA to theophylline monohydrate (TMO) in all formulations prepared by aqueous wet granulation in as early as two weeks. Although all freshly prepared formulations contained THA, the hydration-dehydration process induced during aqueous wet granulation hastened the pseudopolymorphic conversion of theophylline during storage through a cascade of events. On the other hand, no solid state transformation was observed in directly compressed formulations and formulations in which isopropanol was employed as a granulating fluid even after the twelve weeks study period. The transition of THA to TMO resulted in a decrease in dissolution while an increase in dissolution was observed in directly compressed and IPA granulated formulation. Consequently, the impact of pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline on dissolution in controlled release formulations may be the net result of two opposing factors: swelling and softening of the tablets which tend to favor an increase in drug dissolution and hydration of theophylline which decreases the drug

  16. Prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury by theophylline in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Matejka, Jan; Varvarovsky, Ivo; Vojtisek, Petr; Herman, Ales; Rozsival, Vladimir; Borkova, Veronika; Kvasnicka, Jiri

    2010-11-01

    Although the optimal strategy for preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) has not yet been established, the current strategy focuses on adequate periprocedural hydration, the use of a low amount of low or iso-osmolar contrast medium, and the application of adjunctive therapies, including hemofiltration, hemodialysis and drugs. Previous trials and meta-analyses concerning the use of the adenosine antagonist theophylline have revealed contradictory results. We sought to evaluate the effect of theophylline in CI-AKI prevention in well-hydrated elderly patients with chronic kidney disease. We therefore conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 56 patients who had been referred for cardiac coronary angiography and/or angioplasty. 31 of these patients were randomly assigned to 200 mg theophylline IV before the procedure, and 25 to a placebo. The iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol was used. The primary endpoint was an increase in serum creatinine at study termination 48 h after contrast medium administration. Baseline characteristics in the placebo and theophylline groups were similar in terms of median age (75 years), estimated glomerular filtration rate (33 ± 10 vs. 33 ± 10 ml/min/1.73 m²; p = 0.87), diabetes mellitus (80 vs. 71%; p = 0.54), and amount of contrast used (94 ± 35 vs. 95 ± 38 ml; p = 0.89). There was no difference in serum creatinine at baseline (2.06 ± 0.59 vs. 2.02 ± 0.45 mg/dl; p = 0.62) or study termination (2.06 ± 0.68 vs. 2.10 ± 0.53; p = 0.79). A prophylactic effect of theophylline was not observed. The incidence of renal impairment following exposure to the contrast medium was low. This fact can be attributed to adequate parenteral hydratation and the use of the minimum amount of contrast medium necessary.

  17. Optimization and development of a core-in-cup tablet for modulated release of theophylline in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Danckwerts, M P

    2000-07-01

    A triple-layer core-in-cup tablet that can release theophylline in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids at three distinct rates has been developed. The first layer is an immediate-release layer; the second layer is a sustained-release layer; and the last layer is a boost layer, which was designed to coincide with a higher nocturnal dose of theophylline. The study consisted of two stages. The first stage optimized the sustained-release layer of the tablet to release theophylline over a period of 12 hr. Results from this stage indicated that 30% w/w acacia gum was the best polymer and concentration to use when compressed to a hardness of 50 N/m2. The second stage of the study involved the investigation of the final triple-layer core-in-cup tablet to release theophylline at three different rates in simulated GI fluids. The triple-layer modulated core-in-cup tablet successfully released drug in simulated fluids at an initial rate of 40 mg/min, followed by a rate of 0.4085 mg/min, in simulated gastric fluid TS, 0.1860 mg/min in simulated intestinal fluid TS, and finally by a boosted rate of 0.6952 mg/min.

  18. Preparation of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer with double-templates for rapid simultaneous purification of theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weiyang; Li, Guizhen; Row, Kyung Ho; Zhu, Tao

    2016-05-15

    A novel double-templates technique was adopted for solid-phase extraction packing agent, and the obtained hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with double-templates (theophylline and chlorogenic acid) were characterized by fourier transform infrared and field emission scanning electron microscope. The molecular recognition ability and binding capability for theophylline and chlorogenic acid of polymers was evaluated by static absorption and dynamic adsorption curves. A rapid and accurate approach was established for simultaneous purification of theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea by coupling hybrid molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography. With optimization of SPE procedure, a reliable analytical method was developed for highly recognition towards theophylline and chlorogenic acid in green tea with satisfactory extraction recoveries (theophylline: 96.7% and chlorogenic acid: 95.8%). The limit of detection and limit of quantity of the method were 0.01 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL for theophylline, 0.05 μg/mL and 0.17 μg/mL for chlorogenic acid, respectively. The recoveries of proposed method at three spiked levels analysis were 98.7-100.8% and 98.3-100.2%, respectively, with the relative standard deviation less than 1.9%. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with double-templates showed good performance for two kinds of targets, and the proposed approach with high affinity of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers might offer a novel method for the purification of complex samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences between the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists caffeine and theophylline in motor and mood effects: studies using medium to high doses in animal models.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Pardo, Marta; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2014-08-15

    Caffeine and theophylline are methylxanthines that are broadly consumed, sometimes at high doses, and act as minor psychostimulants. Both are nonselective adenosine antagonists for A1 and A2A receptors, which are colocalized with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatal areas. Adenosine antagonists generally have opposite actions to those of dopamine antagonists. Although the effects of caffeine are widely known, theophylline has been much less well characterized, especially at high doses. Adult male CD1 mice were used to study the effect of a broad range of doses (25.0, 50.0 or 100.0mg/kg) of caffeine and theophylline on measures of spontaneous locomotion and coordination, as well as the pattern of c-Fos immunoreactivity in brain areas rich in adenosine and dopamine receptors. In addition, we evaluated possible anxiety and stress effects of these doses. Caffeine, at these doses, impaired or suppressed locomotion in several paradigms. However, theophylline was less potent than caffeine at suppressing motor parameters, and even stimulated locomotion. Both drugs induced corticosterone release, however caffeine was more efficacious at intermediate doses. While caffeine showed an anxiogenic profile at all doses, theophylline only did so at the highest dose used (50mg/kg). Only theophylline increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in cortical areas. Theophylline has fewer disruptive effects than caffeine on motor parameters and produces less stress and anxiety effects. These results are relevant for understanding the potential side effects of methylxanthines when consumed at high doses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of glancing angle X-ray powder diffractometry to depth-profile phase transformations during dissolution of indomethacin and theophylline tablets.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Smita; Predecki, Paul; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (i) to develop glancing angle x-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) as a method for profiling phase transformations as a function of tablet depth; and (ii) to apply this technique to (a) study indomethacin crystallization during dissolution of partially amorphous indomethacin tablets and to (b) profile anhydrate --> hydrate transformations during dissolution of theophylline tablets. The intrinsic dissolution rates of indomethacin and theophylline were determined after different pharmaceutical processing steps. Phase transformations during dissolution were evaluated by various techniques. Transformation in the bulk and on the tablet surface was characterized by conventional XRD and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Glancing angle XRD enabled us to profile these transformations as a function of depth from the tablet surface. Pharmaceutical processing resulted in a decrease in crystallinity of both indomethacin and theophylline. When placed in contact with the dissolution medium, while indomethacin recrystallized, theophylline anhydrate rapidly converted to theophylline monohydrate. Due to intimate contact with the dissolution medium, drug transformation occurred to a greater extent at or near the tablet surface. Glancing angle XRD enabled us to depth profile the extent of phase transformations as a function of the distance from the tablet surface. The processed sample (both indomethacin and theophylline) transformed more rapidly than did the corresponding unprocessed drug. Several challenges associated with the glancing angle technique, that is, the effects of sorbed water, phase transformations during the experimental timescale, and the influence of phase transformation on penetration depth, were addressed. Increased solubility, and consequently dissolution rate, is one of the potential advantages of metastable phases. This advantage is negated if, during dissolution, the metastable to stable transformation rate > dissolution rate

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline, cromolyn and salbutamol in a murine model of pleurisy.

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, T. S.; Calixto, J. B.; Medeiros, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of theophylline, cromolyn and salbutamol, three well-known anti-asthmatic drugs, on the early (4 h) and late (48 h) phases of cell migration and fluid leakage induced by carrageenin in the pleural cavity of mice. 2. In the first set of experiments, animals were pretreated (30 min) with different doses of theophylline (0.5-50 mg kg-1, i.p.), cromolyn (0.02-0.2 mg per pleural cavity) or salbutamol (0.05-50 mg kg-1, i.p.); the total and differential cell content, and also the exudate were analysed 4 h after carrageenin (1%) administration. Afterwards, in order to evaluate the time course effects of these drugs on both phases of the inflammatory reaction, one dose employed in the above protocol was chosen, to pretreat (0.5-24 h) different groups of animals. The studied parameters were evaluated 4 and 48 h after pleurisy induction. 3. Acute administration of theophylline (1-50 mg kg-1, i.p.) cromolyn (0.02-0.2 mg per pleural cavity) and salbutamol (0.5-50 mg kg-1, i.p.), 30 min prior to carrageenin, caused significant inhibition of total cell and fluid leakage in the pleural cavity at 4 h (P < 0.01). All drugs exerted a long-lasting inhibitory effect on both exudation and cell migration (P < 0.01) when administered 0.5-8 h before pleurisy induction. However, the temporal profile of the inhibitory effect induced by these drugs on the first phase of the inflammatory reaction was clearly different. Thus, the inhibitory effect induced by theophylline and cromolyn on exudation was significantly longer (up to 24 h) in comparison to their effects on cell migration (only up to 8 h). In contrast, although salbutamol when administered 30 min before pleurisy induction abolished fluid leakage (P < 0.01), this effect was not sustained in the groups pretreated for 4-8 h. In these latter groups, a significant but much smaller reduction of exudation was observed (P < 0.01), whereas the magnitude of cell migration inhibition did not

  2. A nanocomplex of Cu(II) with theophylline drug; synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity against K562 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlabadi, Maryam; Daryanavard, Marzieh; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    A new mononuclear of copper (II), [Cu(theophylline)2(H2O)3]·2H2O, has been synthesized by reaction of theophylline (1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) with copper (II) nitrate in water. Further, its nanocomplex has been prepared through the three different methods including sonication, grinding, and a combination thereof, sonication-grinding. The prepared nanocomplex was characterized using different techniques including FT-IR, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, the anticancer activity of the precursor complex, nanocomplex, free theophylline ligand, and the starting copper salt (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) was investigated against the K562 cell line. The results show that the nanocomplex is an effective nano metal-based anticancer agent with IC50 = 11.7 μM.

  3. Healthy live birth using theophylline in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Moser, Marianne; Costamoling, Walter; Oppelt, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To analyze whether the use of ready-to-use theophylline is a feasible option in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Case report. In vitro fertilization unit of a public hospital. Thirty-one-year-old nulliparous woman, and 39-year-old male with retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Retrieval of postejaculatory urine, restoration of motility using a methylxanthine, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, single-embryo transfer. Sperm motility, fertilization, embryo quality, live birth. Successful fertilization and a single-embryo transfer resulted in a healthy live birth. Theophylline turned out to be a safe, efficient agent for stimulating immotile spermatozoa in patients with retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of once daily and twice daily sustained release theophylline formulations on daytime variation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M.; Olivieri, M.; Lampronti, G.; Bonazza, L.; Biasin, C.; Nacci, P.; Talamini, G.; Lo, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating spirometric values and symptoms have shown that once daily theophylline administered in the evening produces greater stabilisation of the airway function in asthmatic patients than the prototype theophylline given twice a day. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bronchial responsiveness to methacholine of an ultrasustained release theophylline formulation (Diffumal-24, Malesci, Florence, Italy) administered once a day, a sustained release theophylline formulation (Theo-Dur, Recordati, Milan, Italy) administered twice a day, and placebo. METHODS: The study was performed in 12 adult patients with asthma using a randomised, double blind, three phase, cross-over design. Each phase lasted seven days and was followed or preceded by at least three days of theophylline washout. Diffumal-24 was administered once a day at 20.00 hours whereas Theo-Dur was given twice a day at 08.00 hours and 20.00 hours. In each patient the total daily dose of theophylline was the same during both phases. The dose of the two active preparations was titrated to individual needs before the beginning of the study and then given in divided or once daily doses. At 08.00, 14.00, and 20.00 hours on day 7 of each phase serum theophylline concentrations were measured and spirometric tests (FEV1) and bronchial challenge with methacholine were also performed. RESULTS: When the administration of Diffumal-24 was compared with that of Theo-Dur, a higher serum theophylline concentration of the former was seen in the morning whereas at 20.00 hours the reverse was true. Compared with placebo, at 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 improved FEV1 whereas Theo-Dur did not (difference between treatments 0.29 1, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). At 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 decreased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine, expressed as a natural logarithm of PD20, to a greater extent than Theo-Dur (difference between treatments 0.54 log units, 95% CI 0.016 to 1.08). The morning

  5. Preparation of theophylline inhalable microcomposite particles by wet milling and spray drying: The influence of mannitol as a co-milling agent.

    PubMed

    Malamatari, Maria; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Bloxham, Mark; Taylor, Kevin M G; Buckton, Graham

    2016-11-30

    Inhalable theophylline particles with various amounts of mannitol were prepared by combining wet milling in isopropanol followed by spray drying. The effect of mannitol as a co-milling agent on the micromeritic properties, solid state and aerosol performance of the engineered particles was investigated. Crystal morphology modelling and geometric lattice matching calculations were employed to gain insight into the intermolecular interactions that may influence the mechanical properties of theophylline and mannitol. The addition of mannitol facilitated the size reduction of the needle-like crystals of theophylline and also their assembly in microcomposites by forming a porous structure of mannitol nanocrystals wherein theophylline particles are embedded. The microcomposites were found to be in the same crystalline state as the starting material(s) ensuring their long-term physical stability upon storage. Incorporation of mannitol resulted in microcomposite particles with smaller size, more spherical shape and increased porosity. The aerosol performance of the microcomposites was markedly enhanced compared to the spray-dried suspension of theophylline wet milled without mannitol. Overall, wet co-milling with mannitol in an organic solvent followed by spray drying may be used as a formulation approach for producing respirable particles of water-soluble drugs or drugs that are prone to crystal transformation in an aqueous environment (i.e. formation of hydrates). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  7. Treatment plan comparison in acute and chronic respiratory tract diseases: an observational study of doxophylline vs. theophylline.

    PubMed

    Mennini, F S; Sciattella, P; Marcellusi, A; Marcobelli, A; Russo, A; Caputi, A P

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this article is to estimate the global cost related to the use of the two drugs (associated drugs, specialist visits, hospital admissions, plasma drug monitoring). The drug prescriptions were extracted from the Information System of the Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of the Marche Region for each ATC code in the years 2008-2012 and the number of patients per year and other outcomes measure were obtained. 13,574 patients were treated with theophylline and 19,426 patients with doxophylline. The number of patients treated was approximately 5,000 per year. Co-prescription with other drugs, use of corticosteroids, mean number of visits and hospital admissions (per 100 patients) were lower for doxophylline vs theophylline (1.55vs5.50, 0.3vs0.7, 2.05vs3.73 and 1.57vs3.3 respectively). The annual mean cost per patient was €187.4 for those treated with doxophylline and €513.5 for theophylline. In our study, doxophylline resulted to be associated with a reduction of the overall cost.

  8. Formulation and characterization of a compacted multiparticulate system for modified release of water-soluble drugs--Part II theophylline and cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Stuart L; Hoag, Stephen W; Augsburger, Larry L

    2009-05-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effectiveness of an ethylcellulose (EC) bead matrix and different film-coating polymers in delaying drug release from compacted multiparticulate systems. Formulations containing theophylline or cimetidine granulated with Eudragit RS 30D were developed and beads were produced by extrusion-spheronization. Drug beads were coated using 15% wt/wt Surelease or Eudragit NE 30D and were evaluated for true density, particle size, and sphericity. Lipid-based placebo beads and drug beads were blended together and compacted on an instrumented Stokes B2 rotary tablet press. Although placebo beads were significantly less spherical, their true density of 1.21 g/cm(3) and size of 855 mum were quite close to Surelease-coated drug beads. Curing improved the crushing strength and friability values for theophylline tablets containing Surelease-coated beads; 5.7 +/- 1.0 kP and 0.26 +/- 0.07%, respectively. Dissolution profiles showed that the EC matrix only provided 3 h of drug release. Although tablets containing Surelease-coated theophylline beads released drug fastest overall (t(44.2%) = 8 h), profiles showed that coating damage was still minimal. Size and density differences indicated a minimal segregation potential during tableting for blends containing Surelease-coated drug beads. Although modified release profiles >8 h were achievable in tablets for both drugs using either coating polymer, Surelease-coated theophylline beads released drug fastest overall. This is likely because of the increased solubility of theophylline and the intrinsic properties of the Surelease films. Furthermore, the lipid-based placebos served as effective cushioning agents by protecting coating integrity of drug beads under a number of different conditions while tableting.

  9. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor.

    PubMed

    Aswini, K K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Biju, V M

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template-monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of fatty acids on theophylline binding to human serum albumin. Comparative fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Szkudlarek-Haśnik, A.; Zubik-Skupień, I.; Góra, A.; Dubas, M.; Korzonek-Szlacheta, I.; Wielkoszyński, T.; Żurawiński, W.; Sosada, K.

    2012-04-01

    Theophylline, popular diuretic, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. In blood it forms complexes with albumin, which is also the main transporter of fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to describe the influence of fatty acids (FA) on binding of theophylline (Th) to human serum albumin (HSA) in the high affinity binding sites. Binding parameters have been obtained on the basis of the fluorescence analysis. The data obtained for the complex of Th and natural human serum albumin (nHSA) obtained from blood of obese patients qualified for surgical removal of stomach was compared with our previous studies on the influence of FA on the complex of Th and commercially available defatted human serum albumin (dHSA).

  11. Intravenous theophylline is the most effective intervention to prolong EEG seizure duration in patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Wiernik, Michaela E; Wielopolski, Jan; Sperling, Wolfgang; Ihmsen, Harald; Schmitt, Hubert J; Münster, Tino

    2017-08-29

    Seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is positively related with patients' outcome. This study sought to investigate the impact of anesthetic management on seizure duration, and the impact of selected drugs (theophylline, remifentanil, S-ketamine) on seizure duration. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing ECT at our institution from January 2011 to April 2012 was performed based on electronic medical chart and review of existing quality improvement data. Patient data (N = 78), including gender, age, height, weight, and administered drugs, energy levels, and electroencephalic seizure duration were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear model. A total of 78 patients (male = 39, female = 39, age 51 ± 12 years) were included. Average number of session was 10 ± 6 (1-30). In our patient population, theophylline administration was the only parameter, which significantly prolonged seizure duration, whereas S-ketamine, remifentanil, thiopental, age, sex, session or energy level had no significant effect. Theophylline can be a useful adjunct for patients with inadequate seizure duration. If there is a concomitant beneficial effect on patients' outcome needs to be investigated in further studies.

  12. NMR Chemical Exchange as a Probe for Ligand-Binding Kinetics in a Theophylline-Binding RNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Michael P.; Zimmermann, Grant R.; Pardi, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The apparent on- and off-rate constants for theophylline binding to its RNA aptamer in the absence of Mg2+ were determined here by 2D 1H-1H NMR ZZ-exchange spectroscopy. Analysis of the build-up rate of the exchange cross peaks for several base-paired imino protons in the RNA yielded an apparent kon of 600 M-1 s-1. This small apparent kon results from the free RNA existing as a dynamic equilibrium of inactive states rapidly interconverting with a low population of active species. The data here indicate that the RNA aptamer employs a conformational selection mechanism for binding theophylline in the absence of Mg2+. The kinetic data here also explain a very unusual property of this RNA-theophylline system, slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale for a weak-binding complex. To our knowledge, it is unprecedented to have such a weak binding complex (Kd ≈ 3.0 mM at 15 °C) show slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale, but the results clearly demonstrate that slow exchange and weak binding are readily rationalized by a small kon. Comparisons with other ligand-receptor interactions are presented. PMID:19317486

  13. In vitro dissolution kinetic study of theophylline from hydrophilic and hydrophobic matrices.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Abdulhalim, Abdulatif A

    2006-01-01

    Oral dosage forms containing 300 mg theophylline in matrix type tablets, were prepared by direct compression method using two kinds of matrices, glycerylbehenate (hydrophobic), and (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (hydrophilic). The in vitro release kinetics of these formulations were studied at pH 6.8 using the USP dissolution apparatus with the paddle assemble. The kinetics of the dissolution process were studied by analyzing the dissolution data using four kinetic equations, the zero-order equation, the first-order equation, the Higuchi square root equation and the Hixson-Crowell cube root law. The analysis of the dissolution kinetic data for the theophylline preparations in this study shows that it follows the first order kinetics and the release process involves erosion / diffusion and an alteration in the surface area and diameter of the matrix system, as well as in the diffusion path length from the matrix drug load during the dissolution process. This relation is best described by the use of both the first-order equation and the Hixson-Crowell cube root law.

  14. EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND THEOPHYLLINE ON MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE STURGEON (ACIPENSER FULVESCENS) SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  15. Effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and theophylline in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chi, K N; Tolcher, A; Lee, P; Rosen, P J; Kollmannsberger, C K; Papadopoulos, K P; Patnaik, A; Molina, A; Jiao, J; Pankras, C; Kaiser, B; Bernard, A; Tran, N; Acharya, M

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan HBr (CYP2D6 substrate) and theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Men with progressive metastatic mCRPC who failed gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy and ≥1 lines of chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received two doses of dextromethorphan HBr-30 mg (n = 18; group A) or theophylline-100 mg (n = 16; group B) under fasting conditions; one dose on cycle 1, day -8, and the other dose on cycle 1, day 8. Only patients with extensive CYP2D6 metabolizing status were assigned to group A. All patients received continuous daily oral abiraterone acetate (1,000 mg) plus prednisone (10 mg) starting on cycle 1, day 1. Coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the systemic exposure of dextromethorphan by approximately 100%. Ratios of geometric means for maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (275.36%) and area under plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 h (AUC(24h)) (268.14%) of dextromethorphan were outside the bioequivalence limit. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaltered following coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone. Ratios of geometric means [C(max); 102.36% and AUC(24h); 108.03%] of theophylline exposure parameters were within the bioequivalence limit. The safety profile of abiraterone acetate was consistent with reported toxicities. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the exposure of dextromethorphan, suggesting a need for caution when coadministrating with known CYP2D6 substrates. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaffected when coadministered with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone.

  16. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  17. Evaluation of tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR: the influence of moisture and mixtures with theophylline monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Karsten; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was firstly to investigate the influence of moisture on the tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR and secondly to investigate the influence of theophylline monohydrate on the tableting behavior and tablet properties produced from binary mixtures with Kollidon SR. In comparison to Kollidon SR, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the powder over the whole range of RH (0-90%), and in addition, the Tg of tablets of Kollidon SR were measured. Densities and flowability of the powders were analyzed. The tablets were produced at five different maximum relative densities (rho(rel), max) on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. They were produced at three different relative humidities (RH), 30%, 45%, and 60% RH for the pure substances and binary mixtures with different ratios of drug and excipient were tableted at 45% RH. The tableting properties were analyzed by 3D modeling, force-displacement profiles, and compactibility plots. First, the Tg of the powder decreased with increasing RH and the Tg of the tablet was 4-8 K lower than the powder. The predominant deformation of Kollidon SR is plastic deformation and Kollidon SR showed a higher compactibility than MCC. The parameters of the 3D model showed an extreme change between 45 and 60% RH, and at higher RH more and more particles deformed elastically. This was confirmed by analysis of force-displacement profiles. At 60% RH, the radial tensile strength of the Kollidon SR tablets was half of the radial tensile strength at 45% RH. The reason is a higher relative energy of plastic deformation than for MCC. This results in a better utilization of the energy to deform the powder into a tablet and the exceeding of the glass transition temperature at higher RH. In conclusion, at 60% RH at the same rho(rel, max), tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR are extremely changed since plasticity is significantly higher. In the second part of the

  18. Multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline for controlled release applications.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the drug release profiles of multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline consisting of both the fast and slow release components in a unit dose. The fast release component consisted of conventional granules of theophylline formed by mixing the drug powder with starch mucilage (20% w/v) while the slow release component consisted of wax granulations of theophylline formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted Carnauba wax (drug:wax ratio, 4:1). The granules were either filled into capsules or tabletted. In the study design, the drug release characteristics of the individual fast or slow release particles were first determined separately and then mixed in various proportions for the purpose of optimizing the drug release profiles. The evaluating parameters were the prompt release in the first 1 h (mp), the maximum release (m infinity) and the time to attain it (t infinity). Total drug content in each capsule or tablet was 300 mg and two of such were used in dissolution studies. The release kinetics and hence the release mechanism was confirmed by measuring the linear regression coefficient (R2 values) of the release data. The release kinetics was generally most consistent with the Higuchi square root of time relationship (R2 = 0.95). indicating a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The mp (mg) and t infinity (h) values for capsules and tablets of the conventional granules were (420 mg, 3 h) and (348 mg, 5 h), respectively, while for the capsules and tablets of the wax granulations mp and t infinity values were (228 mg, 9 h) and (156 mg, 12 h), respectively, indicating that a combination of wax granulation and tableting markedly retarded drug release. In the multi-unit dose formulations where the conventional and wax granulations were mixed in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (conventional: matrix), the m infinity and t infinity values for the capsules were (378 mg, 6 h), (326 mg, 6 h) and (272 mg, 7 h), reSpectively. The

  19. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham; Cotton, Seonaidh; Barnes, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Burns, Graham; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Chrystyn, Henry; Davies, Lisa; De Soyza, Anthony; Fielding, Shona; Gompertz, Simon; Haughney, John; Lee, Amanda J; McCormack, Kirsty; McPherson, Gladys; Morice, Alyn; Norrie, John; Sullivan, Anita; Wilson, Andrew; Price, David

    2015-06-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. An incomplete response to the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids is present in COPD. Preclinical work indicates that 'low dose' theophylline improves steroid responsiveness. The Theophylline With Inhaled Corticosteroids (TWICS) trial investigates whether the addition of 'low dose' theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids has clinical and cost-effective benefits in COPD. TWICS is a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in primary and secondary care sites in the UK. The inclusion criteria are the following: an established predominant respiratory diagnosis of COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC] of less than 0.7), age of at least 40 years, smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, current inhaled corticosteroid use, and history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics or oral corticosteroids in the previous year. A computerised randomisation system will stratify 1424 participants by region and recruitment setting (primary and secondary) and then randomly assign with equal probability to intervention or control arms. Participants will receive either 'low dose' theophylline (Uniphyllin MR 200 mg tablets) or placebo for 52 weeks. Dosing is based on pharmacokinetic modelling to achieve a steady-state serum theophylline of 1-5 mg/l. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg once daily (or placebo once daily) will be taken by participants who do not smoke or participants who smoke but have an ideal body weight (IBW) of not more than 60 kg. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg twice daily (or placebo twice daily) will be taken by participants who smoke and have an IBW of more than 60 kg. Participants will be reviewed at recruitment and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the total number of participant-reported COPD exacerbations requiring

  1. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline tablets predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Rie; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared based on a standard formulation. The tensile strength, disintegration time, and stability of these variables were measured as response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively based on nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these tablets was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the tablets were classified into several distinct clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and tablet characteristics. The results of this study suggest that increasing the proportion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) improved the tensile strength and the stability of tensile strength of these theophylline tablets. In addition, the proportion of MCC has an optimum value for disintegration time and stability of disintegration. Increasing the proportion of magnesium stearate extended disintegration time. Increasing the compression force improved tensile strength, but degraded the stability of disintegration. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulations.

  2. Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC>THF-URE>THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  3. Release of theophylline and carbamazepine from matrix tablets--consequences of HPMC chemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Viridén, Anna; Abrahmsén-Alami, Susanna; Wittgren, Bengt; Larsson, Anette

    2011-08-01

    The release of theophylline and carbamazepine from matrix tablets composed of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of different substituent heterogeneities of HPMC on the drug release from matrix tablets composed of either 35% or 45% HPMC. The release of the poorly soluble carbamazepine was considerably affected by the HPMC heterogeneity, and the time difference at 80% drug release was more than 12h between the formulations of different HPMC batches. This was explained by slower polymer erosion of the heterogeneous HPMC and the fact that carbamazepine was mainly released by erosion. In addition, results from magnetic resonance imaging showed that the rate of water transport into the tablets was similar. This explained the comparable results of the release of the sparingly soluble theophylline from the two formulations even though the polymer erosion and the swelling of the tablets were considerably different. Thus, it can be concluded that the drug release was highly affected by the substituent heterogeneity, especially in the case of carbamazepine, which was released mainly by erosion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of plasticizers on the release of theophylline from microporous-controlled tablets.

    PubMed

    Lin, W J; Lee, H K; Wang, D M

    2004-10-19

    The aim of present work was to investigate the influence of plasticizer on the release of theophylline from microporous-controlled tablets. Three plasticizers, acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), castor oil, and triacetin, were included in this study. These plasticizers reduced the crystallinity of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-blended films, and the most prominent change of enthalpy of fusion was the film plasticized by triacetin. This might be due to triacetin penetrating into both PCL and PEG domains. However, the lipophilic property of castor oil only allowed it to alter the crystallization of hydrophobic PCL domain. The Young's modulus and the tensile strength of films showed a decreased tendency while increasing the amount of plasticizer. The change of elongation of plasticized blended films was irregular and was dependent of the type of plasticizer. The size of micropores formed in the presence of plasticizer was larger than those micropores formed in its absence. The fatty plasticizer, castor oil, altered the thermal and mechanical performance and pore size of films via soluble in PCL domain, which resulted in the release of theophylline from castor oil plasticized-coated tablets, which in turn enhanced and closed to a constant release pattern.

  5. [Determination of six main components in compound theophylline tablet by convolution curve method after prior separation by column partition chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wang, G. F.; Wu, Y. T.; Baldwin, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    On a partition chromatographic column in which the support is Kieselguhr and the stationary phase is sulfuric acid solution (2 mol/L), three components of compound theophylline tablet were simultaneously eluted by chloroform and three other components were simultaneously eluted by ammonia-saturated chloroform. The two mixtures were determined by computer-aided convolution curve method separately. The corresponding average recovery and relative standard deviation of the six components were as follows: 101.6, 1.46% for caffeine; 99.7, 0.10% for phenacetin; 100.9, 1.31% for phenobarbitone; 100.2, 0.81% for theophylline; 99.9, 0.81% for theobromine and 100.8, 0.48% for aminopyrine.

  6. [Synthesis, biotransformation and pharmacodynamics of a new theophylline derivative].

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, H; Harsche, C; Engel, J

    1991-09-01

    7-[(RS)2-((S)-1-Methyl-2-phenyl-ethylamino)propyl]-theophylline (3) was not described until now. This fenetylline analogue is available by reaction of 7 with an excess of 2 at 150 degrees C. If 2 reacts with 4, an E2-elimination overwhelms SN-nucleophilic displacement yielding compound 5. In vivo studies with male White-Wistar rats, comparing biotransformation of 3 and 1, demonstrate, that the amount of 2 is decreased from 4.7% of (RS)-2 to 1%, probably due to steric hindrance of the attacking monooxygenases by the methyl group at C-11 of 3. Pharmacodynamic studies of 3, tested with mice, gave similar results to those obtained with 1.

  7. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Marcia S; Veloso, Márcia Cristina C; Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C; De Oliveira, Rodolfo F S; Reis, José Oscar N; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2002-01-01

    This work relates the development of an analytical methodology to simultaneously determine three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) in beverages and urine samples based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation is made with a Bondesil C18 column using methanol-water-acetic acid or ethanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.7 mL/min. Identification is made by absorbance detection at 273 nm. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method is 0.1 pg/mL for all three methylxanthines. This method is applied to urine and to 25 different beverage samples, which included coffee, tea, chocolate, and coconut water. The concentration ranges determined in the beverages and urine are: < 0.1 pg/mL to 350 microg/mL and 3.21 microg/mL to 71.2 microg/mL for caffeine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 32 microg mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 13.2 microg/mL for theobromine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 47 microg/mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 66.3 microg/mL for theophylline. The method proposed in this study is rapid and suitable for the simultaneous quantitation of methylxanthines in beverages and human urine samples and requires no extraction step or derivatization.

  8. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    PubMed

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  9. Preparation of delayed release tablet dosage forms by compression coating: effect of coating material on theophylline release.

    PubMed

    El-Malah, Yasser; Nazzal, Sami

    2010-06-01

    In this study, compression-coated tablets were prepared and examined by real-time swelling/erosion analysis and dissolution studies. Of the coating materials, PVP showed no swelling behavior and had no impact on theophylline release. Polyox(®) exhibited swelling behavior of an entangled polymer, which was reflected in its > 14-hour delayed-release profile. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), which revealed the characteristics of a disentangled polymer, caused a 2-h delay in theophylline release. Based on preliminary texture analysis data, Polyox(®)/PVP blends were used as coating materials to manipulate the onset of drug release from the compression-coated tablets. Of the blends, at a 1:1 ratio, for example, resulted in a burst release after 10 h, which demonstrated the feasibility of preparing delayed release dosage forms by compression coating. Furthermore, it was feasible to predict the dissolution behavior of polymers from their swelling/erosion data, which were generated from texture analysis.

  10. Simultaneous determination of multi drug components Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride by validated RP-HPLC method in liquid dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jainendra Kumar; Prakash, M S; Mishra, Rajnish K; Khandhar, Amit P

    2008-04-01

    The RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Multi drug components i.e., Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in a liquid dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the four drugs was performed on a Hypersil Phenyl BDS (25cmX4.6mm, 5mm). The mobile phase constituted of triethylamine pH 3.0 buffer: methanol (85:15) v/v was delivered at the flow rate 1.5 mL/min. Detection was performed at 235 nm. The peak purity of Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride were 0.99970, 0.99979, 0.99986 and 0.99949 respectively. Calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficient between 0.99995 to 0.99997 over a concentration range of 5 to 37 microg/mL for Theophylline, 19 to 140 microg/mL for Etofylline, 20 to 149 microg/mL for Guaiphenesine and 6 to 45 microg/mL for Ambroxol hydrochloride. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found < 2.0%. The percentage recovery was found between the range of 98.6% and 100.5% at three different levels. Robustness and ruggedness were performed and result found within the RSD of 2%. All the parameters of validation were found in the acceptance range of ICH guideline.

  11. Development of theophylline sustained release dosage form based on Kollidon SR.

    PubMed

    Reza, Md Selim; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Haider, Syed Shabbir

    2002-01-01

    Sustained release theophylline matrix tablets constituting Kollidon SR (Polyvinyl acetate and povidone based matrix retarding polymer) were developed in this study in an attempt to design a dosage form that manifests desirable release profile and thorough adherence to official monographs. Four matrix tablet formulations were prepared by dry blending and direct compression of Kollidon SR and HPMC-15cps (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) in varying proportion with fixed percentage of theophylline. Tablets containing only Kollidon SR with the active ingredient demonstrated a rapid rate of drug release with an initial burst effect. Incorporation of HPMC-15cps in the matrix tablet prolonged the release of drug with subsequent minimization of burst effect as confirmed by mean dissolution time, T50 and Higuchi release rate data. Among the batches containing HPMC-15 cps, a direct relationship was obtained between release rate and the percentage of HPMC used. A suitable controlled release profile was obtained with the matrix tablets containing 20% Kollidon SR and 30% HPMC-15cps. The formulation showed close resemblance to commercial products and compliance with USP specification. The results were explored and explained by the difference of physico-chemical property and hydration characteristics of the polymers. In addition to this result, the exponential model was applied to characterize the drug release behaviour from polymeric systems. It was found that, Fickian release is predominant in tablets containing Kollidon SR alone and non-Fickian mechanism plays an important role in the release of drug from HPMC containing tablets with a trend towards zero-order or case II release. In vitro release profile of two commercial brands were also undertaken for comparison and modulation of the experimental batches.

  12. Evaluation of automated enzyme immunoassays for five anticonvulsants and theophylline adapted to a centrifugal analyzer.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, N; Godolphin, W; Campbell, D J

    1979-05-01

    We report a clinical evaluation of the enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) performed with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer as compared to gas-liquid and liquid chromatography for anticonvulsant drugs and theophylline, respectively. A good correlation was obtained for all drugs, although some difficulties were experienced with one lot of reagent for ethosuximide. The analyzer has an economic advantage if many samples are being analyzed for few drugs in each sample.

  13. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  14. Healthy twin live-birth after ionophore treatment in a case of theophylline-resistant Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Maurer, M; Oppelt, P; Mayer, R B; Duba, H C; Costamoling, W; Shebl, O

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate whether it is a feasible option to target the oocyte (with Ca(2+)-ionophore) in case that sperm motility cannot be restored in Kartagener syndrome. A case of a male Kartagener syndrome with exclusively immotile spermatozoa that did not react to the dimethylxanthine theophylline. Thus, half of the associated oocytes were treated for 15 min with the ready-to-use- ionophore CultActive immediately after ICSI whereas the other 50 % were injected with routine ICSI without artificial oocyte activation. Rates of fertilization, blastulation, pregnancy and live birth were evaluated. Fertilization check revealed that none of the conventionally injected but 4/6 (66.7 %) of the artificially activated oocytes showed two pronuclei. Three embryos were of good and one of fair quality. Corresponding blastocyst formation rate was 3 out of 4 (75 %). A double embryo transfer led to a healthy twin birth in the 34th week of gestation (two boys with a birth weight of 1724 g and 2199 g). This case indicates that Ca(2+)-ionophore treatment in cycles from theophylline-resistant Kartagener syndrome patients is a feasible option. The future will show if routine application of A23187 in Kartagener or primary cilia dyskinesis patients will be of benefit.

  15. Theophylline-assisted, eco-friendly synthesis of PtAu nanospheres at reduced graphene oxide with enhanced catalytic activity towards Cr(VI) reduction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ya; Chen, Li-Xian; Liu, Meng-Ting; Wang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Lan-Ju; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2017-05-01

    Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO). It demonstrates great potential applications of the catalyst in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. The eco-friendly route provides a new platform to fabricate other catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, F; Lanuzza, F; Micali, G; Cappellano, G

    2007-01-01

    Theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine are determined simultaneously by a rapid and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds. The determination is carried out in the raw and roasted ground cupuacu seeds and in the corresponding powders obtained after pressure treatment. The by-products of both cupuacu seeds and cacao seeds are obtained under the same technological conditions. The HPLC method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (80:19:1) (v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance detection at 275 nm. Total elution time for these analytes is less than 10 min, and the detection limit for all analytes is 0.1 mg/g. The amounts of theobromine and caffeine found in all the cupuacu samples are one or more orders of magnitude lower than those from cacao. Theophylline is found in all cacao samples except for the roasted ground paste, and it is only found in the roasted ground paste in the cupuacu samples.

  17. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline powders predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Shingo; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-11-01

    The quality by design concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline powders were prepared based on the standard formulation. The angle of repose, compressibility, cohesion, and dispersibility were measured as the response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively on the basis of a nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these powders was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the powders could be classified into several distinctive clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and powder characteristics. For instance, the quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and magnesium stearate (Mg-St) were classified distinctly into each cluster, indicating that the quantities of MCC and Mg-St were crucial for determining the powder characteristics. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline powder formulations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Interaction of DNA and mononucleotides with theophylline investigated using electrochemical biosensors and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Nemčeková, Katarína; Labuda, Ján; Milata, Viktor; Blaškovičová, Jana; Sochr, Jozef

    2018-05-03

    The understanding of DNA-drug interaction mechanism is among the important aspects of biological studies for drug design, discovery and pharmaceutical development processes. Published rather detailed FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic studies on the interactions of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with calf thymus DNA have shown effective binding of these methylxanthine derivatives to DNA and RNA involving H-bonds. However, to our knowledge, there is no such investigation using electrochemical approach. As a novelty of the study, in this paper the bioelectrochemical approach has been chosen for the investigation of an interaction of low molecular salmon sperm dsDNA, ssDNA and mononucleotides with theophylline (TP) in aqueous phosphate buffered medium using DNA-based electrochemical biosensors and biosensing in solution phase. Exploitation of the electrochemical approach via changes in square wave voltammetric responses of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) and deoxyadenosine (dAdo) provided a new indication on preferential association of TP with dGuo in the case of double helical dsDNA structure which was not reported previously. Moreover, an attachment of TP molecules outside DNA was found in the presence of high concentration of 3.3 × 10 -4  M TP in solution which diminishes the electron transfer and leads to the difficulties in quantitative evaluation of the TP and dGuo voltammetric responses. The changes in UV-vis and FTIR spectra obtained in the same medium confirmed the association interaction of TP with both nucleobases. Utilizing the model and the published energies of hydrogen bonding stabilization, the formation of a DNA-TP complex was predicted through the intermolecular H-bonds between TP and the NH-CO moiety of guanine and the N-NH 2 moiety of adenine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of the hetero-association of theophylline with aromatic drug molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejuk, D. D.; Hernandez Santiago, A. A.; Khomich, V. V.; Voronov, V. K.; Davies, D. B.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2008-10-01

    The hetero-association of theophylline (THP) with other biologically-active aromatic molecules ( e.g. the anti-cancer drugs daunomycin and novantrone, the antibiotic norfloxacin, the vitamin flavin-mononucleotide and two mutagens ethidium bromide and proflavine) has been studied by NMR in aqueous-salt solution (0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer, p D 7.1). It was found that THP shows an essentially similar hetero-association ability as caffeine (CAF) towards aromatic drugs, except for novantrone (NOV), which has much less affinity to THP than CAF as a result of energetically unfavourable orthogonal orientation of the chromophores of THP and NOV in the hetero-complex.

  20. Single crystal, vibrational and computational studies of Theophylline (a bronchodilator drug) and its chloride salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary Novena, L.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Saminathan, K.; Sridhar, B.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal structure of Theophylline (TH) and Theophyillinium chloride monohydrate (THC) and its complete molecular structure analysis on theoretical and experimental methods is reported here. The hydrogen bonding studies were carried out as a special note of the present work. The electron density analyses of the compounds were also analyzed in view of the intermolecular interactions. Moreover, it is an ever first quantum chemical report of this drug (TH) and its chloride salt. In TH crystal, the water molecule connects the Theophylline molecules through Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond forming discrete D22(7) motif and dimeric ring R22(10) motif through Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. In THC, the two classical (Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and one non-classical (Csbnd H⋯O) hydrogen bonds produce two pentameric chain C55 (16) and C55(17) motifs. These two chain motifs are interconnected by Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond and cross linked by Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to produce octametric ring R88(27) and R88(28) motifs. The solubility test is carried out to enhance the drug solubility and the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Experimentally obtained vibrational wavenumbers are compared with the spectra obtained theoretically for both the compound. The strong intensity bands and the shifting of bands due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds are also investigated. The Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO and thermodynamic properties are calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock Theory (HF) using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

  1. Capacitance changes in frog skin caused by theophylline and antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, A W; Painter, E

    1969-09-01

    1. Impedance loci for frog skins have been calculated by computer analysis from voltage transients developed across the tissues.2. Attention has been paid to simultaneous changes in conductance and capacitance of skins treated either with antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or with theophylline. These drugs always caused an increase in conductance and usually the skin capacitance also increased. However, changes in conductance were not correlated with capacitance changes.3. Changes in capacitance caused by the drugs may represent pore formation in the barrier to water flow, since both drugs increase hydro-osmotic flow in epithelia. If this interpretation is correct, then 0.14% of the membrane area forms water-permeable pores in response to a maximal dose of ADH. This value is somewhat less than the value obtained previously (0.3%) by graphical analysis.4. A theoretical account is given of the relative accuracy of the computer method and the graphical method for voltage transient analysis.

  2. Latent structure modeling underlying theophylline tablet formulations using a Bayesian network based on a self-organizing map clustering.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and design space. In this article, we integrate thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation, Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) and a Bayesian network (BN) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared using a standard formulation. We measured the tensile strength and disintegration time as response variables and the compressibility, cohesion and dispersibility of the pretableting blend as latent variables. We predicted these variables quantitatively using nonlinear TPS, generated a large amount of data on pretableting blends and tablets and clustered these data into several clusters using a SOM. Our results show that we are able to predict the experimental values of the latent and response variables with a high degree of accuracy and are able to classify the tablet data into several distinct clusters. In addition, to visualize the latent structure between the causal and latent factors and the response variables, we applied a BN method to the SOM clustering results. We found that despite having inserted latent variables between the causal factors and response variables, their relation is equivalent to the results for the SOM clustering, and thus we are able to explain the underlying latent structure. Consequently, this technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulation.

  3. Physicochemical characterization and mechanisms of release of theophylline from melt-extruded dosage forms based on a methacrylic acid copolymer.

    PubMed

    Young, Christopher R; Dietzsch, Caroline; Cerea, Matteo; Farrell, Thomas; Fegely, Kurt A; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; McGinity, James W

    2005-09-14

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of melt-extruded dosage forms based on Acryl-EZE and to determine the influence of gelling agents on the mechanisms and kinetics of drug release from thermally processed matrices. Acryl-EZE is a pre-mixed excipient blend based on a methacrylic acid copolymer that is optimized for film-coating applications. Powder blends containing theophylline, Acryl-EZE, triethyl citrate and an optional gelling agent, Methocel K4M Premium (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC, hypromellose 2208) or Carbopol 974P (carbomer), were thermally processed using a Randcastle single-screw extruder. The physical and chemical stability of materials during processing was determined using thermal gravimetric analysis and HPLC. The mechanism of drug release was determined using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model and the hydration and erosion of tablets during the dissolution studies were investigated. The excipient blends were physically and chemically stable during processing, and the resulting dosage forms exhibited pH-dependent dissolution properties. Extrusion of blends containing HPMC or carbomer changed the mechanism and kinetics of drug release from the thermally processed dosage forms. At concentrations of 5% or below, carbomer was more effective than HPMC at extending the duration of theophylline release from matrix tablets. Furthermore, carbomer containing tablets were stable upon storage for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH. Thus, hot-melt extrusion was an effective process for the preparation of controlled release matrix systems based on Acryl-EZE.

  4. Novel extraction and application of okra gum as a film coating agent using theophylline as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Ogaji, Ikoni J; Hoag, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction and application of okra gum as an aqueous film coating agent. Powdered okra pods dispersed in demineralized water was heated at 80 ± 2(o)C for 30 minutes in the presence of sodium chloride. The filtrate was successively centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30, 60, or 120 minutes and freeze dried. The samples were used as film former at different concentrations in aqueous film coating operations. Near infrared (nIR) absorption spectra, photomicrographs, and some physicochemical properties of the coated tablets were evaluated. The okra gum samples had different nIR spectra and possessed good processing and application quality due to relatively low viscosity. A six-fold concentration of this gum from the novel extraction yielded glossy theophylline tablets within a short time. A t (18) = 2.895, P < 0.005, t critical = 1.734 were obtained for the independent analysis of the hardness of core and coated theophylline tablets. A 3.0% concentration of the okra samples at a flow rate of 3 ml/min for 100 minutes showed that F = 3.798, DF = 29, P < 0.035, F critical = 3.354 in tablet hardness among samples and F = 15.632, DF = 29, P < 0.0001, F critical = 2.152 were obtained on film thickness among tablet samples during the coating and drying operation. Novel extraction process enhanced the film coating potential of okra gum by delivering more solids on the substrate at a shorter time with improved operation efficiency.

  5. Effect of Variation in Viscosity Grade of Ethycellulose on Theophylline Microcapsule Properties Prepared by Emulsion Solvent Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Garekani, Hadi Afrasiabi; Ahmadi, Behzad; Sadeghi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effect of polymer viscosity grade on microcapsule properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of just viscosity grade of ethylcellulose (EC) (not polymeric solution) on properties of theophylline microcapsules prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation. The effect of EC viscosity grade and drug:polymer ratio was investigated on microcapsule properties (yield, particle size, morphology, surface characteristics and drug release). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were implemented to study the interaction and solid state of drug. The microcapsules were compressed in the presence of excipients and drug release was evaluated. The yield of microencapsulation and encapsulation efficiency at 1:1 drug:polymer ratio was dependent on EC viscosity. Microcapsules were spherical with some pores on their surfaces. The number of pores was more and their size was bigger for EC 100 cP microcapsules. Theophylline remained in crystalline form after encapsulation. DSC studies confirmed lack of interaction between drug and polymer. The drug release was rapid at 2:1 drug:polymer whilst it was slowed down at 1:1 drug:polymer ratio. Microcapsules obtained from EC 100 cP showed slightly faster drug release at latter ratio. Marginal changes in release rate were observed after compression of microcapsules. All viscosity grades of EC were able to sustain the release of the drug from microcapsules. Considering the similar release profiles for microcapsules prepared from different viscosities of EC, the use of lower viscosity grade of EC is recommended due to the ease of production and also less processing time. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of theophylline in urine, saliva and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Gürbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; Sahin, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. the limit of quantification: 1.1 µg/mL for urine, 1.9 µg/mL for saliva, 3.1 µg/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.22-2.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 µg/mL for plasma, 8.7 µg/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 - 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable.

  7. Zero-order release of aspirin, theophylline and atenolol in water from novel methylcellulose glutarate matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Khairuzzaman, A; Ahmed, S U; Savva, M; Patel, N K

    2006-08-02

    A novel hydrocolloidal polymer, methylcellulose glutarate (MC-GA), was prepared by esterifying methylcellulose with glutaric anhydride. The formation of ester was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, DSC and elemental analysis. The physicochemical properties such as, rate of swelling in water, viscosity and hygroscopicity of MC-GA were determined and compared with those of methycellulose A (MC). Aspirin, theophylline and atenolol tablets were compacted on a Carver press using the wet granulation method. Each tablet contained: 200 mg active, 80 mg anhydrous lactose, 8 mg povidone, 4 mg magnesium stearate, 4 mg talc, 50mg MC or MC-GA (drug-to-polymer ratio, 4:1). Contrary to the first-order release profile of all the drugs from the MC matrix tablets, a zero-order release was obtained from the MC-GA matrix tablets in water.

  8. Synthesis of coumarin-theophylline hybrids as a new class of anti-tubercular and anti-microbial agents.

    PubMed

    Mangasuli, Sumitra N; Hosamani, Kallappa M; Devarajegowda, Hirihalli C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Joshi, Shrinivas D

    2018-02-25

    A series of novel coumarin-theophylline hybrids were synthesized and examined for their anti-tubercular activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H 37 Rv, anti-microbial activity in vitro against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterias (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) as well as fungi (Candida albicans). The compound (3a) has shown excellent anti-tubercular activity with MIC of 0.12 μg/mL. Electron donating compounds (3a, 3f) have displayed significant anti-microbial activity. The compounds have also been precisely elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Molecular docking study has been performed against 4DQU enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed good binding interactions and is in agreement with the in vitro results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li, E-mail: wangshunli@mail.ncyu.edu.tw

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks atmore » 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.« less

  10. Theophylline prevents the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Giunta, R; Torella, R

    1988-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism by which prostaglandins of the E series inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion in man. Acute insulin response (mean change 3-10 min) to iv glucose (0.33 g/kg) was decreased by 40% during the infusion of prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/min) and glucose disappearance rates were reduced (P less than 0.05). Insulin response to arginine (5 g iv) and tolbutamide (1 g iv) were not affected by the same rate of prostaglandin E2 infusion. The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion was prevented by theophylline (100 mg as a loading dose followed by a 5 mg/min infusion), a drug that increases the intracellular cAMP concentrations by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity. Our data suggest the involvement of the adenylate cyclase system in the inhibitory action of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

  11. Study on the paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence of theobromine, caffeine and theophylline and analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Dong; Yan-Li, Wei; Shao-Min, Shuang

    2003-05-01

    Paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of theobromine (TB), caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP) were investigated. The method is based on fast speed quantitative filter paper as substrate and KI-NaAc as heavy atom perturber. Various factors affecting their RTP were discussed in detail. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear dynamic range, limit of detection (LOD), and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were 14.41˜576.54 ng per spot, 1.14 ng per spot, 4.8% for TB, 5.44˜699.08 ng per spot, 0.78 ng per spot, 1.56% for CF, 7.21˜360.34 ng per spot, 1.80 ng per spot, 3.80% for TP, respectively. The first analytical application for the determination of these compounds was developed. The recovery of standard samples added to commercial products chocolate, tea, coffee and aminophylline is in the range 92.80-106.08%. The proposed method was successfully applied to real sample analysis without separation.

