Can Gravity Probe B usefully constrain torsion gravity theories?
Flanagan, Eanna E.; Rosenthal, Eran
2007-06-15
In most theories of gravity involving torsion, the source for torsion is the intrinsic spin of matter. Since the spins of fermions are normally randomly oriented in macroscopic bodies, the amount of torsion generated by macroscopic bodies is normally negligible. However, in a recent paper, Mao et al. (arXiv:gr-qc/0608121) point out that there is a class of theories, including the Hayashi-Shirafuji (1979) theory, in which the angular momentum of macroscopic spinning bodies generates a significant amount of torsion. They further argue that, by the principle of action equals reaction, one would expect the angular momentum of test bodies to couple to a background torsion field, and therefore the precession of the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes should be affected in these theories by the torsion generated by the Earth. We show that in fact the principle of action equals reaction does not apply to these theories, essentially because the torsion is not an independent dynamical degree of freedom. We examine in detail a generalization of the Hayashi-Shirafuji theory suggested by Mao et al. called Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory. There are a variety of different versions of this theory, depending on the precise form of the coupling to matter chosen for the torsion. We show that, for any coupling to matter that is compatible with the spin transport equation postulated by Mao et al., the theory has either ghosts or an ill-posed initial-value formulation. These theoretical problems can be avoided by specializing the parameters of the theory and in addition choosing the standard minimal coupling to matter of the torsion tensor. This yields a consistent theory, but one in which the action equals reaction principle is violated, and in which the angular momentum of the gyroscopes does not couple to the Earth's torsion field. Thus, the Einstein-Hayashi-Shirafuji theory does not predict a detectable torsion signal for Gravity Probe B. There may be other torsion theories which do.
Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, H.; Bhattacharya, M.
2013-03-01
We propose a new configuration for realizing torsional optomechanics: an optically trapped windmill-shaped dielectric interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes containing both angular and radial nodes. In contrast to existing schemes, our method can couple mechanical oscillators smaller than the optical beam waist to the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and thus generate substantial optomechanical interactions. Combining the advantages of small mass, large coupling, and low clamping losses, our work conceptually opens the way for the observation of quantum effects in torsional optomechanics.
Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hao; Bhattacharya, Mishkatul
2013-05-01
We propose a new optomechanical system to achieve torsional optomechanics. Our system is composed of a windmill-shaped dielectric optically trapped within a cavity interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes with both angular and radial nodes. Compared to existing configurations, our proposal enables small mechanical oscillators to interact with the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and therefore allows the generation of scalable optomechanical coupling. Supported by Research Corporation for Science Advancement.
35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR ...
35. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION FROM EAST TOWER SHOWING ANGULAR DISTORTION APPROACHING 45 DEGREES WITH LAMP POSTS APPEARING TO BE AT EIGHT ANGLES, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
New constraints in dynamical torsion theory
Katanaev, M.O. )
1993-04-01
The most general Lagrangian for dynamical torsion theory quadratic in curvature and torsion is considered. The authors impose two simple and physically reasonable constraints on the solution of the equations of motion (i) there must be solutions with zero curvature and nontrivial torsion and (ii) there must be solutions with torsion and non covariantly constant curvature. The constraints reduce the number of independent coupling constants from ten to five. The resulting theory contains Einstein's general relativity and Weitzenboeck's absolute parallelism theory as the two sectors. 32 refs.
Torsional anharmonicity in transition state theory calculations.
Sturdy, Yvette K; Clary, David C
2007-05-21
We present a new application for the Torsional Path Integral Monte Carlo (TPIMC) method in which the TPI partition functions are introduced into the calculation of Transition State Theory (TST) rate constants. In this way, an explicit treatment of torsional anharmonicity is included in the TST calculations and the magnitude of these effects can be assessed. The new method is tested on the C(2)H(6) + H hydrogen abstraction reaction and concerted hydrogen transfer in the carbonic acid dimer, for which we have developed torsional potential energy surfaces. For the C(2)H(6) + H reaction the rate constants are halved at room temperature on including a treatment of torsional anharmonicity, while the effects are found to be much smaller for the hydrogen transfer reaction in the carbonic acid dimer. PMID:17492103
Torsional Newton–Cartan geometry from Galilean gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip
2016-11-01
Using the recently advanced Galilean gauge theory (GGT) we give a comprehensive construction of torsional Newton–Cartan (NC) geometry. The coupling of a Galilean symmetric model with background NC geometry following GGT is illustrated by a free nonrelativistic scalar field theory. The issue of spatial diffeomorphism (Son and Wingate 2006 Ann. Phys. 321 197–224 Banerjee et al 2015 Phys. Rev. D 91 084021) is focussed from a new angle. The expression of the torsionful connection is worked out, which is in complete parallel with the relativistic theory. Also, smooth transition of the connection to its well known torsionless expression is demonstrated. A complete (implicit) expression of the torsion tensor for the NC spacetime is provided where the first-order variables occur in a suggestive way. The well known result for the temporal part of torsion is reproduced from our expression.
Quan, Li-Di; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yong-Ji
2014-01-15
The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to 7.3×10{sup −7} rad /√( Hz ) at the signal frequency of 2 mHz, which contributes a 0.4 ppm uncertainty to the G value.
Can a macroscopic gyroscope feel torsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoeger, W. R.; Yasskin, P. B.
1979-01-01
We demonstrate that for a large class of Lagrangian-based torsion theories a macroscopic gyroscope is insensitive to the torsion field: there can be no coupling of the torsion to the gyroscope's angular momentum of rotation. To detect torsion a polarized system with a net elementary particle spin is needed. These conclusions are evident from the conservation laws, which form the basis for deriving the equations of motion.
Thermal Properties of SiCp/Al Composites Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Chen-hao; Li, Ping; Xue, Ke-min
2015-02-01
Powder mixture of pure Al and oxidized SiC was consolidated into SiCp/Al composites by equal channel angular pressing and torsion (ECAP-T). The influences of several parameters on the thermal expansions, the thermal conductivities, and the recrystallization temperatures of the as-consolidated composites were studied. These parameters are the number of ECAP-T passes (1, 2, and 4), the content of SiC (10, 20, and 40 wt.%), and the fabrication temperature (150, 250, and 350 °C). The results show that increasing the number of ECAP-T passes has a positive effect on depressing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the composite within a certain temperature range, since the total variation amplitude of the CTE is enlarged. The CTE can also be decreased by increasing the content of SiC. The number of ECAP-T passes and the contents of SiC in the composites are both positively related with the thermal conductivity of the composites. No direct relationship between the fabrication temperature and the thermal properties was detected. However, the composite fabricated at too low temperature (150 °C) can not obtain full densification, leading to the appearance of low CTE and thermal conductivity. Finally, when the number of ECAP-T passes is elevated from 2 to 4, the recrystallization temperature of the composite has an obvious declination.
Tachyonic torsion shock waves in Poincaré gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hecht, R. D.; Lemke, J.; Wallner, R. P.
1990-11-01
The requirement that the Poincaré gauge theory of gravitation has a correct Newtonian limit leads to tachyonic torsion shock waves. We show that the problems are due to those parts of the Levi-Civita connection which are vertical to the hypersurface in which the shock waves propagate. We argue that, as a consequence of certain symmetries of a (3 + 1)-decomposition of spacetime, the non-dynamical parts are Lagrange multipliers. We point out that this interpretation is not compatible with the minimal coupling procedure.
Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan
2007-11-01
It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.
Constraining torsion with Gravity Probe B
Mao Yi; Guth, Alan H.; Cabi, Serkan; Tegmark, Max
2007-11-15
It is well-entrenched folklore that all torsion gravity theories predict observationally negligible torsion in the solar system, since torsion (if it exists) couples only to the intrinsic spin of elementary particles, not to rotational angular momentum. We argue that this assumption has a logical loophole which can and should be tested experimentally, and consider nonstandard torsion theories in which torsion can be generated by macroscopic rotating objects. In the spirit of action=reaction, if a rotating mass like a planet can generate torsion, then a gyroscope would be expected to feel torsion. An experiment with a gyroscope (without nuclear spin) such as Gravity Probe B (GPB) can test theories where this is the case. Using symmetry arguments, we show that to lowest order, any torsion field around a uniformly rotating spherical mass is determined by seven dimensionless parameters. These parameters effectively generalize the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism and provide a concrete framework for further testing Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR). We construct a parametrized Lagrangian that includes both standard torsion-free GR and Hayashi-Shirafuji maximal torsion gravity as special cases. We demonstrate that classic solar system tests rule out the latter and constrain two observable parameters. We show that Gravity Probe B is an ideal experiment for further constraining nonstandard torsion theories, and work out the most general torsion-induced precession of its gyroscope in terms of our torsion parameters.
Cosmological solutions of a quadratic theory of gravity with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canale, Anna; de Ritis, Ruggiero; Tarantino, Ciro
1984-01-01
Following the general approach of Hehl, and Hayashi and Shirafuji, we give the gravity equations for the lagrangian L=(e/2L2)(F+1/2×F2) + LM. We have found the explicit Einstein-de Sitter solutions for a spinless dust. We have discussed in this case the singularity problem for the metric and for the torsion.
Chern-Simons modified gravity as a torsion theory and its interaction with fermions
Alexander, Stephon; Yunes, Nicolas
2008-06-15
We study the tetrad formulation of Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which adds a Pontryagin term to the Einstein-Hilbert action with a spacetime-dependent coupling field. We first verify that CS modified gravity leads to a theory with torsion, where this tensor is given by an antisymmetric product of the Riemann tensor and derivatives of the CS coupling. We then calculate the torsion in the far field of a weakly gravitating source within the parameterized post-Newtonian formalism, and specialize the result to Earth. We find that CS torsion vanishes only if the coupling vanishes, thus generically leading to a modification of gyroscopic precession, irrespective of the coupling choice. Perhaps most interestingly, we couple fermions to CS modified gravity via the standard Dirac action and find that these further correct the torsion tensor. Such a correction leads to two new results: (i) a generic enhancement of CS modified gravity by the Dirac equation and axial fermion currents; (ii) a new two-fermion interaction, mediated by an axial current and the CS correction. We conclude with a discussion of the consequences of these results in particle detectors and realistic astrophysical systems.
Some cosmological models coming from gravitational theories having torsional degrees of freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espiro, J. Lorca; Vásquez, Yerko
2016-09-01
In this work we consider gravitational theories in which the effect of coupling characteristic classes, appropriately introduced as operators in the Einstein-Hilbert action, has been taken into account. As it is well known, this approach strays from the framework of general relativity since it results in theories in which torsion can be present. We consider here all the characteristic classes that are consistent with a four-dimensional space-time manifold. Then, we present explicit expressions for the contortion 1-form and torsion 2-form for a broad class of conditions in various cases of interest. Additionally, we use the same framework to study cosmological scenarios that are obtained mainly by selecting the flat FLRW metric and an ideal fluid.
de Sitter gauge theory of gravity: an alternative torsion cosmology
Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn
2011-10-01
A new cosmological model based on the de Sitter gauge theory (dSGT) is studied in this paper. By some transformations, we find, in the dust universe, the cosmological equations of dSGT could form an autonomous system. We conduct dynamics analysis to this system, and find 9 critical points, among which there exist one positive attractor and one negative attractor. The positive attractor shows us that our universe will enter a exponential expansion phase in the end, which is similar to the conclusion of ΛCDM. We also carry out some numerical calculations, which confirms the conclusion of dynamics analysis. Finally, we fit the model parameter and initial values to the Union 2 SNIa dataset, present the confidence contour of parameters and obtain the best-fit values of parameters of dSGT.
All torsion-free spherical vacuum solutions of the quadratic Poincare gauge theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baekler, P.; Yasskin, P. B.
1984-12-01
The complete torsion-free spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the theory of gravity proposed by Hehl et al. (1978) are obtained analytically and characterized. The solutions are shown to correspond to either Schwarzschild metrics (including a gravitational confinement potential when the cosmological constant Lambda is less than zero), Narai-Bertotti metrics, or conformally flat metrics (including some asymptotically flat but nonstationary solutions). The relationships of the theory of Hehl et al. to those of Eddington (1924), Nordstrom (1913), Einstein (1917, with cosmological constant), and Yang (1974) are explored.
Novel theory analysis and new perspective on angular selectivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bin; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Hu; Chai, Yingjie; Sun, Wei; Hou, Yongqiang; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda
2014-08-01
Wave propagation of symmetry incidence on the biaxial birefringent film is discussed in this paper based on the characteristic matrix method. Furthermore, based on the refractive index surface, the refractive indices and effective optical admittances of the forward and backward propagating extraordinary waves (p-polarized wave) are analyzed in detail. With regard to the symmetry incidence, optical properties, such as the input optical admittance, transmittance and reflectance, are not identical for an extraordinary wave under common condition, i.e., angular selectivity. Based on an analysis of refractive index surface, the effective optical admittances of the forward and backward propagating extraordinary waves are equal in this particular case; transmittance and reflectance under the symmetry incidence are completely overlapped, similar to findings in the isotropic thin film. We validate our analysis using the developed software package. Based on the novel theory analysis, we can gain a new perspective of symmetry incidence about angular selectivity for the biaxial birefringent film.
Álvarez-Asencio, R; Thormann, E; Rutland, M W
2013-09-01
A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power spectrum is difficult to obtain due to the high resonance frequency and low signal/noise ratio. The applicability is shown to be general and this simple approach can thus be used to obtain torsional constants for any beam shaped cantilever.
Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.
2007-12-15
A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.
Angular-momentum-dependent orbital-free density functional theory.
Ke, Youqi; Libisch, Florian; Xia, Junchao; Wang, Lin-Wang; Carter, Emily A
2013-08-01
Orbital-free (OF) density functional theory (DFT) directly solves for the electron density rather than the wave function of many electron systems, greatly simplifying and enabling large scale first principles simulations. However, the required approximate noninteracting kinetic energy density functionals and local electron-ion pseudopotentials severely restrict the general applicability of conventional OFDFT. Here, we present a new generation of OFDFT called angular-momentum-dependent (AMD)-OFDFT to harness the accuracy of Kohn-Sham DFT and the simplicity of OFDFT. The angular momenta of electrons are explicitly introduced within atom-centered spheres so that the important ionic core region can be accurately described. In addition to conventional OF total energy functionals, we introduce a crucial nonlocal energy term with a set of AMD energies to correct errors due to the kinetic energy density functional and the local pseudopotential. We find that our AMD-OFDFT formalism offers substantial improvements over conventional OFDFT, as we show for various properties of the transition metal titanium.
Sokolovski, D.; Msezane, A.Z.
2004-09-01
A semiclassical complex angular momentum theory, used to analyze atom-diatom reactive angular distributions, is applied to several well-known potential (one-particle) problems. Examples include resonance scattering, rainbow scattering, and the Eckart threshold model. Pade reconstruction of the corresponding matrix elements from the values at physical (integral) angular momenta and properties of the Pade approximants are discussed in detail.
Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.
2009-01-01
The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the…
Dark spinors with torsion in cosmology
Boehmer, Christian G.; Burnett, James
2008-11-15
We solve one of the open problems in Einstein-Cartan theory, namely, we find a natural matter source whose spin angular momentum tensor is compatible with the cosmological principle. We analyze the resulting evolution equations and find that an epoch of accelerated expansion is an attractor. The torsion field quickly decays in that period. Our results are interpreted in the context of the standard model of cosmology.
Kerr-Newman-dS/AdS solution and anti-evaporation in higher-order torsion scalar gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nashed, Gamal G. L.
2016-03-01
We derive a null tetrad from axially-symmetric vierbein field. The f(T)f(T)-Maxwell field equations with cosmological constant, where T is the scalar torsion, are applied to the null tetrad. An exact non-vacuum solution having three constants of integration is derived which is a solution to the f (T) -Maxwell field equations provided that f(T)=T0f(T)=T0 and fT=df(T)dT=1fT=df(T)dT=1, where T0T0 is a constant. The scalar torsion related to this solution is constant, i.e., T=T0T=T0, and differs from the classical general relativity when f(T)≈T0f(T)≈T0. We study the singularities of this solution using curvature and torsion invariants. We consider a slow rotation and show that the derived solution behaves asymptotically as de Sitter spacetime and display the existence of Nariai spacetime as a background solution. We assume a perturbation of Nariai spacetime till the first order and investigate the behavior of the black hole horizon. Finally, we explain that the anti-evaporation occurs on the classical level in the f (T) gravitational theories.
Torsion cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory and the constraints of its parameters via SNeIa data
Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn
2012-02-01
Poincarè gauge theory (PGT) is an alternative gravity theory, which brings the gravity into the gauge-theoretic framework, where the Lagrangian includes both quadratic torsion and curvature terms. Recently, the cosmological models with torsion based on this theory, which explained the cosmic acceleration in a new way, have received much attention. Among these PGT cosmological models, the one with only even parity dynamical modes-SNY model, for its realistic meaning, is very attractive. In this paper, we first analyze the past-time cosmic evolution of SNY model analytically. And based on these results we fit this model to the most comprehensive SNeIa data (Union 2) and thus find the best-fit values of model parameters and initial conditions, whose related χ{sup 2} value is consistent with the one from ΛCMD at the 1σ level. Also by the χ{sup 2} estimate, we provide certain constraints on these parameters. Using these best-fit values for the Union 2 SNeIa dataset, we are able to predict the evolution of our real universe in late time. From this prediction, we know that the fate of our universe is that it would expand forever, slowly asymptotically to a halt, which is in accordance with the earlier works.
Bars, I.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.
1985-09-01
String theories on a background manifold with torsion are discussed. Candidate vacuum configurations are discussed for ten-dimensional superstrings. These are compactified on M/sub 4/ x K, where M/sub 4/ is four-dimensional and K is some compact six-dimensional manifold. Solutions with non-zero torsion on K are emphasized. The compactification problem is approached both from the effective field theory point of view and directly using string considerations. The construction of string theories in curved space with torsion is then discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the constraints on space-time supersymmetry in the Green-Schwarz approach. Two-dimensional non-linear sigma models are used to describe the propagation of strings in background geometries with torsion. (LEW)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.
2004-01-01
In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.
Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame
Poplawski, Nikodem J.
2006-11-15
The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.
Unexpectedly low angular extent of journal bearing pressures: experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nikhil; Vimal, T.; Chatterjee, Anindya
2015-04-01
Journal bearings have been studied for a long time. Pressure solutions for the same, as presented in textbooks, typically have angular extents exceeding 150°. Here, for a bearing with a relatively larger clearance ratio (0.01 as opposed to, say, 0.001), our experiments show an angular extent of about 50° only. Such small angular extents cannot be predicted, even approximately, by the existing simple theories for journal bearing pressures. However, such theories are based on assumptions whereby only the relative speed between bearing and journal surfaces enters the governing equations. We discuss how these same assumptions motivate some new combinations of boundary conditions that allow reasonably simple numerical treatment. In this paper, the resulting families of possible solutions are computed semi-numerically using a Fourier series expansion in one direction and finite differences and numerical continuation in the other. We find that one such solution family contains small-extent solutions similar to those observed experimentally.
Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, E. A.
1990-01-01
Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)
Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador
2014-01-14
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.
Inverse problems for torsional modes.
Willis, C.
1984-01-01
Considers a spherically symmetric, non-rotating Earth consisting of an isotropic, perfect elastic material where the density and the S-wave velocity may have one or two discontinuities in the upper mantle. Shows that given the velocity throughout the mantle and the crust and given the density in the lower mantle, then the freqencies of the torsional oscillations of one angular order (one torsional spectrum), determine the density in the upper mantle and in the crust uniquely. If the velocity is known only in the lower mantle, then the frequencies of the torsional oscillations of two angular orders uniquely determine both the density and the velocity in the upper mantle and in the crust. In particular, the position and size of the discontinuities in the density and velocity are uniquely determined by two torsional spectra.-Author
Torsion of a cylinder of partially molten rock with a spherical inclusion: Theory and simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alisic, Laura; Rhebergen, Sander; Rudge, John F.; Katz, Richard F.; Wells, Garth N.
2016-01-01
The processes that are involved in migration and extraction of melt from the mantle are not yet fully understood. Gaining a better understanding of material properties of partially molten rock could help shed light on the behavior of melt on larger scales in the mantle. In this study, we simulate three-dimensional torsional deformation of a partially molten rock that contains a rigid, spherical inclusion. We compare the computed porosity patterns to those found in recent laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments show emergence of melt-rich bands throughout the rock sample, and pressure shadows around the inclusion. The numerical model displays similar melt-rich bands only for a small bulk-to-shear-viscosity ratio (five or less). The results are consistent with earlier two-dimensional numerical simulations; however, we show that it is easier to form melt-rich bands in three dimensions compared to two. The addition of strain-rate dependence of the viscosity causes a distinct change in the shape of pressure shadows around the inclusion. This change in shape presents an opportunity for experimentalists to identify the strain-rate dependence and therefore the dominant deformation mechanism in torsion experiments with inclusions.
Dubhashi, Siddharth Pramod; Khadav, Bharat
2016-01-01
Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition detectable only at operation. It can be primary or secondary. This is a case report of 52-year-old female with 180° anti-clockwise rotation of the appendix. Torsion can further leads to strangulation and infarction of the organ. Appendicular torsion could be included in the differential diagnosis of pain in right iliac fossa. PMID:27013858
Torsion of the testis; Testicular ischemia; Testicular twisting ... Symptoms include: Sudden severe pain in one testicle. The pain may occur ... ). Nausea or vomiting. Lightheadedness . Additional symptoms ...
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petti, Richard
2016-03-01
This article presents a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity with no additional assumptions or parameters. The derivation begins with distributions of Kerr masses that converge to a continuum with constant densities of mass, momentum, and angular momentum. The limit includes torsion and the spin-torsion relationship of Einstein-Cartan theory. The construction of curvature and torsion is equivalent to definition of curvature with Cartan forms on fiber bundles. Advantages of Einstein-Cartan theory include accommodating exchange of classical intrinsic and orbital angular momentum and generation of inflation-like expansion in high density cosmological models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauth, M.; Kümmel, S.
2016-02-01
Photoemission spectroscopy is one of the most frequently used tools for characterizing the electronic structure of condensed matter systems. We discuss a scheme for simulating photoemission from finite systems based on time-dependent density-functional theory. It allows for the first-principles calculation of relative electron binding energies, ionization cross sections, and anisotropy parameters. We extract these photoemission spectroscopy observables from Kohn-Sham orbitals propagated in real time. We demonstrate that the approach is capable of estimating photoemission intensities, i.e., peak heights. It can also reliably predict the angular distribution of photoelectrons. For the example of benzene we contrast calculated angular distribution anisotropy parameters to experimental reference data. Self-interaction free Kohn-Sham theory yields meaningful outer valence single-particle states in the right energetic order. We discuss how to properly choose the complex absorbing potential that is used in the simulations.
Batishchev, Pavel A.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.
2007-06-15
The Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory, originally developed by Tolstikhin, Ostrovsky, and Nakamura [Phys. Rev. A, 58, 2077 (1998)] for s-wave scattering in a spherically symmetric finite-range potential, is generalized to nonzero angular momenta. The orthogonality and completeness properties of SPSs are established and SPS expansions for the outgoing-wave Green's function, physical states, and scattering matrix are obtained. The present formulation completes the theory of SPSs in the one-channel case, making its application to three-dimensional problems possible. The results are illustrated by calculations for several model potentials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.; Parzych, David J.
1993-01-01
This report presents the derivation of a frequency domain theory and working equations for radiation of propeller harmonic noise in the presence of angular inflow. In applying the acoustic analogy, integration over the tangential coordinate of the source region is performed numerically, permitting the equations to be solved without approximation for any degree of angular inflow. Inflow angle is specified in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles of the aircraft. Since these can be arbitrarily large, the analysis applies with equal accuracy to propellers and helicopter rotors. For thickness and loading, the derivation is given in complete detail with working equations for near and far field. However, the quadrupole derivation has been carried only far enough to show feasibility of the numerical approach. Explicit formulas are presented for computation of source elements, evaluation of Green's functions, and location of observer points in various visual and retarded coordinate systems. The resulting computer program, called WOBBLE has been written in FORTRAN and follows the notation of this report very closely. The new theory is explored to establish the effects of varying inflow angle on axial and circumferential directivity. Also, parametric studies were performed to evaluate various phenomena outside the capabilities of earlier theories, such as an unsteady thickness effect. Validity of the theory was established by comparison with test data from conventional propellers and Prop Fans in flight and in wind tunnels under a variety of operating conditions and inflow angles.
Angular momentum dependent orbital-free density functional theory: Formulation and implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Youqi; Libisch, Florian; Xia, Junchao; Carter, Emily A.
2014-04-01
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) directly solves for the ground-state electron density. It scales linearly with respect to system size, providing a promising tool for large-scale material simulations. Removal of the orbitals requires use of approximate noninteracting kinetic energy density functionals. If replacing ionic cores with pseudopotentials, removal of the orbitals also requires these pseudopotentials to be local. These are two severe challenges to the capabilities of conventional OFDFT. While main group elements are often well described within conventional OFDFT, transition metals remain intractable due to their localized d electrons. To advance the accuracy and general applicability of OFDFT, we have recently reported a general angular momentum dependent formulation as a next-generation OFDFT. In this formalism, we incorporate the angular momenta of electrons by devising a hybrid scheme based on a muffin tin geometry: inside spheres centered at the ionic cores, the electron density is expanded in a set of atom-centered basis functions combined with an onsite density matrix. The explicit treatment of the angular momenta of electrons provides an important basis for accurately describing the important ionic core region, which is not possible in conventional OFDFT. In addition to the conventional OFDFT total energy functional, we introduce a nonlocal energy term containing a set of angular momentum dependent energies to correct the errors due to the approximate kinetic energy density functional and local pseudopotentials. Our approach greatly increases the accuracy of OFDFT while largely preserving its numerical simplicity. Here, we provide details of the theoretical formulation and practical implementation, including the hybrid scheme, the derivation of the nonlocal energy term, the choice of basis functions, the direct minimization of the total energy, the procedure to determine the angular momentum dependent energies, the force formula with
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Rotational-angular-momentum relaxation mechanisms in the energy-corrected-sudden scaling theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonamy, L.; Emond, F.
1995-02-01
In calculating the infrared (IR) band shape for bending modes, the angular-momentum coupling between vibration, rotation, and radiation must be taken into account. The accuracy of the energy-corrected-sudden (ECS) model has been proved through many recent applications in isotropic Raman Q-branch profiles. Furthermore, this model is based on the physical infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximation, which allows inclusion of the other relaxation mechanisms required when considering other spectroscopic branches, such as IR Q-bending bands. To include, in a consistent way, the role of the vibrational angular momentum in the rovibrational relaxation matrix, the relaxation of the rotational angular momentum J and of its associated higher-order tensors [J](2),. . . (basically absent in the IOS approximation) is enforced in the present ECS model. Application to the 2076.86 cm-1 infrared rovibrational band of 12C16O2 leads to the determination of the [J](2) relaxation time in agreement with previous values obtained from different measurements. The present theory may be applied to other spectroscopic bands, such as the anisotropic Raman ones.
Fahlman, A.; Carlson, T.A.; Krause, M.O.
1983-04-11
The angular asymmetry parameter ..beta.. for the Xe 5s..-->..epsilonp photoelectrons has been studied with use of synchrotron radiation (h..nu.. = 28--65 eV). The present results show that the relativistic random-phase approximation theory does not satisfactorily describe the Xe 5s photoionization process close to the Cooper minimum and thus require a renewed theoretical approach. The 5s partial photoionization cross section was obtained over the same photon region and the results agree with experimental values found in the literature.
A precise angular spectrum of plane-waves diffraction theory for leaky wave materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, W. D.; Hunsinger, B. J.
1988-08-01
This paper describes a computational leaky-wave diffraction-theory technique which very accurately describes leaky wave propagation; it combines the method of Kharusi and Farnell (1971) based on the angular spectrum of plane-wave formalism with the measured values of velocity and attenuation provided by the slowness surface measurement method of Murray and Ash (1977). The technique was shown to predict accurately the magnitude and phase of beam profiles propagating over long distances in bare-surface 100-plane-cut semiinsulating GaAs. The technique was also shown to be a good predictor of beam profile propagation through metallic grating structures required in acoustic charge transport device application.
Quaternions, Torsion and the Physical Vacuum: Theories of M. Sachs and G. Shipov Compared
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cyganski, David; Page, William S.
Of several developments of unified field theories in the spirit of Einstein's original objective of a fully geometric description of all classical fields as well as quantum mechanics, two are particularly noteworthy. The works of Mendel Sachs and Gennady Shipov stand apart as major life works comprising tens of papers, several monographs and decades of effort. Direct comparison of these theories is hampered however by differences in notation and conceptual view-point. Despite these differences, there are many parallels between the fundamental mathematical structures appearing in each. In this paper we discuss the main tenets of the two approaches and demonstrate that they both give rise to a factorization of the invariant interval of general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Huaying; Wang, Dayong; Xie, Jianjun; Zhao, Jie
2007-12-01
A simple holographic high-resolution imaging system without pre-magnification, which is based on off-axis lensless Fourier transform configuration, has been developed. Experimental investigations are performed on USAF resolution test target. The method based on angular spectrum theory for reconstructing lensless Fourier hologram is given. The reconstructed results of the same hologram at different reconstructing distances are presented for what is to our knowledge the first time. Approximate diffraction limited lateral resolution is achieved. The results show that the angular spectrum method has several advantages over more commonly used Fresnel transform method. Lossless reconstruction can be achieved for any numerical aperture holograms as long as the wave field is calculated at a special reconstructing distance, which is determined by the light wavelength and the chip size and the pixel size of the CCD sensor. This is very important for reconstructing an extremely large numerical aperture hologram. Frequency-domain spectrum filtering can be applied conveniently to remove the disturbance of zero-order. The reconstructed image wave field is accurate so long as the sampling theorem is not violated. The experimental results also demonstrate that for a high quality hologram, special image processing is unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.
Xu, Xuefei; Yu, Tao; Papajak, Ewa; Truhlar, Donald G
2012-11-01
We calculated the forward and reverse rate constants of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from carbon-2 of 2-methyl-1-propanol by hydroperoxyl radical over the temperature range 250-2400 K by using multistructural canonical variational transition state theory (MS-CVT) including both multiple-structure and torsional potential anharmonicity effects by the multistructural torsional anharmonicity (MS-T) method. In these calculations, multidimensional tunneling (MT) probabilities used to compute the tunneling transmission coefficients were evaluated by the small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. Comparison with the rate constants obtained by the single-structural harmonic oscillator (SS-HO) approximation shows that multistructural anharmonicity increases the forward rate constants for all temperatures, but the reverse rate constants are reduced for temperatures lower than 430 K and increased for higher temperatures. The neglect of multistructural torsional anharmonicity would lead to errors of factors of 1.5, 8.8, and 13 at 300, 1000, and 2400 K, respectively, for the forward reaction, and would lead to errors of factors of 0.76, 3.0, and 6.0, respectively, at these temperatures for the reverse reaction. PMID:23020791
Bigoni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bosi, F.
2014-01-01
One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a ‘torsional gun’, capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. PMID:25383038
Implementing torsional-mode Doppler ladar.
Fluckiger, David U
2002-08-20
Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes carry orbital angular momentum as a consequence of their helical-phase front screw dislocation. This torsional beam structure interacts with rotating targets, changing the orbital angular momentum (azimuthal Doppler) of the scattered beam because angular momentum is a conserved quantity. I show how to measure this change independently from the usual longitudinal momentum (normal Doppler shift) and derive the apropos coherent mixing efficiencies for monostatic, truncated Laguerre and Gaussian-mode ladar antenna patterns. PMID:12206220
Implementing torsional-mode Doppler ladar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fluckiger, David U.
2002-08-01
Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes carry orbital angular momentum as a consequence of their helical-phase front screw dislocation. This torsional beam structure interacts with rotating targets, changing the orbital angular momentum (azimuthal Doppler) of the scattered beam because angular momentum is a conserved quantity. I show how to measure this change independently from the usual longitudinal momentum (normal Doppler shift) and derive the apropos coherent mixing efficiencies for monostatic, truncated Laguerre and Gaussian-mode ladar antenna patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuan; Ning, Chuangang
2015-10-01
Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter β. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li-, C-, O-, F-, CH-, OH-, NH2-, O2-, and S2- show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter β for anions, thus promising for large systems.
Torsional vibration isolator and method
Allen, C.A.; Durrett, V.D.
1986-10-21
This patent describes a multicylinder internal combustion engine having a rotatable crankshaft and a rotatable flywheel which together define an inertial system rotating about a predetermined axis of rotation. An improvement is described here which facilitates avoiding destructive effects on the crankshaft of stress induced by torsional vibration. The method comprises an elastomeric annulus coupling means operatively interposed between the crankshaft and flywheel for coupling the crankshaft and flywheel together for rotation of the flywheel with the crankshaft. The coupling means has a torsional spring rate of less than 20,000 in lb/radian effective to permit substantial angular displacement between the flywheel and the crankshaft for isolating the rotating inertia of the flywheel from the rotating inertia of the crankshaft after engine startup. The coupling means avoids dampening while preventing torsional vibration from being transferred between the flywheel and the crankshaft.
Liu, Yuan; Ning, Chuangang
2015-10-14
Recently, the development of photoelectron velocity map imaging makes it much easier to obtain the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) experimentally. However, explanations of PADs are only qualitative in most cases, and very limited works have been reported on how to calculate PAD of anions. In the present work, we report a method using the density-functional-theory Kohn-Sham orbitals to calculate the photodetachment cross sections and the anisotropy parameter β. The spherical average over all random molecular orientation is calculated analytically. A program which can handle both the Gaussian type orbital and the Slater type orbital has been coded. The testing calculations on Li{sup −}, C{sup −}, O{sup −}, F{sup −}, CH{sup −}, OH{sup −}, NH{sub 2}{sup −}, O{sub 2}{sup −}, and S{sub 2}{sup −} show that our method is an efficient way to calculate the photodetachment cross section and anisotropy parameter β for anions, thus promising for large systems.
Yu, T.; Zheng, J.; Truhlar, D. G.
2011-01-01
We present a new formulation of variational transition state theory (VTST) called multi-structural VTST (MS-VTST) and the use of this to calculate the rate constant for the 1,4-hydrogen shift isomerization reaction of 1-pentyl radical and that for the reverse reaction. MS-VTST uses a multi-faceted dividing surface and provides a convenient way to include the contributions of many structures (typically conformers) of the reactant and the transition state in rate constant calculations. In this particular application, we also account for the torsional anharmonicity. We used the multi-configuration Shepard interpolation method to efficiently generate a semi-global portion of the potential energy surface from a small number of high-level electronic structure calculations using the M06 density functional in order to compute the energies and Hessians of Shepard points along a reaction path. The M06-2X density functional was used to calculate the multi-structural anharmonicity effect, including all of the structures of the reactant, product and transition state. To predict the thermal rate constant, VTST calculations were performed to obtain the canonical variational rate constant over the temperature range 200–2000 K. A transmission coefficient is calculated by the multidimensional small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. The final MS-CVT/SCT thermal rate constant was determined by combining a reaction rate calculation in the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation (including tunneling) with the multi-structural anharmonicity torsional factor. The calculated forward rate constant agrees very well with experimentally-based evaluations of the high-pressure limit for the temperature range 300–1300 K, although it is a factor of 2.5–3.0 lower than the single-structural harmonic oscillator approximation over this temperature range. We anticipate that MS-VTST will be generally useful for calculating the reaction rates of complex molecules with multiple
Face-seal lubrication. 2: Theory of response to angular misalignement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ludwig, L. P.; Allen, G. P.
1976-01-01
A theoretical analysis was made of a hypothetical seal operating mode. The hypothetical seal model provides for three degrees of primary ring motion and includes the force and moments induced by primary ring response to seat angular misalignment. This ring response causes a relative angular misalignment between the faces of the primary seal. Hydrodynamic pressure generation is produced by this misalignment. The analysis is based on the Reynolds equation in short bearing form and on a balance of forces and moments that arise from hydrodynamic and secondary seal friction effects. A closed form solution was obtained that can be solved for film thickness and relative angular misalignment.
Nath, Sunil
2010-08-01
The core of this second article shows how logical errors and inconsistencies in previous theories of energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation are overcome by use of a torsional mechanism and the unified theory of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. The torsional mechanism is shown to satisfy the pioneering and verified features of previous mechanisms. A considerable amount of data is identified that is incompatible with older theories but is now explained in a logically consistent and unified way. Key deficiencies in older theories are pinpointed and their resolution elucidated. Finally, major differences between old and new approaches are tabulated. The new theory now provides the elusive details of energy coupling and transduction, and allows several novel and experimentally verifiable predictions to be made and a considerable number of applications in nanotechnology, energy conversion, systems biology, and in health and disease are foreseen.
Equal-channel-angular processing (ECAP) of materials: Experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoica, Grigoreta Mihaela
Equal Channel-Angular Processing (ECAP), as a severe plastic deformation of metals and composites, is analyzed both theoretically---to describe the ECAP macromechanics---and experimentally---to obtain ultrafine-grained materials with new thermo-mechanical properties---with a focus on hexagonal-closed-packed (HCP) structures such as Mg alloys. Due to their obvious similarity to ECAP, the slip-line - field theories developed for orthogonal cutting are applied to the ECAP deformation for predicting the shear-strain spatial heterogeneities. A theoretical model for predicting the plastic-deformation zone in an ECAP-ed billet with a free surface is provided, and is validated experimentally. A shear-strain-mapping procedure was developed by decomposing the large deformation process into fine steps, and, by analyzing the partially-deformed billets, the strain maps captured the spatio-temporal evolutions of the ECAP-induced plastic shear strains. This approach was later generalized for studying the local behavior of different material parameters, such as textures (texture mapping). The mechanical testing of the as-received and ECAP-deformed Mg-alloys (ZK60 and AZ31) was performed in monotonic and cyclic tests, for three loading orientations. The ECAP-ed samples demonstrate: (a) a good grain refinement from 50--70 mum down to 2.5--7 mum), (b) a superplastic ZK60 alloy, with an elongation to failure of 371% at 3500C and the strain rate of 10-2 s-1, and (c) a longer fatigue life for the AZ31 alloy, relative to the as-received material. The starting and ECAP-deformed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction using both soft and hard X-rays, and neutron diffraction. The grain sizes, the textures, the coherent-domain sizes, the elastic microstrains, and the dislocation densities were determined for the samples deformed by rolling, extrusion, and ECAP. The synchrotron radiation measurements allowed monitoring the lattice rotation induced by the ECAP
Variable stiffness torsion springs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.
Variable stiffness torsion springs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-06-01
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.
Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol.
Belov, S P; Golubiatnikov, G Yu; Lapinov, A V; Ilyushin, V V; Alekseev, E A; Mescheryakov, A A; Hougen, J T; Xu, Li-Hong
2016-07-14
This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e(±niα). The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.
Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong
2016-07-01
This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e±niα. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.
Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol.