  12. Stability of extemporaneous pediatric oral liquids compounded from tablets and drug substance: case of propranolol and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Muśko, Monika; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The stability of theophylline (T) and propranolol hydrochloride (P) in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions (25 mg/mL or 50 mg/mL for T and 2 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL for P) were studied. Suspension with P and T were prepared with bulk substance or tablets using three different suspending vehicles: Ora-Sweet (M1), modified Ora-Sweet (M2) and simple syrup with glycerol and sorbitol (M3). Each suspension was stored for 35 days in a dark place at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The results demonstrated that the prepared suspensions with P either from tablets or from a substance were stable in all three studied vehicles (more than 95% of initial concentration remaining). However, it is recommended that storage at 4 degrees C of suspensions prepared with M2 should be avoided because of crystallization of the buffer substances. Extemporaneous suspensions with T in an appropriate pediatric concentrations of the drug were not obtained because the problem of fast crystallization of T was not eliminated.

  13. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm-1 and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm-1 with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  14. [Role of food interaction pharmacokinetic studies in drug development. Food interaction studies of theophylline and nifedipine retard and buspirone tablets].

    PubMed

    Drabant, S; Klebovich, I; Gachályi, B; Renczes, G; Farsang, C

    1998-09-01

    Due to several mechanism, meals may modify the pharmacokinetics of drug products, thereby eliciting to clinically significant food interaction. Food interactions with the drug substance and with the drug formulation should be distinguished. Food interaction of different drug products containing the same active ingredient can be various depending on the pharmaceutical formulation technology. Particularly, in the case of modified release products, the food/formulation interaction can play an important role in the development of food interaction. Well known example, that bioavailability of theophylline can be influenced in different way (either increased, decreased or unchanged) by concomitant intake of food in the case of different sustained release products. The role and methods of food interaction studies in the different kinds of drug development (new chemical entity, modified release products, generics) are reviewed. Prediction of food effect response on the basis of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug molecule or formulations is discussed. The results of three food interaction studies carried out the products of EGIS Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are also reviewed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophyllin 400 mg retard tablet were practically the same in both fasting condition and administration after consumption of a high fat containing standard breakfast. The ingestion of a high fat containing breakfast, increased the AUC of nifedipine from 259.0 +/- 101.2 ng h/ml to 326.7 +/- 122.5 ng h/ml and Cmax from 34.5 +/- 15.9 ng/ml to 74.3 +/- 23.9 ng/ml in case of nifedipine 20 mg retard tablet, in agreement with the data of literature. The statistical evaluation indicated significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters in the case of two administrations (before and after meal). The effect of a high fat containing breakfast for a generic version of buspiron 10 mg tablet and the bioequivalence after food consumption were

  15. Salmeterol versus slow-release theophylline combined with ketotifen in nocturnal asthma: a multicentre trial. French Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Muir, J F; Bertin, L; Georges, D

    1992-11-01

    We wished to assess the efficacy of inhaled salmeterol (SML; 50 micrograms b.i.d.) compared to a combination of slow-release theophylline and ketotifen p.o. (TK; T 300 mg+K 1 mg b.i.d.) for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. Ninety six patients with nocturnal asthma, (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 60-90% of predicted value, reversibility > or = 15%, at least two nocturnal awakenings per week) were eligible for a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy cross-over study (14-day run-in, two successive 28-day treatment periods). Efficacy was assessed as success/failure, success being defined as the complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms/awakening during the last week of each treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between SML and TK for this criterion: 46% and 39% success with SML during periods I (first 28-day period) and II (following the cross-over), compared to only 15% and 26% with TK, respectively (p < 0.01). SML was also significantly better for the other criteria (lung function, rescue salbutamol intake during day and night). Side-effects were five times less frequent in SML-treated patients (p < 0.004). Efficacy and tolerance of SML were obviously far better than those of TK in patients with nocturnal asthma.

  16. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of theophylline matrix tablets prepared by direct compression: Effect of polymer blends

    PubMed Central

    El-Bagory, Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; El-Enazi, Fouza

    2011-01-01

    The deformation mechanism of pharmaceutical powders, used in formulating directly compressed matrix tablets, affects the characteristics of the formed tablets. Three polymers of different deformation mechanisms were tested for their impact on theophylline directly compressed tablets namely Kollidon SR (KL SR, plastic deformation), Ethylcellulose (EC, elastic deformation) and Carnauba wax (CW, brittle deformation) at different compression forces. However, tablets based mainly on KL SR, the plastically deformed polymer (TN1) exhibited the highest hardness values compared to the other formulae which are based on either blends of KL SR with CW, the very brittle deformed polymer. The upper detected force for TN formulae and the lower punch force were found to dependent mainly on the powder deformation. This difference is attributed to the work done during the compression phase as well as the work lost during the decompression phase. Furthermore, the release profiles of TN from formulae TN2 and TN4 that are based on the composition (2KL SR:1EC) and (1KL SR:2EC), respectively, were consistent with different deformation mechanisms of KL SR and EC and on the physicochemical properties like the water absorptive capacity of EC. Upon increasing the weight ratio of KL SR (TN2), the release rate was greatly retarded (39.4%, 37.1%, 35.0% and 33.6% released after 8 h at 5, 10, 15 and 20 kN. PMID:24115902

  17. Binary polymorphic cocrystals: an update on the available literature in the Cambridge Structural Database, including a new polymorph of the pharmaceutical 1:1 cocrystal theophylline-3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Mnguni, Malitsatsi J; Michael, Joseph P; Lemmerer, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    An analysis and classification of the 2925 neutral binary organic cocrystals in the Cambridge Structural Database is reported, focusing specifically on those both showing polymorphism and containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The search was confined to molecules having only C, H, N, O, S and halogens atoms. It was found that 400 out of 2925 cocrystals can be classified as pharmaceutical cocrystals, containing at least one API, and that of those, 56 can be classified as being polymorphic cocrystals. In general, the total number of polymorphic cocrystal systems of any type stands at 125. In addition, a new polymorph of the pharmaceutical cocrystal theophylline-3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (1/1), C 7 H 8 N 4 O 2 ·C 7 H 6 O 4 , is reported.

  18. Penetration of theophylline and adenosine into excised human skin from binary and ternary vehicles: effect of a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kadir, R; Stempler, D; Liron, Z; Cohen, S

    1989-02-01

    A nonionic surfactant, diethyleneglycol lauryl ether (PEG-2-L), increases the flux of either theophylline or adenosine by a factor of 2.2-2.7, when these are delivered from propionic acid solutions into human skin samples, with respect to propionic acid alone. At the same time, the flux of propionic acid from the same vehicles is decreased. Significant expansion of the partial molal volumes vi of both purines occurs following incorporation of PEG-2-L into their propionic acid solution. Hence, the enhancing effect of this surfactant arises mainly from an increase in the excess free energy of these solutes in the donor phase ("push" effect). Paraffin oil increases the flux of either drug from propionic acid by an entirely different mechanism. It enhances the flux of propionic acid into the skin, thus promoting the partitioning of the purine solute in the modified skin barrier ("pull" effect). Indeed, the magnitude of vi of either purine in propionic acid:paraffin oil solution gives no indication of a significant interaction between paraffin oil and the purine solute. Finally, the penetration enhancing effects of PEG-2-L and paraffin oil combined together in the same propionic acid vehicle are additive, resulting in a flux which is approximately the sum total of fluxes obtained separately with PEG-2-L or paraffin oil.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, Anthe S; Huitema, Alwin D R; de Jonge, Milly E; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites were studied. The objectives were to establish the population pharmacokinetics under these exceptional circumstances and to compare the results to published data regarding intravenous and oral administration in healthy volunteers. Diacetylmorphine preparations containing 100 mg of caffeine were used by 10 persons by inhalation. Plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was evaluated by the jack-knife procedure. Caffeine was rapidly and effectively absorbed after inhalation. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites could adequately and simultaneously be described by a linear multi-compartment model. The volume of distribution for the central compartment was estimated to be 45.7 l and the apparent elimination rate constant of caffeine at 8 hr after inhalation was 0.150 hr(-1) for a typical individual. The bioavailability was approximately 60%. The presented model adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites after inhalation of the caffeine sublimate of a 100 mg tablet. Validation proved the stability of the model. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine after inhalation and intravenous administration are to a large extent similar. The bioavailability of inhaled caffeine is approximately 60% in experienced smokers.

  20. Predictive evaluation of pharmaceutical properties of direct compression tablets containing theophylline anhydrate during storage at high humidity by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuta; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideji; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline anhydrate (TA) in tablet formulation is transformed into monohydrate (TH) at high humidity and the phase transformation affected dissolution behavior. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIR) method is applied to predict the change of pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets during storage at high humidity. The tablet formulation containing TA, lactose, crystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate was compressed at 4.8 kN. Pharmaceutical properties of TA tables were measured by NIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, dissolution test and tablet hardness. TA tablet was almost 100% transformed into TH after 24 hours at RH 96%. The pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets, such as tablet hardness, 20 min dissolution amount (D20) and increase of tablet weight (TW), changed with the degree of hydration. Calibration models for TW, tablet hardness and D20 to predict the pharmaceutical properties at high-humidity conditions were developed on the basis of the NIR spectra by partial least squares regression analysis. The relationships between predicted and actual measured values for TW, tablet hardness and D20 had straight lines, respectively. From the results of NIR-chemometrics, it was confirmed that these predicted models had high accuracy to monitor the tablet properties during storage at high humidity.

  1. Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and theophylline in ternary mixtures and in the presence of excipients in different pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nada S

    2012-01-01

    Determination of ternary mixtures of ambroxol hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and theophylline with minimum sample pretreatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by using chemometric and RP-HPLC methods. The developed chemometric models are partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm coupled with PLS. Data of the analyses were obtained from UV-Vis spectra of the studied drugs in different concentration ranges. These models have been successfully updated to be applied for determination of the proposed drugs in Farcosolvin syrup and in the presence of a syrup excipient (methyl paraben). In the developed RP-HPLC method, chromatographic runs were performed on an RP-C18 analytical column with the isocratic mobile phase 0.05 M phosphate buffer-methanol-acetonitrile-triethylamine (63.5 + 27.5 + 9 + 0.25, v/v/v/v, pH 5.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The analytes were detected and quantified at 220 nm. The method was optimized in order to obtain good resolution between the studied components and to prevent interference from methyl paraben. Method validation was performed with respect to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and the validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The proposed methods can be considered acceptable for QC of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical capsules and syrup. The results obtained by the suggested chemometric methods for determination of the studied mixture in different pharmaceutical preparations were statistically compared to those obtained by applying the developed RP-HPLC method, and no significant difference was found.

  2. Bioavailability and in vivo release behavior of controlled-release multiple-unit theophylline dosage forms in beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, and göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Kengo; Tagawa, Kozo; Osawa, Takashi

    2006-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of monkey as an animal model, bioavailability and in vivo release behaviors of theophylline (TP) after oral administration of controlled-release beads in dogs, monkeys, and minipigs were evaluated. Controlled-release beads were prepared using a centrifugal-fluid type granulator, that is, CF-granulator, and Ethylcellulose (EC) was used as controlled-release coating agent. Aqueous solution and EC-coated beads, which contained TP were orally administered to animals after at least 1-week intervals. In dogs and minipigs, their relative bioavailabilities of EC-coated beads were 33.1% and 47.0%, respectively, and in vivo TP release from EC-coated beads in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and minipigs were not reflected in vitro data. In monkeys, relative bioavailability of EC-coated beads was 80.0% and the highest among the three species, and release amount of TP from EC-coated beads at 24 h after oral administration was 82.8% and 92.4%, which was almost correlated to in vitro data. Therefore, the discrepancy of the relative bioavailability in three species is considered to be due to the difference of in vivo release behavior of TP. The monkey may be useful animal model for bioavailability studies of controlled-release dosage forms of TP from the viewpoint of in vitro-in vivo release correlation. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy Visualizes Pharmaceutical Tablets During Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Andrew L.; Kleinebudde, Peter; Herek, Jennifer; Strachan, Clare J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical dissolution tests determine the amount of drug dissolved over time by measuring drug content in the dissolution medium. This method provides little direct information about what is happening on the surface of the dissolving tablet. As the tablet surface composition and structure can change during dissolution, it is essential to monitor it during dissolution testing. In this work coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is used to image the surface of tablets during dissolution while UV absorption spectroscopy is simultaneously providing inline analysis of dissolved drug concentration for tablets containing a 50% mixture of theophylline anhydrate and ethyl cellulose. The measurements showed that in situ CARS microscopy is capable of imaging selectively theophylline in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Additionally, the theophylline anhydrate converted to theophylline monohydrate during dissolution, with needle-shaped crystals growing on the tablet surface during dissolution. The conversion of theophylline anhydrate to monohydrate, combined with reduced exposure of the drug to the flowing dissolution medium resulted in decreased dissolution rates. Our results show that in situ CARS microscopy combined with inline UV absorption spectroscopy is capable of monitoring pharmaceutical tablet dissolution and correlating surface changes with changes in dissolution rate. PMID:25045833

  4. Extraction of purine alkaloids from maté (Ilex paraguariensis) using supercritical CO(2).

    PubMed

    Saldaña, M D; Mohamed, R S; Baer, M G; Mazzafera, P

    1999-09-01

    Experimental data for the supercritical CO(2) extraction of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) from ground herbal maté tea (Ilex paraguaryensis) using a high-pressure apparatus are presented. Caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine were identified in the extracted fractions using HPLC. Results indicated a much higher CO(2) selectivity for caffeine in comparison with those for theophylline and theobromine. Solubilities of pure compounds in carbon dioxide were also determined at 313.2, 323.2, 338.2, and 343.2 K, and pressures ranging from 14 to 24 MPa. Caffeine solubility exhibited a retrograde behavior with temperature while theophylline and theobromine manifested a normal behavior at conditions explored in this study. Solubilities in binary CO(2)/purine alkaloid model systems were much higher than those obtained during extraction of maté tea, demonstrating the difficulty of using binary data in predicting complex multicomponent behavior.

  5. The mechanism of action of doxofylline is unrelated to HDAC inhibition, PDE inhibition or adenosine receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    van Mastbergen, J; Jolas, T; Allegra, L; Page, C P

    2012-02-01

    Xanthines such as theophylline have been used in the treatment of lung diseases since the early 1900's, but have a major drawback of a very narrow therapeutic window and many drug/drug interactions. This means that plasma levels have to be measured regularly and can make the use of theophylline problematic. With the increasing availability of other classes of drugs for the treatment of respiratory diseases, this has limited the use of xanthines, despite their clear clinical benefit in the treatment of patients with asthma and COPD. Doxofylline is a xanthine molecule having both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activity with an improved therapeutic window over conventional xanthines such as theophylline. However, the mechanistic basis of this improved therapeutic window is not understood. The present study has investigated some pharmacological activities of doxofylline in comparison with theophylline. Doxofylline does not directly inhibit any of the known HDAC enzymes, and did not inhibit any PDE enzyme sub types or act as an antagonist at any of the known adenosine receptors, except for PDE2A(1), and adenosine A(2A) and only at the highest tested concentration (10(-4) M). These results may explain the improved tolerability profile of doxofylline compared with theophylline. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Continuous twin screw granulation of controlled release formulations with various HPMC grades.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Janssens, L; Vercruysse, J; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-09-25

    HPMC is a popular matrix former to formulate tablets with extended drug release. Tablets with HPMC are preferentially produced by direct compression. However, granulation is often required prior to tableting to overcome poor flowability of the formulation. While continuous twin screw granulation has been extensively evaluated for granulation of immediate release formulations, twin screw granulation of controlled release formulations including the dissolution behavior of the formulations received little attention. Therefore, the influence of the HPMC grade (viscosity and substitution degree) and the particle size of theophylline on critical quality attributes of granules (continuously produced via twin screw granulation) and tablets was investigated in the current study. Formulations with 20 or 40% HPMC, 20% theophylline and lactose were granulated with water at fixed process parameters via twin screw granulation. The torque was influenced by the viscosity and substitution degree of HPMC, but was not a limiting factor for the granulation process. An optimal L/S ratio was selected for each formulation based on the granule size distribution. The granule size distributions were influenced by the substitution degree and concentration of HPMC and the particle size of theophylline. Raman and UV spectroscopic analysis on 8 sieve fractions of granules indicated an inhomogeneous distribution of theophylline over the size fractions. However, this phenomenon was not correlated with the hydration rate or viscosity of HPMC. Controlled release of theophylline could be obtained over 24h with release profiles close to zero-order. The release of theophylline could be tailored via selection of the substitution degree and viscosity of HPMC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Kugel, Michael J; Baehring, Gina; Ammit, Alaina J

    2017-08-01

    The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. We conduct a series of investigations comparing and contrasting doxofylline with the archetypal xanthine, theophylline, and the specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, cilomilast. We confirm that the xanthine drugs do not have action as PDE inhibitors in ASM cells. Unlike cilomilast, doxofylline (and theophylline) do not increase cAMP production in ASM cells induced by long-acting β 2 -agonist formoterol. Similar to theophylline, and consistent with the lack of cAMP potentiation, doxofylline does not augment formoterol-induced upregulation of the anti-inflammatory protein mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). However, when we examine the effect of doxofylline on secretion of the interleukin 8 from ASM cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (an in vitro surrogate measure of inflammation), there was no repression of inflammation. This is in contrast to the anti-inflammatory impact exerted by theophylline and cilomilast in confirmatory experiments. In summary, our study is the first to examine the effect of doxofylline on ASM cells in vitro and highlights some distinct differences between two key members of xanthine drug family, doxofylline and theophylline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Aziz, Yang Farina Abdul

    2013-11-01

    In this present work, an analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) in positive electrospray ionisation mode was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment samples. The ten target compounds selected in this study include acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, prednisolone, ketoprofen, norgestrel and simvastatin. Acetaminophen, theophylline and caffeine were present at all five raw sewage samples. In addition, this work provides the first report on the investigation and detection of theophylline in sewage treatment plant (STP) samples in Malaysia.

  9. PubMed Central

    Matte, Janine; Lapointe, Michelle; LeBel, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Our experience has shown that determining an effective daily dose of theophylline means considering such factors as: age, patient's ideal weight, available pharmaceutical format, cost, frequency of administration, nicotine intake, coffee intake, diet and lifestyle. Cardiac and/or renal insufficiency and hepatic disorder are also factors affecting treatment with theophylline. We have therefore created a guide to daily dosage, taking all these factors into account. This helps both prescriber and pharmacist on instituting or evaluating theophylline treatment in an otherwise normal individual. This article presents the guide and explains the adjustment of dose in adult smokers, those with cardiac or renal insufficiency, and those with hepatic disorders. PMID:21289851

  10. A structural investigation into the compaction behavior of pharmaceutical composites using powder X-ray diffraction and total scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael D; Steinbach, Alison M; Buckner, Ira S; Wildfong, Peter L D

    2009-11-01

    To use advanced powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to characterize the structure of anhydrous theophylline following compaction, alone, and as part of a binary mixture with either alpha-lactose monohydrate or microcrystalline cellulose. Compacts formed from (1) pure theophylline and (2) each type of binary mixture were analyzed intact using PXRD. A novel mathematical technique was used to accurately separate multi-component diffraction patterns. The pair distribution function (PDF) of isolated theophylline diffraction data was employed to assess structural differences induced by consolidation and evaluated by principal components analysis (PCA). Changes induced in PXRD patterns by increasing compaction pressure were amplified by the PDF. Simulated data suggest PDF dampening is attributable to molecular deviations from average crystalline position. Samples compacted at different pressures were identified and differentiated using PCA. Samples compacted at common pressures exhibited similar inter-atomic correlations, where excipient concentration factored in the analyses involving lactose. Practical real-space structural analysis of PXRD data by PDF was accomplished for intact, compacted crystalline drug with and without excipient. PCA was used to compare multiple PDFs and successfully differentiated pattern changes consistent with compaction-induced disordering of theophylline as a single component and in the presence of another material.

  11. In situ dissolution analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussell, A. L.; Garbacik, E. T.; Löbmann, K.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Kleinebudde, P.; Strachan, C. J.

    2014-02-01

    A custom-built intrinsic flow-through dissolution setup was developed and incorporated into a home-built CARS microscope consisting of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and an inverted microscope with a 20X/0.5NA objective. CARS dissolution images (512×512 pixels) were collected every 1.12s for the duration of the dissolution experiment. Hyperspectral CARS images were obtained pre- and postdissolution by rapidly imaging while sweeping the wavelength of the OPO in discrete steps so that each frame in the data stack corresponds to a vibrational frequency. An image-processing routine projects this hyperspectral data into a single image wherein each compound appears with a unique color. Dissolution was conducted using theophylline and cimetidine-naproxen co-amorphous mixture. After 15 minutes of theophylline dissolution, hyperspectral imaging showed a conversion of theophylline anhydrate to the monohydrate, confirmed by a peak shift in the CARS spectra. CARS dissolution images showed that monohydrate crystal growth began immediately and reached a maximum with complete surface coverage at about 300s. This result correlated with the UV dissolution data where surface crystal growth on theophylline compacts resulted in a rapidly reducing dissolution rate during the first 300s. Co-amorphous cimetidinenaproxen didn't appear to crystallize during dissolution. We observed solid-state conversions on the compact's surface in situ during dissolution. Hyperspectral CARS imaging allowed visual discrimination between the solid-state forms on the compact's surface. In the case of theophylline we were able to correlate the solid-state change with a change in dissolution rate.

  12. Wax-based sustained release matrix pellets prepared by a novel freeze pelletization technique II. In vitro drug release studies and release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheboyina, Sreekhar; Wyandt, Christy M

    2008-07-09

    A novel freeze pelletization technique was evaluated for the preparation of wax-based sustained release matrix pellets. Pellets containing water-soluble drugs were successfully prepared using a variety of waxes. The drug release significantly depended on the wax type used and the aqueous drug solubility. The drug release decreased as the hydrophobicity of wax increased and the drug release increased as the aqueous drug solubility increased. In glyceryl monostearate (GMS) pellets, drug release rate decreased as the loading of theophylline increased. On the contrary, the release rate increased as the drug loading of diltiazem HCl increased in Precirol pellets. Theophylline at low drug loads existed in a dissolved state in GMS pellets and the release followed desorption kinetics. At higher loads, theophylline existed in a crystalline state and the release followed dissolution-controlled constant release for all the waxes studied. However, with the addition of increasing amounts of Brij 76, theophylline release rate increased and the release mechanism shifted to diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. But the release of diltiazem HCl from Precirol pellets at all drug loads, followed diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. Therefore, pellets capable of providing a variety of release profiles for different drugs can be prepared using this freeze pelletization technique by suitably modifying the pellet forming matrix compositions.

  13. Evaluation of anticancer effects and enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity of xanthine derivatives using canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Tomoki; Katayama, Masaaki; Uzuka, Yuji; Okamura, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Methylxanthine derivatives increase cAMP and are known to have diuretic, cardiac, and central nervous system stimulatory effects. Moreover, caffeine inhibits the development of tumors induced by various carcinogens. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anticancer effects on apoptosis of xanthine derivatives alone and with doxorubicin in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. Xanthine derivatives with or without doxorubicin were administered to cells, and the effects were investigated by measuring tumor cell proliferation, cell death (cytotoxicity) induction, and apoptosis by the expression of annexin V or caspase 3/7. Both caffeine and theophylline induced apoptosis, and the treated cells expressed annexin V and caspase 3/7. Both drugs enhanced doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity; however, hypoxanthine showed no effect. These results indicate that theophylline is similar to caffeine; both drugs may enhance doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting ATM/ATR kinases. Our data suggest that caffeine and theophylline have anticancer effects and can improve the treatment effect in canine hemangiosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fenetylline: new results on pharmacology, metabolism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nickel, B; Niebch, G; Peter, G; von Schlichtegroll, A; Tibes, U

    1986-06-01

    In the fenetylline molecule, theophylline is covalently linked with amphetamine via an alkyl chain. The inclusion of amphetamine and results from early metabolic studies have led to speculation that fenetylline may be merely a prodrug for amphetamine and/or theophylline. Although previous studies are not consistent with this hypothesis, additional studies were conducted to comparatively evaluate the profiles of activity exhibited by fenetylline and its two postulated primary metabolites, (+/-)-amphetamine and theophylline. Investigations were also initiated using newly developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to further characterize the metabolic pattern that fenetylline undergoes and to examine the relationship between plasma pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamic actions of the drug. Fenetylline inhibits activity associated with amphetamine in certain test systems, an effect similar to that previously observed with fenfluramine. Only small amounts of the amphetamine theoretically available in the fenetylline molecule are released. Pharmacodynamic activity associated with fenetylline administration is more closely tied to plasma levels of the parent compound than to any (+/-)-amphetamine produced.

  15. Leakage and slow allostery limit performance of single drug-sensing aptazyme molecules based on the hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Chamaree; Walter, Nils G.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered “aptazymes” fuse in vitro selected aptamers with ribozymes to create allosteric enzymes as biosensing components and artificial gene regulatory switches through ligand-induced conformational rearrangement and activation. By contrast, activating ligand is employed as an enzymatic cofactor in the only known natural aptazyme, the glmS ribozyme, which is devoid of any detectable conformational rearrangements. To better understand this difference in biosensing strategy, we monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and 2-aminopurine (AP) fluorescence the global conformational dynamics and local base (un)stacking, respectively, of a prototypical drug-sensing aptazyme, built from a theophylline aptamer and the hammerhead ribozyme. Single molecule FRET reveals that a catalytically active state with distal Stems I and III of the hammerhead ribozyme is accessed both in the theophylline-bound and, if less frequently, in the ligand-free state. The resultant residual activity (leakage) in the absence of theophylline contributes to a limited dynamic range of the aptazyme. In addition, site-specific AP labeling shows that rapid local theophylline binding to the aptamer domain leads to only slow allosteric signal transduction into the ribozyme core. Our findings allow us to rationalize the suboptimal biosensing performance of the engineered compared to the natural aptazyme and to suggest improvement strategies. Our single molecule FRET approach also monitors in real time the previously elusive equilibrium docking dynamics of the hammerhead ribozyme between several inactive conformations and the active, long-lived, Y-shaped conformer. PMID:19029309

  16. Development and validation of a new dynamic computer-controlled model of the human stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aurélie; Denis, Sylvain; le Goff, Olivier; Sicardi, Vincent; François, Olivier; Yao, Anne-Françoise; Garrait, Ghislain; Manzi, Aimé Pacifique; Beyssac, Eric; Alric, Monique; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2016-06-01

    For ethical, regulatory, and economic reasons, in vitro human digestion models are increasingly used as an alternative to in vivo assays. This study aims to present the new Engineered Stomach and small INtestine (ESIN) model and its validation for pharmaceutical applications. This dynamic computer-controlled system reproduces, according to in vivo data, the complex physiology of the human stomach and small intestine, including pH, transit times, chyme mixing, digestive secretions, and passive absorption of digestion products. Its innovative design allows a progressive meal intake and the differential gastric emptying of solids and liquids. The pharmaceutical behavior of two model drugs (paracetamol immediate release form and theophylline sustained release tablet) was studied in ESIN during liquid digestion. The results were compared to those found with a classical compendial method (paddle apparatus) and in human volunteers. Paracetamol and theophylline tablets showed similar absorption profiles in ESIN and in healthy subjects. For theophylline, a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation could be established between the results obtained in ESIN and in humans. Interestingly, using a pharmaceutical basket, the swelling and erosion of the theophylline sustained release form was followed during transit throughout ESIN. ESIN emerges as a relevant tool for pharmaceutical studies but once further validated may find many other applications in nutritional, toxicological, and microbiological fields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1325-1335. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Preparation and evaluation of press-coated aminophylline tablet using crystalline cellulose and polyethylene glycol in the outer shell for timed-release dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Mukai, Baku; Kawamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Namiki, Michihiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Fujii, Makiko

    2002-02-01

    In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet in the form of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and coated with crystalline cellulose (PH-102) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at various molecular weights and mixing ratios in the amounts of PH-102 and PEG as the outer shell (press-coating material), were prepared (chronopharmaceutics). Their applicability as timed-release (delayed-release) tablets with a lag time of disintegration and a subsequent rapid drug release phase was investigated. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a tableting machine, and their aminophylline dissolution profiles were evaluated by the JP paddle method. Tablets with the timed-release characteristics could be prepared, and the lag time of disintegration was prolonged as the molecular weight and the amount of PEG, for example PEG 500,000, in the outer shell were increased. The lag time of disintegration could be controlled by the above-mentioned method, however, the pH of the medium had no effect on disintegration of the tablet and dissolution behavior of theophylline. The press-coated tablet (core tablet:aminophylline 50 mg, L-HPC and PEG 6000; outer shell:PH-102:PEG = 8:2 200 mg) with the timed-release characteristics was administered orally to rabbits for an in vivo test. Theophylline was first detected in plasma more than 2 h after administration; thus, this tablet showed a timed-release characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract. The time (tmax) required to reach the maximum plasma theophylline concentration (Cmax) observed after administration of the press-coated tablet was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed compared with that observed after administration of aminophylline solution in the control experiment. However, there was no difference in Cmax and area under the plasma theophylline concentration-time curve (AUC0-->24) between the press-coated tablet and

  18. Metabolic control mechanisms in mammalian systems. Involvement of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate in androgen action

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Radhey L.; Parulekar, M. R.; Vijayvargiya, R.; Robison, G. Alan

    1971-01-01

    1. The ability of exogenously administered cyclic AMP (adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate) to exert andromimetic action on certain carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in the rat prostate gland and seminal vesicles. 2. Cyclic AMP, when injected concurrently with theophylline, produced marked increases in hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and two hexose monophosphate-shunt enzymes, as well as α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in accessory sexual tissues of castrated rats. The 6-N,2′-O-dibutyryl analogue of cyclic AMP caused increases of enzyme activity that were greater than those induced by the parent compound. 3. Time-course studies demonstrated that, whereas significant increases in the activities of most enzymes occurred within 4h after the injection of cyclic AMP, maximal increases were attained at 16–24h. 4. Increase in the activity of the various prostatic and vesicular enzymes was dependent on the dose of cyclic AMP; in most instances, 2.5mg of the cyclic nucleotide/rat was sufficient to elicit a statistically significant response. 5. Administration of cyclic AMP and theophylline also produced stimulation of enzyme activities in secondary sexual tissues of immature rats. 6. Cyclic AMP and theophylline did not affect significantly any of the enzymes studied in hepatic tissue. 7. Stimulation of various carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles by cyclic AMP was independent of adrenal function. 8. Concurrent treatment with actinomycin or cycloheximide prevented the cyclic AMP- and theophylline-induced increases in enzyme activities in both castrated and adrenalectomized–castrated animals. 9. Administration of a single dose of testosterone propionate (5.0mg/100g) to castrated rats caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP concentration in both accessory sexual tissues. 10. In addition, treatment with theophylline potentiated the effects of a

  19. A study on maize proteins as a potential new tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Georget, Dominique M R; Barker, Susan A; Belton, Peter S

    2008-06-01

    This investigation has examined the use of zein proteins from maize as the major component in oral controlled-release tablets, such formulations often being required to improve patient compliance. Tablets containing ground zein proteins, calcium hydrogen orthophosphate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, theophylline and magnesium stearate were produced by wet granulation and compression on a single station tablet press and were compared to directly compressed tablets based on zein proteins, calcium hydrogen orthophosphate and theophylline. Non invasive techniques such as Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate any changes in the secondary structure of zein proteins during tablet production. Random coils, alpha helices and beta sheets predominated and their relative content remained unaffected during grinding, wet granulation and compression, indicating that formulations based on zeins will be robust, i.e. insensitive to minor changes in the production conditions. Drug release from the tablets was studied using a standard pharmacopoeial dissolution test. Dissolution profiles in water, 0.1M HCl (pH=1) and phosphate buffer (pH=6.8) show that only a limited amount of theophylline was released after 4.5h, suggesting that zein proteins could act as a potential vehicle for oral controlled drug release. Analysis of the theophylline release profiles using the Peppas and Sahlin model reveals that diffusion and polymer relaxation occurred in acidic (pH=1) and buffered (pH=6.8) conditions for wet granulated tablets, whereas diffusion was predominant in directly compressed tablets. In conclusion, the present study has shown that zeins can be successfully used as a pharmaceutical excipient, and in particular as a matrix in monolithic controlled release tablets.

  20. Evaluation of pro-convulsant risk in the rat: spontaneous and provoked convulsions.

    PubMed

    Esneault, Elise; Peyon, Guillaume; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of different tests performed in the absence or presence of factors promoting seizures in order to evaluate the pro-convulsant effects of drugs. We studied the effects of theophylline in the rat since this is a well-known pro-convulsant substance in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous convulsions following administration of theophylline was evaluated by observation in the Irwin Test and by measuring brain activity using video-EEG recording in conscious telemetered animals. Theophylline was also tested in the electroconvulsive shock (ECS) threshold and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests, two commonly used models of provoked convulsions. In the Irwin test, theophylline induced convulsions in 1 out of 6 rats at 128 mg/kg. Paroxysmal/seizure activity was also observed by video-EEG recording in 4 out of the 12 animals tested at 128 mg/kg, in presence of clonic convulsions in 3 out of the 4 rats. Paroxysmal activity was observed in two rats in the absence of clear behavioral symptoms, indicating that some precursor signs can be detected using video-EEG. Clear pro-convulsant activity was shown over the dose-range 32-128 mg/kg in the ECS threshold and PTZ-induced convulsions tests. Evaluation of spontaneous convulsions provides information on the therapeutic window of a drug and the translational value of the approach is increased by the use of video-EEG. Tests based on provoked convulsions further complement the evaluation since they try to mimic high risk situations. Measurement of both spontaneous and provoked convulsions improves the evaluation of the pro-convulsant risk of novel pharmacological substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 'Fingerprints' of central stimulatory drug effects by means of quantitative radioelectroencephalography in the rat (tele-stereo-EEG).

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Spüler, M; Nickel, B; Tibes, U

    1986-01-01

    The new electrophysiological model earlier described as stereo-EEG is extended now to allow recording from the freely moving rat by means of a telemetric device. Chronic implantation of 4 electrodes into the brain allows simultaneous transmission of field potentials from frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation. Frequency analysis of these potentials results in a drug-specific 'fingerprint' which cannot only be used to compare different chemicals with each other but also to detect onset and time dependence of drug actions. Application of the model to the question if fenetylline has its own intrinsic mode of action or merely develops its stimulatory effect after metabolic separation into its molecular moieties amphetamine and theophylline (prodrug hypothesis) revealed that fenetylline indeed displays its own stimulatory effect to the same extent and at a similar time course as amphetamine and theophylline. The 'fingerprint' as obtained by the analysis of the action of fenetylline in the rat resembles closely that obtained after the application of theophylline with respect to decreased alpha activity, but resembles amphetamine with respect to beta 1 activity. Thus the applied method allows studying structure function relationships as the action of fenetylline seems to reflect both its molecular moieties.

  2. 21-Aminosteroids prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induced by hypoxia and inflammation in conscious rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Galal, Ahmed; du Souich, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a 21-aminosteroid, U74389G, could prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) induced by acute moderate hypoxia or an inflammatory reaction.The rabbits of two groups (n=6 per group) were subjected to acute moderate hypoxia (PaO2≈35 mmHg), one pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 48 h). The rabbits of two other groups received 5 ml of turpentine s.c., one of them being pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 72 h). The kinetics of theophylline (2.5 mg kg−1) were assessed to evaluate the activity of the P450. Once the rabbits were sacrificed, the P450 content and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, were estimated in the liver.Compared with control rabbits, hypoxia and inflammation increased theophylline plasma concentrations, as a result of a decrease in theophylline systemic clearance (P<0.05). Both experimental conditions reduced hepatic content of P450 by 40–50% (P<0.05) and increased the amount of hepatic TBARS by around 50% (P<0.05). Pre-treatment with U74389G prevented the hypoxia- and inflammation-induced decrease in theophylline systemic clearance, the down-regulation of hepatic P450, and the increase in liver TBARS.It is concluded that in the rabbit, U74389G prevents hepatic P450 depression produced by acute moderate hypoxia and a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction, possibly by eliciting a radical quenching antioxidant activity. PMID:10510447

  3. Programmed Evolution for Optimization of Orthogonal Metabolic Output in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Eckdahl, Todd T.; Campbell, A. Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Blauch, David N.; Snyder, Nicole L.; Atchley, Dustin T.; Baker, Erich J.; Brown, Micah; Brunner, Elizabeth C.; Callen, Sean A.; Campbell, Jesse S.; Carr, Caleb J.; Carr, David R.; Chadinha, Spencer A.; Chester, Grace I.; Chester, Josh; Clarkson, Ben R.; Cochran, Kelly E.; Doherty, Shannon E.; Doyle, Catherine; Dwyer, Sarah; Edlin, Linnea M.; Evans, Rebecca A.; Fluharty, Taylor; Frederick, Janna; Galeota-Sprung, Jonah; Gammon, Betsy L.; Grieshaber, Brandon; Gronniger, Jessica; Gutteridge, Katelyn; Henningsen, Joel; Isom, Bradley; Itell, Hannah L.; Keffeler, Erica C.; Lantz, Andrew J.; Lim, Jonathan N.; McGuire, Erin P.; Moore, Alexander K.; Morton, Jerrad; Nakano, Meredith; Pearson, Sara A.; Perkins, Virginia; Parrish, Phoebe; Pierson, Claire E.; Polpityaarachchige, Sachith; Quaney, Michael J.; Slattery, Abagael; Smith, Kathryn E.; Spell, Jackson; Spencer, Morgan; Taye, Telavive; Trueblood, Kamay; Vrana, Caroline J.; Whitesides, E. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Current use of microbes for metabolic engineering suffers from loss of metabolic output due to natural selection. Rather than combat the evolution of bacterial populations, we chose to embrace what makes biological engineering unique among engineering fields – evolving materials. We harnessed bacteria to compute solutions to the biological problem of metabolic pathway optimization. Our approach is called Programmed Evolution to capture two concepts. First, a population of cells is programmed with DNA code to enable it to compute solutions to a chosen optimization problem. As analog computers, bacteria process known and unknown inputs and direct the output of their biochemical hardware. Second, the system employs the evolution of bacteria toward an optimal metabolic solution by imposing fitness defined by metabolic output. The current study is a proof-of-concept for Programmed Evolution applied to the optimization of a metabolic pathway for the conversion of caffeine to theophylline in E. coli. Introduced genotype variations included strength of the promoter and ribosome binding site, plasmid copy number, and chaperone proteins. We constructed 24 strains using all combinations of the genetic variables. We used a theophylline riboswitch and a tetracycline resistance gene to link theophylline production to fitness. After subjecting the mixed population to selection, we measured a change in the distribution of genotypes in the population and an increased conversion of caffeine to theophylline among the most fit strains, demonstrating Programmed Evolution. Programmed Evolution inverts the standard paradigm in metabolic engineering by harnessing evolution instead of fighting it. Our modular system enables researchers to program bacteria and use evolution to determine the combination of genetic control elements that optimizes catabolic or anabolic output and to maintain it in a population of cells. Programmed Evolution could be used for applications in energy

  4. Programmed evolution for optimization of orthogonal metabolic output in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Eckdahl, Todd T; Campbell, A Malcolm; Heyer, Laurie J; Poet, Jeffrey L; Blauch, David N; Snyder, Nicole L; Atchley, Dustin T; Baker, Erich J; Brown, Micah; Brunner, Elizabeth C; Callen, Sean A; Campbell, Jesse S; Carr, Caleb J; Carr, David R; Chadinha, Spencer A; Chester, Grace I; Chester, Josh; Clarkson, Ben R; Cochran, Kelly E; Doherty, Shannon E; Doyle, Catherine; Dwyer, Sarah; Edlin, Linnea M; Evans, Rebecca A; Fluharty, Taylor; Frederick, Janna; Galeota-Sprung, Jonah; Gammon, Betsy L; Grieshaber, Brandon; Gronniger, Jessica; Gutteridge, Katelyn; Henningsen, Joel; Isom, Bradley; Itell, Hannah L; Keffeler, Erica C; Lantz, Andrew J; Lim, Jonathan N; McGuire, Erin P; Moore, Alexander K; Morton, Jerrad; Nakano, Meredith; Pearson, Sara A; Perkins, Virginia; Parrish, Phoebe; Pierson, Claire E; Polpityaarachchige, Sachith; Quaney, Michael J; Slattery, Abagael; Smith, Kathryn E; Spell, Jackson; Spencer, Morgan; Taye, Telavive; Trueblood, Kamay; Vrana, Caroline J; Whitesides, E Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Current use of microbes for metabolic engineering suffers from loss of metabolic output due to natural selection. Rather than combat the evolution of bacterial populations, we chose to embrace what makes biological engineering unique among engineering fields - evolving materials. We harnessed bacteria to compute solutions to the biological problem of metabolic pathway optimization. Our approach is called Programmed Evolution to capture two concepts. First, a population of cells is programmed with DNA code to enable it to compute solutions to a chosen optimization problem. As analog computers, bacteria process known and unknown inputs and direct the output of their biochemical hardware. Second, the system employs the evolution of bacteria toward an optimal metabolic solution by imposing fitness defined by metabolic output. The current study is a proof-of-concept for Programmed Evolution applied to the optimization of a metabolic pathway for the conversion of caffeine to theophylline in E. coli. Introduced genotype variations included strength of the promoter and ribosome binding site, plasmid copy number, and chaperone proteins. We constructed 24 strains using all combinations of the genetic variables. We used a theophylline riboswitch and a tetracycline resistance gene to link theophylline production to fitness. After subjecting the mixed population to selection, we measured a change in the distribution of genotypes in the population and an increased conversion of caffeine to theophylline among the most fit strains, demonstrating Programmed Evolution. Programmed Evolution inverts the standard paradigm in metabolic engineering by harnessing evolution instead of fighting it. Our modular system enables researchers to program bacteria and use evolution to determine the combination of genetic control elements that optimizes catabolic or anabolic output and to maintain it in a population of cells. Programmed Evolution could be used for applications in energy

  5. Influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on drug release pattern of a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system using a 3(2) full factorial design.

    PubMed

    Swain, Kalpana; Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Mallick, Subrata; Chowdary, Korla Appana

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, controlled release gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of theophylline was developed employing response surface methodology. A 3(2) randomized full factorial design was developed to study the effect of formulation variables like various viscosity grades and contents of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their interactions on response variables. The floating lag time for all nine experimental trial batches were less than 2 min and floatation time of more than 12 h. Theophylline release from the polymeric matrix system followed non-Fickian anomalous transport. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both viscosity and content of HPMC had statistically significant influence on all dependent variables but the effect of these variables found to be nonlinear above certain threshold values.

  6. Efficacy and safety profile of xanthines in COPD: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Barnes, Peter J; Criner, Gerard J; Martinez, Fernando J; Papi, Alberto; Gabriella Matera, Maria

    2018-06-30

    Theophylline can still have a role in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its use remains controversial, mainly due to its narrow therapeutic window. Doxofylline, another xanthine, is an effective bronchodilator and displays a better safety profile than theophylline. Therefore, we performed a quantitative synthesis to compare the efficacy and safety profile of different xanthines in COPD.The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was the impact of xanthines on lung function. In addition, we assessed the risk of adverse events by normalising data on safety as a function of person-weeks. Data obtained from 998 COPD patients were selected from 14 studies and meta-analysed using a network approach.The combined surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) analysis of efficacy (change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and safety (risk of adverse events) showed that doxofylline was superior to aminophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety), bamiphylline (significantly better efficacy and comparable safety), and theophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety).Considering the overall efficacy/safety profile of the investigated agents, the results of this quantitative synthesis suggest that doxofylline seems to be the best xanthine for the treatment of COPD. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  7. Effects of Transdermal Tulobuterol in Pediatric Asthma Patients on Long-Term Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist Therapy: Results of a Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter Clinical Trial in Japanese Children Aged 4-12 Years.

    PubMed

    Katsunuma, Toshio; Fujisawa, Takao; Mizuho, Nagao; Akira, Akasawa; Nomura, Ichiro; Yamaoka, Akiko; Kondo, Hisashi; Masuda, Kei; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Terada, Akihiko; Ikeda, Masanori; Nishioka, Kenji; Adachi, Yuichi; Kurihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the efficacy or safety of a transdermal β2 agonist as add-on medicationto long-term leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) therapy in pediatric asthma patients. In this randomized, open-label, multicenter clinical trial, children aged 4-12 years on long-term LTRA therapy were treated with tulobuterol patches (1-2 mg daily) or oral sustained-release theophylline (usual dose, 4-5 mg_kg daily) for 4 weeks. LTRAs were continued throughout the trial. Outcomes included volume peak expiratory flow (% PEF), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), clinical symptoms and adverse events. Thirty-three and 31 patients were treated with tulobuterol patches and theophylline, respectively. % PEF measured in the morning and before bedtime was significantly higher at all times in the treatment period compared with baseline in the tulobuterol patch group (p < 0.001), and was significantly higher in the tulobuterol patch group compared with the theophylline group. FeNO was similar and unchanged from baseline in both groups. There were no drug-related adverse events in either group. These results suggest that short-term use of a transdermal β2 agonist is an effective therapy for pediatric asthma without inducing airway inflammation in children on long-term LTRA therapy. © 2013 Japanese Society of Allergology.

  8. Mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate nanoparticle agglomerates for the preparation of controlled release fine particles: The relationship between coating performance and the characteristics of various polymethacrylates.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keita; Kato, Shinsuke; Niwa, Toshiyuki

    2017-10-30

    We aimed to understand the factors controlling mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate. The relationship between coating performance and the characteristics of polymethacrylate powders was investigated. First, theophylline crystals were treated using a mechanical powder processor to obtain theophylline spheres (<100μm). Second, five polymethacrylate latexes were powdered by spray freeze drying to produce colloidal agglomerates. Finally, mechanical particle coating was performed by mixing theophylline spheres and polymethacrylate agglomerates using the processor. The agglomerates were broken under mechanical stress to coat the spheres effectively. The coating performance of polymethacrylate agglomerates tended to increase as their pulverization progressed. Differences in the grindability of the agglomerates were attributed to differences in particle structure, resulting from consolidation between colloidal particles. High-grindability agglomerates exhibited higher pulverization as their glass transition temperature (T g ) increased and the further pulverization promoted coating. We therefore conclude that the minimization of polymethacrylate powder by pulverization is an important factor in mechanical particle coating using polymethacrylate with low deformability. Meanwhile, when product temperature during coating approaches T g of polymer, polymethacrylate was soften to show high coating performance by plastic deformation. The effective coating by this mechanism may be accomplished by adjusting the temperature in the processor to the T g . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of poloxamers on the dissolution performance and stability of controlled-release formulations containing Precirol ATO 5.

    PubMed

    Jannin, V; Pochard, E; Chambin, O

    2006-02-17

    Lipid excipients are usually used for the development of sustained-release formulations. When used in relatively high quantities, Precirol ATO 5 imparts sustained-release properties to solid oral dosage forms, by forming a lipid matrix. To control or adjust the drug release kinetics from such lipid matrix however, one must often resort to complementary ingredients or techniques. This study investigates the influence of poloxamers (Lutrol) included in lipid matrices composed of glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol ATO 5) on their dissolution performance and their stability. The addition of these hydrophilic polymers in the lipid matrix increased the amount of theophylline released thanks to the swelling of the hydrophilic polymer and the creation of a porous network into the inert lipid matrix. The grade and the quantity of Lutrol could modulate the extent of drug release. Theophylline was released mainly by the matrix erosion but also by diffusion through the pores as suggested by the Peppas' model. Moreover, the addition of Lutrol enhanced the stability during storage. The theophylline release was quite steady after 6 months in different conditions (temperature and humidity). Thus, the mixture of glyceryl palmitostearate and poloxamers is an approach with many advantages for the development of controlled-release formulations by capsule molding.

  10. Accelerated dissolution testing for controlled release microspheres using the flow-through dissolution apparatus.

    PubMed

    Collier, Jarrod W; Thakare, Mohan; Garner, Solomon T; Israel, Bridg'ette; Ahmed, Hisham; Granade, Saundra; Strong, Deborah L; Price, James C; Capomacchia, A C

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline controlled release capsules (THEO-24 CR) were used as a model system to evaluate accelerated dissolution tests for process and quality control and formulation development of controlled release formulations. Dissolution test acceleration was provided by increasing temperature, pH, flow rate, or adding surfactant. Electron microscope studies on the theophylline microspheres subsequent to each experiment showed that at pH values of 6.6 and 7.6 the microspheres remained intact, but at pH 8.6 they showed deterioration. As temperature was increased from 37-57 degrees C, no change in microsphere integrity was noted. Increased flow rate also showed no detrimental effect on integrity. The effect of increased temperature was determined to be the statistically significant variable.

  11. Interactions of chlorphenesin and divalent metal ions with phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Edelson, J; McMullen, J P

    1976-09-01

    Chlorphenesin inhibition of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP by guinea-pig lung phosphodiesterase was reversed by the addition of exogenous magnesium ions. Chlorphenesin and theophylline inhibition of this enzyme was shown to be noncompetitive when the substrate concentration was low. Kinetic studies of the inhibition of beef heart phosphodiesterase by chlorphenesin and theophylline indicated that the substrate concentration was a factor in determining whether inhibition was competitive or noncompetitive. Calcium, cobalt and copper ions were inhibitory to guinea-pig lung phosphodiesterase. The inhibition due to chlorphenesin was partially reversed by low (40 mM or less) concentrations of barium ions; high concentrations of barium ions, or manganese ions, were inhibitory. The concentration of the divalent cation did not affect the type of inhibition that was observed.

  12. Drug-induced tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can cause tremor include the following: Cancer medicines such as thalidomide and cytarabine Seizure medicines such as valproic acid (Depakote) and sodium valproate (Depakene) Asthma medicines such as theophylline and ...

  13. Comparison of ionic and non-ionic drug release from multi-membrane spherical aerogels.

    PubMed

    Veronovski, Anja; Knez, Zeljko; Novak, Zoran

    2013-09-15

    The presented research was oriented towards the preparation of dry biodegradable alginate aerogels with multi-membranes using a multi-step sol-gel process with potential applications as carriers during oral drug delivery. First alginate spherical hydrogels were formed in CaCl2 or BaCl2 solutions by ionic cross-linking. These cores were further immersed into alginate sodium solution, filtered through a sieve, and dropped into the salt solution again. Multi-membrane hydrogels were obtained by repeating the above process. They were further converted into aerogels by supercritical drying. The effect of the number of membranes was investigated regarding the loading and release of the model drugs nicotinic acid and theophylline. Moreover, the efficiencies of Ba(2+) and Ca(2+) metal ions for forming tridimensional networks that retain and extend drug release were also investigated. Nicotinic acid release was prolonged by adding membranes around the core and using Ca(2+) for cross-linking. However, retarded theophylline release was only obtained by using Ba(2+) for cross-linking. Namely, by increasing the number of membranes and BaCl2 concentration drug release became linear versus time in all studied cases. In the case of nicotinic acid loading increased by adding membranes around the core, however, for theophylline the opposite results were obtained due to the different nature of the model drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological Characterization of Molten Polymer-Drug Dispersions as a Predictive Tool for Pharmaceutical Hot-Melt Extrusion Processability.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Jeroen; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the influence of drug solid-state (crystalline or dissolved in the polymer matrix) on the melt viscosity and (ii) the influence of the drug concentration, temperature and shear rate on polymer crystallization using rheological tests. Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) (100.000 g/mol) and physical mixtures (PM) containing 10-20-30-40% (w/w) ketoprofen or 10% (w/w) theophylline in PEO were rheologically characterized. Rheological tests were performed (frequency and temperature sweeps in oscillatory shear as well as shear-induced crystallization experiments) to obtain a thorough understanding of the flow behaviour and crystallization of PEO-drug dispersions. Theophylline did not dissolve in PEO as the complex viscosity (η*) of the drug-polymer mixture increased as compared to that of neat PEO. In contrast, ketoprofen dissolved in PEO and acted as a plasticizer, decreasing η*. Acting as a nucleating agent, theophylline induced the crystallization of PEO upon cooling from the melt. On the other hand, ketoprofen inhibited crystallization upon cooling. Moreover, higher concentrations of ketoprofen in the drug-polymer mixture increasingly inhibited polymer crystallization. However, shear-induced crystallization was observed for all tested mixtures containing ketoprofen. The obtained rheological results are relevant for understanding and predicting HME processability (e.g., barrel temperature selection) and downstream processing such as injection moulding (e.g., mold temperature selection).

  15. Evidence that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from isolated intestine.

    PubMed

    Vizi, E S; Somogyi, G T; Magyar, K

    1981-12-01

    1 The release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig ileal isolated longitudinal muscle strip with intact Auerbach's plexus was measured by bioassay and by a radioisotope technique. 2 Normorphine (5 x 10(-7)M) and D-Met2, Pro5-enkephalinamide (D-Met, Pro-EA) reduced the release of acetylcholine. Theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, failed to prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine or D-Met, Pro-EA. 3 Theophylline (1.7 x 10(-4)M) by itself enhanced the twitch responses to field stimulation (0.1 Hz) but did not prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine and D-Met, Pro-EA. 4 From the results it can be concluded that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from axon terminals of Auerbach's plexus.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Trigonelline, Caffeine, Chlorogenic Acid and Their Related Compounds in Instant Coffee Samples by HPLC Using an Acidic Mobile Phase Containing Octanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kana; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsumiuchi, Kaname; Kodama, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and their related compounds simultaneously, an HPLC method using an InertSustain C18 column and a mobile phase containing octanesulfonate as an ion-pairing reagent under an acidic condition was developed. The optimum mobile phase conditions were determined to be 0.1% phosphoric acid, 4 mM octanesulfonate, and 15% methanol at 35°C. Using the proposed method, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, caffeine, theophylline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid in ten instant coffee samples were analyzed. These analytes except for theophylline were detected in all samples. An increase in the caffeine content in instant coffee samples tended to decrease in both trigonelline and chlorogenic acid contents, and the trigonelline content was found to be correlated well with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = 0.887).

  17. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  18. Drug Interactions with Clinafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Randinitis, Edward J.; Alvey, Christine W.; Koup, Jeffery R.; Rausch, George; Abel, Robert; Bron, Nicola J.; Hounslow, Neil J.; Vassos, Artemios B.; Sedman, Allen J.

    2001-01-01

    Many fluoroquinolone antibiotics are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzyme systems and may produce potentially important drug interactions when administered with other drugs. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of clinafloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, caffeine, warfarin, and phenytoin, as well as the effect of phenytoin on the pharmacokinetics of clinafloxacin. Concomitant administration of 200 or 400 mg of clinafloxacin reduces mean theophylline clearance by approximately 50 and 70%, respectively, and reduces mean caffeine clearance by 84%. (R)-Warfarin concentrations in plasma during clinafloxacin administration are 32% higher and (S)-warfarin concentrations do not change during clinafloxacin treatment. An observed late pharmacodynamic effect was most likely due to gut flora changes. Phenytoin has no effect on clinafloxacin pharmacokinetics, while phenytoin clearance is 15% lower during clinafloxacin administration. PMID:11502527

  19. [Pharmacological action and clinical aspects of salmeterol].

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kojiro

    2003-09-01

    Previous systemic beta(2) agonists such as procatrol tablets and tulobuterol patch were developed in Japan to address nocturnal symptoms and maintenance of lung function in asthmatic patients. Salmeterol, a potent and highly selective in beta(2) adrenocepter agonist with a duration of action greater than 12 h, was developed to provide long duration of bronchodilation with binding to a non-active site in the beta(2)-adrenocepter. Salmeterol is administrated via dry power inhalation and clinical studies have showed it has a good efficacy and a good safety profile, similar to inhaled steroids. Indeed, many clinical studies showed that salmeterol demonstrated better efficacy than long-acting beta(2)-agonist oral bronchodilators, theophyllines, and leukotriene-receptor antagonists in asthmatic patients and anticholinergic agents and theophyllines in COPD patients. Salmeterol will provide clinical benefits for Japanese asthma and COPD patients.

  20. Ticlopidine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stroke and who cannot be treated with aspirin. Ticlopidine is also used along with aspirin to prevent blood clots from forming in coronary ... antacids, anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin, cimetidine (Tagamet), clopidogrel (Plavix), digoxin (Lanoxin), and theophylline ( ...

  1. [Therapeutic consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome--results of drug, mechanical and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Fietze, I; Warmuth, R; Quispe-Bravo, S; Waschke, K

    1993-12-01

    The therapeutical strategy of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome depends on the differential diagnosis of the sleep disorder, the subjective complaints and the patients' individual cardiopulmonary risk profile. Basic requirements for a successful treatment are stepped concepts for therapy. Initial therapeutical methods are preventive measures such as adequate sleep hygiene, weight loss, and reduction of alcoholic intake. We investigated the effectiveness of following therapeutical methods: drug treatment, nasal CPAP therapy and surgical approach. We present the results of the first 151 treated patients aged between 15 and 88 years (mean: 50.8 +/- 11.5 SD). 20 patients with an apnoea index below 20 per hour were treated with theophylline. After 4 weeks with theophylline there were no significant changes in apnoea index, O2 saturation and snoring level. 24 patients themselves preferred the Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). 8 weeks after surgical approach we couldn't find significant changes in the apnoea index although 11 of these patients reported on a better sleep quality. 107 patients were treated with nasal CPAP. The effective CPAP pressures were between 6 and 14.5 mbar. Long term compliance with CPAP was studied in a survey of 70 patients who underwent a CPAP trial. After 6 months 97% were complaint, 17% of them additionally were using a humidifier. Our data show that effective therapy can be achieved with nCPAP objectively and subjectively. Other methods--theophylline and UPPP--are less successful. CPAP is likely to remain the first choice for treatment of sleep related breathing disorders and it should be applied more generously.

  2. Antinociceptive effect of purine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Mello, C F; Begnini, J; De-La-Vega, D D; Lopes, F P; Schwartz, C C; Jimenez-Bernal, R E; Bellot, R G; Frussa-Filho, R

    1996-10-01

    The antinociceptive effect of purine nucleotides administered systematically (sc) was determined using the formalin and writhing tests in adult male albino mice. The mechanisms underlying nucleotide-induced antinociception were investigated by preinjecting the animals (sc) with specific antagonists for opioid (naloxone, 1 mg/kg), purinergic P1 (caffeine, 5, 10, of 30 mg/kg); theophylline, 10 mg/kg) or purinergic P2 receptors (suramin, 100 mg/kg; Coomassie blue, 30-300 mg/kg; quinidine, 10 mg/kg). Adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), diphosphate (ADP) and triphosphate (ATP) caused a reduction in the number of writhes and in the time of licking the formalin-injected paw. Naloxone had no effect on adenosine- or adenine nucleotide-induced antinociception. Caffeine (30 mg/kg) and theophylline (10 mg/kg) reversed the antinociceptive action of adenosine and adenine nucleotide derivatives in both tests. P2 antagonists did not reverse adenine nucleotide-induced antinociception. These results suggest that antinociceptive effect of adenine nucleotides is mediated by adenosine.

  3. Evidence for induction of cytochrome P-450I in patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, C; Sandle, L N; Mohan, V; Snehalatha, C; Viswanathan, M; Braganza, J M

    1990-06-01

    Theophylline kinetics, as an in vivo probe for the potentially toxic cytochrome P-450I pathway of drug metabolism, were studied in 11 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with calcific chronic pancreatitis at Madras, South India. Theophylline clearance was faster in the patients than controls [median 69 (range 39-114) vs 45 (33-56) ml h-1 kg-1, p = 0.003]. In keeping with this finding, detailed social histories identified a higher exposure level in the patients to xenobiotics that are inducers of cytochrome P-450I and/or yield reactive metabolites upon processing thereby (score 7, 4-11 vs 3, 2-9, p = 0.002). However, the concentration of D-glucaric acid in urine, as a marker of phase II conjugating pathways of drug metabolism, was similar in patients and controls. This pattern of drug metabolism could predispose to oxidant stress: hence micronutrient antioxidant supplements may have therapeutic (or even prophylactic) value in tropical chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Induction of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity of SK-N-SH cells by natural compounds from green tea.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Shereen; Melzig, Matthias F

    2006-04-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta-peptide as senile plaques in the brain is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, which is the most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia. Neutral endopeptidase is one of the major beta-amyloid-degrading enzymes in the brain. To examine the influence of different polyphenols and other natural products from green tea extract (from Camellia sinensis, Theaceae), we used the neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH and studied the changes in the specific cellular neutral endopeptidase activity after long-term treatment with these substances. We have shown that caffeine leads to an increase in specific cellular neutral endopeptidase activity more than theophylline, theobromine or theanine. We have also shown that the combination of epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechingallate with caffeine, theobromine or theophylline induced cellular neutral endopeptidase activity. It is suggested that the enhancement of cellular neutral endopeptidase activity by green tea extract and its natural products might be correlated with an elevated level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

  5. Value of in vivo electrophysiological measurements to evaluate canine small bowel autotransplants.

    PubMed Central

    Meijssen, M A; Heineman, E; de Bruin, R W; Veeze, H J; Bijman, J; de Jonge, H R; ten Kate, F J; Marquet, R L; Molenaar, J C

    1991-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a non-invasive method for in vivo measurement of the transepithelial potential difference in the canine small bowel and to evaluate this parameter in small bowel autotransplants. In group 0 (control group, n = 4), two intestinal loops were created without disturbing their vascular, neural, and lymphatic supplies. In group I (successful autotransplants, n = 11), two heterotopic small bowel loops were constructed. Long term functional sequelae of vascular, neural, and lymphatic division were studied. Group II (n = 6) consisted of dogs with unsuccessful autotransplants suffering thrombosis of the vascular anastomosis, which resulted in ischaemic small bowel autografts. In group I, values of spontaneous transepithelial potential difference, an index of base line active electrolyte transport, were significantly lower compared with group 0 (p less than 0.05), probably as a result of denervation of the autotransplants. Both theophylline and glucose stimulated potential difference responses, measuring cyclic adenosine monophosphate mediated chloride secretion and sodium coupled glucose absorption respectively, showed negative luminal values in group I at all time points after transplantation. These transepithelial potential difference responses diminished progressively with time. From day 21 onwards both theophylline and glucose stimulated potential difference responses were significantly less than the corresponding responses at day seven (p less than 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed that the reduction of transepithelial potential difference responses preceded degenerative mucosal changes in the heterotopic small bowel autografts. In group II, potential difference responses to theophylline and glucose showed positive luminal values (p<0.01 v group I), probably as a result of passive potassium effusion from necrotic enterocytes. Images Figure 3 PMID:1752464

  6. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  7. Determination of flumazenil in serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Application to kinetics study in acute diazepam overdose.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Snezana; Jović-Stosić, Jasmina; Kilibarda, Vesna; Segrt, Zoran; Perković-Vukcević, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    Flumazenil is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. It has been studied for a various indications, including reversal of sedation after surgery or diagnostic procedures, awakening of comatose patients in benzodiazepine overdose, or for symptomatic treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Some drugs, like theophylline, may prolong its elimination half-life. Considering the long half-life of diazepam and its metabolites, concomitant use of theophylline may reduce the need for repeated dosing of flumazenil in patients with acute diazepam poisoning. The aim of this study was to introduce a reliable and accurate method for determining the concentration of flumazenil after therapeutic application in patients with acute poisoning, and using that method to assess whether the kinetics of flumazenil change in the presence of aminophylline (combination of theophylline and ethylenediamine in a 2:1 ratio) applied as concomitant therapy. Blood samples from patients with acute diazepam poisoning that received flumazenil at the dose of 0.5 mg, or the same dose with 3 mg/kg of body weight of aminophylline, were collected 1, 3, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after its intravenous administration. Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges with ethylacetate as extracting agens. Flumazenil was determined by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in single ionmonitoring mode at m/z 304. Separation of flumazenil from matrix compound was performed on Lichrospher RP-8 column usingthe mixture of acidic acetonitrile and 20 mM of ammonium acetatein water (55 : 45) as a mobile phase. The applied analitycal method showed excellent recovery (94.65%). The obtained extracts were much cleaner than the extracts obtained by the sameextractant in the process of liquid-liquid extraction. The limit ofdetection of the LC-MS method described in this paper was 0.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantitation was 1 ng/mL. In the patientstreated with both flumazenil and aminophylline

  8. Using a Programmable Calculator to Teach Teophylline Pharmacokinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Richard Grant

    1981-01-01

    A calculator program for a Texas Instruments Model 59 to predict serum theophylline concentrations is described. The program accommodates the input of multiple dose times at irregular intervals, clearance changes due to concurrent patient diseases and age less than 17 years. The calculations for five hypothetical patients are given. (Author/MLW)

  9. Rapid assessment of bioactive phenolics and methylxanthines in spent coffee grounds by FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Luís M; Machado, Sandia; Segundo, Marcela A; Lopes, João A; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J

    2016-01-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are a great source of bioactive compounds with interest to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Phenolics and methylxanthines are the main health related compounds present in SCG samples. Content estimation of these compounds in SCGs is of upmost importance in what concerns their profitable use by waste recovery industries. In the present work, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was proposed as a rapid and non-destructive technique to assess the content of three main phenolics (caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and chlorogenic acid) and three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) in SCG samples obtained from different coffee brands and diverse coffee machines. The content of these compounds was determined for 61 SCG samples by HPLC coupled with diode-array detection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression based models were calibrated to correlate diffuse reflectance NIR spectra against the reference data for the six parameters obtained by HPLC. Spectral wavelength selection and number of latent variables were optimized by minimizing the cross-validation error. PLS models showed good linearity with a coefficient of determination for the prediction set (Rp(2)) of 0.95, 0.92, 0.88, 071 and 0.84 for caffeine, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline, respectively. The range error ratio (RER) was higher for caffeine (17.8) when compared to other compounds (12.0, 10.1, 7.6 and 9.2, respectively for caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline). Moreover, the content of caffeine could be used to predict the antioxidant properties of SCG samples (R=0.808, n=61), despite not presenting this property itself. The results obtained confirmed that NIRS is a suitable technique to screen SCG samples unveiling those with high content of bioactive compounds, which are interesting for subsequent extraction procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel chronotherapeutic rectal aminophylline delivery system for therapy of asthma.

    PubMed

    Shiohira, Hideo; Fujii, Makiko; Koizumi, Naoya; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2009-09-08

    The aim of this study was to develop a new chronotherapeutic pharmaceutical preparation as a sustained-release suppository for prevention and therapeutic use against bronchial asthma in the early morning. Sustained-release hollow-type (SR-HT) suppositories using sodium alginate (Alg-Na), sodium polyacrylate (PANa) or polyacrylate-PANa co-polymer (PA-PANa) as gelling polymers (gel agent) were prepared and pharmaceutical characteristics of these suppositories were investigated. Type A SR-HT suppositories comprised a suppository shell prepared with oleaginous base and containing aminophylline only or aminophylline with Alg-Na or PANa in the cavity (hollow space). Type B SR-HT suppositories comprised a suppository shell prepared with oleaginous base and gel agent (30%), with aminophylline in the hollow space. In drug-release studies, the acrylate polymer-containing suppositories showed linearity of delayed release rate, providing significantly decreased the highest concentration of theophylline in plasma (C(max)) and delayed the time required to reach C(max) (t(max)) and the mean residence time (MRT) after rectal administrated in rabbits. In particular, suppositories containing PA-PANa maintained significantly higher theophylline concentrations than control suppositories at 12h after rectal administration. Furthermore, histopathological examination indicated that these suppositories using acrylate polymers did not result in rectal lesions. The SR-HT suppository, particularly using PA-PANa as a gel agent, may thus be useful against nocturnal symptoms of asthma. In this study, we confirmed new formulation of sustained-release suppository for chronotherapy of theophylline using oily base material in combination with polymer such as PA-PANa. The hollow-type suppository containing oleaginous base and hydrophilic polymer in the shell could be useful device for rectal administration of various drugs with prolongation of plasma concentration.

  11. Research review. Interactions between environmental chemicals and drug biotransformation in man.

    PubMed

    Alvares, A P

    1978-01-01

    Many factors influence the metabolism of drugs in man. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors may play a significant role in explaining the variation observed in the rates of drug metabolism between different individuals. Intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals could enhance or inhibit the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases that metabolise drugs and other foreign chemicals, as well as endogenous substrates such as steroid hormones. A major source of such exposure may be occupational. Exposure to the heavy metal, lead, has been shown to inhibit drug metabolism; whereas intensive exposure to chlorinated insecticides, and other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls, has been shown to enhance the metabolism of test drugs such as antipyrine and phenylbutazone. An intentional source of exposure to foreign chemicals is cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains polycyclic hydrocarbons, which are known inducers of hepatic mixed function oxidases. A number of studies have shown that cigarette smoking can alter the pharmacological action and/or the metabolism of some drugs. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that cigarette smoking decreases the bioavailability of phenacetin and increases dosage requirements of theophylline by enhancing their rate of metabolism. Data, which are not very conclusive, indicate that heavy marijuana use may have an inhibitory effect on metabolism of some drugs and an inducing effect on others such as theophylline. Dietary factors may also play a significant role in the regulation of drug metabolism. Charcoal broiling which introduces polycyclic hydrocarbons into foods has been shown to enhance the metabolism of the test drug, antipyrine, and of such commonly used drugs as phenacetin and theophylline. Such intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals which may alter the rates of drug metabolism in man indicates the importance of individualisation of drug therapy.

  12. Use of proteins to minimize the physical aging of EUDRAGIT sustained release films.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Shawn A; McGinity, James W; Zheng, Weijia; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, A Waseem; Infeld, Martin H

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two proteins, albumin and type B gelatin, on the physical aging of EUDRAGIT RS 30 D and RL 30 D coated theophylline pellets. The physicomechanical properties of sprayed films, thermal properties of cast films, influence of proteins on the zeta potential and particle size of the dispersion, and the release of proteins from cast films under simulated dissolution conditions were investigated. The release rate of theophylline decreased significantly over time from pellets coated with an acrylic dispersion containing 10% albumin when there was no acidification of the acrylic dispersion; however, when pellets were coated with an acidified EUDRAGIT/albumin dispersion, the theophylline release rate was stable for dosage forms stored in the absence of humidity. The drug release rate was faster for pellets coated with acrylic dispersions containing 10% gelatin compared to the albumin-containing formulations. When sprayed films were stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH, the water vapor permeability decreased significantly for both EUDRAGIT films and those containing EUDRAGIT and albumin; however, there was no significant change in this parameter when 10% gelatin was present. Albumin was released from the acrylic films when the pH of the dissolution media was below the isoelectric point of the protein while no quantitative release of gelatin was observed in pH 1.2 or 7.4 media. The effect of gelatin to prevent the decrease in drug release rate was due to stabilization in water vapor permeability of the film. Acidification of the polymeric dispersion resulted in electrostatic repulsive forces between albumin and the acrylic polymer, which stabilized the drug release rate when the dosage forms were stored in aluminum induction sealed containers at both 40 degrees C/75% RH and 25 degrees C/60% RH.

  13. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum's (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of acetaminophen was examined. Applying the exponential equation, the soluble drugs mechanism of release was found to be anomalous. The insoluble drugs showed a near case II or zero order release mechanism. The rate of release in descending order was caffeine, acetaminophen, theophylline, salicylic acid and indomethacin. An increase in the release kinetics of the drug was observed on blending with diluents. However, the rate of release varied with the type and amount of blend within the matrix. The mechanism of release due to effect of diluents was found to be anomalous. The rate of drug release decreased upon partial cross-linking and the mechanism of release was found to be of super case II.

  14. Intelligent Therapeutics and Metabolic Programming Through Tailormade, Ligand-Controlled RNA Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-05

    lines. Three regulatory mechanisms have been examined in our laboratory: antisense inhibition, ribozyme cleavage, and RNA interference (RNAi...cell lines. However, the latter two regulatory mechanisms, ribozyme -based inactivation and RNAi-mediated silencing, demonstrated significant activity...in these cell lines as is briefly described below. Microswitches responsive to the small molecule theophylline and targeting GFP based on a ribozyme

  15. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Ehlers, Henrik; Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Naelapää, Kaisa; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Continuous manufacturing gains more and more interest within the pharmaceutical industry. The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) states in its Q8 'Pharmaceutical Development' guideline that the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals should have an enhanced knowledge of the product performance over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of HRAM screening and LC-MS/MS confirmation of active pharmaceutical ingredient in "natural" herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    The growing market of herbal remedies worldwide could pose severe problems to consumers' health due to the possible presence of potentially harmful, undeclared synthetic substances or analogues of prescription drugs. The present work shows a simple but effective approach to unequivocally identify synthetic anorectic compounds in allegedly 'natural' herbal extracts, by exploiting liquid chromatography/time of flight (Q-TOF LC/MS) technology coupled to liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole (LC-MS/MS) confirmation and quantitation. The procedure was applied to five tea herbal extracts and pills sold as coadjutant for weigh loss. The method exploited liquid-liquid sample extraction (LLE) and separation in a C18 (2.1mm×150mm, 1.8μm) column. QTOF acquisitions were carried out both in scan mode and all ion MS/MS mode and results were obtained after search against ad hoc prepared library. Sibutramine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine, caffeine and theophylline were preliminary identified samples. Confirmation and quantitation of the preliminary identified compounds were obtained in LC-MS/MS after preparation of appropriated standards. Sibutramine, caffeine and theophylline were finally confirmed and quantitate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Effect of Dexamethasone on Adenosine 3′,5′ -Monophosphate Content and Adenosine 3′,5′ -Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase Activity of Cultured Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manganiello, Vincent; Vaughan, Martha

    1972-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase activity in cultured HTC hepatoma cells was investigated. Homogenates of these cells contain phosphodiesterase activity with two apparent Michaelis constants for cAMP (2-5 μm and 50 μm). At all substrate concentrations tested, phosphodiesterase activity was decreased 25-40% in cells incubated for 36 hr or more with 1 μm dexamethasone. Acid phosphatase activity in the same cells was not decreased. α-Methyl testosterone, 1 μm, was without effect on phosphodiesterase activity. Incubation for 10 min with epinephrine plus theophylline increased the cAMP content of the HTC cells 3- to 6-fold. In cells incubated for 72 hr with dexamethasone, the basal concentration of cAMP was slightly increased and the increment produced by epinephrine plus theophylline was markedly increased. We believe that in many cells the so-called permissive effects of steroid hormones on cAMP mediated processes may be due to an effect of these hormones on cAMP phosphodiesterase activity similar to that observed in HTC cells incubated with dexamethasone. PMID:4341439

  18. Metabolic fate of fenetylline in rat and man.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Yoshimitsu, T; Yamada, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K

    1988-08-01

    1. Metabolic fate of 7-[2-(alpha-methylphenylethylamino)ethyl]theophylline hydrochloride (fenetylline) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats and three male volunteers. 2. Six metabolites were identified in the rat urine as amphetamine(AP), p-hydroxy-AP, acetylaminoethyl-theophylline(TP), aminoethyl-TP, hydroxyethyl-TP and carboxymethyl-TP by comparison of their spectral properties and h.p.l.c. and g.l.c. characteristics with those of authentic samples. All these metabolites was also detected in the urine of humans receiving fenetylline. 3. Quantification of these metabolites using h.p.l.c. and g.l.c. showed that carboxymethyl-TP, p-hydroxy-AP and acetylaminoethyl-TP were the major metabolites in 0-24 h rat urine at 13.7%, 11.2% and 9.3% of dose, respectively. In men, carboxymethyl-TP(39-43% dose) and AP(23-33% dose) were the major metabolites in 0-48 h urine. 4. These results suggest that fenetylline metabolism proceeds via oxidative cleavage at two different sites to produce aminoethyl-TP and AP, respectively. The pathway producing AP predominates, in both man and rat, but is more predominant in the former.

  19. Engineering a microbial platform for de novo biosynthesis of diverse methylxanthines

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Maureen; Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Cravens, Aaron; Win, Maung Nyan; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Engineered microbial biosynthesis of plant natural products can support manufacturing of complex bioactive molecules and enable discovery of non-naturally occurring derivatives. Purine alkaloids, including caffeine (coffee), theophylline (antiasthma drug), theobromine (chocolate), and other methylxanthines, play a significant role in pharmacology and food chemistry. Here, we engineered the eukaryotic microbial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the de novo biosynthesis of methylxanthines. We constructed a xanthine-to-xanthosine conversion pathway in native yeast central metabolism to increase endogenous purine flux for the production of 7-methylxanthine, a key intermediate in caffeine biosynthesis. Yeast strains were further engineered to produce caffeine through expression of several enzymes from the coffee plant. By expressing combinations of different N-methyltransferases, we were able to demonstrate re-direction of flux to an alternate pathway and develop strains that support the production of diverse methylxanthines. We achieved production of 270 μg/L, 61 μg/L, and 3700 μg/L of caffeine, theophylline, and 3-methylxanthine, respectively, in 0.3-L bench-scale batch fermentations. The constructed strains provide an early platform for de novo production of methylxanthines and with further development will advance the discovery and synthesis of xanthine derivatives. PMID:27519552

  20. [Direct determination of purine bases in tea by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ding, M; Yang, H; Xiao, S; Chen, P

    1999-09-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic(RP-HPLC) method for the direct determination of three purine bases(theobromin, theophyllin and caffeine) in tea was developed. An ODS column with Zorbax SB-C18(4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm, 5 microns) was employed. The aqueous solution of methanol containing 0.05% of acetic acid and 0.25% of N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) was used as eluent with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. In this method, the aqueous extract of tea can be injected into HPLC directly, but in current HPLC methods for purine bases the coexisted tea polyphenols must be pre-separated. The three purine bases in tea were separated without any interference from the coexisted tea polyphenols. This method is simple (without any special sample pretreatment) and sensitive with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.8 mg/L for theobromin, theophyllin and caffeine respectively. The linear range of the calibration curve of peak area for the three purine bases were from 6 mg/L to 1,000 mg/L with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.998-0.999.

  1. EELS from organic crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydson, R.; Eddleston, M. D.; Jones, W.; Seabourne, C. R.; Hondow, N.

    2014-06-01

    We report the use of the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for providing light element chemical composition information from organic, crystalline pharmaceutical materials including theophylline and paracetamol and discuss how this type of data can complement transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron diffraction when investigating polymorphism. We also discuss the potential for the extraction of bonding information using electron loss near-edge structure (ELNES).

  2. Associations of Urinary Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites With Arterial Stiffness in a Large Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Staessen, Jan A; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2018-05-01

    To assess the influence of caffeine on arterial stiffness by exploring the association of urinary excretion of caffeine and its related metabolites with pulse pressure (PP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Families were randomly selected from the general population of 3 Swiss cities from November 25, 2009, through April 4, 2013. Pulse pressure was defined as the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures obtained by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Carotid-femoral PWV was determined by applanation tonometry. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24-hour urine collections. Multivariate linear and logistic mixed models were used to explore the associations of quartiles of urinary caffeine and metabolite excretions with PP, high PP, and PWV. We included 863 participants with a mean ± SD age of 47.1±17.6 years, 24-hour PP of 41.9±9.2 mm Hg, and PWV of 8.0±2.3 m/s. Mean (SE) brachial PP decreased from 43.5 (0.5) to 40.5 (0.6) mm Hg from the lowest to the highest quartiles of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of high PP decreased linearly from 1.0 to 0.52 (0.31-0.89), 0.38 (0.22-0.65), and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) from the lowest to the highest quartile of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). Mean (SE) PWV in the highest caffeine excretion quartile was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile (7.8 [0.1] vs 8.1 [0.1] m/s; P=.03). Similar associations were found for paraxanthine and theophylline, whereas no associations were found with theobromine. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline excretions were associated with decreased parameters of arterial stiffness, suggesting a protective effect of caffeine intake beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measures used to treat contrast-induced nephropathy: overview of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, C S; Pang, C L; Yeong, J K; Loke, Y K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite many interventions that have been tried, controversy remains regarding the efficacy of interventions for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), so we aimed to evaluate the best evidence from recent meta-analyses. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for interventions which have been used for CIN. We included only the most recent meta-analysis of each intervention. We extracted data on the methodology, quality and results of each meta-analysis. We performed narrative synthesis and adjusted indirect comparison of interventions that were shown to be statistically significant compared with a placebo. Results We included 7 systematic reviews and meta-analyses involving 9 different interventions for CIN, with a total of 15 976 participants. A significantly decreased risk of CIN was reported in meta-analysis of the following interventions: N-acetylcysteine [odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48–0.88, I2=64%], theophylline [relative risk (RR) 0.48, 95% CI 0.26–0.89, I2=44%], statins (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34–0.77, I2=0%) and sodium bicarbonate (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45–0.86, I2=49%). Furosemide was shown to increase the risk of CIN (RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.48–7.26, I2=0%). Other interventions such as renal replacement therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, dopamine and fenoldapam failed to show any significant difference from the control group. Conclusion Although there is some evidence to suggest that N-acetylcysteine, theophylline, sodium bicarbonate and statins may reduce incidence of CIN, limitations in the study quality and heterogeneity preclude any firm recommendations. Advances in knowledge N-acetylcysteine, theophylline, sodium bicarbonate and statins show some promise as potentially efficacious agents for preventing CIN, but more high-quality studies are needed before they can be recommended for use in routine practice. PMID:23239696

  4. Molecular imprinting of caffeine on cellulose/silica composite and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Rajinder Singh

    This dissertation presents a study to prepare molecularly imprinted inorganic/organic hybrid composite which not only confirm the higher binding capabilities for the target molecule (template) but also discriminate its structural analogs. Molecularly imprinted Cellulose/Silica composite (MIP) was prepared by using caffeine as the template. Silica derived from TEOS by using sol-gel techniques was deposited on cheap, abundant organic matrix such as cellulose, which can provide a filtering medium while coffee brewing. Removal of the template from the precursor was verified by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Remarkably reduced intensity of -NH2 scissor like mode of caffeine and the presence of traces of "N" by elemental analysis, confirmed the complete removal of caffeine on washing with ethanol. Cellulose to TEOS mass ratio of 2:1 was found to be close to optimal during our analysis. Energy dispersive spectroscopy results leads to an important fact that the deposition of silica was stable even at 373 K. Focus was on the adsorption affinities of caffeine by MIP and was tested by performing relative adsorption of caffeine by MIP and blank (standard) using demountable path length cell in IR. It was observed that MIP showed almost 3-folds higher adsorption capabilities as compared to blank. The initial rate of adsorption of caffeine by MIP is much higher than blank which is one of the desirable feature according the its intended use. The higher adsorption of caffeine by MIP not only depends on the amount of silica deposited but also the available binding sites present on its surface. Selectivity of MIP was also verified by the competitive adsorption of caffeine and its structure analogs such as theophylline. Clearly, MIP showed greater and more rapid binding capabilities for caffeine than theophylline. At short contact times, the binding capability for caffeine is almost 1.8 times greater than the binding capabilities for theophylline.

  5. Methylxanthines do not affect rhythmogenic preBötC inspiratory network activity but impair bursting of preBötC-driven motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Panaitescu, B; Kuribayashi, J; Ruangkittisakul, A; Leung, V; Iizuka, M; Ballanyi, K

    2013-01-01

    Clinical stimulation of preterm infant breathing with methylxanthines like caffeine and theophylline can evoke seizures. It is unknown whether underlying neuronal hyperexcitability involves the rhythmogenic inspiratory active pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) in the brainstem or preBötC-driven motor networks. Inspiratory-related preBötC interneuronal plus spinal (cervical/phrenic) or cranial hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal bursting was studied in newborn rat en bloc brainstem-spinal cords and brainstem slices, respectively. Non-respiratory bursting perturbed inspiratory cervical nerve activity in en bloc models at >0.25mM theophylline or caffeine. Rhythm in the exposed preBötC of transected en bloc preparations was less perturbed by 10mM theophylline than cervical root bursting which was more affected than phrenic nerve activity. In the preBötC of slices, even 10mM methylxanthine did not evoke seizure-like bursting whereas >1mM masked XII rhythm via large amplitude 1-10Hz oscillations. Blocking A-type γ-aminobutyric (GABAA) receptors evoked seizure-like cervical activity whereas in slices neither XII nor preBötC rhythm was disrupted. Methylxanthines (2.5-10mM), but not blockade of adenosine receptors, phosphodiesterase-4 or the sarcoplasmatic/endoplasmatic reticulum ATPase countered inspiratory depression by muscimol-evoked GABAA receptor activation that was associated with a hyperpolarization and input resistance decrease silencing preBötC neurons in slices. The latter blockers did neither affect preBötC or cranial/spinal motor network bursting nor evoke seizure-like activity or mask corresponding methylxanthine-evoked discharges. Our findings show that methylxanthine-evoked hyperexcitability originates from motor networks, leaving preBötC activity largely unaffected, and suggest that GABAA receptors contribute to methylxanthine-evoked seizure-like perturbation of spinal motoneurons whereas non-respiratory XII motoneuron oscillations are of different

  6. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J.; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M.; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S.; Bell, Steven E. J.; McCoy, Colin P.; McCarthy, Helen O.; McElnay, James C.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  7. Pharmacokinetics of vephylline--a new N-substituted theophylline derivative.

    PubMed

    Staneva, D; Mihailova, D; Astroug, H; Prodanova, K; Micheva, M

    1988-01-01

    Vephylline (7,2-bis-2-hydroxyethylamino-1, 3-dimethylxanthine tartarate) is a xanthine derivative with high bronchodilating activity, low toxicity, and weak effects on the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of vephylline after intravenous and oral (in solution and in tablets) administration to rabbits. Vephylline (dose 50 mg/kg b.w. intravenousely and orally in solution and dose 53.5 mg/kg b.w. in the form of tablets) is administered to the rabbits in an autocontrol crossover design at 7-days intervals. After the intravenous administration the distribution is relatively fast (t1/2 alpha = 3.28h). High values of the apparent volume of distribution--12.15 1/kg suggest tissue accumulation. Elimination is considerably slower (t1/2 beta = 19,00 h) than distribution. After oral administration of the drug in solution the absorption half-life is short and the bioavailability is relatively high. Peak plasma levels are attained at the first hour. The differences in the distribution and elimination patterns for vephylline and theophyline could determine a longer effect for the new bronchodilating drug. The results are discussed in regard to the future clinical application of vephylline.

  8. Medicinal flowers. XXXVI.1) Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins with inhibitory effects on melanogenesis from the flower buds of Chinese Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakashima, Souichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Miura, Tomoko; Uno, Kaoru; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Four acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, sanchakasaponins E-H, were isolated from the flower buds of Camellia japonica cultivated in Yunnan province, China, together with four known triterpene oligoglycosides. The chemical structures of the new triterpene oligoglycosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the triterpene oligoglycoside constituents on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were investigated.

  9. Investigation into the role of phosphodiesterase IV in bronchorelaxation, including studies with human bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, J.; Bou, J.; Beleta, J.; Cardelús, I.; Llenas, J.; Morcillo, E.; Gristwood, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV) in the relaxation of human bronchus and guinea-pig trachea in vitro and in guinea-pigs in vivo. 2. Functional studies showed that the selective PDE IV inhibitors, rolipram and denbufylline, relaxed human and guinea-pig preparations in vitro. 3. Two clinically used xanthine non-selective PDE inhibitors, theophylline and pentoxifylline, were also effective in these preparations, but were much less potent than the selective agents used. 4. The rank order of potency for the four PDE inhibitors in both species was similar. 5. Biochemical studies indicated that PDE IV was the major PDE isoform present in the human bronchial tissue. PDEs I, II and V were also identified. 6. Theophylline and pentoxifylline were, as expected, non-selective inhibitors of the human enzymes, but there was a good correlation between PDE IV inhibitory and bronchorelaxation potencies, suggesting that PDE IV inhibition is important for the clinical bronchodilator activities of the two xanthine compounds. 7. We have confirmed the ability of selective PDE IV inhibitors to cause bronchodilatation in guinea-pigs in vivo. 8. We conclude that our study has provided further evidence that selective PDE IV inhibitors could act as bronchodilators in the clinic. PMID:8383567

  10. The evaluation of physical properties of injection molded systems based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).

    PubMed

    Pajander, Jari; Rensonnet, Alexia; Hietala, Sami; Rantanen, Jukka; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2017-02-25

    The effect of product design parameters on the formation and properties of an injection molded solid dosage form consisting of poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) and two different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was studied. The product design parameters explored were melting temperature and the duration of melting, API loading degree and the molecular weight (M w ) of PEO. The solid form composition of the model APIs, theophylline and carbamazepine, was of specific interest, and its possible impact on the in vitro drug release behavior. M w of PEO had the greatest impact on the release rate of both APIs. High M w resulted in slower API release rate. Process temperature had two-fold effect with PEO 300,000g/mol. Firstly, higher process temperature transformed the crystalline part of the polymer into metastable folded form (more folded crystalline regions) and less into the more stable extended form (more extended crystalline regions), which lead to enhanced theophylline release rate. Secondly, the higher process temperature seemed to induce carbamazepine polymorphic transformation from p-monoclinic form III (carbamazepine (M)) into trigonal form II (carbamazepine (T)). The results indicated that the actual content of carbamazepine (T) affected drug release behavior more than the magnitude of transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The in vivo effects of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease on some renal and hepatic function and CYP450 metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Al Za'abi, M; Shalaby, A; Manoj, P; Ali, B H

    2017-05-04

    Adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widely used model especially in studies testing novel nephroprotective agents. We investigated the effects of adenine-induced CKD in rats on the activities of some xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in liver and kidneys, and on some in vivo indicators of drug metabolism (viz pentobarbitone sleeping time, and plasma concentration of theophylline 90 min post administration). CKD was induced by orally feeding adenine (0.25 % w/w) for 35 days. Adenine induced all the characteristics of CKD, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological findings. Glutathione concentration and activities of some enzymes involved in its metabolism were reduced in kidneys and livers of rats with CKD. Renal CYP450 1A1 activity was significantly inhibited by adenine, but other measured isoenzymes (1A2, 3A4 and 2E1) were not significantly affected. Adenine significantly prolonged pentobarbitone-sleeping time and increased plasma theophylline concentration 90 min post administration. Adenine also induced a moderate degree of hepatic damages as indicated histologically and by significant elevations in some plasma enzymes. The results suggest that adenine-induced CKD is associated with significant in vivo inhibitory activities on some drug-metabolizing enzymes, with most of the effect on the kidneys rather than the liver.

  12. Fabrication and application of coaxial polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofiber membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ting-Yun; Jhang, Cuei-Fang; Lin, Che-Min; Hsien, Tzu-Yang; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen

    2017-12-01

    It is difficult to fabricate chitosan-wrapped coaxial nanofibers, because highly viscous chitosan solutions might hinder the manufacturing process. To overcome this difficulty, our newly developed method, which included the addition of a small amount of gum arabic, was utilized to prepare much less viscous chitosan solutions. In this way, coaxial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan (as core/shell) nanofiber membranes were fabricated successfully by coaxial electrospinning. The core/shell structures were confirmed by TEM, and the existence of PVA and chitosan was also verified using FT-IR and TGA. The tensile strength of the nanofiber membranes was increased from 0.6-0.7 MPa to 0.8-0.9 MPa after being crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. The application potential of the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membranes was tested in drug release experiments by loading the core (PVA) with theophylline as a model drug. The use of the coaxial PVA/chitosan nanofiber membranes in drug release extended the release time of theophylline from 5 minutes to 24 hours. Further, the release mechanisms could be described by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. In summary, by combining the advantages of PVA and chitosan (good mechanical strength and good biocompatibility respectively), the coaxial PVA/chitosan nanofiber membranes are potential biomaterials for various biomedical applications.

  13. A Novel Multilayered Multidisk Oral Tablet for Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zaheeda; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    A Multilayered Multidisk Tablet (MLMDT) comprising two drug-loaded disks enveloped by three drug-free barrier layers was developed for use in chronotherapeutic disorders, employing two model drugs, theophylline and diltiazem HCl. The MLMDT was designed to achieve two pulses of drug release separated by a lag phase. The polymer disk comprised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC) granulated using an aqueous dispersion of EC. The polymeric barrier layers constituted a combination of pectin/Avicel (PBL) (1st barrier layer) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) (HBL1 and HBL2) as the 2nd and 3rd barrier layers, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into the diltiazem-containing formulation for delayed drug release. Erosion and swelling studies confirmed the manner in which the drug was released with theophylline formulations exhibiting a maximum swelling of 97% and diltiazem containing formulations with a maximum swelling of 119%. FTIR spectra displayed no interactions between drugs and polymers. Molecular mechanics simulations were undertaken to predict the possible orientation of the polymer morphologies most likely affecting the MLMDT performance. The MLMDT provided two pulses of drug release, separated by a lag phase, and additionally it displayed desirable friability, hardness, and uniformity of mass indicating a stable formulation that may be a desirable candidate for chronotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24024200

  14. Low- and high-frequency Raman investigations on caffeine: polymorphism, disorder and phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Hédoux, Alain; Decroix, Anne-Amandine; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Derollez, Patrick; Descamps, Marc

    2011-05-19

    Raman investigations are carried out both in crystalline forms of caffeine and during the isothermal transformation of the orientationally disordered form I into the stable form II at 363 K. The time dependence of the Raman spectrum exhibits no significant change in the intramolecular regime (above 100 cm(-1)), resembling the spectrum of the liquid state. By contrast, significant changes are observed below 100 cm(-1), and the low-frequency spectra of forms I and II are observed to be different from that of the liquid. The temperature dependence of the 5-600 cm(-1) spectrum gives information on the static disorder through the analysis of collective motions, while information on dynamic disorder are obtained from the study of the 555 cm(-1) band corresponding to internal vibrations in the pyrimidine ring. This analysis indubitably reveals that form II is also orientationally disordered with a local molecular arrangement that mimics that in form I and the liquid state. The comparison of the low-frequency spectra recorded in theophylline and form II of caffeine allows one to describe the stable form of caffeine from the packing arrangement of anhydrous theophylline with the consideration of reorientational molecular disorder. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Effects and detection of raw material variability on the performance of near-infrared calibration models for pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Igne, Benoit; Shi, Zhenqi; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of raw material variability on the prediction ability of a near-infrared calibration model was studied. Calibrations, developed from a quaternary mixture design comprising theophylline anhydrous, lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, and soluble starch, were challenged by intentional variation of raw material properties. A design with two theophylline physical forms, three lactose particle sizes, and two starch manufacturers was created to test model robustness. Further challenges to the models were accomplished through environmental conditions. Along with full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS) modeling, variable selection by dynamic backward PLS and genetic algorithms was utilized in an effort to mitigate the effects of raw material variability. In addition to evaluating models based on their prediction statistics, prediction residuals were analyzed by analyses of variance and model diagnostics (Hotelling's T(2) and Q residuals). Full-spectrum models were significantly affected by lactose particle size. Models developed by selecting variables gave lower prediction errors and proved to be a good approach to limit the effect of changing raw material characteristics. Hotelling's T(2) and Q residuals provided valuable information that was not detectable when studying only prediction trends. Diagnostic statistics were demonstrated to be critical in the appropriate interpretation of the prediction of quality parameters. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Methylxanthine reversal of opioid-evoked inspiratory depression via phosphodiesterase-4 blockade.

    PubMed

    Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Ballanyi, Klaus

    2010-07-31

    Hypothetic mechanisms for respirogenic methylxanthine actions include blockade of adenosine receptors or phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in inspiratory pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) networks. Here, we studied this by analyzing stimulating caffeine and theophylline actions on mu-opioid-depressed inspiratory-related rhythm in the ventrolateral aspect of rat brainstem slices. The methylxanthines restored DAMGO (0.5-1 microM) depressed rhythm only at >1mM, which is approximately 10-fold higher than selective for adenosine receptors. Adenosine receptor blockers did neither counter DAMGO inhibition nor change control rhythm, similar to adenosine (0.1-2.5 mM). The specific PDE4 blocker rolipram (5 microM) restored DAMGO-depressed rhythm incompletely, but effectively reversed similar inhibition by clinical mu-agonist (fentanyl, 0.1 microM). At 0.25 microM, rolipram boosted incomplete recovery by 1 mM theophylline of DAMGO-depressed rhythm. Findings indicate that methylxanthines excite rhythmogenic preBötC networks via blockade of cAMP dependent PDE4 and suggest that specific PDE4 inhibitors (plus low methylxanthine doses) stimulate breathing effectively. We discuss why methylxanthine doses for preBötC stimulation need to be higher than those for respirogenic effects in vivo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a new approach to oral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Graeme P; Butler, Claire A; Anderson, Wendy J; Skinner, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease represents a major global health care burden for both primary and secondary care providers and is the most common respiratory condition necessitating hospital admission. Short-acting bronchodilators play a vital role in immediate relief of symptoms, while inhaled long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids are advocated for regular use in individuals with persistent symptoms and exacerbations. Theophylline is a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is usually reserved for patients with ongoing symptoms despite optimum inhaled bronchodilator treatment or when difficulty is encountered with inhaler devices. However, it is often not widely used mainly due to frequency of dose-related adverse effects, numerous drug interactions and narrow therapeutic index. This in turn has lead to the development of more selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors in an attempt to create a drug which patients can use with beneficial effects but without the problems associated with theophylline. Current data do indicate that phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors confer some benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease when compared to placebo in terms of lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. They are also generally well tolerated. Further studies are required to determine fully their long-term beneficial and adverse effect profiles and ultimately where they might comfortably sit in management algorithms. PMID:18341675

  18. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1984,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Testicular Axis in Severely Ill Men. J Andrology 5(l): 15, 1984. Accepted for Publication: Friedl, K.E. and Plymate, S.R.: Effects of Obesity on...Conjunction with Endoscopic Laryngeal Surgery (T) LITTLE, J.S. Effect of Streptococcun rnewnoniap Infection on the Binding 45 #82/24 of Insulin to Plasma...and Hill, J.C.: Dysrhythmic Effects of Combined Theophylline and Beta -Agonist Therapy in Patients with Severe Obstructive Lung Disease. Chest 86(2

  19. Evaluation of hydrophobic materials as matrices for controlled-release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Rahman, M Sharifur; Karim, M Ziaul; Akter, Sanjida; Awkat, M Talat Bin; Reza, Md Selim

    2003-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different insoluble and erodable wax-lipid based materials and their content level on the release profile of drug from matrix systems. Matrix tablets of theophylline were prepared using carnauba wax, bees wax, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as rate-retarding agents by direct compression process. The release of theophylline from these hydrophobic matrices was studied over 8-hours in buffer media of pH 6.8. Statistically significant difference was found among the drug release profile from different matrices. The release kinetics was found to be governed by the type and content of hydrophobic materials in the matrix. At lower level of wax matrices (25%), a potential burst release was observed with all the materials being studied. Bees wax could not exert any sustaining action while an extensive burst release was found with carnauba wax at this hydrophobic load. Increasing the concentration of fat-wax materials significantly decreased the burst effect of drug from the matrix. At higher hydrophobic level (50% of the matrix), the rate and extent of drug release was significantly reduced due to increased tortuosity and reduced porosity of the matrix. Cetostearyl alcohol imparted the strongest retardation of drug release irrespective of fat-wax level. Numerical fits indicate that the Higuchi square root of time model was the most appropriate one for describing the release profile of theophylline from hydrophobic matrices. The release mechanism was also explored and explained with biexponential equation. Application of this model indicates that Fickian or case I kinetics is the predominant mechanism of drug release from these wax-lipid matrices. The mean dissolution time (MDT) was calculated for all the formulations and the highest MDT value was obtained with cetostearyl matrix. The greater sustaining activity of cetostearyl alcohol can be attributed to some level of

  20. Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhshesh, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Mill. (Common name Lavender) is used in traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases including respiratory disorders worldwide. The relaxant effect of the plant on the smooth muscle of some tissues was shown previously. The present study has investigated the role of different receptors and pathways in the relaxant effect of L. angustifolia on tracheal smooth muscle. Cumulative concentrations of the hydro-ethanolic extract of L. angustifolia flowers (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml) were added on pre-contracted tracheal smooth muscle by methacholine (10 μM) or KCl (60 mM) on non-preincubated or preincubated tissues with atropine, chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, indomethacin, ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and papaverine. The results compared with of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control and saline (1 ml) as negative control. The extract showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects in non-preincubated tracheal smooth muscle contracted by KCl and methacholine (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The relaxant effect ofL. angustifolia was not significantly different between non-preincubated and preincubated tissues with chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, and papaverine. However, two higher concentrations of L. angustifolia in preincubated tissues with L-NAME (p < 0.01), indomethacin (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) and atropine (p < 0.05) showed significantly lower relaxant effects than non-preincubated tissues. The EC 50 values of L. angustifolia in tissues preincubated with indomethacin was significantly higher than non-preincubated trachea (p < 0.05). The effects of three first concentrations of the extract on KCl and methacholine-induced muscle contraction were significantly lower than those of theophylline (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). These results indicated a relatively potent relaxant effect of

  1. The effect of respiratory disorders on clinical pharmacokinetic variables.

    PubMed

    Taburet, A M; Tollier, C; Richard, C

    1990-12-01

    Respiratory disorders induce several pathophysiological changes involving gas exchange and acid-base balance, regional haemodynamics, and alterations of the alveolocapillary membrane. The consequences for the absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs are evaluated. Drug absorption after inhalation is not significantly impaired in patients. With drugs administered by this route, an average of 10% of the dose reaches the lungs. It is not completely clear whether changes in pulmonary endothelium in respiratory failure enhance lung absorption. The effects of changes in blood pH on plasma protein binding and volume of distribution are discussed, but relevant data are not available to explain the distribution changes observed in acutely ill patients. Lung diffusion of some antimicrobial agents is enhanced in patients with pulmonary infections. Decreased cardiac output and hepatic blood flow in patients under mechanical ventilation cause an increase in the plasma concentration of drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio, such as lidocaine (lignocaine). On a theoretical basis, hypoxia should lead to decreased biotransformation of drugs with a low hepatic extraction ratio, but in vivo data with phenazone (antipyrine) or theophylline are conflicting. The effects of disease on the lung clearance of drugs are discussed but clinically relevant data are lacking. The pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are reviewed. Stable asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not appear to affect the disposition of theophylline or beta 2-agonists such as salbutamol (albuterol) or terbutaline. Important variations in theophylline pharmacokinetics have been reported in critically ill patients, the causes of which are more likely to be linked to the poor condition of the patients than to a direct effect of hypoxia or hypercapnia. Little is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of cromoglycate, ipratropium, corticoids or

  2. An analysis of plasticity in the rat respiratory system following cervical spinal cord injury and the application of nanotechnology to induce or enhance recovery of diaphragm function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Janelle

    Second cervical segment spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) results in ipsilateral hemidiaphragm paralysis. However, the intact latent crossed phrenic pathway can restore function spontaneously over time or immediately following drug administration. WGA bound fluorochromes were administered to identify nuclei associated with diaphragm function in both the acute and chronic C2Hx models. WGA is unique in that it undergoes receptor mediated endocytosis and is transsynaptically transported across select physiologically active synapses. Comparison of labeling in the acutely injured to the chronically injured rat provided an anatomical map of spinal and supraspinal injury induced synaptic plasticity. The plasticity occurs over time in the chronic C2Hx model in an effort to adapt to the loss of hemidiaphragm function. Utilizing the selectivity of WGA, a nanoconjugate was developed to target drug delivery to nuclei involved in diaphragm function post C2Hx in an effort to restore lost function. Theophylline was selected due to its established history as a respiratory stimulant. Theophylline was attached to gold nanoparticles by a transient bond designed to degrade intracellularly. The gold nanoparticles were then permanently attached to WGA-HRP. Following intradiaphragmatic injection, the WGA portion was identified in the ipsilateral phrenic nuclei and bilaterally in the rVRGs. The location of WGA should reflect the location of the AuNP since the peptide bond between them is permanent. The effectiveness of the nanoconjugate was verified with EMG analysis of the diaphragm and recordings from the phrenic nerves. All doses administered in the acute C2Hx model resulted in resorted hemidiaphragm and phrenic nerve activity. A dose of 0.14mg/kg had a significantly higher percent recovery on day 3, whereas 0.03mg/kg was significantly higher on day 14. The change in most effective dose over time is likely due to the availability or concentration of the drug and location of drug release

  3. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S S; Chivate, Amit

    2007-09-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%-20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusion of ground or emulsified carnauba wax did not sustain the release of theophylline for more than 3 hours. Matrix pellets of theophylline prepared with various concentrations of carnauba wax were sintered thermally at various times and temperatures. In vitro drug release profiles indicated an increase in drug release retardation with increasing carnauba wax concentration. Pellets prepared with ground wax showed a higher standard deviation than did those prepared with emulsified wax. There was incomplete release at the end of 12 hours for pellets prepared with 20% ground or emulsified wax. The sintering temperature and duration were optimized to allow for a sustained release lasting at least 12 hours. The optimized temperature and duration were found to be 100 degrees C and 140 seconds, respectively. The sintered pellets had a higher hydrophobicity than did the unsintered pellets. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the carnauba wax moved internally, thereby increasing the surface area of wax within the pellets.

  4. Increased intestinal absorption in the rat caused by sodium lauryl sulphate, and its possible relation to the cAMP system.

    PubMed

    Briseid, G; Briseid, K; Kirkevold, K

    1976-01-01

    The increases in the absorption of ouabain, phenolsulphonphthalein and pralidoxime caused by 17 mM sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) from jejunal loops of anaesthetized rats were significantly reduced if sodium and chloride (Briseid et al., 1974) or chloride and bicarbonate were replaced by other ions in the loop fluid. Separate substitutions of sodium, chloride of bicarbonate did not significantly alter the SLS-caused absorption, except that the substitution of choline for sodium reduced the absorption of pralidoxime, both in the presence and in the absence of SLS. The increases in the absorption of phenolsulphonphthalein and pralidoxime caused by SLS were potentiated by theophylline (25 mM) and reduced by imidazole (25 mM). The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (2.5 mM) to the loop fluid increased this absorption of the test substances. This effect was reduced by imidazole, but under the experimental conditions it was not potentiated by theophylline. Determinations of cyclic AMP in the rat intestinal mucosa showed that the level of this substance was significantly higher in the presence than in the absence of SLS. The experimental conditions were as described for the absorption experiments. It is concluded that the data obtained support the idea of an increased level of cyclic AMP as the main basis for the effect of SLS on the absorption.