Belov, S P; Golubiatnikov, G Yu; Lapinov, A V; Ilyushin, V V; Alekseev, E A; Mescheryakov, A A; Hougen, J T; Xu, Li-Hong
2016-07-14
This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e(±niα). The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected. PMID:27421405
Hankel, Marlies E-mail: j.n.l.connor@manchester.ac.uk; Connor, J. N. L. E-mail: j.n.l.connor@manchester.ac.uk
2015-07-15
A valuable tool for understanding the dynamics of direct reactions is Nearside-Farside (NF) scattering theory. It makes a decomposition of the (resummed) partial wave series for the scattering amplitude, both for the differential cross section (DCS) and the Local Angular Momentum (LAM). This paper makes the first combined application of these techniques to complex-mode reactions. We ask if NF theory is a useful tool for their identification, in particular, can it distinguish complex-mode from direct-mode reactions? We also ask whether NF theory can identify NF interference oscillations in the full DCSs of complex-mode reactions. Our investigation exploits the fact that accurate quantum scattering matrix elements have recently become available for complex-mode reactions. We first apply NF theory to two simple models for the scattering amplitude of a complex-mode reaction: One involves a single Legendre polynomial; the other involves a single Legendre function of the first kind, whose form is suggested by complex angular momentum theory. We then study, at fixed translational energies, four state-to-state complex-mode reactions. They are: S({sup 1}D) + HD → SH + D, S({sup 1}D) + DH → SD + H, N({sup 2}D) +H{sub 2} → NH + H, and H{sup +} + D{sub 2} → HD + D{sup +}. We compare the NF results for the DCSs and LAMs with those for a state-to-state direct reaction, namely, F + H{sub 2} → FH + H. We demonstrate that NF theory is a valuable tool for identifying and analyzing the dynamics of complex-mode reactions.
Torsion phenomenology at the CERN LHC
Belyaev, A. S.; Shapiro, I. L.; Vale, M. A. B. do
2007-02-01
We explore the potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to test the dynamical torsion parameters. The form of the torsion action can be established from the requirements of consistency of effective quantum field theory. The most phenomenologically relevant part of the torsion tensor is dual to a massive axial vector field. This axial vector has geometric nature, that means it does not belong to any representation of the gauge group of the SM extension or GUT theory. At the same time, torsion should interact with all fermions, that opens the way for the phenomenological applications. We demonstrate that LHC collider can establish unique constraints on the interactions between fermions and torsion field considerably exceeding present experimental lower bounds on the torsion couplings and its mass. It is also shown how possible nonuniversal nature of torsion couplings due to the renormalization group running between the Planck and TeV energy scales can be tested via the combined analysis of Drell-Yan and tt production processes.
Noncontact measurement of angular deflection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryant, E. L.
1978-01-01
Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.
Theory of neutrino emission from nucleon-hyperon matter in neutron stars: angular integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminker, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Haensel, P.
2016-08-01
Investigations of thermal evolution of neutron stars with hyperon cores require neutrino emissivities for many neutrino reactions involving strongly degenerate particles (nucleons, hyperons, electrons, muons). We calculate the angular integrals In (over orientations of momenta of n degenerate particles) for major neutrino reactions with n=3, 4, 5 at all possible combinations of particle Fermi momenta. The integrals In are necessary ingredients for constructing a uniform database of neutrino emissivities in dense nucleon-hyperon matter. The results can also be used in many problems of physical kinetics of strongly degenerate systems.
Töws, W; Pastor, G M
2015-11-20
Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states.
McKown, Benjamin G; Ceriotti, Michele; Womack, Caroline C; Kamarchik, Eugene; Butler, Laurie J; Bowman, Joel M
2013-10-24
This paper explores the dynamics of a highly rotationally and vibrationally excited radical, CD2CD2OH. The radical is produced from the 193 nm photodissociation of 2-bromoethanol-d4, so it is imparted with high angular momentum and high vibrational energy and subsequently dissociates to several product channels. This paper focuses on characterizing its angular momentum and modeling its effect on the product channels, including the HOD + vinyl-d3 product channel resulting from a frustrated dissociation of the radical originally en route to OH + ethene-d4 that instead results in D atom abstraction. Our impulsive model of the initial photodissociation shows that, for some cases, upward of 200 au of angular momentum is imparted, which greatly affects the dynamics of the competing product channels. Using a permutationally invariant potential energy surface and quasiclassical trajectories, we simulated the dissociation dynamics of CD2CD2OH and compared these results to those of Kamarchik et al. (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 3058-3065), who studied the dynamics of CH2CH2OH with zero angular momentum. We found that the recoil translational energy distribution for radicals that dissociated to OH + C2D4 matched experiment closely only when high angular momentum of the initial radical was explicitly included in the trajectory calculations. Similarly, the rate constant for dissociation changes when rotational energy was added to the vibrational energy in the initial conditions. Lastly, we applied the sketch-map dimensionality reduction technique to analyze mechanistic information leading to the vinyl + water product channel. Projecting the ab initio intrinsic reaction coordinates onto the lower dimensional space identified with sketch map offers new insight into the dynamics when one looks at the simulated trajectories in the lower dimensional space. Further analysis shows that the transition path resembles a frustrated dissociation of the OH + ethene radical adduct, followed
Töws, W; Pastor, G M
2015-11-20
Exact calculated time evolutions in the framework of a many-electron model of itinerant magnetism provide new insights into the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization observed in ferromagnetic (FM) transition metal thin films. The interplay between local spin-orbit interactions and interatomic hopping is shown to be at the origin of the observed postexcitation breakdown of FM correlations between highly stable local magnetic moments. The mechanism behind spin- and angular-momentum transfer is revealed from a microscopic perspective by rigorously complying with all fundamental conservation laws. An energy-resolved analysis of the time evolution shows that the efficiency of the demagnetization process reaches almost 100% in the excited states. PMID:26636871
Membranes from monopole operators in ABJM theory: Large angular momentum and M-theoretic AdS4/CFT3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovacs, Stefano; Sato, Yuki; Shimada, Hidehiko
2014-09-01
We study the duality between M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k and the ABJM {N}=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory with gauge group U(N) × {U}(N) and level k, taking N large and k of order 1. In this M-theoretic regime the lack of an explicit formulation of M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k makes the gravity side difficult, while the CFT is strongly coupled and the planar approximation is not applicable. We focus on states on the gravity side with large angular momentum J≫ 1 associated with a single plane of rotation in S^7 and identify their dual operators in the CFT. We show that natural approximation schemes arise on both sides thanks to the presence of the small parameter 1/J. On the AdS side, we use the matrix model of M-theory on the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with matrices of size J/k. A perturbative treatment of this matrix model provides a good approximation to M-theory in AdS_4 × S^7/{Z}_k when N^{1/3}≪ J≪ N^{1/2}. On the CFT side, we study the theory on S^2× {R} with magnetic flux J/k. A Born-Oppenheimer-type expansion arises naturally for large J in spite of the theory being strongly coupled. The energy spectra on the two sides agree at leading order. This provides a non-trivial test of the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence including near-BPS observables associated with membrane degrees of freedom, thus verifying the duality beyond the previously studied sectors corresponding to either BPS observables or the type IIA string regime.
Contactless, highly exact torsion measurement of special section tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krieger, Thomas; Hartmann, Klaus
1997-09-01
In the center for sensor system at the polytechnic university of Siegen an image processing system for the measurement of torsions of special section tubes has been developed. Especially considering the tube geometry and the areas of the profiles used for the determination of torsions, an angular resolution below 0.25 degrees results. The measuring system is applied within the scope of quality control.
Tscherbul, T V; Dalgarno, A
2010-11-14
An efficient method is presented for rigorous quantum calculations of atom-molecule and molecule-molecule collisions in a magnetic field. The method is based on the expansion of the wave function of the collision complex in basis functions with well-defined total angular momentum in the body-fixed coordinate frame. We outline the general theory of the method for collisions of diatomic molecules in the (2)Σ and (3)Σ electronic states with structureless atoms and with unlike (2)Σ and (3)Σ molecules. The cross sections for elastic scattering and Zeeman relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH((2)Σ(+)) and NH((3)Σ(-)) molecules with (3)He atoms converge quickly with respect to the number of total angular momentum states included in the basis set, leading to a dramatic (>10-fold) enhancement in computational efficiency compared to the previously used methods [A. Volpi and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052712 (2002); R. V. Krems and A. Dalgarno, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2296 (2004)]. Our approach is thus well suited for theoretical studies of strongly anisotropic molecular collisions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. PMID:21073210
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-03-26
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less
Tscherbul, T V; Dalgarno, A
2010-11-14
An efficient method is presented for rigorous quantum calculations of atom-molecule and molecule-molecule collisions in a magnetic field. The method is based on the expansion of the wave function of the collision complex in basis functions with well-defined total angular momentum in the body-fixed coordinate frame. We outline the general theory of the method for collisions of diatomic molecules in the (2)Σ and (3)Σ electronic states with structureless atoms and with unlike (2)Σ and (3)Σ molecules. The cross sections for elastic scattering and Zeeman relaxation in low-temperature collisions of CaH((2)Σ(+)) and NH((3)Σ(-)) molecules with (3)He atoms converge quickly with respect to the number of total angular momentum states included in the basis set, leading to a dramatic (>10-fold) enhancement in computational efficiency compared to the previously used methods [A. Volpi and J. L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052712 (2002); R. V. Krems and A. Dalgarno, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2296 (2004)]. Our approach is thus well suited for theoretical studies of strongly anisotropic molecular collisions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields.
Torsion cosmology and the accelerating universe
Shie, K.-F.; Nester, James M.; Yo, H.-J.
2008-07-15
Investigations of the dynamic modes of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity found only two good propagating torsion modes; they are effectively a scalar and a pseudoscalar. Cosmology affords a natural situation where one might see observational effects of these modes. Here, we consider only the 'scalar torsion' mode. This mode has certain distinctive and interesting qualities. In particular, this type of torsion does not interact directly with any known matter, and it allows a critical nonzero value for the affine scalar curvature. Via numerical evolution of the coupled nonlinear equations we show that this mode can contribute an oscillating aspect to the expansion rate of the Universe. From the examination of specific cases of the parameters and initial conditions we show that for suitable ranges of the parameters the dynamic 'scalar torsion' model can display features similar to those of the presently observed accelerating universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Louis C.; Alexander, John M.
1983-07-01
Fission angular distributions have been studied for years and have been treated as classic examples of trasitions-state theory. Early work involving composite nuclei of relatively low excitation energy E ∗ (⪅35 MeV) and spin I (⪅25ħ) gave support to theory and delimited interesting properties of the transitions-state nuclei. More recent research on fusion fission and sequential fission after deeply inelastic reactions involves composite nuclei of much higher energies (⪅200 MeV) and spins (⪅100ħ). Extension of the basic ideas developed for low-spin nuclei requires detailed consideration of the role of these high spins and, in particular, the “spin window” for fussion. We have made empirical correlations of cross sections for evaporation residues and fission in order to get a description of this spin window. A systematic reanalysis has been made for fusion fission induced by H, He and heavier ions. Empirical correlations of K 20 (K 20 = {IeffT }/{h̷2}) are presented along with comparisons of Ieff to moments of inertia for saddle-point nuclei from the rotating liquid drop model. This model gives an excellent guide for the intermidiate spin zone (30⪅ I ⪅65), while strong shell and/or pairing effects are evident for excitations less than ⪅35 MeV. Observations of strong anisotropies for very high-spin systems signal the demise of certain approximation commonly made in the theory, and suggestions are made toward this end.
Angular dependence in infrared linear dichroism: a reevaluation of the theory.
Gregoriou, Vasilis G; Tzavalas, Spiros; Bollas, Stavros T
2004-06-01
Parameters such as the viewing angle and the extinction ratio (the ratio of the transmitted light over the total light intensity that reaches the sample) are very important in the design of novel optical devices such as new types of polarizers, liquid crystal displays, etc. The initial aim of this work was the comparison of experimentally obtained results to the currently accepted theoretical model that is based on Zbinden's theory of intensity ellipsoid. Due to observed discrepancies between the above theory and experimental data, a new mathematical model was generated in order to adequately explain the experimental results. This new theory allows the calculation of light absorbance at every combination of azimuthal and tilt angles in complete agreement with the experimentally determined values. In addition, in this paper we settle, once and for all, the confusion that exists in the spectroscopic literature with regard to the dependence of absorption and transmission values vis-à-vis the angle of incidence of the incoming light. We conclusively show that it is absorptance (alpha) and not absorption or absorbance (A) which shows a cos(2) dependence on the angle formed by the electric vector and the dipole.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
Can Torsion BE Treated as Just another Tensor Field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nester, James M.; Wang, Chih-Hung
Many alternative gravity theories use an independent connection which leads to torsion in addition to curvature. Some have argued that there is no physical need to use such connections, that one can always use the Levi-Civita connection and just treat torsion as another tensor field. We explore this issue here in the context of the Poincaré Gauge theory of gravity, which is usually formulated in terms of an affine connection for a Riemann-Cartan geometry (torsion and curvature). We compare the equations obtained by taking as the independent dynamical variables: (i) the orthonormal coframe and the connection and (ii) the orthonormal coframe and the torsion (contortion), and we also consider the coupling to a source. From this analysis we conclude that, at least for this class of theories, torsion should not be considered as just another tensor field.
Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-05-07
This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.
Testicular Torsion (For Parents)
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Structural and torsional vibration analysis of a dry screw compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willie, J.; Sachs, R.
2015-08-01
This paper investigates torsional vibration and pulsating noise in a dry screw compressor. The compressor is designed at Gardner Denver (GD) and is oil free and use for mounting on highway trucks. They are driven using a Power Take-Off (PTO) transmission and gear box on a truck. Torque peak fluctuation and noise measurements are done and their sources are investigated and reported in this work. To accurately predict the torsional response (frequency and relative angular deflection and torque amplitude), the Holzer method is used. It is shown that the first torsional frequency is manifested as sidebands in the gear train meshing frequencies and this can lead to noise that is the result of amplitude modulation. Sensitivity analysis of the drive train identifies the weakest link in the drive train that limits the first torsional frequency to a low value. Finally, the significance of higher mode shapes on inter-lobe clearance distribution of the rotors is investigated.
The role of torsion/torsion coupling in the vibrational spectrum of cis-cis HOONO.
McCoy, Anne B; Sprague, Matthew K; Okumura, Mitchio
2010-01-28
A three-dimensional model of the vibrational dynamics of HOONO is investigated. This model focuses on the couplings between the OH stretch vibration and the two torsions. The model is based on electronic energies, calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory and basis and dipole moment functions calculated at the CCSD/aug-cc-pVDZ level. The resulting points were fit to explicit functional forms, and the energies, wave functions, and intensities were evaluated using an approach in which the OH stretching motion was adiabatically separated from the torsional modes. It is found that the HOON torsion is strongly coupled to both the OONO torsion and OH stretch. Despite this, many of the conclusions that were drawn from earlier two-dimensional treatments, which did not include the OONO torsion, hold up on a semiquantitative level. In addition, we use this model to investigate the assignment of recently reported matrix isolated spectra of HOONO and DOONO. Finally, by comparing the results of this three-dimensional calculation to two-dimensional calculations and to the results of second-order perturbation theory, we investigate the question of how one determines the size of the reduced-dimensional system that is needed to describe the vibrational spectrum of molecules, like HOONO, that contain several large amplitude motions. PMID:19860461
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.
Clark, G
2003-04-28
This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the presence of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattson, D. L.
1975-01-01
The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.
Coherent control of molecular torsion.
Parker, Shane M; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar
2011-12-14
We propose a coherent, strong-field approach to control the torsional modes of biphenyl derivatives, and develop a numerical scheme to simulate the torsional dynamics. By choice of the field parameters, the method can be applied either to drive the torsion angle to an arbitrary configuration or to induce free internal rotation. Transient absorption spectroscopy is suggested as a probe of torsional control and the usefulness of this approach is numerically explored. Several consequences of our ability to manipulate molecular torsional motions are considered. These include a method for the inversion of molecular chirality and an ultrafast chiral switch.
Evaluation of the torsional VOR in weightlessness.
Clarke, A H; Teiwes, W; Scherer, H
1993-01-01
The experimental concept and findings from a recent manned orbital spaceflight are described. Together with ongoing terrestrial and parabolic studies, the present experiment is intended to further our knowledge of the sensory integrative processing of information from the semicircular canals and the otolithic receptors, and to quantify the presumed otolithic adaptation to altered gravito-inertial force environments in a more reliable manner than to date. The experiment included measurement of the basic vestibulo-oculomotor response during active head rotation about each of the three orthogonal axes. Priority was given to the recording of ocular torsion, as elicited by head oscillation about the roll axis, and thus due to the concomitant stimulation of the semicircular canals and otolith receptors. Videooculography was employed for the measurement of eye movements; head movement was measured by three orthogonally arranged angular rate sensors and a triaxial linear accelerometer device. All signals were recorded synchronously on a video/data recorder. Preliminary results indicate alterations in the torsional VOR under zero-g conditions, suggesting an adaptive modification of the torsional VOR gain over the course of the 6-day orbital flight. In addition, the inflight test findings yielded discrepancies between intended and performed head movement, indicating impairment in sensorimotor coordination under prolonged microgravity conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nashed, Gamal G. L.
2010-02-01
The energy-momentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy-momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy-momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space-times are calculated. In spite of using a static space-time, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space-times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.
1978-01-01
The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.
Nath, Sunil
2010-08-01
In Part 1 of this invited article, we consider the fundamental aspects of energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The central concepts of the chemiosmotic theory are re-examined and the major problems with its experimental verification are analyzed and reassessed from first principles. Several of its assumptions and interpretations (with regard, for instance, to consideration of the membrane as an inert barrier, the occurrence of energy transduction at thermodynamic equilibrium, the completely delocalized nature of the protonmotive force, and the notion of indirect coupling) are shown to be questionable. Important biological implications of this analysis for molecular mechanisms of biological energy transduction are enumerated. A fresh molecular mechanism of the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by classical weak acid anion uncouplers and an adequate explanation for the existence of uncoupler-resistant mutants (which until now has remained a mystery) has been proposed based on novel insights arising from a new torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis.
Torsional oscillations of slowly rotating relativistic stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vavoulidis, M.; Stavridis, A.; Kokkotas, K. D.; Beyer, H.
2007-06-01
We study the effects of rotation on the torsional modes of oscillating relativistic stars with a solid crust. Earlier works in Newtonian theory provided estimates of the rotational corrections for the torsional modes and suggested that they should become Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz unstable, even for quite low rotation rates. In this work, we study the effect of rotation in the context of general relativity using elasticity theory and in the slow-rotation approximation. We find that the Newtonian picture does not change considerably. The inclusion of relativistic effects leads only to quantitative corrections. The degeneracy of modes for different values of m is removed, and modes with l = m are shifted towards zero frequencies and become secularly unstable at stellar rotational frequencies ~20-30 Hz.
Bopp, W.G.; Janson, D.A.
1987-09-01
An assembly is described disposed for driving connection between rotatably mounted input and output driven of a driveline. The assembly includes resilient means for transmitting driveline torque between the drives and an expandable chamber mechanism for to and for hydraulic damping of driveline torsionals. The mechanism includes first and second relatively moveable members, the first member and the resilient means disposed for serial driving connection between the drives, and the second member disposed for direct driving connection to one of the drives and in parallel driving connection with the resilient means; the members defining at least two chambers varying inversely in volume in response to flexing of the resilient means and containing an incompressible fluid for damping driveline torsionals in response to the volumes varying.
Torsional Ratcheting Actuating System
BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; BITSIE,FERNANDO
2000-01-24
A new type of surface micromachined ratcheting actuation system has been developed at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. The actuator uses a torsional electrostatic comb drive that is coupled to an external ring gear through a ratcheting scheme. The actuator can be operated with a single square wave, has minimal rubbing surfaces, maximizes comb finger density, and can be used for open-loop position control. The prototypes function as intended with a minimum demonstrated operating voltage of 18V. The equations of motion are developed for the torsional electrostatic comb drive. The resonant frequency, voltage vs. displacement and force delivery characteristics are predicted and compared with the fabricated device's performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheatley, John B
1931-01-01
Logical analysis of a box wing necessitates the allowance for the contribution of the drag spars to the torsional strength of the structure. A rigorous analysis is available in the use of the Method of Least Work. The best logical method of analysis is that applying Prandtl's Membrane Analogy. The results so obtained vary by a negligible amount from those obtained by the rigorous method.
Celestial mechanics - Potential torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klat, A. I.; Marchal, C.
1981-01-01
The mutual potential of two solid bodies is a function of the six parameters defining the relative position of these two bodies; it is not a function of only either three or five parameters as it is implicitly assumed in most studies. The sixth parameter, the potential torsion, is related to the orientation of the two bodies around the axis of the two centers; its influence is small. An upper limit is given.
Primordial magnetic fields and dynamos from parity violated torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2012-05-01
It is well known that torsion induced magnetic fields may seed galactic dynamos, but the price one pays for that is the conformal and gauge invariance breaks and a tiny photon mass. More recently I have shown [L.C. Garcia de Andrade, Phys. Lett. B 468 (2011) 28] that magnetic fields decay in a gauge invariant non-minimal coupling theory of torsion is slow down, which would allow for dynamo action to take place. In this Letter, by adding a parity violation term of the type Rɛ to the non-coupling term, a magnetic dynamo equation is obtained. From dynamo equation it is shown that torsion terms only appear in the dynamo equation when diffusion in the cosmic plasma is present. Torsion breaks the homogeneity of the magnetic field in the universe. Since Zeldovich anti-dynamo theorem assumes that the spacetime should be totally flat, torsion is responsible for violation of anti-dynamo theorem in 2D spatial dimensions. Contrary to previous results torsion induced primordial magnetic fields cannot seed galactic dynamos since from torsion and diffusion coefficient the decaying time of the magnetic field is 106yrs, which is much shorter than the galaxy age.
Constraining spacetime torsion with the Moon and Mercury
March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone
2011-05-15
We report a search for new gravitational physics phenomena based on Riemann-Cartan theory of general relativity including spacetime torsion. Starting from the parametrized torsion framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth, and Cabi, we analyze the motion of test bodies in the presence of torsion, and, in particular, we compute the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital geodetic precession of a satellite. We consider the motion of a test body in a spherically symmetric field, and the motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Sun and the Earth. We describe the torsion field by means of three parameters, and we make use of the autoparallel trajectories, which in general differ from geodesics when torsion is present. We derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of celestial mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter of the satellite. The computed secular variations show how the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital de Sitter effect depend on the torsion parameters. All computations are performed under the assumptions of weak field and slow motion. To test our predictions, we use the measurements of the Moon's geodetic precession from lunar laser ranging data, and the measurements of Mercury's perihelion advance from planetary radar ranging data. These measurements are then used to constrain suitable linear combinations of the torsion parameters.
Autoparallel vs. Geodesic Trajectories in a Model of Torsion Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acedo, Luis
2015-11-01
We consider a parametrized torsion gravity model for Riemann-Cartan geometry around a rotating axisymmetric massive body. In this model, the source of torsion is given by a circulating vector potential following the celestial parallels around the rotating object. Ours is a variant of the Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi (MTGC model) in which the total angular momentum is proposed as a source of torsion. We study the motion of bodies around the rotating object in terms of autoparallel trajectories and determine the leading perturbations of the orbital elements by using standard celestial mechanics techniques. We find that this torsion model implies new gravitational physical consequences in the Solar system and, in particular, secular variations of the semi-major axis of the planetary orbits. Perturbations on the longitude of the ascending node and the perihelion of the planets are already under discussion in the astronomical community, and if confirmed as truly non-zero effects at a statistically significant level, we might be at the dawn of an era of torsion phenomenology in the Solar system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.
1987-01-01
It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.
Randall-Sundrum scenario with bulk dilaton and torsion
Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra
2009-06-15
We consider a string-inspired torsion-dilaton-gravity action in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario and show that, in an effective four-dimensional theory on the visible brane, the rank-2 antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field (source of torsion) is exponentially suppressed. The result is similar to our earlier result in [B. Mukhopadhyaya, S. Sen, and S. SenGupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 121101 (2002); Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 259902(E) (2002)], where no dilaton was present in the bulk. This offers an explanation of the apparent invisibility of torsion in our space-time. However, in this case the trilinear couplings {approx}TeV{sup -1} between the dilaton and torsion may lead to new signals in TeV-scale experiments, bearing the stamp of extra warped dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.; Argyridi, A. K.
2015-10-01
In this paper a boundary element method (BEM) is developed for the torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross section, taking into account the nonuniform warping and secondary torsional shear deformation effects (STSDE). The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated dynamic torsional loading along its length, while its edges are subjected to the most general torsional and warping boundary conditions. Apart from the angle of twist, the primary angle of twist per unit length is considered as an additional 1-D degree of freedom in order to account for the STSDE in the equations of motion of the bar. The warping shear stress distribution and the pertinent secondary torsional rigidity are computed by satisfying local equilibrium considerations under dynamic conditions without adhering to assumptions of Thin Tube Theory (TTT). By employing a distributed mass model system accounting for rotatory and warping inertia, an initial boundary value and two boundary value problems with respect to the variable along the bar time-dependent 1-D kinematical components, to the primary and secondary warping functions, respectively, are formulated. The latter are solved employing a pure BE method, requiring exclusively boundary discretization of the bar's cross section. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed through a BE method leading to a system of differential equations with displacement only unknowns, which is solved using an efficient direct time integration technique. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated through a similar BE technique. The accuracy and reliability of the results is assessed by FEM solutions employing solid or shell modelling. Both open- and closed-shaped cross section bars are examined and the necessity to include nonuniform torsional and STSD effects in the dynamic analysis of bars is demonstrated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; RadoŻycki, Tomasz
2016-06-01
The motion of a neutral atom endowed with a magnetic moment interacting with the magnetic field is determined from the Ehrenfest-like equations of motion. These equations for the average values of the translational and spin degrees of freedom are derived from the Schrödinger-Pauli wave equation, and they form a set of nine coupled nonlinear evolution equations. The numerical and analytic solutions of these equations are obtained for the combination of the rotating magnetic field of a wave carrying orbital angular momentum and a static magnetic field. The running wave traps the atom only in the transverse direction, while the standing wave traps the atom also in the direction of the beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herakovich, C. T.
1978-01-01
Comparison between theory and experiment for buckling of laminated graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy cylinders under combined compression and torsion are presented. The experimental results are compared to a theory by Wu. It is shown that there is excellent agreement between theory and experiment for pure torsional loading (positive and negative), experimental buckling loads for pure compression are well below the predicted values, and good correlation is exhibited between theory and experiment for buckling under combined loading when compared in the form of normalized buckling interaction diagrams in axial-torsional load space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Torsion-rotation intensities in methanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, John
Methanol exists in numerous kinds of astronomical objects featuring a wide range of local conditions. The light nature of the molecule coupled with the internal rotation of the methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group results in a rich, strong spectrum that spans the entire far-infrared region. As a result, any modest size observational window will have a number of strong methanol transitions. This has made it the gas of choice for testing THz receivers and to extract the local physical conditions from observations covering small frequency windows. The latter has caused methanol to be dubbed the Swiss army knife of astrophysics. Methanol has been increasingly used in this capacity and will be used even more for subsequent investigations into the Herschel archive, and with SOFIA and ALMA. Interpreting physical conditions on the basis of a few methanol lines requires that the molecular data, line positions, intensities, and collision rates, be complete, consistent and accurate to a much higher level than previously required for astrophysics. The need for highly reliable data is even more critical for modeling the two classes of widespread maser action and many examples of optical pumping through the torsional bands. Observation of the torsional bands in the infrared will be a unique opportunity to directly connect JWST observations with those of Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The theory for the intensities of torsion-rotation transitions in a molecule featuring a single internally rotating methyl group is well developed after 70 years of research. However, other than a recent very preliminary and not completely satisfactory investigation of a few CH3OH torsional bands, this theory has never been experimentally tested for any C3V internal rotor. More alarming is a set of recent intensity calibrated microwave measurements that showed deviations relative to calculations of up to 50% in some ground state rotational transitions commonly used by astronomers to extract
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie
1937-01-01
This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.
Pediatric ovarian torsion: a pictorial review.
Ngo, Anh-Vu; Otjen, Jeffrey P; Parisi, Marguerite T; Ferguson, Mark R; Otto, Randolph K; Stanescu, A Luana
2015-11-01
Imaging is crucial in expediting the diagnosis and guiding definitive therapy in children with ovarian torsion. This article reviews the multimodality spectrum of imaging findings in pediatric ovarian torsion, focusing primarily on US appearances. We describe predisposing conditions that can lead to torsion, the pathological basis of the radiologic findings in ovarian torsion, and the common diagnostic pitfalls.
The torsional strength of wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgess, C P
1930-01-01
This report describes a simple method for calculating the position of the elastic axis of a wing structure having any number of spars. It is shown that strong drag bracing near the top and bottom of a wing greatly increases the torsional strength. An analytical procedure for finding the contribution of the drag bracing to the torsional strength and stiffness is described, based upon the principle of least work, and involving only one unknown quantity. A coefficient for comparing the torsional rigidity of different wings is derived in this report.
Transverse angular momentum of photons
Aiello, Andrea
2010-05-15
We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasiparaxial photon beams in vacuum and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular-momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular-momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.
Testicular torsion repair - series (image)
The testicles are suspended in the scrotal sac. ... Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle, normally attached to the scrotum by a small ligament at its base, becomes loose. The testicle can then twist on itself, ...
Torsion stiffness of a protein pair determined by magnetic particles.
Janssen, X J A; van Noorloos, J M; Jacob, A; van Ijzendoorn, L J; de Jong, A M; Prins, M W J
2011-05-01
We demonstrate the ability to measure torsion stiffness of a protein complex by applying a controlled torque on a magnetic particle. As a model system we use protein G bound to an IgG antibody. The protein pair is held between a magnetic particle and a polystyrene substrate. The angular orientation of the magnetic particle shows an oscillating behavior upon application of a rotating magnetic field. The amplitude of the oscillation increases with a decreasing surface coverage of antibodies on the substrate and with an increasing magnitude of the applied field. For decreasing antibody coverage, the torsion spring constant converges to a minimum value of 1.5 × 10(3) pN·nm/rad that corresponds to a torsion modulus of 4.5 × 10(4) pN·nm(2). This torsion stiffness is an upper limit for the molecular bond between the particle and the surface that is tentatively assigned to a single protein G-IgG protein pair. This assignment is supported by interpreting the measured stiffness with a simple mechanical model that predicts a two orders of magnitude larger stiffness for the protein G-IgG complex than values found for micrometer length dsDNA. This we understand from the structural properties of the molecules, i.e., DNA is a long and flexible chain-like molecule, whereas the antibody-antigen couple is orders of magnitude smaller and more globular in shape due to the folding of the molecules.
Isolated penile torsion in newborns
Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan
2015-01-01
Introduction: We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Results: Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes. PMID:26600889
Quick phases control ocular torsion during smooth pursuit.
Hess, Bernhard J M; Thomassen, Jakob S
2011-11-01
One of the open questions in oculomotor control of visually guided eye movements is whether it is possible to smoothly track a target along a curvilinear path across the visual field without changing the torsional stance of the eye. We show in an experimental study of three-dimensional eye movements in subhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) that although the pursuit system is able to smoothly change the orbital orientation of the eye's rotation axis, the smooth ocular motion was interrupted every few hundred milliseconds by a small quick phase with amplitude <1.5° while the animal tracked a target along a circle or ellipse. Specifically, during circular pursuit of targets moving at different angular eccentricities (5°, 10°, and 15°) relative to straight ahead at spatial frequencies of 0.067 and 0.1 Hz, the torsional amplitude of the intervening quick phases was typically around 1° or smaller and changed direction for clockwise vs. counterclockwise tracking. Reverse computations of the eye rotation based on the recorded angular eye velocity showed that the quick phases facilitate the overall control of ocular orientation in the roll plane, thereby minimizing torsional disturbances of the visual field. On the basis of a detailed kinematic analysis, we suggest that quick phases during curvilinear smooth tracking serve to minimize deviations from Donders' law, which are inevitable due to the spherical configuration space of smooth eye movements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-12-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.
Toeplitz Operators, Analytic Torsion, and the Hypoelliptic Laplacian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bismut, Jean-Michel
2016-09-01
The purpose of this paper is to explain how Toeplitz operators can be used in studying asymptotic torsion, and also in the theory of the hypoelliptic Laplacian. The role of the hypoelliptic Laplacian in the explicit computation of orbital integrals will be described. The geodesic flow will be viewed as implementing a dynamical version of Fourier transform.
Testing gravity-induced collapse models with torsion pendulums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helou, Bassam; Wipf, Christopher; Chen, Yanbei
2016-03-01
Wavefunction collapse models have been proposed to resolve the measurement problem in QM. Some, , such as Diosi-Penrose model, are motivated by gravity. We first present the theory of such models, highlighting new results, such as fixing the only free paramater in the model. We then propose torsion pendulums as a promising optomechanical platform to test such models.
Deligne-Beilinson cohomology and Abelian link invariants: Torsion case
Thuillier, F.
2009-12-15
For the Abelian Chern-Simons field theory, we consider the quantum functional integration over the Deligne-Beilinson cohomology classes and present an explicit path-integral nonperturbative computation of the Chern-Simons link invariants in SO(3){approx_equal}RP{sup 3}, a toy example of a 3-manifold with torsion.
Fermi Liquid in a Torsional Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virtanen, T. H.; Thuneberg, E. V.
2012-12-01
We study the transverse acoustic impedance of normal Fermi liquid inside a torsionally oscillating cylindrical container. We use Landau's Fermi liquid theory, and our approach is applicable to both normal 3He and mixtures of 3He in superfluid 4He. The fluid causes dissipation and a change of the resonant frequency of the oscillator. Usually, a liquid medium increases the moment of inertia of the oscillator, but we show that for a suitable choice of container radius and driving frequency, the Fermi liquid can actually decrease the inertia and increase the resonant frequency. Results of numerical calculations for all values of mean free path l are shown and comparison is made to both hydrodynamic theory and simple kinetic theory in the ballistic limit.
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin
2016-03-01
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.
On the interpretation of combined torsion and tension tests of thin-wall tubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prager, W
1948-01-01
General ways of testing thin-wall tubes under combined tension and torsion as a means of checking the various theories of plasticity are discussed. Suggestions also are given for the interpretation of the tests.
Simple torsion test for shear moduli determination of orthotropic composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sumsion, H. T.; Rajapakse, Y. D. S.
1978-01-01
By means of torsion tests performed on test specimens of the same material having a minimum of two different cross sections (flat sheet of different widths), the effective in-plane (G13) and out-of-plane (G23) shear moduli were determined for two composite materials of uniaxial and angleply fiber orientations. Test specimens were 16 plies (nominal 2 mm) thick, 100 mm in length, and in widths of 6.3, 9.5, 12.5, and 15.8 mm. Torsion tests were run under controlled deflection (constant angle of twist) using an electrohydraulic servocontrolled test system. In-plane and out-of-plane shear moduli were calculated from an equation derived in the theory of elasticity which relates applied torque, the torsional angle of twist, the specimen width/thickness ratio, and the ratio of the two shear moduli G13/G23. Results demonstrate that torsional shear moduli, G23 as well as G13, can be determined by simple torsion tests of flat specimens of rectangular cross section. Neither the uniaxial nor angleply composite material were transversely isotropic.
Contribution to the theory of propeller vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebers, F
1930-01-01
This report presents a calculation of the torsional frequencies of revolving bars with allowance for the air forces. Calculation of the flexural or bonding frequencies of revolving straight or tapered bars in terms of the angular velocity of revolution. Calculation on the basis of Rayleigh's principle of variation. There is also a discussion of error estimation and the accuracy of results. The author then provides an application of the theory to screw propellers for airplanes and the discusses the liability of propellers to damage through vibrations due to lack of uniform loading.
Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.
2011-10-01
Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsuka, Hisanori; Hattori, Masahiro
When the structures, for example arch bridges are subjected bending moments and torsional moments, the strength and rigidity of the members decline compared to those of pure bending or torsion load condition. However, any analysis soft don't consider interrelation between bending and torsion ,and effects of torsional moments have not been considered severely in seismic design. In this study, the authors proposed analysis technique considering interaction between bending and torsion to estimate torsional moments severely, and formulized the analysis tools for this technique. These are interaction curve, skeleton for combined load, hysteresis for torsion. Moreover, the authors analyzed a RC arch bridge using this method, and inspected the validity of comparing the results obtained equivalent linear analysis about torsion and nonlinear torsional analysis not considering the interaction between bending and torsion.
Torsion Modified Plasma Screening in Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaram, C.; Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
The torsion modified Maxwell-Proca equations when applied to describe a plasma is shown to lead to a correction to the Debye screening length. For hot new born neutron stars the torsion correction is shown to be significant. This effect may provide an indirect evidence for torsion.
Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher
2015-01-01
A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krot, A. M.
2013-09-01
This work develops a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to calculate the orbits of planets and explore forms of planetary orbits with regard to the Alfvén oscillating force [1] in the Solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The statistical theory of formation of gravitating spheroidal bodies has been proposed in [2]-[5]. Starting the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula, this theory solves the problem of gravitational condensation of a gas-dust protoplanetary cloud with a view to planetary formation in its own gravitational field [3] as well as derives a new law of the Solar system planetary distances which generalizes the wellknown laws [2], [3]. This work also explains an origin of the Alfvén oscillating force modifying forms of planetary orbits within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [5]. Due to the Alfvén oscillating force moving solid bodies in a distant zone of a rotating spheroidal body have elliptic trajectories. It means that orbits for the enough remote planets from the Sun in Solar system are described by ellipses with focus in the origin of coordinates and with small eccentricities. The nearby planet to Sun named Mercury has more complex trajectory. Namely, in case of Mercury the angular displacement of a Newtonian ellipse is observed during its one rotation on an orbit, i.e. a regular (century) shift of the perihelion of Mercury' orbit occurs. According to the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [2]-[5] under the usage of laws of celestial mechanics in conformity to cosmogonic bodies (especially, to stars) it is necessary to take into account an extended substance called a stellar corona. In this connection the stellar corona can be described by means of model of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body [5]. Moreover, the parameter of gravitational compression α of a spheroidal body (describing the Sun, in particular) has been
Electrothermally-Actuated Micromirrors with Bimorph Actuators--Bending-Type and Torsion-Type.
Tsai, Cheng-Hua; Tsai, Chun-Wei; Chang, Hsu-Tang; Liu, Shih-Hsiang; Tsai, Jui-Che
2015-01-01
Three different electrothermally-actuated MEMS micromirrors with Cr/Au-Si bimorph actuators are proposed. The devices are fabricated with the SOIMUMPs process developed by MEMSCAP, Inc. (Durham, NC, USA). A silicon-on-insulator MEMS process has been employed for the fabrication of these micromirrors. Electrothermal actuation has achieved a large angular movement in the micromirrors. Application of an external electric current 0.04 A to the bending-type, restricted-torsion-type, and free-torsion-type mirrors achieved rotation angles of 1.69°, 3.28°, and 3.64°, respectively. PMID:26110409
Torsion potential works in rhodopsin.