  5. Potential of carrageenans to protect drugs from polymorphic transformation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrea G; Wartewig, Siegfried; Picker, Katharina M

    2003-07-01

    Carrageenans were analysed in mixture with polymorphic drugs to test their potential for minimising polymorphic or pseudopolymorphic transitions, which are induced by the tableting process. The kappa-carrageenans Gelcarin GP-812 NF and Gelcarin GP-911 NF and the iota-carrageenan Gelcarin GP-379 NF were tested in comparison to the well-known tableting excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Amorphous indomethacin was chosen as model drug since its well-known recrystallisation behaviour can be mechanically stimulated. Further on, theophylline monohydrate was used. Its dehydration is induced by tableting. Pure materials and mixtures containing 20% (w/w) drug were compressed up to different maximum relative densities. The data obtained during tableting were analysed by three-dimensional (3D) modelling. Afterwards tablets were broken and examined by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in order to determine the degree of transformation inside the tablet. For quantitative interpretation, the intensities of representative bands were used. Thermal analysis was used additionally. Using 3D modelling a decrease of plastic deformation can be noticed in the order HPMC>MCC>carrageenans, whereas DCPD represents an exception because of brittle fracture. Best hindrance of polymorphic transformation showed the carrageenans, the hindrance was slightly worse for HPMC. MCC and DCPD could not hinder transformation. A complete protection of the amorphous form could not be achieved. For theophylline monohydrate, the results were similar.

  6. A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The advances in personalised medicine increased the demand for a fast, accurate and reliable production method of tablets that can be digitally controlled by healthcare staff. A flexible dose tablet system is presented in this study that proved to be suitable for immediate and extended release tablets with a realistic drug loading and an easy-to-swallow tablet design. The method bridges the affordable and digitally controlled Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing with a standard pharmaceutical manufacturing process, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME). The reported method was compatible with three methacrylic polymers (Eudragit RL, RS and E) as well as a cellulose-based one (hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC SSL). The use of a HME based pharmaceutical filament preserved the linear relationship between the mass and printed volume and was utilized to digitally control the dose via an input from computer software with dose accuracy in the range of 91-95%. Higher resolution printing quality doubled the printing time, but showed a little effect on in vitro release pattern of theophylline and weight accuracy. Physical characterization studies indicated that the majority of the model drug (theophylline) in the 3D printed tablet exists in a crystal form. Owing to the small size, ease of use and the highly adjustable nature of FDM 3D printers, the method holds promise for future individualised treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Stability-Indicating HPLC Determination of Gemcitabine in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul; Shakya, Ashok K.; Naik, Rajashri; Shalan, Naeem

    2015-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for determination of gemcitabine in injectable dosage forms using theophylline as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5μ) with a mobile phase consisting of 90% water and 10% acetonitrile (pH 7.00 ± 0.05). The signals of gemcitabine and theophylline were recorded at 275 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5–50 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 or higher. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.1498 and 0.4541 μg/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday precision were less than 2%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 100.2% to 100.4%. Stability studies indicate that the drug was stable to sunlight and UV light. The drug gives 6 different hydrolytic products under alkaline stress and 3 in acidic condition. Aqueous and oxidative stress conditions also degrade the drug. Degradation was higher in the alkaline condition compared to other stress conditions. The robustness of the methods was evaluated using design of experiments. Validation reveals that the proposed method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable, robust, reproducible, and suitable for the quantitative analysis. PMID:25838825

  8. The Effects of Thrombin on Adenyl Cyclase Activity and a Membrane Protein from Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, G. N.; Baenziger, Nancy Lewis; Chase, Lewis R.; Majerus, Philip W.

    1972-01-01

    Washed human platelets were incubated with 0.1-1.0 U/ml human thrombin and the effects on adenyl cyclase activity and on a platelet membrane protein (designated thrombin-sensitive protein) were studied. Adenyl cyclase activity was decreased 70-90% when intact platelets were incubated with thrombin. The T½ for loss of adenyl cyclase activity was less than 15 sec at 1 U/ml thrombin. There was no decrease of adenyl cyclase activity when sonicated platelets or isolated membranes were incubated with these concentrations of thrombin. Loss of adenyl cyclase activity was relatively specific since the activities of other platelet membrane enzymes were unaffected by thrombin. Prior incubation of platelets with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), prostaglandin E1, or theophylline protected adenyl cyclase from inhibition by thrombin. Incubation of intact but not disrupted platelets with thrombin resulted in the release of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane. The rapid release of this protein (T½ < 15 sec) at low concentrations of thrombin suggested that removal of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane is an integral part of the platelet release reaction. This hypothesis is supported by the parallel effects of thrombin on adenyl cyclase activity and thrombin-sensitive protein release in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E1, and theophylline at varying concentrations of thrombin. Images PMID:4331802

  9. Loss of PopZAt activity in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by Deletion or Depletion Leads to Multiple Growth Poles, Minicells, and Growth Defects

    PubMed Central

    Grangeon, Romain; Zupan, John; Jeon, Yeonji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens grows by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) at one pole of the bacterium. During the cell cycle, the cell needs to maintain two different developmental programs, one at the growth pole and another at the inert old pole. Proteins involved in this process are not yet well characterized. To further characterize the role of pole-organizing protein A. tumefaciens PopZ (PopZAt), we created deletions of the five PopZAt domains and assayed their localization. In addition, we created a popZAt deletion strain (ΔpopZAt) that exhibited growth and cell division defects with ectopic growth poles and minicells, but the strain is unstable. To overcome the genetic instability, we created an inducible PopZAt strain by replacing the native ribosome binding site with a riboswitch. Cultivated in a medium without the inducer theophylline, the cells look like ΔpopZAt cells, with a branching and minicell phenotype. Adding theophylline restores the wild-type (WT) cell shape. Localization experiments in the depleted strain showed that the domain enriched in proline, aspartate, and glutamate likely functions in growth pole targeting. Helical domains H3 and H4 together also mediate polar localization, but only in the presence of the WT protein, suggesting that the H3 and H4 domains multimerize with WT PopZAt, to stabilize growth pole accumulation of PopZAt. PMID:29138309

  10. Design space construction of multiple dose-strength tablets utilizing bayesian estimation based on one set of design-of-experiments.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jin; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takayama, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    Design spaces for multiple dose strengths of tablets were constructed using a Bayesian estimation method with one set of design of experiments (DoE) of only the highest dose-strength tablet. The lubricant blending process for theophylline tablets with dose strengths of 100, 50, and 25 mg is used as a model manufacturing process in order to construct design spaces. The DoE was conducted using various Froude numbers (X(1)) and blending times (X(2)) for theophylline 100-mg tablet. The response surfaces, design space, and their reliability of the compression rate of the powder mixture (Y(1)), tablet hardness (Y(2)), and dissolution rate (Y(3)) of the 100-mg tablet were calculated using multivariate spline interpolation, a bootstrap resampling technique, and self-organizing map clustering. Three experiments under an optimal condition and two experiments under other conditions were performed using 50- and 25-mg tablets, respectively. The response surfaces of the highest-strength tablet were corrected to those of the lower-strength tablets by Bayesian estimation using the manufacturing data of the lower-strength tablets. Experiments under three additional sets of conditions of lower-strength tablets showed that the corrected design space made it possible to predict the quality of lower-strength tablets more precisely than the design space of the highest-strength tablet. This approach is useful for constructing design spaces of tablets with multiple strengths.

  11. Methylxanthines: properties and determination in various objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena Yu; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G.; Zolotov, Yurii A.

    2012-05-01

    Published data on the properties and determination of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and some other methylxanthines in various objects are surveyed and described systematically. Different sample preparation procedures such as liquid extraction from solid matrices and liquid-liquid, supercritical fluid and solid-phase extraction are compared. The key methods of analysis including chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrometry and electrochemical methods are discussed. Examples of methylxanthine determination in plants, food products, energy beverages, pharmaceuticals, biological fluids and natural and waste waters are given. The bibliography includes 393 references.

  12. Chloroquine, quinine, procaine, quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants, and methylxanthines as prostaglandin agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Manku, M S; Horrobin, D F

    1976-11-20

    Chloroquine, quanine, procaine, quinidine, clomipramine, theophylline, and caffeine have been shown to be strong prostaglandin antagonists and weak agonists. The antagonist effect is clearly demonstrable at concentrations reached in human plasma when the drugs are used therapeutically. This suggests that prostaglandins are important in several situations in which their role has hitherto been unsuspected. New approaches to the development of prostaglandin antagonists and new uses for established drugs are indicated. In a preliminary study chloroquine has been successfully used to close patent ductus arteriosus in three infants.

  13. Suppressor cell hyperactivity relative to allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation as a manifestation of defective T-T-cell interactions in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Stenina, M.A.; Potapova, A.A.; Biryukov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the state of immunoregulatory process in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at the T-T-cell interaction level and seek to test the possibility of the pharmacological modulation of this process. The proliferative activity of mononuclear lymphocytes, extracted from the blood of ten lupus patients, was assessed by measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into cultures stimulated by phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin, and theophylline. The comparative effects of each of these agents on the immunoregulatory and proliferative activity of the lymphocytes are reported.

  14. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Gernaey, Krist V; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Classically, the end point detection during fluid bed drying has been performed using indirect parameters, such as the product temperature or the humidity of the outlet drying air. This paper aims at comparing those classic methods to both in-line moisture and solid-state determination by means of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend was chosen as model formulation. For the development of the NIR-based moisture determination model, 15 calibration experiments in the fluid bed dryer were performed. Six test experiments were conducted afterwards, and the product was monitored in-line with NIR and Raman spectroscopy during drying. The results (drying endpoint and residual moisture) obtained via the NIR-based moisture determination model, the classical approach by means of indirect parameters and the mass balance model were then compared. Our conclusion is that the PAT-based method is most suited for use in a production set-up. Secondly, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Riboswitch-based sensor in low optical background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbaugh, Svetlana V.; Davidson, Molly E.; Chushak, Yaroslav G.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Stone, Morley O.

    2008-08-01

    Riboswitches are a type of natural genetic control element that use untranslated sequence in the RNA to recognize and bind to small molecules that regulate expression of that gene. Creation of synthetic riboswitches to novel ligands depends on the ability to screen for analyte binding sensitivity and specificity. In our work, we have coupled a synthetic riboswitch to an optical reporter assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two genetically-coded fluorescent proteins. Specifically, a theophylline-sensitive riboswitch was placed upstream of the Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease coding sequence, and a FRET-based construct, BFP-eGFP or eGFP-REACh, was linked by a peptide encoding the recognition sequence for TEV protease. Cells expressing the riboswitch showed a marked optical difference in fluorescence emission in the presence of theophylline. However, the BFP-eGFP FRET pair posses significant optical background that reduces the sensitivity of a FRET-based assay. To improve the optical assay, we designed a nonfluorescent yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mutant called REACh (for Resonance Energy-Accepting Chromoprotein) as the FRET acceptor for eGFP. The advantage of using an eGFP-REACh pair is the elimination of acceptor fluorescence which leads to an improved detection of FRET via better signal-to-noise ratio. The EGFP-REACh fusion protein was constructed with the TEV protease cleavage site; thus upon TEV translation, cleavage occurs diminishing REACh quenching and increasing eGFP emission resulting in a 4.5-fold improvement in assay sensitivity.

  16. In Vivo Activation of cAMP Signaling Induces Growth Arrest and Differentiation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Marie-Claude; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Vitoux, Dominique; Kogan, Scott; Soilihi, Hassane; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; Zhu, Jun; Janin, Anne; Daniel, Marie-Thérèse; Gourmel, Bernard; Degos, Laurent; Dombret, Hervé; Lanotte, Michel; de Thé, Hugues

    2002-01-01

    Differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia uses transcriptional modulators to reprogram cancer cells. The most relevant clinical example is acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which responds dramatically to either retinoic acid (RA) or arsenic trioxide (As2O3). In many myeloid leukemia cell lines, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) triggers growth arrest, cell death, or differentiation, often in synergy with RA. Nevertheless, the toxicity of cAMP derivatives and lack of suitable models has hampered trials designed to assess the in vivo relevance of theses observations. We show that, in an APL cell line, cAMP analogs blocked cell growth and unraveled As2O3-triggered differentiation. Similarly, in RA-sensitive or RA-resistant mouse models of APL, continuous infusions of 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP) triggered major growth arrest, greatly enhanced both spontaneous and RA- or As2O3-induced differentiation and accelerated the restoration of normal hematopoiesis. Theophylline, a well-tolerated phosphodiesterase inhibitor which stabilizes endogenous cAMP, also impaired APL growth and enhanced spontaneous or As2O3-triggered cell differentiation in vivo. Accordingly, in an APL patient resistant to combined RA–As2O3 therapy, theophylline induced blast clearance and restored normal hematopoiesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in vivo activation of cAMP signaling contributes to APL clearance, independently of its RA-sensitivity, thus raising hopes that other myeloid leukemias may benefit from this therapeutic approach. PMID:12438428

  17. Lateralization of brain activation to imagination and smell of odors using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): left hemispheric localization of pleasant and right hemispheric localization of unpleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Henkin, R I; Levy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to use functional MRI (fMRI) of brain to reveal activation in each cerebral hemisphere in response to imagination and smell of odors. FMRI brain scans were obtained in 24 normal subjects using multislice fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI in response to imagination of banana and peppermint odors and in response to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone, respectively, and of pyridine. Three coronal sections selected from anterior to posterior brain regions were used. Similar studies were obtained in two patients with hyposmia using FLASH MRI and in one patient with hyposmia using echo planar imaging (EPI) both before and after theophylline treatment that returned smell function to or toward normal in each patient and in two patients with birhinal phantosmia (persistent foul odor) and global phantogeusia (persistent foul taste) with FLASH and EPI fMRI before and after treatment with neuroleptic drugs that inhibited their phantosmia and phantogeusia. Activation images were derived using correlation analysis. Ratios of hemispheric areas of brain activation to total hemispheric brain areas were calculated for FLASH fMRI, and numerical counts of pixel clusters in each hemisphere were made for EPI studies. Total pixel cluster counts in localized regions of each hemispheric section were also obtained. In normal subjects, activation generally occurred in left (L) > right (R) brain hemisphere in response to banana and peppermint odor imagination and to smell of corresponding odors of amyl acetate and menthone. Whereas there were no overall hemispheric differences for pyridine odor, activation in men was R > L hemisphere. Although absolute activation in both L and R hemispheres in response to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was men > women, the ratio of L to R activation was women > men. In hyposmic patients studied by FLASH fMRI, activation to banana odor imagination and amyl acetate smell was L > R hemisphere both before and after

  18. Interventions for managing asthma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bain, Emily; Pierides, Kristen L; Clifton, Vicki L; Hodyl, Nicolette A; Stark, Michael J; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-10-21

    Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder complicating pregnancy, and is associated with a range of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. There is strong evidence however, that the adequate control of asthma can improve health outcomes for mothers and their babies. Despite known risks of poorly controlled asthma during pregnancy, a large proportion of women have sub-optimal asthma control, due to concerns surrounding risks of pharmacological agents, and uncertainties regarding the effectiveness and safety of different management strategies. To assess the effects of interventions (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic) for managing women's asthma in pregnancy on maternal and fetal/infant outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 June 2014) and the Cochrane Airways Group's Trials Register (4 June 2014). Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any intervention used to manage asthma in pregnancy, with placebo, no intervention, or an alternative intervention. We included pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions (including combined interventions). Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion (but none were identified). Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion.We included multi-armed trials along with two-armed trials. We also included studies published as abstracts only. At least two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included eight trials in this review, involving 1181 women and their babies. Overall we judged two trials to be at low risk of bias, two to be of unclear risk of bias, and four to be at moderate risk of bias.Five trials assessed pharmacological agents, including inhaled corticosteroids (beclomethasone or budesonide), inhaled magnesium sulphate, intravenous theophylline, and inhaled beclomethasone verus oral theophylline. Three trials assessed non

  19. Adaptation of pharmaceutical excipients to FDM 3D printing for the fabrication of patient-tailored immediate release tablets.

    PubMed

    Sadia, Muzna; Sośnicka, Agata; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Ahmed, Waqar; Kelarakis, Antonios; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-20

    This work aims to employ fused deposition modelling 3D printing to fabricate immediate release pharmaceutical tablets with several model drugs. It investigates the addition of non-melting filler to methacrylic matrix to facilitate FDM 3D printing and explore the impact of (i) the nature of filler, (ii) compatibility with the gears of the 3D printer and iii) polymer: filler ratio on the 3D printing process. Amongst the investigated fillers in this work, directly compressible lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose showed a level of degradation at 135°C whilst talc and TCP allowed consistent flow of the filament and a successful 3D printing of the tablet. A specially developed universal filament based on pharmaceutically approved methacrylic polymer (Eudragit EPO) and thermally stable filler, TCP (tribasic calcium phosphate) was optimised. Four model drugs with different physicochemical properties were included into ready-to-use mechanically stable tablets with immediate release properties. Following the two thermal processes (hot melt extrusion (HME) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing), drug contents were 94.22%, 88.53%, 96.51% and 93.04% for 5-ASA, captopril, theophylline and prednisolone respectively. XRPD indicated that a fraction of 5-ASA, theophylline and prednisolone remained crystalline whilst captopril was in amorphous form. By combining the advantages of thermally stable pharmaceutically approved polymers and fillers, this unique approach provides a low cost production method for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    PubMed

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  1. Coatings from blends of Eudragit® RL and L55: a novel approach in pH-controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Wulff, R; Leopold, C S

    2014-12-10

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the drug release from theophylline pellets coated with blends of quaternary polymethacrylate and methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Pellets were coated with blends of Eudragit(®) RL PO (RL) and Eudragit(®) L 100-55 (L55) in either organic solution or aqueous dispersion at various copolymer ratios. Generally, the coatings were less permeable for theophylline in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 than they were in hydrochloric acid pH 1.2. Further dissolution experiments revealed that the differences in drug release are caused by the different pH values. A design of experiments for historical data was performed on drug release data of pellets with different coating levels and blend ratios of RL and L55. Drug release in hydrochloric acid was predominantly affected by the coating level, whereas for drug release in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 the blend ratio was the determining factor. As expected, dissolution experiments at different pH values showed that drug release depends on the ratio of dissociated L55 to RL because ionization is a requirement for the functional groups to interact. With the dissolution test for delayed-release solid dosage forms (Ph. Eur.) it was demonstrated that the unique release behavior in neutral media is preserved after the exposition to hydrochloric acid. These findings indicate that the combination of RL and L55 in coatings prepared from solutions is a promising approach for controlled drug release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Provision of food and water in rodent whole body plethysmography safety pharmacology respiratory studies - Impact on animal welfare and data quality.

    PubMed

    Grant, Claire; Marks, Louise; Prior, Helen

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of providing food and water to rodents during whole body plethysmography (WBP) studies as a welfare improvement to standard conditions. Male Han Wistar rats or CD1 mice (n=8) were placed in WBP chambers and respiratory parameters recorded for approximately 6h on four separate occasions. On each occasion the animals were exposed to a different plethysmography chamber environment using a randomised design: no food/water (the standard conditions), water bottle, hydrating gel and wet food. In a further session, rats (n=8) were administered theophylline, or vehicle and respiratory parameters measured in the plethysmography chamber containing wet food. Respiratory parameters of rats were not significantly altered by the provision of water or food. Providing wet food resulted in reduced body weight loss. Administration of theophylline caused the expected increase in respiratory rate. When mice were given access to hydrating gel or wet food the respiratory parameters were significantly affected; respiratory rate and tidal volume were increased. Providing wet food resulted in reduced bodyweight loss. The provision of food and water did not impact on respiratory parameters in rats placed in WBP chambers. When provided with wet food, rats lost less bodyweight. Therefore, to improve welfare conditions for rats during WBP respiratory studies wet food should be provided when appropriate to the study design. In mice, provision of food and water led to changes in respiratory parameters, therefore these improvements in welfare conditions are not suitable for mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Caffeine administration alters the behaviour and development of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Kunc, Martin; Hyrsl, Pavel; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6.28 fold increase) and hemolin (1.68 fold increase), ATPase associated proteins such as H+ transporting ATP synthase O subunit isoform 1 (1.87 fold increase) and H+ transporting ATP synthase delta subunit (1.53 fold increase) and proteins indicative of brain trauma such as troponin T transcript variant B, partial (1.55 fold increase). Proteins involved in development and protein degradation such as SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 1 (3.08 fold decrease) and chitin deacetylase, partial (3.67 fold decrease) were decreased in abundance. The results presented here indicate that caffeine is metabolised in a similar way in G. mellonella larvae to that in mammals and results in a variety of behavioural and developmental alterations. Utilisation of insects for studying the effects of caffeine and other neuroactive compounds may offer new insights into their mode of action and reduce the need to use mammals for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography Guided Chromatographic Analysis for Displaying the Material Distribution in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu; Wu, Li; Wang, Caifen; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Maharjan, Abi; Tang, Yan; He, Dunwei; York, Peter; Sun, Huimin; Yin, Xianzhen; Zhang, Jiwen; Sun, Lixin

    2018-03-06

    One unusual and challenging scientific field that has received only cursory attention to date is the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure and spatial distribution of drug(s) and formulation materials in solid dosage forms. This study aims to provide deeper insight into the relationships between the microstructure of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets and the spatial distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients to facilitate the design of quantitative models for drug delivery systems. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR-μCT) was established as a 3D structure elucidation technique, which, in conjunction with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (LC-ELSD) enables chemical analysis of tablets. On the basis of the specific interior construction of theophylline MUPS tablets, the spatial distribution of materials was acquired by quantifying microregion samples that had been validated by SR-μCT for their locations in the MUPS tablets. The 3D structure of the MUPS tablets was catalogued as three structural domains: a matrix layer (ML), a protective cushion layer (PCL), and pellets (PL). Compared with the components in the ML, components in the PL had a larger proportion of theophylline, sucrose, and diethyl phthalate and a smaller proportion of lactose and sodium lauryl sulfate, whereas glyceryl monostearate was found to account for a large portion of the PCL. Microstructural characterization-guided zonal chemical determination represents a new approach for quality assessment and the development of drug delivery systems with in-depth insight into their constituent layers on a new scale.

  5. Short-term oxycodone treatment does not affect electrogenic ion transport in isolated mucosa from the human rectosigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Bindslev, Niels; Hansen, Mark Berner; Louring Christrup, Lona; Drewes, A M

    2016-01-01

    Opioid therapy is associated with altered secretion and motility of the gut. The relative contribution of decreased secretion to the development of opioid-induced constipation remains unknown. Twenty-five healthy males were treated with oxycodone for 5 d in a placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over design. Gastrointestinal adverse effects were assessed with validated questionnaires (bowel function index and gastrointestinal symptom rating scale). Rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies were taken at baseline and on day 5 during both treatments and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current (SCC) and slope conductance) were measured after addition of secretagogues (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (6 μm), theophylline (400 μm)), and an inhibitor (ouabain (200 μm)). Additionally, morphine (50 μm) was added to investigate the direct opioid effect on colonic mucosa. Questionnaires showed pronounced bowel symptoms, including constipation during oxycodone treatment (eight-fold increase in bowel function index score from day 1 to day 5 (p < 0.001) while no significant change occurred during placebo treatment (p = 0.47). Basal SCC and slope conductance did not differ between treatments (all p > 0.05) and application with PGE2, theophylline, and ouabain yielded comparable results on all examinations (all p > 0.05). Morphine application consistently did not evoke a change in ion transport. Compared to placebo, epithelial electrogenic ion transport is not altered in mucosal biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon following 5-d oxycodone treatment. The secretory mechanisms in isolated mucosa appear to play a negligible role in the development of opioid-induced constipation.

  6. Xylan-Modified-Based Hydrogels with Temperature/pH Dual Sensitivity and Controllable Drug Delivery Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Qing; Gao, Cun-Dian; Hu, Shu-Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Zhao, Li-Hong; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability. In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of maleic anhydride-modified xylan (MAHX) with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and acrylic acid (AA) under UV irradiation to form MAHX-g-P(NIPAm-co-AA) hydrogels. The pore volume, the mechanical properties, and the release rate for drugs of hydrogels could be controlled by the degree of substitution of MAHX. These hydrogels were characterized by swelling ability, lower critical solution temperature (LCST), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and SEM. Furthermore, the cumulative release rate was investigated for acetylsalicylic acid and theophylline, as well as the cytocompatibility MAHX-based hydrogels. Results showed that MAHX-based hydrogels exhibited excellent swelling–deswelling properties, uniform porous structure, and the temperature/pH dual sensitivity. In vitro, the cumulative release rate of acetylsalicylic acid for MAHX-based hydrogels was higher than that for theophylline, and in the gastrointestinal sustained drug release study, the acetylsalicylic acid release rate was extremely slow during the initial 3 h in the gastric fluid (24.26%), and then the cumulative release rate reached to 90.5% after sustained release for 5 h in simulated intestinal fluid. The cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that MAHX-based hydrogels could promote cell proliferation and had satisfactory biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells. These results indicated that MAHX-based hydrogels, as new drug carriers, had favorable behavior for intestinal-targeted drug delivery. PMID:28772664

  7. Diisocyanate mediated polyether modified gelatin drug carrier for controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Vediappan; Subramanian, Kaliappagounder

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin is an extensively studied biopolymer hydrogel drug carrier due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity of its biodegraded products formed in vivo. But with the pristine gelatin it is difficult to achieve a controlled and desirable drug release characteristics due to its structural and thermal lability and high solubility in aqueous biofluids. Hence it is necessary to modify its solubility and structural stability in biofluids to achieve controlled release features with improved drug efficacy and broader carrier applications. In the present explorations an effort is made in this direction by cross linking gelatin to different extents using hitherto not studied isocyanate terminated poly(ether) as a macrocrosslinker prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) and isophorone diisocyanate in dimethyl sulfoxide. The crosslinked samples were analyzed for structure by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermal behavior through thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The cross linked gelatins were biodegradable, insoluble and swellable in biofluids. They were evaluated as a carrier for in vitro drug delivery taking theophylline as a model drug used in asthma therapy. The crosslinking of gelatin decreased the drug release rate by 10–20% depending upon the extent of crosslinking. The modeled drug release characteristics revealed an anomalous transport mechanism. The release rates for ampicillin sodium, 5-fluorouracil and theophylline drugs in a typical crosslinked gelatin carrier were found to depend on the solubility and hydrophobicity of the drugs, and the pH of the fluid. The observed results indicated that this material can prove its mettle as a viable carrier matrix in drug delivery applications. PMID:24493973

  8. Study on Biopharmaceutics Classification and Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Multikinase Inhibitor NCE for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chun-Mei; He, Xuan; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Kun; He, Ying-Ju; Yu, Luo-Ting; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Gong, Chang-Yang; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiang-Rong; Zeng, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl) benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE) were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability) and ranitidine (low permeability) were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10−4 mg·min−1·cm−2. The Peff value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates. PMID:24776763

  9. Study on biopharmaceutics classification and oral bioavailability of a novel multikinase inhibitor NCE for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chun-Mei; He, Xuan; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Kun; He, Ying-Ju; Yu, Luo-Ting; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Gong, Chang-Yang; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiang-Rong; Zeng, Jun

    2014-04-25

    Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl) benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE) were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability) and ranitidine (low permeability) were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10⁻⁴ mg·min⁻¹·cm⁻². The P(eff) value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  10. Blend uniformity evaluation during continuous mixing in a twin screw granulator by in-line NIR using a moving F-test.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; De Leersnyder, Fien; Besseling, Rut; Gerich, Ad; Oostra, Wim; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-09-07

    This study focuses on the twin screw granulator of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line. Whereas powder dosing into the granulation unit is possible from a container of preblended material, a truly continuous process uses several feeders (each one dosing an individual ingredient) and relies on a continuous blending step prior to granulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-line blending capacity of this twin screw granulator, equipped with conveying elements only. The feasibility of in-line NIR (SentroPAT, Sentronic GmbH, Dresden, Germany) spectroscopy for evaluating the blend uniformity of powders after the granulator was tested. Anhydrous theophylline was used as a tracer molecule and was blended with lactose monohydrate. Theophylline and lactose were both fed from a different feeder into the twin screw granulator barrel. Both homogeneous mixtures and mixing experiments with induced errors were investigated. The in-line spectroscopic analyses showed that the twin screw granulator is a useful tool for in-line blending in different conditions. The blend homogeneity was evaluated by means of a novel statistical method being the moving F-test method in which the variance between two blocks of collected NIR spectra is evaluated. The α- and β-error of the moving F-test are controlled by using the appropriate block size of spectra. The moving F-test method showed to be an appropriate calibration and maintenance free method for blend homogeneity evaluation during continuous mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  12. Vulnerability of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to gender in China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Na

    2012-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the vulnerability of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. We aimed to assess this according to patient gender. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural area of Xuzhou in China. We interviewed and administered questionnaires to 2825 male and 2825 female patients with COPD and subjected the data generated to statistical analysis. We compared differences between proportions of male and female patients using the χ2 test. Results The rate of current smoking in men was 30.1%, whereas that in women was 10.9%, and 31.5% of men had a history of using biomass fuel compared with 75.3% of women. Further, 26.0% of the male patients and 16.4% of the female patients did not take theophylline regularly when their disease was stable. During acute exacerbations, 65.8% of the male patients and 39.7% of the female patients took theophylline or similar drugs. The average potential shortening of life expectancy was 1.76 years for men and 1.18 years for women. The average indirect economic burden was 11158.4 yuan for men and 7481.2 yuan for women. The quality of life was worse in female patients than in male patients. Conclusion We found that patients with COPD were vulnerable and that factors determining vulnerability were different for men than for women. Therefore, we recommend adopting different measures for men and women when attempting to prevent, control, and treat COPD, rehabilitate these patients, and improve their quality of life. PMID:23277738

  13. Role of aminophylline in refractory heart failure: a comparison to the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside, the old and the new.

    PubMed

    DiBianco, R; Rosenfeld, S P; Katz, R J; Simpson, A G; Fletcher, R D; Singh, S

    1980-08-01

    Aminophylline [(theophylline ethylene diamine (TED)] reportedly improved cardiac hemodynamics by lowering vascular resistances and increasing contractility. TED as used clinically has not been compared to the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (NP). To assess the relative hemodynamic effects of these two commonly used agents, the following comparison was made. Ten patients with congestive cardiomyopathy in chronic refractory heart failure [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV] were studied. All patients demonstrated cardiomegaly by chest x ray and echocardiography (LVd = 6.3 +/- 0.7 cm) and markedly abnormal hemodynamics during baseline observations (see Table I). Hemodynamic measurements at baseline were compared after TED infusion (mean blood level = 16 +/- 12 micrograms/m/TED) and during intravenous NP. No significant changes in heart rate occurred during either therapeutic intervention; a fall in mean arterial pressure of 10 mmHg (p < 0.01) was observed during NP therapy; atrioventricular (AV) block with ventricular fibrillation was successfully treated in one patient after TED. Theophylline ethylene diamine demonstrated no detectable cardiac hemodynamic effects 60--90 min post infusion despite proven blood levels, whereas NP exhibited distinctly beneficial effects in this patient group. Previous studies demonstrating improved hemodynamics occurring with TED have been limited to the time of infusion or within the following 40 min, a time when TED blood levels are maximum and therefore closest to toxicity. The results of this study suggest that TED demonstrates no beneficial hemodynamic effects in refractory heart failure as early as 1 h after infusion despite blood levels in the therapeutic range.

  14. Development of an in vitro cell culture model to study milk to plasma ratios of therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Athavale, Maithili A; Maitra, Anurupa; Patel, Shahnaz; Bhate, Vijay R; Toddywalla, Villi S

    2013-01-01

    To create an in vitro cell culture model to predict the M/P (concentration of drug in milk/concentration in maternal plasma) ratios of therapeutic drugs viz. rifampicin, theophylline, paracetamol, and aspirin. An in vitro cell culture model using CIT3 cells (mouse mammary epithelial cells) was created by culturing the cells on transwells. The cells formed an integral monolayer, allowing only transcellular transport as it happens in vivo. Functionality of the cells was confirmed through scanning electron microscopy. Time wise transfer of the study drugs from plasma to milk was studied and compared with actual (in vivo) M/P ratios obtained at reported tmax for the respective drugs. The developed model mimicked two important intrinsic factors of mammary epithelial cells viz. secretory and tight-junction properties and also the passive route of drug transport. The in vitro M/P ratios at reported tmax were 0.23, 0.61, 0.87, and 0.03 respectively, for rifampicin, theophylline, paracetamol, and salicylic acid as compared to 0.29, 0.65, 0.65, and 0.22, respectively, in vitro. Our preliminary effort to develop an in vitro physiological model showed promising results. Transfer rate of the drugs using the developed model compared well with the transfer potential seen in vivo except for salicylic acid, which was transferred in far lower concentration in vitro. The model has a potential to be developed as a non-invasive alternative to the in vitro technique for determining the transfer of therapeutic drugs into breast milk.

  15. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J; Bravenec, Ardith D; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A; Reed, Lori S; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-09-15

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations.

  16. The effects of estrus cycle on drug metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, Y; Kaplanski, J; Leibson, V; Ben-Zvi, Z

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the female rat estral cycle on microsomal drug metabolism in-vivo and in-vitro has been studied. Two microsomal enzymes, aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase showed a greater specific activity (p less than 0.01) in the diestrus phase of the estral cycle while the oxidative enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the conjugative enzyme, glucuronyl transferase, were not affected. In vivo studies which included theophylline and antipyrine metabolism, and hexobarbital sleeping times showed no difference between the different phases of the estral cycle. Conflicting evidence about the effect of steroid sex hormones on hepatic drug metabolism is discussed.

  17. Geographic differences in clinical characteristics and management of COPD: the EPOCA study

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc; Murio, Cristina; Tirado-Conde, Gema; Levy, Gur; Muellerova, Hana; Soriano, Joan B; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Ko, Fanny WS; Canelos-Estrella, Byron; Giugno, Eduardo; Bergna, Miguel; Chérrez, Ivan; Anzueto, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Aims Data on differences in clinical characteristics and management of COPD in different countries and settings are limited. We aimed to characterize the profile of patients with COPD in a number of countries and their treatment in order to evaluate adherence to recommendations of international guidelines. Method This was an observational, international, cross-sectional study on patients with physician-diagnosed COPD. Demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors, and treatment were collected by their physician via an internet web-based questionnaire developed for the study. Results A total of 77 investigators from 17 countries provided data on 833 patients. The countries with the highest number of patients included were: Argentina (128), Ecuador (134), Spain (162), and Hong Kong (153). Overall, 79.3% were men and 81% former smokers, with a mean FEV1 = 42.7%, ranging from 34.3% in Hong Kong to 58.8% in Ecuador. Patients reported a mean of 1.6 exacerbations the previous year, with this frequency being significantly and negatively correlated with FEV1(%) (r = −0.256; p < 0.0001). Treatment with short-acting bronchodilators and theophyllines was more frequent in Ecuador and Hong Kong compared with Spain and Argentina, and in patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Inadequacy of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and theophyllines was high, with significant differences among countries. Conclusions Differences in the clinical characteristics and management of COPD were significant across countries. Adherence to international guidelines appears to be low. Efforts should be made to disseminate and adapt guidelines to the socioeconomic reality of different settings. PMID:19281096

  18. Comparative study of binding interactions between porphyrin systems and aromatic compounds of biological importance by multiple spectroscopic techniques: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2018-07-01

    The specific spectroscopic and redox properties of porphyrins predestine them to fulfill the role of sensors during interacting with different biologically active substances. Monitoring of binding interactions in the systems porphyrin-biologically active compound is a key question not only in the field of physiological functions of living organisms, but also in environmental protection, notably in the light of the rapidly growing drug consumption and concurrently the production of drug effluents. Not always beneficial action of drugs on natural porphyrin systems induces to further studies, with commercially available porphyrins as the model systems. Therefore the binding process between several water-soluble porphyrins and a series of biologically active compounds (e.g. caffeine, guanine, theophylline, theobromine, xanthine, uric acid) has been studied in different aqueous solutions analyzing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra, the porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes and their quantum yields. The magnitude of the binding and fluorescence quenching constants values for particular quenchers decreases in a series: uric acid > guanine > caffeine > theophylline > theobromine > xanthine. In all the systems studied there are characters of static quenching, as a consequence of the π-π-stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes formation between porphyrins and interacting compounds, accompanied simultaneously by the additional specific binding interactions. The porphyrin fluorescence quenching can be explain by the photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer from aromatic compound to the center of the porphyrin molecule, playing the role of the binding site. Presented results can be valuable for designing of new fluorescent porphyrin chemosensors or monitoring of drug traces in aqueous solutions. The obtained outcomes have also the toxicological and medical importance, providing insight into the interactions of the water-soluble porphyrins with

  19. A Lower Temperature FDM 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Patient-Specific Immediate Release Tablets.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Stefaniak, Dominika; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Wan, Ka-Wai; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication of ready-to-use immediate release tablets via 3D printing provides a powerful tool to on-demand individualization of dosage form. This work aims to adapt a widely used pharmaceutical grade polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), for instant on-demand production of immediate release tablets via FDM 3D printing. Dipyridamole or theophylline loaded filaments were produced via processing a physical mixture of API (10%) and PVP in the presence of plasticizer through hot-melt extrusion (HME). Computer software was utilized to design a caplet-shaped tablet. The surface morphology of the printed tablet was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical form of the drugs and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. In vitro drug release studies for all 3D printed tablets were conducted in a USP II dissolution apparatus. Bridging 3D printing process with HME in the presence of a thermostable filler, talc, enabled the fabrication of immediate release tablets at temperatures as low as 110°C. The integrity of two model drugs was maintained following HME and FDM 3D printing. XRPD indicated that a portion of the loaded theophylline remained crystalline in the tablet. The fabricated tablets demonstrated excellent mechanical properties, acceptable in-batch variability and an immediate in vitro release pattern. Combining the advantages of PVP as an impeding polymer with FDM 3D printing at low temperatures, this approach holds a potential in expanding the spectrum of drugs that could be used in FDM 3D printing for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

  20. A new insight into the oxidative mechanism of caffeine and related methylxanthines in aprotic medium: May caffeine be really considered as an antioxidant?

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Rita; Zollo, Giuseppe; Curulli, Antonella; Marrosu, Giancarlo

    2018-05-12

    Antioxidant properties have been recently suggested for caffeine that seems showing protective effects against damages caused by oxidative stress. In particular, a HO scavenging activity has been ascribed to caffeine. Even if the oxidation of caffeine has been widely studied, the antioxidant mechanism is still far to be understood. The electrochemical behavior of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline was studied in aprotic medium by cyclic voltammetry and electrolysis in UV-vis cell; a computational analysis of the molecular structures based on the Density Functional Theory was performed; the reactivity of all substrates towards lead dioxide, superoxide and galvinoxyl radical was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Results supported the mono-electronic oxidation of the C 4 C 5 bond for all substrates at high oxidation potentials, the electron-transfer process leading to a radical cation or a neutral radical according to the starting methylxanthine N 7 -substituted (caffeine and theobromine) or N 7 -unsubstituted (theophylline), respectively. A different following chemical fate might be predicted for the radical cation or the neutral radical. No interaction was evidenced towards the tested reactive oxygen species. No reactivity via H-atom transfer was evidenced for all studied compounds, suggesting that an antiradical activity should be excluded. Some reactivity only with strong oxidants could be predicted via electron-transfer. The acclaimed HO scavenging activity should be interpreted in these terms. The study suggested that CAF might be hardly considered an antioxidant. Beyond the experimental methods used, the discussion of the present results might provide food for thought to the wide audience working on antioxidants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Novel methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Ah; Kamba, Alan; Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Family 18 chitinases have a binding capacity with chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Recent studies strongly suggested that chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1, also known as YKL-40) and acidic mammalian chitinase, the two major members of family 18 chitinases, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), bronchial asthma and several other inflammatory disorders. Based on the data from high-throughput screening, it has been found that three methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine, theophylline, and pentoxifylline, have competitive inhibitory effects against a fungal family 18 chitinase by specifically interacting with conserved tryptophans in the active site of this protein. Methylxanthine derivatives are also known as adenosine receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inducers. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylxanthine derivatives have been well-documented in the literature. For example, a beneficial link between coffee or caffeine consumption and type 2 diabetes as well as liver cirrhosis has been reported. Furthermore, theophylline has a long history of being used as a bronchodilator in asthma therapy, and pentoxifylline has an immuno-modulating effect for peripheral vascular disease. However, it is still largely unknown whether these methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects are associated with the inhibition of CHI3L1-induced cytoplasmic signaling cascades in epithelial cells. In this review article we will examine the above possibility and summarize the biological significance of methylxanthine derivatives in intestinal epithelial cells. We hope that this study will provide a rationale for the development of methylxanthine derivatives, in particular caffeine, -based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in the field of IBD and IBD-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24574789

  2. Novel methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Ah; Kamba, Alan; Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2014-02-07

    Family 18 chitinases have a binding capacity with chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Recent studies strongly suggested that chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1, also known as YKL-40) and acidic mammalian chitinase, the two major members of family 18 chitinases, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), bronchial asthma and several other inflammatory disorders. Based on the data from high-throughput screening, it has been found that three methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine, theophylline, and pentoxifylline, have competitive inhibitory effects against a fungal family 18 chitinase by specifically interacting with conserved tryptophans in the active site of this protein. Methylxanthine derivatives are also known as adenosine receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inducers. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylxanthine derivatives have been well-documented in the literature. For example, a beneficial link between coffee or caffeine consumption and type 2 diabetes as well as liver cirrhosis has been reported. Furthermore, theophylline has a long history of being used as a bronchodilator in asthma therapy, and pentoxifylline has an immuno-modulating effect for peripheral vascular disease. However, it is still largely unknown whether these methylxanthine derivative-mediated anti-inflammatory effects are associated with the inhibition of CHI3L1-induced cytoplasmic signaling cascades in epithelial cells. In this review article we will examine the above possibility and summarize the biological significance of methylxanthine derivatives in intestinal epithelial cells. We hope that this study will provide a rationale for the development of methylxanthine derivatives, in particular caffeine, -based anti-inflammatory therapeutics in the field of IBD and IBD-associated carcinogenesis.

  3. The in vivo pharmacology of CP-80, 633, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4.

    PubMed

    Turner, C R; Cohan, V L; Cheng, J B; Showell, H J; Pazoles, C J; Watson, J W

    1996-09-01

    The following studies were conducted to characterize the bron-chodilatory and antiinflammatory activity of the novel, selective phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitor, CP-80,633 (2'S)5-[3-(2'-exobicyclo[2.2.1]heptyloxy-4-methoxy-phenyl]te trahydro- 2(1H)-pyrimidone, a compound in clinical development for atopic disease. In IgG1 passively sensitized guinea pigs, aerosolized ovalbumin challenge increases both pulmonary eosinophil peroxidase levels and airway obstruction. CP-80,633, administered before ovalbumin challenge, significantly attenuated both the increase in tissue eosinophil peroxidase levels (ED50 = 1.4 mg/kg, p.o.) and airway obstruction (ED50 = 0.93 +/- 0.14 mg/kg,p.o.) 10 to 30 times more potently than theophyl-line. Intraarterially administered CP-80,633 also reversed an established bronchoconstriction initiated by continuous infusion of histamine to guinea pigs (ED50 of 8.2 micrograms/kg vs. 5.6 mg/kg for theophylline). The antiinflammatory effect of CP-80,633 was also examined in atopic monkeys challenged with Ascaris suum (Ag) aerosol. CP-80,633 (1 mg/kg, qid, s.c., 1 hr before antigen challenge) significantly reduced antigen-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils (72.8 +/- 15.8% inhibition) and eosinophils (61.1 +/- 5.7% inhibition) 4 hr postchallenge, but did not reduce leukocytes 24 hr postchallenge. CP-80,633 did not inhibit antigen-induced increases in BAL levels of interleukin-1 beta, -6 or -8 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. These results indicate that CP-80,633 possesses bronchodilatory activity in guinea pigs and some antiinflammatory effects in both guinea pigs and monkeys.

  4. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe

    2010-09-15

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) undermore » varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO{sub 2}-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.« less

  5. Use of methylxanthine therapies for the treatment and prevention of apnea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Katherine; Yu, Tian; Stockmann, Chris; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2014-04-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, which affects more than 80 % of neonates with a birth weight less than 1,000 g. Methylxanthine therapies, including caffeine and theophylline, are a mainstay in the treatment and prevention of AOP. Despite their frequent use, little is known about the long-term safety and efficacy of these medications. In this review, we systematically evaluated the literature on neonatal methylxanthine therapies and found that caffeine is associated with fewer adverse effects and a wider therapeutic window when compared with theophylline. When used as a therapeutic agent, larger doses of caffeine citrate have been shown to improve acute neonatal outcomes when administered promptly, although further studies are needed to assess the long-term neurological consequences associated with the use of large loading doses. In a secondary analysis of data obtained from a randomized controlled trial, the prophylactic use of caffeine was associated with substantial cost savings and improved clinical outcomes. However, there remains a paucity of well-controlled, randomized clinical trials that have examined the use of caffeine as a prophylactic agent, and further prospective trials are needed to determine if caffeine is a safe and effective prophylactic agent. Additionally, measuring plasma concentrations longitudinally as a marker of therapeutic efficacy and/or toxicity has not been shown to be clinically useful in neonates who are responsive to treatment and exhibit no signs or symptoms of toxicity. However, in cases where toxicity is of concern or for neonates with congenital or pathophysiologic process that may alter the pharmacokinetics of these drugs, therapeutic drug monitoring may be warranted to monitor for methylxanthine toxicity.

  6. Graft copolymers of ethyl methacrylate on waxy maize starch derivatives as novel excipients for matrix tablets: drug release and fronts movement kinetics.

    PubMed

    Marinich, J A; Ferrero, C; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2012-04-01

    A previous paper deals with the physicochemical and technological characterization of novel graft copolymers of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) on waxy maize starch (MS) and hydroxypropylstarch (MHS). The results obtained suggested the potential application of these copolymers as excipients for compressed non-disintegrating matrix tablets. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism governing drug release from matrix systems prepared with the new copolymers and anhydrous theophylline or diltiazem HCl as model drugs with different solubility. The influence of the carbohydrate nature, drying procedure and initial pore network on drug release kinetics was also evaluated. Drug release experiments were performed from free tablets. Radial drug release and fronts movement kinetics were also analysed, and several mathematical models were employed to ascertain the drug release mechanisms. The drug release markedly depends on the drug solubility and the carbohydrate nature but is practically not affected by the drying process and the initial matrix porosity. A faster drug release is observed for matrices containing diltiazem HCl compared with those containing anhydrous theophylline, in accordance with the higher drug solubility and the higher friability of diltiazem matrices. In fact, although diffusion is the prevailing drug release mechanism for all matrices, the erosion mechanism seems to have some contribution in several formulations containing diltiazem. A reduction in the surface exposed to the dissolution medium (radial release studies) leads to a decrease in the drug release rate, but the release mechanism is not essentially modified. The nearly constant erosion front movement confirms the behaviour of these systems as inert matrices where the drugs are released mainly by diffusion through the porous structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of the minimum permeability coefficient in rats for perfusion-limited tissue distribution in whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yoo-Seong; Yim, Chang-Soon; Ryu, Heon-Min; Noh, Chi-Kyoung; Song, Yoo-Kyung; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum permeability coefficient, P, needed for perfusion-limited distribution in PBPK. Two expanded kinetic models, containing both permeability and perfusion terms for the rate of tissue distribution, were considered: The resulting equations could be simplified to perfusion-limited distribution depending on tissue permeability. Integration plot analyses were carried out with theophylline in 11 typical tissues to determine their apparent distributional clearances and the model-dependent permeabilities of the tissues. Effective surface areas were calculated for 11 tissues from the tissue permeabilities of theophylline and its PAMPA P. Tissue permeabilities of other drugs were then estimated from their PAMPA P and the effective surface area of the tissues. The differences between the observed and predicted concentrations, as expressed by the sum of squared log differences with the present models were at least comparable to or less than the values obtained using the traditional perfusion-limited distribution model for 24 compounds with diverse PAMPA P values. These observations suggest that the use of a combination of the proposed models, PAMPA P and the effective surface area can be used to reasonably predict the pharmacokinetics of 22 out of 24 model compounds, and is potentially applicable to calculating the kinetics for other drugs. Assuming that the fractional distribution parameter of 80% of the perfusion rate is a reasonable threshold for perfusion-limited distribution in PBPK, our theoretical prediction indicates that the pharmacokinetics of drugs having an apparent PAMPA P of 1×10 -6 cm/s or more will follow the traditional perfusion-limited distribution in PBPK for major tissues in the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabricating a Shell-Core Delayed Release Tablet Using Dual FDM 3D Printing for Patient-Centred Therapy.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Pereira, Beatriz C; Arafat, Basel; Cieszynska, Milena; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Individualizing gastric-resistant tablets is associated with major challenges for clinical staff in hospitals and healthcare centres. This work aims to fabricate gastric-resistant 3D printed tablets using dual FDM 3D printing. The gastric-resistant tablets were engineered by employing a range of shell-core designs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and methacrylic acid co-polymer for core and shell structures respectively. Filaments for both core and shell were compounded using a twin-screw hot-melt extruder (HME). CAD software was utilized to design a capsule-shaped core with a complementary shell of increasing thicknesses (0.17, 0.35, 0.52, 0.70 or 0.87 mm). The physical form of the drug and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. A shell thickness ≥0.52 mm was deemed necessary in order to achieve sufficient core protection in the acid medium. The technology proved viable for incorporating different drug candidates; theophylline, budesonide and diclofenac sodium. XRPD indicated the presence of theophylline crystals whilst budesonide and diclofenac sodium remained amorphous in the PVP matrix of the filaments and 3D printed tablets. Fabricated tablets demonstrated gastric resistant properties and a pH responsive drug release pattern in both phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Despite its relatively limited resolution, FDM 3D printing proved to be a suitable platform for a single-process fabrication of delayed release tablets. This work reveals the potential of dual FDM 3D printing as a unique platform for personalising delayed release tablets to suit an individual patient's needs.

  9. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J.; Bravenec, Ardith D.; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D.; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A.; Reed, Lori S.; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750–1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations. PMID:26372965

  10. Effects of d- and l-limonene on the pregnant rat myometrium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Hódi, Ágnes; Seres, Adrienn B; Gáspár, Róbert

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of d- and l-limonene on pregnant rat myometrial contractility in vitro, and investigate how these effects are modified by other agents. D- and l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) caused myometrial contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Contractions of uterine rings from 22-day-pregnant rats were measured in an organ bath in the presence of d- or l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) and nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethyl-ammonium (10(-3) M), theophylline (10(-5) M), or paxilline (10(-5) M). Uterine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Oxidative damage was induced by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) and the alteration was measured via noradrenaline (1×10(-9) to 3×10(-5) M) -induced contractions. Pre-treatment with nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethylammonium (10(-3) M), and theophylline (10(-5) M) attenuated the contracting effect of d- and l-limonene, while in the presence of paxilline (10(-5) M) d- and l-limonene were ineffective. The two enantiomers decreased the myometrial cAMP level, but after paxilline pretreatment the cAMP level was not altered compared with the control value. Additionally, l-limonene (10(-6) M) diminished consequences of oxidative damage caused by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) on contractility, whereas d-limonene was ineffective. Our findings suggest that l-limonene has an antioxidant effect and that both d-and l-limonene cause myometrial contraction through activation of the A2A receptor and opening of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. It is possible that limonene-containing products increase the pregnant uterus contractility and their use should be avoided during pregnancy.

  11. Lymphocyte senescence in COPD is associated with decreased histone deacetylase 2 expression by pro-inflammatory lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Greg; Jersmann, Hubertus; Tran, Hai B; Roscioli, Eugene; Holmes, Mark; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra

    2015-10-24

    Histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) are enzymes that upregulate and down-regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription respectively. HDAC2 is required by corticosteroids to switch off activated inflammatory genes and is reduced in lung macrophages in COPD. We have shown that COPD patients have increased steroid resistant CD28null (senescent) pro-inflammatory T and NKT-like peripheral blood cells (particularly CD8+ subsets) and we hypothesized that these changes would be associated with a loss of HDAC2 from these senescent pro-inflammatory lymphocytes. Blood was collected from 10 COPD and 10 aged-matched controls. Intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ and TNFα, and expression of CD28, HDAC2 and HAT, were determined in lymphocyte subsets in the presence of ± 5 mg/ml theophylline (HDAC2 activator), 10 μM prednisolone and 2.5 ng/ml cyclosporine A (immunosuppressant), using flow cytometry. There was a loss of HDAC2 from CD28null CD8+ T and NKT-like cells in COPD. There was a significant negative correlation between HDAC2 expression and the percentage of CD28null CD8+ T and NKT-like cells producing IFNγ or TNFα in all subjects (eg, COPD: R = -.763, p < 0.001 for T-cell IFNγ). There was a synergistic upregulation of HDAC2 and associated decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine production in CD28nullCD8+ T and NKT-like cells in the presence of 5 mg/L theophylline + 10(-6) M prednisolone or 2.5 ng/mL cyclosporine A (CsA). Lymphocyte senescence in COPD is associated with loss of HDAC2 in CD28nullCD8+ T and NKT-like cells. Alternative treatment options such as combined theophylline with low-dose CsA, that inhibit these pro-inflammatory cells, may reduce systemic inflammation in COPD.

  12. Functional characteristics of the porcine colonic epithelium following transportation stress and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, Jörg R; Ahrens, Frank; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Fürll, Brigitta; Roesler, Uwe; Hensel, Andreas; Gäbel, Gotthold

    2007-06-01

    Stressful life events and infections contribute to gut disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We used a pig model to analyse whether this could be linked to altered mediator sensitivity of the epithelial lining. Uninfected control pigs or pigs with subclinical Salmonella (S.) typhimurium DT 104 infection were killed either without (ConRest, InfRest) or with prior 8-h transportation (ConTrans, InfTrans). Short-circuit current (I(sc)), tissue conductance (G(t)) and release of mast cell mediators were monitored in isolated colonic epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Epithelia were exposed to histamine (100 microM, mucosally), substance P (SP; 1 microM, serosally), calcimycin A23187 (1 microM, serosally) and theophylline (10 mM, bilaterally). Transepithelial flux of histamine and colonic activities of histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined. S. infection decreased baseline I(sc), G(t) and histamine fluxes, while transportation had no effect on these values. Mucosal histamine increased I(sc) only in ConTrans pigs. This was not associated with increased mucosal-to-serosal flux of histamine but with a 2-fold increased DAO activity. Serosal SP increased I(sc) only in transported animals, but the increase was six times higher in ConTrans versus InfTrans pigs. Effectiveness of SP was not dependent on the release of histamine or prostaglandin D2. A23187 and theophylline elicited increases in I(sc) that were not different between treatments. Transportation stress facilitates secretory responses of the colonic epithelium to SP and luminal histamine. This is suppressed by subclinical S. infection. Effects of S. infection on porcine colon resemble, in part, the known effects of an oral S. endotoxin application.

  13. Stimulant effects of adenosine antagonists on operant behavior: differential actions of selective A2A and A1 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Janniere, Simone L.; Stopper, Colin M.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sager, Thomas N.; Baqi, Younis; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse many of the behavioral effects of dopamine antagonists, including actions on instrumental behavior. However, little is known about the effects of selective adenosine antagonists on operant behavior when these drugs are administered alone. Objective The present studies were undertaken to investigate the potential for rate-dependent stimulant effects of both selective and nonselective adenosine antagonists. Methods Six drugs were tested: two nonselective adenosine antagonists (caffeine and theophylline), two adenosine A1 antagonists (DPCPX and CPT), and two adenosine A2A antagonists (istradefylline (KW6002) and MSX-3). Two schedules of reinforcement were employed; a fixed interval 240-s (FI-240 sec) schedule was used to generate low baseline rates of responding and a fixed ratio 20 (FR20) schedule generated high rates. Results Caffeine and theophylline produced rate-dependent effects on lever pressing, increasing responding on the FI-240 sec schedule but decreasing responding on the FR20 schedule. The A2A antagonists MSX-3 and istradefylline increased FI-240 sec lever pressing but did not suppress FR20 lever pressing in the dose range tested. In fact, there was a tendency for istradefylline to increase FR20 responding at a moderate dose. A1 antagonists failed to increase lever pressing rate, but DPCPX decreased FR20 responding at higher doses. Conclusions These results suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists enhance operant response rates, but A1 antagonists do not. The involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in regulating aspects of instrumental response output and behavioral activation may have implications for the treatment of effort-related psychiatric dysfunctions, such as psychomotor slowing and anergia in depression. PMID:21347642

  14. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    PubMed

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms by which moisture generates cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, Adivaraha; Good, David J; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which moisture can generate cocrystals when solid particles of cocrystal reactants are exposed to deliquescent conditions (when moisture sorption forms an aqueous solution). It is based on the hypothesis that cocrystallization behavior during water uptake can be derived from solution chemistry using models that describe cocrystal solubility and reaction crystallization of molecular complexes. Cocrystal systems were selected with active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that form hydrates and include carbamazepine, caffeine, and theophylline. Moisture uptake and crystallization behavior were studied by gravimetric vapor sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and on-line Raman spectroscopy. Results indicate that moisture uptake generates cocrystals of carbamazepine-nicotinamide, carbamazepine-saccharin, and caffeine or theophylline with dicarboxylic acid ligands (oxalic acid, maleic acid, glutaric acid, and malonic acid) when solid mixtures with cocrystal reactants deliquesce. Microscopy studies revealed that the transformation mechanism to cocrystal involves (1) moisture uptake, (2) dissolution of reactants, and (3) cocrystal nucleation and growth. Studies of solid blends of reactants in a macro scale show that the rate and extent of cocrystal formation are a function of relative humidity, moisture uptake, deliquescent material, and dissolution rates of reactants. It is shown that the interplay between moisture uptake and dissolution determines the liquid phase composition, supersaturation, and cocrystal formation rates. Differences in the behavior of deliquescent additives (sucrose and fructose) are associated with moisture uptake and composition of the deliquesced solution. Our results show that deliquescence can transform API to cocrystal or reverse the reaction given the right conditions. Key indicators of cocrystal formation and stability are (1) moisture uptake, (2) cocrystal aqueous solubility, (3

  16. Effects of d- and l-limonene on the pregnant rat myometrium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Hódi, Ágnes; Seres, Adrienn B.; Gáspár, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the effects of d- and l-limonene on pregnant rat myometrial contractility in vitro, and investigate how these effects are modified by other agents. D- and l-limonene (10−13-10−8 M) caused myometrial contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Methods Contractions of uterine rings from 22-day-pregnant rats were measured in an organ bath in the presence of d- or l-limonene (10−13-10−8 M) and nifedipine (10−8 M), tetraethyl-ammonium (10−3 M), theophylline (10−5 M), or paxilline (10−5 M). Uterine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Oxidative damage was induced by methylglyoxal (3 × 10−2 M) and the alteration was measured via noradrenaline (1 × 10−9 to 3 × 10−5 M) -induced contractions. Results Pre-treatment with nifedipine (10−8 M), tetraethylammonium (10−3 M), and theophylline (10−5 M) attenuated the contracting effect of d- and l-limonene, while in the presence of paxilline (10−5 M) d- and l-limonene were ineffective. The two enantiomers decreased the myometrial cAMP level, but after paxilline pretreatment the cAMP level was not altered compared with the control value. Additionally, l-limonene (10−6 M) diminished consequences of oxidative damage caused by methylglyoxal (3 × 10−2 M) on contractility, whereas d-limonene was ineffective. Conclusion Our findings suggest that l-limonene has an antioxidant effect and that both d-and l-limonene cause myometrial contraction through activation of the A2A receptor and opening of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel. It is possible that limonene-containing products increase the pregnant uterus contractility and their use should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:26526880

  17. The influence of four different anticoagulants on dynamic light scattering of platelets.

    PubMed

    Raczat, T; Kraemer, L; Gall, C; Weiss, D R; Eckstein, R; Ringwald, J

    2014-08-01

    For testing of dynamic light scattering of platelets with ThromboLUX (TLX) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derived from venous whole blood (vWB), anticoagulation is needed. We compared TLX score in PRPs containing citrate, ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (EDTA), citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) or citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole. Initial and late TLX scores were measured after 30-120 min or four to six hours, respectively. Compared with citrate, mean differences in initial TLX score were only significant for CPDA. Also, mean differences between initial and late TLX scores were only significant for CPDA. TLX failed to detect EDTA-induced platelet alterations. The clinical relevance of TLX needs further studies. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Microrods via Mesophase Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Scrivano, Luca; Candamano, Sebastiano; Ruffo, Mariarosa; Vattimo, Anna Francesca; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Puoci, Francesco

    2017-12-28

    The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via "mesophase polymerization". The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to direct the morphology of the synthesized imprinted polymers using theophylline, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a drug model template, a functional monomer, and a crosslinker, respectively. The obtained molecularly imprinted microrods (MIMs) were assessed by performing binding experiments and in vitro release studies, and the obtained results highlighted good selective recognition abilities and sustained release properties. In conclusion, the adopted synthetic strategy involving a lyotropic mesophase system allows for the preparation of effective MIPs characterized by a rod-like morphology.

  19. [Effect of calcium and magnesium ions on the interaction of corticosterone with the cytosol receptor(s) in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Ueda, M

    1981-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the corticosterone binding to rat brain cytosol receptor protein(s) were investigated. The increasing amounts of CaCl2 or MgCl2 up to 5.0 mM were added, the specific [3H] corticosterone binding increased 1.3-fold and 1.5 respectively. The addition of MnCl2 and KCl did not affect this binding. The binding of corticosterone with rat brain cytosol receptor(s) were decreased by increasing amounts of EDTA and complete inhibition was observed at concentration equal to and greater than 2.5 mM. Inhibition of this binding by EDTA was less than by EGTA. Either theophylline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP had no effect on this binding.

  20. Noradrenaline treatment of rats stimulates H2O2 generation in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, A; Patole, M S; Puranam, R S; Ramasarma, T

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of rats with noradrenaline stimulated H2O2 generation in liver mitochondria using succinate, choline or glycerol 1-phosphate as substrate. The dehydrogenase activity with either succinate or choline as substrate showed no change, whereas that with glycerol 1-phosphate increased. The effect was obtained with noradrenaline, but not with dihydroxyphenylserine. Phenoxybenzamine and yohimbine, but not propranolol, prevented the response to noradrenaline treatment. Phenylephrine could stimulate H2O2 generation, whereas isoprenaline had only a marginal effect. Theophylline treatment slightly decreased the generation of H2O2 in liver mitochondria, but treatment with pargyline, Ro4-1284 and dibutyryl cyclic AMP had little effect. These studies showed that noradrenaline might possibly be acting through the alpha 2-adrenergic system. PMID:6312963

  1. Digitally enhanced thin layer chromatography: further development and some applications in isotopic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, Daniel P; Lockley, William J S

    2013-09-01

    Improvements to thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis can be made easily and cheaply by the application of digital colour photography and image analysis. The combined technique, digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC), is applicable to the accurate quantification of analytes in mixtures, to reaction monitoring and to other typical uses of TLC. Examples are given of the application of digitally enhanced TLC to: the deuteromethylations of theophylline to [methyl-(2)H3]caffeine and of umbelliferone to [(2)H3]7-methoxycoumarin; the selection of tertiary amine bases in deuterodechlorination reactions; stoichiometry optimisation in the borodeuteride reduction of quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and to the assessment of xanthophyll yields in Lepidium sativum seedlings grown in deuterated media. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Green hydrophilic interaction chromatography using ethanol-water-carbon dioxide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Girón, Ana Jiménez; Admasu, Engdawork; Sandra, Pat

    2010-03-01

    In hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), best results are obtained with high concentrations of acetonitrile. In the framework of green chromatography, different concentrations of carbon dioxide were added to the mobile phases acetonitrile-water and ethanol-water and the impact on retention and separation in HILIC using bare silica as stationary phase was explored. The features of HILIC using enhanced-fluidity mobile phases are illustrated with the analysis of the nucleobases and a mixture containing the nucleobases and cortisol, flurbiprofen, theophylline and caffeine. For both organic constituents, the elution window is widened in function of the carbon dioxide concentration and selectivity changes. At high concentrations of carbon dioxide in ethanol, separations were similar to those obtained with acetonitrile without carbon dioxide addition.

  3. An empirical model for dissolution profile and its application to floating dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Kriangkrai, Worawut; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul

    2014-06-02

    A sum of two inverse Gaussian functions is proposed as a highly flexible empirical model for fitting of in vitro dissolution profiles. The model was applied to quantitatively describe theophylline release from effervescent multi-layer coated floating tablets containing different amounts of the anti-tacking agents talc or glyceryl monostearate. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression (mixed-effects modeling). The estimated parameters were used to determine the mean dissolution time, as well as to reconstruct the time course of release rate for each formulation, whereby the fractional release rate can serve as a diagnostic tool for classification of dissolution processes. The approach allows quantification of dissolution behavior and could provide additional insights into the underlying processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystalline coats or hollow crystals as tools for product design in pharmaceutical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J.; Schuster, A.; Stelzer, T.

    2013-01-01

    The coating of pharmaceutical compounds is a field of high interest. As most of the coating materials form an amorphous layer around the material, the studies on crystalline coatings are rare. In this work the progress in this domain should be summarized and innovative results concerning crystalline hollow needles as coating material are presented. Since the first reports on needles formed via a solvent-mediated phase transition from solvates to hydrates, the field could be widened to hydrate-to-anhydrate and anhydrate-to-hydrate transformations. Novel investigations on hollow theophylline monohydrate and carbamazepine dihydrate needles are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of substances into the hollow needle crystals is feasible by simple means, which enable an application in industry as coating for sensitive materials.

  5. Evolution and Protein Packaging of Small Molecule RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jolene L.; Baksh, Michael M.; Fiedler, Jason D.; Brown, Steven D.; Kussrow, Amanda; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Ordoukhanian, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A high-affinity RNA aptamer (Kd = 50 nM) was efficiently identified by SELEX against a heteroaryl dihydropyrimidine structure, chosen as a representative drug-like molecule with no cross reactivity with mammalian or bacterial cells. This aptamer, its weaker-binding variants, and a known aptamer against theophylline were each embedded in a longer RNA sequence that was encapsidated inside a virus-like particle by a convenient expression technique. These nucleoprotein particles were shown by backscattering interferometry to bind to the small-molecule ligands with affinities similar to those of the free (non-encapsidated) aptamers. The system therefore comprises a general approach to the production and sequestration of functional RNA molecules, characterized by a convenient label-free analytical technique. PMID:21899290

  6. Caffeine protects against experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Cane, Matthew C; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Szatmary, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Elliott, Victoria; Ouyang, Yulin; Chvanov, Michael; Latawiec, Diane; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Haynes, Andrea C; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Criddle, David N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Caffeine reduces toxic Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells via inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated signalling, but effects of other xanthines have not been evaluated, nor effects of xanthines on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We have determined effects of caffeine and its xanthine metabolites on pancreatic acinar IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signalling and experimental AP. Design Isolated pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to secretagogues, uncaged IP3 or toxins that induce AP and effects of xanthines, non-xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP) determined. The intracellular cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]C), mitochondrial depolarisation and necrosis were assessed by confocal microscopy. Effects of xanthines were evaluated in caerulein-induced AP (CER-AP), taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-induced AP (TLCS-AP) or palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (fatty acid ethyl ester AP (FAEE-AP)). Serum xanthines were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Caffeine, dimethylxanthines and non-xanthine PDE inhibitors blocked IP3-mediated Ca2+ oscillations, while monomethylxanthines had little effect. Caffeine and dimethylxanthines inhibited uncaged IP3-induced Ca2+ rises, toxin-induced Ca2+ release, mitochondrial depolarisation and necrotic cell death pathway activation; cAMP/cGMP did not inhibit toxin-induced Ca2+ rises. Caffeine significantly ameliorated CER-AP with most effect at 25 mg/kg (seven injections hourly); paraxanthine or theophylline did not. Caffeine at 25 mg/kg significantly ameliorated TLCS-AP and FAEE-AP. Mean total serum levels of dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthines peaked at >2 mM with 25 mg/kg caffeine but at <100 µM with 25 mg/kg paraxanthine or theophylline. Conclusions Caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites reduced pathological IP3R-mediated pancreatic acinar Ca2

  7. Effect of hypoxia alone or combined with inflammation and 3-methylcholanthrene on hepatic cytochrome P450 in conscious rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, J; Maurice, H; El-Kadi, A O S; Ong, H; Dalkara, S; Bélanger, P M; du Souich, P

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effect of moderate hypoxia alone or combined with an inflammatory reaction or after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) pre-treatment on cytochrome P450 (P450), conscious rabbits were exposed for 24 h to a fractional concentration of inspired O2 of 10% (mean PaO2 of 34 mmHg). Hypoxia decreased theophylline metabolic clearance (ClM) from 1.73±0.43 to 1.48±0.13 ml min−1 kg−1 (P<0.05), and reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of theophylline metabolites, 3-methylxanthine (3MX), 1-methyluric acid (1MU) and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3DMU). Hypoxia reduced the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 but increased CYP3A6 proteins.Turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction reduced (P<0.05) the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU, and 1,3DMU, and diminished the amount of CYP1A1, 1A2 and 3A6 proteins. However, when combined with hypoxia, inflammation partially prevented the decrease in ClM, especially by impeding the reduction of 1,3DMU. The amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 remained reduced but the amount of CYP3A6 protein returned to normal values.Pre-treatment with 3MC augmented the ClM by 114% (P<0.05) due to the increase in the formation clearance of 3MX, 1MU and 1,3DMU. 3MC treatment increased the amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 proteins. Pre-treatment with 3MC prevented the hypoxia-induced decrease in amount and activity of the P450.It is concluded that acute moderate hypoxia and an inflammatory reaction individually reduce the amount and activity of selected apoproteins of the P450. However, the combination of hypoxia and the inflammatory reaction restores P450 activity to near normal values. On the other hand, pre-treatment with 3MC prevents the hypoxia-induced depression of the P450. PMID:10510446

  8. Novel, Highly Specific N-Demethylases Enable Bacteria To Live on Caffeine and Related Purine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ryan M.; Louie, Tai Man; Yu, Chi-Li; Gakhar, Lokesh; Louie, Kailin C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is unknown. Pseudomonas putida CBB5, which grows on several purine alkaloids, metabolizes caffeine and related methylxanthines via sequential N-demethylation to xanthine. Metabolism of caffeine by CBB5 was previously attributed to one broad-specificity methylxanthine N-demethylase composed of two subunits, NdmA and NdmB. Here, we report that NdmA and NdmB are actually two independent Rieske nonheme iron monooxygenases with N1- and N3-specific N-demethylation activity, respectively. Activity for both enzymes is dependent on electron transfer from NADH via a redox-center-dense Rieske reductase, NdmD. NdmD itself is a novel protein with one Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, one plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per enzyme. All ndm genes are located in a 13.2-kb genomic DNA fragment which also contained a formaldehyde dehydrogenase. ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD were cloned as His6 fusion genes, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using a Ni-NTA column. NdmA-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N1-demethylation of caffeine, theophylline, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine to theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and xanthine, respectively. NdmB-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N3-demethylation of theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline to 7-methylxanthine, xanthine, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine, respectively. One formaldehyde was produced from each methyl group removed. Activity of an N7-specific N-demethylase, NdmC, has been confirmed biochemically. This is the first report of bacterial N-demethylase genes that enable bacteria to live on caffeine. These genes represent a new class of Rieske oxygenases and have the potential to produce biofuels, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals from coffee and tea waste. PMID:22328667

  9. Atomic force measurements of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and its salt with CH 3, OH, and CONHCH 3 functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Cruz, Angel L.; Tremont, Rolando; Martínez, Ramón; Romañach, Rodolfo; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2005-03-01

    Chemical and mechanical properties of different compounds can be elucidated by measuring fundamental forces such as adhesion, attraction and repulsion, between modified surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mode calibration. This work presents a combination of AFM, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and crystallization techniques to study the forces of interaction between excipients and active ingredients used in pharmaceutical formulations. SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, which represent magnesium stereate, were used to modify the probe tip, whereas CH3-, OH- and CONHCH3-functional SAMs were formed on a gold-coated mica substrate, and used as examples of the surfaces of lactose and theophylline. The crystals of lactose and theophylline were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modification of gold surfaces with 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, 10-mercapto-1-decanol (OH-functional SAM), 1-decanethiol (CH3-functional) and N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide (CONHCH3-functional SAM) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in specular reflectance mode. XPS and AES results of the modified surfaces showed the presence of sulfur binding, and kinetic energies that correspond to the presence of 10-mercapto-1-decanol, 1-decanethiol, N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide and the salt of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. The absorption bands in the IR spectra further confirm the modification of the gold-coated substrates with these compounds. Force versus distance measurements were performed between the modified tip and the modified gold-coated mica substrates. The mean adhesion forces between the COO-Ca2+ functionalized tip and the CH3-, OH-, and CONHCH3-modified substrates were determined to be 4.5, 8.9 and 6.3 nN, respectively. The magnitude of the adhesion force (ion-dipole) interaction between the modified tip and

  10. Cardiorespiratory treatments as modifiers of the relationship between particulate matter and health: a case-only analysis on hospitalized patients in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Sara; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Zanobetti, Antonella; Fornari, Carla; Madotto, Fabiana; Schwartz, Joel; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background A few panel and toxicological studies suggest that health effects of particulate matter (PM) might be modified by medication intake, but whether this modification is confirmed in the general population or for more serious outcomes is still unknown. Objectives We carried out a population-based pilot study in order to assess how pre-hospitalization medical treatments modify the relationship between PM < 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and the risk of cardiorespiratory admission. Methods We gathered information on hospitalizations for cardiorespiratory causes, together with pre-admission pharmacological treatments, that occurred during 2005 in seven cities located in Lombardy (Northern Italy). City-specific PM10 concentrations were measured at fixed monitoring stations. Each treatment of interest was analyzed separately through a case-only approach, using generalized additive models accounting for sex, age, comorbidities, temperature and simultaneous intake of other drugs. Analyses were stratified by season and, if useful, by age and sex. Results Our results showed a higher effect size for PM10 on respiratory admissions in subjects treated with theophylline (Odds Ratio (OR) of treatment for an increment of 10 µg/m3 in PM10 concentration: 1.119; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.013 – 1.237), while for cardiovascular admissions treatment with cardiac therapy (OR: 0.967, 95% CI, 0.940 – 0.995) and lipid modifying agents (OR: 0.962, 95% CI, 0.931 – 0.995) emerged as a protective factor, especially during the warm season. Evidence of a protective effect against the pollutant was found for glucocorticoids and respiratory admissions. Conclusions Our study showed that the treatment with cardiac therapy and lipid modifying agents might mitigate the effect of PM10 on cardiovascular health, while the use of theophylline seems to enhance the effect of the pollutant, possibly due to confounding by indication. It is desirable to extend the analyses to a

  11. Compartmental shift of potassium--a result of sympathomimetic overdose.

    PubMed

    McCleave, D J; Phillips, P J; Vedig, A E

    1978-04-01

    A 17-year-old youth was admitted with a serum potassium concentration of 1.8 mmol/l after taking an overdose of pseudoephedrine and choline theophyllinate. Apart from tachycardia, tachypnoea and ankle clonus, examination was normal as was the initial electrocardiograph. The hypokalaemia resolved, but there was an overall positive potassium balance of only 13 mmol. This suggests that the sympathomimetics provoked a compartmental shift of potassium perhaps indirectly by inducing hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, as well as directly. Other factors known to affect body potassium distribution were excluded. The fact that features commonly associated with hypokalaemia could not be demonstrated may be explained by a normal body potassium content. Severe hypokalaemia caused by a compartmental shift occurs with large doses of sympathomimetics as well as in periodic paralysis.

  12. Ribozyme-mediated signal augmentation on a mass-sensitive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Scott M; Lee, Joonhyung; Ellington, Andrew D; Savran, Cagri A

    2006-12-20

    Mass-based detection methods such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) offer an attractive option to label-based methods; however the sensitivity is generally lower by comparison. In particular, low-molecular-weight analytes can be difficult to detect based on mass addition alone. In this communication, we present the use of effector-dependent ribozymes (aptazymes) as reagents for augmenting small ligand detection on a mass-sensitive device. Two distinct aptazymes were chosen: an L1-ligase-based aptazyme (L1-Rev), which is activated by a small peptide (MW approximately 2.4 kDa) from the HIV-1 Rev protein, and a hammerhead cleavase-based aptazyme (HH-theo3) activated by theophylline (MW = 180 Da). Aptazyme activity was observed in real time, and low-molecular-weight analyte detection has been successfully demonstrated with both aptazymes.

  13. cap alpha. -Methylglucoside satisfies only Na/sup +/-dependent transport system of intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmich, G.A.; Randles, J.

    1981-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of ..cap alpha..-methylglucoside (..cap alpha..-MG) by isolated chicken intestinal epithelial cells is 98% inhibited by phlorizin. The remaining 2% of the total influx occurs in the absence of Na/sup +/, is not sensitive to phloretin, and is equal to the diffusional entry rate for 2-deoxyglucose. The glucoside is much more strongly accumulated (75-fold) than 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) (10-fold). Inhibitors of the serosal sugar carrier (phloretin, cytochalasin B, theophylline, and flavanoids) do not enhance ..cap alpha..-MG accumulation. It is concluded that the glycoside is not a substrate for the intestinal serosal transport system. Steady-state gradients of the sugar canmore » be represented accurately by a concentrative, phlorizin-sensitive system that is opposed by a diffusional efflux process.« less

  14. 76 FR 9789 - Determination That Theophylline Oral Solution, 80 Milligrams/15 Milliliters, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...)/15 milliliters (mL), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This... the drug's NDA or ANDA for reasons of safety or effectiveness or if FDA determines that the listed...

  15. Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X-C

    2006-10-02

    We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

  16. Purinoceptors exert negative inotropic effects on the heart in all major groups of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    The few and fragmentary studies on purinergic regulation of the reptile heart have reached equivocal conclusions. Indeed, unlike fish, amphibians, and mammals, it has been suggested that the turtle heart lacks purinoceptors. Here, we study the effect of adenosine and ATP on isolated heart strips from three species of reptiles: the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta), the ball python (Python regius) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Both adenosine and ATP markedly decreased contractility in atria from all three species. This was attenuated by theophylline, suggesting that the response is mediated by P1 receptors. Ventricles were less sensitive, although high concentrations of the adenyl compounds evoked decreases in contractility. Our study suggests that cardiac purinoceptors are ubiquitous across reptiles, and may play an important and underappreciated role in reptile cardiovascular physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New drugs in treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, S C; Kaiser, H B

    1976-09-01

    Therapy for bronchial asthma should be preventive when possible. Around-the-clock treatment with theophylline is a new way of using an old drug. Beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulators, cromolyn sodium, and steroids in aerosol form are new drugs that are useful in treatment of asthma. The good news with respect to drug treatment of asthma is that in addition to the old reliable medications which have provided good relief-including epinephrine, ephedrine, isoproterenol, aminophylline, and steroids given orally and parenterally-new drugs are available which have been extremely helpful in controlling symptoms in many patients. The bad news is that none of the new agents is a panacea and that many of them have significant undesirable side effects. It is the physician's responsibility to be wary of the new drugs for asthma and to use them appropriately.

  18. Further investigation of the biosynthesis of caffeine in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.). Methylation of transfer ribonucleic acid by tea leaf extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1976-01-01

    1. The tRNA methyltransferase activity in vitro of leaves, cotyledons and roots of 85-day-old tea seedlings was studied. 2. The activity of extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polycar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) had optimum pH7.7 and was greatly influenced by thiol compounds, but only slightly by metal ions and ammonium acetate. 3. The activities of extracts, expressed per mg of protein, were as follows: roots greater than leaves greater than cotyledons. The only methylated base isolated after incubation with these preparations was 1-methyladenine. 4. The results did not support the view of involvement of methylation of nucleic acids in caffeine biosynthesis in tea plants. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from the specific methylated precursor in nucleic acids, namely 1-methyladenylic acid, via 1-methylxanthine. PMID:12749

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of 12 Treatment Strategies for Preventing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaole; Xie, Xinfang; Liu, Lijun; Lv, Jicheng; Song, Fujian; Perkovic, Vlado; Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    To simultaneously evaluate the relative efficacy of multiple pharmacologic strategies for preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Systematic review containing a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Participants undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures with contrast media. Randomized controlled trials comparing the active drug treatments with each other or with hydration alone. Any of the following drugs in combination with hydration: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), theophylline (aminophylline), fenoldopam, iloprost, alprostadil, prostaglandin E 1 , statins, statins plus NAC, bicarbonate sodium, bicarbonate sodium plus NAC, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol (vitamin E), α-lipoic acid, atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and carperitide. The occurrence of contrast-induced AKI. The trial network included 150 trials with 31,631 participants and 4,182 contrast-induced AKI events assessing 12 different interventions. Compared to hydration, ORs (95% credible intervals) for contrast-induced AKI were 0.31 (0.14-0.60) for high-dose statin plus NAC, 0.37 (0.19-0.64) for high-dose statin alone, 0.37 (0.17-0.72) for prostaglandins, 0.48 (0.26-0.82) for theophylline, 0.62 (0.40-0.88) for bicarbonate sodium plus NAC, 0.67 (0.54-0.81) for NAC alone, 0.64 (0.41-0.95) for vitamins and analogues, 0.70 (0.29-1.37) for natriuretic peptides, 0.69 (0.31-1.37) for fenoldopam, 0.78 (0.59-1.01) for bicarbonate sodium, and 0.98 (0.41-2.07) for low-dose statin. High-dose statin plus NAC or high-dose statin alone were likely to be ranked the best or the second best for preventing contrast-induced AKI. The overall results were not materially changed in metaregressions or subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Patient-level data were unavailable; unable to include some treatment agents; low event rates; imbalanced distribution of participants among treatment strategies. High-dose statins plus hydration with or without NAC might

  20. Performance comparison of first-order conditional estimation with interaction and Bayesian estimation methods for estimating the population parameters and its distribution from data sets with a low number of subjects.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sudeep; Song, Byungjeong; Lee, Jaeyeon; Chae, Jung-Woo; Kim, Kyung Im; Back, Hyun-Moon; Han, Nayoung; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Yun, Hwi-Yeol

    2017-12-01

    Exploratory preclinical, as well as clinical trials, may involve a small number of patients, making it difficult to calculate and analyze the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, especially if the PK parameters show very high inter-individual variability (IIV). In this study, the performance of a classical first-order conditional estimation with interaction (FOCE-I) and expectation maximization (EM)-based Markov chain Monte Carlo Bayesian (BAYES) estimation methods were compared for estimating the population parameters and its distribution from data sets having a low number of subjects. In this study, 100 data sets were simulated with eight sampling points for each subject and with six different levels of IIV (5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, and 80%) in their PK parameter distribution. A stochastic simulation and estimation (SSE) study was performed to simultaneously simulate data sets and estimate the parameters using four different methods: FOCE-I only, BAYES(C) (FOCE-I and BAYES composite method), BAYES(F) (BAYES with all true initial parameters and fixed ω 2 ), and BAYES only. Relative root mean squared error (rRMSE) and relative estimation error (REE) were used to analyze the differences between true and estimated values. A case study was performed with a clinical data of theophylline available in NONMEM distribution media. NONMEM software assisted by Pirana, PsN, and Xpose was used to estimate population PK parameters, and R program was used to analyze and plot the results. The rRMSE and REE values of all parameter (fixed effect and random effect) estimates showed that all four methods performed equally at the lower IIV levels, while the FOCE-I method performed better than other EM-based methods at higher IIV levels (greater than 30%). In general, estimates of random-effect parameters showed significant bias and imprecision, irrespective of the estimation method used and the level of IIV. Similar performance of the estimation methods was observed with theophylline

  1. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  2. Determination of azathioprine and its related substances by capillary zone electrophoresis and its application to pharmaceutical dosage forms assay.

    PubMed

    Shafaati, A; Clark, B J

    2000-03-01

    The development of a stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of the drug azathioprine (AZA) and its related substances in bulk and dosage forms is described. Theophylline was used as an internal standard to improve quantitative results. The method was fully validated in terms of repeatability (n = 10, RSD for migration time and peak area ratio were 0.15% and 0.60%, respectively), reproducibility (n = 5, RSD of peak area ratio was 0.84%), linearity at two ranges of the azathioprine concentration, limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), and robustness. The method was applied for determination of the drug in bulk and a commercial tablet dosage form (recovery 98.3-101.3%) and in powder for injection (recovery 98.7-100.6%). The method was fast and reliable for the analysis of AZA and its related substances in bulk and dosage forms.

  3. Distribution of binder in granules produced by means of twin screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Fussell, Andrew Luke; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Strachan, Clare; Rades, Thomas; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-02-28

    According to the quality by design principle processes may not remain black-boxes and full process understanding is required. The granule size distribution of granules produced via twin screw granulation is often found to be bimodal. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of binder distribution within granules produced via twin screw granulation in order to investigate if an inhomogeneous spread of binder is causing this bimodal size distribution. Theophylline-lactose-polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (30-67.5-2.5%, w/w) was used as a model formulation. The intra-granular distribution of PVP was evaluated by means of hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. For the evaluated formulation, no PVP rich zones were detected when applying a lateral spatial resolution of 0.5 μm, indicating that PVP is homogenously distributed within the granules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of pH-Sensitive Semi-IPN Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based on Poly(acrylic acid) Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lim Sze; Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Mat Lazim, Azwan; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content. It was found that the hydrogel reached maximum swelling at pH 7. The potential of the resulting hydrogels to act as drug carriers was then evaluated by means of the drug encapsulation efficiency test using theophylline as a model drug. It was observed that 15% CNC/PAA hydrogel showed the potential to be used as drug carrier system. PMID:29156613

  5. [A case of severe asthma exacerbation complicated with cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral micro-bleeds].

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Sakai, Asao; Fujita, Kentaro; Katayama, Nobuyuki

    2009-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for the treatment of severe asthma exacerbation. Her condition of asthma improved with systemic glucocorticosteroids, inhaled beta2-agonist, intravenous theophylline and inhaled anesthesia (isoflurane) under mechanical ventilation. Her consciousness was disturbed even after terminating isoflurane. Brain CT and MRI scan showed cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral micro-bleeds. Glyceol, a hyperosmotic diuretic solution consisting of 10% glycerol and 5% fructose in saline, was administered to decrease cerebral edema. Her consciousness disturbance gradually recovered. Cerebral edema and hemorrhage improved. On the 69th hospital day, she was discharged from hospital without sequelae. This case is a rare one in which severe asthma exacerbation was complicated with cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral hemorrhage. Inhaled anesthesia for asthma exacerbation should be used carefully to avoid delay of diagnosis of central nervous system complications.

  6. In vitro dissolution of pH sensitive microparticles for colon-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare oral dosage systems based on enteric materials in order to verify their possible use as Colon-Specific Drug Delivery Systems (CSDDSs). In particular, three different copolymers of methyl-methacrylate (MMA) - acrylic acid (AA) are synthesized with increasing percentage of MMA (from 70% to 73%) and they are used to produce microparticles by the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microparticles, loaded using theophylline as model drug, are then tested for drug release under varying pH to reproduce what happens in the human GI tract. All the investigated systems have shown an effective pH sensitiveness: they show a good gastro-resistance, releasing the model drug only at higher pH, small intestine or colon, depending on the kind of used copolymer. The results confirm the usefulness of both the materials and the methods proposed in this study for colon-specific delivery applications.

  7. In vitro action of bombesin and bombesin-like peptides on amylase secretion, calcium efflux, and adenylate cyclase activity in the rat pancreas: a comparison with other secretagogues.

    PubMed Central

    Deschodt-Lanckman, M; Robberecht, P; De Neef, P; Lammens, M; Christophe, J

    1976-01-01

    Bombesin (a tetradecapeptide), the C-terminal nonapeptide of bombesin (bombesin-NP), and litorin (a parent nonapeptide), each stimulated amylase secretion from rat pancreatic fragments. These responses were not affected by atropine. The concentrations that produced half-maximal stumulation of secretion were 0.25 nM for bombesin, 0.30 nM for bombesin-NP, and 0.07 nM for litorin, as compared to 0.12 nM for caerulein and 0.80 muM for the cholinergic agent carbamylcholine. When used at maximal concentrations, bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin showed no action on cyclic AMP levels in the presence of 5 mM theophylline. By contrast, caerulein and secretin increased cyclic AMP levels by 27 and 208%, respectively. Bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin did not activate adenylate cyclase in a purified pancreatic plasma membrane preparation, whereas caerulein and secretin increased this activity 20 and 16-times, respectively... PMID:184111

  8. [Separation of alkaloids in tea by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Fu, R; Zhang, T; Deng, J; Li, X

    1998-07-01

    Alkaloids extracted from the green tea were separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography. A series of experiments have been performed to investigate effects of different solvent system. A system of CHCl3-CH3OH-NaH2PO4(23 mmol/L) = (4:3:2) was selected, in which the upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase as mobile phase. When acidity of solvent system is pH 5.6, three chemical components are very efficiently isolated by one injection of 50 mg sample mixture. Analyzing the eluted fractions by TLC, we know that one is caffeine, and the other is theophylline. In comparing the separation results by high-speed counter-current chromatography with those by TLC, the advantages of this method is verified. It should find wide applications of this technology for the separation of crude mixture of plant components.

  9. Simulated food effects on drug release from ethylcellulose: PVA-PEG graft copolymer-coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Muschert, Susanne; Siepmann, Florence; Leclercq, Bruno; Carlin, Brian; Siepmann, Juergen

    2010-02-01

    Food effects might substantially alter drug release from oral controlled release dosage forms in vivo. The robustness of a novel type of controlled release film coating was investigated using various types of release media and two types of release apparatii. Importantly, none of the investigated conditions had a noteworthy impact on the release of freely water-soluble diltiazem HCl or slightly water-soluble theophylline from pellets coated with ethylcellulose containing small amounts of PVA-PEG graft copolymer. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of fats, carbohydrates, surfactants, bile salts, and calcium ions in the release medium did not alter drug release. Furthermore, changes in the pH and differences in the mechanical stress the dosage forms were exposed to did not affect drug release from the pellets. The investigated film coatings allowing for oral controlled drug delivery are highly robust in vitro and likely to be poorly sensitive to classical food effects in vivo.

  10. Canonical translation-modulating OFF-riboswitches with a single aptamer binding to a small molecule that function in a higher eukaryotic cell-free expression system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Murashige, Yuta; Takahashi, Hajime

    2018-06-19

    We have found that OFF-riboswitches that ligand-dependently downregulate the canonical translation in a higher eukaryotic expression system (wheat germ extract) can be easily created by inserting a single aptamer into the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA, even if its ligand is as small as theophylline. The key is the position of the inserted aptamer: the 5' end (+0 position) is much better than other positions for inhibiting canonical translation with the aptamer-ligand complex. The data showed that ribosome loading is suppressed by a rigid structure in the 5' end, and this suppression is dependent on the structure's stability but not on its size. Although this preference of aptamer insertion point contradicts the results in a lower eukaryote, it accords with the fact that the 5'-end structural hindrance is more effective for blocking the ribosome in higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the present type of OFF-riboswitch would function in various higher eukaryotic expression systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contemporary Insights and Novel Treatment Approaches to Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grayburn, Ryan L.; Kaka, Yaquta; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a common and under-diagnosed condition commonly associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. It is particularly prevalent in the heart failure population affecting up to 40% of all patients with heart failure. The pathophysiology associated with CSA is based on the underlying effects of hypoventilation and hyperventilation, with neurologic dysregulation of respiratory control as the primary defect. However, therapeutic options are limited due to the prevailing perception that CSA is a consequence, rather than cause of morbidity and mortality. At present, the main focus remains treating the underlying problem (ie intensifying heart failure therapeutics, decongestion), while additional suggestions of using acetazolamide, progesterone, nocturnal oxygen, and theophylline have not been validated with contemporary clinical trials. Positive pressure ventilation is currently the primary recommendation for all patients with sleep-disordered breathing (CSA included), and in some patients may effectively reduce the apnea-hypopnea index. However, significant research is ongoing to determine how to treat this complex patient population. PMID:24874028

  12. Impact of salt form and molecular weight of chitosan on swelling and drug release from chitosan matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Huanbutta, Kampanart; Cheewatanakornkool, Kamonrak; Terada, Katsuhide; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2013-08-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gravimetric techniques were used to assess swelling and erosion behaviors of hydrophilic matrix tablets made of chitosan. The impact of salt form, molecular weight (MW) and dissolution medium on swelling behavior and drug (theophylline) release was studied. The matrix tablets made of chitosan glycolate (CGY) showed the greatest swelling in both acid and neutral media, compared to chitosan aspartate, chitosan glutamate and chitosan lactate. MRI illustrated that swelling region of CGY in both media was not different in the first 100 min but glassy region (dry core) in 0.1N HCl was less than in pH 6.8 buffer. The tablets prepared from chitosan with high MW swelled greater than those of low MW. Moreover, CGY can delay drug release in the acid condition due to thick swollen gel and low erosion rate. Therefore, CGY may be suitably applied as sustained drug release polymer or enteric coating material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of adenine and some derivatives on pig isolated tracheal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Dieterle, Y.; Holden, W. E.; Junod, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    We studied the muscle relaxation induced by adenine and several adenine derivatives in strips of tracheal smooth muscle from pigs; in addition their metabolism by the tissue was examined. Adenine relaxed tissue which was contracted by carbachol, histamine, or KCl. Adenine's potency was similar to that of adenosine and ATP (threshold about 4 X 10(-5)M). In tissues with carbachol-induced tone, the adenine effect differed from adenosine and ATP by being slower in onset and in 'washout' time. Furthermore, neither dipyridamole nor theophylline modified the response to adenine. The relationship was examined between pharmacological effects and the metabolism of [3H]-adenosine and [3H]-adenine. Both substrates were taken up by the tissue and converted to nucleotides, but relaxation correlated with nucleotide accumulation only in the case of [3H]-adenine. We conclude that the site and mechanism of adenine-induced relaxation is different from that of adenosine and ATP in porcine tracheal muscle. PMID:6571222

  14. Modeling solid-state transformations occurring in dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Timo; Aaltonen, Jaakko

    2013-04-15

    Changes in the solid-state form can occur during dissolution testing of drugs. This can often complicate interpretation of results. Additionally, there can be several mechanisms through which such a change proceeds, e.g. solvent-mediated transformation or crystal growth within the drug material itself. Here, a mathematical model was constructed to study the dissolution testing of a material, which undergoes such changes. The model consisted of two processes: the recrystallization of the drug from a supersaturated liquid state caused by the dissolution of the more soluble solid form and the crystal growth of the stable solid form at the surface of the drug formulation. Comparison to experimental data on theophylline dissolution showed that the results obtained with the model matched real solid-state changes and that it was able to distinguish between cases where the transformation was controlled either by solvent-mediated crystallization or solid-state crystal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cocrystal dissociation in the presence of water: a general approach for identifying stable cocrystal forms.

    PubMed

    Eddleston, Mark D; Madusanka, Nadeesh; Jones, William

    2014-09-01

    In previous studies, cocrystals have been shown to be susceptible to dissociation at high humidity because of differences in the solubilities of the two coformer molecules, especially when these molecules can form hydrates. Contrastingly, however, the propensity of the pharmaceutically active compound caffeine to hydrate formation is reduced by cocrystallization with oxalic acid. Here, the stability of the oxalic acid cocrystal of caffeine is investigated from a thermodynamic perspective through the use of aqueous slurries of caffeine hydrate and oxalic acid dihydrate. Conversion to the anhydrous caffeine-oxalic acid cocrystal occurred under these conditions confirming that this form is thermodynamically stable in an aqueous environment. The slurry methodology was further developed as a general approach to screening for cocrystals that are not susceptible to dissociation at high humidity. In this manner, cocrystals of the hydrate-forming molecules theophylline, carbamazepine, and piroxicam that are stable at high humidity, indefinitely avoiding hydrate formation, were identified. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Dissolution at porous interfaces VI: Multiple pore systems.

    PubMed

    Grijseels, H; Crommelin, D J; De Blaey, C J

    1984-12-01

    With the aid of rapidly dissolving sodium chloride particles, cubic pores were made in the surface of a theophylline tablet. The influence of the pores on the dissolution rate of the surface was investigated in a rotating disk apparatus. Like the drilled pores used in earlier studies, downstream on the surface they caused a turbulent flow regimen with the development of a trough due to enhanced erosion. The phenomenon of a critical pore diameter, discovered with single, drilled pores, seems to be applicable to the cubic pores investigated in this study, although a higher degree of surface coverage with pores caused complications, probably due to particles bordering one another and forming larger pores. The behavior of the porous surfaces at different rotation speeds was studied. Due to the presence of pores the laminar character of the boundary layer flow changes to turbulent, which induces locally an increased dissolution flux in the wake of a pore.

  17. [The study of anticoagulants selection in platelet-rich plasma preparation].

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; Lai, Gui; Zhenjun, Liu; Guie, Ma

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effect of the anticoagulants on PRP quality, so as to clarify the appropriate anticoagulant used in PRP production. The microstructure change of platelets collected via heparin, citrate, acid citrate dextrose (ACD) and citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole ( CTAD) was observed by TEM following time course. The extent of spontaneous activation of platelets in four groups was detected by measuring sP-selectin in plasma. The TGF-β1 release amount of activated PRP of four groups was measured. CTAD is superior to other anticoagulants in maintaining the integrity of platelet structures for a long time and preventing platelet spontaneous activation. ACD slightly surpassed heparin and citrate in above two aspects. ACD-PRP and CTAD-PRP released significantly more TGF-β1 compared with heparin and citrate. The PRP quality and biological effects were strongly associated with the type of Anticoagulants. ACD and CTAD are optimal anticoagulants in PRP production for they can maintain platelet viability at a high level.

  18. Can we prevent acute kidney injury?

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Ramesh

    2008-04-01

    To review the literature on prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI). MEDLINE- and PubMed-based review of literature published from 1965 to 2007. AKI is very common among critically ill patients. Even mild forms of AKI have significant attributable mortality. Hence, it is imperative that every effort to prevent AKI be made in clinical practice. However, there are very few interventions that have been shown to consistently prevent AKI. Measures such as adequate hydration, maintenance of adequate circulating blood volume and mean arterial pressure, and avoidance of nephrotoxins are still the mainstay of prevention. Loop diuretics and "renal-dose" dopamine have been clearly shown not to prevent AKI and may, in fact, do harm. Among the remaining pharmacologic options, N-acetylcysteine has the strongest evidence in prevention of AKI. Fenoldopam and theophylline need further investigation before being used to prevent septic AKI and contrast nephropathy, respectively. The role of prophylactic dialysis in preventing contrast nephropathy needs to be investigated further.

  19. A cocktail of synthetic stimulants found in a dietary supplement associated with serious adverse events.

    PubMed

    Venhuis, Bastiaan; Keizers, Peter; van Riel, Antoinette; de Kaste, Dries

    2014-06-01

    Food supplements are regularly found to contain pharmacologically active substances. Recently, the food supplement Dexaprine was removed from the Dutch market because it was associated with severe adverse events. Reports to the Dutch Poisons Information Center (DPIC) showed that ingestion of as little as half a tablet caused several cases of nausea, agitation, tachycardia, and palpitations and even one case of cardiac arrest. The remaining tablets of four patients were sent in by different healthcare professionals. Analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) confirmed the presence of synephrine, oxilofrine, deterenol, yohimbine, caffeine, and theophylline. Two more compounds were found which were tentatively identified as β-methyl-β-phenylethylamines. This incident is only the next in a series of similar incidents involving dietary supplements with (undeclared) active substances that are either unsafe or have no known safety profile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Death by chocolate: a fatal problem for an inquisitive wild parrot.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, B D; Reid, C

    2007-06-01

    An adult male kea (Nestor notabilis) in good body condition was found dead at Aoraki/Mt Cook Village, in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The bird had previously been involved in behavioural tests of problem-solving ability. The bird had substantial subcutaneous and abdominal reserves of fat. The crop contained 20 g of what appeared to be dark chocolate; a conservative estimate of the dose of methylxanthines ingested by the bird was 250 mg/kg theobromine, 20 mg/kg caffeine and 3 mg/kg theophylline. Histopathological examination revealed acute degenerative changes to hepatocytes, renal tubules, and cerebrocortical neurons. Acute combination methylxanthine toxicity after opportunistic ingestion of chocolate. This is the first report of the pathological findings of methylxanthine toxicity in a wild parrot, and illustrates the need to ensure that kea are protected from the toxic by-products of human habitation, and the difficulties in ensuring this against a neophilic, inquisitive and innovative parrot.

  1. Separation of Active Compounds from Food by-Product (Cocoa Shell) Using Subcritical Water Extraction.

    PubMed

    Jokić, Stela; Gagić, Tanja; Knez, Željko; Šubarić, Drago; Škerget, Mojca

    2018-06-11

    Large amounts of residues are produced in the food industries. The waste shells from cocoa processing are usually burnt for fuel or used as a mulch in gardens to add nutrients to soil and to suppress weeds. The objectives of this work were: (a) to separate valuable compounds from cocoa shell by applying sustainable green separation process—subcritical water extraction (SWE); (b) identification and quantification of active compounds, sugars and sugar degradation products in obtained extracts using HPLC; (c) characterization of the antioxidant activity of extracts; (d) optimization of separation process using response surface methodology (RSM). Depending on applied extraction conditions, different concentration of theobromine, caffeine, theophylline, epicatechin, catechin, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid were determined in the extracts obtained by subcritical water. Furthermore, mannose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose and fucose were detected as well as their important degradation products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid, lactic acid and formic acid.

  2. Prostanoids-induced dispersion in the melanophores of a carp Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Ovais, M; Ahmed, Fraz; Mubashshir, Md; Sumoona, Safia

    2014-02-01

    Effects of three prostaglandins (i.e., prostanoids) and one of its precursors, arachidonic acid, were examined on the melanophores of the fish Labeo rohita (Ham.). PGE₁, PGE₂, PGF(2α) and arachidonic acid elicit a concentration-related dispersion in the fish melanophores. In vitro analysis of melanophores was performed through incubation of the isolated fish scales in different agonists and antagonists solutions. Dispersal effect of prostanoids may be mediated directly through the typical receptors or indirectly through release of neurotransmitter substance(s) from the melanophore nerve endings. Denervation of fish melanophores rendered them insensitive to prostanoid (PGF(2α)). Propranolol and verapamil completely inhibited the dispersal effects of PGF(2α); theophylline and indomethacine blocked the effects of higher concentrations of PGF(2α). During dispersing influence of PGF(2α), a free flux of Ca²⁺ ions was required and the indirectly released substance(s) from melanophore nerve endings would be the catecholamines of adrenergic and purinergic in nature.

  3. Molecular Mobility of an Amorphous Chiral Pharmaceutical Compound: Impact of Chirality and Chemical Purity.

    PubMed

    Viel, Quentin; Delbreilh, Laurent; Coquerel, Gérard; Petit, Samuel; Dargent, Eric

    2017-08-17

    A dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) study was performed to investigate the molecular mobility of amorphous chiral diprophylline (DPL). For this purpose, both racemic DPL and a single enantiomer of DPL were considered. After fast cooling from the melt at very low temperature (-140 °C), progressive heating below and above the glass transition (T g ≈ 37 °C) induces two secondary relaxations (γ- and δ-) and primary relaxations (α-) for both enantiomeric compositions. After chemical purification of our samples by means of cooling recrystallization, no γ-process could be detected by DRS. Hence, it was highlighted that the molecular mobility in the glassy state is influenced by the presence of theophylline (TPH), the main impurity in DPL samples. We also proved that the dynamic behavior of a single enantiomer and the racemic mixture of the same purified compound are quasi-identical. This study demonstrates that the relative stability and the molecular mobility of chiral amorphous drugs are strongly sensitive to chemical purity.

  4. Agarose drug delivery systems upgraded by surfactants inclusion: critical role of the pore architecture.

    PubMed

    Marras-Marquez, T; Peña, J; Veiga-Ochoa, M D

    2014-03-15

    Anionic or non-ionic surfactants have been introduced in agarose-based hydrogels aiming to tailor the release of drugs with different solubility. The release of a hydrophilic model drug, Theophylline, shows the predictable release enhancement that varies depending on the surfactant. However, when the hydrophobic Tolbutamide is considered, an unexpected retarded release is observed. This effect can be explained not only considering the interactions established between the drug loaded micelles and agarose but also to the alteration of the freeze-dried hydrogels microstructure. It has been observed that the modification of the porosity percentage as well as the pore size distribution during the lyophilization plays a critical role in the different phenomena that take place as soon as desiccated hydrogel is rehydrated. The possibility of tailoring the pore architecture as a function of the surfactant nature and percentage can be applied from drug control release to the widespread and growing applications of materials based on hydrogel matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble lymphocytic mediators

    PubMed Central

    Pick, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a number of drugs on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by antigen-stimulated sensitized guinea-pig lymph node cells was studied. The drugs were present during the entire culture period and eliminated from supernatants by dialysis. It was found that MIF secretion is inhibited by exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP and by theophylline and chlorphenesin, two agents raising the endogenous level of cyclic AMP. On the other hand, isoproterenol, which stimulates cyclic AMP generation in several tissues, did not block MIF production. The formation of the mediator was also suppressed by the microfilament-affecting drug, cytochalasin B. The microtubular disruptive agents, colchicine and vinblastine sulphate, did not influence MIF production. It is concluded that: (a) endogenous cyclic AMP may act as a regulator of MIF production; (b) the activity of contractile microfilaments is probably required for MIF formation; and (c) microtubules are not involved in the secretory process. PMID:4369184

  6. Prevention and treatment of allergic asthma in pregnancy: from conventional drugs to new therapeutical approaches.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, Angela P; Bannenberg, Gérard L; Arck, Petra C; Fitzgerald, Justine S; Markert, Udo R

    2011-05-01

    Different conventional anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic drugs are commonly used in pregnancy, including inhaled corticosteroids, long- and short-acting β-agonists, leukotriene modifiers, cromolyn, and theophylline. Alternatively, immunotherapy with allergens before and during pregnancy is accepted as a causal treatment of allergies, but the allergy specifity and severity in combination with a variety of application protocols and procedures cause wide heterogenity of this treatment principle. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification of conventional anti-allergic drugs and immunological implications of immunotherapy are summarized in this review, and insights on fetal programming of allergies are introduced. We propose a potential perspective of treatment with anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators, such as lipoxins, resolvins and protectins; these are lipid mediators physiologically generated during the immune response from arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This proposal fits with the recently appreciated approaches to allergy prevention for the newborn child by a balanced maternal nutrition and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption.