Yamada, Atsushi; Yamato, Takahisa; Kakitani, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi
2004-05-01
We investigate the role of protein environment of rhodopsin and the intramolecular interaction of the chromophore in the cis-trans photoisomerization of rhodopsin by means of a newly developed theoretical method. We theoretically produce modified rhodopsins in which a force field of arbitrarily chosen part of the chromophore or the binding pocket of rhodopsin is altered. We compare the equilibrium conformation of the chromophore and the energy stored in the chromophore of modified rhodopsins with those of native rhodopsins. This method is called site-specific force field switch (SFS). We show that this method is most successfully applied to the torsion potential of rhodopsin. Namely, by reducing the twisting force constant of the C11=C12 of 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin to zero, we found that the equilibrium value of the twisting angle of the C11=C12 bond is twisted in the negative direction down to about -80 degrees. The relaxation energy obtained by this change amounts to an order of 10 kcal/mol. In the case that the twisting force constant of the other double bond is reduced to zero, no such large twisting of the bond happens. From these results we conclude that a certain torsion potential is applied specifically to the C11=C12 bond of the chromophore in the ground state of rhodopsin. This torsion potential facilitates the bond-specific cis-trans photoisomerization of rhodopsin. This kind of the mechanism is consistent with our torsion model proposed by us more than a quarter of century ago. The origin of the torsion potential is analyzed in detail on the basis of the chromophore structure and protein conformation, by applying the SFS method extensively.
Non-linear torsional vibration characteristics of an internal combustion engine crankshaft assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ying; Yang, Shouping; Zhang, Fujun; Zhao, Changlu; Ling, Qiang; Wang, Haiyan
2012-07-01
Crankshaft assembly failure is one of the main factors that affects the reliability and service life of engines. The linear lumped mass method, which has been universally applied to the dynamic modeling of engine crankshaft assembly, reveals obvious simulation errors. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft assembly are instructionally significant to the improvement of modeling correctness. In this paper, a general expression for the non-constant inertia of a crankshaft assembly is derived based on the instantaneous kinetic energy equivalence method. The nonlinear dynamic equations of a multi-cylinder crankshaft assembly are established using the Lagrange rule considering nonlinear factors such as the non-constant inertia of reciprocating components and the structural damping of shaft segments. The natural frequency and mode shapes of a crankshaft assembly are investigated employing the eigenvector method. The forced vibration response of a diesel engine crankshaft assembly taking into account the non-constant inertia is studied using the numerical integral method. The simulation results are compared with a lumped mass model and a detailed model using the system matrix method. Results of non-linear torsional vibration analysis indicate that the additional excitation torque created by non-constant inertia activates the 2nd order rolling vibration, and the additional damping torque resulting from the non-constant inertia is the main nonlinear factor. The increased torsional angular displacement evoked by the high order excitation torque relates to the non-constant inertia. This research project is aimed at improving nonlinear dynamics theory, and the confirmed nonlinear parameters can be used for the structure design of a crankshaft assembly.
Optical activity caused by torsion stresses: the case of NaBi(MoO4)2 crystals.
Vasylkiv, Yuriy; Kvasnyuk, Oleksiy; Shopa, Yaroslav; Vlokh, Rostyslav
2013-05-01
We have found that torsion mechanical stresses induce the optical rotation effect in centrosymmetric NaBi(MoO4)2 crystals. We have suggested a description of the effect on the basis of nonlocal linear elasticity theory. It has been shown that the induced optical gyration is proportional to the stress gradient appearing due to the torsion.
Some exact solutions with torsion in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Canfora, F.; Giacomini, A.; Willison, S.
2007-08-15
Exact solutions with torsion in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity are derived. These solutions have a cross product structure of two constant curvature manifolds. The equations of motion give a relation for the coupling constants of the theory in order to have solutions with nontrivial torsion. This relation is not the Chern-Simons combination. One of the solutions has an AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 3} structure and is so the purely gravitational analogue of the Bertotti-Robinson space-time where the torsion can be seen as the dual of the covariantly constant electromagnetic field.
The torsional and rotation-torsion spectra of CD2HOH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ndao, M.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Barros, J.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.
2016-08-01
The torsional and rotation-torsion spectra of the doubly deuterated species of methanol CD2HOH have been analyzed using submillimeter wave, terahertz, and far infrared spectra. 101 torsional subbands, with subband centers ranging from 2.3 to 626 cm-1, were assigned. Analysis of these yielded kinetic energy and hindering potential parameters of the torsional Hamiltonian describing the large amplitude internal rotation of the CD2H methyl group with respect to the hydroxyl group. 3271 rotation and rotation-torsion transitions, involving the 24 torsional levels up to e1 with 3 ⩽ K ⩽ 10 , were assigned and fitted approximating the rotational energy of each torsional level with a Taylor-type expansion in J (J + 1) . The rotational structure of 48 torsional subbands involving torsional levels higher than e1 has also been analyzed. In most cases, only the Q branch could be observed and assigned.
Nonmetricity and torsion: facts and fancies in gauge approaches to gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baekler, P.; Hehl, F. W.; Mielke, E. W.
In general relativity, the Riemannian connection of spacetime is symmetric and metric-compatible. If one relaxes at first the symmetry, one arrives at a Riemann-Cartan spacetime U4 with torsion. If one relaxes additionally, the metric-compatibility, then one is led to a metric-affine spacetime (L4,g) with nonmetricity and torsion. This paper presents an analysis of the (L4,g) spacetime and discusses in detail the case of a Poincaré gauge theory.
Flap-Lag-Torsion Stability in Forward Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, B.; Chopra, I.
1985-01-01
An aeroelastic stability of three-degree flap-lag-torsion blade in forward flight is examined. Quasisteady aerodynamics with a dynamic inflow model is used. The nonlinear time dependent periodic blade response is calculated using an iterative procedure based on Floquet theory. The periodic perturbation equations are solved for stability using Floquet transition matrix theory as well as constant coefficient approximation in the fixed reference frame. Results are presented for both stiff-inplane and soft-inplane blade configurations. The effects of several parameters on blade stability are examined, including structural coupling, pitch-flap and pitch-lag coupling, torsion stiffness, steady inflow distribution, dynamic inflow, blade response solution and constant coefficient approximation.
Ahmed, Farhat Ul Ain; Ambreen, Afshan; Zubair, Sobia; Kiran, Noori
2016-06-01
Torsion of the pregnant uterus, at term, is a very rare event in obstetric practice. It is associated with high perinatal mortality. We are reporting a case of uterine torsion, where a booked second gravida with previous lower segment cesarean section underwent an emergency cesarean section due to severe lower abdominal pain, persistent fetal tachycardia and poor Bishop Score. Following delivery of baby and placenta, uterus untwisted on itself through 180 degrees and it was realized that the incision had been made on the posterior wall of the uterus. Bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) was done after proper informed consent. This decision was based on unavailability of data on safety of future pregnancies in patients with both anterior and posterior uterine scars. Efforts need to be made to develop consensus for management of these cases, in future. PMID:27376222
Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.
2014-02-01
Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.
Stability of Thin-Walled Tubes Under Torsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donnell, L H
1935-01-01
In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.
Effect of Axial Torsion on sp Carbon Atomic Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravagnan, Luca; Manini, Nicola; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Onida, Giovanni; Sangalli, Davide; Motta, Carlo; Devetta, Michele; Bordoni, Andrea; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo
2009-06-01
Ab initio calculations within density-functional theory combined with experimental Raman spectra on cluster-beam deposited pure-carbon films provide a consistent picture of sp-carbon chains stabilized by sp3 or sp2 terminations, the latter being sensitive to torsional strain. This unexplored effect promises many exciting applications since it allows one to modify the conductive states near the Fermi level and to switch on and off the on-chain π-electron magnetism.
Torsion and attractors in the Kolmogorov hydrodynamical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasini, Antonello; Pelino, Vinicio; Potestà, Sergio
1998-04-01
The geometrical structure of the Kolmogorov system is studied. Considering a divergence-free geodesic motion on a Riemann-Cartan manifold, it is shown that the torsion tensor is related via group theory to the quadratic part of this system. Kolmogorov equations can be considered as the dissipative Euler-Poincaré equations on the Lie algebra of the associated group manifold. The relationship with Navier-Stokes equations and their truncated models is discussed.
Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.
Nonlinear electrodynamics in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.; Miskovic, O.
2009-07-15
We study exact solutions of nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to three-dimensional gravity with torsion. We show that in any static and spherically symmetric configuration, at least one component of the electromagnetic field has to vanish. In the electric sector of the theory, we construct an exact solution, characterized by the azimuthal electric field. When the electromagnetic action is modified by a topological mass term, we find two types of the self-dual solutions.
Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides
Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El
2010-01-01
Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497
The g - 2 muon anomaly in di-muon production with the torsion in LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syromyatnikov, A. G.
2016-06-01
It was considered within the framework of the conformal gauge gravitational theory CGTG coupling of the standard model fermions to the axial torsion and preliminary discusses the impact of extra dimensions, in particular, in a five-dimensional space-time with Randall-Sundrum metric, where the fifth dimension is compactified on an S1/Z 2 orbifold, which as it turns out is conformally to the fifth dimension flat Euclidean space with permanent trace of torsion, with a compactification radius R in terms of the radius of a CGTG gravitational screening, through torsion in a process Z → μ+μ- and LHC data. In general, have come to the correct set of the conformal calibration curvature the Faddeev-Popov diagram technique type, that follows directly from dynamics. This leads to the effect of restrictions on neutral spin currents of gauge fields by helicity and the Regge’s form theory. The diagrams reveals the fact of opening of the fine spacetime structure in a process pp → γ/Z/T → μ+μ- with a center-of-mass energy of 14TeV, indicated by dotted lines and texture columns, as a result of p-p collision on 1.3 ṡ 10-18cm scales from geometric shell gauge bosons of the SM continued by the heavy axial torsion resonance, and even by emerging from the inside into the outside of the ultra-light (freely-frozen in muon’s spin) axial torsion. We then evaluate the contribution of the torsion to the muon anomaly to derive new constraints on the torsion parameters. It was obtained that on the πN scattering through the exchange of axial torsion accounting, the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment in the eikonal phase leads to additive additives which is responsible for the spin-flip in the scattering process, the scattering amplitude is classical and characterized by a strong the torsion coupling ηT≅1. So the scattering of particles, occurs as on the Coulomb center with the charge fT This is the base model which is the g-2 muon anomaly. The muon anomaly contribution due to
Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David
2003-01-01
Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2016-02-01
We analyze a spin precession of slow neutrons in the Einstein-Cartan gravity with torsion, chameleon and magnetic field. For the derivation of the Heisenberg equation of motion of the neutron spin we use the effective low-energy potential, derived by Ivanov and Wellenzohn [Phys. Rev. D 92, 125004 (2015)] for slow neutrons, coupled to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields to order 1 /m , where m is the neutron mass. In addition to these low-energy interactions we switch on the interaction of slow neutrons with a magnetic field. We show that to linear order approximation with respect to gravitational, chameleon, and torsion fields the Dirac Hamilton operator for fermions (neutrons), moving in spacetimes created by rotating coordinate systems, contains the anti-Hermitian operators of torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions, caused by torsion scalar and tensor space-space-time and time-space-space degrees of freedom. Such anti-Hermitian operators violate C P and T invariance. In the low-energy approximation the C P and T violating torsion-fermion (neutron) interactions appear only to order O (1 /m ). One may assume that in the rotating Universe and galaxies the obtained anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions might be an origin of (i) violation of C P and T invariance in the Universe and (ii) of baryon asymmetry. We show that anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions of relativistic fermions, violating C P and T invariance, (i) cannot be removed by nonunitary transformations of the Dirac fermion wave functions and (ii) are conformal invariant. According to general requirements of conformal invariance of massive particle theories in gravitational fields [see R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 125, 2163 (1962) and A. J. Silenko, Phys. Rev. D 91, 065012 (2015)], conformal invariance of anti-Hermitian torsion-fermion interactions is valid only if the fermion mass is changed by a conformal factor.
Torsion sensitivity in NMR of aligned molecules: study on various substituted biphenyls.
Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Shahkhatuni, Aleksan G; Shahkhatuni, Astghik A; Panosyan, Henry A
2008-02-01
To estimate the torsion sensitivity of dipolar coupling, biphenylic molecules were chosen as probes due to their relatively simple structure and the surprisingly high ambiguity of the only flexible parameter-the interring torsion angle. Solution structures of 4,4'-dibromobiphenyl and 4,4'-diiodobiphenyl are reported for the first time in two liquid crystals I52 and ZLI 1695. The comparison of NMR structures of various para-substituted biphenyls (BPs), calculated by the additive potential maximum entropy (APME) approach, shows that the small spread of torsion angle values in case of different solvents and para-substituents is in good agreement with theoretical expectations from hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods. Furthermore, the real structural changes of interring torsion and the prevalence of solvent effects over para-halosubstitution can be correctly revealed from these small fluctuations. PMID:18095265
Dirac quasinormal modes of Chern-Simons and BTZ black holes with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bécar, Ramón; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Y.
2014-01-01
We study Chern-Simons black holes in d dimensions and we calculate analytically the quasinormal modes of fermionic perturbations. Also, we consider as background the five-dimensional Chern-Simons black hole with torsion and the BTZ black hole with torsion. We have found that the quasinormal modes depend on the highest power of curvature present in the Chern-Simons theory, such as that which occurs for the quasinormal modes of scalar perturbations. We also show that the effect of the torsion is to modify the real part of the quasinormal frequencies, which modify the oscillation frequency of the field for the five-dimensional case. However, for the BTZ black hole with torsion, the effect is to modify the imaginary part of these frequencies, that is, the relaxation time for the decay of the black hole perturbation. The imaginary part of the quasinormal frequencies is negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under fermionic field perturbations.
Highly sensitive fiber-optic torsion sensor based on an ultra-long-period fiber grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Y. J.; Zhu, T.; Mo, Q. J.
2006-10-01
A high sensitivity fiber-optic torsion sensor, which can measure twist rate and determine twist direction simultaneously based on a novel ultra-long-period fiber grating (ULPFG) with a period of up to several millimeters, is proposed and demonstrated. Such an ULPFG is fabricated by using the high-frequency CO 2 Laser pulses exposure technique. The unique torsion characteristics of the ULPFG are simply analyzed by using the mode coupling theory and the birefringence effect. The experimental results show that the high order resonant wavelengths of the ULPFG have higher torsion sensitivities, which is several times higher than that of the normal LPFG. In addition, an intensity-type demodulation approach used to realize real-time torsion measurement is proposed and demonstrated based on the edge filtering effect of the ULPFG.
Torsional vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes using doublet mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatahi-Vajari, Alireza; Imam, Ali
2016-08-01
This paper investigates the torsional vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using a new approach based on doublet mechanics (DM) incorporating explicitly scale parameter and chiral effects. A fourth-order partial differential equation that governs the torsional vibration of nanotubes is derived. Using DM, an explicit equation for the natural frequency in terms of geometrical and mechanical property of CNTs is obtained for both the Zigzag and Armchair nanotube for the torsional vibration mode. It is shown that chiral effects along with the scale parameter play a significant role in the vibration behavior of SWCNTs in torsional vibration mode. Such effects decrease the natural frequency obtained by DM compared to the classical continuum mechanics and nonlocal theory predictions. However, with increase in the length and/or the radius of the tube, the effect of the chiral and scale parameter on the natural frequency decreases.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-07-03
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-01-01
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217
Bending stresses due to torsion in cantilever box beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul
1935-01-01
The paper beings with a brief discussion on the origin of the bending stresses in cantilever box beams under torsion. A critical survey of existing theory is followed by a summary of design formulas; this summary is based on the most complete solution published but omits all refinements considered unnecessary at the present state of development. Strain-gage tests made by NACA to obtained some experimental verification of the formulas are described next. Finally, the formulas are applied to a series of box beams previously static-tested by the U.S. Army Air Corps; the results show that the bending stresses due to torsion are responsible to a large extent for the free-edge type of failure frequently experienced in these tests.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: f(R) gravity, torsion and non-metricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2009-08-01
For both f(R) theories of gravity with an independent symmetric connection (no torsion), usually referred to as Palatini f(R) gravity theories, and for f(R) theories of gravity with torsion but no non-metricity, called U4 theories, it has been shown that the independent connection can actually be eliminated algebraically, as long as this connection does not couple to matter. Remarkably, the outcome in both cases is the same theory, which is dynamically equivalent with an ω0 = -3/2 Brans-Dicke theory. It is shown here that even for the most general case of an independent connection with both non-metricity and torsion, one arrives at exactly the same theory as in the more restricted cases. This generalizes the previous results and explains why assuming that either the torsion or the non-metricity vanishing ultimately leads to the same theory. It also demonstrates that f(R) actions cannot support an independent connection which carries dynamical degrees of freedom, irrespective of how general this connection is, at least as long as there is no connection-matter coupling.
Primary torsion of the greater omentum.
al-Husaini, H.; Onime, A.; Oluwole, S. F.
2000-01-01
Primary omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain. A case of omental torsion in a 49-year-old woman who presented with clinical features consistent with acute appendicitis is discussed with a review of the literature. Images Figure 1 PMID:10918767
Torsion of Noncircular Composite Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouse, Marshall; Hyer, Michael W.; Haynie, Waddy T.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a brief overview of the predicted deformation and failure characteristics of noncircular composite cylinders subjected to torsion. Using a numerical analysis, elliptical cylinders with a minor-to-major diameter ratio of 0.7 are considered. Counterpart circular cylinders with the same circumference as the elliptical cylinders are included for comparison. The cylinders are constructed of a medium-modulus graphite-epoxy material in a quasi-isotropic lay-up. Imperfections generated from the buckling mode shapes are included in the initial cross-sectional geometry of the cylinders. Deformations until first fiber failure, as predicted using the maximum stress failure criterion and a material degradation scheme, are presented. For increasing levels of torsion, the deformations of the elliptical cylinders, in the form of wrinkling of the cylinder wall, occur primarily in the flatter regions of the cross section. By comparison the wrinkling deformations of the circular cylinders are more uniformly distributed around the circumference. Differences in the initial failure and damage progression and the overall torque vs. twist relationship between the elliptical and circular cylinders are presented. Despite differences in the response as the cylinders are being loaded, at first fiber failure the torque and twist for the elliptical and circular cylinders nearly coincide.
Optically probing torsional superelasticity in spider silks
Kumar, Bhupesh; Thakur, Ashish; Panda, Biswajit; Singh, Kamal P.
2013-11-11
We investigate torsion mechanics of various spider silks using a sensitive optical technique. We find that spider silks are torsionally superelastic in that they can reversibly withstand great torsion strains of over 10{sup 2−3} rotations per cm before failure. Among various silks from a spider, we find the failure twist-strain is greatest in the sticky capture silk followed by dragline and egg-case silk. Our in situ laser-diffraction measurements reveal that torsional strains on the silks induce a nano-scale transverse compression in its diameter that is linear and reversible. These unique torsional properties of the silks could find applications in silk-based materials and devices.
Gauge invariant coupling of fields to torsion: A string inspired model
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Chatterjee, Ayan
2011-05-15
In a consistent heterotic string theory, the Kalb-Ramond field, which is the source of space-time torsion, is augmented by Yang-Mills and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. When compactified to 4 dimensions and in the field theory limit, such additional terms give rise to interactions with interesting astrophysical predictions like rotation of plane of polarization for electromagnetic and gravitational waves. On the other hand, if one is also interested in coupling 2- or 3-form (Abelian or non-Abelian) gauge fields to torsion, one needs another class of interaction. In this paper, we shall study this interaction and offer some astrophysical and cosmological predictions. We explicitly calculate the Coleman-Weinberg potential for this theory. We also comment on the possibility of such terms in loop quantum gravity where, if the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is promoted to a field, acts as a source for torsion.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco
2015-08-01
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin-direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
Direct measurement of torsional properties of single fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dabiao; Peng, Kai; He, Yuming
2016-11-01
In order to characterize the torsional behavior of micron-scale specimens, a direct technique is established based on the principle of torsion balance. The technique applies twist to the specimen and balances the resulting torque against a torsion wire of known torsional rigidity. The torsional rigidity of the torsion wire is determined by a torsion pendulum. To measure the rotation of the torsion wire, a sensitive angle detector, comprising a thin cross-beam attached between the torsion wire and the fiber specimen and a laser displacement sensor, is developed. The presented technique permits the measurement of torque in single fibers as low as 10‑9 Nm with a reasonable resolution. Using this technique, torsion tests on micro-diameter copper wires, silver wires and carbon fibers were performed. The longitudinal shear modulus and other torsional properties of these samples, such as yielding shear strength, were obtained.
Spinning optical resonator sensor for torsional vibrational applications measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Amir R.; Gatherer, Andrew; Ibrahim, Mariam S.
2016-03-01
Spinning spherical resonators in the torsional vibrational applications could cause a shift in its whispering gallery mode (WGM). The centripetal force acting on the spinning micro sphere resonator will leads to these WGM shifts. An analysis and experiment were carried out in this paper to investigate and demonstrate this effect using different polymeric resonators. In this experiment, centripetal force exerted by the DC-Motor on the sphere induces an elastic deformation of the resonator. This in turn induces a shift in the whispering gallery modes of the sphere resonator. Materials used for the sphere are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 60:1 where 60 parts base silicon elastomer to 1 part polymer curing agent by volume) with shear modulus (G≍1kPa), (PDMS 10:1) with shear modulus (G≍300kPa), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, G≍2.6×109GPa) and silica (G≍3×1010 GPa). The sphere size was kept constant with 1mm in diameter for all above materials. The optical modes of the sphere exit using a tapered single mode optical fiber that is coupled to a distributed feedback laser. The transmission spectrum through the fiber is monitored to detect WGM shifts. The results showed the resonators with smaller shear modulus G experience larger WGM shift due to the larger mechanical deformation induced by the applied external centripetal force. Also, the results show that angular velocity sensors used in the torsional vibrational applications could be designed using this principle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yibo; Zhang, Congchun; Wang, Hong; Ding, Guifu
2011-04-01
Three types of torsion/cantilever-based MEMS bistable mechanisms (BMs) with different support configurations have been constructed, modeled and experimented. For the support configuration, there is a crisscross-shaped, a ring-shaped and a diamond-shaped support beam, respectively. The proposed MEMS BMs consist of a free-free torsion-based cantilever which forms a symmetrical rocker lever. The free-free cantilever is suspended by a support skeleton which in turn is attached to a torsion cantilever. A permanent magnet is attached beside for holding the closed state with a permalloy soft magnetic circuit. The different special support configurations account for a low torsional compliance with the overhanging beams. In order to deduce the equivalent stiffness coefficient of BM systems, mechanical modeling of three types of torsion/cantilever-based MEMS BMs was performed by the classical beam theorem. Meanwhile, the magnetostatic latching force was also deduced by the Maxwell electromagnetism theory. The performances of these MEMS BMs have been compared by the evaluation of static deformation variations, equivalent stiffness coefficients and dynamical switching characterizations. Finally, mechanical performance was characterized by atomic force microscopy, combined with a Nanoindentation Tester. In addition, bistabilities of the MEMS BMs were proved by theoretical analysis as well as experimental results. Among these BMs, the ring-shaped MEMS BM is extremely prone to deflect due to relatively low stiffness compared with other types. The torsion/cantilever-based MEMS BMs have potential application in the field of latching relays with low power consumption.
Torsional oscillations of strange stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannarelli, Massimo
2014-11-01
Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.
Magnetic Torsional Oscillations in Magnetars
Sotani, Hajime; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2009-05-01
We investigate torsional Alfven oscillations of relativistic stars with a global dipole magnetic field, via 2D numerical simulations. We find that a) there exist two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, b) the QPOs are long-lived, c) for the chosen form of dipolar magnetic field, the frequency ratio of the lower to upper fundamental QPOs is about 0.6, independent of the equilibrium model or of the strength of the magnetic field, and d) within a representative sample of EOS and of various magnetar masses, the Alfven QPO frequencies are given by accurate empirical relations that depend only on the compactness of the star and on the magnetic field strength. Compared to the observational frequencies, we also obtain an upper limit on the strength of magnetic field of SGR 1806-20 (if is dominated by a dipolar component) between {approx}3 and 7x10{sup 15} Gauss.
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-01-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities. PMID:27708342
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-10-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities.
Galvão Barbosa, Fabiola Ormiga; Ponciano Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha; Pimenta de Araújo, Marcos Cesar
2007-12-01
Several studies have evaluated the influence of torsion and bending loads on the mechanical resistance of nickel-titanium instruments. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of previous angular deformation on K3 files resistance to flexural fatigue. New files and files previously submitted to different angular deformation were tested for flexural fatigue, and the number of cycles to fracture was compared. The results indicated that as the angular deformation increases, the number of cycles attained under flexural fatigue condition decreases. A reduction of fatigue resistance was registered even when a significant plastic deformation was not imposed. From the obtained results, it may be suggested that the sequential loading, including torsion and flexural fatigue, can be responsible for instrument separation during clinical practice. Successive torsion overloads, occurring together with flexural fatigue, reduce the mechanical resistance of nickel-titanium files.
Abrahamsson, T.J.S.; Saellstroem, J.H.
1996-01-01
Linear vibrations are studied for a straight uniform finite beam element of general orientation spinning at a constant angular speed about a fixed axis in the inertial space. The gyroscopic and circulatory matrices and also the geometric stiffness matrix of the beam element are presented. The effect of the centrifugal static axial load on the bending and torsional dynamic stiffnesses is thereby accounted for. The Rayleigh/Timoshenko/Saint-Venant theory is applied, and polynomial shape functions are used in the construction of the deformation fields. Nonzero off-diagonal elements in the gyroscopic and circulatory matrices indicate coupled bending/shearing/torsional/tensional free and forced modes of a generally oriented spinning beam. Two numerical examples demonstrate the use and performance of the beam element.
Euler angles as torsional flat spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trejo-Mandujano, Hector A.
In this work we use general tensor calculus to compare the geodesic equation of motion and Newton's first law for force-free classical systems that are described by an arbitrary number of generalized coordinates in spaces with and without torsion. We choose as objects of study the flat torsional Euler angle metric spaces for rigid rotators. We tested the equivalence of the two motion equations using computational software that allowed algebraic manipulation. The main result is that the equivalence only holds for torsion-free spaces, and for isotropic force-free rotators. We present analytical calculations for the isotropic case and computational results for the general case.
Modification of gravity due to torsion
Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.
2010-01-01
Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.
Torsional vibration of a pipe pile in transversely isotropic saturated soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Changjie; Hua, Jianmin; Ding, Xuanming
2016-09-01
This study considers the torsional vibration of a pipe pile in a transversely isotropic saturated soil layer. Based on Biot's poroelastic theory and the constitutive relations of the transversely isotropic medium, the dynamic governing equations of the outer and inner transversely isotropic saturated soil layers are derived. The Laplace transform is used to solve the governing equations of the outer and inner soil layers. The dynamic torsional response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain is derived utilizing 1D elastic theory and the continuous conditions at the interfaces between the pipe pile and the soils. The time domain solution is obtained by Fourier inverse transform. A parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the influence of the anisotropies of the outer and inner soil on the torsional dynamic response of the pipe pile.
Angular and axial deformities of the legs of children.
McDonough, M W
1984-12-01
Age is often a determining factor in establishing a treatment program for these axial and angular problems. As can be seen, the deformities of torsion are noticeable from early life. Any tibial torsion should be treated early, but an excessive medial range of motion in the infant leg with a corresponding adequate lateral range of motion of the limb may be cautiously observed. Medial femoral torsion is a normal early finding in the infant thigh. The problem becomes evident as the child matures without the corresponding reduction in femoral torsion, leading to a persistence of fetal or infantile alignment. The gait consequences are usually noticed at 4 to 8 years of age. The angular changes generally are a delayed finding noticed in stance. The bowleg may be associated with marked tibial torsion and picked up early but the Blount's patient has been traditionally definable at 2 years of age. Levin and Drennan may hasten the time of diagnosis with their radiographic criteria. Knock-knee is an alignment disturbance noticed during the early to mid-childhood years, age 4 to 8 years. The diagnosis is important, differentiating physiologic from torsion-related deformities, and treatment, if warranted, should not be delayed. Generally the earlier these problems are discovered, the more optimistic the prognosis. Since the pediatric limb is in a constant state of transition, there will be a perpetual argument as to the need or efficacy of various approaches to the problems of knock-knee and bowleg. If observation is the treatment of choice, the percentage of cases which go on to osteotomies and epiphyseal stapling will continue. For those with axial or angular deformities, degenerative arthritis of the knee may be forthcoming. Swanson, Greene, and Allis warned of problems becoming "unphysiologic." If we consider the epiphyseal malleability, not only to deformity but to correction, we can appreciate Lenoir's comment of "every day the problem goes untreated is a golden
Inevitable inflation in Einstein-Cartan theory with improved energy-momentum tensor with spin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.; Bradas, James C.; Smalley, Larry L.
1988-01-01
Generalized, or power-law, inflation is shown to necessarily exist for a simple, anisotropic, (Bianchi Type-1) cosmology in the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the Ray-Smalley improved energy momentum tensor with spin. Formal solution of the EC field equations with the fluid equations of motion explicitly shows inflation caused by the RS spin angular kinetic energy density. Shear is not effective in preventing inflation in the ECRS model. The relation between fluid vorticity, torsion, reference axis rotation, and shear ellipsoid precession shows through clearly.
Middle Lobe Torsion after Unilateral Lung Transplant
Cox, Chad S; Decker, Summer J; Rolfe, Mark; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A
2016-01-01
Lobar torsion is well documented after pneumonectomy, but is very rare after lung transplant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of lobar torsion after lung transplant. In our case, bronchoscopies and chest radiographs were inconclusive; however, CT scan clearly demonstrated findings consistent with right middle lobe torsion. We review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. We also propose that if a clinical picture could be secondary to torsion and bronchoscopies and chest x ray are inconclusive that a CT scan should be obtained as soon as possible since early recognition increases the likelihood of being able to successfully detorse the lung and avoid lobectomy. PMID:27761176
Torsion-induced effects in magnetic nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Gaididei, Yuri
2015-08-01
A magnetic helix wire is one of the simplest magnetic systems which manifests properties of both curvature and torsion. Possible equilibrium magnetization states in the helix wire with different anisotropy directions are studied theoretically. There exist two equilibrium states in the helix wire with easy-tangential anisotropy: a quasitangential magnetization distribution in the case of relatively small curvatures and torsions, and an onion state in the opposite case. The curvature and torsion also essentially influence the spin-wave dynamics in the helix wire, acting as an effective magnetic field. Originated from a geometry-induced effective Dzyaloshinskii interaction, this magnetic field leads to a coupling between the helix chirality and the magnetochirality and breaks mirror symmetry in the spin-wave spectrum: the modification of magnon dispersion relation is linear with respect to the torsion and quadratic with respect to the curvature. All analytical predictions on magnetization statics and dynamics are well confirmed by direct spin-lattice simulations.
Ocular torsion quantification with video images.
Bos, J E; de Graaf, B
1994-04-01
The present paper describes a technique to quantify eye rotations about the visual axis (ocular torsion). Two digitized polar transformed images of the iris are displayed on a video monitor in order to facilitate a visual comparison and manual interaction. Emphasis is placed on error analysis and the method's simplicity when applied to static ocular torsion measurement. The implementation, applying averaging over ocular torsion determined in partitioned iris images, yields a theoretical resolution of 5' of arc. In a control experiment with an artificial eye, the accuracy showed to be better than 14' of arc. In practice, the measuring device was validated with the data from the literature by means of an experiment about ocular torsion in humans during tilt and hypergravity conditions (up to 3 g).
Torsion and buckling of open sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Herbert
1936-01-01
In this paper is a discussion of the general principles for open sections of any shape. In what follows the torsion will be computed and on the basis of the results it will be possible to obtain a proper design of section in each case. The torsion of buckling members for the case where they are centrally loaded, leads to a problem in pure stability and is similar to that of stressed beams.
Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings
Zachos, C.
1985-01-01
The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.
Flow in a torsionally oscillating filled cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schafer, C. F.
1983-01-01
The flow of a liquid in a completely filled cylinder undergoing torsional oscillations about its longitudinal symmetry axis was studied analytically and experimentally. The objective of the studies was to determine the efficacy of the torsional oscillations in mixing the confined liquid. Flow was found to be confined primarily to toroidal cells at the ends of the cylinder. Cell thickness was about equal to the cylinder radius. The use of baffles at the end walls was shown to enhance the mixing process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Nathanaël.; Jault, Dominique
2016-05-01
Torsional Alfvén waves propagating in the Earth's core have been inferred by inversion techniques applied to geomagnetic models. They appear to propagate across the core but vanish at the equator, exchanging angular momentum between core and mantle. Assuming axial symmetry, we find that an electrically conducting layer at the bottom of the mantle can lead to total absorption of torsional waves that reach the equator. We show that the reflection coefficient depends on GB_r, where Br is the strength of the radial magnetic field at the equator, and G the conductance of the lower mantle there. With Br=7×10-4 T, torsional waves are completely absorbed when they hit the equator if G≃1.3 × 108 S. For larger or smaller G, reflection occurs. As G is increased above this critical value, there is less attenuation and more angular momentum exchange. Our finding dissociates efficient core-mantle coupling from strong ohmic dissipation in the mantle.
Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.
2016-01-01
Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jingjing; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G.
2013-08-01
partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Additional comments: The program package includes a manual, installation script, and input and output files for a test suite. Running time: There are 26 test runs. The running time of the test runs on a single processor of the Itasca computer is less than 2 s. References: [1] MS-T(C) method: Quantum Thermochemistry: Multi-Structural Method with Torsional Anharmonicity Based on a Coupled Torsional Potential, J. Zheng and D.G. Truhlar, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 9 (2013) 1356-1367, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ct3010722. [2] MS-T(U) method: Practical Methods for Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Thermochemical Calculations of Complex Molecules: The Internal-Coordinate Multi-Structural Approximation, J. Zheng, T. Yu, E. Papajak, I, M. Alecu, S.L. Mielke, and D.G. Truhlar, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 13 (2011) 10885-10907.
Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method.
Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim
2016-08-01
In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm. PMID:27587137
Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim
2016-08-01
In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
Williamson, Matthew M.; Pratt, Gill A.
1999-06-08
The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.
Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.
1999-06-08
The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjelte, I.; Karlsson, L.; Svensson, S.; De Fanis, A.; Carravetta, V.; Saito, N.; Kitajima, M.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshida, H.; Hiraya, A.; Koyano, I.; Ueda, K.; Piancastelli, M. N.
2005-02-01
Vibrationally resolved spectra have been obtained for the lowest-lying cationic states XB12,AA12, and BB22 of the water molecule reached after participator resonant Auger decay of core-excited states. The angular distribution has been measured of the first four vibrational components of the X state in the photon energy regions including the O 1s →4a1 and the O 1s→2b2 core excitations, and for different portions of the vibrational envelope of the B state in the photon energy region including the O 1s→2b2 core excitation. For the X state, a large relative spread in β values of the different vibrational components is observed across both resonances. For the B state, a very different trend is observed for the high binding energy side and the low binding energy side of the related spectral feature as a function of photon energy. A theoretical method based on the scattering K matrix has been used to calculate both the photoabsorption spectrum and the β values, by taking both interference between direct and resonant photoemission and vibrational/lifetime interference into account. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with the trends detected in the experimental values and explain the conspicuous variations of the β values primarily in terms of coupling between direct and resonant photoemission by interaction terms of different sign for different final vibrational states.
Renormalizability of the Dirac equation in torsion gravity with nonminimal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca; Vignolo, Stefano; Carloni, Sante
2014-07-01
We will consider the torsional completion of gravity for a background filled with Dirac matter fields, studying what happens when fermionic nonminimal coupling is taken into account: we will show that, although nonminimal couplings are usually disregarded because of their ill-defined behavior in ultraviolet regimes, this is due to the fact that torsion is commonly neglected, whereas when torsion is not left aside, even nonminimal couplings behave properly. In detail, we will see that nonminimal coupling allows one to renormalize the Dirac equation even when torsion is taken into consideration and that in some type of nonminimally coupled models parity oddness might be present even in the gravitational sector. In addition, we will show that in the presence of the considered nonminimal coupling, torsion is able to evade cosmological singularities as it can happen in the minimal coupling case and in some other nonminimally coupled theory. In the course of the paper, we shall consider a specific interaction as prototype to study this fermionic nonminimal coupling, but we will try to present results that do not depend on the actual structure of the nonminimal couplings by investigating alternative types of interaction.
Combined bending and torsional fatigue of woven roving GRP
Aboul Wafa, M.N.; Hamdy, A.H.; El-Midany, A.A.
1997-04-01
A study of biaxial fatigue of woven roving glass reinforced polyester (GRP) subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase cyclic bending and torsional moments is presented. To evaluate failure theories for this material, tests were conducted on two fiber orientations [0, 90] and [45, {minus}45] tubes. The results showed that for [0, 90] composites the S-N curves in pure bending and in pure torsion are sufficient to predict life. For [45, {minus}45] tubes, the value of the normal stress interaction component of the strength tensor, H{sub 12}, has to be obtained. If the ratio of the global flexural stress amplitude, A, to the accompanied global shear stress, B, is less than 2, the value of H{sub 12} may be taken as presented by Tsai-Hahn theory. But, if A/B {ge} 2, the value of H{sub 12} has to be obtained from [45, {minus}45] pure bending S-N curve, since the failure mode is a combination of interfacial shear and matrix failure. The out-of-phase loading results showed that the life of the specimens at high stress levels is less than that for the in-phase loading with the same peak values A and B.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra
2016-03-01
A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.
Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D
2015-07-28
State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.
The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, Martin; Schollmeyer, Gregor M.
2016-04-01
Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.
Global axial-torsional dynamics during rotary drilling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Sunit K.; Wahi, Pankaj
2016-08-01
We have studied the global dynamics of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during rotary drilling with a lumped parameter axial-torsional model for the drill-string and a linear cutting force model. Our approach accounts for bit-bounce and stick-slip along with the regenerative effect and is independent of the drill-string and the bit-rock interaction model. Regenerative axial dynamics due to variable depth of cut is incorporated through a functional description of the cut surface profile instead of a delay differential equation with a state-dependent delay. The evolution of the cut surface is governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) which is coupled with the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the longitudinal and angular dynamics of the BHA. The boundary condition for the PDE captures multiple regeneration in the event of bit-bounce. Interruption in the torsional dynamics is included by considering separate evolution equations for the various states during the stick period. Finite-dimensional approximation for our coupled PDE-ODE model has been obtained and validated by comparing our results against existing results. Bifurcation analysis of our system reveals a supercritical Hopf bifurcation leading to periodic vibrations without bit-bounce and stick-slip which is followed by solutions involving bit-bounce or stick-slip depending on the operating parameters. Further inroads into the unstable regime leads to a variety of complex behavior including co-existence of periodic and chaotic solutions involving both bit-bounce and stick-slip.
Torsional optokinetic nystagmus after unilateral vestibular loss: asymmetry and compensation.
Lopez, Christophe; Borel, Liliane; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel
2005-07-01
The aim of this study was to analyse torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) in 17 patients with Menière's disease before and after (1 week, 1 month and 3 months) a curative unilateral vestibular neurotomy (UVN). The tOKN was investigated during optokinetic stimulations around the line of sight directed towards either the lesioned or the healthy side, at various constant angular velocities. Dynamic properties of tOKN and static ocular cyclotorsion were analysed using videonystagmography. Patients' performances were compared with those of 10 healthy subjects. The results indicate that, in the acute stage after UVN, patients exhibited drastic impairment of tOKN velocity that depended on the direction of stimulation: tOKN velocity increased for ipsilesional stimulations and decreased for contralesional stimulations. These changes were responsible for a dramatic tOKN asymmetry, with ipsilesional directional preponderance of torsional slow-phase eye velocity. The changes were associated with static ocular cyclotorsion towards the operated side. Despite progressive compensation of tOKN deficits over time, tOKN velocity still differed from that recorded preoperatively, and tOKN asymmetry remained uncompensated 3 months after UVN. A static ocular cyclotorsion remained up to 3 months after lesion. These results are the first description of tOKN deficits and recovery after unilateral vestibular loss. They show that vestibular cues contribute to gaze stabilization during optokinetic stimulation around the line of sight. They also strongly suggest that tOKN impairment could be part of the long-term asymmetrical functions reported after unilateral loss of vestibular functions. PMID:15917290
Angular velocity discrimination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaiser, Mary K.
1990-01-01
Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.
Transport of torsional stress in DNA
Nelson, Philip
1999-01-01
It is well known that transcription can induce torsional stress in DNA, affecting the activity of nearby genes or even inducing structural transitions in the DNA duplex. It has long been assumed that the generation of significant torsional stress requires the DNA to be anchored, forming a limited topological domain, because otherwise it would spin almost freely about its axis. Previous estimates of the rotational drag have, however, neglected the role of small natural bends in the helix backbone. We show how these bends can increase the drag several thousandfold relative to prior estimates, allowing significant torsional stress even in linear unanchored DNA. The model helps explain several puzzling experimental results on structural transitions induced by transcription of DNA. PMID:10588707
Torsion measurement by using FBG sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Xiaogeng; Tao, Xiaoming
2000-05-01
In this paper we studied the potential of using FBG strain sensors to measure the torsion deformation theoretically and experimentally. FBG strain sensors are bonded on the surface of a shaft. When the shaft under torsion there is strain induced in the FBG sensor and the Bragg wavelength will shift accordingly. According to the wavelength shift and photoelastic properties of the FBG sensor bonded on the shaft the torsion deformation of the shaft can be obtained. In order to minimize the measurement error the optimal direction of the FBG sensor was obtained. The influence of the orientation deviation of the FBG sensor was discussed in detail. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by experiment and the test results agree with the theoretical analysis very well.
Torsional Behavior of Axonal Microtubule Bundles
Lazarus, Carole; Soheilypour, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R.K.
2015-01-01
Axonal microtubule (MT) bundles crosslinked by microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau are responsible for vital biological functions such as maintaining mechanical integrity and shape of the axon as well as facilitating axonal transport. Breaking and twisting of MTs have been previously observed in damaged undulated axons. Such breaking and twisting of MTs is suggested to cause axonal swellings that lead to axonal degeneration, which is known as “diffuse axonal injury”. In particular, overstretching and torsion of axons can potentially damage the axonal cytoskeleton. Following our previous studies on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension and compression, this work seeks to characterize the mechanical behavior of MT bundles under pure torsion as well as a combination of torsional and tensile loads using a coarse-grained computational model. In the case of pure torsion, a competition between MAP tau tensile and MT bending energies is observed. After three turns, a transition occurs in the mechanical behavior of the bundle that is characterized by its diameter shrinkage. Furthermore, crosslink spacing is shown to considerably influence the mechanical response, with larger MAP tau spacing resulting in a higher rate of turns. Therefore, MAP tau crosslinking of MT filaments protects the bundle from excessive deformation. Simultaneous application of torsion and tension on MT bundles is shown to accelerate bundle failure, compared to pure tension experiments. MAP tau proteins fail in clusters of 10–100 elements located at the discontinuities or the ends of MT filaments. This failure occurs in a stepwise fashion, implying gradual accumulation of elastic tensile energy in crosslinks followed by rupture. Failure of large groups of interconnecting MAP tau proteins leads to detachment of MT filaments from the bundle near discontinuities. This study highlights the importance of torsional loading in axonal damage after traumatic brain injury
Grating interferometry method for torsion measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiang-rong; Qiao, Yan-feng; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yao-yu
2006-01-01
Method of grating interferometry was presented for torsion angle measurement, moire fringe generated by two gratings is used in a new field, it breaks through moire fringe's routine application. Measurement principle is described, torsion angle can be gotten by the tilt angle or the width of moire fringe. Different from moire fringe's characteristic information extracting methods in traditional measurement fields, fringe-tilt method and fringe-width method were put forward to extract moire fringe's characteristic information. Fringe-tilt method is on the basis of moire fringe's tilt to acquire torsion angle, uniform formula was built aiming at all positions of two gratings in the coordinates, fringe-width method is on the basis of moire fringe's width to acquire torsion angle, three key problems are given about fringe-width method. Thick, middle and thin moire fringe were collected in experiments and processed by two methods, fringe-width method's result shows that magnitude of boat torsion error is satisfied with that of theoretical precision analysis, and the change rule of torsion error is also same to that of theoretical analysis, the thicker fringe is, the higher precision is, when fringe width arrives to be 1695μm, the precision is 1.7", the thinner fringe is, the lower precision is, when fringe width arrives to be 734.7μm, the precision is 6.7". In addition to these, the results of repeatability experiments, sensibility experiments are given. In a word, the measurement principle is right and the precision of fringe processing is also reliable.
The Torsional Rigidity of Twist-Storing Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroz, J. David; Nelson, Philip
1998-03-01
The statistical mechanics of a torsionally constrained polymer is investigated. We consider an inextensible chain with bend rigidity A and twist rigidity C. Through the relation Lk = Tw + Wr, the bend fluctuations must respond to an applied torque. We investigate this response and find excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and the experimental results on single λ-DNA molecules due to Strick et al. [Science 271 (1996) 1835]. This analysis affords an experimental determination of the microscopic twist rigidity C. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained using C=120 nm. The theory further predicts a thermal reduction of the twist rigidity C induced by bend fluctuations. A confirmation of this result awaits further experiments.
The flyby anomaly and the effect of a topological torsion current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Mario J.
2014-08-01
A new variational technique determines the general condition of equilibrium of a rotating gravitational or electromagnetic system (or both) and provides a modified dynamical equation of motion from where it emerges a so-far unforseen topological torsion current (TTC) (Pinheiro, 2013) [63]. We suggest that the TTC may explain, in a simple and direct way, the anomalous acceleration detected in spacecrafts during close planetary flybys. In addition, we theorize that TTC may represent a novel relationship between linear momentum and angular motion through the agency of a vector potential.
Torsion Balance Test of Preferred-Frame and Weak Coupling to Polarized Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heckel, B. R.; Cramer, C. E.; Adelberger, E. G.; Cook, T. S.
2008-03-01
We used a torsion balance containing polarized electrons to search for new weak forces that couple to electron spins and for a violation of Lorentz Symmetry as may arise from the presence of a preferred-frame. We used the gyro-compass torque of the Earth's rotation acting on the angular momentum of the pendulum to calibrate the spin content of the pendulum. Data taken over several years allows us to test rotational invariance at the level of 10-31 GeV which should be compared to a benchmark value of m2e/MPlanck = 2 × 10-26\\ GeV. Preliminary results will be presented.
Uterine torsion and cesarean section in llamas and alpacas.
Anderson, David E
2009-07-01
Dystocia occurs infrequently in llamas and alpacas. Uterine torsion is one of the more common causes of dystocia that requires veterinary care. Cesarean section may be required to resolve dystocia or uterine torsion. Correction of uterine torsion is most often successful without laparotomy. Laparotomy and cesarean section can be performed successfully in llamas and alpacas in field settings. This article discusses the indications, techniques, and expected outcomes of uterine torsion and cesarean section when performed in llamas or alpacas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Andrade, L. C. G.
2016-01-01
A generalized dynamo equation in the first order torsion Garcia de Andrade L C (2012 Phys. Lett. B 711 143) has previously been derived. From this equation it is shown that for the 10 kpc scale, torsion gravity is not able to help seed galactic dynamos since the dynamo time is not long enough to take into account structure formation. In this paper, the dynamo equation is extended to second-order torsion terms—but unfortunately, the situation is even worse and the torsion does not seem to help dynamo efficiency. Nevertheless, in the intergalactic magnetic field scale of 1 mpc, the efficiency of the self-induction equation with torsion changes, and even in the first-order torsion case, one obtains large-scale magnetic fields with 109 yr dynamo efficiency. Dynamo efficiency in the case of interstellar matter (ISM) reaches a diffusion time of 1013 yr. This seems to be in contrast with a recent investigation by Bamba et al (2012 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP05(2010)08) where they obtained, from another type of torsion theory called teleparallelism (A Einstein, Math Annalen (1922)), a large scale intergalactic magnetic field of 10-9 G. If this is not a model-dependent result, there is an apparent contradiction that has to be addressed. It is shown that for dynamo efficiency in astrophysical flow without shear, a strong seed field of 10-11 G is obtained, which is suitable for seeding galactic dynamos. As an example of a non-parity-violating dynamo equation, a magnetic field of the order of 10-27G is obtained as a seed field for the galactic dynamo from the theory of Einstein’s unified teleparallelism. This shows that in certain gravity models, torsion is able to enhance cosmological magnetic fields in view of obtaining better dynamo efficiency. To better compare our work with Bamba et al (2012 J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP05(2010)08), we consider the slow decay of magnetic fields in the teleparallel model. This observation is due to an anonymous referee who
Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delale, F.
1981-01-01
The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.
Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Lay Nam; Soo, Chopin
2003-04-01
Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin-½ particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition, it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter term which is the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of chiral gravity in four dimensions.
Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popławski, Nikodem J.
2011-04-01
We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.
Quantum gravity, torsion, parity violation, and all that
Freidel, Laurent; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2005-11-15
We discuss the issue of parity violation in quantum gravity. In particular, we study the coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom in the presence of torsion and the physical meaning of the Immirzi parameter from the viewpoint of effective field theory. We derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian which turns out to involve two parameters: one measuring the nonminimal coupling of fermions in the presence of torsion, the other being the Immirzi parameter. In the case of nonminimal coupling the effective Lagrangian contains an axial-vector interaction leading to parity violation. Alternatively, in the case of minimal coupling there is no parity violation and the effective Lagrangian contains only the usual axial-axial interaction. In this situation the real values of the Immirzi parameter are not at all constrained. On the other hand, purely imaginary values of the Immirzi parameter lead to violations of unitarity for the case of nonminimal coupling. Finally, the effective Lagrangian blows up for the positive and negative unit imaginary values of the Immirzi parameter.
Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion
Poplawski, Nikodem J.
2011-04-15
We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.
Cryptorchid testis with torsion: Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign
Indiran, Venkatraman
2016-01-01
Non contrast helical computed tomography (CT) study of the abdomen is frequently performed in evaluation of suspected ureteric colic. We present CT images of a young adult male patient who had torsion of an undescended, non-neoplastic testis and describe the “Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign on CT”. PMID:27555688
Joining and forming using torsional ultrasonic principles.
Frost, M
2009-10-01
Developments in torsional ultrasonic joining mean that it is now used in a diverse range of joining, forming, selective weakening and "break-off" applications in the medical device industry.The principles and benefits of the technique are described together with application examples.
Primary torsion of the greater omentum.
Aoki, Y; Oka, S; Nakamura, M; Nakatsuka, H; Yamade, N; Maeda, Y
1991-11-01
A case with primary torsion of the greater omentum is reported. This pathological condition is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal emergency and it is very difficult even for general surgeons to differentiate this from other acute abdomen. The etiology remains unknown and the treatment of choice is resection of the affected organ. PMID:1820017
Dispensing system eliminates torsion in deployed hoses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1965-01-01
Dispensing system uses a rotating drum, transfer arm, and stationary drum to deploy, reel in, and store an attached hose. This system which eliminates torsion and minimizes strain and wear of flexible hoses, is used for handling flexible cables that have one end permanently attached to an outlet or connector.
Cryptorchid testis with torsion: Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign.
Indiran, Venkatraman
2016-01-01
Non contrast helical computed tomography (CT) study of the abdomen is frequently performed in evaluation of suspected ureteric colic. We present CT images of a young adult male patient who had torsion of an undescended, non-neoplastic testis and describe the "Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign on CT". PMID:27555688
Optomechanics based on angular momentum exchange between light and matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, H.; Bhattacharya, M.
2016-08-01
The subject of optomechanics involves interactions between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom, and is currently of great interest as an enabler of fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, as well as a platform for ultrasensitive measurement devices. The majority of optomechanical configurations rely on the exchange of linear momentum between light and matter. We will begin this tutorial with a brief description of such systems. Subsequently, we will introduce optomechanical systems based on angular momentum exchange. In this context, optical fields carrying polarization and orbital angular momentum will be considered, while for the mechanics, torsional and free rotational motion will be of relevance. Our overall aims will be to supply basic analyses of some of the existing theoretical proposals, to provide functional descriptions of some of the experiments conducted thus far, and to consider some directions for future research. We hope this tutorial will be useful to both theorists and experimentalists interested in the subject.
Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates
Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena
2016-01-01
Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Stephen
2015-03-01
Angular momentum is a notoriously difficult concept to grasp. Visualization often requires three-dimensional pictures of vectors pointing in seemingly arbitrary directions. A simple student-run laboratory experiment coupled with intuitive explanations by an instructor can clear up some of the inherent ambiguity of rotational motion. Specifically, the precessional period of a suspended spinning bicycle wheel can be related to the spinning frequency through a simple algebraic expression. An explanation of this precession apart from the concept of angular momentum will be given.
Ruda, Mitchell C.; Greynolds, Alan W.; Stuhlinger, Tilman W.
2009-07-14
One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.
Sudden lateral asymmetry and torsional oscillations of section models of suspension bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plaut, R. H.; Davis, F. M.
2007-11-01
Cable-supported bridges typically exhibit minimal torsional motion under traffic and wind loads. If symmetry of the bridge about the deck's centerline is suddenly lost, such as by the failure of one or more cables or hangers (suspenders), torsional motion of the deck may grow and angles of twist may become large. The initiation of the disastrous torsional oscillations of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge involved a sudden lateral asymmetry due to loosening of a cable band at midspan. The effects of these types of events on two-degree-of-freedom and four-degree-of-freedom section models of suspension bridges are analyzed. Vertical and rotational motions of the deck, along with vertical motions of the cables, are considered. A harmonic vertical force and an aerodynamic moment proportional to angular velocity are applied to the deck. Resistance is provided by translational and rotational springs and dashpots. Flutter instability and large oscillations occur under the aerodynamic moment, which provides "negative damping." In order to model the occurrence of limit cycles, nonlinear damping of the van der Pol type is included in one case, and nonlinear stiffness of the hangers in others. The frequencies of the limit cycles are compared to the natural frequencies of the system.
6H-SiC microdisk torsional resonators in a "smart-cut" technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Rui; Wang, Zenghui; Lee, Jaesung; Ladhane, Kalyan; Young, Darrin J.; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2014-03-01
We report on experimental demonstration of high frequency torsional resonators based on microdisk structures enabled by a "smart-cut" 6H-silicon carbide (6H-SiC) technology. Circular microdisks axially supported by pairs of thin tethers, with diameters of ˜5-15 μm, exhibit torsional-mode micromechanical resonances with frequency of ˜1-60 MHz, and quality (Q) factors up to 1280 at room temperature in moderate vacuum (˜10 mTorr). Measured intrinsic thermomechanical vibrations of a microdisk with diameter d ≈ 15.9 μm (and triangular cross-section tethers with width wT ≈ 1.5 μm, length LT ≈ 2 μm, and thickness tT ≈ 0.4 μm) demonstrate a torque resolution of ST1/2 ≈ 3.7 × 10-20 (N m)/√Hz, a force sensitivity of SF1/2 ≈ 5.7fN/√Hz, and an angular displacement sensitivity of Sθ1/2 ≈ 4.0 × 10-8 rad/√Hz. By examining devices with varying disk size, different tether shape, width, and length, and by combining experimental data and theoretical calculations, we depict the scaling pathways for ultrasensitive torsional resonant sensors based on this smart-cut 6H-SiC platform.
Development of a second generation torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammond, Giles D.; Speake, Clive C.; Matthews, Anthony J.; Rocco, Emanuele; Peña-Arellano, Fabian
2008-02-01
This paper describes the development of a second generation superconducting torsion balance to be used for a precision measurement of the Casimir force and a short range test of the inverse square law of gravity at 4.2K. The instrument utilizes niobium (Nb) as the superconducting element and employs passive damping of the parasitic modes of oscillation. Any contact potential difference between the torsion balance and its surroundings is nulled to within ≈50mV by applying known DC biases and fitting the resulting parabolic relationship between the measured torque and the applied voltage. A digital proportional-integral-derivative servo system has been developed and characterized in order to control the azimuthal position of the instrument. The angular acceleration and displacement noise are currently limited by the capacitive sensor at the level 3×10-8rads-2/√Hz and 30nm/√Hz at 100mHz. The possibility of lossy dielectric coatings on the surface of the torsion balance test masses is also investigated. Our measurements show that the loss angles δ are (1.5±2.3)×10-4 and (2.0±2.2)×10-4 at frequencies of 5 and 10mHz, respectively. These values of loss are not significant sources of error for measurements of the Casimir force using this experimental setup.
Ideal linear-chain polymers with fixed angular momentum.
Brunner, Matthew; Deutsch, J M
2011-07-01
The statistical mechanics of a linear noninteracting polymer chain with a large number of monomers is considered with fixed angular momentum. The radius of gyration for a linear polymer is derived exactly by functional integration. This result is then compared to simulations done with a large number of noninteracting rigid links at fixed angular momentum. The simulation agrees with the theory up to finite-size corrections. The simulations are also used to investigate the anisotropic nature of a spinning polymer. We find universal scaling of the polymer size along the direction of the angular momentum, as a function of rescaled angular momentum.
Evaluation of left ventricular torsion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance
2012-01-01
Recently there has been considerable interest in LV torsion and its relationship with symptomatic and pre-symptomatic disease processes. Torsion gives useful additional information about myocardial tissue performance in both systolic and diastolic function. CMR assessment of LV torsion is simply and efficiently performed. However, there is currently a wide variation in the reporting of torsional motion and the procedures used for its calculation. For example, torsion has been presented as twist (degrees), twist per length (degrees/mm), shear angle (degrees), and shear strain (dimensionless). This paper reviews current clinical applications and shows how torsion can give insights into LV mechanics and the influence of LV geometry and myocyte fiber architecture on cardiac function. Finally, it provides recommendations for CMR measurement protocols, attempts to stimulate standardization of torsion calculation, and suggests areas of useful future research. PMID:22827856
Design and analysis of a torsion braid pendulum displacement transducer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rind, E.; Bryant, E. L.
1981-01-01
The dynamic properties at various temperatures of braids impregnated with polymer can be measured by using the braid as the suspension of a torsion pendulum. This report describes the electronic and mechanical design of a torsional braid pendulum displacement transducer which is an advance in the state of the art. The transducer uses a unique optical design consisting of refracting quartz windows used in conjunction with a differential photocell to produce a null signal. The release mechanism for initiating free torsional oscillation of the pendulum has also been improved. Analysis of the precision and accuracy of the transducer indicated that the maximum relative error in measuring torsional amplitude was approximately 0. A serious problem inherent in all instruments which use a torsional suspension was analyzed: misalignment of the physical and torsional axes of the torsional member which results in modulation of the amplitude of the free oscillation.
Torsional oscillations of a sphere in a Stokes flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Box, F.; Thompson, A. B.; Mullin, T.
2015-12-01
The results of an experimental investigation into a sphere performing torsional oscillations in a Stokes flow are presented. A novel experimental set-up was developed, which enabled the motion of the sphere to be remotely controlled through application of an oscillatory magnetic field. The response of the sphere to the applied field was characterised in terms of the viscous, magnetic and gravitational torques acting on the sphere. A mathematical model of the system was developed, and good agreement was found between experimental, numerical and theoretical results. The flow resulting from the motion of the sphere was measured, and the fluid velocity was found to have an inverse square dependence on radial distance from the sphere. The good agreement between measurements and the analytical solutions for both fluid velocity and angular displacement of the sphere indicates that the flow may be considered Stokesian, thus providing an excellent basis for experimental and theoretical characterisation of hydrodynamic interactions between multiple oscillating spheres at low Reynolds number.
Understanding Solar Torsional Oscillations from Global Dynamo Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.
2016-09-01
The phenomenon of solar “torsional oscillations” (TO) represents migratory zonal flows associated with the solar cycle. These flows are observed on the solar surface and, according to helioseismology, extend through the convection zone. We study the origin of the TO using results from a global MHD simulation of the solar interior that reproduces several of the observed characteristics of the mean-flows and magnetic fields. Our results indicate that the magnetic tension (MT) in the tachocline region is a key factor for the periodic changes in the angular momentum transport that causes the TO. The torque induced by the MT at the base of the convection zone is positive at the poles and negative at the equator. A rising MT torque at higher latitudes causes the poles to speed up, whereas a declining negative MT torque at the lower latitudes causes the equator to slow-down. These changes in the zonal flows propagate through the convection zone up to the surface. Additionally, our results suggest that it is the magnetic field at the tachocline that modulates the amplitude of the surface meridional flow rather than the opposite as assumed by flux-transport dynamo models of the solar cycle.
Lattanzi; di Lauro C
1999-12-01
The mechanism of torsional Coriolis interaction of E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational modes in ethane-like molecules is investigated, and it is shown that this coupling can drastically affect the torsional splitting in the degenerate vibrational states. A basic point of our treatment is that the sets of coordinates of head and tail which combine with the + sign to generate E(1d) normal coordinates are in general different from those which combine with the - sign to generate E(2d) normal coordinates. It is shown that the zeta(gamma) torsional Coriolis coefficients calculated by the usual methods of normal mode analysis are related to the vibrational angular momenta within head and tail referred to the internal rotor axis systems. With knowledge of the L and L(-1) matrices it is possible to transform these coefficients for reference to the molecule-fixed frame. It is peculiar that torsional Coriolis matrix elements occur between E(1d) and E(2d) vibrational components with the same x or y orientation in the molecule-fixed frame. The matrix elements of the torsional Coriolis operator and other operators responsible for the end-to-end coupling are determined, and a method for calculating vibration-torsion energies, and then torsional splittings, in degenerate vibrational states is outlined. Detailed calculations require a global model, involving all the degenerate vibrational basis states in a complex mechanism of interactions, but it is shown that useful information can be obtained by means of simplified models. Our semiempirical rule that degenerate vibrational states with a large negative value of the diagonal vibration-rotation Coriolis coefficient are likely to deviate much from the behavior of E(1d) or E(2d) vibrational states, with a sensible decrease of the torsional splittings, is confirmed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Laser-Based Measurement Of Torsional Vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eastwood, P. G.; Halliwell, N. A.
1986-07-01
Investigations of the torsional vibration characteristics of shaft systems which transmit pulsating torques are an important part of a machinery designer's responsibility. Satisfactory operation of such systems depends to a large extent on successful treatment of this vibration problem, since incorrectly or insufficiently controlled torsional oscillations can lead to fatigue failure, rapid bearing wear, gear hammer etc. The problem is particularly severe in engine crankshaft design where numerous failures have been traced to abnormal vibration at "critical" speeds. Traditionally, the monitoring of torsional oscillation has been performed using strain gauges, slip rings and a variety of mechanical and electrical "torsiographs". More recently systems employing slotted discs or toothed wheels together with proximity transducers have been preferred, but a disadvantage arises from all these methods in that they require contact with the rotating component which necessitates "downtime" for transducer attachment. Moreover, physical access to the rotating surface is often restricted thus making the use of such methods impractical. The "cross-beam" laser velocimeter provides a means of measuring torsional vibration by a non-contact method, thus effectively overcoming the disadvantages of previous measurement systems. This well established laser-based instrument provides a time-resolved voltage analogue of shaft tangential surface velocity and laboratory and field tests have shown it to be both accurate and reliable. The versatility of this instrument, however, is restricted by the need for accurate positioning, since the velocimeter must be arranged so that the rotating surface always traverses the beam intersection region, which is typically only a fraction of a millimetre in length. As a consequence use is restricted to components of circular cross section. This paper compares and contrasts the "cross-beam" system with a new laser instrument, the laser torsional vibrometer
Wind-tunnel Investigations on Flexural-torsional Wing Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voigt, H
1938-01-01
For the purpose of testing the theory of an oscillating airfoil of two degrees of freedom, a wing was mounted in the wind tunnel between two walls in such a manner that it could execute vertical (flexural) oscillations as well as torsional oscillations about an arbitrary axis parallel to the span. It was possible to vary the inertia and elasticity parameters and also to increase artificially the negligibly small natural damping of the system. The oscillations were recorded to a strongly magnified scale. The experimentally determined critical (or flutter) velocities fully agree with the theoretical ones of Wagner and Kussner within the limits of computational and measuring accuracy. An extremely narrow wing without end walls (three dimensional problem) showed the same oscillations as one with end walls (two-dimensional problem).
Torsionally inelastic collisions between a near-symmetric top molecule and a structureless atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Stephen L.
1991-11-01
The close-coupling formulation is presented for collisions of a structureless atom with a near-symmetric top exhibiting internal rotation, such as methanol. The molecule is approximated as a symmetric top whose internal rotation axis coincides with the symmetry axis. The K doubling arising from the asymmetry is taken into account only to first order. Both rotational and torsional inelasticity are considered, but the molecule is considered to be rigid with respect to all other vibrational degrees of freedom. Expressions are given for the matrix elements of the interaction potential between any two rotational-torsional states. It is shown that A↔E and E1↔E2 collisional excitation is forbidden. The infinite order sudden (IOS) approximation is extended to systems exhibiting internal rotation by applying the sudden limit to the torsional motion as well as to the overall rotation. Based on the expressions for the IOS cross sections, it is shown that a propensity rule holds for transitions elastic in J or in K between two A± doublets similar to that governing transitions between K doublets in asymmetric top molecules. It is also shown that in the low-barrier limit, torsionally inelastic cross sections depend only on Δn, the change in the angular momentum of the internal rotor, and not on the particular initial and final n. The IOS factorization expression shows that in the low-barrier limit, all of the dynamical information for E↔E transitions is contained in the cross sections for excitation out of the J=0, K=0, υ=0 ground state.
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-09-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-09-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-01-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072
He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2016-01-01
Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.
Cosmology in Poincaré gauge gravity with a pseudoscalar torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jianbo; Chee, Guoying
2016-05-01
A cosmology of Poincar é gauge theory is developed, where several properties of universe corresponding to the cosmological equations with the pseudoscalar torsion function are investigated. The cosmological constant is found to be the intrinsic torsion and curvature of the vacuum universe and is derived from the theory naturally rather than added artificially, i.e. the dark energy originates from geometry and includes the cosmological constant but differs from it. The cosmological constant puzzle, the coincidence and fine tuning problem are relieved naturally at the same time. By solving the cosmological equations, the analytic cosmological solution is obtained and can be compared with the ΛCDM model. In addition, the expressions of density parameters of the matter and the geometric dark energy are derived, and it is shown that the evolution of state equations for the geometric dark energy agrees with the current observational data. At last, the full equations of linear cosmological perturbations and the solutions are obtained.
Alternative reliable techniques in femoral torsion measurement.
Delialioglu, M Onder; Tasbas, Bulent A; Bayrakci, Kenan; Daglar, Bulent; Kurt, Murat; Agar, Mustafa; Gunel, Ugur
2006-01-01
The clinical and conventional bi-planar determinations of femoral torsion were compared with the tomographic technique, the reliability of which was confirmed. Femoral torsions were measured with the trochanteric prominence angle test, the sinus-wave bi-planar conventional radiographic technique, the modified Hermann bi-planar conventional radiographic technique and the limited three-dimensional volumetric tomography technique in 34 femora of 17 patients. There was a strong correlation between the modified Hermann and the limited tomography techniques for 14 intact and 20 fractured femora. If limited three-dimensional volumetric tomography cannot be obtained, the modified Hermann bi-planar conventional radiographic technique must be used in patients who have scarring about the proximal femur and obesity. Otherwise use of the trochanteric prominence angle test is much more cost-effective and is as accurate as the limited three-dimensional volumetric tomography technique.
Uterine torsion in pregnancy. Case Report.
Vavrinkova, Blanka; Binder, Tomas
2015-01-01
This paper describes a case of uterine torsion not only around the long, but also the horizontal axis, diagnosed post-operatively. The patient was 28-years-old, II/I in the 34th week of her gravidity. She was admitted due to amniotic fluid leak. Due to unsuccessful delivery induction using prostaglandins, a caesarean section was indicated to end the gravidity. Uterine torsion 180° around the longitudinal axis and 90° around the transversal axis was diagnosed during the surgery. The uterine wound was treated in accordance with guidelines and the patient was dismissed in a good condition. Control hysteroscopy and laparoscopy done after a time interval showed problem-free healing of the wound in the posterior uterine wall.
Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao
2016-01-01
In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T-θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model.
Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao
2016-01-01
In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T–θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model. PMID:26799324
Wang, Shibo; Niu, Chengchao
2016-01-01
In this work, the plane-on-plane torsional fretting tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was studied. A model of a rigid, flat-ended punch acting on an elastic half-space was built according to the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the shape of T-θ curves was influenced by both the torsional angle and the normal load. The torsion friction torque and wear rate of PTFE exponentially decreased when the torsion angle rose. The torsional torque increased from 0.025 N·m under a normal load of 43 N to 0.082 N·m under a normal load of 123 N. With sequentially increasing normal load, the value of torque was maintained. With rising normal load, the wear mass loss of PTFE disks was increased and the wear rate was decreased. Good agreement was found with the calculated torque according to the model and the experimental torque except for that under a normal load of 163 N. The difference under a normal load of 163 N was caused by the coefficient of friction. Usually the coefficient of friction of a polymer decreases with increasing normal load, whereas a constant coefficient of friction was applied in the model. PMID:26799324
Torsional Oscillations of Nonbare Strange Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia; Parisi, Alessandro; Pilo, Luigi; Tonelli, Francesco
2015-12-01
Strange stars are one of the possible compact stellar objects that can form after a supernova collapse. We consider a model of a strange star having an inner core in the color-flavor locked phase surmounted by a crystalline color superconducting (CCSC) layer. These two phases constitute the quarksphere, which we assume to be the largest and heaviest part of the strange star. The next layer consists of standard nuclear matter forming an ionic crust, hovering on the top of the quarksphere and prevented from falling by a strong dipolar electric field. The dipolar electric field arises because quark matter is confined in the quarksphere by the strong interaction, but electrons can leak outside forming an electron layer a few hundred fermi thick separating the ionic crust from the underlying quark matter. The ionic matter and the CCSC matter constitute two electromagnetically coupled crust layers. We study the torsional oscillations of these two layers. Remarkably, we find that if a fraction larger than 10-4 of the energy of a Vela-like glitch is conveyed to a torsional oscillation, the ionic crust will likely break. The reason is that the very rigid and heavy CCSC crust layer will absorb only a small fraction of the glitch energy, leading to a large-amplitude torsional oscillation of the ionic crust. The maximum stress generated by the torsional oscillation is located inside the ionic crust and is very close to the star’s surface. This peculiar behavior leads to a much easier crust cracking than in standard neutron stars.
Myocardial Rotation and Torsion in Child Growth
Kim, Chang Sin; Park, Sora
2016-01-01
Background The speckle tracking echocardiography can benefit to assess the regional myocardial deformations. Although, previous reports suggested no significant change in left ventricular (LV) torsion with aging, there are certain differences in LV rotation at the base and apex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change and relationship of LV rotation for torsion with aging in children. Methods Forty healthy children were recruited and divided into two groups of twenty based on whether the children were preschool-age (2–6 years of age) or school-age (7–12 years of age). After obtaining conventional echocardiographic data, apical and basal short axis rotation were assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography. LV rotation in the basal and apical short axis planes was determined using six myocardial segments along the central axis. Results Apical and basal LV rotation did not show the statistical difference with increased age between preschool- and school-age children. Apical radial strain showed significant higher values in preschool-age children, especially at the anterior (52.8 ± 17.4% vs. 34.7 ± 23.2%, p < 0.02), lateral (55.8 ± 20.4% vs. 36.1 ± 22.7%, p < 0.02), and posterior segments (57.1 ± 17.6% vs. 38.5 ± 21.7%, p < 0.01). The torsion values did not demonstrate the statistical difference between two groups. Conclusion This study revealed the tendency of higher rotation values in preschool-age children than in school-age children. The lesser values of rotation and torsion with increased age during childhood warrant further investigation. PMID:27721953
UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES
De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.
2012-06-10
Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.
TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS OF NONBARE STRANGE STARS
Mannarelli, Massimo; Pagliaroli, Giulia; Parisi, Alessandro; Pilo, Luigi; Tonelli, Francesco
2015-12-20
Strange stars are one of the possible compact stellar objects that can form after a supernova collapse. We consider a model of a strange star having an inner core in the color-flavor locked phase surmounted by a crystalline color superconducting (CCSC) layer. These two phases constitute the quarksphere, which we assume to be the largest and heaviest part of the strange star. The next layer consists of standard nuclear matter forming an ionic crust, hovering on the top of the quarksphere and prevented from falling by a strong dipolar electric field. The dipolar electric field arises because quark matter is confined in the quarksphere by the strong interaction, but electrons can leak outside forming an electron layer a few hundred fermi thick separating the ionic crust from the underlying quark matter. The ionic matter and the CCSC matter constitute two electromagnetically coupled crust layers. We study the torsional oscillations of these two layers. Remarkably, we find that if a fraction larger than 10{sup −4} of the energy of a Vela-like glitch is conveyed to a torsional oscillation, the ionic crust will likely break. The reason is that the very rigid and heavy CCSC crust layer will absorb only a small fraction of the glitch energy, leading to a large-amplitude torsional oscillation of the ionic crust. The maximum stress generated by the torsional oscillation is located inside the ionic crust and is very close to the star’s surface. This peculiar behavior leads to a much easier crust cracking than in standard neutron stars.
Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.
2012-06-01
Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.
Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source
Hardee, Harry C.
1991-01-01
A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.
Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.
Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S
2014-06-01
Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979
Aeroelastic considerations for torsionally soft rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.
1986-01-01
A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and six tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systemmatic variation in geometric parameters including sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. A track sensitivity study was also conducted at several advance ratios for both rotors. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads differences for both baseline and torsionally soft blades. Azimuthal variation of elastic twist generated by variations in the tip parameters strongly correlated with rotor performance and loads, but the magnitude of advancing blade elastic twist did not. In addition, fixed system vibratory loads and rotor track for potential conformable rotor candidates appears very sensitive to parametric rotor changes.
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2013-08-12
An angular acceleration sensor can be used for the dynamic analysis of human and joint motions. In this paper, an angular acceleration sensor with novel structure based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed. The method involves the construction of a constant magnetic field by the excitation windings of sensor, and the cup-shaped rotor that cut the magnetic field. The output windings of the sensor generate an electromotive force, which is directly proportional to the angular acceleration through the electromagnetic coupling when the rotor has rotational angular acceleration. The mechanical structure and the magnetic working circuit of the sensor are described. The output properties and the mathematical model including the transfer function and state-space model of the sensor are established. The asymptotical stability of the sensor when it is working is verified by the Lyapunov Theorem. An angular acceleration calibration device based on the torsional pendulum principle is designed. The method involves the coaxial connection of the angular acceleration sensor, torsion pendulum and a high-precision angle sensor, and then an initial external force is applied to the torsion pendulum to produce a periodic damping angle oscillation. The angular acceleration sensor and the angle sensor will generate two corresponding electrical signals. The sensitivity coefficient of the angular acceleration sensor can be obtained after processing these two-channel signals. The experiment results show that the sensitivity coefficient of the sensor is about 17.29 mv/Krad·s2. Finally, the errors existing in the practical applications of the sensor are discussed and the corresponding improvement measures are proposed to provide effective technical support for the practical promotion of the novel sensor.
Angular momentum and star formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strittmatter, P. A.
The present investigation is mainly concerned with the importance of high angular resolution observations in studies of star formation and, in particular, with elucidating the role which angular momentum plays in the process. A brief report is included on recent high angular resolution observations made with the Steward Observatory speckle camera system. A consideration of the angular momentum in interstellar clouds indicates that rotation precludes quasi-spherical contraction. A number of solutions to this angular momentum problem are examined, taking into account questions concerning the help provided by high angular resolution observations for an elucidation of the various possible scenarios of star formation. Technical aspects involved in obtaining suitable data are investigated. It is concluded that high angular resolution observations hold considerable promise for solving at least some of the problems associated with the role of angular momentum in star formation.
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
On the Birational Invariance of the BCOV Torsion of Calabi-Yau Threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maillot, V.; Rössler, D.
2012-04-01
Fang et al. (J. Diff. Geom. 80(2):175-259, 2008, Sect. 4, Conj. 4.17) conjecture that a certain spectral string-theoretic invariant of Calabi-Yau threefolds (the BCOV torsion) is a birational invariant. We prove a weak form of this conjecture. The proof combines the arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem in Arakelov geometry with some inputs from motivic integration theory.
Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong
2016-02-01
Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties
Torsion discovery potential and its discrimination at CERN LHC
Almeida, F. M. L. Jr. de; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Vale, M. A. B. do
2009-01-01
Torsion models constitute a well-known class of extended quantum gravity models. In this paper we study some phenomenological consequences of a torsion field interacting with fermions at LHC. A torsion field could appear as a new heavy state characterized by its mass and couplings to fermions. These new states will form a resonance decaying into difermions, as occurs in many extensions of the standard model, such as models predicting the existence of additional neutral gauge bosons, usually named Z{sup '}. Using the dielectron channel we evaluate the integrated luminosity needed for a 5{sigma} discovery as a function of the torsion mass, for different coupling values. We also calculate the luminosity needed to discriminate, with 95% C.L., the two possible different torsion natures. Finally, we show that the observed signal coming from the torsion field could be distinguished from a signal coming from a new neutral gauge boson, provided there is enough luminosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonçalves, Bruno; Ribeiro, Baltazar J.; Pereira, Dante D.; Dias, Mário M.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we focus our attention in the inconsistency that appears when the semi-exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for the Dirac field interacting with space-time torsion field is performed. In order to solve this problem, we present a new involution operator that makes possible to perform the exact transformation when torsion field is present. Such operator has a structure, well known in the literature, composed of the product of an operator that acts in the matrices space and another one that acts in the function space. We also present the bound state of this theory and discuss the possible experimental analysis.
Swanson, W.J.