  7. Design criteria for synthetic riboswitches acting on transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmuth, Manja; Domin, Gesine; Lorenz, Ronny; Serfling, Robert; Findeiß, Sven; Stadler, Peter F; Mörl, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Riboswitches are RNA-based regulators of gene expression composed of a ligand-sensing aptamer domain followed by an overlapping expression platform. The regulation occurs at either the level of transcription (by formation of terminator or antiterminator structures) or translation (by presentation or sequestering of the ribosomal binding site). Due to a modular composition, these elements can be manipulated by combining different aptamers and expression platforms and therefore represent useful tools to regulate gene expression in synthetic biology. Using computationally designed theophylline-dependent riboswitches we show that 2 parameters, terminator hairpin stability and folding traps, have a major impact on the functionality of the designed constructs. These have to be considered very carefully during design phase. Furthermore, a combination of several copies of individual riboswitches leads to a much improved activation ratio between induced and uninduced gene activity and to a linear dose-dependent increase in reporter gene expression. Such serial arrangements of synthetic riboswitches closely resemble their natural counterparts and may form the basis for simple quantitative read out systems for the detection of specific target molecules in the cell. PMID:25826571

  8. Effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the interaction of corticosterone with rat brain cytosol receptor(s).

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Ueda, M; Takeda, R

    1978-01-01

    The apparent maximum corticosterone binding (B max) with rat brain cytosol and the apparent dissociation constant of this steroid-receptor binding (Kd) estimated with a Scatchard plot was 2.9 X 10(-13) moles/mg cytosol protein and 4.0 X 10(-9) M, respectively. When increasing amounts of CaCl2 or MgCl2 up to 5.0 mM were added, a specific [3H] corticosterone binding increased 4-fold by CaCl2 at concentrations of 1.0-2.0 mM and 1.5-fold by MgCl2 at concentrations of 0.5-5.0 mM. The addition of MnCl2 and KCl did not affect this binding. Binding of corticosterone with rat brain cytosol receptor(s) were decreased by increasing amounts of EGTA and complete inhibition was observed at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.5 mM. Inhibition of this binding by EDTA was less than by EGTA. Either theophylline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP had no effect on this binding.

  9. Rapid, low cost prototyping of transdermal devices for personal healthcare monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjiv; Saeed, Anwer; Johnson, Christopher; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Cass, Anthony Eg

    2017-04-01

    The next generation of devices for personal healthcare monitoring will comprise molecular sensors to monitor analytes of interest in the skin compartment. Transdermal devices based on microneedles offer an excellent opportunity to explore the dynamics of molecular markers in the interstitial fluid, however good acceptability of these next generation devices will require several technical problems associated with current commercially available wearable sensors to be overcome. These particularly include reliability, comfort and cost. An essential pre-requisite for transdermal molecular sensing devices is that they can be fabricated using scalable technologies which are cost effective. We present here a minimally invasive microneedle array as a continuous monitoring platform technology. Method for scalable fabrication of these structures is presented. The microneedle arrays were characterised mechanically and were shown to penetrate human skin under moderate thumb pressure. They were then functionalised and evaluated as glucose, lactate and theophylline biosensors. The results suggest that this technology can be employed in the measurement of metabolites, therapeutic drugs and biomarkers and could have an important role to play in the management of chronic diseases.

  10. Phenolic antioxidants from green tea produced from Camellia crassicolumna Var. multiplex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Mei

    2009-01-28

    Camellia crassicolumna var. multiplex (Chang et Tan) Ming belonging to Camellia sect. Thea (Theaceae), is endemic to the southeastern area of Yunnan province, China, where the leaves have been commonly used for making tea and beverages consumed widely. HPLC analysis showed that there was no caffeine or theophylline contained in the leaves; however, thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested the abundant existence of phenolic compounds. Further detailed chemical investigation of the green tea produced from the leaves of the plant led to the identification of 18 phenolic compounds, including four flavan-3-ols (1-4), six flavonol glycosides (5-10), three hydrolyzable tannins (11-13), two chlorogenic acid derivatives (14, 15), and three simple phenolic compounds (16-18). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. Most of them exhibited significant DPPH radical scavenging activities, whereas flavan-3-ols and hydrolyzable tannins showed stronger inhibitory activities on tyrosinase. The results suggest that C. crassicolumna could be an ideal plant resource for a noncaffeine beverage.

  11. Application of Twin Screw Extrusion in the Manufacture of Cocrystals, Part I: Four Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Daurio, Dominick; Medina, Cesar; Saw, Robert; Nagapudi, Karthik; Alvarez-Núñez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The application of twin screw extrusion (TSE) as a scalable and green process for the manufacture of cocrystals was investigated. Four model cocrystal forming systems, Caffeine-Oxalic acid, Nicotinamide-trans cinnamic acid, Carbamazepine-Saccharin, and Theophylline-Citric acid, were selected for the study. The parameters of the extrusion process that influenced cocrystal formation were examined. TSE was found to be an effective method to make cocrystals for all four systems studied. It was demonstrated that temperature and extent of mixing in the extruder were the primary process parameters that influenced extent of conversion to the cocrystal in neat TSE experiments. In addition to neat extrusion, liquid-assisted TSE was also demonstrated for the first time as a viable process for making cocrystals. Notably, the use of catalytic amount of benign solvents led to a lowering of processing temperatures required to form the cocrystal in the extruder. TSE should be considered as an efficient, scalable, and environmentally friendly process for the manufacture of cocrystals with little to no solvent requirements. PMID:24310598

  12. Responses to sulfur dioxide and exercise by medication-depend asthmatics: Effect of varying medication levels

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.

    Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) at concentrations of O (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the medication usually taken by subjects, was often supplemented by beta-adrenergics. Exposures were for 10 min and were accompanied by continuous heavy exercise (ventilation {approximately} 50 1/min). Lung function and symptoms were measured before and after exposure. With normal medication,more » symptomatic bronchoconstriction occurred with exercise and was exacerbated by 0.6 ppm SO{sub 2}, as reported for mildly unmedicated asthmatics studied previously. Both baseline and post-exposure lung function were noticeably worse in the low-medication state. High medication improved baseline lung function and prevented most broncho-constrictive effect of SO{sup 2}/exercise. High medication also increased heart rate and apparently induced tremor or nervousness in some individuals.« less

  13. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  14. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Nagai, Chifumi; Jackson, Mel C; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-16

    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2.

  15. Role of fluoroquinolones in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Vellend, H

    1989-02-01

    Oral quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are promising agents in the treatment of serious bronchopulmonary infections due to susceptible gram-negative micro-organisms such as Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and even Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their moderative activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae may limit the use of these agents in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and in the empiric management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Further prospectively designed studies are needed to address this issue. The ability of quinolones to effectively penetrate bronchial mucosa and to be concentrated within macrophages may afford additional advantage to these agents. They should not be used as a sole agent in the treatment of aspiration pneumonia nor anaerobic pleuropulmonary disease. Quinolones are very active in experimental models of Legionnaire's disease and deserve further clinical study. Ciprofloxacin is a promising alternative to standard parenteral drugs in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in adults with cystic fibrosis. The potential for drug interactions with theophylline must be kept in mind for patients on both of these drugs.

  16. Transepithelial transport of biperiden hydrochloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Ivana S; Rodríguez, Yanina I; Lozano, Verónica; Cereseto, Marina; Mussini, Maria V; Spinetto, Marta E; Chiale, Carlos; Pesce, Guido

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research has been to determine the biperiden hydrochloride permeability in Caco-2 model, in order to classify it based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The World Health Organization (WHO) as well as many other authors have provisionally assigned the drug as BCS class I (high solubility-high permeability) or III (high solubility-low permeability), based on different methods. We determined biperiden BCS class by comparing its permeability to 5 pre-defined compounds: atenolol and ranitidine hydrochloride (low permeability group) and metoprolol tartrate, sodium naproxen and theophylline (high permeability group). Since biperiden permeability was higher than those obtained for high permeability drugs, we classified it as a BCS class I compound. On the other hand, as no differences were obtained for permeability values when apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical fluxes were studied, this drug cannot act as a substrate of efflux transporters. As a consequence of our results, we suggest that the widely used antiparkinsonian drug, biperiden, should be candidate for a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DNP enhanced NMR with flip-back recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björgvinsdóttir, Snædís; Walder, Brennan J.; Pinon, Arthur C.; Yarava, Jayasubba Reddy; Emsley, Lyndon

    2018-03-01

    DNP methods can provide significant sensitivity enhancements in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR, but in systems with long polarization build up times long recycling periods are required to optimize sensitivity. We show how the sensitivity of such experiments can be improved by the classic flip-back method to recover bulk proton magnetization following continuous wave proton heteronuclear decoupling. Experiments were performed on formulations with characteristic build-up times spanning two orders of magnitude: a bulk BDPA radical doped o-terphenyl glass and microcrystalline samples of theophylline, L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, and salicylic acid impregnated by incipient wetness. For these systems, addition of flip-back is simple, improves the sensitivity beyond that provided by modern heteronuclear decoupling methods such as SPINAL-64, and provides optimal sensitivity at shorter recycle delays. We show how to acquire DNP enhanced 2D refocused CP-INADEQUATE spectra with flip-back recovery, and demonstrate that the flip-back recovery method is particularly useful in rapid recycling regimes. We also report Overhauser effect DNP enhancements of over 70 at 592.6 GHz/900 MHz.

  18. Investigation of solid phase composition on tablet surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Koradia, Vishal; Tenho, Mikko; Lopez de Diego, Heidi; Ringkjøbing-Elema, Michiel; Møller-Sonnergaard, Jørn; Salonen, Jarno; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Rantanen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    To investigate solid state transformations of drug substances during compaction using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The solid forms of three model drugs-theophylline (TP), nitrofurantoin (NF) and amlodipine besylate (AMB)-were compacted at different pressures (from 100 to 1000 MPa); prepared tablets were measured using GIXD. After the initial measurements of freshly compacted tablets, tablets were subjected to suitable recrystallization treatment, and analogous measurements were performed. Solid forms of TP, NF and AMB showed partial amorphization as well as crystal disordering during compaction; the extent of these effects generally increased as a function of pressure. The changes were most pronounced at the outer surface region. The different solid forms showed difference in the formation of amorphicity/crystal disordering. Dehydration due to compaction was observed for the TP monohydrate, whereas hydrates of NF and AMB were stable towards dehydration. With GIXD measurements, it was possible to probe the solid form composition at the different depths of the tablet surfaces and to obtain depth-dependent information on the compaction-induced amorphization, crystal disordering and dehydration.

  19. Acute alcohol-induced protection against infarction in rabbit hearts: differences from and similarities to ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Krenz, M; Baines, C P; Heusch, G; Downey, J M; Cohen, M V

    2001-11-01

    Recent studies reveal that brief ethanol exposure induces cardioprotection against simulated ischemia in cardiomyocytes by the activation of protein kinase C- epsilon. The present study tests the ability of ethanol to induce protection in rabbit hearts in which infarct size was the end-point and explores the signal transduction pathways involved. In isolated rabbit hearts, 50 m m ethanol infused for 5 min with 10 min of washout prior to 30 min of regional ischemia reduced infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining) by 49%. Neither adenosine receptor blockade with 8-(p -sulfophenyl) theophylline nor the free radical scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine inhibited the protection triggered by ethanol. In contrast, protein kinase C inhibition with chelerythrine, protein tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein, and blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) with either 5-hydroxydecanoate or glibenclamide did abolish protection. Thus, transient ethanol exposure followed by washout prior to ischemia elicits a preconditioning-like effect involving protein kinase C, at least one protein tyrosine kinase, and K(ATP)channels, but neither adenosine nor free radicals. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Physiology, biochemistry and possible applications of microbial caffeine degradation.

    PubMed

    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Bhavya, B; Ashok, Nandhini

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine, a purine alkaloid is a constituent of widely consumed beverages. The scientific evidence which has proved the harm of this alkaloid has paved the way for innumerable research in the area of caffeine degradation. In addition to this, the fact that the by-products of the coffee and tea industry pollute the environment has called for the need of decaffeinating coffee and tea industry's by-products. Though physical and chemical methods for decaffeination are available, the lack of specificity for removal of caffeine in these techniques and their non-eco-friendly nature has opened the area of microbial and enzymatic degradation of caffeine. Another important application of microbial caffeine degradation apart from its advantages like specificity, eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness is the fact that this process will enable the production of industrially and medically useful components of the caffeine degradation pathway like theobromine and theophylline. This is a comprehensive review which mainly focuses on caffeine degradation, large-scale degradation of the same and its applications in the industrial world.

  1. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  2. Influence of the inlet air temperature in a fluid bed coating process on drug release from shellac-coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Farag, Yassin; Leopold, Claudia Sabine

    2011-03-01

    Since the introduction of aqueous ammoniacal solutions, shellac regained importance for pharmaceutical applications. However, as shellac is a material obtained from natural resources, its quality and thus its physicochemical properties may vary depending on its origin and the type of refining. In this study theophylline pellets were coated with aqueous solutions of three different commercially available shellac types. The inlet air temperature of the coating process was varied, and its influence on drug release from the coated pellet formulations was investigated. Film formation was correlated to the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the investigated shellac types. Pellets coated at lower temperatures showed distinct cracks in the coating film resulting in a loss of the barrier function during dissolution testing. These cracks were nonreversible by additional curing. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the investigated shellac types varied significantly and could hardly be related to the drug release performance of the investigated formulations. Obviously, with shellac a minimum inlet air temperature must be exceeded to achieve a coherent coating film. This temperature was dependent on the investigated shellac type.

  3. Stability indicating validated HPLC method for quantification of levothyroxine with eight degradation peaks in the presence of excipients.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Bryant, A; Collier, J; Habib, M J; Khan, M A

    2008-08-06

    A simple, sensitive, accurate, and robust stability indicating analytical method is presented for identification, separation, and quantitation of l-thyroxine and eight degradation impurities with an internal standard. The method was used in the presence of commonly used formulation excipients such as butylated hydroxyanisole, povidone, crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, mannitol, sucrose, acacia, lactose monohydrate, confectionary sugar, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium laurel sulfate, magnesium stearate, talc, and silicon dioxide. The two active thyroid hormones: 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodo-l-thyronine (l-thyroxine-T4) and 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T3) and degradation products including di-iodothyronine (T2), thyronine (T0), tyrosine (Tyr), di-iodotyrosine (DIT), mono-iodotyrosine (MIT), 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodothyroacetic acid (T4AA) and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid (T3AA) were assayed by the current method. The separation of l-thyroxine and eight metabolites along with theophylline (internal standard) was achieved using a C18 column (25 degrees C) with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%, v/v, pH 3)-acetonitrile in gradient elution at 0.8 ml/min at 223 nm. The sample diluent was 0.01 M methanolic NaOH. Method was validated according to FDA, USP, and ICH guidelines for inter-day accuracy, precision, and robustness after checking performance with system suitability. Tyr (4.97 min), theophylline (9.09 min), MIT (9.55 min), DIT (11.37 min), T0 (11.63 min), T2 (14.47 min), T3 (16.29 min), T4 (17.60 min), T3AA (22.71 min), and T4AA (24.83 min) separated in a single chromatographic run. Linear relationship (r2>0.99) was observed between the peak area ratio and the concentrations for all of the compounds within the range of 2-20 microg/ml. The total time for analysis, equilibration and recovery was 40 min. The method was shown to separate well from commonly employed formulation excipients. Accuracy ranged from 95 to 105% for T4 and 90 to 110% for all other

  4. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J F; Campestrini, F D; Calixto, J B; Scremin, A; Paulino, N

    2001-03-01

    We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC(50) values of 18 microM and E(max) of 100% (N = 10) or 20 microM and E(max) of 92% (N = 10), respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 +/- 7.0, 43 +/- 3.9 and 78 +/- 5.6%) in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively). Tetraethylammonium (100 microM), a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 microM), a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 +/- 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 microM), at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 microM), a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold) of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N(G)-nitroarginine (100 microM), a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 microM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 microM) or ODQ (1 microM), the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-(P)-Cl-Phe(6),Leu(17

  5. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Patients with Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhavneesh; McSharry, David; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in heart failure patients across the range of ejection fractions and is associated with adverse prognosis. Although effective pharmacologic and device-based treatment of heart failure may reduce the frequency or severity of SDB, heart failure treatment alone may not be adequate to restore normal breathing during sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the major treatment for SDB in heart failure, especially if obstructive rather than central sleep apnea (CSA) predominates. Adequate suppression of CSA by PAP is associated with a heart transplant-free survival benefit, although randomized trials are ongoing. Bilevel PAP (BPAP) may be as effective as CPAP in treating SDB and may be preferable over CPAP in patients who experience expiratory pressure discomfort. Adaptive (or auto) servo-ventilation (ASV), which adjusts the PAP depending on the patient’s airflow or tidal volume, may be useful in congestive heart failure patients if CPAP is ineffective. Other therapies that have been proposed for SDB in congestive heart failure include nocturnal oxygen, CO2 administration (by adding dead space), theophylline, and acetazolamide; most of which have not been systematically studied in outcome-based prospective randomized trials. PMID:21894522

  6. Tripodal penta(p-phenylene) for the biofunctionalization of alkynyl-modified silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Molina, María; Díaz, Amelia; Valpuesta, María; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael; López-Romero, J. Manuel; López-Ramírez, M. Rosa

    2018-07-01

    Here we report the optimization on the covalent grafting methodology of a tripod-shaped penta(p-phenylene), 1, on alkynyl-terminated silicon surfaces, and the incorporation of an active theophylline derivative, 2, for the specific immobilization of proteins. The tripodal molecule presents azide-terminal groups to be attached onto a silicon surface containing an alkynyl monolayer. Initially, compound 1 has been covalently incorporated on alkynyl-terminated Si wafers, by the copper catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, a click reaction). The tripod density on the silicon surface is tuned by performing the CuAAC reaction at different concentrations of 1, as well as under different experimental conditions (T, base, copper source, shaking). Then, tripod 1-modified surface has also been biofunctionalized with 2. The effective preparation of this silicon-modified surface allowed us to study the streptavidin immobilization on the surface. Characterization of the different surfaces has been carried out by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Bright-Field Optical Transmission Microscopy (Confocal) techniques. We also include density functional theory (DFT) analysis of the organic structures to confirm the height-profile and the tripod-surface relative configuration extracted from AFM images.

  7. Saving a Drug Poisoning Victim: A Kinetics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selco, Jodye I.; Beery, Janet

    2002-05-01

    In this project, students, posing as hospital emergency room physicians, must save the life of a child who has accidentally overdosed on the asthma medication, theophylline. The progress of the drug through the child's body can be modeled as a chemical kinetics problem involving first-order consecutive reactions. Students begin by setting up a system of linear first-order differential equations describing the medication's absorption into and elimination from the child's bloodstream using half-lives obtained from the Physician's Desk Reference. By using a computer to solve the differential equations numerically, students discover that the child will almost certainly die if they, as physicians, do not intervene. The students then determine by how much they need to increase the drug's elimination rate in order to save the child. This dictates the appropriate medical action. Students discover that they need to use the more drastic treatment of extracorporeal filtering of the blood through charcoal, rather than simply administering oral doses of charcoal. We've found that this project appeals to a broad range of students; many students are interested in careers in the health professions and all are intrigued by the child's grave situation.

  8. “RaMassays”: Synergistic Enhancement of Plasmon-Free Raman Scattering and Mass Spectrometry for Multimodal Analysis of Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Ivano; Vassalini, Irene; Bertuzzi, Michela; Bontempi, Nicolò; Memo, Maurizio; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    SiO2/TiO2 core/shell (T-rex) beads were exploited as “all-in-one” building-block materials to create analytical assays that combine plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry (RaMassays). Such a multi-modal approach relies on the unique optical properties of T-rex beads, which are able to harvest and manage light in both UV and Vis range, making ionization and Raman scattering more efficient. RaMassays were successfully applied to the detection of small (molecular weight, M.W. <400 Da) molecules with a key relevance in biochemistry and pharmaceutical analysis. Caffeine and cocaine were utilized as molecular probes to test the combined SERS/SALDI response of RaMassays, showing excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. The differentiation between amphetamine/ephedrine and theophylline/theobromine couples demonstrated the synergistic reciprocal reinforcement of SERS and SALDI. Finally, the conversion of L-tyrosine in L-DOPA was utilized to probe RaMassays as analytical tools for characterizing reaction intermediates without introducing any spurious effects. RaMassays exhibit important advantages over plasmonic nanoparticles in terms of reproducibility, absence of interference and potential integration in multiplexed devices.

  9. In silico design of ligand triggered RNA switches.

    PubMed

    Findeiß, Sven; Hammer, Stefan; Wolfinger, Michael T; Kühnl, Felix; Flamm, Christoph; Hofacker, Ivo L

    2018-04-13

    This contribution sketches a work flow to design an RNA switch that is able to adapt two structural conformations in a ligand-dependent way. A well characterized RNA aptamer, i.,e., knowing its K d and adaptive structural features, is an essential ingredient of the described design process. We exemplify the principles using the well-known theophylline aptamer throughout this work. The aptamer in its ligand-binding competent structure represents one structural conformation of the switch while an alternative fold that disrupts the binding-competent structure forms the other conformation. To keep it simple we do not incorporate any regulatory mechanism to control transcription or translation. We elucidate a commonly used design process by explicitly dissecting and explaining the necessary steps in detail. We developed a novel objective function which specifies the mechanistics of this simple, ligand-triggered riboswitch and describe an extensive in silico analysis pipeline to evaluate important kinetic properties of the designed sequences. This protocol and the developed software can be easily extended or adapted to fit novel design scenarios and thus can serve as a template for future needs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Safranow, Krzysztof; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2005-05-25

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for the analysis of purines in urinary calculi. The method using gradient of methanol concentration and pH was able to separate 16 compounds: uric acid, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol and oxypurinol as well as 10 methyl derivatives of uric acid or xanthine (1-, 3-, 7- and 9-methyluric acid, 1,3-, 1,7- and 3,7-dimethyluric acid, 1-, 3- and 7-methylxanthine). Limits of detection for individual compounds ranged from 0.006 to 0.035 mg purine/g of the stone weight and precision (CV%) was 0.5-2.4%. The method enabled us to detect in human uric acid stones admixtures of nine other purine derivatives: natural metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and methylated purines (1-, 3- and 7-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3- and 7-methylxanthine) originating from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). The method allows simultaneous quantitation of all known purine constituents of urinary stones, including methylated purines, and may be used as a reference one for diagnosing disorders of purine metabolism and research on the pathogenesis of urolithiasis.

  11. “RaMassays”: Synergistic Enhancement of Plasmon-Free Raman Scattering and Mass Spectrometry for Multimodal Analysis of Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Ivano; Vassalini, Irene; Bertuzzi, Michela; Bontempi, Nicolò; Memo, Maurizio; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    SiO2/TiO2 core/shell (T-rex) beads were exploited as “all-in-one” building-block materials to create analytical assays that combine plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry (RaMassays). Such a multi-modal approach relies on the unique optical properties of T-rex beads, which are able to harvest and manage light in both UV and Vis range, making ionization and Raman scattering more efficient. RaMassays were successfully applied to the detection of small (molecular weight, M.W. <400 Da) molecules with a key relevance in biochemistry and pharmaceutical analysis. Caffeine and cocaine were utilized as molecular probes to test the combined SERS/SALDI response of RaMassays, showing excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. The differentiation between amphetamine/ephedrine and theophylline/theobromine couples demonstrated the synergistic reciprocal reinforcement of SERS and SALDI. Finally, the conversion of L-tyrosine in L-DOPA was utilized to probe RaMassays as analytical tools for characterizing reaction intermediates without introducing any spurious effects. RaMassays exhibit important advantages over plasmonic nanoparticles in terms of reproducibility, absence of interference and potential integration in multiplexed devices. PMID:27698368

  12. Suberin Fatty Acids from Outer Birch Bark: Isolation and Physical Material Characterization.

    PubMed

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Pirttimaa, Minni M; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, H Pauliina; Kanerva, Heimo; Hulkko, Janne; Paaver, Urve; Aruväli, Jaan; Yliruusi, Jouko; Kogermann, Karin

    2017-04-28

    The isolation and physical material properties of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) were investigated with special reference to their potential applications as novel pharmaceutical excipients. SFAs were isolated from outer birch bark (OBB) with a new extractive hydrolysis method. The present simplified isolation process resulted in a moderate batch yield and chemical purity of SFAs, but further development is needed for establishing batch-to-batch variation. Cryogenic milling was the method of choice for the particle size reduction of SFAs powder. The cryogenically milled SFAs powder exhibited a semicrystalline structure with apparent microcrystalline domains within an amorphous fatty acids matrix. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of SFAs samples showed a good thermal stability up to 200 °C, followed by a progressive weight loss, reaching a plateau at about 95% volatilization at about 470 °C. The binary blends of SFAs and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC; Avicel PH 101) in a ratio of 25:75 (w/w) displayed good powder flow and tablet compression properties. The corresponding theophylline-containing tablets showed sustained or prolonged-release characteristics. The physicochemical and bulk powder properties of SFAs isolated from OBB are auspicious in terms of potential pharmaceutical excipient applications.

  13. [Machine Learning-based Prediction of Seizure-inducing Action as an Adverse Drug Effect].

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengxuan; Sato, Motoshige; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2018-01-01

     During the preclinical research period of drug development, animal testing is widely used to help screen out a drug's dangerous side effects. However, it remains difficult to predict side effects within the central nervous system. Here, we introduce a machine learning-based in vitro system designed to detect seizure-inducing side effects before clinical trial. We recorded local field potentials from the CA1 alveus in acute mouse neocortico-hippocampal slices that were bath-perfused with each of 14 different drugs, and at 5 different concentrations of each drug. For each of these experimental conditions, we collected seizure-like neuronal activity and merged their waveforms as one graphic image, which was further converted into a feature vector using Caffe, an open framework for deep learning. In the space of the first two principal components, the support vector machine completely separated the vectors (i.e., doses of individual drugs) that induced seizure-like events, and identified diphenhydramine, enoxacin, strychnine and theophylline as "seizure-inducing" drugs, which have indeed been reported to induce seizures in clinical situations. Thus, this artificial intelligence-based classification may provide a new platform to pre-clinically detect seizure-inducing side effects of drugs.

  14. Machine learning-based prediction of adverse drug effects: An example of seizure-inducing compounds.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengxuan; Igata, Hideyoshi; Takeuchi, Aoi; Sato, Kaoru; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2017-02-01

    Various biological factors have been implicated in convulsive seizures, involving side effects of drugs. For the preclinical safety assessment of drug development, it is difficult to predict seizure-inducing side effects. Here, we introduced a machine learning-based in vitro system designed to detect seizure-inducing side effects. We recorded local field potentials from the CA1 alveus in acute mouse neocortico-hippocampal slices, while 14 drugs were bath-perfused at 5 different concentrations each. For each experimental condition, we collected seizure-like neuronal activity and merged their waveforms as one graphic image, which was further converted into a feature vector using Caffe, an open framework for deep learning. In the space of the first two principal components, the support vector machine completely separated the vectors (i.e., doses of individual drugs) that induced seizure-like events and identified diphenhydramine, enoxacin, strychnine and theophylline as "seizure-inducing" drugs, which indeed were reported to induce seizures in clinical situations. Thus, this artificial intelligence-based classification may provide a new platform to detect the seizure-inducing side effects of preclinical drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. β-Cyclodextrin and permeability to water in the bladder of Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Orce, G; Castillo, G; Chanampa, Y

    2011-05-01

    We measured the effect of β-cyclodextrin (BCD, a cholesterol scavenger) on water flow across the isolated toad bladder exposed to an osmotic gradient (J(w)) by a gravimetric technique. BCD, when present in the solution bathing the apical side of the bladder, inhibited the increase in J(w) caused by nystatin, a polyene antibiotic that acts by directly binding apical membrane cholesterol. When present in the basolateral bath, BCD inhibited the increase in J(w) caused by basolateral exposure to oxytocin (which binds membrane receptors and stimulates the synthesis of cAMP), but did not alter the response to theophylline (which inhibits hydrolysis of cAMP by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase). The present data are consistent with the notion that agents that increase J(w) by interacting with membrane receptors, which appear to be clustered in cholesterol-rich domains of the basolateral membrane, are altered by cholesterol depletion, whereas agents that do not interact with receptors or other basolateral membrane components are not affected by this treatment. In either case, cholesterol depletion of the apical membrane does not affect the increase in J(w) brought about by an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration.

  16. Fluorescence sensing and photocatalytic properties of a 2D stable and biocompatible Zn(II)-based polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Bao-Hong; Zhong, Hua-Rui; Qiu, Shuo-Wen; Liang, Yi-Wen; Zhuang, Xiao-Yi; Singh, Amita; Kumar, Abhinav

    2018-04-01

    A biocompatible metal-organic framework (MOF) [Zn2(TPL)(FA)(OH)(H2O)] (1) (TPL = theophylline and H2FA = fumaric acid) had been chosen which offers an ideal model for the development of fluorescencent chemosensor using simple synthetic protocol. The MOF 1 have been tested as a fluorescent chemosensor against nitro-aromatics (NACs) and it displayed high selectivity for 4-NT over other NACs as evident by the emission spectroscopy. The alleviation in fluorescence intensity of 1 in presence of different NACs have been explained with the help of theoretical calculations which suggested that there is occurrence of both electron and energy transfer processes, in addition to electrostatic interaction between 1 and NACs which may be responsible for the unprecedented selective alleviation in the fluorescence intensity. Also, 1 had been deployed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl violet (MV) and Rhodamine B (Rh B) in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic results indicated the 1 exhibit 85% photocatalytic efficiency against Rh B in 100 min, while its efficiency against MV was only 50% under the identical experimental conditions. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity has been proposed using density of states (DOS) calculations.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy of Cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Frank; Reardon, Paul; Ochoa, Romulo; Abourahma, Heba; Marti, Marcus; Dimeo, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Cocrystals are a class of compounds that consist of two or more molecules that are held together by hydrogen bonding. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are those that contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are of particular interest and have gained a lot of attention in recent years because they offer the ability to modify the physical properties of the API, like solubility and bioavailability, without altering the chemical structure of the API. The APIs that we targeted for our studies are theophylline (Tp) and indomethacin (Ind). These compounds have been mixed with complementary coformers (cocrystal former) that include acetamide (AcONH2), melamine (MLM), nicotinic acid (Nic-COOH), 4-cyanopyridine (4-CNPy) and 4-aminopyridine (4-NH2Py). Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize these cocrystals. Spectra of the cocrystals were compared to those of the coformers to analyze for peak shifts, specifically those corresponding to hydrogen bonding. A 0.5 m CCD Spex spectrometer was used, in a micro-Raman setup, for spectral analysis. An Argon ion Coherent laser at 514.5 nm was used as the excitation source. )

  18. Chemometric resolution of fully overlapped CE peaks: quantitation of carbamazepine in human serum in the presence of several interferences.

    PubMed

    Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Culzoni, María J; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2008-11-01

    Drug monitoring in serum samples was performed using second-order data generated by CE-DAD, processed with a suitable chemometric strategy. Carbamazepine could be accurately quantitated in the presence of its main metabolite (carbamazepine epoxide), other therapeutic drugs (lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, phenylephrine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, acetyl salicylic acid), and additional serum endogenous components. The analytical strategy consisted of the following steps: (i) serum sample clean-up to remove matrix interferences, (ii) data pre-processing, in order to reduce the background and to correct for electrophoretic time shifts, and (iii) resolution of fully overlapped CE peaks (corresponding to carbamazepine, its metabolite, lamotrigine and unexpected serum components) by the well-known multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm, which extracts quantitative information that can be uniquely ascribed to the analyte of interest. The analyte concentration in serum samples ranged from 2.00 to 8.00 mg/L. Mean recoveries were 102.6% (s=7.7) for binary samples, and 94.8% (s=13.5) for spiked serum samples, while CV (%)=4.0 was computed for five replicate, indicative of the acceptable accuracy and precision of the proposed method.

  19. The genesis of cognitive and behavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Perlman, J M

    2003-04-01

    Increased survival of very low birth weight infants including those born at the cutting edge of viability is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. These problems have occurred as common in the presence or absence of neurosonographic abnormalities. Factors/events that may predispose to these problems include medical complications of prematurity i.e. chronic lung disease, recurrent episodes of apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, nutritional deficiencies, medications used to treat such conditions i.e. glucorticoids, theophylline etc. and stress associated with prolonged hospitalization. With regard to the latter, attachment to multiple devices that limits infant provider interactions, high noise levels and constant light levels are considered to be of particular importance. Experimental evidence is presented that demonstrates the value of positive interactions between the subject and provider with regard to neurobehavioral outcome. Some suggested interventions include reducing noise levels and displacing it with music, modulating light exposure and enhancing infant parent interactions such as kangaroo care. Finally the important postnatal role of social influences on cognitive and behavioral outcomes is discussed.

  20. A Review of Esophageal Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is a term that encompasses all causes of chest pain after a cardiac source has been excluded. This article focuses on esophageal sources for chest pain. Esophageal chest pain (ECP) is common, affects quality of life, and carries a substantial health care burden. The lack of a systematic approach toward the diagnosis and treatment of ECP has led to significant disability and increased health care costs for this condition. Identifying the underlying cause(s) or mechanism(s) for chest pain is key for its successful management. Common etiologies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and psychological conditions, including panic disorder and anxiety. However, the pathophysiology of this condition is not yet fully understood. Randomized controlled trials have shown that proton pump inhibitor therapy (either omeprazole, lansoprazole, or rabeprazole) can be effective. Evidence for the use of antidepressants and the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline is fair. Psychological treatments, notably cognitive behavioral therapy, may be useful in select patients. Surgery is not recommended. There remains a large unmet need for identifying the phenotype and prevalence of pathophysiologic mechanisms of ECP as well as for well-designed multicenter clinical trials of current and novel therapies. PMID:27134590

  1. Important drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Drugs have the potential to interact with nutrients potentially leading to reduced therapeutic efficacy of the drug, nutritional risk or increased adverse effects of the drug. Despite significant interest in such interactions going back to over more than 40 years, the occurrence and clinical significance of many drug-nutrient interactions remains unclear. However, interactions involving drugs with a narrow therapeutic margin such as theophylline and digoxin and those that require careful blood monitoring such as warfarin are likely to be those of clinical significance. Drugs can affect nutrition as a result of changes in appetite and taste as well as having an influence on absorption or metabolism of nutrients. Moreover, foods and supplements can also interact with drugs, of which grapefruit juice and St John's wort are key examples. Significant numbers of people take both supplements and medication and are potentially at risk from interactions. Professionals, such as pharmacists, dietitians, nurses and doctors, responsible for the care of patients should therefore check whether supplements are being taken, while for researchers this is an area worthy of significant further study, particularly in the context of increasingly complex drug regimens and the plethora of new drugs.

  2. Do evacuated blood collection tubes interfere with therapeutic drug monitoring?

    PubMed

    Janknegt, R; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M; Merkus, F W

    1983-12-16

    The influence of various brands of evacuated blood collection systems (the old type, red stoppered Vacutainer; the new type, blue stoppered Vacutainer; Monoject and Venoject) on therapeutic drug monitoring was investigated. No interferences were found in the assay of ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, digitoxin, digoxin, procainamide, gentamicin and theophylline. Using Monoject and old type Vacutainer tubes, lower levels were found in the disopyramide assay: 91.3 +/- 4.6% (p less than 0.05) and 91.7 +/- 7.0% (not significant) respectively, and in the quinidine assay: 82.8 +/- 6.7% (p less than 0.02) and 83.9 +/- 4.4% (p less than 0.001) respectively as compared with glass tubes. In the carbamazepine assay a decrease was found in the Monoject tubes only: 93.7 +/- 1.7% (p less than 0.01). The stoppers of Monoject tubes and the old type Vacutainer tubes contained the plasticizer tris-(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), which has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the binding of several drugs to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Using the new type Vacutainer and the Venoject, no interferences were found.

  3. Clinical relevance of cimetidine drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Shinn, A F

    1992-01-01

    The excellent efficacy and tolerability profiles of H2-antagonists have established these agents as the leading class of antiulcer drugs. Attention has been focused on drug interactions with H2-antagonists as a means of product differentiation and because many patients are receiving multiple drug therapy. The main mechanism of most drug interactions involving cimetidine appears to be inhibition of the hepatic microsomal enzyme cytochrome P450, an effect which may be related to the different structures of H2-antagonists. Ranitidine appears to have less affinity than cimetidine for this system. There have been many published case reports and studies of drug interactions with cimetidine, but many of these have provided pharmacokinetic data only, with little information concerning the clinical significance of these findings. Nevertheless, the coadministration of cimetidine with drugs that have a narrow therapeutic margin (such as theophylline) may potentially result in clinically significant adverse effects. The monitoring of serum concentrations of drugs coadministered with cimetidine may reduce the risk of adverse events but does not abolish the problem. However, for most patients, concomitant administration of cimetidine with drugs possessing a wide therapeutic margin is unlikely to pose a significant problem.

  4. Electronic nose screening of ethanol release during sol-gel encapsulation. A novel non-invasive method to test silica polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Lovino, Magalí; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Zubiri, Diana B V; Bernik, Delia L

    2005-12-15

    Porous silica matrices prepared by sol-gel process yield biocompatible materials adequate for encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs. The procedure is simple and fast, but when alkoxyde precursors like tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) are used the polymerisation reaction leads to the formation of alcohol as a by-product, which can produce undesirable effects on the activity of entrapped enzymes or modify a drug release kinetic. Therefore, it is critical to determine that no remnant ethanol is left prior using or storing the obtained biomaterial. In this regard, the technique used in the alcohol determination should be non-invasive and non-destructive to preserve the encapsulation device intact and ready to use. In this work we have successfully used a portable electronic nose (e-nose) for the screening of silica polymerisation process during theophylline encapsulation. TEOS reaction was "smelt" since precursor pre-hydrolysis until the end of ethanol release, sensed directly at the headspace of matrices slabs. Measurements showed that ethanol was negligible since 10th day in polymeric slabs of 10 mm width and 2 cm diameter. This first use of e-nose following a polymerisation reaction opens a wide number of putative applications in pharmaceutical and biochemical fields.

  5. High-throughput 96-well solvent mediated sonic blending synthesis and on-plate solid/solution stability characterization of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Luu, Van; Jona, Janan; Stanton, Mary K; Peterson, Matthew L; Morrison, Henry G; Nagapudi, Karthik; Tan, Helming

    2013-01-30

    A 96-well high-throughput cocrystal screening workflow has been developed consisting of solvent-mediated sonic blending synthesis and on-plate solid/solution stability characterization by XRPD. A strategy of cocrystallization screening in selected blend solvents including water mixtures is proposed to not only manipulate solubility of the cocrystal components but also differentiate physical stability of the cocrystal products. Caffeine-oxalic acid and theophylline-oxalic acid cocrystals were prepared and evaluated in relation to saturation levels of the cocrystal components and stability of the cocrystal products in anhydrous and hydrous solvents. AMG 517 was screened with a number of coformers, and solid/solution stability of the resulting cocrystals on the 96-well plate was investigated. A stability trend was observed and confirmed that cocrystals comprised of lower aqueous solubility coformers tended to be more stable in water. Furthermore, cocrystals which could be isolated under hydrous solvent blending condition exhibited superior physical stability to those which could only be obtained under anhydrous condition. This integrated HTS workflow provides an efficient route in an API-sparing approach to screen and identify cocrystal candidates with proper solubility and solid/solution stability properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug-drug cocrystals of antituberculous 4-aminosalicylic acid: Screening, crystal structures, thermochemical and solubility studies.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Ksenia V; Manin, Alex N; Churakov, Andrei V; Perlovich, German L

    2017-03-01

    Experimental multistage cocrystal screening of the antituberculous drug 4-aminosalicylic acid (PASA) has been conducted with a number of coformers (pyrazinamide (PYR), nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (iNAM), isoniazid (INH), caffeine (CAF) and theophylline (TPH)). The crystal structures of 4-aminosalicylic acid cocrystals with isonicotinamide ([PASA+iNAM] (2:1)) and methanol solvate with caffeine ([PASA+CAF+MeOH] (1:1:1)) have been determined by single X-ray diffraction experiments. For the first time for PASA cocrystals it has been found that the structural unit of the [PASA+iNAM] cocrystal (2:1) is formed by 2 types of heterosynthons: acid-pyridine and acid-amide. The desolvation study of the [PASA+CAF+MeOH] cocrystal solvate (1:1:1) has been conducted. The correlation models linking the melting points of the cocrystals with the melting points of the coformers used in this paper have been developed. The thermochemical and solubility properties for all the obtained cocrystals have been studied. Cocrystallization has been shown to lead not only to PASA solubility improving but also to its higher stability against the chemical decomposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Influence exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) on contractile and bioelectric activity of the rat heart].

    PubMed

    Pustovit, K B; Kuz'min, V S; Sukhova, G S

    2014-04-01

    This study is aimed to the investigation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) effects and mechanisms of action in a heart. NAD+ (mcM) induces multiphase alternation of contractile activity of isolated rat heart: short positive inotropic action is followed by a negative inotropic phase. NAD+ (1-100 mcM) induces decreasing of action potential duration (APD) in rat atrial myocardium (from 45 +/- 0.82 ms in control experiments to 39 +/- 1.05 (n = 8) and 32 +/- 2 (n = 8) during application of 10 and 100 mcM of NAD+, respectively). Significant APD increase (from 45 +/- 0.82 ms to 74 +/- 1.89 (n = 8) ms) was observed during washing out of NAD+ (100 mcM). ATP or adenosine was unable to increase APD both during application or washing out. NAD+ induced APD decrease was not suppressed by P1-antagonist theophylline. P1-purinoreceptor and metabolite independent direct action of NAD+ in rat heart is suggested. Activation of P2X or P2Y receptors, cyclic ADP-ribose accumulation in cardiomyocytes is proposed as a main mechanism of NAD(+)-induced effects in the heart.

  8. A possible signal-coupling role for cyclic AMP during endocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Prusch, R D; Roscoe, J C

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic levels of cAMP in Amoeba proteus were measured utilizing radioimmunoassays under control conditions and when stimulated by inducers of either pinocytosis or phagocytosis. In control cells, cytoplasmic cAMP levels were approximately 0.39 pM/mg cells. When exposed to either chemotactic peptide or mannose which stimulate phagocytosis in the amoeba, there is a rapid doubling of the cAMP level within 45 sec of stimulation which then returns to the control level within 3-5 min. Theophylline prolongs the elevation of cytoplasmic cAMP in stimulated cells and is also capable of eliciting food vacuole formation in the amoeba. In addition isoproterenol also causes food vacuole formation in the amoeba as well as a large and prolonged increase in cytoplasmic cAMP levels. Inducers of pinocytosis (BSA and Na Cl) also elicit changes in cytoplasmic cAMP in the amoeba, but the response appears to differ from that elicited by inducers of phagocytosis in that the peak cAMP levels are broader and biphasic. It is concluded that cAMP plays a signal-coupling role during the early phases of both forms of endocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

  9. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  10. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  11. Evaluating the process parameters of the dry coating process using a 2(5-1) factorial design.

    PubMed

    Kablitz, Caroline Désirée; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2013-02-01

    A recent development of coating technology is dry coating, where polymer powder and liquid plasticizer are layered on the cores without using organic solvents or water. Several studies evaluating the process were introduced in literature, however, little information about the critical process parameters (CPPs) is given. Aim of the study was the investigation and optimization of CPPs with respect to one of the critical quality attributes (CQAs), the coating efficiency of the dry coating process in a rotary fluid bed. Theophylline pellets were coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as enteric film former and triethyl citrate and acetylated monoglyceride as plasticizer. A 2(5-1) design of experiments (DOEs) was created investigating five independent process parameters namely coating temperature, curing temperature, feeding/spraying rate, air flow and rotor speed. The results were evaluated by multilinear regression using the software Modde(®) 7. It is shown, that generally, low feeding/spraying rates and low rotor speeds increase coating efficiency. High coating temperatures enhance coating efficiency, whereas medium curing temperatures have been found to be optimum in terms of coating efficiency. This study provides a scientific base for the design of efficient dry coating processes with respect to coating efficiency.

  12. Improved solubility and bioactivity of theophylline (a bronchodilator drug) through its new nitrate salt analysed by experimental and theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary Novena, L.; Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, quantum chemical studies and biological activity of the new semi organic compound, Theophyllinium Nitrate [C7H9N4 O2)+. (NO3)-], are reported here. Crystals of Theophyllinium nitrate (TN) were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The crystal packing is dominated by N-H···O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The cations and anions are aggregated almost parallel leading to a lamellar structure. This molecular aggregation features two alternate hydrogen bonded chain C22(8) and C21(6) motifs. Further, a bifurcated ring R12(4) motifs is also seen. This aggregated molecular sheets are parallel to (2 bar 06) and (20 6 bar) planes of the crystal. The solubility test is carried out to enhance the physico-chemical activity of the compound. The atomic charge distribution on different atoms of TN has been calculated by Mulliken charge analysis. A detailed interpretation of FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of TN show that most of the bands are matching between the experimental and theoretical methods. The strong intensity bands and shifting of bands due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds are also investigated. The NBO analysis is carried out to elucidate the stability of the molecule and charge delocalization within the molecule. The HOMO-LUMO analysis reveals molecular stability and chemical reactivity of the present compound. Also, the compound was examined for its antibacterial activity and found to exhibit notable activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This shows that the present compound is a good candidate for the antimicrobial agent apart from its inherent Bronchodilator drug property. Hence, the new compound (TN) may be a good alternative for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and bacterial infections.

  13. Circadian rhythms in the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of beta-agonist, theophylline, and anticholinergic medications in the treatment of nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, G E; Crocetti, J G; Smolensky, M H

    1999-09-01

    Published asthma consensus reports now acknowledge that asthma is a nocturnal disease in as many as 75% of those afflicted by this medical condition. Nonetheless, the treatment of this chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the clinic continues to be based primarily on homeostatic considerations in that it relies on long-acting bronchodilator and other therapies formulated and scheduled to ensure constant or near-constant levels of medication during the 24h. The need of asthma patients prone to nighttime attacks is not the same during the day and night; the therapeutic requirements of patients who experience nocturnal asthma, especially ones with the more severe forms of the disease, are often not satisfied by conventional medications. The therapeutic response and patient tolerance to bronchodilator medications can be improved markedly when the medications are proportioned during the 24h as a chronotherapy, that is, when more medication is delivered during nighttime sleep than daytime activity, as verified by numerous studies. This article reviews how the body's circadian rhythms influence the pharmacokinetics and effects of commonly prescribed asthma therapies and addresses why and how they must be taken into consideration to increase the effectiveness of asthma treatment.

  14. Caffeine-enhanced survival of radiation-sensitive, repair-deficient Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1983-11-01

    A clone of V79 Chinese hamster cells (V79-AL162/S-10) with unique properties has been isolated after a challenge of parental cells (V79-AL162) with 1 mM ouabain. Compared with parental cells, or with other clones isolated after the ouabain challenge, these cells form smaller colonies, are more sensitive to both x rays and fission-spectrum neutrons, and respond atypically to a postirradiation treatment with caffeine. Their enhanced response to x rays results mainly from a large reduction in the shoulder of their survival curve, probably because in late S phase, the most resistant phase in the cell cycle, the survival curve of thesemore » cells has a reduced shoulder width. Caffeine, and to a lesser extent theophylline, added to the colony-forming medium immediately after exposure appreciably increases the width of the shoulder of these sensitive cells, whereas caffeine has the opposite effect on the response of normal V79 cells. Thus the unique response of the V79-AL162/S-10 cells to a radiation posttreatment with caffeine (increased survival) results from a net increase in their ability to repair damage that is otherwise lethal; caffeine treatment ordinarly prevents normal V79 cells from repairing damage that is only potentially lethal.« less

  15. A new definition of pharmaceutical quality: assembly of a risk simulation platform to investigate the impact of manufacturing/product variability on clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Cogdill, Robert P; D'Amico, Frank; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    The absence of a unanimous, industry-specific definition of quality is, to a certain degree, impeding the progress of ongoing efforts to "modernize" the pharmaceutical industry. This work was predicated on requests by Dr. Woodcock (FDA) to re-define pharmaceutical quality in terms of risk by linking production characteristics to clinical attributes. A risk simulation platform that integrates population statistics, drug delivery system characteristics, dosing guidelines, patient compliance estimates, production metrics, and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and in vitro-in vivo correlation models to investigate the impact of manufacturing variability on clinical performance of a model extended-release theophylline solid oral dosage system was developed. Manufacturing was characterized by inter- and intra-batch content uniformity and dissolution variability metrics, while clinical performance was described by a probabilistic pharmacodynamic model that expressed the probability of inefficacy and toxicity as a function of plasma concentrations. Least-squares regression revealed that both patient compliance variables, percent of doses taken and dosing time variability, significantly impacted efficacy and toxicity. Additionally, intra-batch content uniformity variability elicited a significant change in risk scores for the two adverse events and, therefore, was identified as a critical quality attribute. The proposed methodology demonstrates that pharmaceutical quality can be recast to explicitly reflect clinical performance. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C E; Yen, R W; Perez, S M; Bedell, H W; Povsic, T J; Reichert, W M; Truskey, G A

    2016-02-18

    In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human neonatal dermal fibroblasts or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dense collagen gel. TEBVs were mechanically strong enough to allow endothelialization and perfusion at physiological shear stresses within 3 hours after fabrication. After 1 week of perfusion, TEBVs exhibited endothelial release of nitric oxide, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, all of which were maintained up to 5 weeks in culture. Vasodilation was blocked with the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). TEBVs elicited reversible activation to acute inflammatory stimulation by TNF-α which had a transient effect upon acetylcholine-induced relaxation, and exhibited dose-dependent vasodilation in response to caffeine and theophylline. Treatment of TEBVs with 1 μM lovastatin for three days prior to addition of Tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF-α) blocked the injury response and maintained vasodilation. These results indicate the potential to develop a rapidly-producible, endothelialized TEBV for microphysiological systems capable of producing physiological responses to both pharmaceutical and immunological stimuli.

  18. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    PubMed Central

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  19. De novo design of a synthetic riboswitch that regulates transcription termination

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmuth, Manja; Findeiß, Sven; Weissheimer, Nadine; Stadler, Peter F.; Mörl, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Riboswitches are regulatory RNA elements typically located in the 5′-untranslated region of certain mRNAs and control gene expression at the level of transcription or translation. These elements consist of a sensor and an adjacent actuator domain. The sensor usually is an aptamer that specifically interacts with a ligand. The actuator contains an intrinsic terminator or a ribosomal binding site for transcriptional or translational regulation, respectively. Ligand binding leads to structural rearrangements of the riboswitch and to presentation or masking of these regulatory elements. Based on this modular organization, riboswitches are an ideal target for constructing synthetic regulatory systems for gene expression. Although riboswitches for translational control have been designed successfully, attempts to construct synthetic elements regulating transcription have failed so far. Here, we present an in silico pipeline for the rational design of synthetic riboswitches that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. Using the well-characterized theophylline aptamer as sensor, we designed the actuator part as RNA sequences that can fold into functional intrinsic terminator structures. In the biochemical characterization, several of the designed constructs show ligand-dependent control of gene expression in Escherichia coli, demonstrating that it is possible to engineer riboswitches not only for translational but also for transcriptional regulation. PMID:23275562

  20. Understanding the drug release mechanism from a montmorillonite matrix and its binary mixture with a hydrophilic polymer using a compartmental modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choiri, S.; Ainurofiq, A.