1998-12-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to develop a method of predicting cylinder indicated torques in a reciprocating engine by measurement of crankshaft angular velocity fluctuations. Cylinder indicated pressures were measured for all three cylinders of a two-stroke Diesel engine with pressure transducers. Time-resolved angular position was measured at the crankshaft front and at the flywheel. A six degree-of-freedom torsional crankshaft model was developed. Two solution methods are described to solve the equations of motion: a time-marching ODE solver, and a Finite Element solution in the time domain. Using these methods with the measured cylinder torques, the angular positions are predicted and compared to measured angular positions for model calibration. An inverse solution method was developed to determine the cylinder indicated torques from the measured angular position at the crankshaft endpoints. The method is theoretically demonstrated to be useful for explicit solutions for two-stroke engines up to three cylinders, and four-stroke engines up to four cylinders. Experimental results show that the method is useful in predicting cylinder indicated torques from angular velocity measurements.
Dynamic fragmentation of ferroelectric ceramics using the torsional Kolsky bar
Costin, L S; Grady, D E
1983-10-01
This paper studied the dynamic loading and subsequent fragmentation of four different load zirconate titanate (95/5 PZT) ferroelectric ceramics using a torsional Kolsky bar apparatus. Solid cylinders of the four materials were loaded in torsion at shear strain rates in the range 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/s/sup -1/. Using the strain gage recordings of the incident, reflected and transmitted pulses, the energy required to fragment the specimen was determined for each test. In addition, the fragments resulting from each test were collected and analyzed by various technciques to determine their mass and size distributions. Results show some differences in particle distributions between the different batches of material. However, there is a more significant and consistent difference between the dynamic strength (as measured by the maximum shear stress) and the fragment mass distributions of the virgin material and the pressure depoled material, despite the fact that no differences were detected in the energy of fragmentation. Using earlier analytical results which relate the local kinetic energy of a potential fragment to the surface energy required to create that fragment, a relationship between the distribution of fragments from a test and material properties was derived. Results of tests on PZT as well as other materials such as oil shale, graphite, uranium dioxide and glass indicate a good correlation between the fragment distribution parameter, n, and material properties as predicted by the theory. Finally, the results are analyzed to determine the potential effects of internal stresses on the dynamic strength of the material and its fragmentation characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keivani, M.; Abadian, N.; Koochi, A.; Mokhtari, J.; Abadyan, M.
2016-10-01
It has been well established that the physical performance of nanodevices might be affected by the microstructure. Herein, a two-degree-of-freedom model base on the modified couple stress theory is developed to incorporate the impact of microstructure in the torsion/bending coupled instability of rotational nanoscanner. Effect of microstructure dependency on the instability parameters is determined as a function of the microstructure parameter, bending/torsion coupling ratio, van der Waals force parameter and geometrical dimensions. It is found that the bending/torsion coupling substantially affects the stable behavior of the scanners especially those with long rotational beam elements. Impact of microstructure on instability voltage of the nanoscanner depends on coupling ratio and the conquering bending mode over torsion mode. This effect is more highlighted for higher values of coupling ratio. Depending on the geometry and material characteristics, the presented model is able to simulate both hardening behavior (due to microstructure) and softening behavior (due to torsion/bending coupling) of the nanoscanners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.
2016-09-01
We analyse the Einstein-Cartan gravity in its standard form { R }=R+{{ K }}2, where { R } {and} R are the Ricci scalar curvatures in the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein gravity, respectively, and {{ K }}2 is the quadratic contribution of torsion in terms of the contorsion tensor { K }. We treat torsion as an external (or background) field and show that its contribution to the Einstein equations can be interpreted in terms of the torsion energy-momentum tensor, local conservation of which in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary metric or an arbitrary gravitational field demands a proportionality of the torsion energy-momentum tensor to a metric tensor, a covariant derivative of which vanishes owing to the metricity condition. This allows us to claim that torsion can serve as an origin for the vacuum energy density, given by the cosmological constant or dark energy density in the universe. This is a model-independent result that may explain the small value of the cosmological constant, which is a long-standing problem in cosmology. We show that the obtained result is valid also in the Poincaré gauge gravitational theory of Kibble, where the Einstein-Hilbert action can be represented in the same form: { R }=R+{{ K }}2.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkardt, Matthias
2016-06-01
Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.
The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.
2014-06-01
Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119
Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: Chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s.
Kurnosov, Arkady A; Rubtsov, Igor V; Maksymov, Andrii O; Burin, Alexander L
2016-07-21
We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so that they can participate only in the transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason, the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Theory predictions are consistent with the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed. PMID:27448902
Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: Chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s.
Kurnosov, Arkady A; Rubtsov, Igor V; Maksymov, Andrii O; Burin, Alexander L
2016-07-21
We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so that they can participate only in the transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason, the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Theory predictions are consistent with the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.
Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: Chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurnosov, Arkady A.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Maksymov, Andrii O.; Burin, Alexander L.
2016-07-01
We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so that they can participate only in the transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason, the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Theory predictions are consistent with the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.
Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.
2011-11-01
This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.
Kannengießer, Raphaela; Lach, Marcel J; Stahl, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam
2015-06-22
The gas-phase structures and parameters describing acetyl methyl torsion of N-ethylacetamide are determined with high accuracy, using a combination of molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Conformational studies at the MP2 level of theory yield four minima on the energy surface. The most energetically favorable conformer, which possesses C1 symmetry, is assigned. Due to the torsional barrier of 73.4782(1) cm(-1) of the acetyl methyl group, fine splitting up to 4.9 GHz is found in the spectrum. The conformational structure is not only confirmed by the rotational constants, but also by the orientation of the internal rotor. The (14) N quadrupole hyperfine splittings are analyzed and the deduced coupling constants are compared with the calculated values.
Maeda, Takenori
1995-11-01
This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.
Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends.
McLeod, John A; Pitman, Amy L; Kurmaev, Ernst Z; Finkelstein, Larisa D; Zhidkov, Ivan S; Savva, Achilleas; Moewes, Alexander
2015-12-14
The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando.
Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLeod, John A.; Pitman, Amy L.; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Finkelstein, Larisa D.; Zhidkov, Ivan S.; Savva, Achilleas; Moewes, Alexander
2015-12-01
The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando.
Diagnostic Efficacy of Sonography for Diagnosis of Ovarian Torsion
Rostamzadeh, Ayoob; Mirfendereski, Sam; Rezaie, Mohammad Jafar; Rezaei, Shohreh
2014-01-01
Objectives: Misdiagnosing ovarian torsion is now suggested as an important issue in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of sonography for ovarian torsion. Methods : In this study 323 women with acute pelvic pain with highly suspected ovarian torsion signs and symptoms attending Imam Reza Medical Center in Kermanshah between 2011 through 2012 were included and underwent a transabdominal sonography (2-5 MHz probes). Then findings of sonography were compared with laparatomy. Results : The ultrasound correctly diagnosed 72.1% of ovarian torsion and missed 27.9% of them (false negatives). However, one free subject (0.4%) was misclassified as ovarian torsion (false positive). There was a strong correlation between sonography and laparatomy with a kappa value of 84.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of sonography were 72.1% and 99.6%, respectively. Sonography had a positive predictive value of 96.9%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a total accuracy of 96.0% for detection of ovarian torsion. Conclusion: Sonography appears to be an excellent method to evaluate patients with suspected ovarian torsion. Abnormal blood flow detected by sonography is highly predictive of ovarian torsion and is therefore useful in the diagnosis of this phenomenon. PMID:24772154
Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism
O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.
1990-01-01
The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.
Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.
2016-06-01
Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.
Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry
2015-03-01
During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.
Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.
2016-09-01
Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.
Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle.
Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong
2016-02-14
Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation. PMID:26806884
Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.
2008-06-01
Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque.
Infrared modified gravity with dynamical torsion
Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.
2009-12-15
We continue the recent study of the possibility of constructing a consistent infrared modification of gravity by treating the vierbein and connection as independent dynamical fields. We present the generalized Fierz-Pauli equation that governs the propagation of a massive spin-2 mode in a model of this sort in the backgrounds of arbitrary torsionless Einstein manifolds. We show explicitly that the number of propagating degrees of freedom in these backgrounds remains the same as in flat space-time. This generalizes the recent result that the Boulware-Deser phenomenon does not occur in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter backgrounds. We find that, at least for weakly curved backgrounds, there are no ghosts in the model. We also discuss the interaction of sources in flat background. It is generally believed that the spinning matter is the only source of torsion. Our flat space study shows that this is not the case. We demonstrate that an ordinary conserved symmetric energy-momentum tensor can also generate torsion fields and thus excite massive spin-2 degrees of freedom.
Angular momentum evolution for galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrosa, S. E.; Tissera, P. B.
2015-08-01
Using cosmological hydrodinamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation (Mo, Mao White model), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type,, in agreement with recent findings.
Unravelling the structural plasticity of stretched DNA under torsional constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Graeme A.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.
2016-06-01
Regions of the genome are often held under torsional constraint. Nevertheless, the influence of such constraint on DNA-protein interactions during genome metabolism is still poorly understood. Here using a combined optical tweezers and fluorescence microscope, we quantify and explain how torsional constraint influences the structural stability of DNA under applied tension. We provide direct evidence that concomitant basepair melting and helical unwinding can occur in torsionally constrained DNA at forces >~50 pN. This striking result indicates that local changes in linking number can be absorbed by the rest of the DNA duplex. We also present compelling new evidence that an overwound DNA structure (likely P-DNA) is created (alongside underwound structures) at forces >~110 pN. These findings substantiate previous theoretical predictions and highlight a remarkable structural plasticity of torsionally constrained DNA. Such plasticity may be required in vivo to absorb local changes in linking number in DNA held under torsional constraint.
The development of left ventricular torsion and its clinical relevance.
Shaw, Steven M; Fox, David J; Williams, Simon G
2008-11-28
Left ventricular torsion is a measurement derived from the twisting or wringing motion of the heart around its long axis. The calculation is made by measuring the magnitude of rotation at the apex of the heart, and subtracting the rotation at the base. Although the phenomenon of left ventricular twisting was first described in the 17th Century, it wasn't until the 1960s that the first invasive method of measurement was demonstrated. Silver tantalum clips were sutured into the epicardium during cardiac surgery and viewed using cineradiography. Non-invasive torsion measurement has been subsequently developed, adopting Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 2D echocardiography. Interest in the changes of different components of torsion, during various cardiac disease states has developed with the advent of these non-invasive measurement techniques. This review article summarises the history of the development of torsion analysis and describes the known changes of torsion during different clinical circumstances.
Torsion and noninertial effects on a nonrelativistic Dirac particle
Bakke, K.
2014-07-15
We investigate torsion and noninertial effects on a spin-1/2 quantum particle in the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation. We consider the cosmic dislocation spacetime as a background and show that a rotating system of reference can be used out to distances which depend on the parameter related to the torsion of the defect. Therefore, we analyse torsion effects on the spectrum of energy of a nonrelativistic Dirac particle confined to a hard-wall potential in a Fermi–Walker reference frame. -- Highlights: •Torsion effects on a spin- 1/2 particle in a noninertial reference frame. •Fermi–Walker reference frame in the cosmic dislocation spacetime background. •Torsion and noninertial effects on the confinement to a hard-wall confining potential.
Modelling black holes with angular momentum in loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frodden, Ernesto; Perez, Alejandro; Pranzetti, Daniele; Röken, Christian
2014-12-01
We construct a connection formulation of Kerr isolated horizons. As in the non-rotating case, the model is based on a Chern-Simons theory describing the degrees of freedom on the horizon. The presence of a non-vanishing angular momentum modifies the admissibility conditions for spin network states. Physical states of the system are in correspondence with open intertwiners with total spin matching the angular momentum of the spacetime.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser.
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang
2016-07-29
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang
2016-07-01
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiangyang
1999-09-01
I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.
Torsional ARC Effectively Expands the Visual Field in Hemianopia
Satgunam, PremNandhini; Peli, Eli
2012-01-01
Purpose Exotropia in congenital homonymous hemianopia has been reported to provide field expansion that is more useful when accompanied with harmonios anomalous retinal correspondence (HARC). Torsional strabismus with HARC provides a similar functional advantage. In a subject with hemianopia demonstrating a field expansion consistent with torsion we documented torsional strabismus and torsional HARC. Methods Monocular visual fields under binocular fixation conditions were plotted using a custom dichoptic visual field perimeter (DVF). The DVF was also modified to measure perceived visual directions under dissociated and associated conditions across the central 50° diameter field. The field expansion and retinal correspondence of a subject with torsional strabismus (along with exotropia and right hypertropia) with congenital homonymous hemianopia was compared to that of another exotropic subject with acquired homonymous hemianopia without torsion and to a control subject with minimal phoria. Torsional rotations of the eyes were calculated from fundus photographs and perimetry. Results Torsional ARC documented in the subject with congenital homonymous hemianopia provided a functional binocular field expansion up to 18°. Normal retinal correspondence was mapped for the full 50° visual field in the control subject and for the seeing field of the acquired homonymous hemianopia subject, limiting the functional field expansion benefit. Conclusions Torsional strabismus with ARC, when occurring with homonymous hemianopia provides useful field expansion in the lower and upper fields. Dichoptic perimetry permits documentation of ocular alignment (lateral, vertical and torsional) and perceived visual direction under binocular and monocular viewing conditions. Evaluating patients with congenital or early strabismus for HARC is useful when considering surgical correction, particularly in the presence of congenital homonymous hemianopia. PMID:22885782
Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product
Zet, G.
2010-08-04
We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.
Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.
Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-11-01
Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.
Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jia-An
2016-08-01
In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity.
Detecting the crankshaft torsional vibration of diesel engines for combustion related diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charles, P.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Gu, F.; Lidstone, L.; Ball, A. D.
2009-04-01
Early fault detection and diagnosis for medium-speed diesel engines is important to ensure reliable operation throughout the course of their service. This work presents an investigation of the diesel engine combustion related fault detection capability of crankshaft torsional vibration. The encoder signal, often used for shaft speed measurement, has been used to construct the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) waveform, which actually represents the signature of the torsional vibration. Earlier studies have shown that the IAS signal and its fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis are effective for monitoring engines with less than eight cylinders. The applicability to medium-speed engines, however, is strongly contested due to the high number of cylinders and large moment of inertia. Therefore the effectiveness of the FFT-based approach has further been enhanced by improving the signal processing to determine the IAS signal and subsequently tested on a 16-cylinder engine. In addition, a novel method of presentation, based on the polar coordinate system of the IAS signal, has also been introduced; to improve the discrimination features of the faults compared to the FFT-based approach of the IAS signal. The paper discusses two typical experimental studies on 16- and 20-cylinder engines, with and without faults, and the diagnosis results by the proposed polar presentation method. The results were also compared with the earlier FFT-based method of the IAS signal.
MATSUMOTO, ATSUSHI; OLSON, WILMA K.
2008-01-01
A newly developed, coarse-grained treatment of the low-frequency normal modes of DNA has been adapted to study the torsional properties of fully extended, double-helical molecules. Each base pair is approximated in this scheme as a rigid body, and molecular structure is described in terms of the relative position and orientation of successive base pairs. The torsional modulus C is computed from the lowest-frequency normal twisting mode using expressions valid for a homogeneous, naturally straight elastic rod. Fluctuations of local dimeric structure, including the coupled variation of conformational parameters, are based on the observed arrangements of neighboring base pairs in high-resolution structures. Chain ends are restrained by an elastic energy term. The calculations show how the end-to-end constraints placed on a naturally straight DNA molecule, in combination with the natural conformational features of the double helix, can account for the substantially larger torsional moduli determined with state-of-the-art, single-molecule experiments compared to values extracted from solution measurements and/or incorporated into theories to account for the force-extension properties of single molecules. The computed normal-mode frequencies and torsional moduli increase substantially if base pairs are inclined with respect to the double-helical axis and the deformations of selected conformational variables follow known interdependent patterns. The changes are greatest if the fluctuations in dimeric twisting are coupled with parameters that directly alter the end-to-end displacement. Imposed restraints that mimic the end-to-end conditions of single-molecule experiments then impede the twisting of base pairs and increase the torsional modulus. The natural inclination of base pairs concomitantly softens the Young’s modulus, i.e., ease of duplex stretching. The analysis of naturally curved DNA points to a drop in the torsional modulus upon imposed extension of the double
Elbakry, Adel; Zakaria, Ahmed; Matar, Adel; El Nashar, Ahmed
2013-01-01
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of urethral mobilisation for correcting moderate and severe penile torsion associated with distal hypospadias. Patients and methods Nineteen patients with distal hypospadias and congenital moderate and severe penile torsion were treated surgically. The hypospadias was at the distal shaft, coronal and glanular in seven, eight and four patients, respectively, and six had mild chordee. The mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was 94.7 (19.9, 75–160)°. The urethra was mobilised down to the perineum. If the urethral mobilisation was insufficient the right border of the tunica albuginea was anchored to the pubic periosteum. The hypospadias was repaired using the urethral mobilisation and advancement technique, with a triangular plate flap for meatoplasty. The patients were followed up for 12–18 months. Results All patients had a successful functional and cosmetic outcome, with no residual torsion. Two patients had a small subcutaneous haematoma that resolved after conservative treatment. Massive oedema occurred in three patients and was treated conservatively. Urethral mobilisation did not correct the penile torsion completely. Although the mean (SD, range) angle of torsion was reduced to 86.1 (14.3, 65–130)°, statistically significantly different (P = 0.001), it was not clinically important. The presence of chordee had no significant correlation with the reduction of penile torsion. Conclusion Urethral mobilisation cannot completely correct moderate and severe penile torsion but it might only partly decrease the angle of torsion. Periosteal anchoring of the tunica albuginea might be the most reliable manoeuvre for the complete correction of penile torsion. PMID:26579237
High-Pressure Torsion of Ti: Synchrotron characterization of phase volume fraction and domain sizes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolmaro, Raúl E.; Sordi, Vitor L.; Ferrante, Maurizio; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Kawasaki, Megumi; Langdon, Terence G.
2014-08-01
Rods of grade 2 Ti were processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) (phi = 120° at 573 K) employing 2, 4 and 6 passes. The same billets were further deformed by High- Pressure Torsion (HPT) at room temperature, varying both the hydrostatic pressure (1 and 6 GPa) and the number of rotations (n = 1 and 5). The ECAP and HPT samples were studied by synchrotron radiation at DESY-Petra III GEMS line. On the ECAP samples, textures were thus determined while for both ECAP and HPT samples the measurements were further analyzed by MAUD. Domain sizes and phase volume fractions were determined as a function of the radial direction of the samples. Alpha and Omega phases were detected in different amounts depending mostly on hydrostatic pressure and shear deformation. These transition phases can be pressure-induced during HPT processing and the results of Vickers microhardness measurements were related to the processing parameters and to the amounts of these phases.
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Mutations in GNAL cause primary torsion dystonia
Fuchs, Tania; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Masuho, Ikuo; Luciano, Marta San; Raymond, Deborah; Factor, Stewart; Lang, Anthony E.; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Trosch, Richard M.; White, Sierra; Ainehsazan, Edmond; Herve, Denis; Sharma, Nutan; Ehrlich, Michelle E.; Martemyanov, Kirill A.; Bressman, Susan B.; Ozelius, Laurie J.
2012-01-01
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures1,2. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part due to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1)3, THAP1 (DYT6)4, and CIZ15 have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two PTD families we identified a novel causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense p.S293X mutation resulting in premature stop codon in one family and a missense p.V137M mutation in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 PTD families, revealed six additional novel mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutations was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays. PMID:23222958
Torsion Balance Test of Einstein's Equivalence Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abercrombie, Michael; Archibald, Adam; Nussinov, Tsitsi; Wagoner, Kasey; Cowsik, Ramanath
2016-03-01
We have developed a torsion balance experiment to test the equivalence principle (EP) which follows the solar attractor approach pioneered by Dicke in the early 1960s. By monitoring the response of a balance arranged as a composition dipole with an azimuthally symmetric mass distribution to the gravitational field produced by the Sun, we search for a diurnal modulation of the balance which would indicate a violation of the EP. Since reporting on the status of this experiment last year, the instrument has begun collecting data at a remote underground site. This talk will cover the design and fundamental sensitivity of the balance, and present the results of preliminary analysis of over 1200 hours of data.
Torsional ultrasonic transducer computational design optimization.
Melchor, J; Rus, G
2014-09-01
A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor design is proposed in this paper and computationally tested and optimized to measure shear stiffness properties of soft tissue. These are correlated with a number of pathologies like tumors, hepatic lesions and others. The reason is that, whereas compressibility is predominantly governed by the fluid phase of the tissue, the shear stiffness is dependent on the stroma micro-architecture, which is directly affected by those pathologies. However, diagnostic tools to quantify them are currently not well developed. The first contribution is a new typology of design adapted to quasifluids. A second contribution is the procedure for design optimization, for which an analytical estimate of the Robust Probability Of Detection, called RPOD, is presented for use as optimality criteria. The RPOD is formulated probabilistically to maximize the probability of detecting the least possible pathology while minimizing the effect of noise. The resulting optimal transducer has a resonance frequency of 28 kHz.
Experimental Study of Torsional Column Failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nile, Alfred S
1939-01-01
Thirty-three 24ST aluminum-alloy 2- by 2- by 0.10-inch channels, with lengths ranging from 10 to 90 inches were tested at Stanford University in compression to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical formulas for torsional failure developed by Eugene E. Lundquist of the N.A.C.A. The observed critical loads and twist-axis locations were sufficiently close to the values obtained from the formulas to establish the substantial validity of the latter. The differences between observed and computed results were small enough to be accounted for by small and mostly unavoidable differences between actual test conditions and those assumed in deriving the formulas. Some data were obtained from the shorter specimens regarding the growth of the buckles that resulted in local buckling failure.
Torsional suspension system for testing space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Wilmer H., III (Inventor); Gold, Ronald R. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A low frequency torsional suspension system for testing a space structure uses a plurality of suspension stations attached to the space structure along the length thereof in order to suspend the space structure from an overhead support. Each suspension station includes a disk pivotally mounted to the overhead support, and two cables which have upper ends connected to the disk and lower ends connected to the space structure. The two cables define a parallelogram with the center of gravity of the space structure being vertically beneath the pivot axis of the disk. The vertical distance between the points of attachment of the cables to the disk and the pivot axis of the disk is adjusted to lower the frequency of the suspension system to a level which does not interfere with frequency levels of the space structure, thereby enabling accurate measurement.
Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, R L; Wescoat, C
1944-01-01
The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)
Significance of torsion modes in bowed-string dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inacio, Octavio; Antunes, Jose; Henrique, Luis
2002-11-01
Several aspects of bowed-string dynamics are still inadequately clarified. The importance of torsion modes on the motion regimes is one such issue. Experiments involving torsion are difficult and most of the results available pertain to numerical simulations. The authors' approach differs from previous efforts in two main aspects: (1) the development of a computational method distinct from the wave-propagation approach pioneered by McIntyre, Schumacher, and Woodhouse and (2) an extensive and systematic analysis of the coupling between torsion and transverse motions is performed. The numerical simulations are based on a modal representation of the unconstrained string and a computational approach for friction that enables accurate representations of the stick-slip forces and of the string dynamics, in both time and space. Many relevant aspects of the bowed-string can be readily implemented, including string inharmonic behavior, finite bow-width, and torsion effects. Concerning the later aspect, a realistic range of the torsional to transverse wave-speed ratio is investigated, for several values of the bow velocity and normal force. Results suggest that torsion modes can effect both transient durations and steady state regimes, in particular when the above-mentioned ratio is <4. Gut strings should then be particularly prone to torsion effects.
Pearls and pitfalls in diagnosis of ovarian torsion.
Chang, Hannah C; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S
2008-01-01
Ovarian torsion is defined as partial or complete rotation of the ovarian vascular pedicle and causes obstruction to venous outflow and arterial inflow. Ovarian torsion is usually associated with a cyst or tumor, which is typically benign; the most common is mature cystic teratoma. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of ovarian torsion. US features of ovarian torsion include a unilateral enlarged ovary, uniform peripheral cystic structures, a coexistent mass within the affected ovary, free pelvic fluid, lack of arterial or venous flow, and a twisted vascular pedicle. The presence of flow at color Doppler imaging does not allow exclusion of torsion but instead suggests that the ovary may be viable, especially if flow is present centrally. Absence of flow in the twisted vascular pedicle may indicate that the ovary is not viable. The role of computed tomography (CT) has expanded, and it is increasingly used in evaluation of abdominal pain. Common CT features of ovarian torsion include an enlarged ovary, uterine deviation to the twisted side, smooth wall thickening of the twisted adnexal cystic mass, fallopian tube thickening, peripheral cystic structures, and ascites. Understanding the imaging appearance of ovarian torsion will lead to conservative, ovary-sparing treatment. PMID:18794312
[Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].
Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G
2014-01-01
The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.
Removal of Speckle Harmonics in Laser Torsional Vibrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drew, S. J.; Stone, B. J.
1997-09-01
Torsional vibration measurements on rotating machinery have traditionally been undertaken using techniques such as mechanical torsiographs, strain gauging with slip rings or telemetry systems, and encoders (slotted disks, gears, etc.). These techniques have the common limitation that the test machine has to be stopped in order to attach the transducer. The application of a cross-beam laser vibrometer to torsional vibrometry by Simpson and Lamb [1] and further development by Halliwellet al.[2] provided a non-contact torsional measurement technique, resulting in significant time savins. However, this design was restricted to use on shafts with a circular cross-section and had a very small beam crossing zone (<1 mm in depth), which had to be focussed carefully on the shaft surface. This cross-beam design was also unable to distinguish between torsional and transverse shaft vibrations. The invention of the modern (parallel beam) laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) by researchers at the ISVR in Southampton [3,4] overcame the main limitations of the cross-beam device. Their elegant design responds inherently to torsional vibrations only and may be used with shafts of arbitrary cross-section. In addition, the laser probe may be hand-held and there is a significant tolerance in the allowable distance between the laser source and the target surface (typically between 5 and 45 cm). A recent review paper on the development and application of laser torsional vibrometers has been published by Halliwell [5].
Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping
2016-03-21
Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780
Torsion constraints from cosmological magnetic field and QCD domain walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2014-10-01
Earlier Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)] has investigated the role of gravitational sector in Riemann-Cartan (RC) spacetime with torsion, in Lorentz and CPT violating (LV) Standard Model extension (SME). In his paper use of quantum electrodynamic (QED) extension in RC spacetime is made. More recently L. C. Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468, 28 (2011)] obtained magnetic field galactic dynamo seeds in the bosonic sector with massless photons, which proved to decay faster than necessary [Phys. Lett. B 711, 143 (2012)] to be able to seed galactic dynamos. In this paper it is shown that by using the fermionic sector of Kostelecky-Lagrangian and torsion written as a chiral current, one obtains torsion and magnetic fields explicitly from a Heisenberg-Ivanenko form of Dirac equation whose solution allows us to express torsion in terms of LV coefficients and magnetic field in terms of fermionic matter fields. When minimal coupling between electromagnetic and torsion fields is used it is shown that the fermionic sector of QED with torsion leads to resonantly amplify magnetic fields which mimics an α2-dynamo mechanism. Fine-tuning of torsion is shown to result in the dynamo reversal, a phenomenon so important in solar physics and geophysics. Of course this is only an analogy since torsion is very weak in solar and geophysics contexts. An analogous expression for the α-effect of mean-field dynamos is also obtained where the α-effect is mimic by torsion. Similar resonant amplification mechanisms connected to early universe have been considered by Finelli and Gruppuso.
Torsion constraints from cosmological magnetic field and QCD domain walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2014-10-01
Earlier Kostelecky [Phys. Rev. D 69, 105009 (2004)] has investigated the role of gravitational sector in Riemann-Cartan (RC) spacetime with torsion, in Lorentz and CPT violating (LV) Standard Model extension (SME). In his paper use of quantum electrodynamic (QED) extension in RC spacetime is made. More recently L. C. Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468, 28 (2011)] obtained magnetic field galactic dynamo seeds in the bosonic sector with massless photons, which proved to decay faster than necessary [Phys. Lett. B 711, 143 (2012)] to be able to seed galactic dynamos. In this paper it is shown that by using the fermionic sector of Kostelecky-Lagrangian and torsion written as a chiral current, one obtains torsion and magnetic fields explicitly from a Heisenberg-Ivanenko form of Dirac equation whose solution allows us to express torsion in terms of LV coefficients and magnetic field in terms of fermionic matter fields. When minimal coupling between electromagnetic and torsion fields is used it is shown that the fermionic sector of QED with torsion leads to resonantly amplify magnetic fields which mimics an α2-dynamo mechanism. Fine-tuning of torsion is shown to result in the dynamo reversal, a phenomenon so important in solar physics and geophysics. Of course this is only an analogy since torsion is very weak in solar and geophysics contexts. An analogous expression for the α-effect of mean-field dynamos is also obtained where the α-effect is mimic by torsion. Similar resonant amplification mechanisms connected to early universe have been considered by Finelli and Gruppuso.
Nonlinear nonuniform torsional vibrations of bars by the boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.
2010-05-01
In this paper a boundary element method is developed for the nonuniform torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross-section taking into account the effect of geometrical nonlinearity. The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated conservative dynamic twisting and warping moments along its length, while its edges are supported by the most general torsional boundary conditions. The transverse displacement components are expressed so as to be valid for large twisting rotations (finite displacement-small strain theory), thus the arising governing differential equations and boundary conditions are in general nonlinear. The resulting coupling effect between twisting and axial displacement components is considered and torsional vibration analysis is performed in both the torsional pre- or post-buckled state. A distributed mass model system is employed, taking into account the warping, rotatory and axial inertia, leading to the formulation of a coupled nonlinear initial boundary value problem with respect to the variable along the bar angle of twist and to an "average" axial displacement of the cross-section of the bar. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed using the analog equation method, a BEM based method, leading to a system of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations (DAE), which is solved using an efficient time discretization scheme. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated with respect to the fundamental mode shape at the points of reversal of motion after ignoring the axial inertia to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The problem is solved using the direct iteration technique (DIT), with a geometrically linear fundamental mode shape as a starting vector. The validity of negligible axial inertia assumption is examined for the problem at hand.
Torsion of a wandering spleen: an unusual abdominal catastrophe.
Riaz ul Haq, Muhammad; Elhassan, Elbagir; Mahdi, Diaa
2014-11-01
Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterised by splenic hypermobility resulting from laxity or maldevelopment of the suspensory gastrosplenic, splenorenal, and phrenicocolic ligaments. Diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in children because of the lack of symptoms and signs until splenic torsion have occurred. An array of investigations is possible but US with color Doppler, CT with intravenous contrast and MRI are frequently being used to diagnose wandering spleen with or without torsion. We present a case of 5 years old child with torsion of wandering spleen to highlight the importance of prompt diagnosis and management.
[Repeated torsion of the normal adnexa in a premenarchal girl].
Pankrac, Zofia; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Korzon, Michał
2004-12-01
Recurrent normal adnexal torsion is rare. The clinical presentation is poor and nonspecific. Authors present 11-years old girl with repeated torsion of the normal adnexa. At the first laparotomy salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Next two incidences were treated conservatively by ovary detorsion in laparoscopy. After second laparoscopy the girl was referred to the Adolescent Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. Preventive oophoroplexy was performed. After half of a year observation the girl reported no complaints and no abnormalities in physical examinations were found. Oophoroplexy in the cases of repeated normal adnexal torsion is a very useful method of prevention of recurrence.
Experimental investigation of cyclic thermomechanical deformation in torsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellis, John R.; Castelli, Michael G.; Bakis, Charles E.
1992-01-01
An investigation of thermomechanical testing and deformation behavior of tubular specimens under torsional loading is described. Experimental issues concerning test accuracy and control specific to thermomechanical loadings under a torsional regime are discussed. A series of shear strain-controlled tests involving the nickel-base superalloy Hastelloy X were performed with various temperature excursions and compared to similar thermomechanical uniaxial tests. The concept and use of second invariants of the deviatoric stress and strain tensors as a means of comparing uniaxial and torsional specimens is also briefly presented and discussed in light of previous thermomechanical tests conducted under uniaxial conditions.
Four-fermion interaction from torsion as dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popławski, Nikodem J.
2012-02-01
The observed small, positive cosmological constant may originate from a four-fermion interaction generated by the spin-torsion coupling in the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble gravity if the fermions are condensing. In particular, such a condensation occurs for quark fields during the quark-gluon/hadron phase transition in the early Universe. We study how the torsion-induced four-fermion interaction is affected by adding two terms to the Dirac Lagrangian density: the parity-violating pseudoscalar density dual to the curvature tensor and a spinor-bilinear scalar density which measures the nonminimal coupling of fermions to torsion.
Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.
Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea
2012-12-01
Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques.
Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions
Hernaski, C. A.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.
2009-12-15
In this paper, we reassess a particular R{sup 2}-type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, now taking torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is nonpropagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions.
Spinning Particles in Scalar-Tensor Gravity with Torsion
Wang, C.-H.
2008-10-10
A new model of neutral spinning particles in scalar-tensor gravity with torsion is developed by using a Fermi coordinates associated with orthonormal frames attached to a timelike curve and Noether identities. We further analyze its equations of motion both in background Brans-Dicke torsion field and the constant pseudo-Riemannian curvature with a constant scalar field. It turns that the particle's spin vector is parallel transport along its wordline in the Brans-Dicke torsion field and de Sitter spacetime. However, the dynamics of the spinning particle cannot completely determined in anti-de Sitter spacetime and it requires a further investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop
2016-10-01
Coated conductor (CC) tapes utilized in high-current-density superconducting cables are commonly subjected to different loading modes, primarily torsion and tension especially in the case of twisted stacked-tape cable. Torsion load can occur due to twisting along the length or when winding the CC tapes around a former, while tension load can occur due to pre-tension when coiled and as a hoop stress when the coil is energized. In this study, electromechanical properties of single CC tapes under torsion load were investigated using a new test apparatus. The results could provide basic information for cable designers to fully characterize stacked cables. Copper-electroplated and brass-laminated CC tapes fabricated with different deposition techniques were subjected to pure torsion and combined tension-torsion loading. The critical current, I c degradation behaviours of CC tapes under torsional deformation were examined. Also, the effect of further external lamination on the I c degradation behaviour of the CC tapes under such loading conditions was investigated. In the case of the combined tension-torsion test, short samples were subjected to twist pitches of 200 mm and 100 mm. Critical parameters including reversible axial stress and strain in such twist pitch conditions were also investigated.
Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanzer, Jeffrey A.
2012-06-01
This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.
Effect of Biceps Tenodesis Using PEEK Screw on the Torsional Strength of Humerus
Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Shewman, Elizabeth; Wang, Vincent; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Forsythe, Brian
2015-01-01
Objectives: Biceps tendoesis is a commonly accepted surgical option for long head biceps related pathology. Sub-pectoral tenodesis with interference screw offers reproducible outcomes with high biomechanical strength allowing for accelerated rehabilitiation. However, there is concern regarding potential fracture risk associate with a diaphyseal humeral tunnel particularly in an athletic population. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of torsional strength reduction in the humerus resulting from an unicortically drilled hole, and to evaluate the effect of inserting a tenodesis screw into the drilled defect. We hypothesized that unicortical drilling would weaken the humerus and that the use of tenodesis screws would restore strength to the humerus. Methods: Twenty (10 matched pairs) of fresh frozen full length humeri (mean age 55.3 years, range 37-70 years) were used to perform this study. All humeral specimens were stripped of all soft tissue, except for the pectoralis major tendon, which was used to determine location of the tenodesis. Specimens were allocated to either Screw (n=5) or Empty Ream Group (n=5) and the matching contralateral pairs remained intact. In the Empty Ream specimens, an 8 mm unicortical hole was placed into the bicipital groove 1 cm proximal to the inferior border of the pectoralis major tendon. The humeri in the Screw Group were prepared in the same manner and filled with a 8mm x 12 mm polyetheretherketone (PEEK) screw. All specimens were tested until failure under torsional loading at a rate of 1 degree/second. Peak torque, angular deformation at peak, and total energy to failure were recorded. A paired t-test was used to compare data from left and right humeri for each of the two groups. Data were also evaluated as the ratio of the intervention humerus to its contralateral intact humerus in order to compare Tenodesis Screw and Empty Ream groups via a 2-tailed, unpaired t-test. Statistical significance was assumed for P <0
Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.
2016-01-01
Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.
Anharmonic Torsional Stiffness of DNA Revealed under Small External Torques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazur, Alexey K.
2010-07-01
DNA supercoiling plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes. The torsional stress related to supercoiling may also be involved in gene regulation through the local structure and dynamics of the double helix. To check this possibility, steady torsional stress was applied in the course of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two DNA fragments with different base pair sequences. For one fragment, the torsional stiffness significantly varied with small twisting. The effect is traced to sequence-specific asymmetry of local torsional fluctuations, and it should be small in long random DNA due to compensation. In contrast, the stiffness of special short sequences can change significantly, which gives a simple possibility of gene regulation via probabilities of strong fluctuations. These results have important implications for the role of DNA twisting in complexes with transcription factors.
Isolated adnexal torsion in a 20-week spontaneous twin pregnancy
Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Eroglu, Vasfiye; Turan, Hasan; Kaval, Gizem; Sal, Veysel; Tokgozoglu, Nedim
2016-01-01
Background Adnexal torsion can be a life-threatning condition in pregnancy, while the risk of late diagnosis is increased, in second and third trimester in particular. Laparoscopy is an effective approach in diagnosis and treatment of adnexal torsion. However, entry to abdomen may be challenging in more advanced pregnancies. Case report Herein, we report a case of adnexal torsion during 20th week of twin pregnancy, which was detorsioned laparoscopically. The woman delivered healthy infants at her 36th week of pregnancy. Discussion Adnexal torsion as a cause of acute abdomen may be kept in mind in pregnants, even if there is no predisposing factor. Laparoscopy may be performed safely in 2nd trimester for acute abdomen. PMID:27129134
Response characteristics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, Robert J.
1992-01-01
The characteristics of the response dynamics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex were studied during controlled rotations about an earth-horizontal axis. The results extended the frequency range to 2 Hz and identified the nonlinearity of the amplitude response.
Spin-torsion effects in the hyperfine structure of methanol
Coudert, L. H. Gutlé, C.; Huet, T. R.; Grabow, J.-U.; Levshakov, S. A.
2015-07-28
The magnetic hyperfine structure of the non-rigid methanol molecule is investigated experimentally and theoretically. 12 hyperfine patterns are recorded using molecular beam microwave spectrometers. These patterns, along with previously recorded ones, are analyzed in an attempt to evidence the effects of the magnetic spin-torsion coupling due to the large amplitude internal rotation of the methyl group [J. E. M. Heuvel and A. Dymanus, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 47, 363 (1973)]. The theoretical approach setup to analyze the observed data accounts for this spin-torsion in addition to the familiar magnetic spin-rotation and spin-spin interactions. The theoretical approach relies on symmetry considerations to build a hyperfine coupling Hamiltonian and spin-rotation-torsion wavefunctions compatible with the Pauli exclusion principle. Although all experimental hyperfine patterns are not fully resolved, the line position analysis yields values for several parameters including one describing the spin-torsion coupling.
Zgarbová, Marie; Luque, F Javier; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Jurečka, Petr
2012-09-11
A procedure for deriving force field torsion parameters including certain previously neglected solvation effects is suggested. In contrast to the conventional in vacuo approaches, the dihedral parameters are obtained from the difference between the quantum-mechanical self-consistent reaction field and Poisson-Boltzmann continuum solvation models. An analysis of the solvation contributions shows that two major effects neglected when torsion parameters are derived in vacuo are (i) conformation-dependent solute polarization and (ii) solvation of conformation-dependent charge distribution. Using the glycosidic torsion as an example, we demonstrate that the corresponding correction for the torsion potential is substantial and important. Our approach avoids double counting of solvation effects and provides parameters that may be used in combination with any of the widely used nonpolarizable discrete solvent models, such as TIPnP or SPC/E, or with continuum solvent models. Differences between our model and the previously suggested solvation models are discussed. Improvements were demonstrated for the latest AMBER RNA χOL3 parameters derived with inclusion of solvent effects in a previous publication (Zgarbova et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2886). The described procedure may help to provide consistently better force field parameters than the currently used parametrization approaches.
Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids
Padilla, A.; Perez, J.
2007-03-15
The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.
Torsion of the Appendix Testis in a Neonate
Krishnan, Arvind; Rich, Mark A.; Swana, Hubert S.
2016-01-01
Torsion of the appendix testis is a rare cause of scrotal swelling in the neonatal period. We present a case of torsion of the appendix testis in a one-day-old male. We discuss the physical examination and radiologic studies used to make the diagnosis. Nonoperative therapy was recommended and the patient has done well. Recognition of this condition in the neonatal period can prevent surgical intervention and its associated risks. PMID:27379193
Cosmic Magnetic Fields from Torsion Modes and Massive Photon Inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2014-09-01
Earlier Barrow & Tsagas (2008) showed that a slower decay of magnetic fields are present in open Friedmann universes, with traditional Maxwell equations. In their paper magnetic fields of the order of B˜10-33 G which are far below the value required to seed galactic dynamos were obtained. In this paper galactic dynamo seeds of the order of B˜10-23 G are obtained from massive electrodynamics in Einstein-Cartan-Proca (ECP) expanding universe of de Sitter type. Slow decay of magnetic fields in photon-torsion coupling in QED (Garcia de Andrade 2011b) have been recently shown by Garcia de Andrade (2012) also not be able to seed galactic dynamos. Torsion modes are constrained by the field equations. Space-time torsion is shown to be explicitly responsible for the slow decay of cosmic magnetic field. In the absence of massive photon torsion coupling the magnetic field decay is of the order B˜t-3/2, while when torsion is turn on B˜t-1.2. The pure massive-photon-torsion contribution amplifies the magnetic field by Btorsion˜t0.1 which characterizes an extremely slow magnetic dynamo action due to purely torsion gravitational effects. Recently, Barrow et al. (2012) have obtained superadiabatic amplification of B-fields in the Friedmann open cosmology which lies within 10-20 G and 10-12 G which falls very comfortable within limits to seed galactic dynamos. Other simple solutions where B-field decays as B˜a-1, relatively weak photon-torsion coupling approximation. These solutions are obtained for the de Sitter and Friedmann metrics.
Torsional response of relativistic fermions in 2 + 1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valle, Manuel
2015-07-01
We consider the equilibrium partition function of an ideal gas of Dirac fermions minimally coupled to torsion in 2 + 1 dimensions. We show that the energy-momentum tensor reproduces the Hall viscosity and other parity violating terms of first order in the torsion. We also consider the modifications of the constitutive relations, and classify the corresponding susceptibilities. An entropy current consistent with zero production of entropy in equilibrium is constructed.
Light deflection with torsion effects caused by a spinning cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet
2016-06-01
Using a new geometrical method introduced by Werner, we find the deflection angle in the weak limit approximation by a spinning cosmic string in the context of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. We begin by adopting the String-Randers optical metric, then we apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry and derive the leading terms of the deflection angle in the equatorial plane. Calculation shows that light deflection is affected by the intrinsic spin of the cosmic string and torsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, Indra
2016-05-01
In this work the far infrared (FIR) absorption spectrum has been measured for the asymmetrically mono deuterated Methanol (CH2DOH) species in the wavenumber range of 15-1200 cm-1 better accuracy and signal/noise ratio than known before. Assignments have been made for b-type transitions in the lowest lying torsional vibrational state trans-(e0) for a wide range of rotational angular momentum. The assignments have been rigorously confirmed by the residual loop defect methods. The rR-branch wavenumbers are analyzed by the usual state dependent expansion parameters and the Q-Branch origins. These origins have been used to calculate the torsional and torsional-rotation interaction contributions. These findings are in good agreement with predicted from the Hamiltonian model described in recent publications. A large number of assignments have also been made in the millimeter wave spectrum recorded earlier and thereby evaluated the asymmetry splitting parameters for 4 different axial rotational angular momentum quantum numbers. The analysis and interpretation of the spectra are reported. New assignments for about 260 transitions are included the text and a catalog of about 1500 transitions belonging to the e0 species is prepared (Appendix 1) and is made available through the open server in "Research Gate" and will be freely available to others.
Hall, Adam R; Falvo, Michael R; Superfine, Richard; Washburn, Sean
2007-07-01
Nanoscale electronics seeks to decrease the critical dimension of devices in order to improve performance while reducing power consumption. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fit well with this strategy because, in addition to their molecular size, they demonstrate a number of unique electronic, mechanical and electromechanical properties. In particular, theory predicts that strain can have a large effect on the band structure of a nanotube, which, in turn, has an influence on its electron transport properties. This has been demonstrated in experiments where axial strain was applied by a scanning probe. Theory also predicts that torsional strain can influence transport properties, which was observed recently in multiwalled nanotubes. Here we present the first experimental evidence of an electromechanical effect from torsional strain in single-walled nanotubes, and also the first measurements of piezoresistive response in a self-contained nanotube-based nanoelectromechanical structure.
Torsional texturing of superconducting oxide composite articles
Christopherson, Craig John; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Scudiere, John
2002-01-01
A method of texturing a multifilamentary article having filaments comprising a desired oxide superconductor or its precursors by torsionally deforming the article is provided. The texturing is induced by applying a torsional strain which is at least about 0.3 and preferably at least about 0.6 at the surface of the article, but less than the strain which would cause failure of the composite. High performance multifilamentary superconducting composite articles having a plurality of low aspect ratio, twisted filaments with substantially uniform twist pitches in the range of about 1.00 inch to 0.01 inch (25 to 0.25 mm), each comprising a textured desired superconducting oxide material, may be obtained using this texturing method. If tighter twist pitches are desired, the article may be heat treated or annealed and the strain repeated as many times as necessary to obtain the desired twist pitch. It is preferred that the total strain applied per step should be sufficient to provide a twist pitch tighter than 5 times the diameter of the article, and twist pitches in the range of 1 to 5 times the diameter of the article are most preferred. The process may be used to make a high performance multifilamentary superconducting article, having a plurality of twisted filaments, wherein the degree of texturing varies substantially in proportion to the radial distance from the center of the article cross-section, and is substantially radially homogeneous at any given cross-section of the article. Round wires and other low aspect ratio multifilamentary articles are preferred forms. The invention is not dependent on the melting characteristics of the desired superconducting oxide. Desired oxide superconductors or precursors with micaceous or semi-micaceous structures are preferred. When used in connection with desired superconducting oxides which melt irreversibly, it provides multifilamentary articles that exhibit high DC performance characteristics and AC performance markedly
Quantitative Intraoperative Torsional Forced Duction Test
Jung, Jae Ho; Holmes, Jonathan M.
2015-01-01
Purpose We developed a method for quantifying intraoperative torsional forced ductions and validated the new test by comparing patients with oblique dysfunction and controls. Design Comparative case series Subjects We studied 33 eyes with oblique dysfunction (9 presumed congenital superior oblique palsy (SOP), 13 acquired SOP, 7 Brown syndrome, and 4 Inverted Brown syndrome) and 31 controls. We also studied maximal excyclorotation after superior oblique (SO) disinsertion in 6 eyes and maximal incyclorotation after inferior oblique (IO) disinsertion in 2 eyes. Methods Under deep general anesthesia, the 12 and 6 o’clock positions at the limbus were marked and the globe was maximally excyclorotated and incyclorotated without retroplacement until the first resistance was felt, and the angle of rotation (in degrees) was read on a Mendez ring by the surgeon. A photograph was taken in each position to be read by a masked observer. Main outcome measures Maximal excyclorotation and maximal incyclorotation in each oblique dysfunction and in controls, by both surgeon’s report and photographic assessment. We duplicated the photographs to evaluate test-retest reliability and to evaluate agreement between the surgeon’s assessments and photographic assessment. Results Surgeon’s assessment revealed greater maximal excyclorotation in presumed congenital SOP than controls (median, 40 degrees versus 30 degrees). Maximal excyclorotation in acquired SOP was similar to controls (30 degrees in both). Eyes with Brown syndrome and Inverted Brown syndrome had lower maximal excyclorotation than controls (10 degrees and 20 degrees versus 30 degrees, respectively). Maximal incyclorotation in inverted Brown syndrome was lower than controls (12.5 degrees versus 30 degrees) whereas it was similar to controls in presumed congenital SOP, acquired SOP and Brown syndrome (30 degrees in each condition). Median maximal excyclorotation after SO disinsertion was 62.5 degrees and maximal
Analysis of torsional oscillations using an artificial neural network
Hsu, Y.Y.; Jeng, L,H. )
1992-12-01
In this paper, a novel approach using an artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed for the analysis of torsional oscillations in a power system. In the developed artificial neural network, those system variables such as generator loadings and capacitor compensation ratio which have major impacts on the damping characteristics of torsional oscillatio modes are employed as the inputs. The outputs of the neural net provide the desired eigenvalues for torsional modes. Once the connection weights of the neural network have been learned using a set of training data derived off-line, the neural network can be applied to torsional analysis in real-time situations. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neural net, torsional analysis is performed on the IEEE First Benchmark Model. It is concluded from the test results that accurate assessment of the torsional mode eigenvalues can be achieved by the neural network in a very efficient manner. Thereofore, the proposed neural network approach can serve as a valuable tool to system operators in conducting SSR analysis in operational planning.
A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.
Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi
2014-12-01
Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070
A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.
Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi
2014-12-01
Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W
1958-01-01
The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W
1957-01-01
The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory developed and presented in this paper. Special attention is given to coupling terms not found in previous theories, and methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
Angular momentum drain - A mechanism for despinning asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Burns, J. A.
1984-03-01
It is proposed that a new mechanism - angular momentum drain - helps account for the relatively slow rotation rates of intermediate-sized asteroids. Impact ejecta on a spinning body preferentially escape in the direction of rotation. This material systematically drains away spin angular momentum, leading to the counterintuitive result that collisions can reduce the spin of midsized objects. For an asteroid of mass M spinning at frequency ω, a mass loss δM corresponds to an average decrease in rotation rate δω ≈ ωδM/M. A. W. Harris' (1979) theory for the collisional evolution of asteroidal spins is significantly altered by the inclusion of this effect. While the modified theory is still somewhat artificial, comparison of its predictions with the data of S. F. Dermott et al. (1984) suggests that angular momentum drain is essential for understanding the statistics of asteroidal rotations.
Biomechanics of torsion in the human mandible.
Daegling, D J; Hylander, W L
1998-01-01
Comparative investigations of mandibular function among primates have relied upon elementary structural models to estimate states of masticatory stress and strain. In these studies, mandibular corpus morphology is idealized as a homogeneous, isotropic symmetrical body of invariant geometry, and this morphological abstraction is used to infer relative levels of stress and strain in the jaw. In reality, none of the limiting conditions assumed by these models is satisfied; consequently, it is prudent to ask whether this "textbook" engineering approach is valid for the inference of biomechanical behavior. In this study, the predictions of various geometric representations of the mandibular corpus are evaluated against strains recorded in a sample of human jaws loaded in torsion. Symmetrical geometrical models (including various "robusticity" shape indices), although convenient, are probably not consistently reliable for predicting the distribution of strains in the corpus. The experimental data suggest that variations in cortical thickness within sections play a significant role in determining the profile of relative strains. For comparative applications, characterization of the corpus as an asymmetrical hollow ellipse (i.e., with differing thickness of medial and lateral cortical plates) may provide a reasonable portrayal of relative strains.
Influence of mistuning on blade torsional flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, A. V.
1980-01-01
An analytical technique for the prediction of fan blade flutter was evaluated by utilizing first stage fan flutter data from tests on an advanced high performance engine. The formulation includes both aerodynamic and mechanical coupling among all the blades of the assembly. Mistuning is accounted for in the analysis so that individual blade inertias, frequencies, or damping can be considered. Airfoil stability was predicted by calculating a flutter determinant, the eigenvalues of which indicate the extent of susceptibility to flutter. When blade to blade differences in frequencies are considered, a stable system is predicted for the test points examined. For a tuned system, it was found that torsional flutter can be predicted at a limited number of interblade phase angles. Examination of these phase angles indicated that they were "close" to the condition of acoustic resonance. For the range of Mach numbers and reduced frequencies considered, the so called subcritical flutter cannot be predicted. The essential influence of mechanical coupling among the blades is to change the frequencies of the system with little or no change in damping; however, aerodynamic coupling together with mechanical coupling could change not only frequencies, but also damping in the system, with a trend toward instability.
Control of Torsional Vibrations by Pendulum Masses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stieglitz, Albert
1942-01-01
Various versions of pendulum masses have been developed abroad within the past few years by means of which resonant vibrations of rotating shafts can be eliminated at a given tuning. They are already successfully employed on radial engines in the form of pendulous counterweights. Compared with the commonly known torsional vibration dampers, the pendulum masses have the advantage of being structurally very simple, requiring no internal damping and being capable of completely eliminating certain vibrations. Unexplained, so far, remains the problem of behavior of pendulum masses in other critical zones to which they are not tuned, their dynamic behavior at some tuning other than in resonance, and their effect within a compound vibration system and at simultaneous application of several differently tuned pendulous masses. These problems are analyzed in the present report. The results constitute an enlargement of the scope of application of pendulum masses, especially for in-line engines. Among other things it is found that the natural frequency of a system can be raised by means of a correspondingly tuned pendulum mass. The formulas necessary for the design of any practical version are developed, and a pendulum mass having two different natural frequencies simultaneously is described.
Coherent Control of Molecular Torsion and the Active-space Decomposition Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Shane Matthew
This dissertation discusses schemes and applications for the strong-field control of molecular torsions as well as introduces the active-space decomposition method. In the first part, a route to realize general control over the torsional motions of a class of biaryl compounds is proposed. Torsion in biaryl compounds--molecules with two aromatic moieties connected by a bond about which the barrier to rotation is small--mediates the electronic coupling between the two rings in the molecule. Thus, by controlling the torsion angle, one also controls the electron transfer and transport rates, the absorption and emission spectra, and the molecule's chirality. In our scheme, a non-resonant half-cycle pulse interacts with the permanent dipole of only one moiety of the pre-oriented biaryl compound. In the non-adiabatic regime, coherent motion is initiated by the half-cycle pulse. In the adiabatic regime, the torsion angle is tuned by the pulse. By properly choosing the parameters and polarization of the half-cycle pulse, we show that free internal rotation can be started or that the molecular chirality can be inverted. Then, with the aid of optimal control theory, we design "deracemizing" control pulses, i.e., control pulses that convert a racemic mixture into an enantiopure mixture. Finally, we explore the potential for this type of control in a single-molecule pulling experiment. In the second part, we describe the active space decomposition method for computing excited states of molecular dimers. In this method, the dimer's wavefunction is expressed as a linear combination of direct products of orthogonal localized monomer states. The adiabatic dimer states are found by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in this direct product space. Matrix elements between direct product states are computed directly, without ever explicitly forming the dimer wavefunction, thus enabling calculations of dimers with active space sizes that would be otherwise impossible. The decomposed
Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality
Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin
2015-01-01
Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690
Does a randall-sundrum scenario create the illusion of a torsion-free universe?
Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra
2002-09-16
We consider spacetime with torsion in a Randall-Sundrum scenario where torsion, identified with the rank-2 Kalb-Ramond field, exists in the bulk together with gravity. While the interactions of both graviton and torsion in the bulk are controlled by the Planck mass, an additional exponential suppression comes for the torsion zero-mode on the visible brane. This may serve as a natural explanation of why the effect of torsion is so much weaker than that of curvature on the brane. The massive torsion modes, on the other hand, are correlated with the corresponding gravitonic modes and may be detectable in TeV-scale experiments.
Investigation of the torsional barrier of EDOT using molecular mechanics and DFT methods.
Durães, Jussara A; da Silva Filho, Demétrio A; Ceschin, Artemis M; Sales, Maria J A; Martins, João B L
2014-08-01
When heterocyclic monomers are polymerized by electrochemical or chemical methods, they form fully conjugated polymers which have a wide range of applications due to their outstanding electronic properties. Among this class of compounds, thiophene derivatives are widely used due to their chemical stability and synthesis flexibility. With the goal to investigate the torsion barrier of polymer chains, a few units of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) were chosen and submitted to molecular mechanics (MM), density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster CCSD(T) calculations. This study helps to understand the performance and transferability of force fields used in molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations often used to describe structure-property relationships of those systems. Determination of inter-ring torsion angle was performed in a comparative study using both force field, DFT and CCSD(T) methods. A good agreement was noticed between MM and QC results and highlights the importance of the description of the interactions involving the oxygen atoms present in the structure of EDOT. These observations are related to the α,α-coupling that occurs between the monomer units and yields a linear polymer. DFT HOMO and LUMO orbitals were also presented. Finally, UV-vis spectra of EDOT units were obtained using several levels of theory by means of time-dependent DFT calculations (TD-DFT). PMID:25116151
Interplanar torsion in the S1<--S0 electronic spectrum of jet cooled 1-phenylimidazole.
Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Morrison, Richard J S
2004-12-22
The S(1)<--S(0) transition of 1-phenylimidazole (1PI) has been studied in a supersonic jet expansion by resonant two-photon ionization. The origin band at 36 075 cm(-1) is accompanied by a low frequency progression associated with torsion about the bond connecting phenyl and imidazole groups. Torsional potentials have been determined for both states. In S(0), phi(min)=37.2+/-0.5 degrees and the planar barrier is 339+/-20 cm(-1), while in S(1), phi(min)=17.6+/-0.5 degrees and the planar barrier is 57+/-2 cm(-1). The transition moment alignment is observed to be consistent with an excited state of L(b) character, in spite of the "off-axis" conjugation provided by the imidazole ring. These results are compared with ab initio calculations on both states, performed using Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation, density functional theory with the Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional, time-dependent density functional theory, configuration interaction singles, and complete active space self-consistent field methods. Solution-phase UV spectra of neutral and protonated 1PI are also reported.
Phenomenology of preequilibrium angular distributions
Kalbach, C.; Mann, F.M.
1980-05-01
The systematics of continuum angular distributions from a wide variety of light ion nuclear reactions have been studied. To first order, the shape of the angular distributions have been found to depend only on the energy of the outgoing particle and on the division of the cross section into multi-step direct and multi-step compound parts. The angular distributions can be described in terms of Legendre polynomials with the reduced polynomial coefficients exhibiting a simple dependence on the outgoing particle energy. Two integer and four continuous parameters with universal values are needed to describe the coefficients for outgoing energies of 2 to 60 MeV in all the reaction types studied. This parameterization combined with a modified Griffin model computer code permits the calculation of double differential cross sections for light ion continuum reactions where no data is available.
Interferometric measurement of angular motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C.
2013-04-01
This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10-11 rad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.
Interferometric measurement of angular motion.
Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C
2013-04-01
This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10(-11) rad/Hz from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.
Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1992-06-01
The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.
Torsional Deformations in Subnanometer MoS Interconnecting Wires.
Koh, Ai Leen; Wang, Shanshan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Sinclair, Robert; Warner, Jamie H
2016-02-10
We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to track the real time atomic level torsional dynamics of subnanometer wires of MoS interconnecting monolayer regions of MoS2. An in situ heating holder is used inside the transmission electron microscope to raise the temperature of the sample to 400 °C to increase crystallization rates of the wires and reduce contamination effects. Frequent rotational twisting of the MoS wire is captured, demonstrating elastic torsional deformation of the MoS wires. We show that torsional rotations of the crystal structure of the MoS wires depend upon the specific atomic structure of the anchored sections of the suspended wire and the number of unit cells that make up the wire length. Elastic torsional flexibility of the MoS wires is revealed to help their self-adapting connectivity during the structural changes. Plastic torsional deformation is also seen for MoS wires that contain defects in their crystal structure, which produce small scale rotational disorder within the wires. Upon removal of the defects, the wire returns back to pristine form. These results provide detailed insights into how the atomic structure of the anchoring site significantly influences the nanowire configurations relative to the monolayered MoS2. PMID:26785319
Numerical modeling of pendulum dampers in torsional systems
Johnston, P.R.; Shusto, L.M.
1986-01-01
Centrifugal pendulum-design dampers are utilized in torsional systems to reduce the vibration amplitude at certain objectionable torsional speeds. The damper is tuned by proper design of its mass, dimensions, and position on a carrier disk, which is rigidly attached to the torsional system. The effects of the pendulum damper on the response of the torsional system may be included by modifying the structural model to include a separate damper element representing each order of the pendulum damper. The stiffness and mass matrices for a damper element are dependent upon the order of vibration being dampened, the mass, and the geometry of the damper. A general form of the mass and stiffness equations for a simple centrifugal pendulum damper are derived from first principles using Lagrange's equations of motion. The analysis of torsional systems with pendulum dampers utilizing the mass and stiffness properties developed is included in the program SHAMS. SHAMS calculates the steady-state response of a system of springs and masses to harmonic loads using modal superposition. The response of a crankshaft system with and without the pendulum dampers are included as a case study.
A Rare Cause of Placental Abruption: Uterine Torsion.
Ulu, Ipek; Güneş, Muhammed Siraç; Kiran, Gürkan; Gülşen, Mehmet Serdar
2016-01-01
Uterine torsion is defined as a rotation on its long axis and it is a dangerous, unexpected obstetric emergency. We report a case of uterine torsion at 32 weeks of gestation in a singleton pregnancy. A 37-year-old woman with multiple prior cesarean deliveries referred to emergency unit of our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation with severe abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed a single fetus in vertex position, with a normal amniotic fluid. Fetal biometer was appropriate for 32 weeks of gestation. Placental location was anterior with a subchorionic hypoechogenic small area which was suspected to be a sign of placental abruption. An emergency cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. The 180° uterine torsion was diagnosed and it was not possible to perform detorsion of the gravid uterus by exteriorization by pfannenstiel incision. Posterior hysterotomy was performed and a male baby of 1830 grams weight was delivered. The newborn was transported to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of another hospital and discharged within two weeks. Patient recovered well and was discharged on second postoperation day. Uterine torsion is a very rare and life threatening situation. In unexpected cases posterior low transuerse hysterotomy is generally performed and it is suggested as a safe choice when detorsion was not accomplished. It is not easy to keep in mind the possibility of uterine torsion in cases of abdominal pain during pregnancy. Because it generally causes abruption, management of abruption is vitally important to prevent fetal mortality. PMID:26894131
Unravelling the structural plasticity of stretched DNA under torsional constraint
King, Graeme A.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.
2016-01-01
Regions of the genome are often held under torsional constraint. Nevertheless, the influence of such constraint on DNA–protein interactions during genome metabolism is still poorly understood. Here using a combined optical tweezers and fluorescence microscope, we quantify and explain how torsional constraint influences the structural stability of DNA under applied tension. We provide direct evidence that concomitant basepair melting and helical unwinding can occur in torsionally constrained DNA at forces >∼50 pN. This striking result indicates that local changes in linking number can be absorbed by the rest of the DNA duplex. We also present compelling new evidence that an overwound DNA structure (likely P-DNA) is created (alongside underwound structures) at forces >∼110 pN. These findings substantiate previous theoretical predictions and highlight a remarkable structural plasticity of torsionally constrained DNA. Such plasticity may be required in vivo to absorb local changes in linking number in DNA held under torsional constraint. PMID:27263853
Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation
Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan; Carpick, Robert W.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Kikkawa, James M.
2014-09-01
Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side of the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.
Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1995-01-01
The results are reported for high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens of Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-based superalloy. Data are also presented for mean coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. This data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME Boiler and Pressure Code), Manson-Halford, modified multiaxiality factor (proposed in this paper), modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The modified multiaxiality factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.
Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1992-01-01
The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed.
Angular momentum in human walking.
Herr, Hugh; Popovic, Marko
2008-02-01
Angular momentum is a conserved physical quantity for isolated systems where no external moments act about a body's center of mass (CM). However, in the case of legged locomotion, where the body interacts with the environment (ground reaction forces), there is no a priori reason for this relationship to hold. A key hypothesis in this paper is that angular momentum is highly regulated throughout the walking cycle about all three spatial directions [|Lt| approximately 0], and therefore horizontal ground reaction forces and the center of pressure trajectory can be explained predominantly through an analysis that assumes zero net moment about the body's CM. Using a 16-segment human model and gait data for 10 study participants, we found that calculated zero-moment forces closely match experimental values (Rx2=0.91; Ry2=0.90). Additionally, the centroidal moment pivot (point where a line parallel to the ground reaction force, passing through the CM, intersects the ground) never leaves the ground support base, highlighting how closely the body regulates angular momentum. Principal component analysis was used to examine segmental contributions to whole-body angular momentum. We found that whole-body angular momentum is small, despite substantial segmental momenta, indicating large segment-to-segment cancellations ( approximately 95% medio-lateral, approximately 70% anterior-posterior and approximately 80% vertical). Specifically, we show that adjacent leg-segment momenta are balanced in the medio-lateral direction (left foot momentum cancels right foot momentum, etc.). Further, pelvis and abdomen momenta are balanced by leg, chest and head momenta in the anterior-posterior direction, and leg momentum is balanced by upper-body momentum in the vertical direction. Finally, we discuss the determinants of gait in the context of these segment-to-segment cancellations of angular momentum.
Fallahnezhad, Khosro; Farhoudi, Hamidreza; Oskouei, Reza H; Taylor, Mark
2016-07-01
The assembly force is important in establishing the mechanical environment at the head-neck taper junction of modular hip replacements. Previous experimental results of the assembled taper junctions with different material combinations (Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V) reported similar axial strengths (pull-off loads), but lower torsional strengths (twist-off moments) for the CoCr/CoCr junction. However, mechanics of the junction and the strength behaviour have not been understood yet. A three dimensional finite element model of an isolated femoral head-neck junction was developed to explore the assembly and disassembly procedures, particularly the axial and torsional strengths for different material combinations and geometries. Under the same assembly load, the contacting length between the CoCr head and titanium neck was greater than that of in CoCr/CoCr. The contact length in the titanium neck was more sensitive to the assembly force when compared to the CoCr neck. For instance, with increasing the assembly force from 1890 to 3700N, the contact length increased by 88% for CoCr/Ti and 59% for CoCr/CoCr junctions. The torsional strength of the junction was related to the lateral deformation of the neck material due to the applied moment. The angular mismatch existing between the head and neck components was found to play the main role in the torsional strength of the junction. The smaller mismatch angle the higher torsional strength. It is suggested to consider reducing the mismatch angle, particularly in CoCr/CoCr junctions, and ensure a sufficiently high assembly force is applied by impaction for this combination. PMID:26807768
Fallahnezhad, Khosro; Farhoudi, Hamidreza; Oskouei, Reza H; Taylor, Mark
2016-07-01
The assembly force is important in establishing the mechanical environment at the head-neck taper junction of modular hip replacements. Previous experimental results of the assembled taper junctions with different material combinations (Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V) reported similar axial strengths (pull-off loads), but lower torsional strengths (twist-off moments) for the CoCr/CoCr junction. However, mechanics of the junction and the strength behaviour have not been understood yet. A three dimensional finite element model of an isolated femoral head-neck junction was developed to explore the assembly and disassembly procedures, particularly the axial and torsional strengths for different material combinations and geometries. Under the same assembly load, the contacting length between the CoCr head and titanium neck was greater than that of in CoCr/CoCr. The contact length in the titanium neck was more sensitive to the assembly force when compared to the CoCr neck. For instance, with increasing the assembly force from 1890 to 3700N, the contact length increased by 88% for CoCr/Ti and 59% for CoCr/CoCr junctions. The torsional strength of the junction was related to the lateral deformation of the neck material due to the applied moment. The angular mismatch existing between the head and neck components was found to play the main role in the torsional strength of the junction. The smaller mismatch angle the higher torsional strength. It is suggested to consider reducing the mismatch angle, particularly in CoCr/CoCr junctions, and ensure a sufficiently high assembly force is applied by impaction for this combination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bantel, Michael Kurt
1998-07-01
Using a torsion pendulum, we have investigated the anelastic properties of a CuBe torsion fiber for shear strains in the range 4×10-7 to 3×10-3 at temperatures 4.2K, 77K, and 295K. The fiber was 20 μm in diameter and 24 cm long, with a torsion constant of 0.033 dyn/cdot cm/cdot rad-1. It suspended an 11 gram azimuthally symmetric torsion pendulum which loaded the fiber to approximately 25% of its tensile strength at room temperature. The natural torsional oscillation frequency of this system was 6.4 mHz. An autocollimator viewing a set of mirrors on the oscillating pendulum served to measure with great accuracy the times at which the pendulum assumed a large set of discrete angular displacements during each oscillation cycle. This enabled a determination of the angular displacement of the pendulum as a function of time to better than a part in 107 of its oscillation amplitude, from which accurate information was obtained on the pendulum's frequency, damping, and harmonic content as functions of the oscillation amplitude. Analysis yields a determination of the fourth order shear elastic constant of CuBe. Expressing the shear potential energy density as: u(/epsilon)=c2ɛ2+c3ɛ3+ c4ɛ4 where ɛ is the shear strain, the values determined for (c2,/ c3,/ c4) are (25, 0.17, -550) GPa respectively. A striking feature of the fiber's internal friction Q-1 is that it appears to be the sum of two independent components: Q-1=Q I-1(T)+ Q II-1(A) where Q I-1(T) is temperature-dependent, varying by a factor of 3 between 4.2 and 77K, and Q II-1(A) is linearly dependent on amplitude and virtually independent of temperature; its linear dependence on amplitude varied by less than 4% between 4.2K and 77K. Interestingly the measurements of: the linear amplitude-dependent Q II-1, the linear component of the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, and the harmonic content associated with a dissipative hysteresis loop, are consistent with the motion generated by a simple stick
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
Solar cell angular position transducer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.
Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.
1992-04-01
We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.
Modelling the torsion of thin metal wires by distortion gradient plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardella, Lorenzo; Panteghini, Andrea
2015-05-01
Under small strains and rotations, we apply a phenomenological higher-order theory of distortion gradient plasticity to the torsion problem, here assumed as a paradigmatic benchmark of small-scale plasticity. Peculiar of the studied theory, proposed about ten years ago by Morton E. Gurtin, is the constitutive inclusion of the plastic spin, affecting both the free energy and the dissipation. In particular, the part of the free energy, called the defect energy, which accounts for Geometrically Necessary Dislocations, is a function of Nye's dislocation density tensor, dependent on the plastic distortion, including the plastic spin. For the specific torsion problem, we implement this distortion gradient plasticity theory into a Finite Element (FE) code characterised by implicit (Backward Euler) time integration, numerically robust and accurate for both viscoplastic and rate-independent material responses. We show that, contrariwise to other higher-order theories of strain gradient plasticity (neglecting the plastic spin), the distortion gradient plasticity can predict some strengthening even if a quadratic defect energy is chosen. On the basis of the results of many FE analyses, concerned with (i) cyclic loading, (ii) switch in the higher-order boundary conditions during monotonic plastic loading, (iii) the use of non-quadratic defect energies, and (iv) the prediction of experimental data, we mainly show that (a) including the plastic spin contribution in a gradient plasticity theory is highly recommendable to model small-scale plasticity, (b) less-than-quadratic defect energies may help in describing the experimental results, but they may lead to anomalous cyclic behaviour, and (c) dissipative (unrecoverable) higher-order finite stresses are responsible for an unexpected mechanical response under non-proportional loading.
Usefulness of T2*-weighted MRI in the detection of adnexal torsion
Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Shimpei; Kojima, Toshihisa; Furui, Tatsuro; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Matsuo, Masayuki
2016-01-01
Background The usefulness of T2*-weighted (T2*W) imaging for the detection of adnexal torsion has yet to be determined. Purpose To assess the usefulness of T2*W imaging for detecting and differentiating adnexal torsion. Material and Methods Eight patients with eight ovaries with torsion and 44 patients with 72 ovaries without torsion were included in this study. All patients underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*W images. The frequency and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images were compared between ovaries with torsion and ovaries without torsion. Results Hypointensity on T2*W images was significantly more frequent in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (75% vs. 36%; P < 0.05). Among patients with hypointensity on T2*W images, the frequency of diffuse hypointensity was significantly higher in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (83% vs. 0%; P < 0.01); whereas the frequency of focal hypointensity was significantly lower in ovaries with torsion than in ovaries without torsion (17% vs. 100%; P < 0.01). Conclusion The presence and distribution of hypointensity on T2*W images may play a supplementary role in the detection of adnexal torsion. PMID:27478621
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoki, K.; Kröner, D.; Manz, J.
2001-06-01
We design a laser pulse which drives a racemate of oriented atropisomers at low temperature to a preferential target enantiomer. The overall laser pulse consists of a series of individual circularly polarized laser pulses which induce corresponding selective transitions between coupled rotational and torsional states. The underlying theory is derived in detail for a model system. It consists of two fragments which may carry out torsional and rotational motions around a molecular bond which is oriented along the direction of the laser pulses. Exemplarily, results are demonstrated for the model system H 2POSH in the electronic ground state, based on a quantum chemical ab initio potential and on the components of the dipole functions describing the laser-dipole interaction. The series of laser pulses for the preparation of the pure enantiomers for this demanding system is based on analogous results for simpler scenarios, originally starting from local control.
Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes via torsional vibration signal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.
2013-04-01
Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from the amplitude modulation effect caused by time variant vibration transfer paths due to the rotation of planet carrier and sun gear, and therefore their spectral structure are simpler than transverse vibration signals. Thus, it is potentially easy and effective to diagnose planetary gearbox faults via torsional vibration signal analysis. We give explicit equations to model torsional vibration signals, considering both distributed gear faults (like manufacturing or assembly errors) and local gear faults (like pitting, crack or breakage of one tooth), and derive the characteristics of both the traditional Fourier spectrum and the proposed demodulated spectra of amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency. These derivations are not only effective to diagnose single gear fault of planetary gearboxes, but can also be generalized to detect and locate multiple gear faults. We validate experimentally the signal models, as well as the Fourier spectral analysis and demodulation analysis methods.
Complete axial torsion of pregnant uterus with leiomyoma
Sachan, Rekha; Patel, M L; Sachan, Pushpalata; Arora, Anubha
2014-01-01
Uterine torsion is defined as a rotation of the uterus of more than 45° along its long axis. It is a rare complication during pregnancy; a common cause of torsion can be uterine myoma. Here we describe the case of a 27-year-old G2P1+0 woman at 15 weeks 3 day pregnancy, who presented to our outpatient department as a case of acute abdomen, in a state of shock. Clinical findings did not correlate with investigation. On lapratomy she was diagnosed as a case of complete axial torsion of pregnant uterus with fundal myoma with massive abruption. Early diagnosis and timely intervention would help in improving both maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25193815
Fourier transform far infrared spectrum of CD 3OD: detailed analysis in the torsional ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, Indranath; Duan, Yun-Bo; Klee, Stefan
2004-06-01
High resolution Fourier transform (FT) far infrared (FIR) spectra of CD 3OD isotopomer of methanol have been measured in the range 20-350 cm -1 at a resolution of 0.0017 cm -1 using a Bruker spectrometer. The spectra were recorded in various runs at pressure in the range of 0.2-0.8 mbar both at room temperature and at -60 °C. The spectra show complicated splitting due to strong torsional-rotational interactions in the molecule. Detailed assignments have been achieved mainly for the torsional ground state levels. The assigned transition wavenumbers along with the previously known microwave (MW) [J. Chem. Phys. 23 (1955) 1195; J. Chem. Phys. 56 (1972) 5887; Spectrochim. Acta A 54 (1998) 1375], and recently measured millimeter-wave (MMW) lines [I. Mukhopadhyay, R.A.H. Butler, F.C. DeLucia, E. Herbst, in preparation], were fit to an eighth order Hamiltonian [J. Chem. Phys. 104 (1996) 3914; J. Chem. Phys. 110 (1999) 927; J. Mol. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 418; Chem. Phys. 263 (2001) 263; Chem. Phys. 257 (2000) 91; Chem. Phys. 280 (2002) 119; Chem. Phys. (2003) in press] with 62 varied parameters. The data set consisted of a total of 3211 transitions with 2959 FIR transitions from the ground torsional state with rotational angular momentum K ranging from 0 to 19 and J ranging from 0 to 45, and 237 MW and MMW transitions. The fit converged with a standard deviation of 0.0007 cm -1 for the FIR component of the data and the standard deviation for the MW and MMW transitions was 560 kHz. The standard deviation for the FIR lines is well compared with the estimated experimental accuracy of 0.0002 cm -1 for clean unblended lines. Here we report the actual measured wavenumbers with their assignments, some of these were not included in the fit. The complete data set fitted is not included here for the sake of economy of space but can be obtained from IM.
Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carle, Mark
1988-01-01
Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)
Edge delamination of composite laminates subject to combined tension and torsional loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooper, Steven J.
1990-01-01
Delamination is a common failure mode of laminated composite materials. Edge delamination is important since it results in reduced stiffness and strength of the laminate. The tension/torsion load condition is of particular significance to the structural integrity of composite helicopter rotor systems. Material coupons can easily be tested under this type of loading in servo-hydraulic tension/torsion test stands using techniques very similar to those used for the Edge Delamination Tensile Test (EDT) delamination specimen. Edge delamination of specimens loaded in tension was successfully analyzed by several investigators using both classical laminate theory and quasi-three dimensional (Q3D) finite element techniques. The former analysis technique can be used to predict the total strain energy release rate, while the latter technique enables the calculation of the mixed-mode strain energy release rates. The Q3D analysis is very efficient since it produces a three-dimensional solution to a two-dimensional domain. A computer program was developed which generates PATRAN commands to generate the finite element model. PATRAN is a pre- and post-processor which is commonly used with a variety of finite element programs such as MCS/NASTRAN. The program creates a sufficiently dense mesh at the delamination crack tips to support a mixed-mode fracture mechanics analysis. The program creates a coarse mesh in those regions where the gradients in the stress field are low (away from the delamination regions). A transition mesh is defined between these regions. This program is capable of generating a mesh for an arbitrarily oriented matrix crack. This program significantly reduces the modeling time required to generate these finite element meshes, thus providing a realistic tool with which to investigate the tension torsion problem.