    2018-03-01

    Drug release from a montmorillonite (MMT) matrix is a complex mechanism controlled by swelling mechanism of MMT and an interaction of drug and MMT. The aim of this research was to explain a suitable model of the drug release mechanism from MMT and its binary mixture with a hydrophilic polymer in the controlled release formulation based on a compartmental modelling approach. Theophylline was used as a drug model and incorporated into MMT and a binary mixture with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as a hydrophilic polymer, by a kneading method. The dissolution test was performed and the modelling of drug release was assisted by a WinSAAM software. A 2 model was purposed based on the swelling capability and basal spacing of MMT compartments. The model evaluation was carried out to goodness of fit and statistical parameters and models were validated by a cross-validation technique. The drug release from MMT matrix regulated by a burst release mechanism of unloaded drug, swelling ability, basal spacing of MMT compartment, and equilibrium between basal spacing and swelling compartments. Furthermore, the addition of HPMC in MMT system altered the presence of swelling compartment and equilibrium between swelling and basal spacing compartment systems. In addition, a hydrophilic polymer reduced the burst release mechanism of unloaded drug.

  1. Herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  2. Real-time assessment of critical quality attributes of a continuous granulation process.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Díaz, Damián Córdoba; Gildemyn, Delphine; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    There exists the intention to shift pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dosage forms from traditional batch production towards continuous production. The currently applied conventional quality control systems, based on sampling and time-consuming off-line analyses in analytical laboratories, would annul the advantages of continuous processing. It is clear that real-time quality assessment and control is indispensable for continuous production. This manuscript evaluates strengths and weaknesses of several complementary Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools implemented in a continuous wet granulation process, which is part of a fully continuous from powder-to-tablet production line. The use of Raman and NIR-spectroscopy and a particle size distribution analyzer is evaluated for the real-time monitoring of critical parameters during the continuous wet agglomeration of an anhydrous theophylline- lactose blend. The solid state characteristics and particle size of the granules were analyzed in real-time and the critical process parameters influencing these granule characteristics were identified. The temperature of the granulator barrel, the amount of granulation liquid added and, to a lesser extent, the powder feed rate were the parameters influencing the solid state of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). A higher barrel temperature and a higher powder feed rate, resulted in larger granules.

  3. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dodecyl Amino Glucoside Enhances Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery via Reversible Interaction with Skin Barrier Lipids.

    PubMed

    Kopečná, Monika; Macháček, Miloslav; Prchalová, Eva; Štěpánek, Petr; Drašar, Pavel; Kotora, Martin; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2017-03-01

    Skin permeation/penetration enhancers are substances that enable drug delivery through or into the skin. To search for new enhancers with high but reversible activity and acceptable toxicity, we synthesized a series of D-glucose derivatives, both hydrophilic and amphiphilic. Initial evaluation of the ability of these sugar derivatives to increase permeation and penetration of theophylline through/into human skin compared with a control (no enhancer) or sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20; positive control) revealed dodecyl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside 5 as a promising enhancer. Furthermore, this amino sugar 5 increased epidermal concentration of a highly hydrophilic antiviral cidofovir by a factor of 7. The effect of compound 5 on skin electrical impedance suggested its direct interaction with the skin barrier. Infrared spectroscopy of isolated stratum corneum revealed no effect of enhancer 5 on the stratum corneum proteins but an overall decrease in the lipid chain order. The enhancer showed acceptable toxicity on HaCaT keratinocyte and 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. Finally, transepidermal water loss returned to baseline values after enhancer 5 had been removed from the skin. Compound 5, a dodecyl amino glucoside, is a promising enhancer that acts through a reversible interaction with the stratum corneum lipids.

  5. Formulation development and process analysis of drug-loaded filaments manufactured via hot-melt extrusion for 3D-printing of medicines.

    PubMed

    Korte, Carolin; Quodbach, Julian

    2018-02-09

    Three dimensional(3D)-printing via fused deposition modeling (FDM) allows the production of individualized solid dosage forms. However, for bringing this benefit to the patient, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-loaded filaments of pharmaceutical grade excipients are necessary as feedstock and have to be produced industrially. As large-scale production of API-loaded filaments has not been described in literature, this study presents a development of 3D-printable filaments, which can continuously be produced via hot-melt extrusion. Further, a combination of testing methods for mechanical resilience of filaments was applied to improve the prediction of their printability. Eudragit RL was chosen as a sustained release polymer and theophylline (30%) as thermally stable model drug. Stearic acid (7%) and polyethylene glycol 4000 (10%), were evaluated as suitable plasticizers for producing 3D-printable filaments. The two formulations were printed into solid dosage forms and analyzed regarding their dissolution profiles. This revealed that stearic acid maintained sustained release properties of the matrix whereas polyethylene glycol 4000 did not. Analysis of the continuous extrusion process was done using a design of experiments. It showed that powder feed rate and speed of the stretching device used after extrusion predominantly determine the diameter of the filament and thereby the mechanical resilience of a filament.

  6. Evolution of a detailed physiological model to simulate the gastrointestinal transit and absorption process in humans, part II: extension to describe performance of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Kirstin; Coboeken, Katrin; Willmann, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer B; Lippert, Jörg

    2012-03-01

    The physiological absorption model presented in part I of this work is now extended to account for dosage-form-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) transit as well as disintegration and dissolution processes of various immediate-release and modified-release dosage forms. Empirical functions of the Weibull type were fitted to experimental in vitro dissolution profiles of solid dosage forms for eight test compounds (aciclovir, caffeine, cimetidine, diclofenac, furosemide, paracetamol, phenobarbital, and theophylline). The Weibull functions were then implemented into the model to predict mean plasma concentration-time profiles of the various dosage forms. On the basis of these dissolution functions, pharmacokinetics (PK) of six model drugs was predicted well. In the case of diclofenac, deviations between predicted and observed plasma concentrations were attributable to the large variability in gastric emptying time of the enteric-coated tablets. Likewise, oral PK of furosemide was found to be predominantly governed by the gastric emptying patterns. It is concluded that the revised model for GI transit and absorption was successfully integrated with dissolution functions of the Weibull type, enabling prediction of in vivo PK profiles from in vitro dissolution data. It facilitates a comparative analysis of the parameters contributing to oral drug absorption and is thus a powerful tool for formulation design. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Optimization of experimental conditions for the monitoring of nucleation and growth of racemic Diprophylline from the supercooled melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemercier, Aurélien; Viel, Quentin; Brandel, Clément; Cartigny, Yohann; Dargent, Eric; Petit, Samuel; Coquerel, Gérard

    2017-08-01

    Since more and more pharmaceutical substances are developed as amorphous forms, it is nowadays of major relevance to get insights into the nucleation and growth mechanisms from supercooled melts (SCM). A step-by-step approach of recrystallization from a SCM is presented here, designed to elucidate the impact of various experimental parameters. Using the bronchodilator agent Diprophylline (DPL) as a model compound, it is shown that optimal conditions for informative observations of the crystallization behaviour from supercooled racemic DPL require to place samples between two cover slides with a maximum sample thickness of 20 μm, and to monitor recrystallization during an annealing step of 30 min at 70 °C, i.e. about 33 °C above the temperature of glass transition. In these optimized conditions, it could be established that DPL crystallization proceeds in two steps: spontaneous nucleation and growth of large and well-faceted particles of a new crystal form (primary crystals: PC) and subsequent crystallization of a previously known form (RII) that develops from specific surfaces of PC. The formation of PC particles therefore constitutes the key-step of the crystallization events and is shown to be favoured by at least 2.33 wt% of the major chemical impurity, Theophylline.

  8. Vinpocetine and piracetam exert antinociceptive effect in visceral pain model in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, Omar M E

    2006-01-01

    The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam on thermal and visceral pain was studied in mice. In the hot plate test, vinpocetine (0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg), but not piracetam, produced a reduction in nociceptive response. Vinpocetine (0.45-1.8 mg/kg, ip) or piracetam (75-300 mg/kg, ip) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by ip injection of acetic acid. The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam was markedly potentiated by co-administration of propranolol, guanethidine, atropine, naloxone, yohimbine or prazosin. The marked potentiation of antinociception occurred upon a co-administration of vinpocetine and baclofen (5 or 10 mg/kg). In contrast, piracetam antagonized antinociception caused by the low (5 mg/kg), but not the high (10 mg/kg) dose of baclofen. The antinociception caused by vinpocetine was reduced by sulpiride; while that of piracetam was enhanced by haloperidol or sulpiride. Either vinpocetine or piracetam enhanced antinociception caused by imipramine. The antinociceptive effects of vinpocetine or piracetam were blocked by prior administration of theophylline. Low doses of either vinpocetine or piracetam reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test. This study indicates that vinpocetine and piracetam possess visceral antinociceptive properties. This effect depends on activation of adenosine receptors. Piracetam in addition inhibits GABA-mediated antinociception.

  9. A validated Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic method for the characterisation of confiscated illegal slimming products containing anorexics.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Verlinde, K; Courselle, P; Beer, J O De

    2012-02-05

    A fully validated UHPLC-DAD method for the identification and quantification of pharmaceutical preparations, containing molecules frequently found in illegal slimming products (sibutramine, modafinil, ephedrine, nor-ephedrine, metformin, theophyllin, caffeine, diethylpropion and orlistat) was developed. The proposed method uses a Vision HT C18-B column (2 mm × 100 mm, 1.5 μm) with a gradient using an ammonium acetate buffer pH 5.0 as aqueous phase and acetonitrile as organic modifier. The obtained method was fully validated based on its measurement uncertainty (accuracy profile). Calibration lines for all components were linear within the studied ranges. The relative bias and the relative standard deviations for all components were respectively smaller than 3.0% and 1.5%, the β-expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of 10% and the relative expanded uncertainties were smaller than 3% for all of the considered components. A UHPLC-DAD method was obtained for the identification and quantification of these kind of pharmaceutical preparations, which will significantly reduce analysis times and workload for the laboratories charged with the quality control of these preparations and which can, if necessary, be coupled to a MS-detector for a more thorough characterisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mediation of the neuroprotective action of R-phenylisopropyl-adenosine through a centrally located adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, D. G.; Miller, W. J.; Stone, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. Systemic injections of kainic acid, 10 mg kg-1, into adult rats resulted in lesions in the hippocampus, as assessed by peripheral benzodiazepine ligand binding. Co-administration of clonazepam at 1 mg kg-1 or 0.2 mg kg-1 prevented major seizures associated with kainate injections, but did not alter significantly the production of hippocampal damage. 2. The co-administration of the adenosine A1 agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA, 25 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the lesions induced by kainic acid. 3. The presence of the selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (250 or 50 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the R-PIA neuroprotective action. 4. The A1/A2 antagonist, 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) which cannot cross the blood brain barrier, did not alter significantly the neuroprotective action of R-PIA, indicating that the neuroprotective action of the purine may be predominantly central. 5. The time course of the neuroprotection was also examined. R-PIA was effective when administered 2 h before or after kainate administration. 6. The results emphasise the potential utility of systemically active adenosine A1 receptor ligands in reducing CNS gliosis induced by the activation of excitatory amino acid receptors. PMID:8220909

  11. In search of a phase response curve for lithium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Readey, M.A.; Groh, K.R.; Ehret, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats were free-run, and one day later were exposed to a single, punctate dose of 5 mM LiCl/kg body weight by injection at one of eight equally spaced times throughout the 24-h period. For each of the six days following injection, a separate phase response curve was derived from core-temperature chronograms. Unlike the classical response induced by chronobiotics such as dexamethasone, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, and theophylline, statistically significant phase shifts for lithium were observed only on the first day following injection. These induced phase changes were not permanent, but instead were transient. By the sixth day of free-run, all experimental ratsmore » had drifted to the control acrophase; i.e., by the end of the experiment, most of the treated rats again had phase and confidence arcs not significantly different from their controls. The confidence arcs of the acrophases of the individual animals on the subsequent days post injection reveal that in this experiment, lithium was transiently dyschronogenic rather than definitively chronobiotic. The results suggest that punctate rather than chronic administration of lithium, followed by strict orthochronal administration of traditional zeitgebers, would be an effective way of restoring circadian synchrony in an internally desynchronized system. 122 refs.« less

  12. Distribution of six anticancer drugs and a variety of other pharmaceuticals, and their sorption onto sediments, in an urban Japanese river.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Arima, Natsumi; Tsukada, Ai; Hirami, Satoru; Matsuoka, Rie; Moriwake, Ryogo; Ishiuchi, Hirotaka; Inoyama, Tomomi; Teranishi, Yusuke; Yamaoka, Misato; Ishida, Mao; Hisamatsu, Kanae; Yunoki, Ayami; Mino, Yoshiki

    2017-08-01

    The distributions of 31 pharmaceuticals grouped into nine therapeutic classes, including six anticancer drugs, were investigated in the waters and sediments of an urban river in Japan. The coefficients of sorption (logK d ) to the river sediments were also determined from the results of a field survey and laboratory-scale experiment. Three anticancer drugs-bicalutamide, doxifluridine, and tamoxifen-were detected in the river sediments at maximum concentrations of 391, 392, and 250 ng/kg, respectively. In addition, the transformation products of psychotropic carbamazepine (2-hydroxy carbamazepine, acridine, and acridone) were detected in the range of 108 ng/kg (2-hydroxy carbamazepine) to 2365 ng/kg (acridine), and the phytoestrogen glycitein was detected in the range of N.D. to 821 ng/kg. The logK d values of the targeted pharmaceuticals in river sediments in the field survey ranged from 0.5 (theophylline) to 3.3 (azithromycin). These results were in accord with those of the laboratory-scale sorption experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of the anticancer drugs bicalutamide and tamoxifen, the transformation products of carbamazepine (2-hydroxy carbamazepine, acridine, and acridone), and the phytoestrogen genistein in river sediments.

  13. The amphiphilic action of vasopressin and analogues on the plasma membrane of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Mayers, P; Couillard, P

    1990-10-01

    Arginine (AVP) and lysine vasopressin induce a weak but statistically significant increase in the water permeability of Amoeba proteus plasmalemma. Vasotocin and deaminovasopressin, which share the hydroosmotic properties of AVP on classical vertebrate systems, are without effects on Amoeba while SKF 101926, a synthetic AVP antagonist, is even more effective than the parent compound. Theophyllin and dibutyryl-cAMP do not affect AVP action on Amoeba. Lithium, oxytocin, and carbachol are also without effect. Thus, it is unlikely that either V2 (cAMP) or V1 (phosphatidylinositol choline) receptors are involved. A clear correlation has been found between the amphiphilic character of tested peptides and their effect on Amoeba water permeability. Classical amphiphilic peptides, melittin, mastoparan, and fragment 1-8 of alpha-neoendorphin, also increased water permeability in Amoeba. It is known that vasopressin can interact with artificial lipid membranes, increasing their permeability to water. We propose that amphiphilic members of the AVP family interact directly with the lipid phase of the Amoeba membrane. Their incorporation within the lipid bilayer may cause local disruptions or may create micellar water channels as shown for other amphiphilic proteins. Our observations provide a model for the early evolution of peptide hormone systems, preceding the appearance of specific membrane receptors and associated second messenger amplifying mechanisms.

  14. Methods of biological fluids sample preparation - biogenic amines, methylxanthines, water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Płonka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years demands on the amount of information that can be obtained from the analysis of a single sample have increased. For time and economic reasons it is necessary to examine at the same time larger number of compounds, and compounds from different groups. This can best be seen in such areas as clinical analysis. In many diseases, the best results for patients are obtained when treatment fits the individual characteristics of the patient. Dosage monitoring is important at the beginning of therapy and in the full process of treatment. In the treatment of many diseases biogenic amines (dopamine, serotonin) and methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine, caffeine) play an important role. They are used as drugs separately or in combination with others to support and strengthen the action of other drugs - for example, the combination of caffeine and paracetamol. Vitamin supplementation may be also an integral part of the treatment process. Specification of complete sample preparation parameters for extraction of the above compounds from biological matrices has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the preparation stage and extraction methods. This review provides universal guidance on establishing a common procedures across laboratories to facilitate the preparation and analysis of all discussed compounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Selective inhibition of osmotic water flow by general anesthetics to toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S D; Levine, R D; Worthington, R E; Hays, R M

    1976-01-01

    Vasopressin increases the permeability of the total urinary bladder, an analogue of the mammalian renal collecting duct, to water and small solutes, especially the amide urea. We have observed that three general anesthetic agents of clinical importance, the gases methoxyflurane and halothane and the ultrashortacting barbiturate methohexital, reversibly inhibit vasopressin-stimulated water flow, but do not depress permeability to urea, or the the lipophilic solute diphenylhydantoin. In contrast to their effects in vasopressin-treated bladders, the anesthetics do not inhibit cyclic AMP-stimulated water flow, consistent with an effect on vasopressin-responsive adenylate cyclase. The selectivity of the anesthetic-induced depression of water flow suggests that separate adenylate cyclases and cyclic AMP pools may exist for control of water and urea permeabilities in to toad bladder. Furthermore, theophylline's usual stimulatory effect on water flow, but not its effect on urea permeability, was entirely abolished in methoxyflurane-treated bladders, suggesting that separate phosphodiesterases that control water and urea permeabilities are present as well. We conclude that the majority of water and urea transport takes place via separate pathways across the rate-limiting luminal membrane of the bladder cell, and that separate vasopressin-responsive cellular pools of cyclic AMP appear to control permeability to water and to urea. PMID:184113

  16. Separation of catechins and methylxanthines in tea samples by capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ulku Dilek; Aturki, Zeineb; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Fanali, Salvatore

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the simultaneous separation of several polyphenols such as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, theophylline, caffeine in green and black teas by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was developed. Several experimental parameters such as stationary phase type, mobile phase composition, buffer and pH, inner diameter of the columns, sample injection, were evaluated to obtain the complete separation of the analysed compounds. Baseline resolution of the studied polyphenols was achieved within 30 min by using a capillary column (id 100 microm) packed with bidentate C(18) particles for 24.5 cm and a mobile phase composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 4 with H(2)O/ACN (80:20, v/v). The applied voltage and the temperature were set at 30 kV and 20 degrees C. Precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, and accuracy were investigated. A good linearity (R(2) > 0.9992) was achieved over a concentration working range of 2-100 microg/mL for all the analytes. LOD and LOQ were 1 and 2 microg/mL, respectively, for all studied compounds. The CEC method was applied to the analysis of those polyphenols in green and black tea samples after an extraction procedure. Good recovery data from accuracy studies ranged between 90% and 112% for all analytes.

  17. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress Lactobacillus casei cell-wall-induced NF-κB and MAPK activations and cell proliferation through protein kinase A--or exchange protein activated by cAMP-dependent signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takekatsu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kunio; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Nakayama, Yuko; Nakamura, Taichi; Hitomi, Yashiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Shoichi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Specific strains of Lactobacillus have been found to be beneficial in treating some types of diarrhea and vaginosis. However, a high mortality rate results from underlying immunosuppressive conditions in patients with Lactobacillus casei bacteremia. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a small second messenger molecule that mediates signal transduction. The onset and progression of inflammatory responses are sensitive to changes in steady-state cAMP levels. L. casei cell wall extract (LCWE) develops arteritis in mice through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intracellular cAMP affects LCWE-induced pathological signaling. LCWE was shown to induce phosphorylation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and cell proliferation in mice fibroblast cells. Theophylline and phosphodiesterase inhibitor increased intracellular cAMP and inhibited LCWE-induced cell proliferation as well as phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK. Protein kinase A inhibitor H89 prevented cAMP-induced MAPK inhibition, but not cAMP-induced NF-κB inhibition. An exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) agonist inhibited NF-κB activation but not MAPK activation. These results indicate that an increase in intracellular cAMP prevents LCWE induction of pathological signaling pathways dependent on PKA and Epac signaling.

  18. Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease: Can Tea Phytochemicals Play a Role in Prevention?

    PubMed

    Fernando, Warnakulasuriya M A D B; Somaratne, Geeshani; Goozee, Kathryn G; Williams, Shehan; Singh, Harjinder; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-01-01

    Dementia and diabetes mellitus are prevalent disorders in the elderly population. While recognized as two distinct diseases, diabetes has more recently recognized as a significant contributor to risk for developing dementia, and some studies make reference to type 3 diabetes, a condition resulting from insulin resistance in the brain. Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, and diabetes, interestingly, share underlying pathological processes, commonality in risk factors, and, importantly, pathways for intervention. Tea has been suggested to possess potent antioxidant properties. It is rich in phytochemicals including, flavonoids, tannins, caffeine, polyphenols, boheic acid, theophylline, theobromine, anthocyanins, gallic acid, and finally epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is considered to be the most potent active ingredient. Flavonoid phytochemicals, known as catechins, within tea offer potential benefits for reducing the risk of diabetes and Alzheimer's disease by targeting common risk factors, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Studies also show that catechins may prevent the formation of amyloid-β plaques and enhance cognitive functions, and thus may be useful in treating patients who have Alzheimer's disease or dementia. Furthermore, other phytochemicals found within tea offer important antioxidant properties along with innate properties capable of modulating intracellular neuronal signal transduction pathways and mitochondrial function.

  19. Measurement of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a mild stimulant with significant potential for abuse, being consumed in larger doses with the widespread availability of energy drinks and by novel routes of administration such as inspired powder, oral sprays and electronic cigarettes. How these recent changes in caffeine consumption affecting caffeine disposition and abuse potential is of growing concern. In the study of caffeine disposition in humans, it is common to only measure the caffeine concentration; however, caffeine's three major metabolites (paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) retain central nervous system stimulant activity that may contribute to the overall pharmacological activity and toxicity. Therefore, it would be scientifically more rigorous to measure caffeine and its major metabolites in the evaluation of caffeine disposition in human subjects. Herein, we report a method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three major metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Human plasma samples were treated by simple protein precipitation and the analytes were separated using a 6 min gradient program. Precision and accuracy were well within in the 15% acceptance range. The simple sample preparation, short runtime, sensitivity and the inclusion of caffeine's major metabolites make this assay methodology optimal for the study of caffeine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Swelling kinetics of spray-dried chitosan acetate assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and their relation to drug release kinetics of chitosan matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Huanbutta, Kampanart; Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Yoshihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide; Nunthanid, Jurairat

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess in situ swelling behaviors of spray-dried chitosan acetate (CSA) in 0.1N HCl, pH 6.8 and pH 5.0 Tris-HCl buffers. The in vitro drug releases from CSA matrix tablets containing the model drugs, diclofenac sodium and theophylline were investigated in all media using USP-4 apparatus. The effect of chitosan molecular weight, especially in pH 6.8 Tris-HCl, was also studied. In 0.1N HCl, the drug release from the matrix tablets was the lowest in relation to the highest swelling of CSA. The swelling kinetics in Tris-HCl buffers are Fickian diffusion according to their best fit to Higuchi's model as well as the drug release kinetics in all the media. The high swelling rate (k(s)(')) was found to delay the drug release rate (k'). The linear relationship between the swelling and fractions of drug release in Tris-HCl buffers was observed, indicating an important role of the swelling on controlling the drug release mechanism. Additionally, CSA of 200 and 800 kDa chitosan did not swell in pH 6.8 Tris-HCl but disintegrated into fractions, and the drug release from the matrix tablets was the highest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Frontier: Analytical Chemistry and the Occurrence of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While environmental scientists focused on industrial and agricultural pollutants (e.g. PCBs, volatile organics, dioxins, benzene, DDT) in the 1970’s and 1980’s, overlooked was the subtle connection between personal human activities, such as drug consumption, and the subsequent release of anthropogenic drugs and drug metabolites into the natural environment. There was evidence of this possible connection nearly 30 years ago when Garrison et al. (1976) reported the detection of clofibric acid (the bioactive metabolite from a series of serum triglyceride-lowering drugs) in a groundwater reservoir that had been recharged with treated wastewater.(Garrison et al. 1976) A year later Hignite and Azarnoff (1977) reported finding aspirin, caffeine, and nicotine in wastewater effluent, and then Watts et al. (1983) reported the presence of three pharmaceuticals (erythromycin, tetracycline, and theophylline), bisphenol A and other suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a river water sample.(Hignite and Azarnoff, 1977; Watts et al. 1983) Following those three journal articles there, nothing was published for nearly a decade regarding the drug-human-environmental connection. Renewed interest in the subject was reported by Daughton and Ternes’s seminal and authoritative work published in 1999.(Daughton and Ternes, 1999) Since the 1999 publication of Daughton and Ternes’s, the number of publications from the scientific community regarding the human drug c

  2. Inline UV/Vis spectroscopy as PAT tool for hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Wesholowski, Jens; Prill, Sebastian; Berghaus, Andreas; Thommes, Markus

    2018-01-11

    Hot-melt extrusion on co-rotating twin screw extruders is a focused technology for the production of pharmaceuticals in the context of Quality by Design. Since it is a continuous process, the potential for minimizing product quality fluctuation is enhanced. A typical application of hot-melt extrusion is the production of solid dispersions, where an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is distributed within a polymer matrix carrier. For this dosage form, the product quality is related amongst others to the drug content. This can be monitored on- or inline as critical quality attribute by a process analytical technology (PAT) in order to meet the specific requirements of Quality by Design. In this study, an inline UV/Vis spectrometer from ColVisTec was implemented in an early development twin screw extruder and the performance tested in accordance to the ICH Q2 guideline. Therefore, two API (carbamazepine and theophylline) and one polymer matrix (copovidone) were considered with the main focus on the quantification of the drug load. The obtained results revealed the suitability of the implemented PAT tool to quantify the drug load in a typical range for pharmaceutical applications. The effort for data evaluation was minimal due to univariate data analysis, and in combination with a measurement frequency of 1 Hz, the system is sufficient for real-time data acquisition.

  3. Novel method to construct large-scale design space in lubrication process utilizing Bayesian estimation based on a small-scale design-of-experiment and small sets of large-scale manufacturing data.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Jin; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takayama, Kozo

    2012-12-01

    A large-scale design space was constructed using a Bayesian estimation method with a small-scale design of experiments (DoE) and small sets of large-scale manufacturing data without enforcing a large-scale DoE. The small-scale DoE was conducted using various Froude numbers (X(1)) and blending times (X(2)) in the lubricant blending process for theophylline tablets. The response surfaces, design space, and their reliability of the compression rate of the powder mixture (Y(1)), tablet hardness (Y(2)), and dissolution rate (Y(3)) on a small scale were calculated using multivariate spline interpolation, a bootstrap resampling technique, and self-organizing map clustering. The constant Froude number was applied as a scale-up rule. Three experiments under an optimal condition and two experiments under other conditions were performed on a large scale. The response surfaces on the small scale were corrected to those on a large scale by Bayesian estimation using the large-scale results. Large-scale experiments under three additional sets of conditions showed that the corrected design space was more reliable than that on the small scale, even if there was some discrepancy in the pharmaceutical quality between the manufacturing scales. This approach is useful for setting up a design space in pharmaceutical development when a DoE cannot be performed at a commercial large manufacturing scale.

  4. Comparison of selected physico-chemical properties of calcium alginate films prepared by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Crossingham, Yazmin J; Kerr, Philip G; Kennedy, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, polysaccharide that is able to form gels after exposure to calcium. These gels have been used in food and biomedical industries. This is the first direct comparison of two different methods of calcium alginate film production, namely interfacial gelation (IFG) and dry cast gelation (DCG). IFG films were significantly thicker than DCG films, and were more extensively rehydrated in water and 0.1M HCl than the DCG films. During rehydration in 0.1M HCl almost all calcium ions were lost. Under scanning electron microscopy, IFG films appeared less dense than DCG films. IFG films were mechanically weaker than DCG films, and both types of film were weaker after rehydration in 0.1M HCl compared with deionized water. Permeation of theophylline (TPL) was evaluated in-vitro; the diffusion coefficient (D) of the TPL was almost 90 times lower in DCG films than IFG films when both were rehydrated in water. Although the 0.1M HCl rendered both gels more permeable to TPL, D of TPL was still about five times lower in DCG compared to IFG films. The evaluation of selected physico-chemical properties of films is important, since this information may inform the choice of gelation technique used to produce calcium alginate coatings on pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken; Ichinose, Masakazu; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masao; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Tohda, Yuji; Yamauchi, Kohei; Adachi, Mitsuru; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting β2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled β2-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and cough-variant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  6. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken; Ichinose, Masakazu; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masao; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Tohda, Yuji; Yamauchi, Kohei; Adachi, Mitsuru; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered. © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology.

  7. Dissolution process analysis using model-free Noyes-Whitney integral equation.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yusuke; Haruna, Yoshimasa; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Drug dissolution process of solid dosages is theoretically described by Noyes-Whitney-Nernst equation. However, the analysis of the process is demonstrated assuming some models. Normally, the model-dependent methods are idealized and require some limitations. In this study, Noyes-Whitney integral equation was proposed and applied to represent the drug dissolution profiles of a solid formulation via the non-linear least squares (NLLS) method. The integral equation is a model-free formula involving the dissolution rate constant as a parameter. In the present study, several solid formulations were prepared via changing the blending time of magnesium stearate (MgSt) with theophylline monohydrate, α-lactose monohydrate, and crystalline cellulose. The formula could excellently represent the dissolution profile, and thereby the rate constant and specific surface area could be obtained by NLLS method. Since the long time blending coated the particle surface with MgSt, it was found that the water permeation was disturbed by its layer dissociating into disintegrant particles. In the end, the solid formulations were not disintegrated; however, the specific surface area gradually increased during the process of dissolution. The X-ray CT observation supported this result and demonstrated that the rough surface was dominant as compared to dissolution, and thus, specific surface area of the solid formulation gradually increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-induced injury of cells and its prevention by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstatter, I U; Hyslop, P A; Hinshaw, D B; Spragg, R G; Sklar, L A; Cochrane, C G

    1986-01-01

    H2O2, in concentrations achieved in the proximity of stimulated leukocytes, induces injury and lysis of target cells. This may be an important aspect of inflammatory injury of tissues. Cell lysis in two target cells, the murine macrophage-like tumor cell line P388D1 and human peripheral lymphocytes, was found to be associated with activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (EC 2.4.2.30), a nuclear enzyme. This enzyme is activated under various conditions of DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as substrate and has been previously shown to consume NAD during exposure of cells to oxidants that was associated with inhibition of glycolysis, a decrease in cellular ATP, and cell death. In the current studies, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by 3-aminobenzamide, nicotinamide, or theophylline in cells exposed to lethal concentrations of H2O2 prevented the sequence of events that eventually led to cell lysis--i.e., the decrease in NAD, followed by depletion of ATP, influx of extracellular Ca2+, actin polymerization and, finally, cell death. DNA damage, the initial stimulus for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation, occurred despite the inhibition of this enzyme. Cells exposed to oxidant in the presence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide failed to demonstrate repair of DNA strand breaks. PMID:2941760

  9. Direct coupling of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography to continuous corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, A; Ghaziaskar, H S; Khayamian, T

    2013-01-11

    In this study, packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was directly coupled to a continuous corona discharge (CD) ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with several modifications. The main advantage of the developed detector is its capability to introduce full column effluent up to 2000 mL min(-1) CO(2) gas directly into the IMS cell relative to 40 mL min(-1) CO(2) gas as a maximum tolerance, reported for the previous IMS detectors. This achievement was made possible because of using corona discharge instead of (63)Ni as an ionization source and locating the inlet and outlet of the CO(2) gas in the counter electrode of the CD in opposite direction. In addition, a heated interface was placed between back pressure regulator (BPR) and the IMS cell to heat the output of the BPR for introducing sample as the gas phase into the IMS cell. Furthermore, a make-up methanol flow was introduced between the column outlet and BPR to provide a more uniform flow through the BPR and also to prevent freezing and deposition of the analytes in the BPR. The performance of the SFC-CD-IMS was evaluated by analysis of testosterone, medroxyprogesterone, caffeine, and theophylline as test compounds and figures of merit for these compounds have been calculated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lecithin organogels used as bioactive compounds carriers. A microdomain properties investigation.

    PubMed

    Avramiotis, Spyridon; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Hatzara, Elina; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Lianos, Panagiotis; Xenakis, Aristotelis

    2007-04-10

    Organogels were obtained by adding small amounts of water to a solution of lecithin in organic solvents. Either isooctane or isopropyl palmitate and isopropyl myristate were used as the continuous organic phase of the gels. EPR spectroscopy using both DSA membrane-sensitive and lipophilic spin probes was applied to define the dynamic structure of the surfactant monolayer and the continuous oil phase of lecithin organogels. It was found that by increasing the water quantity, an increase of the polar head area per lecithin molecule was induced, and as a consequence the total interface expanded. It was found that the use of esters as organic solvents induced a decrease of the size of the dispersed structures. The interconnection of the aqueous microdomains and their dynamics were monitored by both static and time-resolved fluorescence quenching spectroscopy using Ru(bipy)32+ as fluorophore and Fe(CN)63- as quencher. It was found that the rates of inter- and/or intra-micellar exchange of water molecules were very slow because they appeared quite immobilized close to the lecithin polar heads. According to the results of the dynamic studies, appropriate organogels were formulated and used to incorporate model bioactive compounds with medicinal or cosmetic interest such as caffeine and theophylline. When these systems were tested for trans-membrane diffusion, they showed a 24 h permeation of 20% and 35%, respectively.

  11. Mapping of a binding site for ATP within the extracellular region of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Schrattenholz, A; Roth, U; Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Maelicke, A

    1997-10-28

    Using 2,8,5'-[3H]ATP as a direct photoaffinity label for membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata, we have identified a binding site for ATP in the extracellular region of the beta-subunit of the receptor. Photolabeling was completely inhibited in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonradioactive ATP, whereas neither the purinoreceptor antagonists suramin, theophyllin, and caffeine nor the nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine affected the labeling reaction. Competitive and noncompetitive nicotinic agonists and Ca2+ increased the yield of the photoreaction by up to 50%, suggesting that the respective binding sites are allosterically linked with the ATP site. The dissociation constant KD of binding of ATP to the identified site on the nAChR was of the order of 10(-4) M. Sites of labeling were found in the sequence regions Leu11-Pro17 and Asp152-His163 of the nAChR beta-subunit. These regions may represent parts of a single binding site for ATP, which is discontinuously distributed within the primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular domain. The existence of an extracellular binding site for ATP confirms, on the molecular level, that this nucleotide can directly act on nicotinic receptors, as has been suggested from previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies.

  12. A quality-by-design study for an immediate-release tablet platform: examining the relative impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient properties, processing methods, and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph; Langdon, Beth A; Hicks, Ian; Song, Daniel; Li, Fasheng; Kathiria, Lalji; Kane, Anil; Ranade, Gautam; Agarwal, Kam

    2014-02-01

    The impact of filler-lubricant particle size ratio variation (3.4-41.6) on the attributes of an immediate-release tablet was compared with the impacts of the manufacturing method used (direct compression or dry granulation) and drug loading (1%, 5%, and 25%), particle size (D[4,3]: 8-114 μm), and drug type (theophylline or ibuprofen). All batches were successfully manufactured, except for direct compression of 25% drug loading of 8 μm (D[4,3]) drug, which exhibited very poor flow properties. All manufactured tablets possessed adequate quality attributes: tablet weight uniformity <4% RSD, tablet potency: 94%-105%, content uniformity <6% RSD, acceptance value ≤ 15, solid fraction: 0.82-0.86, tensile strength >1 MPa, friability ≤ 0.2% weight loss, and disintegration time < 4 min. The filler-lubricant particle size ratio exhibited the greatest impact on blend and granulation particle size and granulation flow, whereas drug property variation dominated blend flow, ribbon solid fraction, and tablet quality attributes. Although statistically significant effects were observed, the results of this study suggest that the manufacturability and performance of this immediate-release tablet formulation is robust to a broad range of variation in drug properties, both within-grade and extra-grade excipient particle size variations, and the choice of manufacturing method. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenthur, Cody J.; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D.

    2017-08-01

    Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and ‘pharmacoterrorism’ in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system. Although the psychoactive properties of fenethylline have been reported to differ from those of other synthetic stimulants, the in vivo chemical complexity it manifests upon ingestion has impeded efforts to unambiguously identify the specific species responsible for these effects. Here we develop a ‘dissection through vaccination’ approach, called DISSECTIV, to mitigate the psychoactive effects of fenethylline and show that its rapid-onset and distinct psychoactive properties are facilitated by functional synergy between theophylline and amphetamine. Our results demonstrate that incremental vaccination against a single chemical species within a multi-component mixture can be used to uncover emergent properties arising from polypharmacological activity. We anticipate that DISSECTIV will be used to expose unidentified active chemical species and resolve pharmacodynamic interactions within other chemically complex systems, such as those found in counterfeit or illegal drug preparations, post-metabolic tissue samples and natural product extracts.

  14. Determination of alkaloids in onion nectar by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carolina Soto, Verónica; Jofré, Viviana Patricia; Galmarini, Claudio Romulo; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    Nectar is the most important floral reward offered by plants to insects. Minor components such as alkaloid compounds in nectar affect bee foraging, with great influence in seed production. CE is an advantageous tool for the analysis of unexplored samples such as onion nectar due to the limited amounts of samples. Considering the importance of these compounds, a simultaneous determination of nicotine, theophylline, theobromine, caffeine, harmaline, piperine in onion nectar by MEKC-UV is herein reported. The extraction of alkaloid compounds in nectar was performed by SPE using a homemade miniaturized column (C18 ). Effects of several important factors affecting extraction efficiency as well as electrophoretic performance were investigated to acquire optimum conditions. Under the proposed conditions, the analytes can be separated within 15 min in a 50 cm effective length capillary (75 μm id) at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 20 mmol/L sodium tretraborate, 100 mmol/L SDS. The amount of sample requirement was reduced up to 2000 times, when compared to traditional methods, reaching limits of detection as low as 0.0153 ng/L. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked qualitative and quantitative differences in nectar alkaloids between open pollinated and male sterile lines (MSLs) and also within MSLs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, K d,app , between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. K d,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of fenethylline psychoactivity.

    PubMed

    Wenthur, Cody J; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D

    2017-08-24

    Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and 'pharmacoterrorism' in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system. Although the psychoactive properties of fenethylline have been reported to differ from those of other synthetic stimulants, the in vivo chemical complexity it manifests upon ingestion has impeded efforts to unambiguously identify the specific species responsible for these effects. Here we develop a 'dissection through vaccination' approach, called DISSECTIV, to mitigate the psychoactive effects of fenethylline and show that its rapid-onset and distinct psychoactive properties are facilitated by functional synergy between theophylline and amphetamine. Our results demonstrate that incremental vaccination against a single chemical species within a multi-component mixture can be used to uncover emergent properties arising from polypharmacological activity. We anticipate that DISSECTIV will be used to expose unidentified active chemical species and resolve pharmacodynamic interactions within other chemically complex systems, such as those found in counterfeit or illegal drug preparations, post-metabolic tissue samples and natural product extracts.

  17. Vaccine-driven pharmacodynamic dissection and mitigation of Captagon psychoactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wenthur, Cody J; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY PARAGRAPH Fenethylline, also known as Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to substance use disorder and ‘pharmacoterrorism’ in the Middle East.1–4 Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it additionally incorporates a covalently-linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure.5,6 These independently-active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in a structurally-diverse chemical mixture being deployed to the central nervous system.7–9 Although fenethylline’s psychoactive properties have been reported to differ from other synthetic stimulants, the in vivo chemical complexity it manifests upon ingestion has impeded efforts to unambiguously identify the specific species responsible for these effects.10,11 Here we develop a ‘dissection through vaccination’ approach, called DISSECTIV, to mitigate fenethylline’s psychoactivity and show that its rapid-onset and distinct psychoactive properties are facilitated by functional synergy between theophylline and amphetamine. Our results demonstrate that incremental vaccination against single chemical species within a multi-component mixture can be used to uncover emergent properties arising from polypharmacologic activity. We anticipate that DISSECTIV will be employed to expose unidentified active chemical species and illuminate pharmacodynamic interactions within other chemically complex systems, such as those found in counterfeit or illegal drug preparations, post-metabolic tissue samples, and natural product extracts. PMID:28813419

  18. Inkjet printing of drug substances and use of porous substrates-towards individualized dosing.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Niklas; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Viitala, Tapani; Peltonen, Jouko

    2011-08-01

    Medicines are most often oral solid dosage forms made into tablets or capsules, and there is little room for individualized doses. The drug substance and additives are processed through multiple production phases, including complex powder handling steps. In drug manufacturing, the control of the solid-state properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is essential and it offers opportunities for enhancement of drug delivery systems. In this context, inkjet printing technologies have emerged over the last decades in pharmaceutical and biological applications and offer solutions for controlling material and product characteristics with high precision. Here we report the concept of conventional inkjet printing technology to produce printable pharmaceutical dosage forms on porous substrates. Data are shown to demonstrate inkjet printing of APIs into paper substrates, and how the model drug substances (paracetamol, theophylline, and caffeine) are penetrating the porous substrates used. The method enables controlling not only the deposition but also the crystallization of the drug substances. We anticipate that the inkjet printing approach has immense potential in making sophisticated drug delivery systems by use of porous substrates in the future. For example, it may offer new perspectives for solving problems around poorly soluble drugs and dosing low-dose medicines accurately. Furthermore, with the advent of genetic mapping of humans, controlled inkjet dosing can bring solutions to fabricate on-demand individualized medicines for patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The history and science of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood.

  20. Caffeine accelerates recovery from general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Fong, Robert; Mason, Peggy; Fox, Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    General anesthetics inhibit neurotransmitter release from both neurons and secretory cells. If inhibition of neurotransmitter release is part of an anesthetic mechanism of action, then drugs that facilitate neurotransmitter release may aid in reversing general anesthesia. Drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP levels are known to facilitate neurotransmitter release. Three cAMP elevating drugs (forskolin, theophylline, and caffeine) were tested; all three drugs reversed the inhibition of neurotransmitter release produced by isoflurane in PC12 cells in vitro. The drugs were tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Animals were injected with either saline or saline containing drug. All three drugs dramatically accelerated recovery from isoflurane anesthesia, but caffeine was most effective. None of the drugs, at the concentrations tested, had significant effects on breathing rates, O2 saturation, heart rate, or blood pressure in anesthetized animals. Caffeine alone was tested on propofol-anesthetized rats where it dramatically accelerated recovery from anesthesia. The ability of caffeine to accelerate recovery from anesthesia for different chemical classes of anesthetics, isoflurane and propofol, opens the possibility that it will do so for all commonly used general anesthetics, although additional studies will be required to determine whether this is in fact the case. Because anesthesia in rodents is thought to be similar to that in humans, these results suggest that caffeine might allow for rapid and uniform emergence from general anesthesia in human patients. PMID:24375022

  1. Enhancement of SV40 transformation by treatment of C3H2K cells with uv light and caffeine. I. Combined effect of uv light and caffeine. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, T.; Anzai, K.; Andoh, T.

    1975-08-01

    Treatment of cultured mouse cells, C3H2K, with uv light and/or caffeine enhanced the frequency of SV40-induced transformation. This enhancement depends upon the doses of uv and caffeine and the mode of combination of these agents. Irradiation of cells with increasing doses of uv just before infection resulted in approximately 2-fold enhancement of the transformation frequency up to a dose of 90 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and 3.3-fold at 150 ergs/mm/sup 2/. Addition of 1 mM caffeine to the medium for 4 days subsequent to infection brought about a 2-fold enhancement. When cells were irradiated and treated with 1 mM caffeine, the enhancementmore » was approximately 4-fold up to a uv dose of 90 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and 5.9-fold at 150 ergs/mm/sup 2/. When 0.1 to 4 mM caffeine was added for 4 days postinfection, the absolute number of transformations increased, and an enhancement ratio of 1.3 to 6.8 resulted. After the addition of the same increasing doses of caffeine to uv-irradiated cells (75 ergs/mm/sup 2/), the enhancement of transformation frequency was even higher ranging 2.0 to 13.3. The transformation frequencies thus obtained by the double treatment were always higher than those predicted if uv and caffeine acted additively. The transformation frequency was little affected by the addition of dibutyrylcyclic AMP and theophylline.« less

  2. Diffusion of water-soluble sorptive drugs in HEMA/MAA hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Liu, D E; Dursch, T J; Taylor, N O; Chan, S Y; Bregante, D T; Radke, C J

    2016-10-10

    We measure and, for the first time, theoretically predict four prototypical aqueous-drug diffusion coefficients in five soft-contact-lens material hydrogels where solute-specific adsorption is pronounced. Two-photon fluorescence confocal microscopy and UV/Vis-absorption spectrophotometry assess transient solute concentration profiles and concentration histories, respectively. Diffusion coefficients are obtained for acetazolamide, riboflavin, sodium fluorescein, and theophylline in 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid (HEMA/MAA) copolymer hydrogels as functions of composition, equilibrium water content (30-90%), and aqueous pH (2 and 7.4). At pH2, MAA chains are nonionic, whereas at pH7.4, MAA chains are anionic (pKa≈5.2). All studied prototypical drugs specifically interact with HEMA and nonionic MAA (at pH2) moieties. Conversely, none of the prototypical drugs adsorb specifically to anionic MAA (at pH7.4) chains. As expected, diffusivities of adsorbing solutes are significantly diminished by specific interactions with hydrogel strands. Despite similar solute size, relative diffusion coefficients in the hydrogels span several orders of magnitude because of varying degrees of solute interactions with hydrogel-polymer chains. To provide a theoretical framework for the new diffusion data, we apply an effective-medium model extended for solute-specific interactions with hydrogel copolymer strands. Sorptive-diffusion kinetics is successfully described by local equilibrium and Henry's law. All necessary parameters are determined independently. Predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with experiment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In-vitro/in-vivo correlation of pulsatile drug release from press-coated tablet formulations: a pharmacoscintigraphic study in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Manish; McInnes, Fiona J; Watson, David G; Mullen, Alexander B; Stevens, Howard N E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo performance of a press-coated tablet (PCT) intended for time delayed drug release, consisting of a rapidly disintegrating theophylline core tablet, press-coated with barrier granules containing glyceryl behenate (GB) and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC). The PCTs showed pulsatile release with a lag time dependent upon the GB and L-HPC composition of the barrier layer. In-vivo gamma-scintigraphic studies were carried out for PCTs containing GB:L-HPC at 65:35 w/w and 75:25 w/w in the barrier layer in four beagle dogs, in either the fed or fasted state. The in-vivo lag time in both the fed and fasted states did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from the in-vitro lag time. Additionally, no significant difference (p<0.05) between in-vivo fed and fasted disintegration times was observed, demonstrating that in-vivo performance of the PCT was not influenced by the presence or absence of food in the gastrointestinal tract. A distinct lag time was obtained prior to the appearance of drug in plasma and correlated (R2=0.98) with disintegration time observed from scintigraphic images. However, following disintegration, no difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-6 dis), K(el), Cmax) was observed. The current study highlighted the potential use of these formulations for chronopharmaceutical drug delivery.

  4. Contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity--questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K

    1998-04-01

    The intravascular administration of contrast media (CM) can produce acute haemodynamic changes in the kidney characterized by an increase in renal vascular resistance and a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These changes may lead to clinically significant reduction in renal function in patients with pre-existing risk factors such as diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure and dehydration. The pathophysiology of the renal haemodynamic effects of CM involves activation of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism and the modulation of the intrarenal production of vasoactive mediators such as prostaglandins, nitric oxide, endothelin and adenosine. The TGF response is osmolality-dependent and accounts for about 50% of the acute functional effects of high osmolar CM on the kidney. Reduction in the synthesis of the endogenous vasodilators nitric oxide and prostaglandins increases the nephrotoxicity of CM. Endothelin and adenosine play a crucial role in mediating the acute functional effects of CM. Antagonists of these mediators attenuate the reduction in renal function induced by contrast agents. Vacuolization of the cells of the proximal tubules and necrosis of those of the medullary ascending limbs of loops of Henle are the main structural effects of CM in the kidney. The reduction in renal function induced by CM could be minimized by the use of low osmolar CM and adequate hydration. The prophylactic administration of calcium channel blockers and adenosine antagonists such as theophylline may also offer some protective effect.

  5. Noncompetitive blocking of human GLUT1 hexose transporter by methylxanthines reveals an exofacial regulatory binding site.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Paola; Pérez, Alejandra; Ojeda, Lorena; Vargas-Uribe, Mauricio; Rivas, Coralia I; Salas, Monica; Vera, Juan Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M

    2012-09-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT)1 has become an attractive target to block glucose uptake in malignant cells since most cancer cells overexpress GLUT1 and are sensitive to glucose deprivation. Methylxanthines are natural compounds that inhibit glucose uptake; however, the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. Here, we used a combination of binding and glucose transport kinetic assays to analyze in detail the effects of caffeine, pentoxifylline, and theophylline on hexose transport in human erythrocytes. The displacement of previously bound cytochalasin B revealed a direct interaction between the methylxanthines and GLUT1. Methylxanthines behave as noncompetitive blockers (inhibition constant values of 2-3 mM) in exchange and zero-trans efflux assays, whereas mixed inhibition with a notable uncompetitive component is observed in zero-trans influx assays (inhibition constant values of 5-12 mM). These results indicate that methylxanthines do not bind to either exofacial or endofacial d-glucose-binding sites but instead interact at a different site accessible by the external face of the transporter. Additionally, infinite-cis exit assays (Sen-Widdas assays) showed that only pentoxifylline disturbed d-glucose for binding to the exofacial substrate site. Interestingly, coinhibition assays showed that methylxanthines bind to a common site on the transporter. We concluded that there is a methylxanthine regulatory site on the external surface of the transporter, which is close but distinguishable from the d-glucose external site. Therefore, the methylxanthine moiety may become an attractive framework for the design of novel specific noncompetitive facilitative GLUT inhibitors.

  6. Hydrophilic thermoplastic polyurethanes for the manufacturing of highly dosed oral sustained release matrices via hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, G; Van Renterghem, J; Van Bockstal, P J; Kasmi, S; De Geest, B G; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    Hydrophilic aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane (Tecophilic™ grades) matrices for high drug loaded oral sustained release dosage forms were formulated via hot melt extrusion/injection molding (HME/IM). Drugs with different aqueous solubility (diprophylline, theophylline and acetaminophen) were processed and their influence on the release kinetics was investigated. Moreover, the effect of Tecophilic™ grade, HME/IM process temperature, extrusion speed, drug load, injection pressure and post-injection pressure on in vitro release kinetics was evaluated for all model drugs. (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated that all grades have different soft segment/hard segment ratios, allowing different water uptake capacities and thus different release kinetics. Processing temperature of the different Tecophilic™ grades was successfully predicted by using SEC and rheology. Tecophilic™ grades SP60D60, SP93A100 and TG2000 had a lower processing temperature than other grades and were further evaluated for the production of IM tablets. During HME/IM drug loads up to 70% (w/w) were achieved. In addition, Raman mapping and (M)DSC results confirmed the homogenous distribution of mainly crystalline API in all polymer matrices. Besides, hydrophilic TPU based formulations allowed complete and sustained release kinetics without using release modifiers. As release kinetics were mainly affected by drug load and the length of the PEO soft segment, this polymer platform offers a versatile formulation strategy to adjust the release rate of drugs with different aqueous solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of HPMC substituent pattern on water up-take, polymer and drug release: An experimental and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Caccavo, Diego; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Abrahmsén-Alami, Susanna; Viridén, Anna; Larsson, Anette

    2017-08-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration behavior of two matrix formulations containing the cellulose derivative hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The two HPMC batches investigated had different substitution pattern along the backbone; the first one is referred to as heterogeneous and the second as homogenous. The release of both the drug molecule theophylline and the polymer was determined. Additionally, the water concentrations at different positions in the swollen gel layers were determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The experimental data was compared to predicted values obtained by the extension of a mechanistic Fickian based model. The hydration of tablets containing the more homogenous HPMC batch showed a gradual water concentration gradient in the gel layer and could be well predicted. The hydration process for the more heterogeneous batch showed a very abrupt step change in the water concentration in the gel layer and could not be well predicted. Based on the comparison between the experimental and predicted data this study suggests, for the first time, that formulations with HPMC of different heterogeneities form gels in different ways. The homogeneous HPMC batch exhibits a water sorption behavior ascribable to a Ficḱs law for the diffusion process whereas the more heterogeneous HPMC batches does not. This conclusion is important in the future development of simulation models and in the understanding of drug release mechanism from hydrophilic matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter; Xie, Zhihui; Frith, Katie; Wong, Melanie; Kakakios, Alyson; Stone, Kelly D; Druey, Kirk M

    2015-03-01

    Adult subjects with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) present with acute and recurrent episodes of vascular leak manifesting as severe hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, hemoconcentration, and generalized edema. We studied clinical disease characteristics, serum cytokine profiles, and treatment modalities in a cohort of children with documented SCLS. Six children with SCLS were recruited from the United States, Australia, Canada, and Italy. Serum cytokines from SCLS subjects and a group of 10 healthy children were analyzed. Children with SCLS (aged 5-11 years old) presented with at least 1 acute, severe episode of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration in the absence of underlying causes for these abnormalities. In contrast to what is observed in adult SCLS, identifiable infectious triggers precipitated most episodes in these children, and none of them had a monoclonal gammopathy. We found elevated levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor α in baseline SCLS sera compared with the control group. All patients are alive and well on prophylactic therapy, with 4 patients receiving intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulins at regular intervals. The clinical manifestations of pediatric and adult SCLS are similar, with the notable exceptions of frequent association with infections and the lack of monoclonal gammopathy. Prophylactic medication, including high dose immunoglobulins or theophylline plus verapamil, appears to be safe and efficacious therapy for SCLS in children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  11. Ibudilast attenuates astrocyte apoptosis via cyclic GMP signalling pathway in an in vitro reperfusion model

    PubMed Central

    Takuma, K; Lee, E; Enomoto, R; Mori, K; Baba, A; Matsuda, T

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effect of 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (ibudilast), which has been clinically used for bronchial asthma and cerebrovascular disorders, on cell viability induced in a model of reperfusion injury. Ibudilast at 10 – 100 μM significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability. Ibudilast inhibited the H2O2-induced cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, DNA ladder formation and nuclear condensation, suggesting its anti-apoptotic effect. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as theophylline, pentoxyfylline, vinpocetine, dipyridamole and zaprinast, which increased the guanosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) level, and dibutyryl cyclic GMP attenuated the H2O2-induced injury in astrocytes. Ibudilast increased the cyclic GMP level in astrocytes. The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT5823 blocked the protective effects of ibudilast and dipyridamole on the H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability, while the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT5720, the cyclic AMP antagonist Rp-cyclic AMPS, the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 and the leukotriene D4 antagonist LY 171883 did not. KT5823 also blocked the effect of ibudilast on the H2O2-induced cytochrome c release and caspase-3-like protease activation. These findings suggest that ibudilast prevents the H2O2-induced delayed apoptosis of astrocytes via a cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP, signalling pathway. PMID:11454657

  12. Insight into Flufenamic Acid Cocrystal Dissolution in the Presence of a Polymer in Solution: from Single Crystal to Powder Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Minshan; Wang, Ke; Qiao, Ning; Fábián, László; Sadiq, Ghazala; Li, Mingzhong

    2017-12-04

    Effects of three polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP-VA), on the dissolution behavior of the cocrystals of flufenamic acid with theophylline (FFA-TP CO) and nicotinamide (FFA-NIC CO) were investigated at multiple length scales. At the molecular level, the interactions of crystal surfaces with a polymer were analyzed by observing etching pattern changes using atomic force microscopy. At the macroscopic scale, dissolution rates of particular faces of a single crystal were determined by measurement of the physical retreat velocities of the faces using optical light microscopy. In the bulk experiments, the FFA concentration in a dissolution medium in the absence or presence of a polymer was measured under both sink and nonsink conditions. It has been found that the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-TP CO are controlled by the defect sites of the crystal surface and by precipitation of the parent drug FFA as individual crystals in the bulk fluid. In contrast, the dissolution mechanisms of FFA-NIC CO are controlled by surface layer removal and by a surface precipitation mechanism, where the parent drug FFA precipitates directly onto the surface of the dissolving cocrystals. Through controlling the dissolution environment by predissolving a polymer, PVP or PVP-VA, which can interact with the crystal surface to alter its dissolution properties, improved solubility, and dissolution rates of FFA-TP CO and FFA-NIC CO have been demonstrated.