Zgarbová, Marie; Luque, F Javier; Sponer, Jiří; Cheatham, Thomas E; Otyepka, Michal; Jurečka, Petr
2013-05-14
We present a refinement of the backbone torsion parameters ε and ζ of the Cornell et al. AMBER force field for DNA simulations. The new parameters, denoted as εζOL1, were derived from quantum-mechanical calculations with inclusion of conformation-dependent solvation effects according to the recently reported methodology (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 7(9), 2886-2902). The performance of the refined parameters was analyzed by means of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several representative systems. The results showed that the εζOL1 refinement improves the backbone description of B-DNA double helices and G-DNA stem. In B-DNA simulations, we observed an average increase of the helical twist and narrowing of the major groove, thus achieving better agreement with X-ray and solution NMR data. The balance between populations of BI and BII backbone substates was shifted towards the BII state, in better agreement with ensemble-refined solution experimental results. Furthermore, the refined parameters decreased the backbone RMS deviations in B-DNA MD simulations. In the antiparallel guanine quadruplex (G-DNA) the εζOL1 modification improved the description of non-canonical α/γ backbone substates, which were shown to be coupled to the ε/ζ torsion potential. Thus, the refinement is suggested as a possible alternative to the current ε/ζ torsion potential, which may enable more accurate modeling of nucleic acids. However, long-term testing is recommended before its routine application in DNA simulations.
Fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings for torsion measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Leilei; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Fangyuan; Chiang, Kinseng; Rao, Yunjiang
2012-02-01
We demonstrate a fiber ring laser for high-resolution torsion measurement, where the laser cavity consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) formed with a pair of long-period fiber gratings written in a twisted single-mode fiber (SMF) by a CO2 laser. The emitting wavelength of the laser provides a measure of the rate of the torsion applied to the grating pair, while the direction of the wavelength shift indicates the sense direction of the applied torsion. The narrow linewidth and the large side-mode suppression ratio of the laser can provide a much more precise measurement of torsion, compared with passive fiber-optic torsion sensors. The torsion sensitivity achieved is 0.084 nm/(rad/m) in the torsion range +/-100 rad/m, which corresponds to a torsion resolution of 0.12 rad/m, assuming a wavelength resolution of 10 pm for a typical optical spectrum analyzer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbst, Eric; Winnewisser, G.; Yamada, K. M. T.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.
1989-01-01
A mechanism for the enhanced splitting detected in the millimeter-wave rotational spectra of the first excited S-S stretching state of HSSH (disulfane) has been studied. The mechanism, which involves a potential coupling between the first excited S-S stretching state and excited torsional states, has been investigated in part by the use of ab initio theory. Based on an ab initio potential surface, coupling matrix elements have been calculated, and the amount of splitting has then been estimated by second-order perturbation theory. The result, while not in quantitative agreement with the measured splitting, lends plausibility to the assumed mechanism.
Energy and angular correlations in heavy-ion deep inelastic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strutinsky, V. M.
1994-05-01
Brink-Dietrich theory of energy-angular-momentum correlations is formulated from the viewpoint of the statistical model of macroscopic rotation. Comparison with the available experimental data is given.
Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Prasad; Pujari, B. S.; Becker, Peter A.
2004-03-01
We reexamine arguments advanced by Hayashi & Matsuda (2001), who claim that several simple, physically motivated derivations based on mean free path theory for calculating the viscous torque in a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi & Matsudawould radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, which is a central feature of accretion disk theory. However, in this paper we point out several fallacies in their arguments and show that there indeed exists a simple derivation based on mean free path theory that yields an expression for the viscous torque that is proportional to the radial derivative of the angular velocity in the accretion disk, as expected. The derivation is based on the analysis of the epicyclic motion of gas parcels in adjacent eddies in the disk.
Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors
Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.
2012-04-20
Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1976-01-01
The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.
Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.
1982-01-01
A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicity used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high aspect ratio turbofans.
[Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube: about two cases].
Bouguern, H; Bouchikhi, C; Chaara, H; Melhouf, M A; Banani, A
2008-02-01
Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose, requires a coelioscopy, or a laparotomy in centers which do not have coelioscpie; often carried out too tardily, to allow the conservation of the horn. We report two observations of isolated torsion of the fallopian tube and we recall through the two clinical cases the diagnostic difficulties, the useful complementary examinations, the treatment and the causes of this pathology which must be systematically evoked in front of any acute abdominal syndrome in order to hope for an early surgical treatment and if possible conservative. PMID:18372548
Torsional Rigidity of Positively and Negatively Supercoiled DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvin, Paul R.; Cook, David N.; Pon, Ning G.; Bauer, William R.; Klein, Melvin P.; Hearst, John E.
1992-01-01
Time-correlated single-photon counting of intercalated ethidium bromide was used to measure the torsion constants of positively supercoiled, relaxed, and negatively supercoiled pBR322 DNA, which range in superhelix density from +0.042 to -0.123. DNA behaves as coupled, nonlinear torsional pendulums under superhelical stress, and the anharmonic term in the Hamiltonian is approximately 15 percent for root-mean-square fluctuations in twist at room temperature. At the level of secondary structure, positively supercoiled DNA is significantly more flexible than negatively supercoiled DNA. These results exclude certain models that account for differential binding affinity of proteins to positively and negatively supercoiled DNA.
The Frequency of Torsional Vibration of a Tapered Beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, Robert
1939-01-01
A solution for the equation of torsional vibration of tapered beams has been found in terms of Bessel functions for beams satisfying the following conditions: (a) the cross sections along the span are similar in shape; and (b) the torsional stiffness of a section can be expressed as a power of a linear function of distance along the span. The method of applying the analysis to actual cases has been described. Charts are given from which numerical values can be immediately obtained for most cases of practical importance. The theoretical values of the frequency ratio have been experimentally checked on five beams having different amounts of taper.
A monolithically integrated torsional CMOS-MEMS relay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riverola, M.; Sobreviela, G.; Torres, F.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.
2016-11-01
We report experimental demonstrations of a torsional microelectromechanical (MEM) relay fabricated using the CMOS-MEMS approach (or intra-CMOS) which exploits the full foundry inherent characteristics enabling drastic reduction of the fabrication costs and batch production. In particular, the relay is monolithically integrated in the back end of line of a commercial standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 μm) and released by means of a simple one-step mask-less wet etching. The fabricated torsional relay exhibits an extremely steep switching behaviour symmetrical about both contact sides with an on-state contact resistance in the k Ω -range throughout the on-off cycling test.
Research on wet etching at MEMS torsion mirror optical switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jifeng; Luo, Yuan
2002-10-01
Etching is a very important technique at MEMS micromachining. There are two kinds of etching processing, the one is wet etching and the other is dry etching. In this paper, wet selective etching with KOH and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etchants is researched in order to make a torsion mirror optical switch. The experiments results show that TMAH with superphosphate is more suitable at MEMS torsion mirror optical switch micromachining than KOH, and it also has good compatibility with IC processing. Also our experiments results show some different with other reported research data. More work will be done to improve the yield rate of MEMS optical switch.
Prenatal Testicular Torsion: Not Always in the Late Third Trimester.
Sauvestre, Fanny; André, Gwenaëlle; Harran, Marie-Hélène; Hemard, Marie; Carles, Dominique; Pelluard, Fanny
2016-03-01
Prenatal testicular torsion is a very rare morbid entity, described in the literature to occur when the testicle is intrascrotal, around the 34th week of gestation. Here we report a case of early testicular necrosis. This male fetus was the product of a medical abortion at 27 weeks. During evisceration, a left testicular nubbin free in the peritoneal cavity was found. Histologically, it was extensively necrotic. Because of the location, the size, and the histological features of this necrotic testicle, we conclude that it was the result of torsion of the pedicle that occurred around the 20th week of pregnancy. PMID:26657689
Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan
2007-01-01
In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.
Cosmological evolution of a torsion-induced quintaxion
Mielke, Eckehard W.; Romero, Eric Sanchez
2006-02-15
In an affine prolongation of general relativity, the minimal coupling of Dirac fields to gravity naturally provides an axial current interaction. We demonstrate that the cancellation of the translational curvature, i.e. torsion, in the chiral anomaly induces a dynamical axion coupled with gravitational strength. Because of a geometrical identity, our torsion-induced pseudoscalar couples to the Einstein equations with an effective energy-momentum tensor which automatically satisfies the quintessence condition w<-1/3 for the equation of state parameter. In a toy model of an axion-dominated Universe, this leads to an anharmonic oscillatory evolution for which the deceleration parameter is within the range of current observations.
Calibrations, torsion classes, and wrapped M-branes
Fayyazuddin, Ansar; Husain, Tasneem Zehra
2006-05-15
The present work has two goals. The first is to complete the classification of geometries in terms of torsion classes of M-branes wrapping cycles of a Calabi-Yau manifold. The second goal is to give insight into the physical meaning of the torsion class constraints. We accomplish both tasks by defining new energy minimizing calibrations in M-brane backgrounds. When fluxes are turned on, it is these calibrations that are relevant, rather than those which had previously been defined in the context of purely geometric backgrounds.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-15
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated
Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.
Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen
2015-05-01
Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.
Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons.
Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian
2016-01-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM. PMID:27378234
Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons
Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian
2016-01-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM. PMID:27378234
Controversy concerning the definition of quark and gluon angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leader, Elliot
2011-05-01
A major controversy has arisen in QCD as to how to split the total angular momentum into separate quark and gluon contributions, and as to whether the gluon angular momentum can itself be split, in a gauge-invariant way, into a spin and orbital part. Several authors have proposed various answers to these questions and offered a variety of different expressions for the relevant operators. I argue that none of these is acceptable and suggest that the canonical expression for the momentum and angular momentum operators is the correct and physically meaningful one. It is then an inescapable fact that the gluon angular momentum operator cannot, in general, be split in a gauge-invariant way into a spin and orbital part. However, the projection of the gluon spin onto its direction of motion, i.e. its helicity is gauge invariant and is measured in deep inelastic scattering on nucleons. The Ji sum rule, relating the quark angular momentum to generalized parton distributions, though not based on the canonical operators, is shown to be correct, if interpreted with due care. I also draw attention to several interesting aspects of QED and QCD, which, to the best of my knowledge, are not commented upon in the standard textbooks on field theory.
Piezoelectric ceramic assembly tubes for torsional actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chulho; Glazounov, Alexandre E.; Flippen, Luther D.; Pattnaik, Amitav; Zhang, Qi Ming; Lewis, David, III
1999-07-01
The efforts described here are intended to provide a basis for the utilization of novel piezoelectric actuators in smart materials and structures. The actuator design developed in this study is a segmented, piezoelectric tube, with the individual segments driven in a d15 shear mode. The PZT-5A tubes were cut longitudinally in to an even number of equal slender segments. These slender segments were poled individually along their length using a continuous poling technique developed at NRL. The polarization of the poled segments alternates in direction between adjacent segments. The segments were reassembled with a conductive epoxy so that it serves as both joint and electrode. The assembled actuator tubes were evaluated by applying electric field normal to the polarization direction of the segments, demonstrating proof of concept. These solid state prototype devices were driven to precise angular displacement and torque output. Reliability test, including both fatigue and mechanical loading of the device, were conducted. In conjunction with this effort, numerical computation analyses were performed with respect to structural integrity versus segment joint thickness, and the relative effect of cylindrical versus polygonal configurations. These studies facilitated the successful production of prototypes. Projected actuator outputs based on electromechanical test results are also discussed in terms of requirements for noise and vibration control of helicopter rotor blades.
Alkyl peroxides: Effect of substituent groups on the torsional mode around the O―O bond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciel, Glauciete S.; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P.; Ragni, Mirco; Aquilanti, Vincenzo
We present here a systematic study by quantum mechanical methods of structural and energetic properties for a series of substitutions by alkyl groups of the hydrogens in hydrogen peroxide. The emphasis is on the torsion around the peroxidic bond, which leads to the chirality changing stereomutation. The dihedral angle dependence of the geometrical features and of the dipole moment is discussed with reference to previous experimental and theoretical information, and with respect to the preceding paper on hydrogen peroxide (Maciel et al., Chem Phys Lett, 2006, 432, 383). This information is of interest for chiral separation experiments as well as in view of a possible dynamical mechanism for chirality exchange by molecular collisions. The cis and trans barriers appear to vary remarkably upon substitution by alkyl groups (methyl, ethyl, n- and iso-propyl, sec- and tert-butyl hydroperoxides), the most important property being their geometrical dimensions. As the latter increase, tendency for the equilibrium configuration towards the trans structure increases, so that the trans barrier becomes negligible for dimethyl and diethyl peroxides and for n- and iso-butyl hydroperoxides, giving essentially achiral molecules. For the chiral ones (HOOH, CH3OOH, and C2H5OOH) torsional level energies and eigenfunctions are calculated and their distribution as a function of temperature determined. Their use is exemplified by a calculation of the dipole moment of hydrogen peroxide at room temperature, reconciling previous disagreement between theory and experiment.0
Flexure-torsion behavior of prismatic beams. I - Section properties via power series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmatka, J. B.
1993-01-01
The behavior of a tip-loaded cantilever beam with an arbitrary cross section is studied using Saint-Venant's semi-inverse method along with a power series solution for the out-of-plane flexure and torsion warping functions. The power series coefficients are determined by solving a set of variationally derived linear algebraic equations. For complex cross sections, the calculated coefficients represented a 'best-fit approximation' to the exact warping function. The resulting warping functions are used to determine the cross-sectional properties (torsion constant, shear correction factors, shear deformation coefficients, and shear center location). A new linear relation is developed for locating the shear center, where the twist rate is zero about the line of shear centers. Moreover, the kinematic relations for a new fully compatible one-dimensional beam theory are developed. Numerical results are presented first to verify the approach and second to provide section data on NACA four-series airfoils not currently found in the literature.
Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends
McLeod, John A.; Pitman, Amy L.; Moewes, Alexander; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Finkelstein, Larisa D.; Zhidkov, Ivan S.; Savva, Achilleas
2015-12-14
The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krak, Michael D.; Singh, Rajendra
2016-09-01
Vehicle clutch dampers belong to a family of torsional devices or isolators that contain multi-staged torsional springs, pre-load features, clearances, and multi-staged dry friction elements. Estimation of elastic and dissipative parameters is usually carried out under quasi-static loading and then these static parameters are often assumed when predicting dynamic responses. For the purpose of comparison, this article proposes a new time domain parameter estimation method under dynamic, transient loading conditions. The proposed method assumes a priori knowledge of few nonlinear features based on the design and quasi-static characterization. Angular motion measurements from a component-level laboratory experiment under dynamic loading are utilized. Elastic parameters are first estimated through an instantaneous stochastic linearization technique. A model-based approach and energy balance principle are employed to estimate a combination of viscous and Coulomb damping parameters for seven local (stage-dependent) and global damping formulations for a practical device. The proposed method is validated by comparing time domain predictions from nonlinear models to dynamic measurements. Nonlinear models that utilize the proposed damping formulations are found to be superior to those that solely rely on parameters from a quasi-static experiment.
New Approaches to Data Acquisitions in a Torsion Pendulum Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Daya; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Haihong; Dai, Qionglin
2007-01-01
In this paper, two simple non-contact and cost-effective methods to acquire data in the student laboratory are applied to investigate the motion of a torsion pendulum. The first method is based on a Hall sensor, while the second makes use of an optical mouse.
Design and simulation of microspectrometer based on torsional MEMS grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bin; Yuan, Weizheng; Sun, Ruikang; Qiao, Dayong; Yu, Yiting; Li, Taiping
2010-10-01
Micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) has prominent advantages over conventional optical devices, such as smaller, lighter, more stable, lower cost and power consumption. It has been widely applied in the last few years. This paper presents a micro spectrometer based on torsional MEMS grating with micromachining process. As a diffractive component in the micro spectrometer, the torsional MEMS grating is actuated by electrostatic force to scan the spectrum. In contrast to common linear detector arrays with stationary diffraction grating and non-fixed grating rotated by stepper motor to scan spectrum used in most micro spectrometer, MEMS-based spectrometer is dynamically controllable, and has no mechanical moving parts with small size. ZEMAX is used for design, optimization, and simulation analysis of the micro spectrometer with multi-configurations in the cross Czerny-Turner optical system. The results indicate that torsional MEMS grating operates at a torsion angle of +/-3 degree, the spectrometer can scan spectral range of 800-1600nm in NIR (near infrared), spectral resolution is around 10 nm, and the whole spectrometer has a volume of 80mm×55mm×30mm. The study provides an initial theoretical foundation for the further development and design.
34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 ...
34. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL MOTION VIEWED FROM EAST TOWER, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
An uncommon twist: isolated fallopian tube torsion in an adolescent.
Kisku, Sundeep; Thomas, Reju Joseph
2013-01-01
We report a 13-year-old girl with bilateral paratubal cysts and left isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT). Paratubal cysts are uncommon in children, and IFTT is a rare complication. Awareness of this entity and prompt surgical intervention could potentially salvage the fallopian tube preserving fertility. PMID:24024061
An Uncommon Twist: Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion in an Adolescent
Kisku, Sundeep; Thomas, Reju Joseph
2013-01-01
We report a 13-year-old girl with bilateral paratubal cysts and left isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT). Paratubal cysts are uncommon in children, and IFTT is a rare complication. Awareness of this entity and prompt surgical intervention could potentially salvage the fallopian tube preserving fertility. PMID:24024061
Torsion-Free Generalized Connections and Heterotic Supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Fernandez, Mario
2014-11-01
This work revisits the notions of connection and curvature in generalized geometry, with emphasis on torsion-free generalized connections on a transitive Courant algebroid. As an application, we provide a mathematical derivation of the equations of motion of heterotic supergravity in terms of the Ricci tensor of a generalized metric, inspired by the work of Coimbra, Strickland-Constable and Waldram.
Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension, bending, and torsion.
Drake, S R; Wayne, D M; Powers, J M; Asgar, K
1982-09-01
The mechanical properties of three sizes of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NT), and titanium-molybdenum (TM) orthodontic wires were studied in tension, bending, and torsion. The wires (0.016 inch, 0.017 by 0.025 inch, and 0.019 by 0.025 inch) were tested in the as-received condition. Tensile testing and stiffness testing machines along with a torsional instrument were used. Mean values and standard deviations of properties were computed. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using a factorial design. Means were ranked by a Tukey interval calculated at the 95 percent level of confidence. In tension, the stainless steel wires had the least maximum elastic strain or springback, whereas the titanium-molybdenum wires had the most. Higher values of springback indicate the capacity for an increased range of activation clinically. In bending and torsion, the stainless steel wires had the least stored energy at a fixed moment, whereas the nickel-titanium wires had the most. Spring rates in bending and torsion, however, were highest for stainless steel wires and lowest for nickel-titanium wires. A titanium-molybdenum teardrop closing loop delivered less than one half the force of a comparable stainless steel loop for similar activations. PMID:6961793
Curvature and torsion estimation for coronary-artery motion analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medina, Ruben; Wahle, Andreas; Olszewski, Mark E.; Sonka, Milan
2004-04-01
The dynamics of curvature and torsion are important for the geometric description of arteries and for the distribution of accumulating plaque. In this research, two methods for estimating curvature and torsion are analyzed with respect to their accuracy. The first method is based on estimating the curvature and torsion of the artery centerline using the Fourier transform. Since the centerline always represents an open curve, extensions ensuring a minimal spectral energy are added on both ends to obtain a closed curve suitable for Fourier analysis. The second method has been previously used for analyzing the motion of coronary arteries and is based on the least squares fitting of a cubic polynomial to the centerline of the artery. Validation is performed using two mathematical, time-varying phantoms as well as 4-D (3-D plus time) in-vivo data of coronary arteries reconstructed by fusion of biplane angiograms and intravascular ultrasound images. Results show that both methods are accurate for estimating curvature and torsion, and that both methods have average errors below 2.15%.
Torsional Oscillations and Waves Projected on the Wall
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartlett, Albert A.
2008-01-01
The article "Torsional Oscillations with Lorentz Force" by Paul Gluck provides a glimpse into the major world of ancient physics demonstrations in the late 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. The apparatus that was described and similar pieces of apparatus are the basis for many memorable but long forgotten educational demonstrations. The…
The impact of tibial torsion measurements on gait analysis kinematics
Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Santos, Nadia Maria; Godoy, Wagner De; Bernal, Milena Moreira Barreto; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Ramalho, Amancio
2014-01-01
Objective: To measure and compare tibial torsion values as assessed by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics. In addition, the impact of each one of these measurements on kinematic and kinetic results for normal gait was determined. Methods: Twenty-three healthy and fully ambulatory patients were assessed, 11 women and 12 men, from 20 to 40 years old. Data were collected at a laboratory for the three-dimensional analysis of movement with 10 cameras and two force plates. Tibial torsion measurements were obtained using goniometry and three-dimensional kinematics based on the Plug-in Gait model. Afterwards, both procedures were compared, and the impact of each result was assessed on the kinematic and kinetic modeling of the knee and ankle. Results: Pearson's linear correlation coefficient (r=0,504) showed a moderate correlation between the three-dimensional kinematics and goniometry, and between the changes in the measurements. Regarding the processed kinematic and kinetic results for every torsion position, no significant differences were noticed among any of the studied variables (p>0.05). Conclusion: Although statistical correlation among tibial torsion angles by goniometry and three-dimensional kinematic were moderate, kinematic and kinetic analysis of the joints did not reveal any significant changes. Level of Evidence I, Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test. PMID:25328438
A measurement of G with a cryogenic torsion pendulum.
Newman, Riley; Bantel, Michael; Berg, Eric; Cross, William
2014-10-13
A measurement of Newton's gravitational constant G has been made with a cryogenic torsion pendulum operating below 4 K in a dynamic mode in which G is determined from the change in torsional period when a field source mass is moved between two orientations. The source mass was a pair of copper rings that produced an extremely uniform gravitational field gradient, whereas the pendulum was a thin fused silica plate, a combination that minimized the measurement's sensitivity to error in pendulum placement. The measurement was made using an as-drawn CuBe torsion fibre, a heat-treated CuBe fibre, and an as-drawn Al5056 fibre. The pendulum operated with a set of different large torsional amplitudes. The three fibres yielded high Q-values: 82 000, 120 000 and 164 000, minimizing experimental bias from fibre anelasticity. G-values found with the three fibres are, respectively: {6.67435(10),6.67408(15),6.67455(13)}×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2), with corresponding uncertainties 14, 22 and 20 ppm. Relative to the CODATA2010 G-value, these are higher by 77, 37 and 107 ppm, respectively. The unweighted average of the three G-values, with the unweighted average of their uncertainties, is 6.67433(13)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) (19 ppm).
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
PREDITOR: a web server for predicting protein torsion angle restraints
Berjanskii, Mark V.; Neal, Stephen; Wishart, David S.
2006-01-01
Every year between 500 and 1000 peptide and protein structures are determined by NMR and deposited into the Protein Data Bank. However, the process of NMR structure determination continues to be a manually intensive and time-consuming task. One of the most tedious and error-prone aspects of this process involves the determination of torsion angle restraints including phi, psi, omega and chi angles. Most methods require many days of additional experiments, painstaking measurements or complex calculations. Here we wish to describe a web server, called PREDITOR, which greatly accelerates and simplifies this task. PREDITOR accepts sequence and/or chemical shift data as input and generates torsion angle predictions (with predicted errors) for phi, psi, omega and chi-1 angles. PREDITOR combines sequence alignment methods with advanced chemical shift analysis techniques to generate its torsion angle predictions. The method is fast (<40 s per protein) and accurate, with 88% of phi/psi predictions being within 30° of the correct values, 84% of chi-1 predictions being correct and 99.97% of omega angles being correct. PREDITOR is 35 times faster and up to 20% more accurate than any existing method. PREDITOR also provides accurate assessments of the torsion angle errors so that the torsion angle constraints can be readily fed into standard structure refinement programs, such as CNS, XPLOR, AMBER and CYANA. Other unique features to PREDITOR include dihedral angle prediction via PDB structure mapping, automated chemical shift re-referencing (to improve accuracy), prediction of proline cis/trans states and a simple user interface. The PREDITOR website is located at: . PMID:16845087
Kuhn, T.; Gullett, J. M.; Nguyen, P.; Boutzoukas, A. E.; Ford, A.; Colon-Perez, L. M.; Triplett, W.; Carney, P.R.; Mareci, T. H.; Price, C. C.; Bauer, R. M.
2015-01-01
Introduction This study examined the reliability of high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (HARDI) data collected on a single individual across several sessions using the same scanner. Methods HARDI data was acquired for one healthy adult male at the same time of day on ten separate days across a one-month period. Environmental factors (e.g. temperature) were controlled across scanning sessions. Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to assess session-to-session variability in measures of diffusion, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). To address reliability within specific structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL; the focus of an ongoing investigation), probabilistic tractography segmented the Entorhinal cortex (ERc) based on connections with Hippocampus (HC), Perirhinal (PRc) and Parahippocampal (PHc) cortices. Streamline tractography generated edge weight (EW) metrics for the aforementioned ERc connections and, as comparison regions, connections between left and right rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Coefficients of variation (CoV) were derived for the surface area and volumes of these ERc connectivity-defined regions (CDR) and for EW across all ten scans, expecting that scan-to-scan reliability would yield low CoVs. Results TBSS revealed no significant variation in FA or MD across scanning sessions. Probabilistic tractography successfully reproduced histologically-verified adjacent medial temporal lobe circuits. Tractography-derived metrics displayed larger ranges of scanner-to-scanner variability. Connections involving HC displayed greater variability than metrics of connection between other investigated regions. Conclusions By confirming the test retest reliability of HARDI data acquisition, support for the validity of significant results derived from diffusion data can be obtained. PMID:26189060
Kuhn, T; Gullett, J M; Nguyen, P; Boutzoukas, A E; Ford, A; Colon-Perez, L M; Triplett, W; Carney, P R; Mareci, T H; Price, C C; Bauer, R M
2016-06-01
This study examined the reliability of high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (HARDI) data collected on a single individual across several sessions using the same scanner. HARDI data was acquired for one healthy adult male at the same time of day on ten separate days across a one-month period. Environmental factors (e.g. temperature) were controlled across scanning sessions. Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to assess session-to-session variability in measures of diffusion, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). To address reliability within specific structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL; the focus of an ongoing investigation), probabilistic tractography segmented the Entorhinal cortex (ERc) based on connections with Hippocampus (HC), Perirhinal (PRc) and Parahippocampal (PHc) cortices. Streamline tractography generated edge weight (EW) metrics for the aforementioned ERc connections and, as comparison regions, connections between left and right rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Coefficients of variation (CoV) were derived for the surface area and volumes of these ERc connectivity-defined regions (CDR) and for EW across all ten scans, expecting that scan-to-scan reliability would yield low CoVs. TBSS revealed no significant variation in FA or MD across scanning sessions. Probabilistic tractography successfully reproduced histologically-verified adjacent medial temporal lobe circuits. Tractography-derived metrics displayed larger ranges of scanner-to-scanner variability. Connections involving HC displayed greater variability than metrics of connection between other investigated regions. By confirming the test retest reliability of HARDI data acquisition, support for the validity of significant results derived from diffusion data can be obtained.
Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang
2015-10-01
A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in
Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang
2015-10-01
A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in
Torsion Bounds from CP Violation α2-DYNAMO in Axion-Photon Cosmic Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
Years ago Mohanty and Sarkar [Phys. Lett. B 433, 424 (1998)] have placed bounds on torsion mass from K meson physics. In this paper, associating torsion to axions a la Campanelli et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123001 (2005)], it is shown that it is possible to place limits on spacetime torsion by considering an efficient α2-dynamo CP violation term. Therefore instead of Kostelecky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 111102 (2008)] torsion bounds from Lorentz violation, here torsion bounds are obtained from CP violation through dynamo magnetic field amplification. It is also shown that oscillating photon-axion frequency peak is reduced to 10-7 Hz due to torsion mass (or Planck mass when torsion does not propagate) contribution to the photon-axion-torsion action. Though torsion does not couple to electromagnetic fields at classical level, it does at the quantum level. Recently, Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468, 28 (2011)] has shown that the photon sector of Lorentz violation (LV) Lagrangian leads to linear nonstandard Maxwell equations where the magnetic field decays slower giving rise to a seed for galactic dynamos. Torsion constraints of the order of K0≈10-42 GeV can be obtained which are more stringent than the value obtained by Kostelecky et al. A lower bound for the existence of galactic dynamos is obtained for torsion as K0≈10-37 GeV.
Torsion measurements using inverse Wiedemann effect in glass covered amorphous wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiriac, H.; Hristoforou, E.; Neagu, Maria; Barariu, Firuta; Ovari, T. A.
1999-04-01
This article presents results concerning inverse Wiedemann effect (IWE) dependence on the torsion applied along the Fe77.5Si7.5B15 glass covered amorphous wires tested before and after glass removal. In the absence of torsion during measurements, the IWE voltage is zero for amorphous wires tested in the as-cast state. In the same condition of measurements a small spontaneous IWE voltage appears for wires after glass removal annealed without torsion, and the voltage reaches its maximum value for torsion annealed wires both before and after glass removal. Increasing the torsion's value during measurements, for as-cast wires and wires annealed without torsion, the value of the induced voltage increases until it reaches a maximum while for torsion annealed wires a small increase is observed followed by a strong decrease down to that torsion value at which the thermal treatment was performed. In the case of torsion annealed wires a good linearity of the torsion response was obtained for a given range of torsions which depends on the sample's state (before and after glass removal). The obtained results suggest the possibility to use IWE in Fe77.5Si7.5B15 glass covered amorphous wires in torque sensors.
Torsional vibration measurements on rotating shaft system using laser doppler vibrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Ling; Yang, Shixi; Gan, Chunbiao
2012-11-01
In this work, a laser torsional vibrameter was used to measure the torsion vibration of a rotating shaft system under electrical network impact. Based on the principles of laser Doppler velocimetry, the laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) are non-contact measurement of torsional oscillation of rotating shafts, offering significant advantages over conventional techniques. Furthermore, a highly complex shafting system is analyzed by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix. The system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, and the multi-segments lumped mass model is established for this shafting system. By the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix method, an accumulated calculation is effectively eliminated to obtain the natural frequencies. The electrical network impacts can activize the torsional vibration of shaft system, and the activized torsion vibration frequencies contained the natural frequencies of shaft system. The torsional vibrations of the shaft system were measured under electrical network impacts in laser Doppler torsional vibrometer. By comparisons, the natural frequencies by measurement were consistent with the values by calculation. The results verify the instrument is robust, user friendly and can be calibrated in situ. The laser torsional vibrometer represents a significant step forward in rotating machinery diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łodyga, Wiesław; Makarewicz, Jan
2012-05-01
Geometries, anharmonic vibrations, and torsion-wagging (TW) multiplets of hydrazine and its deuterated species are studied using high-level ab initio methods employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) as well as the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triple corrections, CCSD(T), in conjunction with extended basis sets containing diffuse and core functions. To describe the splitting patterns caused by tunneling in TW states, the 3D potential energy surface (PES) for the large-amplitude TW modes is constructed. Stationary points in the 3D PES, including equivalent local minima and saddle points are characterized. Using this 3D PES, a flexible Hamiltonian is built numerically and then employed to solve the vibrational problem for TW coupled motion. The calculated ground state rav structure is expected to be more reliable than the experimental one that has been determined using a simplified structural model. The calculated fundamental frequencies allowed resolution of the assignment problems discussed earlier in the literature. The determined energy barriers, including the contributions from the small-amplitude vibrations, to the tunneling of the symmetric and antisymmetric wagging mode of 1997 cm-1 and 3454 cm-1, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with the empirical estimates of 2072 cm-1 and 3312 cm-1, respectively [W. Łodyga et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 183, 374 (1997), 10.1006/jmsp.1997.7271]. However, the empirical torsion barrier of 934 cm-1 appears to be overestimated. The ab initio calculations yield two torsion barriers: cis and trans of 744 cm-1 and 2706 cm-1, respectively. The multiplets of the excited torsion states are predicted from the refined 3D PES.
Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong
2016-04-01
This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.
Torsional instanton effects in quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaul, Romesh K.; Sengupta, Sandipan
2014-12-01
We show that in the first-order gravity theory coupled to axions the instanton number of the Giddings-Strominger wormhole can be interpreted as the Nieh-Yan topological index. The axion charge of the baby universes is quantized in terms of the Nieh-Yan integers. Tunneling between universes of different Nieh-Yan charges implies a nonperturbative vacuum state. The associated topological vacuum angle can be identified with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter.
Temperature dependence of angular momentum transport across interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng
2016-08-01
Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasiparticles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among nonmagnetic metals, ferromagnetic insulators, and antiferromagnetic insulators. Spin conductance and its temperature dependence are obtained for different spin batteries including spin pumping, temperature gradient, and spin Hall effect. As an application of our theory, we calculate the spin current in a trilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and a nonmagnetic heavy metal. The calculated results on the temperature dependence of spin conductance quantitatively agree with the existing experiments.
F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.
2016-06-01
F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.
F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft
Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.
2016-01-01
F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713
F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft.
Kulish, O; Wright, A D; Terentjev, E M
2016-01-01
F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the 'no-load' angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of 'stall torque'. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the 'useful outcome' is measured in the number of H(+) pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713
Angular momentum in molecular quantum mechanical integral evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunlap, Brett I.
2005-01-01
Solid-harmonic derivatives of quantum-mechanical integrals over Gaussian transforms of scalar, or radial, atomic basis functions create angular momentum about each center. Generalized Gaunt coefficients limit the amount of cross differentiation for multi-center integrals to ensure that cross differentiation does not affect the total angular momentum. The generalized Gaunt coefficients satisfy a number of other selection rules, which are exploited in a new computer code for computing forces in analytic density-functional theory based on robust and variational fitting of the Kohn-Sham potential. Two-center exponents are defined for four or more solid-harmonic differentiations of matrix elements. Those differentiations can either build up angular momentum about the centers or give forces on molecular potential-energy surfaces, thus generalized Gaunt coefficients of order greater than the number of centers are considered. These 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficients and two-center exponents are used to compute the first derivatives of all integrals involving all the Gaussian exponents on a triplet of centers at once. First all angular factors are contracted with the corresponding part of the linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals density matrix. This intermediate quantity is then reused for the nuclear attraction integral and the integrals corresponding to each basis function in the analytic fit of the Kohn-Sham potential in the muffin-tin-like, but analytic, Slater-Roothaan method that allows molecules to dissociate into atoms having any desired energy, including the experimental electronic energy. The energy is stationary in all respects and all forces precisely agree with a previous code in tests on small molecules. During geometry optimization of an icosahedral C 720 fullerene computing these angular factors and transforming them via the 4- j generalized Gaunt coefficient takes more than sixty percent of the total computer time. These same angular factors could be used
Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowin, C.
2010-03-01
A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4+27 kg m2 s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies revealed by geoid anomalies of the degree 4-10 packet of the Earth's spherical harmonic coefficients. These linear positive geoid anomalies underlie plate subduction zones and are presumed due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant
Angular Synchronization by Eigenvectors and Semidefinite Programming
Singer, A.
2010-01-01
The angular synchronization problem is to obtain an accurate estimation (up to a constant additive phase) for a set of unknown angles θ1, …, θn from m noisy measurements of their offsets θi − θj mod 2π. Of particular interest is angle recovery in the presence of many outlier measurements that are uniformly distributed in [0, 2π) and carry no information on the true offsets. We introduce an efficient recovery algorithm for the unknown angles from the top eigenvector of a specially designed Hermitian matrix. The eigenvector method is extremely stable and succeeds even when the number of outliers is exceedingly large. For example, we successfully estimate n = 400 angles from a full set of m=(4002) offset measurements of which 90% are outliers in less than a second on a commercial laptop. The performance of the method is analyzed using random matrix theory and information theory. We discuss the relation of the synchronization problem to the combinatorial optimization problem Max-2-Lin mod L and present a semidefinite relaxation for angle recovery, drawing similarities with the Goemans-Williamson algorithm for finding the maximum cut in a weighted graph. We present extensions of the eigenvector method to other synchronization problems that involve different group structures and their applications, such as the time synchronization problem in distributed networks and the surface reconstruction problems in computer vision and optics. PMID:21179593
Mean Platelet Volume in Early Diagnosis of Adnexal Torsion
Köleli, Işıl
2015-01-01
Background: Adnexal torsion (AT) is among the gynecological emergencies; more common in reproductive age, if diagnosed late, this can cause ovarian failure and infertility, but rarely thrombophlebitis and peritonitis. Despite these severe complications, preoperative diagnostic tests are not enough for early diagnosis. There are certain pieces of literature on the subject that reveal changes in mean platelet volume (MPV) values occur in inflammatory and ischemic diseases and that these changes have diagnostic and prognostic significance. However, there are no studies investigating this relationship with adnexal torsion. Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the mean platelet volume value in the early diagnosis of patients with adnexal torsion. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Pre-operative demographic data, MPV, leukocyte count and neutrophils to lymphocytes (N/L) ratio in the blood samples of 51 patients, who were operated on preliminary adnexal torsion and diagnosed as adnexal torsion with a benign ovarian cyst (AT group) were retrospectively compared with those of 50 patients who were operated upon because of benign ovarian cysts and without torsion (control group) at this hospital between 2006 and 2014. Results: The mean MPV level was found to be 8.1 (7.1–10.7) fL in the AT group and 7.9 (6.6–10.2) fL in the control group; no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). Leukocyte count and N/L ratio in the AT group were, on average, 12×103/mm3 and 82% respectively and in control group; they were, on average, 7.2×103/mm3 and 59%, respectively. A statistically significant increase was found in the leukocyte count and N/L ratio of the AT group compared to the control group (p<0.001). The platelet count in the AT group was, on average, 253×103/mm3 and in the control group it was, on average, 280×103/mm3; no statistically significant difference was detected between
Angular Momentum Redistribution at all Scales in the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, Bruno
2004-11-01
A large variety of objects and phenomena in the Universe depend on the excitation of collective modes which can redistribute angular momentum at a rate that cannot be accounted for by classical viscosity. Accretion disks formed around a massive object, star formation and relevant self-gravitating disks are significant examples. Many of the theoretical tools to study these problems have a basis related to the fundamental stability investigations initiated by Marshall Rosenbluth. The emission of jets from plasma accretion disks support the argument that magnetic fields are important and that their energy density should be significant relative to the thermal energy density. This, and the fact that disks are thin, rule out the possibility that axisymmetric modes, driven by the rotation frequency gradient and contained within the disk[1], may provide the required rate of angular momentum transport. For this, the most promising modes are tridimensional, co-rotate with the disk at a given radius, and exhibit two sets of singularities when treated by the linearized MHD approximation. The most important of these occurs at the radii where the mode Doppler shifted frequency equals the slow magnetosonic frequency and the compressibility becomes infinite[1]. The singularity cannot be removed by classical dissipation, as in the case of theories on magnetic reconnection, but by non linear effects. At the laboratory scale, the explanation for the speed up of millisecond pulsars has inspired the ``accretion theory''[2] of the spontaneous rotation phenomenon observed in well confined toroidal plasmas without an external source of angular momentum. The explanation for the relevant ``negative viscosity'' involves the ejection of angular momentum to the material wall surrounding the plasma column and the transport of opposite angular momentum toward the center related to the outward flux of thermal energy due to electrostatic modes. Thus rotation and energy confinement are
On a finite-state inflow application to flap-lag-torsion damping in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Andrade, Donizeti; Peters, David A.