  13. Preanalytical requirements for flow cytometric evaluation of platelet activation: choice of anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Mody, M; Lazarus, A H; Semple, J W; Freedman, J

    1999-06-01

    Accurate assessment of in vivo or in vitro platelet activation requires optimal preanalytical conditions to prevent artefactual in vitro activation of the platelets. The choice of anticoagulant is one of the critical preanalytical conditions as anticoagulants exert different effects on the activation of platelets ex vivo. We tested the effectiveness of Diatube-H (also known as CTAD; sodium citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole) and citrate vacutainer tubes in preventing artefactual activation of platelets and preserving functional reserve. Platelet surface expression of the CD62P (reflecting alpha granule release), CD63 (reflecting lysosomal release) and modulation of normal platelet membrane glycoproteins CD41a and CD42b, were measured in whole blood and in isolated platelets immediately after collection and at 6, 24 and 48 h after venipuncture. Samples taken into Diatube-H showed less spontaneous platelet activation than did those taken into citrate. To measure in vitro platelet functional reserve, thrombin was added as agonist to blood stored for varying periods up to 48 h. Although Diatube-H suppressed in vitro platelet activation for up to 4 h, in samples kept for 6-24 h before thrombin addition, the inhibitory effect was lost and platelets responded fully to agonist activation. Hence, Diatube-H preserved platelets and allowed for measurement of in vivo platelet activation as well as thrombin-induced in vitro platelet activation after 6-24 h, in both whole blood and isolated platelets.

  14. Identification, characterization and subcellular localization of TcPDE1, a novel cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Maximiliano A; Sanguineti, Santiago; Reece, Jeffrey M; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2004-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cAMP phosphodiesterases plays a key role in the regulation of cAMP signalling in mammals. In the present paper, we report the characterization and subcellular localization of TcPDE1, the first cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase to be identified from Trypanosoma cruzi. TcPDE1 is part of a small gene family and encodes a 929-amino-acid protein that can complement a heat-shock-sensitive yeast mutant deficient in phospho-diesterase genes. Recombinant TcPDE1 strongly associates with membranes and cannot be released with NaCl or sodium cholate, suggesting that it is an integral membrane protein. This enzyme is specific for cAMP and its activity is not affected by cGMP, Ca2+, calmodulin or fenotiazinic inhibitors. TcPDE1 is sensitive to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor dipyridamole but is resistant to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, rolipram and zaprinast. Papaverine, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine hydrochloride, and vinpocetine are poor inhibitors of this enzyme. Confocal laser scanning of T. cruzi epimastigotes showed that TcPDE1 is associated with the plasma membrane and concentrated in the flagellum of the parasite. The association of TcPDE1 with this organelle was confirmed by subcellular fractionation and cell-disruption treatments. The localization of this enzyme is a unique feature that distinguishes it from all the trypanosomatid phosphodiesterases described so far and indicates that compartmentalization of cAMP phosphodiesterases could also be important in these parasites. PMID:14556647

  15. Renal haemodynamics and natriuretic responses to intravenous administration of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in rat.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska-Konkel, M; Langner, G; Bednarczuk, G; Stiepanow-Trzeciak, A; Jankowski, M; Angielski, S

    2003-06-01

    Effects of Ap4A and NAD--precursor of adenosine, on renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine excretion were determined in the anaesthetised rats. Infusion of Ap4A or NAD (i.v., bolus--1 micromol/kg followed by 10 nmol/min/kg) decreased RPF and GFR (by 30 and 40%, respectively). In spite of GFR reduction during Ap4A infusion, the significant increase in sodium excretion and urine flow was noticed: fractional sodium (FENa) and urine excretion (FEurine) rose 15-fold and 2.5-fold in comparison with the control value, respectively. In contrast to Ap4A, NAD-induced decrease in GFR was associated with parallel decrease in sodium and urine excretion, thus the FENa and FEurine did not significantly change. Pretreatment with adenosine deaminase (adenosine degrading enzyme, 2 U/min/kg) or theophylline (P1-receptors antagonist, 0.2 mmol/min/kg) ceased responses to NAD, whereas Ap4A-induced changes were not affected. Pre-treatment with suramin (P2-receptors antagonist, (i.v., bolus--12 mg/kg followed by 1.2 mg/min/kg) completely abolished the renal effects of Ap4A. We conclude that Ap4A may exert specific action on renal function. It acts different from NAD that modified renal function through its hydrolysis product--adenosine. Ap4A might reduce glomerular filtration rate and evoke natriuresis and diuresis, and its effects are probably mediated through stimulation of P2-receptors.

  16. A non-destructive method for quality control of the pellet distribution within a MUPS tablet by terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Anna; Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was applied to analyse the inner structure of multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets. MUPS tablets containing different amounts of theophylline pellets coated with Eudragit® NE 30 D and with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as cushioning agent were analysed. The tablets were imaged by TPI and the results were compared to X-ray microtomography. The terahertz pulse beam propagates through the tablets and is back-reflected at the interface between the MCC matrix and the coated pellets within the tablet causing a peak in the terahertz waveform. Cross-section images of the tablets were extracted at different depths and parallel to the tablet faces from 3D terahertz data to visualise the surface-near structure of the MUPS tablets. The images of the surface-near structure of the MUPS tablets were compared to X-ray microtomography images at the same depths. The surface-near structure could be clearly resolved by TPI at depths between 24 and 152μm below the tablet surface. An increasing amount of pellets within the MUPS tablets appears to slightly decrease the detectability of the pellets within the tablets by TPI. TPI was shown to be a non-destructive method for the detection of pellets within the tablets and could resolve structures thicker than 30μm. In conclusion, a proof-of-concept was provided for TPI as a method of quality control for MUPS tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel spectroscopic analysis to detect photochemical reaction of the bronchodilator - Doxofylline and its estimation in pharmaceutical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasi Rekha, P.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2018-02-01

    Photostability studies of drugs and drug products are an integral part of the product development process in the pharmaceutical industry. These studies are carried out to ensure quality, efficacy and safety of the formulated products during manufacture, storage and use. In this investigation, a novel spectroscopic approach has been adopted by employing the FTIR-ATR and UV/Visible techniques to detect the photochemical reactions of the drug Doxofylline, chemically designated as 7-(1, 3 dioxolane-2-yl methyl) theophylline, in its raw (pure) form. Significant changes were observed in terms of optical density of the absorption bands and a satisfactory analysis has been performed using ANOVA Statistics. It highlights the role of the photochemistry of drugs with respect to its spectral profiles and also explains photo physical processes. In addition; the drug compatibility study was also undertaken by using FTIR-ATR technique which indicated that there were no interactions occurring between the raw sample of the drug and the excipients used in the preparation of the pharmaceutical formulation. With this, UV-visible spectroscopic method was validated for the quantitative estimation of Doxofylline in pharmaceutical dosage forms and was performed with λmax at 274 nm. Calibration curves were linear between the concentration range 10-50 μg/ml. The various parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and specificity were studied according to ICH guidelines (Ahmed et al., 2016; Jain et al., 2011; ICH, 1996).

  18. Drugs in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  19. Captagon: use and trade in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Al-Imam, Ahmed; Santacroce, Rita; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Chilcott, Robert; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East. A multi-staged and multi-lingual literature search was carried out. A list of prespecified keywords was applied across medical and paramedical databases, web and Dark web, search engines, social communication media, electronic commerce websites, media networks, and the Global Public Health Intelligence Network database. The use of Captagon as a stimulant in terrorist settings has been marginally covered in the literature. Data can widely be retrieved from Google and AOL search engines, YouTube, and Amazon e-commerce websites, and to a lesser extent from Alibaba and eBay. On the contrary, Middle Eastern e-commerce websites yielded almost no results. Interestingly, the Dark web generated original data for Captagon e-commerce in the Middle East. Further investigations are needed on the role that psychoactive drugs play in terrorist attacks and civil war zones. Unless a comprehensive methodological strategy, inclusive of unconventional methods of research, is implemented, it will not be feasible to face such a threat to humanity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Asthma: non-responsiveness to conventional therapy.

    PubMed

    Rebuck, A S

    1986-01-01

    Despite regular inhalation of beta-agonists, topical steroids and anticholinergic aerosols and the achievement of therapeutic blood levels of theophylline, some asthmatics have rapidly fluctuating levels of peak flow measurements throughout the day. Often little or no improvement is obtained with larger doses of corticosteroids. Before embarking on more intense drug therapy, attention should be paid to conscientious adherence to the prescribed regimen and avoidance of aspirin and tartrazine, as well as to exposure to allergens such as those associated with household pets. A number of newer therapeutic options are related to the use of air jet or ultrasonic nebulizers, that allow liquid forms of inhalation agents to be taken slowly in the home environment. In this regard, combination therapy with a beta-agonist and the anticholinergic ipratropium has been shown to have bronchodilating properties superior to either agent used alone. Secondly, sodium cromoglycate in its liquid form appears to have bronchodilator properties; taken on a regular basis, four times per day, it appears to have a steroid-sparing effect. Two alternatives are available for increasing the intensity of corticosteroid therapy, other than by prolonged, high-dose prednisone. The first is that of high-dose inhaled beclomethasone (up to 2000 micrograms/day) using the 250 micrograms/puff inhaler. The second is that of intravenous therapy with methylprednisolone, recently shown to have lung permeability superior to that of prednisolone. Office patients can be treated with occasional or even regular 'pulse' doses of methylprednisolone, an approach that is now finding acceptance in the management of the inflammatory alveolitides.

  1. Engineering of ribozyme-based aminoglycoside switches of gene expression by in vivo genetic selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Benedikt; Rehm, Charlotte; Summerer, Daniel; Hartig, Jörg S

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic RNA-based switches are a growing class of genetic controllers applied in synthetic biology to engineer cellular functions. In this chapter, we detail a protocol for the selection of posttranscriptional controllers of gene expression in yeast using the Schistosoma mansoni hammerhead ribozyme as a central catalytic unit. Incorporation of a small molecule-sensing aptamer domain into the ribozyme renders its activity ligand-dependent. Aptazymes display numerous advantages over conventional protein-based transcriptional controllers, namely, the use of little genomic space for encryption, their modular architecture allowing for easy reprogramming to new inputs, the physical linkage to the message to be controlled, and the ability to function without protein cofactors. Herein, we describe the method to select ribozyme-based switches of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that we successfully implemented to engineer neomycin- and theophylline-responsive switches. We also highlight how to adapt the protocol to screen for switches responsive to other ligands. Reprogramming of the sensor unit and incorporation into any RNA of interest enables the fulfillment of a variety of regulatory functions. However, proper functioning of the aptazyme is largely dependent on optimal connection between the aptamer and the catalytic core. We obtained functional switches from a pool of variants carrying randomized connection sequences by an in vivo selection in MaV203 yeast cells that allows screening of a large sequence space of up to 1×10(9) variants. The protocol given explains how to construct aptazyme libraries, carry out the in vivo selection and characterize novel ON- and OFF-switches. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, Optimization and Characterisation of Polymeric Microneedle Arrays Prepared by a Novel Laser-Based Micromoulding Technique

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Majithiya, Rita; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Morrow, Desmond I. J.; Garland, Martin J.; Demir, Yusuf K.; Migalska, Katarzyna; Ryan, Elizabeth; Gillen, David; Scott, Christopher J.; Woolfson, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Design and evaluation of a novel laser-based method for micromoulding of microneedle arrays from polymeric materials under ambient conditions. The aim of this study was to optimise polymeric composition and assess the performance of microneedle devices that possess different geometries. Methods A range of microneedle geometries was engineered into silicone micromoulds, and their physicochemical features were subsequently characterised. Results Microneedles micromoulded from 20% w/w aqueous blends of the mucoadhesive copolymer Gantrez® AN-139 were surprisingly found to possess superior physical strength than those produced from commonly used pharma polymers. Gantrez® AN-139 microneedles, 600 μm and 900 μm in height, penetrated neonatal porcine skin with low application forces (>0.03 N per microneedle). When theophylline was loaded into 600 μm microneedles, 83% of the incorporated drug was delivered across neonatal porcine skin over 24 h. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that drug-free 600 μm Gantrez® AN-139 microneedles punctured the stratum corneum barrier of human skin in vivo and extended approximately 460 μm into the skin. However, the entirety of the microneedle lengths was not inserted. Conclusion In this study, we have shown that a novel laser engineering method can be used in micromoulding of polymeric microneedle arrays. We are currently carrying out an extensive OCT-informed study investigating the influence of microneedle array geometry on skin penetration depth, with a view to enhanced transdermal drug delivery from optimised laser-engineered Gantrez® AN-139 microneedles. PMID:20490627

  3. Structural Requirements of Alkylglyceryl-l-Ascorbic Acid Derivatives for Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Taira, Norihisa; Katsuyama, Yushi; Yoshioka, Masato; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2018-04-10

    l-Ascorbic acid has multifunctional benefits on skin aesthetics, including inhibition of melanin production, and is widely used in cosmetics. It, however, has low stability and poor skin penetration. We hypothesize that alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives, highly stable vitamin C-alkylglycerol conjugates, would have similar anti-melanogenic activity with better stability and penetration. We test 28 alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives ( 1 - 28 ) on theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells to determine if they inhibit melanogenesis and establish any structure-function relationships. Although not the most potent inhibitors, 3- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 6 , IC 50 = 81.4 µM) and 2- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-3- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 20 , IC 50 = 117 µM) are deemed the best candidate derivatives based on their inhibitory activities and low toxicities. These derivatives are also found to be more stable than l-ascorbic acid and to have favorable characteristics for skin penetration. The following structural requirements for inhibitory activity of alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives are also determined: (i) alkylation of glyceryl-l-ascorbic acid is essential for inhibitory activity; (ii) the 3- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 2 - 14 ) exhibit stronger inhibitory activity than the corresponding 2- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 16 - 28 ); and (iii) derivatives with longer alkyl chains have stronger inhibitory activities. Mechanistically, our studies suggest that l-ascorbic acid derivatives exert their effects by suppressing the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and tyrosine-related protein-1.

  4. An adenosine kinase inhibitor attenuates tactile allodynia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J J; Jarvis, M F; Kowaluk, E A

    1999-01-08

    The present study was conducted to characterize the development of tactile allodynia in the streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes, and to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered morphine and the adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'-deoxy-5-iodotubercidin (5'd-5IT) in this model. Rats were injected with 75 mg/kg streptozotocin (i.p.), and blood glucose levels were determined 3-4 weeks later. Diabetic (blood glucose levels > or = 250 mg/dl) and vehicle-injected rats were examined weekly for the development of tactile allodynia by measuring the threshold for hind paw withdrawal using von Frey hairs. Withdrawal thresholds were reduced to 6.8+/-0.6 g (mean+/-S.E.M.) in approximately one-third of streptozotocin-treated rats 7 weeks after streptozotocin treatment as compared to control thresholds (13.2+/-0.1 g), and this allodynia persisted for at least an additional 7 weeks. In additional experiments, morphine sulfate (5-21 micromol/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects on tactile allodynia for up to 2 h post-dosing. The adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'd-5IT (2.5 and 5 micromol/kg, i.p.) also dose-dependently attenuated tactile allodynia. Pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (27 micromol/kg, i.p.) or the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, theophylline (111 micromol/kg, i.p.) significantly diminished the anti-allodynic effects of morphine and 5'd-5IT, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the potent and selective adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'd-5IT, is equally effective as morphine in blocking tactile allodynia in this model.

  5. An evaluation of three-dimensional modeling of compaction cycles by analyzing the densification behavior of binary and ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Picker, K M; Bikane, F

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the study is to use the 3D modeling technique of compaction cycles for analysis of binary and ternary mixtures. Three materials with very different deformation and densification characteristics [cellulose acetate (CAC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (EM) and theophylline monohydrate (TM)] have been tableted at graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) on an eccentric tableting machine. Following that, graded binary mixtures from CAC and EM have been compacted. Finally, the same ratios of CAC and EM have been tableted in a ternary mixture with 20 vol% TM. All compaction cycles have been analyzed by using different data analysis methods. Three-dimensional modeling, conventional determination of the slope of the Heckel function, determination of the elastic recovery during decompression, and calculations according to the pressure-time function were the methods of choice. The results show that the 3D model technique is able to gain the information in one step instead of three different approaches, which is an advantage for formulation development. The results show that this model enables one to better distinguish the compaction properties of mixtures and the interaction of the components in the tablet than 2D models. Furthermore, the information by 3D modeling is more precise since in the slope K of the Heckel-plot (in die) elasticity is included, and in the parameters of the pressure-time function beta and gamma plastic deformation due to pressure is included. The influence of time and pressure on the displacement can now be differentiated.

  6. Doxapram Treatment for Apnea of Prematurity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, Roseanne J S; Ten Hove, Christine H; Onland, Wes; van Kaam, Anton H L C

    2017-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data on study design, patient characteristics, efficacy and safety outcomes. The randomized controlled trials showed less apnea during doxapram treatment when compared to placebo, but no difference in treatment effect when compared to theophylline. No serious adverse effects were reported. We identified 28 observational studies consisting mainly of cohort studies and case series (n = 1,994). There was considerable heterogeneity in study design and quality. Most studies reported a positive effect of doxapram on apnea rate. A few studies reported on long-term outcomes with conflicting results. A range of possible doxapram-related short-term adverse effects were reported, sometimes associated with the use of higher doses. Based on the limited number of studies and level of evidence, no firm conclusions on the efficacy and safety of doxapram in preterm infants can be drawn. For this reason, routine use cannot be recommended. A large multicenter randomized controlled trial is urgently needed to provide more conclusive evidence. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A descriptive systematic review of salivary therapeutic drug monitoring in neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Laura; Sinclair, Marlene; Reid, Bernadette; Burnett, Kathryn; Callan, Bridgeen

    2018-06-01

    Saliva, as a matrix, offers many benefits over blood in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in particular for infantile TDM. However, the accuracy of salivary TDM in infants remains an area of debate. This review explored the accuracy, applicability and advantages of using saliva TDM in infants and neonates. Databases were searched up to and including September 2016. Studies were included based on PICO as follows: P: infants and neonates being treated with any medication, I: salivary TDM vs. C: traditional methods and O: accuracy, advantages/disadvantages and applicability to practice. Compounds were assessed by their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as published quantitative saliva monitoring data. Twenty-four studies and their respective 13 compounds were investigated. Four neutral and two acidic compounds, oxcarbazepine, primidone, fluconazole, busulfan, theophylline and phenytoin displayed excellent/very good correlation between blood plasma and saliva. Lamotrigine was the only basic compound to show excellent correlation with morphine exhibiting no correlation between saliva and blood plasma. Any compound with an acid dissociation constant (pKa) within physiological range (pH 6-8) gave a more varied response. There is significant potential for infantile saliva testing and in particular for neutral and weakly acidic compounds. Of the properties investigated, pKa was the most influential with both logP and protein binding having little effect on this correlation. To conclude, any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6-8) should be considered with extra care, with the extraction and analysis method examined and optimized on a case-by-case basis. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Identification of drug interactions in hospitals--computerized screening vs. bedside recording.

    PubMed

    Blix, H S; Viktil, K K; Moger, T A; Reikvam, A

    2008-04-01

    Managing drug interactions in hospitalized patients is important and challenging. The objective of the study was to compare two methods for identification of drug interactions (DDIs)--computerized screening and prospective bedside recording--with regard to capability of identifying DDIs. Patient characteristics were recorded for patients admitted to five hospitals. By bedside evaluation drug-related problems, including DDIs, were prospectively recorded by pharmacists and discussed in multidisciplinary teams. A computer screening programme was used to identify DDIs retrospectively--dividing DDIs into four classes: A, avoid; B, avoid/take precautions; C, take precautions; D, no action needed. Among 827 patients, computer screening identified DDIs in 544 patients (66%); 351 had DDIs introduced in hospital. The 1513 computer-identified DDIs had the following distribution: type A 78; type B 915; type C 38; type D 482. By bedside evaluation, 99 DDIs were identified in 73 patients (9%). The proportions of computer recorded DDIs which were also identified at the bedside were: 5%, 8%, 8%, 2% DDIs of types A, B, C and D respectively. In 10 patients, DDIs not registered by computer screening were identified by bedside evaluation. The drugs most frequently involved in DDIs, identified by computerized screening were acetylsalicylic acid, warfarin, furosemide and digitoxin compared with warfarin, simvastatin, theophylline and carbamazepine, by bedside evaluation. Despite an active prospective bedside search for DDIs, this approach identified less than one in 10 of the DDIs recorded by computer screening, including those regarded as hazardous. However, computer screening overestimates considerably when the objective is to identify clinically relevant DDIs.

  9. Characterization of adenosine receptors in guinea-pig isolated left atria.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnel, U.; Nawrath, H.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of purinergic stimulation on action potential, force of contraction, 86Rb efflux and 45Ca uptake were investigated in guinea-pig left atria. 2. Adenosine exerted a negative inotropic effect which was antagonized by adenosine deaminase but enhanced by dipyridamole. 3. The negative inotropic effect of adenosine was mimicked by 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamido-adenosine (NECA) and the isomers of N6-(phenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine, R-PIA and S-PIA. NECA and R-PIA were about 100 times more potent than adenosine, whereas R-PIA was about 100 times more potent than S-PIA. 4. The inotropic effects of adenosine (in the presence of dipyridamole), NECA, R-PIA and S-PIA were competitively antagonized either by theophylline (pA2 about 4.5) or 8-phenyltheophylline (pA2 about 6.3). 5. NECA and R-PIA shortened the action potential duration and increased the rate constant of the efflux of 86Rb in a concentration-dependent manner with no differences in potency; the effects were competitively antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline. 6. Barium ions reduced the efflux of 86Rb under control conditions and antagonized the increase induced by NECA and R-PIA. 7. NECA and R-PIA significantly reduced 45Ca uptake in beating preparations. 8. It is concluded that adenosine, NECA and R-PIA activate a common receptor population (P1 or A3) on the outside of the cell membrane of atrial heart muscle to increase the potassium conductance and to reduce the action potential and, thereby, calcium influx and force of contraction. PMID:2790380

  10. Dextrose monohydrate as a non-animal sourced alternative diluent in high shear wet granulation tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biplob; Wolfe, Chad; Wu, Sy-Juen

    2018-05-01

    The feasibility of dextrose monohydrate as a non-animal sourced diluent in high shear wet granulation (HSWG) tablet formulations was determined. Impacts of granulation solution amount and addition time, wet massing time, impeller speed, powder and solution binder, and dry milling speed and screen opening size on granule size, friability and density, and tablet solid fraction (SF) and tensile strength (TS) were evaluated. The stability of theophylline tablets TS, disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution were also studied. Following post-granulation drying at 60 °C, dextrose monohydrate lost 9% water and converted into the anhydrate form. Higher granulation solution amounts and faster addition, faster impeller speeds, and solution binder produced larger, denser and stronger (less friable) granules. All granules were compressed into tablets with acceptable TS. Contrary to what is normally observed, denser and larger granules (at ≥21% water level) produced tablets with a higher TS. The TS of the weakest tablets increased the most after storage at both 25 °C/60% RH and 40 °C/75% RH. Tablet DT was higher for stronger granules and after storage. Tablet dissolution profiles for 21% or less water were comparable and did not change on stability. However, the dissolution profile for tablets prepared with 24% water was slower initially and continued to decrease on stability. The results indicate a granulation water amount of not more than 21% is required to achieve acceptable tablet properties. This study clearly demonstrated the utility of dextrose monohydrate as a non-animal sourced diluent in a HSWG tablet formulation.

  11. Pharmacological treatment optimization for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proposals from the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française.

    PubMed

    Zysman, M; Chabot, F; Devillier, P; Housset, B; Morelot-Panzini, C; Roche, N

    2016-12-01

    The Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française proposes a decision algorithm on long-term pharmacological COPD treatment. A working group reviewed the literature published between January 2009 and May 2016. This document lays out proposals and not guidelines. It only focuses on pharmacological treatments except vaccinations, smoking cessation treatments and oxygen therapy. Any COPD diagnosis, based on pulmonary function tests, should lead to recommend smoking cessation, vaccinations, physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation in case of activity limitation, and short-acting bronchodilators. Symptoms like dyspnea and exacerbations determine the therapeutic choices. In case of daily dyspnea and/or exacerbations, a long-acting bronchodilator should be suggested (beta-2 agonist, LABA or anticholinergics, LAMA). A clinical and lung function reevaluation is suggested 1 to 3 months after any treatment modification and every 3-12 months according to the severity of the disease. In case of persisting dyspnea, a fixed dose LABA+LAMA combination improves pulmonary function (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and decreases exacerbations without increasing side effects. In case of frequent exacerbations and a FEV1≤70%, a fixed dose long-acting bronchodilator combination or a LABA+ inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) combination can be proposed. A triple combination (LABA+LAMA+ICS) is indicated when exacerbations persist despite one of these combinations. Dyspnea in spite of a bronchodilator combination or exacerbations in spite of a triple combination should lead to consider other pharmacological treatments (theophylline if dyspnea, macrolides if exacerbations, low-dose opioids if refractory dyspnea). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  13. Evidence for an A2/Ra adenosine receptor in the guinea-pig trachea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C.M.; Collis, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    1 An attempt was made to determine whether the extracellular adenosine receptor that mediates relaxation in the guinea-pig trachea is of the A1/Ri or A2/Ra subtype. 2 Dose-response curves to adenosine and a number of 5′- and N6-substituted analogues were constructed for the isolated guinea-pig trachea, contracted with carbachol. 3 The 5′-substituted analogues of adenosine were the most potent compounds tested, the order of potency being 5′-N-cyclopropylcarboxamide adenosine (NCPCA) > 5′-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) > 2-chloroadenosine > L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA) > adenosine > D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (D-PIA). 4 The difference in potency between the stereoisomers D- and L-PIA on the isolated trachea was at the most five fold. 5 Responses to low doses of adenosine and its analogues were attenuated after treatment with either theophylline or 8-phenyltheophylline. The responses to 2-chloroadenosine were affected to a lesser extent than were those to the other purines. 6 Adenosine transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and dilazep, potentiated responses to adenosine, did not affect those to NCPCA, NECA, L-PIA and D-PIA but significantly reduced the responses to high doses of 2-chloroadenosine. 7 Relaxations evoked by 9-β-D-xylofuranosyladenosine which can activate intracellular but not extracellular adenosine receptors, were attenuated by dipyridamole but unaffected by 8-phenyltheophylline. 8 The results support the existence of an extracellular A2/Ra subtype of adenosine receptor and an intracellular purine-sensitive site, both of which mediate relaxation. PMID:6286021

  14. Achieving Symptom Control in Patients with Moderate Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Nargues A.; Levine, Stewart J.

    2012-01-01

    Disease severity in asthma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe based upon the frequency of symptoms or the severity of airflow obstruction. This review will focus on the treatment of youths greater than 12 years of age and adults with moderate persistent asthma. Moderate asthmatics may have daily symptoms that cause some limitation with normal daily activities and require use of a rescue inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist inhaler or experience nocturnal awakenings secondary to asthma that occur more than once per week. Furthermore, spirometry may reveal airflow obstruction with a reduction in FEV1 to between 60% and 80% of predicted. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the primary controller medication used to modify symptoms in moderate asthmatics, additional controller medications, such as inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) or theophylline, are often needed to obtain optimal disease control. While the addition of an inhaled LABA to an ICS is very effective at improving disease control in moderate asthma, concerns have arisen over the safety of LABAs, in particular the risk of asthma-related death. Therefore, consideration may be given to initially adding a LTRA, rather than a LABA, to ICS when asthma symptoms are not adequately controlled by ICS alone. Furthermore, individualization of medication regimens, treatment of co-morbid conditions, and patient education are crucial to optimizing compliance with therapy, improving disease control, and reducing the risk of exacerbations. Lastly, the development of new asthma treatments, perhaps based upon personalized medicine, may revolutionize the future treatment of moderate asthma. PMID:22259262

  15. Fenethylline (Captagon) Abuse - Local Problems from an Old Drug Become Universal.

    PubMed

    Katselou, Maria; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Qammaz, Samir; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2016-08-01

    Fenethylline is a theophylline derivative of amphetamine having stimulant effects similar to those of other amphetamine-type derivatives. Fenethylline was used as medicament for hyperactivity disorders in children, narcolepsy and depression, but it has also been used as a drug of abuse under the common name of 'captagon'. Unlike other drugs of abuse, the clandestine synthesis of fenethylline is simple, using inexpensive laboratory instrumentation and raw materials legal to obtain. A review of all the existing knowledge of fenethylline is reported, concerning its chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and toxicology, legislation, its prevalence and use as drug of abuse, as well as its analysis in biological or seized samples. Published or reported captagon-related cases and seizures are also presented. All the reviewed information was gathered through a detailed search of PubMed and the Internet. The primary drug market for fenethylline (as captagon) has traditionally been countries located on the Arabian Peninsula but also North Africa since 2013. In Arab countries, millions of captagon tablets are seized every year which represents one-third of global amphetamines seizures within a year. Furthermore, three of four patients treated for drug problems in Saudi Arabia are addicted to amphetamines, almost exclusively in the form of captagon. Significant information on fenethylline is provided for pharmacologists, toxicologists and forensic pathologists. Fenethylline, although old, has recently been introduced to the drug market, especially in Arab countries. Continuous community alertness is needed to tackle this current growing phenomenon. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. Equilibrium water and solute uptake in silicone hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Liu, D E; Dursch, T J; Oh, Y; Bregante, D T; Chan, S Y; Radke, C J

    2015-05-01

    Equilibrium water content of and solute partitioning in silicone hydrogels (SiHys) are investigated using gravimetric analysis, fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscopy (FCLSM), and back extraction with UV/Vis-absorption spectrophotometry. Synthesized silicone hydrogels consist of silicone monomer, hydrophilic monomer, cross-linking agent, and triblock-copolymer macromer used as an amphiphilic compatibilizer to prevent macrophase separation. In all cases, immiscibility of the silicone and hydrophilic polymers results in microphase-separated morphologies. To investigate solute uptake in each of the SiHy microphases, equilibrium partition coefficients are obtained for two hydrophilic solutes (i.e., theophylline and caffeine dissolved in aqueous phosphate-buffered saline) and two oleophilic solutes (i.e., Nile Red and Bodipy Green dissolved in silicone oil), respectively. Measured water contents and aqueous-solute partition coefficients increase linearly with increasing solvent-free hydrophilic-polymer volume fraction. Conversely, oleophilic-solute partition coefficients decrease linearly with rising solvent-free hydrophilic-polymer volume fraction (i.e., decreasing hydrophobic silicone-polymer fraction). We quantitatively predict equilibrium SiHy water and solute uptake assuming that water and aqueous solutes reside only in hydrophilic microdomains, whereas oleophilic solutes partition predominately into silicone microdomains. Predicted water contents and solute partition coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment. Our new procedure permits a priori estimation of SiHy water contents and solute partition coefficients based solely on properties of silicone and hydrophilic homopolymer hydrogels, eliminating the need for further mixed-polymer-hydrogel experiments. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of a 2-step agglomeration process performed in a rotary processor using polyethylene glycol solutions as the primary binder liquid.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jakob

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions as the primary binder liquid in a 2-step agglomeration process performed in a rotary processor and characterize the resulting granules and their tableting characteristics. This was done by granulation of binary mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and either lactose, calcium phosphate, acetaminophen, or theophylline, in a 1:3 ratio, using a 50% (wt/wt) aqueous solution of PEG and water as the binder liquid. Formulations containing lactose were agglomerated using 5 different amounts of the PEG binder solution, giving rise to a PEG content in the range of 6% to 43% (wt/wt). The process outcome was characterized according to adhesion, yield, and water requirement, and the prepared granules were characterized according to size, size distribution, and flow properties as well as tableting properties. The agglomeration of all mixtures resulted in high yields of free-flowing agglomerates and gave rise to good reproducibility of the investigated agglomerate characteristics. The process allowed for the incorporation of 42.5% (wt/wt) PEG, which is higher than the percentage of PEG reported for other equipment. Tablets of sufficient strength could be prepared with all investigated excipients using 20% wt/wt PEG; higher PEG contents gave rise to adhesion and prolonged disintegration. In conclusion, agglomeration in a torque-controlled rotary processor using solutions of PEG as the primary binder liquid was found to be a robust process, suitable for the incorporation of high contents of PEG and/or drug compounds.

  18. Spontaneous Ca2+ spiking in a vascular smooth muscle cell line is independent of the release of intracellular Ca2+ stores.

    PubMed

    Byron, K L; Taylor, C W

    1993-04-05

    Monolayers of fura-2-loaded A7r5 cells, a cell line derived from rat embryonic aorta, generated spontaneous Ca2+ spikes that were synchronized within the cell population. These Ca2+ spikes were abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or addition of nimodipine (50 nM), and their frequency was increased by depolarization with high K+ or by treatment with BAYK 8644 (1 microM), indicating that Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels is required for Ca2+ spiking. Several lines of evidence indicate that mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores is not necessary for this Ca2+ spiking. 1) Ryanodine (0.1-50 microM) neither stimulated Ca2+ mobilization nor affected Ca2+ spiking; 2) the complex effects of caffeine were mimicked by theophylline, 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (8-bromo-cAMP), and forskolin, suggesting that the caffeine effects may be mediated by cAMP and not by ryanodine receptors; 3) prolonged incubation with thapsigargin (50 nM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores, did not affect the frequency of Ca2+ spiking; 4) Ba2+ or Sr2+ could substitute for Ca2+ in the spike-generating mechanism even when intracellular stores were depleted of Ca2+. Under conditions where the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contained Ca2+, Ba2+ spikes did not cause Ca2+ mobilization. The mechanisms involved in generating spontaneous Ca2+ spiking in A7r5 cells are therefore likely to reside in the sarcolemma and to operate independently of SR Ca2+ uptake and release.

  19. Further studies on rat mast cell degranulation by IgE—anti-IgE and the inhibitory effect of drugs related to cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Y.; Inoue, Yoshie; Honda, H.

    1974-01-01

    With a modified rat mast cell degranulation (RMCD) technique developed by Korotzer, Haddad and Lopapa (1971), the mechanism of mast cell degranulation by IgE—anti-IgE reaction and the inhibitory effect of cAMP-related compounds upon IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation were studied. Degranulations of 90 per cent or more were decreased to 13–16 per cent when the mast cells were pretreated with human IgE or normal human serum. However, if rat mast cells were pretreated with anti-human IgE rabbit serum or normal rabbit serum, the degranulation per cent in these cells by IgE—anti-IgE reaction was the same as in the nontreated cells. These results suggest the presence of receptors in rat mast cells for human IgE or normal human serum, and the lack of receptors in these cells for anti-human IgE rabbit serum or normal rabbit serum. Treatment of isolated rat mast cells with adenyl cyclase stimulating agents (isoprenaline, adrenaline, prostaglandin E1 and E2) and theophylline or aminophylline, which inhibit the enzymatic degradation of cAMP, also inhibited the morphological degranulation of the mast cells. Cromoglycate or chlorophenes in derivatives, which might have a stabilizing effect of the cell membrane, also inhibited the degranulation of the rat mast cells mediated by IgE—anti-IgE reaction. These results support the attractive hypothesis that cAMP occupies a central modulatory role in the in vitro mast cell degranulation by IgE—anti-IgE reaction. PMID:4368738

  20. TH-9 (a theophylline derivative) induces long-lasting enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus that is occluded by frequency-dependent plasticity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nashawi, H; Bartl, T; Bartl, P; Novotny, L; Oriowo, M A; Kombian, S B

    2012-09-18

    Dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, is a rapidly increasing medical condition that presents with enormous challenge for treatment. It is characterized by impairment in memory and cognitive function often accompanied by changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus. We recently synthesized TH-9, a conjugate racetam-methylxanthine compound and tested if it had potential for enhancing synaptic function and possibly, plasticity, by examining its effect on hippocampal fast excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 hippocampal area of naïve juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats using conventional electrophysiological recording techniques. TH-9 caused a concentration-dependent, long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs. This effect was blocked by adenosine A1, acetylcholine (muscarinic and nicotinic) and glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonists but not by a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA(B)) receptor antagonist. The TH-9 effect was also blocked by enhancing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inhibiting protein kinase A. Pretreatment with TH-9 did not prevent the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). Conversely, induction of LTP or LTD completely occluded the ability of TH-9 to enhance fEPSPs. Thus, TH-9 utilizes cholinergic and adenosinergic mechanisms to cause long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs which were occluded by LTP and LTD. TH-9 may therefore employ similar or convergent mechanisms with frequency-dependent synaptic plasticities to produce the observed long-lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission and may thus, have potential for use in improving memory. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pantoprazole: a new proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jungnickel, P W

    2000-11-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of pantoprazole in comparison with those of other available proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Relevant English-language research and review articles were identified by database searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and UnCover, and by examining the reference lists of the articles so identified. In selecting data for inclusion, the author gave preference to full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Like other PPIs, pantoprazole exerts its pharmacodynamic actions by binding to the proton pump (H+,K+ -adenosine triphosphatase) in the parietal cells, but, compared with other PPIs, its binding may be more specific for the proton pump. Pantoprazole is well absorbed when administered as an enteric-coated, delayed-release tablet, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 77%. It is hepatically metabolized via cytochrome P2C19 to hydroxypantoprazole, an inactive metabolite that subsequently undergoes sulfate conjugation. The elimination half-life ranges from 0.9 to 1.9 hours and is independent of dose. Pantoprazole has similar efficacy to other PPIs in the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as erosive esophagitis, and as part of triple-drug regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric mucosa. It is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being headache, diarrhea, flatulence, and abdominal pain. In clinical studies, it has been shown to have no interactions with various other agents, including carbamazepine, cisapride, cyclosporine, digoxin, phenytoin, theophylline, and warfarin. Pantoprazole appears to be as effective as other PPIs. Its low potential for drug interactions may give it an advantage in patients taking other drugs.

  2. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    PubMed

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations.

  3. Production of extended release mini-tablets using directly compressible grades of HPMC.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Faiezah A A; Roberts, Matthew; Seton, Linda; Ford, James L; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2013-11-01

    Hypromellose (HPMC) has been previously used to control drug release from mini-tablets. However, owing to poor flow, production of mini-tablets containing high HPMC levels is challenging. Directly compressible (DC) HPMC grades have been developed by Dow Chemical Company. To compare the properties of HPMC DC (METHOCEL™ K4M and K100M) with regular (REG) HPMC grades. Particle size distribution and flowability of HPMC REG and DC were evaluated. 3 mm mini-tablets, containing hydrocortisone or theophylline as model drugs and 40% w/w HPMC DC or REG were produced. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC grades were manufactured using a rotary press simulator at forces between 2-4 kN and speeds of 5, 10, 15 or 20 rpm. Mini-tablets containing HPMC REG were produced manually. The improved flowability of HPMC DC grades, which have a narrower particle size distribution and larger particle sizes, meant that simulated large scale production of mini-tablets with good weight uniformity (CV 1.79-4.65%) was feasible. It was not possible to automatically manufacture mini-tablets containing HPMC REG due to the poor flowability of the formulations. Drug release from mini-tablets comprising HPMC DC and REG were comparable. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC illustrated a higher tensile strength compared to mini-tablets made with HPMC REG. Mini-tablets produced with HPMC DC at different compression speeds had similar drug release profiles. Production of extended release mini-tablets was successfully achieved when HPMC DC was used. Drug release rate was not influenced by the different HPMC DC grades (K4M or K100M) or production speed.

  4. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during UV and UV/H2O2 treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ilho; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Photodegradation characteristics of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and the effectiveness of H(2)O(2) addition for PPCPs photodegradation during UV treatment were examined in this study. Average k (1st order rate constant) value for all the PPCPs investigated increased by a factor of 1.3 by H(2)O(2) addition during UV treatment using biologically treated water (TW) spiked with the 30 PPCPs. Therefore, the effectiveness of H(2)O(2) addition for PPCPs removal during UV treatment in real wastewater treatment process was expected. It could be also known that H(2)O(2) addition would improve photodegradation rates of PPCPs highly resistant for UV treatment such as DEET, ethenzamide and theophylline. UV dose required for 90% degradation of each PPCP was calculated from k values obtained in UV and UV/H(2)O(2) treatment experiments using TW spiked with 30 PPCPs. For UV treatment, UV dose required for degrading each PPCP by 90% of initial concentration ranged from 38 mJ cm(-2) to 5644 mJ cm(-2), indicating that most of PPCPs will not be removed sufficiently in UV disinfection process in wastewater treatment plant. For UV/H(2)O(2) treatment, all the PPCPs except seven PPCPs including cyclophosphamide and 2-QCA were degraded by more than 90% by UV irradiation for 30 min (UV dose: 691 mJ cm(-2)), indicating that H(2)O(2) addition during UV treatment will be highly effective for improving the degradation of PPCPs by UV, even though much higher UV dose is still necessary comparing to for UV disinfection.

  5. Endotoxin administration to humans inhibits hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlofsky, S I; Israel, B C; McClain, C J; Hill, D B; Blouin, R A

    1994-01-01

    In experimental animals, injection of gram-negative endotoxin (LPS) decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. To evaluate this phenomenon in a human model of gram-negative sepsis, LPS was administered on two consecutive days to healthy male volunteers during which time a cocktail of antipyrine (AP-250 mg), hexobarbital (HB-500 mg), and theophylline (TH-150 mg) was ingested and the apparent oral clearance of each drug determined. Each subject had a control drug clearance study with saline injections. In the first experiment, six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the first dose of LPS. In the second experiment, another six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the second dose of LPS. In both experiments, LPS caused the expected physiologic responses of inflammation including fever with increases in serum concentrations of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and acute phase reactants. In the first experiment, only minor decreases in clearances of the probe drugs were observed (7-12%). However in the second experiment, marked decreases in the clearances of AP (35, 95% CI 18-48%), HB (27, 95% CI 14-34%), and TH (22, 95% CI 12-32%) were seen. The decreases in AP clearance correlated with initial peak values of TNF alpha (r = 0.82) and IL-6 (r = 0.86). These data show that in humans the inflammatory response to even a very low dose of LPS significantly decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and this effect evolves over a 24-h period. It is likely that septic patients with much higher exposures to LPS have more profound inhibition of drug metabolism. PMID:7989576

  6. Involvement of GABAA receptor in Bufo arenarum oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Toranzo, G Sánchez; Zelarayán, L; Bonilla, F; Oterino, J; Bühler, M I

    2008-05-01

    Amphibian oocytes meiotic arrest is released under the stimulus of progesterone; this hormone interacts with the oocyte surface and starts a cascade of events leading to the activation of a cytoplasmic maturation promoting factor (MPF) that induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), chromosome condensation and extrusion of the first polar body. The aim of this work was to determine whether the activation of a GABAA receptor is able to induce GVBD in fully grown denuded oocytes of Bufo arenarum and to analyse its possible participation in progesterone-induced maturation. We also evaluated the role of purines and phospholipids in the maturation process induced by a GABAA receptor agonist such as muscimol. Our results indicated that the activation of the GABAA receptor by muscimol induces maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that this activation is a genuine maturation that enables oocytes to form pronuclei. Assays with a receptor antagonist, picrotoxine, showed that the maturation induced by muscimol was inhibited. Treatment with picrotoxine, however, shows that the participation of GABAA receptor in progesterone-induced maturation is not significant. In addition, our results indicate that high intracellular levels of purines obtained by the use of db-AMPc and theophylline or the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 hydrolysis by neomycin and PIP2 turn over by LiCl, respectively, inhibited the maturation induced by muscimol. Treatment with H-7 indicated, however, that PKC activation is not necessary for GVBD induced by the GABAA receptor agonist. Results suggest that the transduction pathway used by the GABAA receptor to induce maturation is different from those used by progesterone.

  7. N-deethylation and N-oxidation of etamiphylline: identification of etamiphylline-N-oxide in greyhound urine by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, M C; Teale, P

    2005-01-04

    Millophyline-V, (etamiphylline camsylate) was administered intramuscularly to two racing greyhounds at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Unhydrolysed pre- and post-administration urine samples were extracted using mixed mode solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the basic isolates derivatised as trimethylsilyl ethers and analysed by positive ion electron ionisation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/EI+/MS). The parent drug and one metabolite, N-desethyletamiphylline, were detected in urine for up to 72 h. For semi-quantification, urine samples were extracted on-line using a Prospekt sample handler. The analytes retained on the C2 SPE cartridge were eluted by the mobile phase directly on to the analytical high performance liquid chromatography column and analysed by positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (LC/APCI+) MS in the multiple selective-ion recording mode. A major peak containing both ions (m/z) 280 and (m/z) 252 was observed. Full scan LC/APCI+/MS of the unknown indicated that the ion at (m/z) 280 was formed by the loss of an oxygen atom [MH+ -->(MH+-O)]. Samples were analysed by positive ion electrospray ionisation LC/MS on two different instruments and the unknown compound was identified as an N-oxide of the tert. nitrogen atom of the 2-(diethylamino)ethyl substituent on N7 of the theophylline nucleus. This compound has not been reported previously either as an in vivo or in vitro metabolite of etamiphylline in any species. Thermal decomposition of the N-oxide could lead to an increase the detection period of the parent drug during routine GC/MS screening of post-competition greyhound urine samples.

  8. Cascade bioassay evidence for the existence of urothelium-derived inhibitory factor in Guinea pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Guan, Na N; Thor, Anna; Hallén, Katarina; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether guinea pig urothelium-derived bioactivities compatible with the existence of urothelium-derived inhibitory factor could be demonstrated by in vitro serial bioassay and whether purinergic P1 receptor agonists, nitric oxide, nitrite or prostaglandins might explain observed activities. In a cascade superfusion system, urothelium-denuded guinea pig ureters were used as bioassay tissues, recording their spontaneous rhythmic contractions in presence of scopolamine. Urothelium-intact or -denuded guinea pig urinary bladders were used as donor tissues, stimulated by intermittent application of carbachol before or during the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the adenosine/P1 nucleoside receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-PST) or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor diclofenac infused to bath donor and bioassay tissues. The spontaneous contractions of bioassay ureters were unaltered by application of carbachol 1-5 µM in the presence of scopolamine 5-30 µM. When carbachol was applied over the urothelium-denuded bladder, the assay ureter contraction rate was unaltered. Introducing carbachol over the everted urothelium-intact bladder significantly inhibited the contraction frequency of the assay ureter, suggesting the transfer of an inhibitory activity from the bladder to the assay ureter. The transmissible inhibitory activity was not markedly antagonized by L-NAME, 8-PST or diclofenac, while L-NAME nearly abolished nitrite release from the urothelium-intact bladder preparations. We suggest that urothelium-derived inhibitory factor is a transmissible entity over a significant distance as demonstrated in this novel cascade superfusion assay and seems less likely to be nitric oxide, nitrite, an adenosine receptor agonist or subject to inhibition by administration of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor.

  9. Endocrine Disruption in Human Fetal Testis Explants by Individual and Combined Exposures to Selected Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Gaudriault, Pierre; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lavoué, Vincent; Coiffec, Isabelle; Lesné, Laurianne; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous chemicals are capable of disrupting androgen production, but the possibility that they might act together to produce effects greater than those of the most effective component in the mixture has not been studied directly in human tissues. Suppression of androgen synthesis in fetal life has been associated with testis maldescent, malformations of the genitalia at birth, and poor semen quality later in life. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate whether chemicals can act together to disrupt androgen production in human fetal testis explants and to evaluate the importance of mixture effects when characterizing the hazard of individual chemicals. Methods: We used an organotypic culture system of human fetal testes explants called FEtal Gonad Assay (FEGA) with tissue obtained at 10 and 12 gestational wk (GW 10–12), to screen 27 chemicals individually for their possible anti-androgenic effect. Based on the results of the screen, we selected 11 compounds and tested them as mixtures. Results: We evaluated mixtures composed of four and eight antiandrogens that contained the pharmaceuticals ketoconazole and theophylline and several previously untested chemicals, such as the pesticides imazalil and propiconazole. Mixtures of antiandrogens can suppress testosterone synthesis in human fetal testicular explants to an extent greater than that seen with individual chemicals. This revealed itself as a shift towards lower doses in the dose–response curves of individual antiandrogens that became more pronounced as the number of components increased from four to eight. Conclusions: Our results with the FEGA provide the foundations of a predictive human mixture risk assessment approach for anti-androgenic exposures in fetal life. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1014 PMID:28796631

  10. Endocrine Disruption in Human Fetal Testis Explants by Individual and Combined Exposures to Selected Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Gaudriault, Pierre; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lavoué, Vincent; Coiffec, Isabelle; Lesné, Laurianne; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Jégou, Bernard

    2017-08-04

    Numerous chemicals are capable of disrupting androgen production, but the possibility that they might act together to produce effects greater than those of the most effective component in the mixture has not been studied directly in human tissues. Suppression of androgen synthesis in fetal life has been associated with testis maldescent, malformations of the genitalia at birth, and poor semen quality later in life. Our aim was to investigate whether chemicals can act together to disrupt androgen production in human fetal testis explants and to evaluate the importance of mixture effects when characterizing the hazard of individual chemicals. We used an organotypic culture system of human fetal testes explants called FEtal Gonad Assay (FEGA) with tissue obtained at 10 and 12 gestational wk (GW 10-12), to screen 27 chemicals individually for their possible anti-androgenic effect. Based on the results of the screen, we selected 11 compounds and tested them as mixtures. We evaluated mixtures composed of four and eight antiandrogens that contained the pharmaceuticals ketoconazole and theophylline and several previously untested chemicals, such as the pesticides imazalil and propiconazole. Mixtures of antiandrogens can suppress testosterone synthesis in human fetal testicular explants to an extent greater than that seen with individual chemicals. This revealed itself as a shift towards lower doses in the dose-response c