1992-01-01
An aerodynamic model with a coupled set of generalized dynamic wake equations and hybrid equations of motion for an elastic blade are applied here to a two-blade untwisted stiff in-plane hingeless small-scale model rotor with torsionally soft blades. Blade root offset, precone, blade droop, pitch control stiffness, and blade pitch angle are included in the model rotor. Numerical results show that 3D tip relief effects within the nonuniform steady-state inflow are significant to predict steady-state aerodynamic loads and blade deflections. Eigenvalue results confirm the importance of unsteady 3D aerodynamics in predicting lead-lag damping and frequency. Eigenvector analysis correlations reinforced qualitative and quantitative shortcomings associated with quasi-steady 2D aerodynamic theory for aeroelastic applications in hover.
Numerical Investigation of Flapwise-Torsional Vibration Model of a Smart Section Blade with Microtab
Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Magar, Kaman T.
2015-01-01
This study presents a method to develop an aeroelastic model of a smart section blade equipped with microtab. The model is suitable for potential passive vibration control study of the blade section in classic flutter. Equations of the model are described by the nondimensional flapwise and torsional vibration modes coupled with the aerodynamic model based on the Theodorsen theory and aerodynamic effects of the microtab based on the wind tunnel experimental data. The aeroelastic model is validated using numerical data available in the literature and then utilized to analyze the microtab control capability on flutter instability case and divergence instabilitymore » case. The effectiveness of the microtab is investigated with the scenarios of different output controllers and actuation deployments for both instability cases. The numerical results show that the microtab can effectively suppress both vibration modes with the appropriate choice of the output feedback controller.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2008-07-01
First-principles molecular-orbital theory was used to predict the possibilities to control the single-molecule conductance switching by external electrostatic fields in the case of nondipolar phenylene ethynylene oligomer molecule. External field directed perpendicularly to the molecular plane was shown to induce conductance switching, while field directed along axis lying within the molecular plane and being perpendicular to the principal molecular axis was shown to be capable of controlling the stochastic conductance by a strong modulation of the corresponding classical transition probability. The possibility for tuning the molecular switching properties could be attributed to the changes in the polarizability tensor components induced upon intramolecular torsion. The outlined possibilities are of fundamental importance in molecular engineering and design of single-molecule switches.
Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.
1997-01-21
A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.
Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies.
Haptic underestimation of angular extent.
Lakatos, S; Marks, L E
1998-01-01
To what extent can individuals accurately estimate the angle between two surfaces through touch alone, and how does tactile judgment compare to visual judgment? Subjects' ability to estimate angle size for a variety of haptic and visual stimuli was examined in a series of nine experiments. Triangular wooden blocks and raised contour outlines comprising different angles and radii of curvature at the apex were used in experiments 1-4 and it was found that subjects consistently underestimated angular extent relative to visual baselines and that the degree of underestimation was inversely related to the actual size of the angle. Angle estimates also increased with increasing radius of curvature when actual angle size was held constant. In contrast, experiments 5-8 showed that subjects did not underestimate angular extent when asked to perform a haptic-visual match to a computerized visual image; this outcome suggests that visual input may 'recalibrate' the haptic system's internal metric for estimating angle. The basis of this cross-modal interaction was investigated in experiment 9 by varying the nature and extent of visual cues available in haptic estimation tasks. The addition of visual-spatial cues did not significantly reduce the magnitude of haptic underestimation. The experiments as a whole indicate that haptic underestimations of angle occur in a number of different stimulus contexts, but leave open the question of exactly what type of visual information may serve to recalibrate touch in this regard. PMID:10197190
Torsional properties of stainless steel Canal Master U and Flexogates.
Camps, J J; Pertot, W J
1994-11-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the torsional properties of Flexogates and Canal Master U instruments. Torsion and bending tests were performed on both designs of instrument according to ANSI/ADA specification number 28 criteria and standards. Ten instruments of each size, sizes 25 to 50 were used for each test. Four parameters were measured: the moment at failure, the rotation at failure, the separation point at failure and the bending moment at a 45 degrees angle. Both instruments satisfied ANSI/ADA standards for rotation at failure and bending moment. Canal Master U satisfied ANSI/ADA standards for moment at failure in all sizes except 45 and 50. Flexogates did not satisfy these standards in all sizes except 50. Flexogates separated at the end of the shaft whereas Canal master U separated just behind the cutting head. Both instruments showed favourable physical properties for preparing root canals.
Generalized Hodge dual for torsion in teleparallel gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peng; Yuan, Fang-Fang
2016-07-01
For teleparallel gravity in four dimensions, Lucas and Pereira have shown that its action can be constructed via a generalized Hodge dual for torsion tensor. In this paper, we demonstrate that a direct generalization of this approach to other dimensions fails due to the fact that no generalized Hodge dual operator could be given in general dimensions. Furthermore, if one enforces the definition of a generalized Hodge dual to be consistent with the action of teleparallel gravity in general dimensions, the basic identity for any sensible Hodge dual would require an ad hoc definition for the second Hodge dual operation which is totally unexpected. Therefore, we conclude that at least for the torsion tensor, the observation of Lucas and Pereira only applies to four dimensions.
[TORSION OF FALLOPIAN TUBE LEIOMYOMA TREATED BY LAPAROSCOPY].
Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan
2016-01-01
Leiomyomas of the Fallopian tubes are rare and their correct diagnosis is extremely difficult. Usually they are incidental findings seen at autopsy or unrelated surgical procedures: A 34-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a solid 7 cm extrauterine mass. Both ovaries are normal. Our preoperative diagnosis was torsion of the fallopian tube due intratubal leiomyoma. Laparoscopic surgery was performed and the leiomyoma was found to have originated from the isthmus of the right Fallopian tube. Laparoscopic myomectomy was performed with preservation of the ramus tubarius dextra. The histological examination concluded to a leiomyoma with ischemic changes. We report a case of torsion of a tubal leiomyoma, which was successfully managed laparoscopically. PMID:27509659
State reversals of optically induced tilt and torsional eye movements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finke, R. A.; Held, R.
1978-01-01
Alternations of the state of apparent self-motion during observation of a large visual display rotating about the line of sight are associated with alternations in the magnitude of induced tilt and torsional eye rotation. In one experiment, shifts in visually induced tilt during these state alternations are found to be in the opposite direction to corresponding shifts in induced ocular torsion. In a second experiment, the reversals of self-motion perception are shown to be an intravisual phenomenon, independent of competing inputs provided by the vestibular system. These results emphasize the importance of distinguishing between visual and vestibular processes in tilt perception and ocular rotation during human orientation to gravitational vertical.
Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).
Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C
2014-03-01
This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179
The Torsion of Members Having Sections Common in Aircraft Construction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trayer, George W; March, H W
1930-01-01
Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.
Nonlinear finite amplitude torsional vibrations of cantilevers in viscous fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aureli, Matteo; Pagano, Christopher; Porfiri, Maurizio
2012-06-01
In this paper, we study torsional vibrations of cantilever beams undergoing moderately large oscillations within a quiescent viscous fluid. The structure is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam, with thin rectangular cross section, under base excitation. The distributed hydrodynamic loading experienced by the vibrating structure is described through a complex-valued hydrodynamic function which incorporates added mass and fluid damping elicited by moderately large rotations. We conduct a parametric study on the two dimensional computational fluid dynamics of a pitching rigid lamina, representative of a generic beam cross section, to investigate the dependence of the hydrodynamic function on the governing flow parameters. As the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation increase, vortex shedding and convection phenomena increase, thus resulting into nonlinear hydrodynamic damping. We derive a handleable nonlinear correction to the classical hydrodynamic function developed for small amplitude torsional vibrations for use in a reduced order nonlinear modal model and we validate theoretical results against experimental findings.
Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).
Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C
2014-03-01
This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen.
Torsion, parity-odd response, and anomalies in topological states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrikar, Onkar; Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.
2014-11-01
We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in d =2 +1 and d =4 +1 , which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semimetals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from d =4 +1 , we derive the effective action for a d =3 +1 time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.
Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.
Quartz crystal microbalance based on torsional piezoelectric resonators
Buecking, W.; Du, B.; Turshatov, A.; Koenig, A. M.; Reviakine, I.; Bode, B.; Johannsmann, D.
2007-07-15
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is described, which is based on a torsional resonator, rather than a conventional thickness-shear resonator. Typical applications are measurements of film thickness in the coating industry and monitoring of biofouling. The torsional QCM is about a factor of 100 less sensitive than the conventional QCM. On the other hand, it can probe film thicknesses in the range of hundreds of microns, which is impossible with the conventional QCM due to viscoelastic artifacts. Data acquisition and data analysis proceed in analogy to the conventional QCM. An indicator of the material's softness can be extracted from the bandwidth of the resonance. Within the small-load approximation, the frequency shift is independent of whether the sample is applied to the face or to the side of the cylinder. Details of the geometry matter if the viscoelastic properties of the sample are of interest.
Torsion Test of a Monocoque Box
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter; Levy, Samuel
1942-01-01
A monocoque box beam consisting of a 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet reinforced by four bulkheads and by longitudinal stringers and corner posts was subjected to bending loads as follows: pure bending about the lift axis, cantilever bending about the lift axis, and pure bending about both lift and drag axis. Longitudinal strains were measured for loads up to a load at which permanent set became measurable. The loads were sufficient to produce buckling of the sheet between stringers on the compression side of the box. The only noticeable effect of this buckling was a small increase in extreme-fiber strain on the compression side. The measured strains and measured deflections differed less than 10 percent from those computed from the simple beam theory after taking account of the effective width of the buckled sheet. The effect of the bulkheads on the distribution of stringer strain was negligible.
Electron as the eigenstate of curvilinear space with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharin, Yu. A.
1998-05-01
Ideas previously enunciated by the author about the physical interpretation of curvilinear space with torsion are developed. With the new equations describing the eigenstates of such a space, the static centrosymmetric solution for gravitational and electric fields can be made consistent with the Newton and Coulomb laws. The asymptotic behavior of the axisymmetric solution at infinity is studied. The gyromagnetic ratio obtained is characteristic of the electron.
Propagation and Reflection of Diffusionless Torsional Waves in a Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maffei, S.; Jackson, A.
2015-12-01
The magnetohydrodynamics of stars and planetary cores is usually dominated by the overwhelming importance of rotation compared to other forces. Under these conditions the fluid motions are characterized by a strong invariance along the rotation axis. In the presence of a background magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic oscillations can be triggered. Among these, of particular interest are the torsional waves, azimuthal perturbations of the fluid that are axisymmetric and invariant along the vertical direction. Their periods depend solely on the intensity of the magnetic field component aligned with the radial direction of propagation. As the detection of the fundamental period could constrain the magnetic field intensity in the Earth's outer core there is a long history of attempted detection of torsional waves from geomagnetic data. There is however a fundamental lack of knowledge concerning the propagation and reflection properties of these waves, as observational studies suggests behaviors that are different from theoretical expectations. In particular, recent findings (Gillet et al., 2011) suggest the lack of reflection at the equator and at the rotation axis. Through numerical simulation and analytical techniques we analyze the temporal evolution of diffusionless torsional waves in spherical geometry, with particular attention on the reflection at the equator and the pseudo-reflection at the rotation axis. We develop a novel analytical solution to the torsional wave eigenvalue problem whose behavior at the boundaries helps us to illustrate the meaning of the boundary conditions. Furthermore we find that for any acceptable magnetic background field, reflections at both boundaries are allowed and we illustrate how the WKBJ approximation is an efficient tool for investigating them.
Ultrahigh torsional stiffness and strength of boron nitride nanotubes.
Garel, Jonathan; Leven, Itai; Zhi, Chunyi; Nagapriya, K S; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Hod, Oded; Joselevich, Ernesto
2012-12-12
We report the experimental and theoretical study of boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) torsional mechanics. We show that BNNTs exhibit a much stronger mechanical interlayer coupling than carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This feature makes BNNTs up to 1 order of magnitude stiffer and stronger than CNTs. We attribute this interlayer locking to the faceted nature of BNNTs, arising from the polarity of the B-N bond. This property makes BNNTs superior candidates to replace CNTs in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), fibers, and nanocomposites.
Metatarsal torsion in monkeys, apes, humans and australopiths.
Drapeau, Michelle S M; Harmon, Elizabeth H
2013-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of metatarsal torsion in apes, cercopithecoids and humans, compares australopiths with these species, and discusses their inferred foot morphology and function relative to prehensility, arboreality and the presence or absence of a longitudinal arch. Our results show that locomotor modes are reflected in metatarsal torsion values. Apes, which climb vertically with their foot inverted, have hallucal metatarsal heads that are turned toward the other toes and lateral toes that are inverted. Cercopithecoids, which tend to orient their feet in an axis more parallel to the line of motion, present signs of prehensility by having inverted 2nd metatarsals that oppose the hallux, while their two lateral-most metatarsals are strongly everted. Humans, with their rigid feet and longitudinal arches, have all toes that present their plantar surface toward the ground, resulting in hallucal and 2nd metatarsals that are relatively untwisted and the others that are strongly everted. Humans are different from all taxa only for the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal. It is hypothesized that the untwisted 2nd metatarsal reflects the lack of digit opposability of the medial foot and the strongly everted 3rd metatarsal reflects the longitudinal arch. Australopithecus afarensis was characterized by an everted lateral foot, the prerequisite for the development, but not necessarily an indicator, of a longitudinal arch. In Australopithecus africanus, torsion of fragmentary and complete 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th metatarsals suggest that the species did not have a foot with monkey- or ape-like prehensile capabilities and did not have a human-like longitudinal arch. In the Swartkrans remains, torsion is consistent with an unprehensile foot. The morphology of the fossils indicates that there was strong selection to orient the plantar surface of the toes facing the ground at the expense of a grasping foot and inversion ability.
Genetic and clinical features of primary torsion dystonia
Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bressman, Susan B.
2011-01-01
Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is defined as a syndrome in which dystonia is the only clinical sign (except for tremor), and there is no evidence of neuronal degeneration or an acquired cause by history or routine laboratory assessment. Seven different loci have been recognized for PTD but only two of the genes have been identified. In this review we will described the phenotypes associated with these loci and discuss the responsible gene. PMID:21168499
Microstructure and texture analyses of polycrystalline ice during hot torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Journaux, B.; Montagnat, M.; Gest, L.; Barou, F.; Chauve, T.
2015-12-01
Water ice Ih is a material with very high plastic anisotropy where deformation is mainly accommodated by dislocation glide on the (0001) plane. This anisotropy gives rise to strong strain incompatibilities between grains during deformation, and therefore impacts texture and microstructure evolution. Accurate understanding of ice mechanical properties is significant for several areas of research such as glaciology, planetary sciences, but also in geosciences and metallurgy as ice can be seen as a model material with easier experimental handling at near melting temperatures. In the present study, we used torsion experiments to study non-coaxial shear strain (γ), very common in natural environments, up to very high values of γ. Numerous studies determined microstructure and texture evolution in polycrystalline assemblage submitted to torsion (metallic alloys and geological materials) but a very limited number focused on polycrystalline ice. Full cylinders of randomly oriented polycrystalline ice (grain size ~ 1 mm) were placed in a torsion apparatus and deformed under ductile regime under constant imposed torque at 266K (0.97 Tf). Macroscopic shear was monitored using a LVDT device or a rotary encoder. Several torsion tests with maximal shear strain up to γmax = 1 were performed. Tangent and axial sections were analyzed ex-situ using Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer (AITA) and Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). We were able to confirm the previously observed bimodal preferred orientation of the basal slip plane. Macroscopic strain evolution γ(t) displays a weakening after γmax = 0.04 (ɛmax ≃ 2 %), due to the beginning of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) processes. EBSD data provide novel informations on the microstructure that suggest very efficient grain boundary migration processes. In particular, we were able to measure differences of intra-granular misorientations density between the two ODF maxima populations that can highlight the role of DRX
A measurement of G with a cryogenic torsion pendulum.
Newman, Riley; Bantel, Michael; Berg, Eric; Cross, William
2014-10-13
A measurement of Newton's gravitational constant G has been made with a cryogenic torsion pendulum operating below 4 K in a dynamic mode in which G is determined from the change in torsional period when a field source mass is moved between two orientations. The source mass was a pair of copper rings that produced an extremely uniform gravitational field gradient, whereas the pendulum was a thin fused silica plate, a combination that minimized the measurement's sensitivity to error in pendulum placement. The measurement was made using an as-drawn CuBe torsion fibre, a heat-treated CuBe fibre, and an as-drawn Al5056 fibre. The pendulum operated with a set of different large torsional amplitudes. The three fibres yielded high Q-values: 82 000, 120 000 and 164 000, minimizing experimental bias from fibre anelasticity. G-values found with the three fibres are, respectively: {6.67435(10),6.67408(15),6.67455(13)}×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2), with corresponding uncertainties 14, 22 and 20 ppm. Relative to the CODATA2010 G-value, these are higher by 77, 37 and 107 ppm, respectively. The unweighted average of the three G-values, with the unweighted average of their uncertainties, is 6.67433(13)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) (19 ppm). PMID:25202000
pp-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri
2005-10-01
A classical pp-wave is a four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalize this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalized pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.
Observation of 1990 solar eclipse by a torsion pendulum
Luo Jun; Li Jianguo; Zhang Xuerong ); Liakhovets, V. ); Lomonosov, M.; Ragyn, A. )
1991-10-15
During the solar eclipse of 22 July 1990 in the city of Bielomorsk of the U.S.S.R., we repeated the torsion pendulum experiment of Saxl and Allen, who reported an anomalous period increase during the solar eclipse of 7 March 1970. The relative change in the pendulum's period associated with the eclipse was found to be less than 5.2{times}10{sup {minus}5} (90% confidence).
Torsional stability of uncemented femoral stems in oncologic reconstructions.
Scharschmidt, Tom; Cohen, Amy; Thomas, Noelle; Ching, Randal; Conrad, Ernest
2011-01-01
Modular oncology implants using uncemented fixation represent a popular reconstruction technique for limb salvage patients. Initial stability is critical to facilitate bony ingrowth of host bone into the stem of a press-fit oncologic modular rotating-hinge total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of stem design on initial stability has not been defined. The goal of this study was to evaluate the initial stability of 3 different stem designs as defined by torsional load to failure. An analysis of imaging was also performed. The pilot study consisted of 5 femora in each of 3 groups based on stem design. The specimen was mounted on a multi-axis biomechanical test frame equipped with a Vicon 3D motion analysis 4-camera system (Vicon Motion Systems, Lake Forest, California) to track the relative motion between the implant and the femur. Torsional force was applied until failure. The straight-fluted stem design had the highest average torsional stiffness (18.3±8.2 Nm/deg) and average torque at 150 μm of implant micromotion (23.2±10.6 Nm) of the 3 stem types tested.The results of this study will help to guide surgical decision making in limb salvage cases. Further investigation is warranted.
Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments
Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh
2016-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. Results: The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Conclusion: Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation. PMID:27621783
Friction and shear fracture of an adhesive contact under torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chateauminois, Antoine; Fretigny, Christian; Olanier, Ludovic
2010-02-01
The shear failure or stiction of an adhesive contact between a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber and a glass lens has been investigated using a torsional contact configuration. As compared to linear sliding, torsion presents the advantage of inducing a shear failure under a pure mode III condition, while preserving the cylindrical symmetry of the contact. The surface of the transparent PDMS substrate was marked using a network of dots in order to monitor continuously the in-plane surface displacements during the stiction process. Using a previously developed inversion procedure (A. Chateauminois and C. Fretigny, Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 221 (2008)), the corresponding surface shear stress distributions were obtained from the displacement fields. Stiction was found to involve the progressive shrinkage of a central adhesive zone surrounded by an annular microslip region. Adhesion effects were especially evidenced from a stress overshoot at the boundary of the adhesive zone. The experimental data were analysis using an extension to torsional contact of the Maugis-Dugdale approach’s to adhesive contacts which takes into account frictional effects. This model allowed to extract an effective adhesion energy in the presence of friction, which dependence on kinetics effect is briefly discussed.
Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.
2014-03-01
Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for early-onset torsion dystonia.
Rechitsky, S; Verlinsky, O; Kuliev, A; Ozen, S; Laziuk, K; Beck, R; Gleicher, N; Verlinsky, Y
2004-02-01
Early-onset primary torsion dystonia (DYT1) is the most severe and common form of hereditary movement disorders, characterized by sustained twisting contractures that begin in childhood, which is caused in majority of cases by a 3-bp deletion of the DYT1 gene on chromosome 9q34 at the heterozygote state. As there is no effective treatment of this disease, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be a useful option for at-risk couples to establish an DYT1 mutation-free pregnancy. PGD was performed for two obligate carriers of the DYT1 3-bp deletion, using blastomere testing to preselect the mutation-free embryos, based on mutation analysis with simultaneous testing of the three closely linked markers, D9S62, D9S63 and ASS. Of 19 tested blastomeres in three cycles, 17 had conclusive information about the mutation and linked markers, of which eight were predicted to be free of 3-bp deletion. Six of these embryos were transferred back to patients, two in each cycle, yielding singleton DYT1 3-bp deletion-free clinical pregnancies in two. One of these pregnancies was terminated due to severe anencephaly and the other resulted in birth of a mutation-free child. This is the first PGD for primary torsion dystonia, providing an alternative for those at-risk couples who cannot accept prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy as an option for avoiding early onset torsion dystonia.
Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments
Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh
2016-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. Results: The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Conclusion: Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation.
Shape sensing for torsionally compliant concentric-tube robots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ran; Yurkewich, Aaron; Patel, Rajni V.
2016-03-01
Concentric-tube robots (CTR) consist of a series of pre-curved flexible tubes that make up the robot structure and provide the high dexterity required for performing surgical tasks in constrained environments. This special design introduces new challenges in shape sensing as large twisting is experienced by the torsionally compliant structure. In the literature, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are attached to needle-sized continuum robots for curvature sensing, but they are limited to obtaining bending curvatures since a straight sensor layout is utilized. For a CTR, in addition to bending curvatures, the torsion along the robots shaft should be determined to calculate the shape and pose of the robot accurately. To solve this problem, in our earlier work, we proposed embedding FBG sensors in a helical pattern into the tube wall. The strain readings are converted to bending curvatures and torsion by a strain-curvature model. In this paper, a modified strain-curvature model is proposed that can be used in conjunction with standard shape reconstruction algorithms for shape and pose calculation. This sensing technology is evaluated for its accuracy and resolution using three FBG sensors with 1 mm sensing segments that are bonded into the helical grooves of a pre-curved Nitinol tube. The results show that this sensorized robot can obtain accurate measurements: resolutions of 0.02 rad/m with a 100 Hz sampling rate. Further, the repeatability of the obtained measurements during loading and unloading conditions are presented and analyzed.
Preliminary Results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) Deformation Apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, A. J.; Couvy, H.; Skemer, P. A.
2015-12-01
We present preliminary results from the Large Volume Torsion (LVT) apparatus, currently under development in the rock deformation lab at Washington University in St. Louis. The LVT is designed to deform disk-shaped samples (~4 mm in diameter) in torsion at lower-crustal to upper-mantle pressure and temperature conditions. Conceptually, the LVT complements and is similar in design to the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus (RDA) (Yamakazi & Karato, 2001), which deforms smaller samples at higher pressures. As part of our recent development efforts, benchmarking experiments were performed on Carrara marble. Samples were deformed in torsion at a strain rate of ~5 x 10-5 s-1 to moderate shear strains (γ ≤ 10) under lower crustal conditions (800°C, 2 GPa confining pressure). Microstructural observations from optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show evidence for relict grain elongation and alignment; an increase in calcite twin density; and grain size reduction concurrent with recrystallized grain nucleation. Microstructural observations are comparable to data obtained from previous studies at lower pressure (e.g. Barnhoorn et al., 2004), confirming that the LVT provides reliable microstructural results.
``Quasi-complete'' mechanical model for a double torsion pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Marchi, Fabrizio; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Bassan, Massimo; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Garufi, Fabio; Grado, Aniello; Marconi, Lorenzo; Stanga, Ruggero; Stolzi, Francesco; Visco, Massimo
2013-06-01
We present a dynamical model for the double torsion pendulum nicknamed “PETER,” where one torsion pendulum hangs in cascade, but off axis, from the other. The dynamics of interest in these devices lies around the torsional resonance, that is at very low frequencies (mHz). However, we find that, in order to properly describe the forced motion of the pendulums, also other modes must be considered, namely swinging and bouncing oscillations of the two suspended masses, that resonate at higher frequencies (Hz). Although the system has obviously 6+6 degrees of freedom, we find that 8 are sufficient for an accurate description of the observed motion. This model produces reliable estimates of the response to generic external disturbances and actuating forces or torques. In particular, we compute the effect of seismic floor motion (“tilt” noise) on the low frequency part of the signal spectra and show that it properly accounts for most of the measured low frequency noise.
LISA technology development using the UF precision torsion pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John
2015-04-01
LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the fall of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements that may improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of the LISA GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.
Pound-Rebka experiment and torsion in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Maluf, J. W.; Ulhoa, S. C.; Faria, F. F.
2009-08-15
We develop some ideas discussed by E. Schucking [arXiv:0803.4128] concerning the geometry of the gravitational field. First, we address the concept according to which the gravitational acceleration is a manifestation of the space-time torsion, not of the curvature tensor. It is possible to show that there are situations in which the geodesic acceleration of a particle may acquire arbitrary values, whereas the curvature tensor approaches zero. We conclude that the space-time curvature does not affect the geodesic acceleration. Then we consider the Pound-Rebka experiment, which relates the time interval {delta}{tau}{sub 1} of two light signals emitted at a position r{sub 1}, to the time interval {delta}{tau}{sub 2} of the signals received at a position r{sub 2}, in a Schwarzschild type gravitational field. The experiment is determined by four space-time events. The infinitesimal vectors formed by these events do not form a parallelogram in the (t,r) plane. The failure in the closure of the parallelogram implies that the space-time has torsion. We find the explicit form of the torsion tensor that explains the nonclosure of the parallelogram.
Torsional wave experiments with a new magnetostrictive transducer configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yoon Young; Park, Chan Il; Cho, Seung Hyun; Han, Soon Woo
2005-06-01
For the efficient long-range nondestructive structural health inspection of pipes, guided waves have become widely used. Among the various guided wave modes, the torsional wave is most preferred since its first branch is nondispersive. Our objective in this work is to develop a new magnetostrictive transducer configuration to transmit and receive torsional waves in cylindrical waveguides. The conventional magnetostrictive transducer for the generation and measurement of torsional waves consists of solenoid coils and a nickel strip bonded circumferentially to test pipes. The strip must be premagnetized by a permanent magnet before actual measurements. Because of the premagnetization, the transducer is not suitable for the long-term on-line monitoring of pipes buried underground. To avoid the cumbersome premagnetization and to improve the transduction efficiency, we propose a new transducer configuration using several pieces of nickel strips installed at 45° with respect to the pipe axis. If a static bias magnetic field is also applied, the transducer output can be substantially increased. Several experiments were conducted to study the performance of the proposed transducer configuration. The proposed transducer configuration was also applied for damage detection in an aluminum pipe. .
A Rare Emergency: Testicular Torsion in the Inguinal Canal
Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim
2015-01-01
Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind. PMID:25654093
A rare emergency: testicular torsion in the inguinal canal.
Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Ercil, Hakan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim
2015-01-01
Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind.
Xue, Chao; Quan, Li-Di; Yang, Shan-Qing; Wang, Bing-Peng; Wu, Jun-Fei; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun
2014-01-01
This paper describes the preliminary measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G with the angular acceleration feedback method at HUST. The apparatus has been built, and preliminary measurement performed, to test all aspects of the experimental design, particularly the feedback function, which was recently discussed in detail by Quan et al. The experimental results show that the residual twist angle of the torsion pendulum at the signal frequency introduces 0.4 ppm to the value of G. The relative uncertainty of the angular acceleration of the turntable is approximately 100 ppm, which is mainly limited by the stability of the apparatus. Therefore, the experiment has been modified with three features: (i) the height of the apparatus is reduced almost by half, (ii) the aluminium shelves were replaced with shelves made from ultra-low expansion material and (iii) a perfect compensation of the laboratory-fixed gravitational background will be carried out. With these improvements, the angular acceleration is expected to be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10 ppm, and a reliable value of G with 20 ppm or below will be obtained in the near future. PMID:25201996
Model-based diagnosis of large diesel engines based on angular speed variations of the crankshaft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbazeille, M.; Randall, R. B.; Guillet, F.; El Badaoui, M.; Hoisnard, C.
2010-07-01
This work aims at monitoring large diesel engines by analyzing the crankshaft angular speed variations. It focuses on a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine with crankshaft natural frequencies within the operating speed range. First, the angular speed variations are modeled at the crankshaft free end. This includes modeling both the crankshaft dynamical behavior and the excitation torques. As the engine is very large, the first crankshaft torsional modes are in the low frequency range. A model with the assumption of a flexible crankshaft is required. The excitation torques depend on the in-cylinder pressure curve. The latter is modeled with a phenomenological model. Mechanical and combustion parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an automated diagnosis based on an artificially intelligent system is proposed. Neural networks are used for pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms in normal and faulty conditions. Reference patterns required in the training phase are computed with the model, calibrated using a small number of actual measurements. Promising results are obtained. An experimental fuel leakage fault is successfully diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder, as well as the approximation of the fault severity.
Xue, Chao; Quan, Li-Di; Yang, Shan-Qing; Wang, Bing-Peng; Wu, Jun-Fei; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun
2014-10-13
This paper describes the preliminary measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G with the angular acceleration feedback method at HUST. The apparatus has been built, and preliminary measurement performed, to test all aspects of the experimental design, particularly the feedback function, which was recently discussed in detail by Quan et al. The experimental results show that the residual twist angle of the torsion pendulum at the signal frequency introduces 0.4 ppm to the value of G. The relative uncertainty of the angular acceleration of the turntable is approximately 100 ppm, which is mainly limited by the stability of the apparatus. Therefore, the experiment has been modified with three features: (i) the height of the apparatus is reduced almost by half, (ii) the aluminium shelves were replaced with shelves made from ultra-low expansion material and (iii) a perfect compensation of the laboratory-fixed gravitational background will be carried out. With these improvements, the angular acceleration is expected to be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10 ppm, and a reliable value of G with 20 ppm or below will be obtained in the near future.
Composite box beam analysis - Theory and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauchau, O. A.; Coffenberry, B. S.; Rehfield, L. W.
1987-01-01
Beam theory is widely used as a first approximation in numerous structural applications. When applied to composite beams, the accuracy of beam theory becomes questionable because (1) the shearing and warping deformations become significant, as the shearing stiffness of composite laminates is often very low, and (2) several elastic couplings can occur that strongly influence the behavior of composite beams. The torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams has important implications for aeronautical structures and is deeply modified by the above nonclassical effects. This paper presents two comprehensive analysis methodologies for composite beams and describes experimental results obtained from a thin-walled, rectangular cross-sectional beam. The theoretical predictions are found in good agreement with the observed twist and strain distributions. Out-of-plane torsional warping of the cross-section is found to be the key factor for an accurate modeling of the torsional behavior of such structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konyakhin, Igor; Hoang, Van Phong; Artemenko, Yury; Li, Renpu; Smekhov, Andrey
2015-05-01
The improved autocollimation system for measuring three-dimension angular deformations of pipe sections at large constructions as support tube of radio telescope mirror is analyzed. New type of the reflector for autocollimators is researched. The reflector is the trihedral mirror composition of three reflecting sides. It advantage is the measurement pitch, yaw and torsion as three angular rotation of controlled object. The second advantage of reflector is the measurements on the large work distances. Causes are the small value of the conversion coefficient and two orthogonal reference axes of trihedral reflector. The technical characteristics of the experimental setups of new reflector are presented. The features of trihedral reflector as the reflectors for optic-electronic autocollimators are discussed.
Vibrational branching ratios and photoelectron angular distributions in 5σ photoionisation of CO
Stephens, J. A.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.
1981-10-28
Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions have been calculated for the 5σ photoionisation channel of CO using the multiple-scattering method. Vibrational branching ratios and vibrationally unresolved integrated cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions are also reported and compared with available measurements. Both angular distributions and branching ratios exhibit striking non-Franck-Condon behaviour caused primarily by the f-wave shape resonance in the sigma photoionisation continuum. Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment exist for the weaker v_{f}=2,3 vibrational levels and interaction with nearby two-electron excitation is proposed as a likely cause.
Rotational Energies in Various Torsional Levels of CH_2DOH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coudert, L. H.; Hilali, A. El; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Klee, S.
2012-06-01
Using an approach accounting for the hindered internal rotation of a monodeuterated methyl group, an analysis of the torsional spectrum of the monodeuterated species of methanol CH_2DOH has been carried out recently and led to the assignment of 76 torsional subbands in its microwave, FIR, and IR spectra. Although this approach also allowed us to account for subband centers, the rotational structure of the torsional subbands is not well understood yet. In this paper, we will deal with the rotational energies of CH_2DOH. Analyses of the rotational structure of the available subbands^b have been performed using the polynomial-type expansion introduced in the case of the normal species of methanol. For each subband, FIR or IR transitions and a-type microwave lines, within the lower torsional level, were fitted. The frequencies of the latters were taken from previous investigations or from new measurements carried out from 50 to 950 GHz with the submillimeterwave solid state spectrometer in Lille. Subbands involving lower levels with v_t=0 and K ≥ 3 could be satisfactorily analyzed. For levels characterized by lower K-values, the expansion fails. In the case of the K=1, v_t=1 level, the frequencies of a-type microwave transitions involving the lower member of the K-type doublet cannot be well reproduced. For K=0 levels with v_t=1 and 2, a large number of terms is needed in the expansion. We will try to understand why the rotational energies of these levels cannot be reproduced. The results of the analyses will be compared to those obtained with a global approach based on the rotation-torsion Hamiltonian of the molecule. [2] El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309. [3] Ioli, Moruzzi, Riminucci, Strumia, Moraes, Winnewisser, and Winnewisser, J. Mol. Spec. 171 (1995) 130. [4] Quade and Suenram, J. Chem. Phys. 73 (1980) 1127; and Su and Quade, J. Mol. Spec. 134 (1989) 290. [5] Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 256 (2009
Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
2010-01-01
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Ji'an; Xie, Zheng; Wang, Cong; Zhou, Jianying; Li, Haitao; Luo, Zhi; Chu, Dongkai; Sun, Xiaoyan
2016-09-01
With the alignment of the fiber core systems containing dual-CCDs and high-precision electric displacement platform, twisted long period fiber gratings (T-LPFGs) were fabricated in two different twisted SMF-28 fibers by femtosecond laser. The torsion characteristics of the T-LPFGs were experimentally and theoretical investigated and demonstrated in this study. The achieved torsion sensitivity is 117.4 pm/(rad/m) in the torsion range -105-0 rad/m with a linearity of 0.9995. Experimental results show that compared with the ordinary long period fiber gratings, the resonance wavelength of the gratings presents an opposite symmetrical shift depending on the twisting direction after the applied torsion is removed. In addition, high sensitivity could be obtained, which is very suitable for the applications in the torsion sensor. These results are important for the design of new torsion sensors based on T-LPFGs fabricated by femtosecond laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clary, David C.; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.
2002-06-01
Quantum dynamical calculations have been carried out on the excitation of the torsional vibrations of a protein by collision with a solvent molecule. This energy transfer process represents the first step in the unfolding of the protein. The method developed for this purpose is the torsional close coupling, infinite order sudden approximation. Both time-independent and time dependent methods are used to solve the scattering problem and individual excitation of all the torsional modes of the protein is treated. The method is applied to the excitation of the HIV protein gp41 colliding with a water molecule. This protein has 1101 atoms, 56 amino acids, and 452 torsional modes. A major mode-selective effect is found in the computations: it is much easier to excite backbone torsions than sidechain torsions in the protein. In addition, resonances arise in the collisional process and these complexes involve temporary trapping of the water molecule inside the pockets of the protein.
Improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by using an optical spring method
Wang Qinglan; Yeh Hsienchi; Zhou Zebing; Luo Jun
2009-10-15
We present a scheme aiming at improving the sensitivity of a torsion pendulum by means of radiation-pressure-induced optical spring. Two partial-reflective mirrors are installed on the opposite sides of a torsion pendulum, and one high-reflective mirror is mounted at the end of the torsion beam so that two identical Fabry-Perot cavities can be formed and aligned in series. Due to the antisymmetric radiation pressures acting on the opposite sides of the torsion beam, a negative restoring coefficient can be generated within a certain dynamic range, such that both the resultant torsional rigidity and the resonant frequency of the torsion pendulum are reduced, and the minimum detectable response torque in high-frequency region can be reduced accordingly.
The Angular Momentum of the Solar System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong
2016-05-01
The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.
A fusional anomaly of the epididymis associated with recurrent testicular torsion.
Aminu, Sani; Syed, Kamran; Gunendran, Thiru; Young, Graham
2012-01-01
A 31-year-old man with recurrent testicular torsion and infertility was found to have a fusional anomaly of the epididymis on scrotal exploration in which only the head of epididymis was attached to the testis, while the body and tail were completely free. He had bilateral orchidopexy, which relieved pain and recurrent torsion. He was then referred for fertility treatment. Literature search has shown that infertility is more associated with congenital anomalies of the epididymis and not with recurrent torsions.
Romics, I; Wesseler, T; Bach, D
1988-01-01
Twenty-five patients suffering from acute painful testicular processes were subjected to scintigraphy. Testicular torsion in the early and delayed phases were diagnosed with 100% accuracy, but one out of 7 cases of epididymitis was wrongly recognized as negative. Interoperative diagnosis in two cases of hydatid torsion proved the foregoing scintigraphic finding to have been wrong. Nevertheless, scintigraphy was found to be reliable in testicular torsion diagnosis.
Acute torsion of a retroperitoneal renal transplant mimicking renal vein thrombosis.
Winter, Thomas C; Clarke, Andrea Lynn; Campsen, Jeffrey
2013-09-01
When imaging a renal transplant, the combination of absent flow in the main renal vein and reversed diastolic flow in the intrarenal arteries is considered highly suggestive of renal vein thrombosis. We present a case of torsion of a transplant kidney presenting with identical findings. Renal transplant torsion in general is a rare entity, previously described only in intraperitoneally placed organs; this case is the first that we are aware of with torsion occurring in a retroperitoneally placed graft.
3D Curves With a Prescribed Curvature and Torsion for a Flying Robot
Bestaoui, Yasmina
2008-06-12
The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an flying robot. A curve with discontinuous curvature and torsion is not appropriate for smooth motions for any vehicle architecture. Three different classes of curves are presented. First, constant curvature and torsion followed by a linear variation versus the curvilinear abscissa then a quadratic variation. Finally, the problem of maneuvers between two trim helices of different curvature and torsion is tackled with.
Magnetic torque tweezers: measuring torsional stiffness in DNA and RecA-DNA filaments.
Lipfert, Jan; Kerssemakers, Jacob W J; Jager, Tessa; Dekker, Nynke H
2010-12-01
We introduce magnetic torque tweezers, which enable direct single-molecule measurements of torque. Our measurements of the effective torsional stiffness C of dsDNA indicated a substantial force dependence, with C = approximately 40 nm at low forces up to C = approximately 100 nm at high forces. The initial torsional stiffness of RecA filaments was nearly twofold larger than that for dsDNA, yet at moderate torques further build-up of torsional strain was prevented. PMID:20953173